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Dayton & Montgomery Ccb
Public Library

JUN211972
DOCUMENT COLLECTION:

!EA WAGE SURVEY
sn, C o n n e c t ic u t , M e tr o p o lit a n A r e a ,
J a n u a ry 1 9 7 2

B u lle t in 1 7 2 5 - 4 1
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR / Bureau of Labor Statistics

Region I

Region II

Region III

1515 Broadway
New York, N .Y. 10036
Phone: 971-5405 (Area Code 212)

406 Penn Square Building
1317 Filbert St.
Philadelphia, Pa. 19107
Phone: 597-7796 (Area Code 215)

Region IV
Suite 540
1371 Peachtree St. NE.
Atlanta, Ga. 30309
Phone: 526-5418 (Area Code 404)

Region V
Region VI
8th Floor, 300 South Wacker Drive
1100 Commerce St., Rm. 6B7
Chicago, III. 60606
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone: 353-1880 (Area Code 312)
Phone: 749-3516 (Area Code 214)

Regions V II and V III
Federal Office Building
911 Walnut St., 10th Floor
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: 374-2481 (Area Code 816)

Regions IX and X
450 Golden Gate Ave.
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: 556-4678 (Area Code 415)

1603-JFK Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: 223-6761 (Area Code 617)

••

Regions V II and V III will be serviced by Kansas City.
Regions IX and X will be serviced by San Francisco.




AREA WAGE SURVEY

B u lle tin 1 7 2 5 - 4 1

May 1972

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, J. D. Hodgson, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR S TATISTIC S, Geoffrey H. Moore, Commissioner

T h e N e w H a v e n , C o n n e c tic u t, M e tro p o lita n A r e a , J a n u a ry 1 9 7 2
CONTENTS
Page

1.
5.

Introduction
W age trends fo r selected occupational groups

T ab les:
4.

6.

1. E stablishm ents and w o rk e rs within scope of su rvey and number studied
2. Indexes of standard w eek ly s a la rie s and s tra ig h t-tim e hourly earnings fo r s elected occupational
groups, and p ercen ts of in c re a s e fo r selected p eriods
A.

Occupational earnings:
A - l . O ffic e occupations— en and wom en
m
A -2 . P ro fe s s io n a l and tech n ical occupations— en and wom en
m
A -3 . O ffic e , p ro fe s s io n a l, and tech n ical occupations^m en and wom en com bined
A -4 . M aintenance and pow erplant occupations
A -5 . Custodial and m a te ria l m ovem en t occupations

B.

Establishm ent p ra c tic e s and supplem entary w age p ro visio n s:
B - l . M inim um entrance s a la rie s fo r wom en o ffic e w o rk e rs
B -2. Shift d iffe re n tia ls
B -3 . Scheduled w eek ly hours and days
B -4 . Paid holidays
B -5. P a id vacations
B -6 . H ealth, insu rance, and pension plans

7.
910.
11.
12 .
14.
15.

16 .

17.
18.

20.

23.

Appendix.

Occupational descrip tion s




For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 20402—Price 35 cents

Preface
The Bureau of L ab or S tatistics p ro g ra m of annual occupa­
tional w age su rveys in m etrop olita n a rea s is designed to p rovid e data
on occupational earn in gs, and establishm ent p ra c tic e s and supplem en­
ta ry wage p ro v is io n s . It yie ld s d etailed data by selected industry
d ivision fo r each of the a reas studied, fo r geograp h ic reg io n s, and
fo r the United States. A m a jo r con sid eration in the p ro g ra m is the
need fo r g re a te r in sigh t into (1) the m ovem en t of w ages by occupa­
tional ca te g o ry and sk ill le v e l, and (2) the structure and le v e l of
w ages among a rea s and industry d ivisio n s.
A t the end of each su rvey, an individual area bulletin p r e ­
sents the re s u lts . A fte r com pletion of a ll individual area bulletins
fo r a round of su rveys, two sum m ary bu lletins are issued. The fir s t
brings data fo r each of the m etro p o lita n a rea s studied into one bulletin.
The second p resen ts in form a tion which has been p ro jected fro m in d i­
vidual m etrop olitan a rea data to re la te to geograph ic regio n s and the
United States.
N inety a rea s c u rre n tly a re included in the p ro g ra m . In each
a rea , in form ation on occupational earnings is co lle c te d annually and on
establishm ent p ra c tic e s and supplem entary wage p ro visio n s bien n ially.
Th is bulletin p resen ts resu lts of the survey in N ew Haven,
Conn., in January 1972. The Standard M etrop olitan S ta tistica l A r e a ,
as defined by the O ffic e of M anagem ent and Budget (fo r m e r ly the
Bureau of the Budget) through January 1968, con sists of the city of
N ew Haven; and the towns of Bethany, B ran ford , East Haven, G u ilford,
Hamden, N orth B ran ford , N orth Haven, O range, W est Haven, and
W oodbridge in N ew Haven County. T h is study was conducted by the
B ureau's reg io n a l o ffic e in Boston, M a s s ., under the g e n e ra l d ir e c ­
tion of Paul V. M u lkern, A ssista n t R egion a l D ire c to r fo r O peration s.




Note:
S im ila r re p o rts a re ava ila b le fo r other a re a s .
back c o v e r .)

(See inside

Union w age ra te s , in d icative of p re v a ilin g pay le v e ls in the
N ew Haven a re a , a re also a va ila b le fo r building construction;
printing; lo c a l-tr a n s it operating em p lo yees; lo c a l tru c k d riv e rs
and h elp ers; and g r o c e r y store em p lo yees.

In tro d u c tio n
This area is 1 o f 90 in which the U.S. D epartm ent o f L a b o r's
Bureau of L a b or S tatistics conducts su rveys o f occupational earnings
and re la ted benefits on an areaw ide b a s is .1 In this area , data w ere ob­
tained by p erson al v is its o f Bureau fie ld econ om ists to rep resen ta tive
establishm ents within six broad industry d ivis io n s : M anufacturing;
tran sportation , com m unication, and other public u tilitie s ; w h olesale
trad e; re ta il trad e: finance, insurance, and re a l estate; and s e rv ic e s .
M a jo r industry groups excluded fro m these studies a re governm ent
operations and the construction and e x tra c tiv e in d u stries. E sta b lish ­
m ents having fe w e r than a p re s c rib e d number of w o rk e rs a re om itted
because they tend to furnish in su fficien t em ploym ent in the occupations
studied to w arran t inclusion. Separate tabulations are p rovid ed fo r
each o f the broad industry d ivision s which m eet publication c r ite r ia .
Th ese su rveys a re conducted on a sam ple basis because o f
the unnecessary cost in volved in su rveyin g a ll establishm ents. To
obtain optim um accu racy at m inim um cost, a g re a te r p rop ortion of
la r g e than o f sm all establishm ents is studied. In com bining the data,
h o w ever, a ll establishm ents a re given th e ir ap p ropriate w eight. E s t i­
m ates based on the establishm ents studied a re presen ted, th e re fo re ,
as rela tin g to a ll establishm ents in the industry grouping and area ,
except fo r those below the m inim um s iz e studied.
Occupations and Earnings
The occupations selected fo r study a re com m on to a v a rie ty
o f m anufacturing and nonmanufacturing in d u stries, and a re o f the
fo llow in g types: (1) O ffic e c le r ic a l; (2) p ro fe s s io n a l and technical;
(3) m aintenance and pow erplant; and (4) custodial and m a te ria l m o v e ­
m ent. Occupational c la s s ific a tio n is based on a uniform set o f job
descrip tion s designed to take account o f in terestab lish m en t va ria tio n
in duties within the sam e job.
The occupations selected fo r study
a re lis te d and d escrib ed in the appendix. U nless oth erw ise indicated,
the earnings data fo llow in g the jo b title s a re fo r a ll in du stries co m ­
bined. E arnings data fo r som e of the occupations lis te d and d escrib ed ,
o r fo r som e industry d ivision s within occupations, a re not p resen ted
in the A - s e r ie s tab les, because eith er (1) em ploym ent in the occupa­
tion is too sm all to p ro vid e enough data to m e r it presentation, or
(2) th ere is p o s s ib ility o f d is c lo s u re o f individual establishm ent data.
E arnings data not shown sep a ra tely fo r industry d ivision s a re included
in a ll industries com bined data, w h ere shown. L ik e w is e , data are
included in the o v e r a ll c la s s ific a tio n when a su bclassification o f s e c ­
re ta r ie s o r tru c k d riv e rs is not shown o r in form ation to su b classify
is not ava ila b le.

Occupational em ploym ent and earnings data are shown fo r
fu ll-tim e w o rk ers, i.e ., those h ired to w ork a re g u la r w eek ly schedule.
E arnings data exclude prem iu m pay fo r o v e rtim e and fo r w ork on
w eekends, h olid ays, and late shifts. Nonproduction bonuses a re e x ­
cluded, but c o s t- o f- liv in g allow ances and in cen tive earnings a re in ­
cluded. W here w eek ly hours a re rep orted , as fo r o ffic e c le r ic a l occu ­
pations, r e fe re n c e is to the standard w orkw eek (rounded to the n earest
h alf hour) fo r which em ployees r e c e iv e th e ir reg u la r stra igh t-tim e
s a la rie s (e x c lu s iv e o f pay fo r o v e rtim e at regu la r and/or prem ium
ra te s ).
A v e r a g e w eek ly earnings fo r these occupations have been
rounded to the n ea rest h alf d o lla r.

T h ese su rveys m easu re the le v e l o f occupational earnings in
an a rea at a p a rticu la r tim e . Com parisons o f individual occupational
a vera ges o v e r tim e m ay not r e fle c t expected w age changes. The
a v e ra g e s fo r individual jobs a re affected by changes in wages and
em ploym ent pattern s. F o r exam ple, p roportion s o f w o rk ers em ployed
by high- o r lo w -w a g e firm s m ay change o r h igh -w age w ork ers m ay
advance to b e tte r jobs and be rep laced by new w o rk e rs at lo w e r ra tes.
Such shifts in em ploym ent could d ec re a s e an occupational, avera ge even
though m ost establishm ents in an a rea in c re a s e w ages during the y e a r.
Tren ds in earnings o f occupational groups, shown in table 2, are
better in d icators o f w age trends than individual jobs within the groups.

The a vera g es p resen ted r e fle c t com p osite, areaw ide e s ti­
m a tes.
In du stries and establishm ents d iffe r in pay le v e l and job
staffing and, thus, contribute d iffe re n tly to the estim ates fo r each job.
The pay relation sh ip obtainable fro m the a vera ges m ay fa il to r e fle c t
a ccu ra tely the w age spread o r d iffe re n tia l m aintained among jobs in
individual establish m en ts. S im ila rly , d iffe re n c e s in a v e ra g e pay le v e ls
fo r m en and worpen in any o f the selected occupations should not be
assum ed to r e fle c t d iffe re n c e s in pay treatm en t o f the sexes within
individual establish m en ts.
Other p ossib le fa c to rs which m ay con­
tribu te to d iffe re n c e s in pay fo r m en and wom en include: D ifferen ces
in p ro g re s s io n within established rate ran ges, since only the actual
rates paid incumbents a re co lle c te d ; and d ifferen ces in sp ecific duties
p e rfo rm e d , although the w o rk e rs a re c la s s ifie d a p p rop ria tely within
the sam e su rvey job d escrip tion . Job d escrip tion s used in cla s s ify in g
em p loyees in th ese su rveys a re usually m o re g e n e ra lize d than those
used in individual establishm ents and allow fo r m in or d iffe re n c e s
among establishm ents in the sp e c ific duties p erfo rm ed .
O ccupational em ploym ent estim ates rep resen t the total in a ll

1
Included in the 90 areas are four studies conducted under contract with the New York State
establishm ents within the scope o f the study and not the number actu­
Department of Labor. These areas are Binghamton (N ew York portion only); Rochester (office occupa­
a lly su rveyed . B ecause o f d iffe re n c e s in occupational structure among
tions only); Syracuse; and Utica—Rome. In addition, the Bureau conducts more limited area studies
establishm ents, the estim ates o f occupational em ploym ent obtained
in 65 areas at the request o f the Employment Standards Administration of the U. S. Department of Labor.




2
fro m the sam ple of establishm ents studied s e rv e only to indicate
the r e la tiv e im portan ce o f the job s studied.
Th ese d iffe re n c e s in
occupational stru ctu re do not a ffe c t m a te r ia lly the a ccu racy o f the
earnings data.
Establishm ent P ra c tic e s and Supplem entary W age P ro v is io n s
In form ation is presen ted (in the B - s e r ie s ta b les) on selected
establishm ent p ra c tic e s and supplem entary wage p ro visio n s as they
re la te to plant- and o ffic e w o r k e r s .
Data fo r industry d ivision s not
p resen ted sep a ra tely a re included in the estim a tes fo r " a ll in d u s trie s ."
A d m in is tra tiv e , ex ecu tive, and p ro fe s s io n a l em p loyees, and con stru c­
tion w o rk e rs who a re u tilize d as a separate w ork fo r c e a re excluded.
"P la n tw o r k e r s " include w orking fo re m e n and a ll n on su p ervisory w o rk ­
ers (including leadm en and tra in e e s ) engaged in non office functions.
"O ffic e w o r k e r s " include w o r k i n g s u p e rv is o rs and n on su p ervisory
w o rk ers p e rfo rm in g c le r ic a l o r re la te d functions. C a fe te ria w o rk ers
and routem en a re excluded in m anufacturing in d u stries, but included
in nonmanufacturing in d u stries.
M inim um entrance s a la rie s fo r w om en o ffic e w o rk e rs (table
B - l ) re la te only to the establishm ents v is ite d . Because o f the optimum
sam pling techniques used, and the p ro b a b ility that la rg e e sta b lish ­
m ents a re m o re lik e ly to have fo rm a l entrance rates fo r w o rk ers
above the su b c le ric a l le v e l than sm a ll establish m en ts, the table is
m o re -r e p r e s e n ta tiv e o f p o lic ie s in m edium and la rg e establish m en ts.
Shift d iffe re n tia l data (table B -2 ) a re lim ite d to p lan tw orkers
in m anufacturing in d u stries.
T h is in form a tion is p resen ted both in
te rm s o f (1) establishm ent p o lic y , 2 p resen ted in te rm s o f total plantw o rk e r em ploym ent, and (2) e ffe c tiv e p ra c tic e , p resen ted in te rm s
o f w o rk e rs actu ally em ployed on the s p e c ifie d shift at the tim e of the
su rvey. In establishm ents having v a rie d d iffe re n tia ls , the amount
applying to a m a jo r ity was used o r , i f no amount applied to a m a jo rity ,
the c la s s ific a tio n "o th e r " was used. In establishm ents in which som e
la te -s h ift hours a re paid at n orm al ra te s , a d iffe re n tia l was rec o rd e d
only i f it applied to a m a jo r ity o f the shift hours.
The scheduled w eek ly hours and days (table B -3 ) o f a m a ­
jo r it y o f the fir s t - s h ift w o rk e rs in an establishm ent a re tabulated as
applying to a ll o f the plant- or o ffic e w o rk e rs of that establishm ent.
Scheduled w eek ly hours and days a re those which a m a jo rity o f fu ll­
tim e em p loyees w e re expected to w ork, w hether they w e re paid fo r at
s tra ig h t-tim e o r o v e rtim e ra tes.
P a id holidays; paid vacations; and health, insurance, and pen­
sion plans (tab les B -4 through B -6 ) a re tre a te d s ta tis tic a lly on the
basis that th ese a re applicable to a ll plant- or o ffic e w o rk e rs i f a

m a jo r ity o f such w o rk e rs a re e lig ib le o r m a y even tu ally qu alify fo r
the p ra c tic e s lis te d . Sums o f individual item s in ta b les B -2 through
B -6 m ay not equal totals because o f rounding.
Data on paid h olidays (table B -4 ) a re lim ite d to data on h o li­
days granted annually on a fo rm a l b asis; i.e ., (1) a re p rovid ed fo r in
w ritten fo rm , or (2) have been establish ed by custom . H olidays o r d i­
n a rily granted a re included even though they m ay fa ll on a nonworkday
and the w o rk e r is not granted another day o ff. Th e f ir s t p art of the
paid holidays table presen ts the number o f w hole and h alf holidays
actu ally granted.
The second p art com bines w hole and h alf holidays
to show total h oliday t im e .
The sum m ary o f vacation plans (table B -5 ) is lim ite d to a
sta tistica l m ea su re o f vacation p ro v is io n s .
It is not intended as a
m ea su re of the p ro p o rtio n o f w o rk e rs actu ally re c e iv in g s p e c ific bene­
fits .
P ro v is io n s o f an establishm ent fo r a ll lengths o f s e r v ic e w ere
tabulated as applying to a ll plant- o r o ffic e w o r k e r s o f the esta b lish ­
m ent, r e g a rd le s s o f length o f s e r v ic e .
P r o v is io n s fo r paym ent on
other than a tim e basis w e re con verted to a tim e b asis; fo r exam ple,
a paym ent o f 2 percen t o f annual earnings was co n sid ered as the eq u iv­
alent o f 1 w eek 's pay. Only basic plans a re included. E stim a tes e x ­
clude vacation bonus and va ca tio n -sa vin gs plans and those which o ffe r
"e x ten d ed " o r "s a b b a tic a l" ben efits beyond basic plans with qu alifyin g
lengths of s e r v ic e . Such exclu sion s a re ty p ica l in the s te e l, aluminum,
and can in d u stries.
Data on health, insu rance, and pension plans (table B -6 ) in ­
clude those plans fo r which the em p lo y er pays at le a s t a p art o f the
cost. Such plans include those u n derw ritten by a c o m m e rc ia l insurance
company and those p ro vid ed through a union fund o r paid d ir e c tly by
the em p lo y e r out o f cu rren t op eratin g funds o r fro m a fund set aside
fo r this purpose. An establishm ent was con sid ered to have a plan i f
the m a jo r ity o f em p lo yees was e lig ib le to be c o v e re d under the plan,
even i f le s s than a m a jo r ity ele c te d to p a rticip a te because em ployees
w e re req u ired to contribute tow ard the cost o f the plan. L e g a lly r e ­
qu ired plans, such a s 'w o rk m e n 's com pensation, so c ia l secu rity, and
ra ilro a d re tire m e n t w e re excluded.
Sickness and accident insurance is lim ite d to that type of in ­
surance under which p red eterm in ed cash paym ents a re m ade d ir e c tly
to the insured during te m p o ra ry illn e s s o r accident d is a b ility . In fo r ­
m ation is presen ted fo r a ll such plans to which the em p lo yer co n trib ­
utes. H o w ever, in .New Y o rk and N ew J e rs e y , which have enacted
te m p o ra ry d is a b ility insurance law s which re q u ire em p lo y er con tribu ­
t io n s ,3 plans a re included only i f the em p lo y e r (1) contributes m o re
than is le g a lly req u ired , o r (2) p ro v id e s the em p loyee with benefits
which exceed the requ irem en ts o f the law .
Tabulations o f paid sick

2
An establishment was considered as having a policy if it met either of the following condi­
tions: (1 ) Operated late shifts at the time of the survey, or (2) had formal provisions covering late
3
shifts. An establishment was considered as having formal provisions if it (1 ) had operated late shifts
contributions.
during the 12 months prior to the survey, or (2 ) had provisions in written form for operating late shifts.




The temporary disability laws in California and

Rhode Island do not require employer

3
le a v e plans a re lim ite d to fo rm a l plans 4 which p ro vid e fu ll pay or a
p rop ortion o f the w o r k e r 's pay during absence fro m w ork because of
illn e s s . Separate tabulations a re p resen ted accord in g to (1) plans
which p ro vid e fu ll pay and no w aiting p erio d , and (2) plans which p r o ­
vid e eith er p a rtia l pay o r a w aiting p erio d . In addition to the p re s e n ­
tation o f the p rop ortion s o f w o rk e rs who a re p rovid ed sickness and
accident insurance o r paid sick le a v e , an unduplicated total is shown
o f w o rk ers who r e c e iv e eith er o r both types o f b en efits.

the d isa b ility , a m axim um age, o r e lig ib ility fo r re tire m e n t ben efits.
Paym ents m ay be at fu ll o r p a rtia l pay but a re alm ost always r e ­
duced by so cia l secu rity, w ork m en 's com pensation, and p riva te pension
benefits payable to the disab led em p loyee.

M a jo r m e d ic a l insurance includes those plans which a re d e ­
signed to p ro te c t em p loyees in case o f sickness and in ju ry in volvin g
expenses beyond the co v e ra g e o f basic h ospitalization , m ed ica l, and
s u rgica l plans. M e d ic a l insurance r e fe r s to plans p rovid in g fo r co m ­
L o n g -te rm d is a b ility plans p ro vid e payments to to ta lly d is ­
p lete or p a rtia l paym ent of d o cto rs' fe e s . Dental insurance usually
abled em p loyees upon the exp ira tion o f th e ir paid sick le a v e and/or
c o v e rs fillin g s , extraction s, and X -r a y s .
Excluded a re plans which
sickness and accident insurance, o r a fte r a p red eterm in ed p e rio d o f
c o v e r only o r a l su rg e ry o r accident dam age. Plan s m ay be u nder­
d is a b ility (ty p ic a lly 6 m onths).
Paym ents a re m ade until the end o f
w ritten by c o m m e ric a l insurance com panies o r non profit organizations
o r they m ay be paid fo r by the em p lo yer out o f a fund set aside fo r
4
An establishment was considered as having a formal plan if it established at least die mini­ this purpose. Tabulations o f re tire m e n t pension plans a re lim ite d to
those plans that p ro v id e re g u la r paym ents fo r the rem a in d er o f the
mum number of days of sick leave available to each employee.
Such a plan need not be written,
w o r k e r 's life .
but informal sick leave allowances, determined on an individual basis, were excluded.




4

T ab le 1.

Establishm ents and w orkers within scope of survey and num ber studied in N e w Haven, C o n n .,1 by major industry division,2 January 1 9 7 2
Num ber o f establishm ents

Industry d ivis ion

M inim um
em ploym ent
in esta b lis h ­
ments in scope
o f study

W ork ers in establishm ents
W ithin scope o f study

W ithin scope
o f stu dy3

Studied
T o ta l4

Studied

Plan t
Num ber

A ll d ivis io n s________ ___ ______________________
M anufacturing— ---- — — ----- — __ —
Nonm anufacturing------------------- ------------ -----T ran sp o rta tion , com m unication, and
other public u t ilit ie s 5 ___________ __________
W h o lesa le t r a d e ----------------------------------------R eta il tra d e-------- -----------------------------Fin ance, in su rance, and re a l e s t a t e ----------S e r v ic e s 8 --------------------------------------------------

O ffic e

Percen t

T o t a l4

310

107

63,335

100

38,548

12,781

40, 836

50
-

129
181

38
69

32, 391
30,944

51
49

22, 878
15, 670

4, 036
8, 745

19,890
20, 946

50
50
50
50
50

21
38
61
26
35

12
11
14
14
18

9,449
3, 582
8,454
5, 095
4, 364

15
6
13
8
7

3, 184
( 6)
( 6)
(6)
( 6)

8, 262
1,369
4, 835
3, 875
2, 605

4, 159
( 6)
( 6)
(7)
( 6)

1 The New H aven Standard M e tro p o lita n S ta tistica l A r e a , as defined by the O ffic e o f M anagem ent and Budget (fo r m e r ly the Bureau o f the Budget) through January 1968, con sists o f the
c ity o f New Haven; and the towns o f Bethany, B ra n fo rd , E a st H aven, G u ilfo rd , Hamden, N orth B ra n fo rd , N orth H aven, O ran ge, W est H aven, and W oodbridge in N ew Haven County. The " w o r k e r s
w ithin scope o f study" estim ates shown in this table p ro vid e a reason ably a ccu rate d es crip tio n o f the s iz e and co m position o f the la bor fo r c e included in the su rvey.
Th e e s tim a tes a re not
intended, h ow eve r, to s e r v e as a b a sis o f co m p a rison w ith oth er em ploym en t indexes fo r the a rea to m easu re em ploym en t tren ds o r le v e ls sin ce (1) planning o f w age su rv eys re q u ire s the use
o f establish m ent data co m p ile d co n s id era b ly in advance o f the p a y r o ll p e rio d studied, and (2) sm all establish m ents a re excluded fr o m the scope o f the su rvey.
2 The 1967 edition o f the Standard In du strial C la s s ific a tio n Manual was used in cla s s ify in g establish m ents by in du stry d ivision .
3 Includes a ll establish m ents w ith to ta l em ploym en t at o r above the m inim um lim ita tion . A l l outlets (w ithin the a rea ) o f com panies in such in du stries as tra d e, fin ance, auto re p a ir s e r v ic e ,
and m otion p ictu re th eaters a re co n s id ere d as 1 establish m ent.
4 Includes ex ecu tive, p r o fe s s io n a l, and other w o r k e r s excluded fr o m the sep ara te plant and o ffic e c a te g o rie s .
5 A b b revia ted to "p u b lic u t ilitie s " in the A - and B - s e r ie s tables.
T a x ica b s and s e r v ic e s in ciden tal to w a te r tra n sporta tion w e re excluded.
6 Th is in du stry d iv is io n is re p res en ted in estim ates fo r " a l l in d u stries" and "non m anu factu rin g" in the S e rie s A ta b les, and fo r " a l l in d u stries" in the S e rie s B ta b les. S eparate presen tatio n
o f data fo r this d iv is io n is not m ade fo r one o r m o re o f the fo llow in g reason s: (1) E m ploym en t in the d iv is io n is too sm a ll to p ro vid e enough data to m e r it sep ara te study, (2) the sam ple was not
design ed in itia lly to p e r m it sep ara te presen tatio n , (3) respon se was in su fficien t o r inadequate to p e r m it sep ara te p resen tation , and (4) th e re is p o s s ib ility o f d isc lo su re o f in dividu al establish m ent data.
7 W o rk e rs fr o m this en tire in du stry d iv is io n a re re p res en ted in estim ates fo r " a l l in d u stries" and "non m anu factu rin g" in the S e rie s A ta b les, but fr o m the r e a l estate p o rtio n only inestim ates
fo r " a l l in d u stries" in the S e rie s B ta b les. Separate presen tatio n o f data fo r this d ivis ion is not m ade fo r one o r m o re o f the reason s giv en in footn ote 6 above.
8 H otels and m o te ls ; lau ndries and oth er p erso n a l s e r v ic e s ; business s e r v ic e s ; autom obile re p a ir, ren ta l, and park ing; m otion p ictu re s; n on profit m e m b ersh ip o rga n izatio n s (excluding re lig io u s
and ch a rita ble o rga n iz a tio n s ); and en gin eerin g and a rch itectu ra l s e r v ic e s .




A lm o s t seven-ten ths o f the w o rk e rs w ithin scope o f the s u rv ey in the N ew Haven
a rea w e r e em ployed in m anufacturing fir m s .
Th e fo llo w in g presen ts the m a jo r indu stry
groups and sp e c ific in du stries as a p ercen t o f a ll m anufacturing:
S p e c ific in du stries

Industry eroups
T ran sp o rta tion equ ipm ent------ 20
10
P r im a r y m e ta l in d u s trie s -----9
Rubber and p la stics
products
- — 9
A p p a re l and other te x tile
F a b rica ted m e ta l p ro d u cts----E le c tr ic a l equipm ent and

5
T ir e s and in ner tu b es______ ___5

8

P r in tin g and publishing---------C h em ica ls and a llied
p rod u cts-----------------------------

___19
_ _ in
C u tlery, handtools, and

7
5

T h is in form a tion is based on estim ates o f tota l em ploym en t d e riv e d fr o m u n iverse
m a te r ia ls co m piled p r io r to actual su rvey. P r o p o rtio n s in va rio u s in du stry d ivis ion s m ay
d iffe r fr o m prop o rtio n s based on the resu lts o f the s u rv ey as shown in table 1 above.

W a g e T re n d s fo r S e le c te d O c c u p a tio n a l G ro u p s
shows the p ercen tage change. The index is the product of m ultiplying
the base y e a r re la tiv e (100) by the re la tiv e fo r the next succeeding
y e a r and continuing to m u ltip ly (compound) each y e a r 's re la tiv e by the
p reviou s y e a r 's index.

P re s e n te d in table 2 are indexes and p ercen tages o f change
in a vera g e s a la rie s o f o ffic e c le r ic a l w o rk e rs and indu strial nurses,
and in a vera g e earnings of selected p lan tw orker groups. The indexes
a re a m easu re of w ages at a given tim e, exp ressed as a p ercen t of
w ages during the base p eriod . Subtracting 100 fro m the index yields
the percen tage change in w ages fro m the base p eriod to the date of
the index.
The percen tages of change or in c re a s e rela te to wage
changes betw een the indicated dates. Annual rates of in c re a s e , w here
shown, r e fle c t the amount o f in crea se fo r 12 months when the tim e
p e rio d between su rveys was other than 12 months. Th ese computations
w e r e based on the assum ption that wages in crea sed at a constant rate
between su rveys. T h ese estim ates a re m easu res of change in a v e r ­
ages fo r the area ; they are not intended to m easu re avera ge pay
changes in the establishm ents in the area.

F o r o ffic e c le r ic a l w o rk e rs and indu strial nurses, the wage
trends re la te to reg u la r w eek ly s a la rie s fo r the n orm al w orkw eek,
ex clu sive of earnings fo r o v e rtim e .
F o r plantw orker groups, they
m easu re changes in a vera g e s tra ig h t-tim e hourly earnings, excluding
prem iu m pay fo r o v e rtim e and fo r w ork on weekends, holidays, and
late shifts. The percen tages are based on data fo r selected key occu ­
pations and include m ost of the n u m erica lly im portant jobs within
each group.
L im ita tion s of Data

Method of Computing
The indexes and percen tages o f change, as m easu res of
change in area a v e ra g e s , a re influenced by: ( l ) gen era l salary and
wage changes, (2) m e rit or other in crea ses in pay re c e iv e d by in d i­
vidual w o rk e rs w h ile in the same job, and (3) changes in average
w ages due to changes in the labor fo rc e resu ltin g fro m labor tu rn­
o v e r, fo r c e expansions, fo rc e reductions, and changes in the p ro p o r­
tions of w o rk e rs em ployed by establishm ents with d ifferen t pay le v e ls .
Changes in the lab or fo rc e chn cause in crea ses or d ecrea ses in the
occupational a vera g es without actual wage changes. It is conceivable
that even though a ll establishm ents in an area gave wage in crea ses,
a vera ge w ages m ay have declined because lo w er-p a yin g establishm ents

Each o f the follow in g key occupations within an occupational
group was assigned a constant w eight based on its p roportion ate e m ­
ploym ent in the occupational group:
O ffice clerica l (m en and women):
Bookkeeping-machine
operators, class B
Clerics, accounting, classes
A and B
Clerks, file , classes
A , B, and C
Clerks, order
Clerks, payroll
Comptometer operators
Keypunch operators, classes
A and B
Messengers (o ffic e boys or
girls)

O ffice clerica l (m en and w om en)—
Continued
Secretaries
Stenographers, general
Stenographers, senior
Switchboard operators, classes
A and B
Tabulating-m achine operators,
class B
Typists, classes A and B
Industrial nurses (m en and
women):
Nurses, industrial (registered)

Skilled maintenance (men):
Carpenters
Electricians
Machinists
Mechanics
Mechanics (au tom otive)
Painters
Pipefitters
Tool and die makers

entered

Unskilled plant (men):
Janitors, porters, and
cleaners
Laborers, material handling

area

or

expanded

their

work

forces.

S im ila rly ,

wages

The use of constant em ploym ent w eights elim in ates the effect
o f changes in the p rop ortion o f w o rk e rs rep resen ted in each job in ­
cluded in the data.
The p ercen tages of change r e fle c t only changes
in a vera ge pay fo r s tra ig h t-tim e hours.
T h ey are not influenced by
changes in standard w ork schedules, as such, o r by prem ium pay
fo r o v e rtim e . W h ere n ecessa ry, data w e r e adjusted to rem ove from
the indexes and p ercen tages of change any significant effe c t caused
by changes in the scope o f the survey.

The a vera g e (mean) earnings fo r each occupation we r e m u lti­
plied by the occupational w eigh t, and the products fo r a ll occupations
in the group w e re totaled.
The a ggrega tes fo r 2 consecutive yea rs
we r e rela ted by dividing the aggrega te fo r the la te r year by the a g g r e ­
gate fo r the e a r lie r year.
The resultant r e la tiv e , less 100 percen t,




th e

m ay have rem ained r e la tiv e ly constant, yet the a vera ges fo r an area
m ay have risen con sid erab ly because h igh er-p ayin g establishm ents
entered the area.

5




T ab le 2 .

Indexes of standard w eekly salaries and straight-tim e hourly earnings fo r selected occupational groups in

N e w H aven, Conn., January 1971 and Janu ary 1 9 7 2, and p ercents of increase fo r selected periods
A ll in du stries
P e r io d

O ffic e
c le r ic a l
(m en and
w om en )

In du strial
nurses
(men and
w om en )

S killed
m ai ntenance
tra d es
(m en)

Manufacturing
U nskilled
plan tw o rk e rs
(m en)

O ffic e
c le r ic a l
(m en and
w om en )

In du strial
nurses
(men and
w om en )

S k illed
m aintenance
tra d es
(m en)

U nsk illed
plan tw o rk e rs
(m en)

127.7
133.8

126.5
135.4

130.0
141.1

Indexes (January 1967=100)
January 1971_______________________________________
Janu ary 1972........................ .....
.

123.2
131.2

127.6
134.7

127.7
137.5

124.7
131.7

123.8
132.1

P e r c e n ts o f in cre a s e
F e b ru a ry 1960 to F e b ru a ry 1961-------- ——------ F e b ru a ry 1961 to January 1962:
11-month in c re a s e ------------------------------------Annual ra te o f in c r e a s e ________ ___________ -__

3.4

3.8

4.4

0.8

3.4

3.3

4.1

2.2

.7
.8

3.8
4.2

2.5
2.7

.8
.9

2.0
2.2

3.7
4.0

1.9
2.1

2.6
2.8

January
January
January
January
January
January
January
January
January
January

2.4
3.3
2.5
3.7
3.3
5.0
5.1
6.1
5.2
6.5

3.5
1.0
4.3
5.1
4.0
6.7
6.0
6.4
6.0
5.6

2.4
3.2
1.9
3.8
4.0
4.7
5.6
5.4
9.5
7.7

3.8
4.6
2.0
1.7
3.6
4.6
7.2
5.2
5.8
5.6

1.3
5.3
2.3
1.3
2.4
5.6
5.4
5.4
5.5
6.7

1.5
1.5
5.5
4.3
3.6
7.9
5.7
6.2
5.4
4.8

2.2
3.4
1.1
3.7
3.6
4.6
5.5
5.2
9.0
7.0

2.3
7.4
1.6
1.0
3.0
6.3
6.2
4.8
9.9
8.5

1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971

to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to

January
January
January
January
January
January
January
Janu ary
January
Janu ary

1963- — — _____
1964____
1965___________-_______
1966-______— _______ __
1967— _____
1968— ---- --- —
19691970 - __
___
19711972-------------------------

7

A.

O ccupational earnings

T a b le A -1 .

O f fic e o c c u p a tio n s —m en and w o m e n

(A verage straight-tim e weekly hours and earnings fo r selected occupations studied on an area basis by industry division, New Haven, Conn., January 1972)
Weekly earnings 1
(stan dard)

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

Number of w orkers receivin g straight-tim e weekly earnings of—
$

Average
weekly

$

70
M ean2

M edian2

Middle range2

(standard)

and
under
75

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS A
MA NU FA CT UR IN G -----------N O N M A N UF AC TU RI NG ---------

78
25
53

ME SS EN GE RS (OFFICE BOVS) --N O NM AN UF AC TU RI NG ---------

66

*

t

75

80

_

_

80

85

8

85
_

S

90
_

90

$

95
_

95

$

100
_

100

8

105
_

105

8

110

110

115

1

92.50- 10 9. 50
91.50- 10 7. 50

122.00 102.00

120

1

54

39.0 107.00
39.0 107.00

BILLERS, MACHINE (BILLING
MACHINE) ----------------------

30

39.5

90.50- 17 6. 50

1

7

-

218
87
131

39.0 139.00 137.00 122.00-162.00
39.0 125.50 127.00 111.00-139.50
38.5 148.00 141.00 127.50-181.50

1

7
5

5

18
14
4

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS B MANUFA CT UR IN G -------------N O NM AN UF AC TU RI NG ---------PUBLIC UT ILITIES --------

265
87
178
76

39.0
39.0
39.0
38.0

CLERKS, FILE, CLASS B -------N O NM AN UF AC TU RI NG ----------

85
77

37.5
37.5

92.50
91.50

92.50
91.00

86.00- 98.50
85.50- 98.00

CLERKS, FILE, CLASS C --------------N O NM AN UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

59
42

38.5
38.0

88.00
87.00

87.00
80.50

75 .50- 98.50
74 .0 0- 10 5. 00

CLERKS, ORDER -------------------------

56

39.5 100.50 101.50

75.00- 11 9. 00

CLERKS, PA YR OL L ---------------------MA NU FA CT UR IN G --------------------N O N M A N UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

102

_

4

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS A MANUFA CT UR IN G -------------n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------

104.50 102.50
106.00 107.50
96.00
104.00
101.50
94.00

14

-

1

92.50- 11 3. 00

*

1

130
“

5

140
—

0 3 0 ___140 150

2

90 .5 0- 11 5. 50
91 .0 0- 10 6. 00

2
3

I

150
* _
160

i
160
*

5

6
40
30
10
4

7
7

170

180

190

7
5

-

5
5

-

1
1

2

3

5

-

-

4
4

6
6

-

46

20

2
1
1
2

9

26

9

7

9
4
5

5

1
2

1

1

4

12

1

1

2

1
1

8

2

7

8

3

5

3
3

3
3

4
4

33
32

9
6
3

6

1
0
2
8

1
0
2
8

28
15
13

25
4

28

2
1

6
22

19

10

26
7
19

2

4

4

5

3

1
2

18
4
14
-

20

3

I

190
•

34

2

32
-

i

200

i----i--210

220

*

200

2

~

and

210

220 over

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

2

10
2

1

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

4

-

-

-

_

4

*

5

42

3

42

2

-

3

3
3
-

2
1

39
19

180

”

9
9
~

15
4

i

5
4

9
4

3

170
“

2
11

21
1
1
10
6

14
2
12

102.00-112.00

2

18
—

54

6

29

1
0

1
0

19

20
20

1
1
1
0

23
19

5

1

6
1

2

55
47

39*0 114.00 108.00 102.00-127.00
40.0 112.50 104.50 102.00-126.00
38.5 116.00 113.50
99.00- 14 0. 00

KEYP UN CH OPERATORS, CLASS A -------MA NU FA CT UR IN G --------------------N O N M A N UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

152
62
90

39.0 117.50 113.50 102.00-127.00
39.5 110.00 109.50 104.00-118.50
38.5 122.50 117.50 100.50-134.00

-

KEYP UN CH OPERATORS, CLASS B -------MA NU FA CT UR IN G --------------------N O NM AN UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

211
70
141

38.5 105.00 104.50 93.5 0- 11 6. 00
39.5 108.50 112.50 102.00-117.50
38.0 103.00 100.00 91.5 0- 11 4. 50

ME SSENGERS (OFFICE GIRLS) ----------

25

39.5 107.50

97.00

89 .5 0- 11 5. 00

SE CRETARIES --------------------------MA NU FA CT UR IN G --------------------N O N M A N UF AC TU RI NG ----------------PUBLIC UT ILITIES ---------------

786
418
368

66

38.5
39.5
37.5
38.5

138.00
138.00
138.00
184.00

135.50
137.50
131.00
182.00

122.50-152.50
125.50-150.00
117.50-155.00
17 1.00-198.00

SECRETARIES, CLASS A -------------M A N U FA CT UR IN G --------------------N O N M A N UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

63
26
37

38.5 169.50 157.50 147.00-196.50
39.5 158.50 152.50 147.00-169.00
38.0 177.00 172.50 14 7.00-217.00




120

11

48
29

See footnotes at end o f tables

*

“

$
$
$
$
39.0 163.00 171.00 151.50-182.50
39.0 143.50 134.00 128.50-164.00
39.0 172.00 181.00 15 9.00-183.50

101.00
100.00

115

_

17
17
14
14

18

6

10

1
2

—

8

7
5

1

1

2

17

24
16

23
7
16

1

1
1
4
7

2

1
1

9

_

”

2
-

6

6

1

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

10
10

7
3
4

8
5
3

5
3
2

10
3
7

5
2
3

2
1
1

-

_

-

-

-

-

~

-

-

-

-

17
14
3

8
4
4

22
15
7

25
9
16

5
1
4

-

-

21

-

-

21
9
12

22
16
6

32
17
15

11
9
2

15

2

15

2

31
7
24
1

46
17
29
-

44
16
28

168
94
74
“

151
98
53
-

92
70
22
1

1

6
2
4

18
11
7

1

”
-

59
37
22
7

27
13
14
10

34
12
22
19

14
3
11
10

10
5
5

4
3
1

2
-

6
3
3

3
1
2

-

“

2
1
1
-

10
10
10

2
2
2

1
1
“

10

2

-

*

70
38
32
5

-

“

21

2

-

10

2

8
T a b l e A -1 .

O f f i c e o c c u p a t i o n s — m e n a n d w o m e n ----- C o n t i n u e d

(A verage straight-tim e weekly hours and earnings fo r selected occupations studied on

area basis by industry division, New Haven, Conn., January 1972)

W eekly earnings 1
( standard)

Number of w orkers receivin g straight-tim e w eekly earnings of—
*

S

$

t

S

of
workers

WOMEN -

Average
weekly
hours 1
[standard)

$

t

75

80

85

90

95

100

75

Number

Sex, occupation, and industry division

80

85

90

95

100

105

-

-

-

70
Mean 2

M edian2

Middle range2

t

%

105

110

110

115

t

*

t

I

t

115

120

120

2

3

2

3

10

8

61
18
23

53
27
26

26
15
9

23

i

$

»

i

1------ i
~i----200 210 220

130

160

150

160

170

180

190

130

160

150

160

170

180

190

200 210 220

28
18

29
19

27

17
9

18

13
5

10
9

10
2
8

1
2
8
6
6

18

1

and
under

and
over

CONTINUED

SECRETARIES - CONTINUED
3 8 .5
3 9 .5
3 8 .0

$
1 6 9 .5 0
1 6 6 .5 0
1 5 6 .0 0

$
$
$
1 6 6 .0 0 1 3 3 .5 0 -1 6 7 .0 0
1 6 2 .5 0 1 3 5 .0 0 -1 6 0 .0 0
1 5 6 .5 0 1 3 2 .0 0 - 1 7 1 .5 0

1 3 9 .5 0
1 6 3 .5 0
1 3 6 .0 0
1 7 0 .0 0

1 3 8 .5 0
1 6 6 .0 0
1 3 5 .0 0
1 8 0 .5 0

1 2 2 .5 0 - 1 5 7 .5 0
1 3 1 .5 0 -1 6 0 .5 0
1 1 6 .0 0 -1 5 6 .5 0
1 6 1 .5 0 -1 8 3 .0 0

_

_

_

-

~
-

~
*

-

156
35

3 8 .5
6 0 .0
3 7 .5
3 8 .0

*

SECRETARIES, CLASS D --------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------

289
180
109

3 9 .0
3 9 .5
3 7 .5

1 2 3 .5 0
1 2 7 .0 0
1 1 7 .5 0

1 2 6 .5 0
1 2 8 .0 0

1 1 6 .0 0 -1 3 6 .0 0
1 2 0 .5 0 - 1 3 8 .0 0
1 1 1 .5 0 - 1 2 6 .5 0

-

_
*

-

1

STENOGRAPHERS, GENERAL --------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------PUBLIC U T IL IT IE S -----------------------

206

3 8 .5
3 9 .5
3 8 .0
3 9 .0

1 2 1 .5 0
1 1 6 .0 0
1 2 6 .0 0
1 3 5 .0 0

1 1 7 .5 0
1 1 6 .0 0

_
-

1

2

1 2 9 .0 0

1 0 2 .5 0 -1 3 3 .0 0
1 0 2 .5 0 -1 3 2 .0 0
1 0 2 .5 0 - 1 3 6 .0 0
1 0 6 .0 0 - 1 8 0 .5 0

STENOGRAPHERS, SENIOR ----------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------

112
83
29

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 8 .5

1 1 8 .0 0
1 1 5 .5 0
1 2 6 .0 0

1 1 6 .5 0
1 1 6 .0 0
1 2 2 .5 0

1 0 9 .0 0 -1 2 6 .0 0
1 0 9 .5 0 - 1 2 2 .5 0
1 0 3 .5 0 - 1 6 2 .5 0

_
-

_
-

-

*

SWITCHBOARD OPERATORS, CLASS A -------

67

3 8 .5

1 1 8 .0 0

1 1 7 .0 0

1 0 6 .0 0 - 1 3 6 .0 0

-

-

-

2

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTION IS T S MANUFACTURING --------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------

109
56
53

3 9 .0
3 9 .5
3 8 .5

1 0 7 .5 0
1 0 6 .5 0
1 0 8 .5 0

1 0 7 .0 0
1 0 5 .0 0
1 0 9 .5 0

9 5 .5 0 - 1 1 7 .0 0
9 5 .5 0 - 1 1 3 .5 0
9 5 .5 0 - 1 2 2 .5 0

_

-

-

4

~

~

TRANSCRIBING-HACHINE OPERATORS,
GENERAL -----------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------

62
67

3 8 .5
3 8 .0

1 0 5 .5 0
1 0 6 .5 0

1 0 6 .0 0

9 5 .5 0 - 1 2 0 .0 0
9 5 .5 0 - 1 2 6 .0 0

_

_

_

110.00

“

T Y P IS T S , CLASS A --------------------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------

255
116
139

3 9 .0
6 0 .0
3 8 .0

111.00
1 0 8 .0 0
1 1 3 .0 0

1 0 8 .0 0
1 0 6 .0 0
1 1 1 .5 0

9 7 .5 0 - 1 1 8 .5 0
9 6 .0 0 - 1 1 8 .5 0
9 9 .0 0 - 1 1 9 .0 0

*

_
-

T Y P IS T S , CLASS B --------------------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------

296
85

3 8 .0
3 9 .5
3 7 .5

9 8 .0 0
1 0 0 .5 0
9 6 .5 0

9 6 .5 0
9 8 .5 0
9 6 .5 0

8 8 .5 0 - 1 0 7 .0 0
8 9 .0 0 - 1 1 1 .0 0
8 8 .0 0 - 1 0 5 .5 0

-

211

SECRETARIES, CLASS B ----MANUFACTURING ---------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------

158
90

SECRETARIES, CLASS C ---------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------PUBLIC U T IL IT IE S -----------------------

276

See footn otes at end o f ta b le s .




68

122

68

136
78

120.00
120.00

-

1
1

-

2
2

1
3

*
3

-

6
1

3

3
-

2

9
7

16
3

1
1
6

18

26

1
1

-

2
15

1

2

1
1

1
0

-

-

-

1

2

6

3

9

6
1
2

4

7

1
0

2

1

16

*
_
-

-

-

1

6

3

4

*

ii
ii

-

6

1
0

4

3
7

32

6

26

-

57
18
39

-

2

23
16
9

2
3

1
1

-

2
1

1

6
27
17

1
0

62

1
2

30

8
6

16

2
0
3
17

1

7

63
50
13

22
1

18

13

16

38

3

7
3

16
9
7
7

13
4
9
9

8
1
0

*

4

6

16

15
7

4

3

8

9
7

1
0

1
1

63
26
19

25
13

60
7
33

32

6
26

98
58
60

5

1
2

8

5

33
16
17

1
1

5

6
1
2

2
2

28
13
15

1
1
1
1

1
1

16

10

6

2
1

30

1
0

1

22
19
5

2
2

32
23
9

6

8

1

-

“

-

-

“

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

22

*

*

-

-

-

“

“

*

1
1

2

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

“

2

-

1

“

-

5
5

“
5
5

1

-

_
“

18
18

-

22
22

5

4

4

1

2

-

2

2

8

5

5

2

1

5

-

-

7

4
i
3

23
9
16

1
0
6

2
2

15
15

66
1
0

16
5

2
17

1
0

28

20
1
1

1
2

35

20
6

23

16

9

17
17
“

8

61

6
1
2

30
26

17

1
1

6
1
0
2

8

18
7

36

1
1

1
1

20
1
0
1
0

3

8

1

-

-

-

*
-

-

1
-

1

1
0
7
3
3
3

5
5

“

6
6

-

1
1

-

“

1
1

“

-

-

-

”

9
T a b le A -2 .

P r o f e s s i o n a l a nd t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s — m e n a n d w o m e n

(A verage straignt-tim e weeKiy nours and earnings tor selected occupations studied on an area basis by industry division, New Haven, Conn., January 1972)
W e e k ly earnings 1
( standard)

Number o f w orkers receivin g straight-tim e w eekly earnings of —
*

N u m ber

Sex, occupation, and industry division

of
workers

A verage
w e e k ly
hours1
(standard)

Under
M ean 2

M e d ia n 2

M id d le ra n g e 2

»
90

t

*

$

i

t

i

t

$

s

*

(

t

(

t

t

$

$

i

95

100

105

no

120

130

1A0

150

160

170

180

190

200

210

220

230

2A0

250

260

10C

105

no

120

130

1A0

150

160

170

180

190

200

210

220

230

2A0

250

260

270

9

3

1

-

-

-

-

-

and
under

t
40

95

MEN
$

40

IA

$ ..
j

38.5

^ 0 *0

Zb

$

$

3

. -.0

1 W
nn
1 1 4 .0 0

1 6 3 *5 0

3 9 .5

1 5 9 .0 0

1 5 1 .0 0

6

7

2

ICC '0

1

*

2

10

2

7

1

COMP UT ER PROGRAMERS,

H N R U fA v 1 UK 1 N b

3

3^

26

36

A

-

A

WOMEN
NURSE.., INDUSTRIAL ( R E 6 I S T E R E 0 I ------SSSUI HL 1IM1 Sw ” 1

See footnotes at end o f tables.




AA

1 3 A .5 0 - 1 8 2 .5 0

-

-

-

-

-

2

1A

6

1

10
T a b le A -3 .

O f f i c e , p r o fe s s io n a l, a n d te c h n ic a l o c c u p a t i o n s — m e n a n d w o m e n c o m b in e d

(A verage straight-tim e w eekly hours and earnings fo r selected occupations studied on an area basis by industry division, New Haven, Conn., January 1972)
Average

Occupation and industry division

Number
of

Average

Weekly

Weekly
earnings *
(standard) (standard)

OFFICE OC CUPATIONS

Occupation and industry division

Number
of
workers

Weekly
hours 1
(standard)

Weekly
earnings 1
(standard)

OFFICE OC CU PA TI ON S

OFFICE OCCU PA TI ON S - CONTINUED

BILLERS# MACHINE (BILLING

PUBLIC U T IL IT IE S ---------------

27

39.5 132.00

Number
of
workers

$

38 .5 118.00
SW IT CH BO AR D O P ER AT OR -R EC EP TI ON IS TS -

109
•S
33

5tUKc|AKltd
IlO
368

66

138*00
37.5 138.00
38*5

63

N O NM AN UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

Weekly
Weekly
hours 1 earnings 1
(standard) (st da )
an rd

- CONT IN UE D

$

NC j o t N v L K ) lUrr 1l*t DUT j ANU o IK L 3 1

$

Average

Occupation and industry division

38.5 169.50

39 * 0 107.50
38 .5

100*^0

39
4 ft
nA

, , ,
_ ^_

TRANSCRI BI NG -M AC HI NE OPERATORS,

nArlU, At 1UR 1 No
239

38.0 101.50
38.0 177.00
CLERKS# FILE# CLASS B
91 50
MA NU FACTURING --------------------NUN"ANUrAt 1U K 1Nw

CLERKS# FILE# CLASS C
N O NM AN UF A l TU R I N b

l'O
90

30 5 ICO ~0
39.5 166.50

B7« 50
, AJt

L L l KA 5# UKUtlt

PROFES SI ON AL AND TECHNICAL
OC CU PA TI ON S

*35

38*0 170*00

107
59

39.0 116.00
39.5 115.50

289
180
109

152
62
90

39.0 117.50
39.5 110.00
38.5 122.50

39.0 123.50 C O MP UT ER OPERATORS# CLASS C
39.5 127.00
N O N M A N U T A C 7 UR I N G
37.5 11 7.50
CO MP U T E R PROGRAMERS,
121.50
39*3 116.00
N O NM AN UF AC TU RI NG —
•
38.Q 126.00
39.0 135.00 UR A r 1 j H t r l # L L A j j D

211

39*5

96 . SO

nf t

94*50

36

N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----------------------------------

206
N O NM AN UF AC TU RI NG

--------------------------- -- —

68

136
78

38.5 105*00
29




38
26

38*5 113.00

65

39.5 159.00

HA N U r A t 1 U K 1 N o

30*0 103.00

See footnote at end of tables.

AA
_ _

36 ^0

38^5 12 6. 00

NURSES,

INDUSTRIAL IREGISTERED) —

11
T a b le A -4 .

M a i n t e n a n c e an d p o w e r p l a n t o c c u p a t i o n s

(A verage straight-tim e hourly earnings fo r selected occupations studied on an area basis by industry division, New Haven, Conn., January 1972)
Number of w orkers receivin g straight-tim e hourly earnings of —

H ou rly e arn in gs3
t

N u m ber

Sex, occupation, and industry division

of
workers

t

*

*

$

*

s

2.80 2.90 3.00 3.10 3.20 3.30
M ean 2

M e d ia n 2

M id d le range 2

$

*

t

S

*

4

S

t

S

*

S

%

t

i

i

i

.40 3.50 3.60 3. 70 3.80 3.90 4.00 4 .10 4.20 4.30 4.40 4.50 4.60 4.80 5.00 5.20 5.40

and
under
2.90 3.00 3.10 3.20 3.30 3. 40 3.50 3.60 3.70 3. 80 3.90 4.00 4.10

4

.20 4.30 4.40 4.50 4.60 4.80 5.00 5.20 5.40 5.60

MEN
$

$

$

29

4.13
4.02

4.31
A«1T

4.08- 4.40
3.68 4.42

123
120

4.24
4.23

4.39
4.38

3.69- 4.68
3.68- 4.69

AO

ELECTRICIANS, MA IN TE NA NC E ----------------------MA NU FA CT UR IN G -----------------------------------------------

$
-

-

_

-

-

1

“

2

2

_

_
“

1

_

8

8

*

-

16
16

2

-

-

-

8
8

5
5

*

_

4

“

3

6

12

7

7
7

2
2

2

14
14

3
3

1
23
20

1

-

29
29

*

4
4

3
2

9
4

32
4

-

-

“

”

A7
A5
63
29

3*C3

*0 3

NONM AN UF AC TU RI NG
MECHANICS, AU TOMOTIVE
(MAINTENANCE! ----------------------------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------------------------------

214
47

4.55
4.27

4.37
3.99

4.20- 5.16
3.95- 4.48

-

-

2

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

-

-

-

-

4

-

-

1

-

22
22

•

20

-

45

1

14
8

11

4

6
-

19
233
233
63

4.34
4.34

4.36
4.36

4.05- 4.63
4.05- 4.63

-

-

_

"

'

'

19
19

24
24

16
16

28
28

6
6

22
22

41
41

11
11

1

26

59
59

1
1

~

38
38

24
24

10
10

"

2
2

9
9

20
20

_

6

17
17

5
5

11
11

^*22

^*31

4*10

4.41
4.41

4.45
4.45

4.13- 4.75
4.13- 4.75

-

_

1

32




_

6

i* i2

208
208

See footnotes at end of tables,

-

'

MECHANICS, MA IN TE NA NC E ------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------ ----------------------------

29

41
41
29

4*53

16
16

12
T a b le

A -5

C u s to d ia l

and

m a te ria l

m o v e m e n t o c c u p a tio n s

(A verage straight-tim e hourly earnings fo r selected occupations studied on an area basis by industry division, New Haven, Conn., January 1972)
N u m b er o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s tr a ig h t-tim e h o u rly e a rn in g s o f —

Hourly earnings3

S e x , occu pation , and in d u stry d iv is io n

$
M ean2

Median^

Middle range ^

$

t

*

i

i

i

1 .7 0

Number
of
workers

t
1 .8 0

1 .9 0

2 .0 0

2 .1 0

2 .2 0

2 .3 0

2

1 .9 0

2 .0 0

2 .1 0

2 .2 0

2 .3 0

2

T

i

i

i

. A0

2 .5 0

2

.6 0

2 .8 0

3 .0 0

3

2 .5 0

2 .6 0

2

.8 0

3 .0 0

3.20

3 ,A0

i

20

1
t
3 . A0 3 .6 0

3 .8 0

t

s
i
t
i
i
A . 00 A . 20 A . AO A . 60 A . 80 5 .0 0

5 .2 0

3 .6 0

A.0 0

A . 20 A .A 0

5 . A0

i

$

and
under
1 .8 0

. A0

3 .8 0

A . 60 A . 80 5 .0 0

5 .2 0

MEN
$

$ _

$

626

!
110

2 .0 3

1 1

25

112

i1in
1 0

2 .5 8 - 3.A 1
1 . 9 A— 2 .1 A

5

Z

t5

78

--

2 .9 9

3 .0 A

2 .6 3 -

3 .A 3

2 .3 2

2 .0 9

2 .0 3 -

2 .5 8

63

112

A59

2 .2 2

2 .0 8

2 .0 2 -

2 .3 3

63

HZ

45

3 .1 2

AND CLEANERS

1 ,2 0 8
1 ,0 5 5

PORTERS,

2 .9 0

2 .6 3 -

3.A 8

10

8

6A

86

4

84
20

3

2

.A 1

2 .2 9

3

, .1 ?
2* ! 1

2 .7 0

3 .5 3

2 .9 9

2 .9 3

4 .5 9

i

f*,J2
3 .0 3

2 .9 9
2 .9 9

2 .8 6 2 .8 6

3 .0 8
3 .0 9

i

1

1

KLvL 1V XNo LLtllKo

W
66

i

1

3 .1 7
3 .1 5

3 .0 7
3 .0 8

2 .9 5 2 .9 3 -

3 .5 2
3.5 1

A7

•0

2 .9 7 -

3 ''
3 .3 9
3 .6 3

2 .9 0 2 .5 8 3 .2 5 -

3 .6 3
3.A 5
A . 16

72

NONMANUFACTURING --------------

*

53
27
26

3 37
3 .0 9
3 .6 7

1 .0 5 3
3 79
a
TRUCKDRIVERS, LIGHT

I

*

8

3

9

*

2

49

11

56
29
27

107
107

21
21

66

66

5A

65

30

A0

57

If
36

16

22
22

34
34

75
A1

1

3 .3 9

SH IPPIN G CLERKS

10

3

A1

31

1

2

.

1

GUARDS

JANITORS,

2

13

16

24
25
8

8

65

17

37
30

-

~

‘

26

1

fr

i

2

7

1

i
i

^L

63
63

A5

19
16

1
1

2

.

lr9
19

20

u

'

A2
A0

*

5 .1 8

5 .1 3 -

-

-

-

5

7

*0

A0
1
1

12

17

2

-

2

2

4

7

-

35

62

13

35
32

82

13

f2

26
25

32

44

80

13
13

5 .3 A

2

'^

-

20

1A

A8

-

-

13

A0

-

-

2
1

A0

*

C l /

-

-

18
18

23
1A

20

-

7

26
26

1
i

-

11

11

3

21

2

-

"

3

18

58

10
8

10

58

.

2

-

308

299

308

279
179

212

2

(UNOER
109

2 .9 3

2 .9 0

2 .6 0

3 .0 3

27

TRUCKDRIVERS, MEDIUM (1 - 1 / 2

3 .2 3

3 .2 A

3 .0 6 -

3.A 3

40

16

32

2

2

i0

3

1

TO

8

11
10

TRUCKDRIVERS, HEAVY (OVER A TONS,

2

4 .4 2

38

12

38

10

18

50

308

12

5 03
TRUCKDRIVERS, HEAVY

(OVER A TONS,
16
1A

10

3?
52
30
23A

See fo o tn o tes at end o f tab les,




3*9C
A . 19
A . 10
3 .2 5

10

A . 08

3 9**
3 .5 9 -

^ -J2
A . 19

3 .2 3

3 .0 1 -

3 .3 7

' *06

2

10

37

23
23

13

1

18

13

8

fr

8

16

13
T a b le A -5 .

C u s t o d ia l a n d m a t e r i a l m o v e m e n t o c c u p a t i o n s ----- C o n t i n u e d

(A verage straight-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis by industry division, New Haven, Conn., January 1972)
Number of w orkers re ceivin g straight-tim e hourly earnings of—

Hourly earnings3

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Niftnber
of
workers

1

i
t
t
1
t
*
1
%
*
*
i
1.70 1.80 1.90 2.00 2.10 2.20 2.30 2.40 2.50 2.60 2.80 3.00 3.20

Mean 2

M edian2

Middle range 2

t
i
t
t
»
i
$
*
S
t
3.40 3.60 3.80 4.00 4.20 4.40 4.60 4.80 5.00 5.20

and
under
1.S0 1.90 2.00 2.10 2.20 2.30 3 .40 2.50 2.60 2.80 3.00 3.20 3.40

3.60 J.80 4.00 4.20

4.60 4. 8 0 5 , M

5,29 5.40

MEM ~ CONT IN UE D
T R U C K E R S ROWER lOfHF* THAN
F O R K L I F T ) ------------ -------

----

123
120

$
3.67
3.66

$
3.30
3.29

$
$
3.23- 4.09
3.23- 4.09

332
322

2.02
1.99

2.01
2.01

1.92- 2.06
1.91- 2.06

26
26

24

NO HE N
JANITORS, PORTERS, AND CLEA NE RS ---•

1

68
68

79
79
10

See footnotes at end of tables.




157

4

3

-

6
l

2
26

1

3
1

-

-

8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

B.

E s ta b lis h m e n t practices and su p p le m e n ta ry w a g e provisions

T a b le

B -1 .

M in im u m

e n tra n c e

s a la rie s

fo r w o m e n

o ffic e w o rk e rs

(D istrib u tio n o f establish m en ts studied in a ll in du stries and in industry d ivis ion s by m inim um en trance s a la ry fo r s ele cted c a teg o rie s
o f in exp erien ced wom en o ffic e w o r k e r s , N e w H aven , Conn. , January 1972)
In e x p e r ie n c e d ty p is ts
M a n u fa c tu rin g
M in im u m w e e k ly s t r a ig h t - t im e s a l a r y 4

O th e r in e x p e r ie n c e d c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s 5

N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g

M a n u fa c tu rin g

B a s e d on sta n d a rd w e e k ly h o u r s 6 o f—

A ll
in d u s tr ie s

A ll
in d u s tr ie s

A ll
s c h e d u le s

40

A ll
s c h e d u le s

37 Va

40

N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g

B a s e d on sta n d a rd w e e k ly h o u rs 6 o f A ll “
s c h e d u le s

40

A ll
s c h e d u le s

37 Vz

40

E s t a b lis h m e n ts s tu d ie d --------------------------------------------------

107

38

XX X

69

XX X

XXX

107

38

XXX

69

XXX

XXX

E s ta b lis h m e n ts h a v in g a s p e c ifie d m in im u m __________________

40

18

15

22

10

5

50

20

17

30

12

8

1
2
2
4
2
9
2
6
1
3
1

.

.

1
1
3
4

1

1
1
3
-

5
1
1
1
1

1
4
2
4
2
5
1
2
_
2
1
3
1

2

5
1
1
1
1

l
l
l
l
l
3
1
1

1
_
1
2

-

1
1
1
1
2
5
2
1
-

E s ta b lis h m e n ts h a v in g no s p e c if ie d m in im u m ________________

24

8

XX X

16

E s t a b lis h m e n ts w h ic h d id not e m p lo y w o r k e r s
in th is c a t e g o r y -------------------------------------------------------------------

43

12

XXX

31

U n d e r $70. 00______________________________________________________
$70. 00 and u n d e r $72. 50-------------------------------------------------$72. 50 and u n d er $7 5. 00-------------------------------------------------$75. 00 and u n d e r $77. 50-------------------------------------------------$ 7 7 .5 0 and u n d e r $ 8 0 .0 0 -------------------------------------------------$80. 00 and u n d er $82. 50-------------------------------------------------$ 8 2 .5 0 and u n d er $ 8 5 .0 0 -------------------------------------------------$ 8 5 .0 0 and u n d e r $87. 50-------------------------------------------------$87. 50 and u n d er $90. 00-------------------------------------------------$90. 00 and u n d er $92. 50-------------------------------------------------$ 9 2 .5 0 and u n d e r $ 9 5 .0 0 -------------------------------------------------$95. 00 and u n d er $97. 50-------------------------------------------------$97. 50 and u n d er $100. 0 0 -----------------------------------------------$100. 00 and o v e r --------------------------------------------------------------

See footn otes at end o f ta b les.




4
1

2
1
3
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
-

1
6

3
7

3
7
1
7
1
4
2

4
2

-

2

XXX

XXX

25

XXX

XXX

32

2
1
3
1
2
-

2
1
1
1
1
-

5
1
2
1
1

5

1
-

1
2
1
1
1

-

2
_
1
_

3
1
1

_

2
2
-

1
1
_
1
_
1

-

2

8

XXX

17

XXX

XXX

10

XXX

22

XXX

XXX




T a b le

B -2 .

S h ift d iffe re n tia ls

(L a t e - s h ift pay p r o v is io n s fo r m anu facturing p la n tw o rk e rs b y type and am ount o f pay d iffe r e n t ia l,
N e w H aven , Conn. , January 1972)
(A l l p la n tw o rk e rs in m an u facturing - 100 p ercen t)

_________________
P e r c e n t o f m anufacturing p la n tw o rk e rs—

In esta blish m en ts having p ro v is io n s 7
fo r la te shifts

L a te - s h ift pay p ro v is io n

A c tu a lly w orkin g on la te shifts

Second sh ift

T h ird o r o th er
sh ift

Second shift

82. 1

76. 8

16. 2

6. 8

N o pay d iffe r e n tia l fo r w ork on la te s h ift _______

_

_

_

_

P a y d iffe r e n tia l fo r w o rk on la te s h ift __________

82. 1

76. 8

16. 2

6. 8

- ______

48. 5

46. 1

8 .6

4. 6

5 c e n t s ---------------------------------------------6 c e n t s ---------------------------------------------7 c e n t s ____________________________________
9 c e n t s ____________________________________
10 cen ts--------------------------------------------11 cen ts___________________________________
12 cen ts--------------------------------------------14 cen ts___________________________________
143 4 c e n t s ----------------------------------------/
15 cen ts--------------------------------------------20 cen ts___________________________________
23 cen ts--------------------------------------------25 cen ts--------------------------------------------30 cen ts___________________________________
37V2 c e n t s ________________________________

1. 8
5. 6

_
9. 1
3. 8
2 .4
2 .4
14. 5

.5
1. 3
.4
.4
2. 5
.5
-

_
1. 6
.4
.4
.6
.9
.6
-

T o t a l____________________________________________

T h ir d o r oth er
sh ift

T y p e and amount o f d iffe r e n tia l:
U n iform cents (p e r hour)________

2.4
2.2

15. 2
2. 5
2. 4
2. 5
10. 0
1. 5

-

( 8)
. 1
2. 1
.3
.2

U n iform p e r c e n t a g e -------------------------------

33. 6

15. 8

7. 6

.7

5 p e r c e n t ----------------------------.--------------

7 .4
26. 3
-

2. 0
2. 5
5.4
2. 3
3. 6

1. 1
6. 5
-

.2
.5

7 V2 p e r c e n t_______________________________

10 p e r c e n t________________________________
12V2 p e r c e n t _____________________________
15 p e r c e n t-----------------------------------------

-

2.4

-

-

7.5
4.0

14. 9

O ther fo r m a l pay d iffe r e n t ia l______________
'

See footnotes at end o f t a b le s .

2.5

-

-

1. 5

T a b le

B -3 .

S c h e d u le d

w e e k ly

h ou rs and days

(P e r c e n t d istribu tion o f p la n tw o rk ers and o ffic e w o rk e rs in a ll in du stries and in in du stry d ivis ion s by scheduled w eek ly hours and days
o f fir s t - s h ift w o r k e r s , N e w H aven , Conn. , January 1972)
O ffic e w o rk e rs

P la n t w o r k e r s
W e e k ly h o u rs and d a ys
A l l in d u s tr ie s

M a n u fa c tu rin g

P u b lic u t ilit ie s

A l l in d u s tr ie s

Manufacturing

P u b lic u tilities

A l l w o r k e r s -------------------------------------------------

100

100

100

100

100

100

35 h o u rs ----5 d a y s -----------------------------------------------36V4 h o u rs — 5 d a y s -------------------------------------------37V2 h o u rs — 5 d a y s -------------------------------------------38 h o u rs — 5 d a y s ----------------------------------------------383 4 h o u rs — 5 d a y s __________________________________
/
39 h o u rs — 5 d a y s ----------------------------------------------40 h o u rs — 5 d a y s ----------------------------------------------42 h o u rs — 5 d a y s ----------------------------------------------4 2 V2 h o u rs — 5 d a y s __________________________________
44 h o u r s _______________________________________________
5 d a y s ______________________________________________
5 V2 d a y s --------------------------------------------------------45 h o u r s ------------------------------------------------------------5 d a y s ------------------------ ----------------------------------5 V2 d a y s --------------------------------------------------------48 h o u rs — 6 d a y s ---------------------------------------------50 h o u rs — 5 d a y s ----------------------------------------------52 h o u rs — 6 V2 d a y s -------------------------------------------58 h o u rs — 5 V2 d a y s --------------------------------------------

4
1

See footnotes at end o f ta b les.




3
74
1

79
2

2
1

1

3
1

3
5
3
2
2
1
1

n

n

5

2
-

5

-

3

-

35

83
7

5
4
4
-

7

2

2

"

3
3

9

3

-

7

11

1

80
-

40
-

-

5

(9)
-

~

“
-

1
74
~
25
-

-

17

T a b le

B -4 .

P a id

h o lid a y s

(P e r c e n t d istribu tion o f p la n tw orkers and o ffic e w o rk e rs in a ll in d u stries and in industry d ivis io n s by num ber o f paid h olidays
provid ed annually, N ew H aven, Conn. , January 1972)
P la n tw o rk e rs

O ffic e w o rk e r 8

Item
A ll in du stries

A ll w o r k e r s ___________________________________
W ork ers in establishm ents p rovid in g
paid h o lid a y s _____________________________________
W o rk ers in establish m ents p rovid in g
no paid h o lid a y s _________________________________

Manuf ac tur ing

P u b lic u tilitie s

A l l in du stries

M anufacturing

Pu b lic u tilitie s

100

100

100

100

100

100

97

100

100

100

100

100

3

-

-

-

-

-

N u m ber o f days
2 h o lid a y s __________________________________________
6 h o lid a y s __________________________________________
7 h o lid a y s __________________________________________
7 holidays plus 2 h a lf d a y s _______________________
8 h o lid a y s -----------------------------------------------------8 holidays plus 1 h alf day—
___ ____ ___ . ____
8 holidays plus 2 h alf d a y s _______________________
9 h o lid a y s __________________________________________
9 holidays plus 1 h alf day____________ . _______
10 h olidays----------------------------------------------------10 h olidays plus 1 h alf d a y _______________________
11 h olidays----------------------------------------------------11 holidays plus 1 h alf d a y _______________________
11 holidays plus 2 h alf days___________ _________
12 h olid a ys________ _______________________________

1
5

_

_

_

13
3
9
3
3
17
2
32
4
3

17
3
43
6
4

-

-

-

(9)
2

(’ )

4
11

2
4
3
5
1
1
12
1
39
5
21
1
1
4

2
2
6
9
42
44
64
67
79
92
96
97

(’ )
(9)
4
10
54
56
79
83
90
99
100
100

16
16
16
16
68
68
72
72
87
100
100
100

5
6
27
32
71
72
85
86
94
98
100
100

1
9
4
2
5
5

-

13
15
4
52
-

_

_

-

-

5
7
1
1
3
12
3
45

(’ )
1
2
2
90
2

15
7

-

-

-

-

2
3

-

T o ta l h olidav tim e 1
0
12 days__ _________________________________________
11V2 days o r m o r e ________________________________
11 days o r m o r e --------------------------------------------I 0 V2 days o r m o r e ________________________________
10 days o r m o r e ___________________________________
9 V2 days o r m o r e __________________________________
9 days o r m o r e ____________________________________
8V2 days o r m o r e __________________________________
8 days o r m o r e ____________________________________
7 days o r m o r e ____________________________________
6 days o r m o r e ____________________________________
2 days o r m o r e ____________________________________

See footnotes at end o f ta b le s .




_
7
22
68
70
86
86
95
100
100
100

5
5
5
6
96
97
99
99
99
100
100
100

18

T a b le

B -5 .

P a id

v a c a tio n s

(P e r c e n t distrib u tio n o f plan tw orkers and o ffic e w o rk e rs in a ll in du stries and in industry d ivis ion s by va ca tion pay
p r o v is io n s . N e w H aven, Conn. , January 1972)
P la n tw o rk e rs

O ffic e w o rk e rs

V acation p o licy
A ll industries

A ll w o r k e r s ---------------------------------------------

Manufacturing

P u b lic u tilitie s

A ll in du stries

M anufacturing

P u b lic u tilitie s

100

100

100

100

100

100

100
77
23

100
60
40

100
100
-

100
100
-

100
100
-

100
100
-

-

-

-

-

-

20
31
3
-

31
27
4
-

49
-

( 9)
63
7
2

1
57
2
1

80
-

50
7
43
1

46
a
41
2

47
53
-

9
91
1

4
94
2

17
83
-

19
8
71
2

25
14
59
2

100
-

1
97
1
1

3
95
2

100
-

6
3
85
4
2

6
5
79
7
2

100
-

(9)
97
1
1

1
97
2

100
-

5
3
85
4
2

6
5
79
7
2

_
100
-

(9)
96
2
1

1
97
2

_
100
-

1
80
7
12

79
10
10

100
-

(9)
77
4
19

58
42

100
-

1
14
3
76
5
1

10
5
77
8

2
98

(9)
5
2
92

4
3
93

-

-

-

-

~

1

“

*

Method o f paym ent
W ork ers in establishm ents p rovid in g
paid va ca tio n s---------------------------------------------L e n g th -o f-tim e p a ym en t______________________
P e r c e n ta g e paym ent___________________________
W o rk ers in establishm ents p rovid in g
no paid va ca tion s________________________________
Amount o f vacation pav 1
1
A fte r 6 months o f s e r v ic e
U nder 1 w eek______________________________________
1 w eek____ ________________________________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s -----------------------------2 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------A fte r 1 y e a r o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek ----------------------------------------------------------O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s ________________________
2 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------3 w e e k s _____________________________________________
A ft e r 2 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek --------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 and under 2 w e e k s -----------------------------2 w e e k s _____________________________________________
O v e r 2 and under 3 w e e k s ________________________
3 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------A fte r 3 y e a rs o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek-----------------------------------------------------------O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s ------------------------------2 w e e k s _____________________________________________
O v e r 2 and under 3 w e e k s ------------------------------3 w e e k s _____________________________________ ____ ___
A fte r 4 y e a rs o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek-----------------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 and under 2 w e e k s ------------------------------2 w e e k s _____________________________________________
O v e r 2 and under 3 w e e k s -----------------------------3 w e e k s _____________________________________________
A ft e r 5 y e a rs o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek----------------------------------------------------------2 w e e k s _____________________________________________
O v e r 2 and under 3 w e e k s ------------------------------3 w e e k s _____ ______________________________________

-

-

A ft e r 10 y e a rs o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek ----------------------------------------------------------2 w eeks — — —— — — _____ __ ____ _________ ______
O v e r 2 and under 3 w e e k s -----------------------------3 w eeks
___ ___
____________________________
O v e r 3 and under 4 w e e k s -----------------------------4 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------------------

See footnotes at end o f tables




-

(9)
99

19

T a b le

B -5 .

P a id

v a c a t i o n s ------C o n t i n u e d

(P e r c e n t d istribu tion o f plan tw orkers and o ffic e w o rk e rs in a ll in du stries and in industry d ivision s by va ca tion pay
p r o v is io n s , N ew Haven, Conn. , January 1972)
O ffic e w o rk e rs

Plan tw o rke rs
V acation p o licy
A l l in du stries

M anufacturing

1
13
3
76
6
1

10
3
76
10
( 9)

1
11
55
7
26
(’ )

1
11
15
5
62
3
4

-

-

P u b lic u tilitie s

A l l in du stries

Pu b lic u tilitie s

M anufacturing

Am ount o f va ca tion pav 1— Continued
1
A ft e r 12 y e a rs o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek----- _ ----- — ---------------------------------2 w e e k s __ _______ ____ _______ ______________________
O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s ------------------------------3 w e e k s _____________________________________________
O v e r 3 and under 4 w e e k s ________________________
4 w e e k s _____________________________________________

_

_
2
98
-

(9)
3
3
92
1

_
8
56
10
.25
(9)

_
2
67
_
30
-

(9)
3
71
26
-

_

_

8
10
8
63
5
5

2
98
-

_
3
3
94
-

_

99
-

-

-

_
2
48
51
-

(9)
88
12
-

(9)

A fte r 15 y e a rs o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek----------------------------------------------------------2 w e e k s _____________________________________________
3 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------O ver 3 and under 4 w e e k s ________________________
4 w e e k s __________________________________ __ _______
5 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------------------

-

A fte r 20 y e a rs o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek----------------------------------------------------------2 w e e k s ______________ ___ __ _ ___________________
3 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------O ver 3 and under 4 w e e k s -----------------------------4 w e e k s ____________________________________________
O ver 4 and under 5 w e e k s ________________________
5 w e e k s ____________________________________________

-

( 9)
3
24
2
68
4

_

_

2
10
3
75
10

(9)
2
98
-

A ft e r 25 y e a rs o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek-.- ...
__________ _________ .
2 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------3 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------O ver 3 and under 4 w e e k s -----------------------------4 w eeks ... . . . . .
..
_ __ _
___ ___ _
O v e r 4 and under 5 w e e k s -----------------------------5 w e e k s _____________________________________________
6 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------------------

i
10
12
3
56
3
15
(9)

_

2
67
30
-

(9)
2
11
55
32
-

_

8
8
5
60
5
13
(9)

2
6
58
34
-

(9)
2
28
69

1
10
12
3
55
3
13
3

8
8
5
60
5
9
5

2
60
38
-

(9)
2
11
53
31
3

2
6
58
24
10

1
10
12
3
54
3
14
3

-

-

-

2
-

(9)
2
11

-

8
8
5
60
5
9
5

2
6

(’ )
2

.

A ft e r 30 y e a rs o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek______________________________________________
2 w e e k s _____________________________________________
3 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------O v e r 3 and under 4 w e e k s -----------------------------4 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------O v e r 4 and under 5 w e e k s ------------------------------5 w e e k s ___ _____________________ ___ ____ ___ _______
6 w e e k s _____________________________________________

(9)
•2
21
77
-

M axim u m va ca tion a va ila b le
1 w eek
2 w e e k s _____________________________________________
3 w e e k s _____________________________________________
O v e r 3 and under 4 w e e k s -----------------------------4 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------O ver 4 and under 5 w e e k s -----------------------------5 w e e k s _____________________________________________
6 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------------------

See footnotes at end o f ta b les.




-

49
-

48

-

48
3
33
3

-

-

48
9
24
10

20
-

77

20

T a b le

B -6 .

H e a lth ,

in s u ra n c e , and

p e n s io n

p la n s

(P e r c e n t of p la n tw orkers and o ffic e w o rk e rs in a ll in d u stries and in in du stry d ivis io n s em p loyed in establish m en ts provid in g
health, in su rance, or pension b en efits, New Haven, Conn., January 1972)
P la n tw o rk e rs
Type o f ben efit and
financing 1
2

A ll in d u stries

M anufacturing

O ff ic e w ork e r s
P u b lic u tilitie s

A l l in du stries

M anufacturing

P u b lic u tilitie s

A ll w o r k e r s ---------------------------------------------

100

100

100

100

100

100

W ork ers in establish m ents provid in g at
lea st 1 of the ben efits shown b e lo w ---------------

98

100

100

99

99

100

96
80

99
80

100
82

98
80

99
71

100
92

77
65

85
69

70
70

78
64

96
71

88
88

90

95

83

86

98

96

Sickness and a ccid en t in su ran ce------------N o n con tribu tory p la n s ----------------------Sick le a v e (fu ll pay and no
w aiting p e r io d )-----------------------------------Sick lea ve (p a r tia l pay or
w aitin g p e r io d )------------------------------------

76
67

92
80

33
33

41
33

83
72

4
4

32

23

49

76

89

95

6

2

4

4

“

L o n g -te r m d is a b ility in su rance-----------------N o n con trib u to ry p la n s --------------------------H o sp ita liza tio n in su ran ce--------------------------N on con tribu tory p la n s--------------------------S u rgica l in su rance-------------------------------------N on con tribu tory p la n s --------------------------M e d ic a l in s u ra n c e ------------------------------------N o n con trib u to ry p la n s--------------------------M a jo r m e d ic a l in su ra n c e --------------------------N o n con trib u to ry p la n s--------------------------Dental in s u ra n c e ---------------------------------------N on con tribu tory p la n s --------------------------R etire m e n t pension------------------------------------N o n con trib u to ry p la n s ---------------------------

6
3
94
79
93
78
90
78
72
57
5
4
84
70

4
2
99
87
98
89
96
87
79
68
2
2
93
75

25
19
99
82
99
82
94
79
92
69
5
2
87
79

12
10
99
87
99
88
98
87
86
58
“

7
7
99
99
99
99
98
98
98
97
9
9
85
84

L ife in su ra n c e------------------------------------------N on con tribu tory p la n s--------------------------A ccid en ta l death and d ism em b erm en t
in su rance------------------------- ----------------------N on con tribu tory p la n s--------------------------Sickness and a ccid en t in su rance or
sick le a v e or both 13__________________________

See footnotes a t end o f ta b le s .




8
8
98
98
98
87
98
98
87
87
26
26
85
85

89
71

21
F o o tn o te s
A l l of these standard footnotes may not apply to this bulletin.

1 Standard hours r e fle c t the w orkw eek fo r which em ployees r e c e iv e their regular straigh t-tim e sa la ries (e xclu siv e of pay fo r ove rtim e
at regular and/or prem iu m rates), and the earnings correspond to these w eek ly hours.
2 The mean is computed
fo r each job by totaling the earnings of all w o r k e r s and dividing by the number of w o rk e rs .
The median
designates position— half of the
em ployees surveyed r e c e iv e m o r e than the rate shown; half r e c e iv e less than the rate shown. The middle
range is defined by 2 rates of pay; a fourth of the w o rk e rs earn le s s than the lo w e r of these rates and a fourth earn m o r e than the higher rate.
3 Excludes prem ium pay for o v e r tim e and fo r w ork on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
4 These s alaries r ela te to f o r m a lly established minimum starting (hiring) regu la r straigh t-tim e salaries that are paid f o r standard
workweeks.
5 Excludes w o r k e r s in su bclerical jobs such as m e ssen ger.
6 Data are presented fo r all standard workweeks combined, and for the m ost common standard workweeks reported.
7 Includes a ll plantw orkers in establishments cu rren tly operating late shifts, and establishments whose fo r m a l provision s c o ver late
shifts, even though the establishments w e r e not currently operating late shifts.
8 L ess than 0.05 percent.
9 L e s s than 0.5 percent.
1 A l l combiflations of full and half days that add to the same amount are combined; for example, the proportio n of w o rk e rs r e ceivin g a
0
total of 9 days includes those with 9 full days and no half days, 8 full days and 2 half days, 7 full days and 4 half days, and so on.
P ro p ortion s
then w e r e cumulated.
1 Includes payments other than "length of t i m e , " such as percentage o f annual earnings or fla t-su m payments, converted to an equivalent
1
tim e basis; fo r example, a payment of 2 percent of
annual earnings was considered as 1 w e e k 's pay. P e r i o d s of s e r v ic e w e r e chosen a r b it r a r ily
and do not n e c e s s a r ily r e fle c t the individual provisions for p rogression . F o r example, the changes in proportions indicated at 10 y e a rs ' s e rv ic e
include changes in provision s occu rring between 5 and 10 years. E stim ates are cumulative. Thus, the proportio n eligib le fo r 3 w eeks' pay or
m o r e after 10 yea rs includes those e lig ib le fo r 3 w eeks' pay or m o r e after fe w e r years of s e rv ic e .
1 Estim ates listed after type of benefit are for all plans for which at least a part of the cost is borne by the em ployer. "Noncontributory
2
plans" include only those plans financed en tire ly by the em ployer. Excluded are le g a lly required plans, such as w orkm en 's compensation, social
security, and ra ilro a d retirem ent.
1 Unduplicated total of w o r k e r s r e ceivin g sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately below. Sick leave plans are
3
lim ited to those which definitely establish at least the minimum number of days' pay that can be expected by each employee.
Info rm al sick
le a v e allowances determ in ed on an individual basis are excluded.







A p p e n d ix .

O c c u p a tio n a l D e s c rip tio n s

The p r im a ry pu rpose o f p rep a rin g jo b d es crip tio n s fo r the Bu reau's w age su rveys is to a s s is t its fie ld sta ff in c la s s ify in g into a ppropriate
occupations w o rk ers who a re em ployed under a v a r ie ty o f p a y ro ll title s and d iffe re n t w ork a rran gem en ts fr o m establish m ent to establish m ent and
fr o m a re a to a rea . T h is p erm its the grouping o f occupational w age ra tes re p res en tin g com parab le job content.
Because o f this em phasis on
in teresta blish m en t and in te ra re a c o m p a ra b ility o f occupational content, the B u reau 's jo b d es crip tio n s m a y d iffe r s ig n ific a n tly fr o m those in use in
individual establish m ents o r those p rep a red fo r oth er pu rp oses. In applying these jo b d es crip tio n s , the B u reau 's fie ld econ om ists a re in stru cted
to exclu de w orkin g su p e rv is o rs ; a ppren tices; le a rn e r s ; beginn ers; tra in e e s ; and handicapped, p a rt-tim e , te m p o ra ry , and prob a tio n a ry w o rk ers.

O F F IC E
C L E R K , A C C O U N T IN G — Continued

B IL L E R , M A C H IN E
P r e p a re s statem en ts, b ills , and in vo ic es on a m achine oth er than an o rd in a ry o r e le c tr o m a tic ty p e w r ite r. M ay also keep re c o rd s as to b illin gs o r shipping ch arges o r p e r fo rm other
c le r ic a l w ork in ciden tal to b illin g opera tio n s. F o r w age study pu rposes, b ille r s , m achine, a re
c la s s ifie d by type o f m achine, as fo llo w s:
B ille r , m achine (b illin g m a ch in e). U ses a sp ecia l b illin g machine (com bin ation typing
and adding m ach in e) to p re p a re b ills and in vo ic es fr o m c u s to m e r s 1 purchase o rd e r s , in te r ­
n ally p rep a red o r d e r s , shipping m em orandum s, etc. U su ally in volv es a pplication o f p r e ­
d eterm in ed discounts and shipping ch arges and en try o f n ece s s a ry exten sion s, which m ay o r
m a y not be computed on the b illin g m achine, and tota ls which a re a u tom a tica lly accum ulated
by m ach in e. Th e operation usually in vo lv es a la rg e num ber o f carbon co p ies o f the b ill being
p rep a red and is often done on a fan fold m ach in e.
B ille r , m achine (bookkeeping m a ch in e). U ses a bookkeeping m achine (with o r without
a ty p e w r ite r keyboard) to p rep a re cu sto m ers' b ills as part o f the accounts re c e iv a b le o p e ra ­
tion. G en era lly in vo lv es the sim ultaneous en try o f fig u re s on cu sto m ers' le d g e r re c o r d . The
m achine au to m a tica lly accum ulates fig u re s on a num ber o f v e r t ic a l colum ns and com putes
and u su ally prin ts a u tom atically the debit o r c r e d it balances.
Does not in v o lv e a know l­
edge o f bookkeeping.
W orks fr o m u niform and standard types o f sales and c re d it s lip s .
B O O K K E E P IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R
O perates a bookkeeping machine (with o r without a ty p e w r ite r keyboard) to keep a re c o rd
o f business tra n sa ction s.
C la ss A . K eeps a set o f re co rd s re q u irin g a knowledge o f and ex p erien c e in basic
bookkeeping p r in c ip le s , and fa m ilia r it y with the stru ctu re o f the p a rticu la r accounting system
used. D eterm in es p ro p e r re c o rd s and d istribu tion o f debit and c re d it item s to be used in each
phase o f the w ork. M ay p rep a re consolidated re p o rts , balance sheets, and oth er re c o rd s
by hand.
C la ss B. Keeps a re c o r d o f one o r m o re phases o r section s o f a set o f re co rd s usually
re q u irin g lit t le know ledge o f b asic bookkeeping. Phases o r section s include accounts payable,
p a y ro ll, cu sto m ers' accounts (not including a sim ple type o f b illin g d e s crib e d under b ille r ,
m a ch in e), co st distribu tion , expense distribu tion , in ven to ry co n tro l, etc. M ay check or a ssist
in p rep a ra tion o f t r ia l balances and p rep a re con trol sheets fo r the accounting departm ent.
C L E R K , A C C O U N T IN G
P e r fo r m s one o r m o re accounting c le r ic a l tasks such as posting to r e g is te r s and le d g e rs ;
recon cilin g bank accounts; v e r ify in g the in tern al con sisten cy, com pleten ess, and m ath em atical
a ccu racy o f accounting documents; a ssignin g p r e s c r ib e d accounting distribu tion codes; exam ining
and v e r ify in g fo r c le r ic a l a ccu ra cy variou s types o f re p o r ts , lis t s , calcu lation s, posting, etc.;
o r p rep a rin g sim ple o r a ssistin g in p rep a rin g m o re com plicated journal vou ch ers. M ay w ork
in eith er a manual o r automated accounting system .
The w ork re q u ire s a know ledge o f c le r ic a l m ethods and o ffic e p ra c tic e s and procedu res
which re la tes to the c le r ic a l p ro ce ssin g and re co rd in g o f tran saction s and accounting in form ation .
With ex p erien c e, the w o rk er ty p ic a lly b ecom es fa m ilia r with the bookkeeping and accounting te rm s
and procedu res used in the a ssign ed w ork, but is not re qu ired to have a know ledge o f the fo rm a l
p rin cip les o f bookkeeping and accounting.




NOTE:

P o sitio n s a re c la s s ifie d into le v e ls on the basis o f the fo llo w in g definitions.
C la ss A . Under ge n era l su p ervision , p e rfo rm s accounting c le r ic a l operations which
re q u ire the application o f ex p erien c e and judgm ent, fo r exa m ple, c le r ic a lly p ro ce ssin g co m ­
p lica ted o r n on rep etitive accounting tra n sa ction s, sele ctin g among a substantial v a r ie ty o f
p r e s c r ib e d accounting codes and c la s s ific a tio n s , o r tra c in g tran saction s through p reviou s
accounting action s to determ in e sou rce o f d isc rep a n cies. M a y be a ssisted by one o r m o re
cla ss B accounting c le r k s .
C lass B . U nder clo s e su p ervisio n , fo llo w in g d eta iled in stru ction s and standardized p r o ­
ced u res, p e r fo rm s one o r m o re routine accounting c le r ic a l o p era tio n s, such as posting to
le d g e r s , ca rd s, o r w orksh eets w h ere id en tifica tion o f item s and location s o f postings a re
c le a r ly indicated; checking a ccu ra cy and co m pleten ess o f stand ardized and re p e titiv e re c o rd s
o r accounting docum ents; and coding documents using a fe w p r e s c r ib e d accounting codes.
C L E R K , F IL E
F ile s , c la s s ifie s , and re tr ie v e s m a te r ia l in an establish ed filin g sy stem . M ay p e r fo rm
c le r ic a l and m anual tasks re q u ired to m aintain file s . P o sitio n s a re c la s s ifie d into le v e ls on the
b asis o f the fo llo w in g d efin ition s.
C la ss A . C la s s ifie s and in dexes file m a te r ia l such as corresp o n d en ce, re p o rts , tech ­
n ica l docum ents, e tc ., in an esta blish ed filin g system containing a num ber o f v a rie d subject
m a tte r file s . M ay also f ile this m a te r ia l. M ay keep re c o r d s o f va riou s types in conjunction
with the file s . M a y lea d a sm all group o f lo w e r le v e l f ile c le r k s .
C la ss B . S orts, codes, and file s
ings o r p a rtly c la s s ifie d m a te r ia l by
c r o s s - r e fe r e n c e a ids. A s requ ested,
w ards m a te r ia l. M a y p e r fo rm re la te d

C la ss C . P e r fo r m s routine filin g o f m a te r ia l that has a lrea d y been c la s s ifie d o r which
is e a s ily c la s s ifie d in a sim ple s e r ia l c la s s ific a tio n system (e .g ., alph abetical, ch ro n o lo gica l,
o r n u m eric a l). A s requ ested, lo ca te s re a d ily a va ila b le m a te r ia l in file s and fo rw a rd s m a ­
te r ia l; and m a y f i l l out w ithdraw al ch a rge. M ay p e r fo rm sim ple c le r ic a l and manual tasks
re q u ired to m aintain and s e r v ic e file s .
C L E R K , O RDER
R e c e iv e s cu sto m ers' o rd e rs fo r m a te r ia l o r m erch a n d ise by m a il, phone, or p erso n a lly.
Duties in vo lv e any com bination o f the fo llo w in g : Quoting p r ic e s to cu stom ers; m aking out an o rd e r
sheet lis tin g the item s to m ake up the o rd e r ; checking p r ic e s and quantities o f item s on o rd e r
sheet; and distribu tin g o rd e r sheets to re s p e c tiv e departm ents to be fille d . M ay check with cred it
departm ent to determ in e c r e d it rating o { cu sto m er, acknow ledge re c e ip t of o rd e rs fro m cu sto m ers,
fo llo w up o rd e r s to see that they have been fille d , keep file o f o rd e rs re c e iv e d , and check shipping
in vo ic es with o rig in a l o rd e r s .
CLE RK, P A Y R O LL
Computes w ages o f com pany em p loy ees and en ters the n ece s s a ry data on the p a y ro ll
sh eets. Duties in vo lv e: C alcu lating w o r k e r s ’ earn in gs based on tim e o r production re c o r d s ; and
posting ca lcu lated data on p a y ro ll sheet, showing in form a tion such as w o r k e r 's nam e, w orking
days, tim e , ra te, deductions fo r in su rance, and total w ages due. M ay m ake out paychecks and
a s s is t p a ym a ster in m aking up and distribu tin g pay en velopes. M ay use a calcu lating m achine.

Th e Bureau has discontinued c o llectin g data fo r o ile r s and p lu m b ers.

23

u n c las sified m a te r ia l by sim p le (su bject m a tter) head­
fin e r subheadings. P r e p a re s sim ple related index and
lo ca te s c le a r ly id en tified m a te r ia l in file s and f o r ­
c le r ic a l tasks re q u ired to m aintain and s e r v ic e file s .

24
CO M PTO M ETER OPER ATO R

S E C R E T A R Y — Continued

P r im a r y duty is to o p era te a C o m p to m eter to p e r fo rm m a th em a tica l com putations. This
job is not to be confused w ith that o f s ta tistica l o r oth er type o f c le r k , which m ay in volve f r e ­
quent use o f a C o m p to m eter but, in w hich, use o f this m achine is incidental to p e rfo rm a n ce o f
other duties.

N O T E : The te rm "c o rp o ra te o ffic e r , " used in the le v e l defin itio n s fo llow in g, r e fe r s to
those o ffic ia ls who have a sign ifican t c o rp o ra te -w id e policym a kin g ro le with re ga rd to m a jo r
com pany a c tiv itie s . The t it le " v ic e p r e s id e n t ," though n o rm a lly in d ica tive o f this ro le , does not
in a ll ca ses id en tify such po sition s. V ic e presiden ts whose p r im a ry re s p o n s ib ility is to act p e r ­
son a lly on in dividu al ca ses o r tran saction s (e .g ., approve o r deny individual loan o r c r e d it actions;
a d m in ister in dividu al tru st accounts; d ir e c tly su p ervise a c le r ic a l s ta ff) a re not co n sid ered to be
"c o rp o ra te o ffic e r s " fo r pu rposes o f applying the fo llo w in g le v e l d e fin itio n s .

KEYPUNCH O PERATO R
O pera tes a keypunch m achine
tabulating card s o r on tape.

to re c o r d

o r v e r ify

alphabetic

and/or num eric

data on
C la ss A

P o sition s a re c la s s ifie d into le v e ls on the basis o f the fo llow in g defin itio n s.
a ll,
C lass A .
W ork re q u ires the application o f e x p erien c e and judgm ent in s ele ctin g p r o c e ­
dures to be fo llo w ed and in sea rch in g fo r , in te rp retin g , sele ctin g , o r coding item s to be
keypunched fro m a v a r ie ty o f sou rce docum ents. On o cca sio n m a y also p e r fo rm som e routine
keypunch w ork.
M ay tra in in exp erien ced keypunch o p era to rs.
C lass B.
W ork is routine and re p e titiv e . Under clo s e su p ervisio n o r fo llo w in g s p e cific
proced u res o r in stru ction s, w orks fro m va rio u s standardized sou rce documents which have
been coded, and fo llow s s p e cified p roce d u res which have been p re s c r ib e d in d eta il and re q u ire
little o r no sele ctin g , coding, o r in te rp retin g o f data to be re cord ed . R e fe rs to su p erviso r
prob lem s a ris in g fro m erron eou s item s o r codes o r m is s in g in form a tion .

2. S e c re ta r y to a co rp o ra te o ffic e r (oth er than the ch airm an o f the board o r p resid en t)
o f a com pany that em p loy s, in a ll, o v e r 5,000 but fe w e r than 25,000 p e r s o n s ; or
3. S e c re ta r y to the head, im m e d ia te ly below the c o rp o ra te o ffic e r le v e l,
segm en t o r su b sid iary o f a com pany that em p loys, in a ll, o v e r 25,000 p e rs o n s .

P e r fo r m s va rio u s routine duties such as running erra n d s, operatin g m in o r o ffic e m a ­
chines such as s e a le rs o r m a ile r s , opening and distrib u tin g m a il, and other m in o r c le r ic a l w ork.
Exclude position s that re q u ire opera tion o f a m o to r ve h ic le as a significan t duty.

SECRETARY
A ssig n ed as perso n a l s e c r e ta r y , n o rm a lly to one in dividu al. M aintains a clo s e and highly
re sp o n sive relatio n sh ip to the d a y -to -d a y w ork o f the su p e rv is o r. W orks fa ir ly independently r e ­
ceiv in g a m inim um o f d eta iled su p ervisio n and guidance. P e r fo r m s v a rie d c le r ic a l and s e c re ta ria l
duties, usually including m o st o f the fo llo w in g :
a. R e c e iv e s telephone c a lls , p erson al c a lle r s , and in com ing m a il, answ ers routine in ­
q u irie s , and rou tes tech nical in q u iries to the p ro p e r persons;
b.

E sta b lish es, m ain tain s,

c.

M aintains the s u p e r v is o r's calen dar and m akes appointm ents as in stru cted;

d.

and re v is e s the s u p e r v is o r's file s ;

R ela y s m e s s a g e s fro m

by oth ers fo r the

M ay also p e r fo rm oth er c le r ic a l and s e c re ta ria l tasks o f com parab le nature and d ifficu lty .
The w ork ty p ic a lly re q u ire s know ledge o f o ffic e routine and understanding o f the orga n ization ,
p ro g ra m s, and p roce d u res re la ted to the w ork o f the s u p erviso r.
Exclu sions
Not a ll position s that a re title d " s e c r e t a r y " possess the above c h a ra c te ris tic s .
o f position s which a re excluded fr o m the defin ition a re as fo llo w s:
not m e et the

"p e r s o n a l"

4. S e c re ta r y to the head o f an individual plant, fa c to ry , e tc . (o r oth er equ ivalent le v e l
o f o ffic ia l) that em p loys, in a ll, o v e r 5,000 p e rs o n s ; o r
5. S e c re ta r y to the head o f a la rg e and im portan t orga n iza tio n a l segm en t (e .g ., a m id dle
m anagem ent s u p erviso r o f an o rga n izatio n a l segm en t often in volv in g as m any as s e v e r a l
hundred p erso n s) o r a com pany that em p lo y s, in a il, o v e r 25,000 p e r s o n s .
C la ss C

2. S e c re ta r y to the head o f an individual plant, fa c to ry , etc. (o r oth er equ ivalen t le v e l
o f o ffic ia l) that em ploys, in a ll, fe w e r than 5,000 p e r s o n s .
C la ss D

sten ograph ic and typing w ork.

do

3. S e c re ta r y to the head, im m e d ia te ly b elow the o ffic e r le v e l, o v e r eith er a m a jo r
c o rp o ra te -w id e functional a c tiv ity (e .g ., m a rk etin g , re s e a rc h , o p era tio n s, in du strial r e la ­
tion s, etc .) c>r a m a jo r geogra p h ic o r orga n iza tio n a l segm en t (e .g ., a re g io n a l h eadquarters;
a m a jo r d iv is io n ) o f a com pany that em p loy s, in a ll, o v e r 5,000 but fe w e r than 25,000
e m p lo y e e s ; o r

1. S e c re ta r y to an ex ecu tive o r m a n a geria l person whose re s p o n s ib ility is not equ ivalen t
to one o f the sp e c ific le v e l situations in the defin ition fo r cla ss B, but whose orga n iza tio n a l
unit n o rm a lly num bers at lea st s e v e ra l dozen em p loy ees and is u su ally divid ed into o rg a n iz a ­
tional segm en ts which a re often , in turn, fu rth er subdivided. In som e com pan ies, this le v e l
includes a w ide range o f o rga n izatio n a l echelons; in o th ers, on ly one o r tw o; or

su p e rv is o r to subordinates;

e.
R ev iew s co rresp o n d en c e, m em orandum s, and re p orts prep a red
s u p e r v is o r's signatu re to assu re p roced u ra l and typographic a ccu racy;

which

1. S e c re ta r y to the chairm an o f the board o r p resid en t o f a com pany that em p loy s, in
fe w e r than 100 p e r s o n s ; o r

2. S e c re ta r y to a c o rp o ra te o ffic e r (o th er than the ch airm an o f the board or p resid en t)
o f a company that em p loys, in a ll, o v e r 100 but fe w e r than 5,000 p e rs o n s ; o r

M ESSENGER (O ffic e Boy o r G irl)

P e r fo r m s

o f a m a jo r

C la ss B

a ll,

f.

1. S e c re ta r y to the ch airm an o f the board o r p resid en t o f a com pany that em p loys, in
o v e r 100 but fe w e r than 5,000 p ers o n s ; o r *
1

a.

P o sition s

s e c r e ta r y

b.

1. S e c re ta r y to the su p e rv is o r o r head o f a sm all orga n iza tio n a l unit (e .g ., fe w e r than
about 25 o r 30 p erso n s); or
2. S e c re ta r y to a n on su p erviso ry sta ff s p e c ia lis t, p ro fe ssio n a l em p loy ee, a d m in istra ­
tiv e o ffic e r , o r a ssistan t, sk ille d technician o r ex p ert.
(N O T E : Many com panies assign
sten ogra p h ers, ra th er than s e c r e ta r ie s as d es c rib e d above, to this le v e l o f s u p e rv is o ry o r
n on su p erviso ry w o r k e r .)

Exam ples

concept d es crib e d

S TE N O G R A P H E R
above;

S tenographers not fu lly train ed in s e c re ta ria l type duties;

c. S tenographers servin g as o ffic e assistan ts to a group o f p ro fe ssio n a l, tech n ical, o r
m a n a geria l person s;
d. S e c re ta r y position s in which the duties a re eith er substantially m o re routine or sub­
sta n tia lly m o re co m p lex and resp o n sib le than those c h a ra c te riz e d in the definition;

P r im a r y duty is to take dictation using shorthand, and to tra n s c rib e the dictation . M ay
also type fro m w ritten copy. M ay o p era te fro m a stenographic pool. M ay o c c a s io n a lly tra n s c rib e
from v o ic e re co rd in g s ( if p r im a ry duty is tra n scrib in g fro m re c o rd in g s , see T ra n s c rib in g -M a c h in e
O p era to r, G en era l).
N O T E : Th is job is distinguished fro m that o f a s e c r e ta r y in that a s e c r e ta r y n o rm a lly
w orks in a con fiden tia l relatio n sh ip with only one m a n a ger o r ex ecu tive and p e rfo rm s m o re
resp o n sib le and d is c re tio n a ry tasks as d e s crib e d in the s e c r e ta r y jo b d efin ition .
S tenograp her, G en eral

e.
A ssista n t type position s which in volve m o re d iffic u lt or m o re resp o n sib le tech ­
n ica l, a d m in istra tive, su p e rv is o ry , o r s p e c ia lize d c le r ic a l duties which a re not typ ic a l of
s e c re ta ria l w ork.




D ictation in volv es a n orm al routine vo ca b u la ry. M ay m aintain file s , keep sim ple re c o r d s ,
o r p e rfo rm oth er re la t iv e ly routine c le r ic a l tasks.

25
S T E N O G R A P H E R — Continued

T A B U L A T I N G - M A C H I N E O P E R A T O R (E le c t r ic Accoun tin g M ach in e O p e r a t o r )— Continued

S tenographer, Senior

P o sition s a re c la s s ifie d into le v e ls on the basis o f the fo llo w in g definitions.

Dictation in vo lv es a v a rie d tech n ical o r s p e c ia lize d voca b u la ry such as in le g a l b rie fs
o r re p o rts on sc ie n tific re s e a rc h . M ay also set up and m ain tain file s , keep r e c o r d s , etc.
OR
P e r fo r m s stenographic duties re q u irin g sig n ific a n tly g r e a te r independence and resp o n ­
s ib ility than sten ograph er, ge n era l, as evid enced by the fo llow in g:
W ork re q u ires a high
d eg ree o f stenographic speed and accu ra cy; a thorough w orkin g know ledge o f ge n era l business
and o ffic e p roced u re; and o f the s p e c ific business opera tio n s, o rga n izatio n , p o lic ie s , p r o c e ­
du res, file s , w ork flo w , etc. U ses this know ledge in p e rfo rm in g sten ograph ic duties and
resp o n sib le c le r ic a l tasks such as m ain tain in g follow u p file s ; a ssem blin g m a te r ia l fo r re p o rts ,
m em orandum s, and letters'; com posing sim p le le tte r s fr o m gen era l in stru ction s; read ing and
rou ting in com ing m a il; and answ erin g routine qu estion s, etc.
S W ITC H B O AR D O P E R A T O R
C la ss A . O perates a sin gle- o r m u ltip le-p ositio n telephone sw itchboard handling in com ing,
outgoing, in traplant o r o ffic e c a lls . P e r fo r m s fu ll telephone in form a tion s e r v ic e o r handles
co m p lex c a lls , such as co n feren ce, c o lle c t, o v e rs e a s , o r s im ila r c a lls , e ith er in addition to
doing routine w ork as d e s crib e d fo r sw itch board o p e ra to r, cla ss B, o r as a fu ll-tim e
assignm ent. ( " F u ll" telephone in form a tion s e r v ic e o ccu rs when the establish m ent has v a rie d
functions that a re not re a d ily understandable fo r telephone in form ation pu rp oses, e .g ., because
o f o verla p p in g o r in te rre la te d functions, and consequently presen t frequ ent prob lem s as to
which extensions a re a ppropria te fo r c a lls .)
C la ss B . O perates a sin gle- o r m u ltip le-p ositio n teleph one sw itchboard handling in com ing,
outgoing, intraplant o r o ffic e c a lls . M ay handle routine long distance c a lls and re c o r d to lls .
M ay p e r fo rm lim ite d telephone in form a tion s e r v ic e . ( " L im it e d " telephone in form a tion s e r v ic e
o ccu rs i f the functions o f the establish m ent s e r v ic e d a re re a d ily understandable fo r telephone
in form a tion pu rposes, o r i f the requ ests a re routine, e .g ., givin g exten sion num bers when
s p e c ific names a re fu rn ish ed, o r i f co m p le x ca lls a re r e fe r r e d to another o p e ra to r.)
T h ese cla ss ific a tio n s do not include sw itchboard o p era to rs in telephone com panies who
a s s is t cu stom ers in p lacin g c a lls .
S W ITC H B O AR D O P E R A T O R -R E C E P T IO N IS T
In addition to p erfo rm in g duties o f o p era to r on a s in gle-p o sitio n o r m o n ito r-ty p e sw itch ­
board, acts as re cep tio n ist and m ay also type o r p e r fo rm routine c le r ic a l w ork as part o f re gu la r
duties. Th is typing o r c le r ic a l w ork m ay take the m a jo r pa rt o f this w o r k e r 's tim e w hile at
sw itchboard.
T A B U L A T IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R (E le c tr ic Accounting M achine O p era to r)
O perates one o r a v a r ie ty o f m achines such as the ta bu lator, ca lcu la tor, c o lla to r, in te r ­
p r e te r, s o rte r , reprodu cin g punch, etc. Excluded fr o m this defin itio n a re w orkin g s u p erviso rs.
A ls o excluded a re o p era to rs o f ele c tro n ic d ig ita l co m pu ters, even though they m ay also o pera te
E A M equipment.

C la ss A . P e r fo r m s com plete re p o rtin g and tabulating assignm ents including d evisin g
d iffic u lt co n trol panel w irin g under ge n era l su pervisio n . A ssign m en ts ty p ic a lly in vo lv e a
v a rie ty o f long and co m p lex re p o rts which often a re ir r e g u la r o r n on recu rrin g, requ irin g
som e planning o f the nature and sequencing o f o pera tion s, and the use o f a v a r ie ty o f m a ­
chines. Is ty p ic a lly in volved in tra in in g new o p era to rs in m achine operations o r train in g
lo w e r le v e l o p era to rs in w irin g fro m dia gra m s and in the operatin g sequences o f long and
co m p lex re p o rts .
Does not include position s in which w irin g re sp o n sib ility is lim ite d to
sele ctio n and in sertio n o f p r e w ire d boards.
C la ss B . P e r fo r m s w ork a cco rd in g to establish ed proced u res and under s p e c ific in ­
stru ctions. A ssign m en ts ty p ic a lly in vo lv e co m p lete but routine and re c u rrin g re p orts o r parts
o f la r g e r and m o re co m p lex re p o r ts . O pera tes m o r e d ifficu lt tabulating o r e le c tr ic a l ac­
counting m achines such as the tabu lator and ca lcu la tor, in addition to the sim p ler machines
used by c la ss C o p era to rs. M ay be re qu ired to do som e w irin g fr o m dia gra m s. M ay tra in
new em p loy ees in basic m achine o peration s.
C la ss C . U nder s p e c ific in stru ction s, op era tes sim p le tabulating o r e le c tr ic a l accounting
m ach in es such as the s o rte r , in te rp r e te r, reprodu cin g punch, c o lla to r, etc. A ssignm ents
ty p ic a lly in vo lv e portion s o f a w ork unit, fo r exa m ple, individual so rtin g o r co lla tin g runs,
o r re p e titiv e o p era tio n s. M ay p e r fo rm sim ple w irin g fr o m d ia gra m s, and do som e filin g w ork.
T R A N S C R IB IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R , G E N E R A L
P r im a r y duty is to tra n s c rib e dictation in volv in g a n orm a l routine voca bu la ry fro m
tra n scrib in g -m a ch in e re c o r d s . M ay also type fr o m w ritten copy and do sim p le c le r ic a l w ork.
W ork ers tra n scrib in g d icta tion in volvin g a v a rie d tech n ical Or s p e c ia liz e d voca bu la ry such as
le g a l b r ie fs o r re p o rts on s c ie n tific re s e a rc h a re not included. A w o rk e r who takes dictation
in shorthand o r by Stenotype o r s im ila r m achine is c la s s ifie d as a sten ograph er.
T Y P IS T
U ses a ty p e w r ite r to m ake co pies o f variou s m a te r ia ls o r to m ake out b ills a fte r c a lcu la ­
tions have been m ade by another perso n . M ay include typing o f s ten cils, m a ts, o r s im ila r m a te ­
r ia ls fo r use in duplicating p r o c e s s e s . M ay do c le r ic a l w o rk in vo lv in g lit t le sp ecia l tra in in g, such
as keeping sim p le r e c o r d s , filin g re c o rd s and re p o r ts , o r so rtin g and distribu tin g incom ing m a il.
G lass A . P e r fo r m s one o r m o re o f the fo llo w in g : Typin g m a te r ia l in fin al fo rm when
it in volv es com bining m a te r ia l fr o m s e v e ra l sou rces; o r re s p o n s ib ility fo r c o rr e c t spellin g,
sy llab ica tio n , punctuation, etc., o f tech n ical o r unusual w ords o r fo re ig n language m a te ­
r ia l; o r planning layout and typin g o f co m p licated s ta tistica l ta b les to m aintain u n iform ity
and balance in spacing. M ay type routine fo rm le t t e r s , v a ry in g d eta ils to suit circu m sta n ces.
C la ss B . P e r fo r m s one o r m o re o f the fo llo w in g : Copy typing fro m rough o r c le a r
d ra fts ; o r routine typing o f fo rm s , insurance p o lic ie s , etc.; o r setting up sim ple standard
tabulations; o r copyin g m o re co m p lex tables a lrea d y set up and spaced p ro p e rly .

P R O F E S S IO N A L A N D T E C H N IC A L
C O M P U T E R O P E R A T O R — Continued

CO M PUTER O PER ATO R
M o n ito rs and op era tes the con trol con sole o f a d ig ita l com pu ter to p ro ce ss data accordin g
to operatin g in stru ction s, usually p rep a red by a p r o g ra m e r . W ork includes m o st of the fo llo w in g :
Studies in stru ction s to determ in e equipment setup and opera tio n s; loads equipm ent with requ ired
item s (tape r e e ls , card s, e tc .); sw itch es n ec e s s a ry a u x ilia ry equipment into c ir c u it, and starts
and op era tes com puter; m akes adjustm ents to com pu ter to c o r r e c t operatin g p rob le m s and m eet
sp e cia l conditions; re v ie w s e r r o r s m ade during operation and d eterm in es cause o r r e fe r s prob lem
to s u p erviso r o r p ro g ra m e r; and m aintains o pera tin g re c o r d s . M ay test and a ssist in c o rr e c tin g
p ro g ra m .
F o r w age study pu rp oses,

com puter o p e ra to rs a re c la s s ifie d as fo llo w s:

C lass A . O perates independently, o r under only ge n era l d irection , a com puter running
p ro g ra m s with m ost o f the fo llow in g c h a ra c te ris tic s :
N ew p ro g ra m s a re freq u en tly tested
and introduced; scheduling requ irem en ts a re o f c r itic a l im portan ce to m in im iz e downtim e;
the p ro g ra m s a re o f com p lex design so that id en tifica tion o f e r r o r sou rce often re q u ire s a
w orkin g know ledge o f the total p ro g ra m , and altern ate p rog ra m s m ay not be a va ila b le. M ay
giv e d ire c tio n and guidance to lo w e r le v e l o p era to rs.
C lass B . O perates independently, o r under only ge n era l d irection , a com pu ter running
p ro g ra m s with m o st o f the fo llo w in g c h a ra c te ris tic s : M ost o f the p ro g ra m s a re establish ed
production runs, ty p ic a lly run on a re g u la rly re c u rrin g basis; th ere is little o r no testin g




o f new p ro g ra m s re q u ired ; a ltern a te p ro g ra m s a re provid ed in case o rig in a l p rog ra m needs
m a jo r change o r cannot be c o rr e c te d within a reason able tim e. In comm on e r r o r situ a­
tion s, diagn oses cause and takes c o r r e c t iv e action. Th is usually in vo lv es applying p revio u s ly
p ro g ra m ed c o r r e c t iv e steps, o r using standard c o rr e c tio n techniques.
OR
O pera tes under d ir e c t su p ervisio n a com puter running p rog ra m s o r segm ents o f p rog ra m s
with the c h a ra c te ris tic s d es crib e d fo r c la ss A . M ay a s s is t a h igh er le v e l o p era to r by inde­
pendently p e r fo rm in g le s s d iffic u lt tasks assigned , and p e rfo rm in g d ifficu lt tasks fo llow in g
d eta iled in stru ction s and with freq u en t r e v ie w o f operations p e rfo rm e d .
C la ss C . W orks on routine p ro g ra m s under c lo s e su p ervision . Is expected to d evelop
w orkin g kn ow ledge o f the com puter equipment used and a b ility to detect problem s in vo lv ed in
running rou tine p ro g ra m s . U su ally has r e c e iv e d som e fo rm a l tra in in g in com puter operation.
M a y a s s is t h igh er le v e l o p era to r on com p lex p ro g ra m s.
C O M P U T E R P R O G R A M E R , BUSINESS
C o n verts statem ents o f business p rob le m s, ty p ic a lly p rep a red by a system s analyst, into
a sequence o f d eta iled in stru ction s which a re re q u ired to so lv e the prob lem s by autom atic data
p ro ce ssin g equipm ent. W orking fr o m charts o r d ia gra m s, the p r o g ra m e r develop s the p r e c is e in ­
structions which, when en tered into the com pu ter system in coded language, cause the m anipulation

26
COM PUTER

P R O G R A M E R , B U S IN E S S — Continued

o f data to a ch ieve d e s ire d re su lts . W ork in volv es m o st o f the fo llo w in g : A p p lies know ledge o f
com puter c a p a b ilitie s , m a th em a tics, lo g ic em ployed by com pu ters, and p a rticu la r subject m a tter
in volved to an a lyze ch arts and d ia gra m s o f the p rob lem to be p rog ra m ed ; d evelop s sequence
o f p ro g ra m steps; w rite s d e ta iled flo w ch arts to show o r d e r in which data w ill be p ro ce ssed ;
co n verts these ch arts to coded in stru ction s fo r m achine to fo llo w ; tests and c o r r e c ts p ro g ra m s;
p rep a res in stru ction s fo r o p era tin g person n el during production run; an a lyzes, re v ie w s , and a lte rs
p ro g ra m s to in c re a s e o p era tin g e ffic ie n c y o r adapt to new re qu irem en ts; m aintains re c o rd s o f
programs develop m en t and re v is io n s . (N O T E ; W o rk ers p e r fo rm in g both system s a n alysis and p r o ­
gram in g should be c la s s ifie d as system s analysts i f this is the s k ill used to d eterm in e th e ir pay.)
Does not include em p lo y ees p r im a r ily re sp o n sib le fo r the m anagem ent o r su p ervisio n o f
other e le c tr o n ic data p ro c e s s in g e m p lo y ees, o r programmers p r im a r ily con cern ed with s c ie n tific
and/or en gin eerin g p ro b le m s.
F o r w age study p u rp oses, p r o g ra m e r s a re c la s s ifie d as fo llo w s:
C lass A . W orks independently o r under only g e n era l d ir e c tio n on co m p le x p rob le m s which
re q u ire com petence in a ll phases o f p ro g ra m in g concepts and p r a c tic e s . W orking fro m d ia ­
gra m s and ch arts which id en tify the nature o f d e s ire d re su lts , m a jo r p ro c e s s in g steps to be
accom plish ed , and the relatio n sh ip s betw een va rio u s steps o f the p rob lem so lvin g routine;
plans the fu ll ran ge o f p ro g ra m in g action s needed to e ffic ie n tly u tilize the com pu ter system
in ach ievin g d e s ire d end produ cts.
A t this le v e l, p ro g ra m in g is d iffic u lt becau se com pu ter equipment m ust be o rga n ized to
produce s e v e ra l in te rre la te d but d iv e r s e products fr o m num erous and d iv e r s e data elem en ts.
A w ide v a r ie ty and e x ten s ive num ber o f in tern al p ro c e s s in g action s m ust o ccu r. Th is re q u ires
such actions as d evelop m en t o f com m on op era tio n s which can be reused, establish m ent of
linkage points betw een o p era tio n s, adjustm ents to data when p ro g ra m re q u irem en ts ex ceed
com pu ter sto ra ge ca p a city, and substantial m anipulation and resequ encing o f data elem en ts
to fo rm a h igh ly in tegra ted p r o g ra m .
M ay p ro vid e functional d ir e c tio n to lo w e r le v e l p r o g ra m e r s who a re assigned to a ssist.
C la ss B . W orks independently o r under on ly ge n era l d irectio n on r e la t iv e ly sim ple
p ro g ra m s , o r on sim p le segm en ts o f co m p le x p r o g ra m s .
P ro g ra m s (o r segm en ts) usually
p ro c e s s in fo rm a tio n to produ ce data in two o r th ree v a rie d sequences o r fo rm a ts . R ep orts
and lis tin g s a re produced by re fin in g , adapting, a rra y in g , o r m aking m in o r additions to or
deletio n s fr o m input data which a re re a d ily a va ila b le.
W hile numerous re c o rd s m a y be
p ro c e s s e d , the data have been re fin e d in p r io r action s so that the a ccu ra cy and sequencing
o f data can be tested by using a few routine ch ecks.
T y p ic a lly , the p ro g ra m deals with
routine re c o r d -k e e p in g type o p era tio n s.
OR
W orks on co m p le x p ro g ra m s (as d es c rib e d fo r cla ss A ) under clo s e d ir e c tio n o f a h igh er
le v e l p r o g ra m e r o r s u p e r v is o r. M ay a s s is t h igh er le v e l p r o g ra m e r by independently p e r ­
fo rm in g le s s d iffic u lt tasks a ssigned , and p e r fo rm in g m o re d iffic u lt tasks under fa ir ly clo se
d irectio n .
M ay guide o r in stru ct lo w e r le v e l p r o g ra m e r s .
C la ss C . M akes p r a c tic a l applications o f p ro g ra m in g p r a c tic es and concepts usually
le a rn ed in fo rm a l tra in in g c o u rses . A ssign m en ts a re design ed to develop com petence in the
application o f standard p roce d u res to routine p ro b le m s. R e c e iv e s clo s e su p ervisio n on new
aspects o f a ssign m en ts; and w ork is re v ie w e d to v e r ify its a ccu racy and con form an ce with
re q u ired p ro ce d u res.
C O M P U T E R S YS TE M S A N A L Y S T , BUSINESS
A n a ly ze s bu siness p ro b le m s to fo rm u la te p roce d u res fo r so lvin g them by use o f ele c tro n ic
data p ro c e s s in g equipm ent. D evelops a co m p le te d e s crip tio n o f a ll sp e cifica tion s needed to enable
p ro g ra m e rs to p re p a re re q u ire d d ig ita l com pu ter p r o g ra m s . W ork in volv es m o st o f the fo llo w in g :
A n a ly ze s su b jec t-m a tter o p era tion s to be autom ated and id en tifies conditions and c r it e r ia re qu ired
to a ch ieve s a tis fa c to ry resu lts: s p e c ifie s num ber and types o f re c o r d s , file s , and documents to
be used; outlin es action s to be p e r fo rm e d by p erso n n el and com pu ters in su ffic ien t d eta il fo r
presen tation to m an agem ent and fo r p ro g ra m in g (ty p ic a lly this in volv es p rep a ra tion o f w ork and
data flo w ch a rts); coord in ates the develop m en t o f te s t prob lem s and p a rticip a tes in tr ia l runs o f
new and re v is e d sy stem s; and recom m en ds equipment changes to obtain m o re e ffe c tiv e o v e r a ll
o p era tio n s. (N O T E : W o rk e rs p e rfo rm in g both sy stem s a n alysis and p rog ra m in g should be c la s ­
sifie d as system s analysts i f this is the sk ill used to d eterm in e th e ir pay.)
Does not include em p lo y ees p r im a r ily resp o n sib le fo r the m anagem ent o r su p ervisio n
o f oth er e le c tr o n ic data p ro c e s s in g e m p lo y ees, o r system s analysts p r im a r ily concern ed with
sc ie n tific o r en gin eerin g p ro b le m s.
F o r w age study pu rp oses,

system s analysts a re c la s s ifie d as fo llow s:

C la ss A .
W orks independently o r under only ge n era l d ire c tio n on com p lex prob lem s in v o lv in g a ll phases o f system s a n a ly sis. P ro b le m s a re co m p le x because o f d iv e rs e sou rces o f
input data and m u ltip le -u s e re q u irem en ts o f output data. (F o r exam ple, d evelop s an in tegrated
production scheduling, in ven to ry c o n tro l, cost a n a ly sis, and sales a n alysis r e c o r d in which




COM PUTER

S Y S T E M S A N A L Y S T , B U S IN E S S — Continued

e v e r y item o f each type is a u to m a tica lly p ro c e s s e d through the fu ll sy stem o f re c o rd s and
a p p rop ria te follow u p actions a re in itia ted by the com puter.) C o n fers w ith person s con cern ed to
d eterm in e the data p ro c e s s in g p ro b le m s and a d vises su b jec t-m a tter perso n n el on the im p lic a ­
tion s o f new o r re v is e d system s o f data p ro ce ssin g o p era tio n s. M akes recom m en d a tion s, i f
needed, fo r ap p rova l o f m a jo r system s in stalla tio n s o r changes and fo r obtaining equipm ent.
M ay p ro vid e functional d ire c tio n to lo w e r
a ssist.

le v e l system s analysts who a re assign ed to

C la ss B . W orks independently o r under only g e n era l d ir e c tio n on p rob le m s that a re
r e la t iv e ly u ncom plicated to ana lyze, plan, p ro g ra m , and o p era te. P r o b le m s a re o f lim ite d
c o m p le x ity becau se sou rces o f input data a re hom ogeneous and the output data a re c lo s e ly
re la ted .
(F o r ex a m p le, develop s system s fo r m ain tain in g d e p o sito r accounts in a bank,
m ain tain in g accounts re c e iv a b le in a re ta il establish m ent, o r m ain tain in g in ven to ry accounts
in a m anufacturing o r w h o lesa le esta blish m en t.) C o n fers w ith p erso n s con cern ed to determ in e
the data p ro c e s s in g p rob le m s and a d vises s u b jec t-m a tter p erson n el on the im p lica tio n s o f the
data p r o c e s s in g system s to be applied.
OR
W orks on a segm ent o f a co m p lex data p r o c e s s in g sch em e o r system , as d es c rib e d fo r
c la ss A . W orks independently on routine assignm ents and re c e iv e s in stru ction and guidance
on co m p lex a ssign m en ts. W ork is re v ie w e d fo r a ccu ra cy o f judgm ent, com plian ce w ith in ­
stru ctions, and to in su re p ro p e r a linem en t with the o v e r a ll system .
C la ss C . W orks under im m ed ia te su p ervisio n , c a rr y in g out analyses as assigned , usually
o f a sin gle a c tiv ity .
A ssign m en ts a re design ed to d ev elop and expand p r a c tic a l e x p erien c e
in the application o f p roced u res and sk ills re q u ire d fo r system s an a lysis w ork . F o r ex a m p le,
m a y a s s is t a h igh er le v e l system s analyst by p rep a rin g the d eta iled sp e cifica tion s re q u ire d
by p r o g ra m e r s fro m in form a tion develop ed by the h igh er le v e l analyst.
D RAFTSM AN
C la ss A . Plan s the graphic p resen tation o f com p lex item s having d istin ctive design
fea tu res that d iffe r sig n ific a n tly fr o m esta b lish ed d raftin g p reced e n ts. W orks in c lo s e sup­
p o rt with the design o rig in a to r , and m a y recom m en d m in o r design changes. A n a ly ze s the
e ffe c t o f each change on the d eta ils o f fo rm , function, and p o sition a l relatio n sh ip s o f c o m ­
ponents and p a rts.
W orks with a m inim u m o f s u p e r v is o ry a ssista n ce. C om p leted w ork is
re v ie w e d by design o r ig in a to r fo r co n sisten cy with p r io r en gin eerin g determ in a tio n s. M ay
eith e r p r e p a re draw in gs, o r d ir e c t th e ir p rep a ra tion by lo w e r le v e l draftsm en .
C la ss B . P e r fo r m s nonroutine and co m p lex d raftin g assignm ents that re q u ire the a p p li­
cation o f m o st o f the stand ardized draw in g techniques r e g u la r ly used. Duties ty p ic a lly in ­
v o lv e such w ork as: P r e p a r e s w orkin g draw in gs o f su b a ssem blies w ith ir r e g u la r shapes,
m u ltip le functions, and p r e c is e po sition a l relatio n sh ip s betw een com ponents; p rep a res a r c h i­
te c tu ra l draw in gs fo r constru ction o f a building including d eta il draw in gs o f foundations, w a ll
sectio n s, flo o r plans, and ro o f. U ses a ccep ted fo rm u la s and m anuals in m aking n e c e s s a r y
com putations to d eterm in e qu antities o f m a te r ia ls to be used, load ca p a cities, strength s,
s tre s s e s , etc.
R e c e iv e s in itia l in stru ction s, re q u irem en ts, and a d vice fr o m s u p e rv is o r.
C om p leted w ork is checked fo r tech n ical adequacy.
C la ss C . P r e p a r e s d eta il draw in gs o f sin gle units o r p a rts fo r en gin eerin g , construction,
m anufacturing, o r re p a ir pu rp oses. T yp es o f draw in gs p rep a red include is o m e tr ic p ro jec tio n s
(dep ictin g th ree dim ension s in a ccu rate s c a le ) and section al view s to c la r ify position in g o f
com ponents and con vey needed in form a tion . C on solid ates d eta ils fro m a num ber o f sou rces
and adjusts o r tra n sp o ses sca le as re q u ired . Suggested m ethods o f approach, a p plicable
p reced e n ts, and a d vice on so u rce m a te r ia ls a re given w ith in itia l assign m en ts. Instru ctions
a re le s s co m p le te when assignm ents re c u r.
W ork m a y be spo t-ch eck ed during p r o g r e s s .
D R AFTSM AN - TRAC ER
C opies plans and draw in gs p rep a red by oth ers by p lacin g tra c in g cloth o r pa per o v e r
draw in gs and tra c in g with pen o r p en cil.
(D oes not include tra c in g lim ite d to plans p r im a r ily
co n sistin g o f straigh t lin es and a la r g e sca le not re q u irin g c lo s e d elin ea tion .)
AND /O R
P r e p a re s sim p le o r re p e titiv e draw in gs o f e a s ily v is u a liz e d ite m s .
during p r o g re s s .

W ork is c lo s e ly su p ervised

E L E C T R O N IC T E C H N IC IA N
W orks on va riou s types of e le c tr o n ic equipm ent o r system s by p e r fo rm in g one o r m o re
o f the fo llow in g opera tio n s: M o d ify in g , in sta llin g, re p a irin g , and o verh au lin g. T h ese o pera tion s
re q u ire the p erfo rm a n ce o f m o st o r a ll o f the fo llo w in g tasks: A ssem b lin g , testin g, adjusting,
c a lib ra tin g, tuning, and a linin g.
W ork is n on rep etitiv e and re q u ire s a know ledge o f the th e o ry and p r a c tic e o f e le c tr o n ic s
p ertain in g to the use o f g e n era l and s p e c ia lize d e le c tr o n ic te s t equipm ent; trou ble a n a lysis; and
the operation , re la tio n s h ip , and a linem en t o f e le c tr o n ic s y stem s, su bsystem s, and c ir c u its having
a v a r ie ty o f com ponent p a rts.

27
E L E C T R O N IC T E C H N IC IA N — Continued

NU RSE, IN D U S T R IA L (R e g is te re d )

E le c tr o n ic equipment o r system s w orked on ty p ic a lly include one o r m o re of the fo llo w in g :
Ground, v e h ic le , o r a irb o rn e ra d io com m unications sy stem s, r e la y sy stem s, navigation a ids;
a irb o rn e o r ground ra d a r system s; ra d io and te le v is io n tra n sm ittin g o r re co rd in g system s; e l e c ­
tro n ic com pu ters; m is s ile and sp a ce cra ft guidance and c o n tro l system s; in d u stria l and m e d ica l
m easu rin g, indicating and co n trollin g d ev ic e s ; etc.

A re g is te r e d nurse who g iv e s nursing s e r v ic e under g e n era l m e d ic a l d irection to i l l o r
in jured em p loy ees o r oth er persons who b ecom e i l l o r su ffe r an accident on the p re m is e s o f a
fa c to ry o r oth er establish m ent. Duties in vo lv e a com bination o f the fo llo w in g : G ivin g fir s t aid
to the i l l o r in ju red; attending to subsequent d ressin g o f e m p lo y ees' in ju ries; keeping re cord s
o f patients trea ted ; p rep a rin g accident re p o rts fo r com pensation o r oth er purposes; a ssistin g in
p h ysic a l exam inations and health evaluations o f applicants and em p loy ees; and planning and c a r r y ­
ing out p ro g ra m s in volv in g health education, accident preven tion , evaluation o f plant en viron m en t,
o r other a c tiv itie s a ffe c tin g the health, w e lfa r e , and sa fety o f a ll personn el. Nu rsing su p erviso rs
o r head n urses in establish m ents em ploying m o re than one nurse a re excluded.

(E xclu de production a s s e m b le rs and te s t e r s , cra fts m en , draftsm en , d e s ig n e rs , en gin eers,
and re p a irm e n o f such standard e le c tr o n ic equipment as o ffic e m achines, ra d io and te le v is io n
re c e iv in g s e ts .)

M A IN T E N A N C E A N D P O W E R P L A N T
C A R P E N T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E

M A C H IN IS T , M A IN T E N A N C E

P e r fo r m s the ca rp en try duties n e c e s s a r y to constru ct and m aintain in good re p a ir bu ild­
ing w oodw ork and equipment such as bins, c rib s , cou n ters, benches, p a rtitio n s, d o o rs, flo o r s ,
s ta irs , casin gs, and t r im m ade o f w ood in an establish m ent. W ork in volv es m ost o f the fo llo w in g :
Planning and la yin g out o f w ork fr o m blu eprin ts, draw in gs, m o d els , o r v e rb a l in stru ction s; using a
v a rie ty o f c a rp en ter's handtools, p orta ble p ow er to o ls , and standard m easu rin g in stru m en ts; m ak­
ing standard shop computations re la tin g to dim ension s o f w ork; and selectin g m a te r ia ls n e c e s s a ry
fo r the w ork. In g e n era l, the w ork o f the m aintenance ca rp en ter re q u ires rounded tra in in g and
ex p erien c e usually acqu ired through a fo rm a l a pprenticeship o r equivalent tra in in g and ex p erien c e.

P rod u ce s rep la cem en t parts and new parts in m aking re p a irs o f m e ta l parts o f m echan ical
equipment o pera ted in an establish m ent. W ork in vo lv es m ost o f the fo llo w in g : In terp retin g w ritten
in stru ction s and s p e cifica tio n s; planning and layin g out o f w ork; using a v a r ie ty o f m a ch in ist's
handtools and p re c is io n m easu rin g in stru m en ts; setting up and o pera tin g standard machine tools;
shaping o f m e ta l parts to clo s e to le ra n c es; m aking standard shop com putations relatin g to dim en ­
sions o f w o rk , too lin g, fee d s, and speeds o f m achining; know ledge o f the w orkin g p r o p e rtie s o f
the com m on m e ta ls; s ele ctin g standard m a te r ia ls , p a rts, and equipm ent re q u ired fo r his w ork;
and fittin g and assem b lin g parts into m ech a n ica l equipment. In g e n e ra l, the m a ch in ist's w ork
n o rm a lly re q u ire s a rounded tra in in g in m ach in e-sh op p ra c tic e usually a cq u ired through a fo rm a l
a pprenticeship o r equ ivalen t tra in in g and ex p erien c e.

E L E C T R IC IA N , M A IN T E N A N C E
P e r fo r m s a v a rie ty o f e le c tr ic a l tra d e functions such as the in stalla tion , m aintenance, or
re p a ir o f equipment fo r the gen era tion , distribu tion , o r u tiliza tio n o f e le c tr ic en erg y in an esta b ­
lish m en t. W ork in vo lv es m ost o f the fo llo w in g : In sta llin g o r re p a irin g any o f a v a rie ty o f e le c ­
t r ic a l equipment such as ge n era to rs , t ra n s fo rm e rs , sw itch boards, c o n tr o lle r s , circ u it b re a k e rs ,
m o to rs, heating units, conduit sy stem s, o r other tra n sm iss ion equipment; w orkin g fr o m b lu e­
prin ts, d raw in gs, layouts, or other sp e cifica tio n s; locatin g and diagnosing trou ble in the e le c tr ic a l
system o r equipment; w orkin g standard computations re la tin g to load requ irem en ts o f w irin g o r
e le c tr ic a l equipment; and using a v a r ie ty o f e le c tr ic ia n 's handtools and m easu rin g and testin g
instrum ents. In g e n era l, the w ork o f the m aintenance e le c tr ic ia n re q u ires rounded tra in in g and
ex p erien ce usually acqu ired through a fo rm a l a pprenticeship o r equ ivalent tra in in g and ex p erien ce/
E N G IN E E R , S T A T IO N A R Y
O perates and m aintains and m ay also su p ervise the operation o f station ary engines and
equipment (m echan ical o r e le c tr ic a l) to supply the establish m ent in which em ployed w ith p o w er,
heat, re fr ig e r a tio n , o r a ir-co n d ition in g .
W ork in vo lv es:
O perating and m aintaining equipment
such as steam en gin es, a ir c o m p r e s s o rs , g e n e ra to rs , m o to rs , tu rbin es, ven tila tin g and r e f r i g ­
eratin g equipm ent, steam b o ile rs and b o ile r - fe d w a te r pumps; making equipm ent re p a irs ; and
keeping a re c o rd of operation o f m a ch in ery, tem p era tu re, and fu el consum ption. M ay also su­
p e r v is e these operations. Head or ch ief en gin eers in establish m ents em ploying m o re than one
en gin eer a re exclu ded.
F IR E M A N , S T A T IO N A R Y B O IL E R
F ir e s station ary b o ile rs to furnish the establish m ent in which em ployed with heat, pow er,
o r steam . Feed s fu els to fir e by hand o r op era tes a m ech an ical sto k er, gas, o r o il bu rn er; and
checks w a te r and safety v a lv e s .
M ay clean, o il, or a s s is t in re p a irin g b o ile rr o o m equipment.
H E L P E R , M A IN T E N A N C E TR A D E S
A s s is ts one o r m o re w o rk e rs in the sk ille d m aintenance tra d es, by p erfo rm in g s p e c ific
o r ge n e ra l duties o f le s s e r s k ill, such as keeping a w o rk e r supplied with m a te ria ls and too ls;
cleaning w orkin g a rea , m achine, and equipm ent; a ssistin g journeym an by holding m a te r ia ls or
to o ls; and p erfo rm in g other unskilled tasks as d ire c te d by journeym an.
The kind of w ork the
h elp er is p erm itted to p e r fo rm v a r ie s fr o m tra d e to tra d e: In som e trades the h elp er is confined
to supplying, liftin g , and holding m a te ria ls and to o ls , and cleaning w orking a rea s; and in others
he is p erm itted to p e r fo rm s p e c ia lize d machine opera tio n s, o r parts of a tra d e that a re also
p erfo rm e d by w o rk ers on a fu ll-tim e basis.
M A C H IN E -T O O L O P E R A T O R , T O O L R O O M
S p ecia liz es in the operation o f one o r m o re types o f machine to o ls, such as jig b o re r s ,
c y lin d r ic a l o r su rface g rin d e rs , engine lathes, o r m illin g m achines, in the construction of
m ach in e-sh op t o o ls , g a g es, jig s , fix tu re s , or d ies. W ork in volv es m ost o f the fo llo w in g : Planning
and p erfo rm in g d ifficu lt machining operations; p ro ce ssin g item s requ irin g com plicated setups or
a high d e g re e o f a ccu racy; using a v a rie ty of p recisio n m easu rin g instrum ents; s ele ctin g feed s,
speeds, too lin g, and operation sequence; and m aking n ec e s s a ry adjustm ents during operation
to ach ieve re q u isite to le ra n c es o r dim ension s. M ay be re qu ired to re co g n ize when too ls need
d ressin g, to d ress to o ls , and to s ele ct p rop e r coolants and cutting and lu bricatin g o ils .
For
cro s s -in d u s try w age study pu rposes, m a ch in e-too l o p era to rs, to o lro o m , in to o l and die jobbing
shops a re excluded fro m this cla ssifica tio n .




M E C H A N IC , A U T O M O T IV E (M aintenance)
R ep a irs au tom obiles, buses, m o tortru ck s, and tr a c to r s o f an establish m ent. W ork in ­
v o lv e s m ost of the fo llo w in g : Exam ining autom otive equipment to diagnose sou rce of tro u b le; d is ­
a ssem blin g equipm ent and p e rfo rm in g re p a irs that in vo lv e the use o f such handtools as w ren ch es,
ga g es, d r ills , o r s p e c ia lize d equipment in disa ssem b lin g o r fittin g p a rts; rep la cin g broken o r
d e fe c tiv e parts fr o m stock; grind ing and adjusting v a lv e s ; re a s sem b lin g and in stallin g the va rio u s
a ssem b lies in the v e h ic le and making n e c e s s a r y adjustm ents; and a linin g w h e els, adjusting brakes
and ligh ts, o r tightening body bolts. In g e n era l, the w ork o f the au tom otive m echanic re q u ires
rounded tra in in g and e x p erien c e usually acqu ired through a fo rm a l appren ticesh ip o r equivalent
tra in in g and ex p erien c e.
mobile

T h i s classification d o e s not include m e c h a n i c s w h o
repair shops.

repair c u s t o m e r s '

vehicles in a u t o ­

M E C H A N IC , M A IN T E N A N C E
R ep a irs m a ch in ery o r m ech a n ica l equipment o f an establish m ent.
W ork in vo lv es m ost
o f the fo llo w in g : Exam ining m achines and m echan ical equipment to diagnose sou rce o f trou ble;
dism antlin g o r p a rtly dism antlin g m achines and p erfo rm in g re p a irs that m a in ly in volv e the use
o f handtools in scrapin g and fittin g pa rts; rep la cin g broken o r d e fe c tiv e parts w ith item s obtained
fr o m stock; o rd erin g the production o f a replacem ent part by a m achine shop o r sending o f the
m achine to a m achine shop fo r m a jo r re p a irs ; p repa rin g w ritten sp e cifica tion s fo r m a jo r rep a irs
or fo r the production o f parts o rd ered fr o m machine shop; re as sem b lin g m achines; and making
a ll n e c e s s a r y adjustm ents fo r operation. In g e n era l, the w ork o f a m aintenance m echan ic re q u ires
rounded tra in in g and e x p erien c e usually acqu ired through a fo rm a l a ppren ticesh ip o r equivalent
tra in in g and e x p erien c e.
Excluded fro m this cla s s ific a tio n a re w o rk e rs w hose p rim a ry duties
in volve setting up or adjusting m achines.
M IL L W R IG H T
In sta lls new m achines o r heavy equipm ent, and dism antles and in stalls m achines o r heavy
equipment when changes in the plant layout a re requ ired . W ork in volv es m o st o f the fo llo w in g :
Planning and laying out of the w ork; in te rp retin g blueprints or other sp e cifica tio n s; using a v a r ie ty
of handtools and rig gin g; making standard shop computations re la tin g to s tre s s e s , strength of
m a te r ia ls , and cen ters of g r a v ity ; alinin g and balancing o f equipm ent; s ele ctin g standard to o ls,
equipm ent, and parts to be used; and in sta llin g and m aintaining in good o rd e r pow er tra n sm iss ion
equipment such as d r iv e s and speed re d u cers . In ge n era l, the m illw r ig h t's w ork n o rm a lly requ ires
a rounded train in g and ex p erien c e in the trade acqu ired through a fo rm a l apprenticeship or
equivalent tra in in g and ex p erien c e.
P A IN T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E
Pain ts and re d eco ra tes w a lls , w oodw ork, and fix tu res o f an establish m ent. W ork in volves
the fo llo w in g : Kn ow ledge of su rface p e c u lia r itie s and types o f paint re q u ired fo r d ifferen t a p p lica ­
tion s; prep a rin g su rface fo r painting by re m o vin g old fin ish o r by placing putty or f i l l e r in nail

28
P A I N T E R , M A I N T E N A N C E — Continued

S H E E T -M E T A L

W O R K E R , M A I N T E N A N C E — Continued

holes and in te r s tic e s ; and applying paint with sp ra y gun o r brush. M ay m ix c o lo r s , o ils , white
lead, and oth er paint in gred ien ts to obtain p ro p e r c o lo r o r co n s isten c y. In ge n era l, the w ork o f the
m aintenance pa in ter re q u ire s rounded tra in in g and e x p erien c e u su ally a cq u ired through a fo rm a l
a pprenticeship o r equ ivalen t tra in in g and ex p erien c e.

up and operatin g a ll a va ila b le types o f sh eet-m e ta l w orkin g m ach in es; using a v a r ie ty o f handtools
in cutting, bending, fo rm in g , shaping, fittin g , and a ssem b lin g; and in s ta llin g sh eet-m e ta l a r tic le s
as re q u ired .
In g e n e ra l, the w ork o f the m aintenance s h eet-m e ta l w o rk e r re q u ire s rounded
tra in in g and e x p erien c e u su ally acq u ired through a fo rm a l a p p ren ticesh ip o r equ ivalen t train in g
and e x p erien c e.

P I P E F I T T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E
In sta lls o r re p a irs w a te r, steam , ga s, o r oth er types o f pipe and p ip efittin gs in an
establish m ent. W ork in vo lv es m o st o f the fo llo w in g ; L a yin g out o f w ork and m easu rin g to lo ca te
p o sition o f pipe fr o m draw in gs o r oth er w ritten s p e cifica tio n s; cutting va rio u s s iz e s o f pipe to
c o r r e c t lengths with ch isel and h am m er o r o xy a c etylen e torch o r pipe-cu ttin g m ach in es; threadin g
pipe with stocks and d ies ; bending pipe by h an d -d riven o r p o w e r-d r iv e n m ach in es; assem blin g
pipe with couplings and fasten ing pipe to h an gers; m aking standard shop com putations re la tin g to
p r e s s u re s , flo w , and s iz e o f pipe re q u ired ; and m aking standard tests to d eterm in e w hether fin ­
ished pipes m eet sp e c ific a tio n s . In g e n era l, the w ork o f the m aintenance p ip e fitte r re q u ire s
rounded tra in in g and e x p erien c e u su ally a cq u ired through a fo rm a l apprenticeship o r equ ivalen t
tra in in g and e x p erien c e. W o rk ers p r im a r ily engaged in in sta llin g and re p a irin g building sanitation
o r heating system s a re exclu d ed .
S H E E T -M E T A L W O R K E R , M A IN T E N A N C E
F a b r ic a te s , in s ta lls , and m aintains in good re p a ir the sh eet-m eta l equipm ent and fix tu res
(such as m achine gu ards, g r e a s e pans, sh elves , lo c k e r s , tanks, ven tila to rs , chutes, ducts, m eta l
ro o fin g ) o f an establish m ent. W ork in vo lv es m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Planning and la yin g out a ll
typ es-of s h eet-m e ta l m aintenance w ork fr o m b lu eprin ts, m o d els , o r other s p e cifica tio n s; setting

T O O L A N D DIE M A K E R
(D ie m a k er; j i g m a k er; too l m a k e r; fix tu re m a k e r; gage m a k e r)
C on stru cts and r e p a irs m a ch in e-sh op to o ls , ga ges, jig s ,' fix tu res o r dies fo r fo rg in g s,
punching, and oth er m e ta l- fo r m in g w ork.
W ork in vo lv es m o s t o f the fo llo w in g : Planning and
la yin g out o f w ork fro m m o d els , blu eprin ts, d raw in gs, o r oth er o ra l and w ritten sp e cifica tion s;
using a v a r ie ty o f to o l and d ie m a k e r's handtools and p r e c is io n m ea s u rin g in stru m en ts; u nd er­
standing o f the w orkin g p r o p e rtie s o f com m on m eta ls and a llo y s; settin g up and opera tin g o f
m achine too ls and re la ted equipment; m aking n e c e s s a ry shop com putations re la tin g to dim ensions
o f w ork, speeds, fee d s, and too lin g o f m ach in es; h ea t-trea tin g o f m e ta l parts during fa b rica tio n
as w e ll as o f fin ish ed to o ls and dies to a ch ieve re q u ired q u alities; w orkin g to c lo s e to le ra n c e s ;
fittin g and assem b lin g o f parts to p r e s c r ib e d tole ra n c e s and allow a n ces; and sele ctin g ap p rop ria te
m a te r ia ls , to o ls , and p r o c e s s e s . In ge n era l, the to o l and die m a k e r 's w ork re q u ires a rounded
tra in in g in m a ch in e-sh op and too lro o m p ra c tic e u su ally a cq u ired through a fo rm a l a pprenticeship
o r equ ivalent tra in in g and e x p erien c e.
F o r c r o s s -in d u s tr y w age study pu rp oses, too l and die m a k e rs in to o l
shops a re exclu ded fr o m this c la s s ific a tio n .

and d ie jobbing

C U S T O D I A L A N D M A T E R IA L M O V E M E N T
P A C K E R , S H IP P IN G — Continued

GUARD A N D W A T C H M A N
G u ard. P e r fo r m s routine p o lic e du ties, eith e r at fix ed post o r on tou r, m aintaining o rd e r ,
using a rm s o r fo r c e w h ere n e c e s s a ry . Includes gatem en who a re stationed at gate and check
on id en tity o f em p loy ees and oth er perso n s en te rin g .

and s iz e o f con ta in er; in s e rtin g en clo su res in contain er; using e x c e ls io r o r oth er m a te r ia l to
p reven t b reakage o r dam age; c lo sin g and sea lin g con tain er; and applying la b els o r en terin g
id en tifyin g data on con ta in er.
P a c k e rs who a lso m ake w ooden boxes o r c ra te s a re ex clu d ed .

W atchm an. M akes rounds o f p r e m is e s p e r io d ic a lly in protectin g p ro p e rty against fir e ,
theft, and ille g a l en try.

S H IP P IN G A N D R E C E IV IN G C L E R K

J A N IT O R , P O R T E R , O R C L E A N E R
(S w eeper; charw om an; ja n itr e s s )
C leans and keeps in an o r d e r ly condition fa c to ry w orkin g area s and w ash room s, o r
p re m is e s o f an o ffic e , apartm ent house, o r c o m m e rc ia l o r oth er establish m ent. Duties in volve
a com bination o f the fo llo w in g : Sweeping, m opping o r scrubbing, and polish ing flo o r s ; rem o vin g
chips, tra sh , and oth er re fu se; dusting equipm ent, fu rn itu re, o r fix tu res; polish in g m e ta l fi x ­
tu res o r trim m in g s ; p rovid in g supplies and m in o r m aintenance s e r v ic e s ; and clean ing la v a to r ie s ,
sh ow ers, and re s tro o m s . W ork ers who s p e c ia lize in w indow washing a re exclu ded.

P r e p a r e s m e rch a n d is e fo r shipm ent, o r r e c e iv e s and is re sp o n sib le fo r in com ing ship­
m ents o f m erch a n d ise o r oth er m a te r ia ls . Shipping w ork in v o lv e s : A know ledge o f shipping p r o ­
ced u res, p r a c tic e s , rou tes, a va ila b le m eans o f tra n sp o rta tio n , and ra tes; and p rep a rin g re c o rd s
o f the goods shipped, m aking up b ills of ladin g, posting w eigh t and shipping ch a rge s, and keeping
a file o f shipping re c o r d s . M a y d ir e c t o r a s s is t in p rep a rin g the m erch a n d ise fo r shipment.
R e c e iv in g w ork in v o lv e s : V e r ify in g o r d ire c tin g oth ers in v e r ify in g the c o rr e c tn e s s o f shipments
again st b ills o f ladin g, in v o ic e s , o r oth er r e c o r d s ; ch eckin g fo r sh ortages and r e je c tin g dam ­
aged goods; routing m erch a n dise o r m a te r ia ls to p ro p e r dep artm en ts; and m aintaining n ece s s a ry
re c o rd s and file s .
F o r w age study pu rp oses, w o rk e rs a re c la s s ifie d as fo llo w s:
R e c e iv in g c le r k
Shipping c le r k
Shipping and re c e iv in g c le r k

L A B O R E R , M A T E R IA L H A N D L IN G
(L o a d e r and u nloader; han dler and stacker;
w arehousem an o r w areh ou se h elp er)

sh e lv e r;

tru ck e r;

stockman o r stock h elp er;

A w o rk er em p loyed in a w areh ou se, m anufacturing plant, sto re, o r o th er establish m ent
whose duties in vo lv e one o r m o r e o f the fo llo w in g : Load ing and unloading va rio u s m a te r ia ls and
m erch an dise on o r fr o m fr e ig h t c a rs , tru cks, o r oth er tra n sp o rtin g d ev ices; unpacking, sh elvin g,
o r pla cin g m a te r ia ls o r m e rch a n d is e in p ro p e r sto ra ge location ; and tra n sp o rtin g m a te r ia ls o r
m erch a n d ise by handtruck, c a r, o r w h e elb a rro w . Lon gsh orem en , who load and unload ships a re
exclu ded.
ORDER F I L L E R
(O rd e r p ick er; stock s e le c to r ; w areh ou se stockman)
F ills shipping o r tr a n s fe r o rd e r s fo r fin ish ed goods fr o m stored m erch a n d ise in a c c o rd ­
ance with sp e cifica tion s on sales slip s , cu s to m e rs ' o r d e r s , o r oth er in stru ction s. M ay, in addition
to fillin g o r d e r s and in dicating item s fille d o r om itted, keep re c o rd s o f outgoing o rd e r s , re q u i­
sition additional stock o r re p o r t sh ort supplies to s u p e rv is o r, and p e rfo rm oth er re la te d duties.

T R U C K D R IV E R
D riv e s a tru ck w ithin a city o r in d u stria l a rea to tra n sp o rt m a te r ia ls , m erch a n dise,
equipm ent, o r m en betw een va rio u s types o f establish m en ts such as: M anufacturing plants, fre ig h t
depots, w areh ou ses, w h o lesa le and re ta il establish m en ts, o r betw een r e ta il establish m ents and
cu s to m e rs ' houses o r p la ces o f bu sin ess. M ay a lso load o r unload tru ck with o r without h e lp e rs ,
m ake m in o r m ech a n ica l re p a irs , and keep tru ck in good w orkin g o r d e r .
D riv e r -s a le s m e n and
o v e r - th e - r o a d d r iv e r s a re exclu d ed .
fo llo w s :

F o r w age study pu rp oses, tru c k d riv e r s a re c la s s ifie d by s iz e and type o f equipm ent, as
(T r a c t o r - t r a i l e r should be ra ted on the b asis o f t r a ile r ca p a city.)
T r u c k d riv e r
T r u c k d r iv e r ,
T r u c k d r iv e r ,
T r u c k d r iv e r ,
T r u c k d r iv e r ,

(com bin ation o f s iz e s lis te d se p a ra te ly )
ligh t (under IV 2 tons)
m ediu m ( l ’/ to and including 4 tons)
z
h eavy (o v e r 4 tons, t r a ile r type)
h eavy (o v e r 4 tons, o th er than t r a ile r typ e)

T R U C K E R , PO W E R
P A C K E R , S H IP P IN G
P r e p a r e s fin ish ed produ cts fo r shipment o r s to ra ge by placing them in shipping con ­
ta in e rs , the sp e c ific operations p e r fo rm e d being dependent upon the type, s iz e , and number
o f units to be packed, the type o f contain er em ployed, and m ethod o f shipm ent. W ork re q u ire s
the placin g o f item s in shipping contain ers and m ay in vo lv e one or m o re of the fo llo w in g :
Know ledge o f va rio u s item s o f stock in o rd e r to v e r ify content; selection o f a ppropria te type




O pera tes a m an u ally co n tro lle d gasolin e- o r e le c tr ic -p o w e re d tru ck o r t r a c t o r to tra n sp o rt
goods and m a te r ia ls o f a ll kinds about a w areh ou se, m anu facturing plant, o r oth er establish m ent.
F o r w age study p u rp oses,

w o rk e rs a re c la s s ifie d by type o f tru ck,

T r u c k e r, p o w er (fo r k lift)
T r u c k e r, p ow er (oth er than fo r k lift)

as fo llo w s :

Available O n R e q u e s t----The following areas are surveyed p eriod ica lly for use in adm inistering the S ervice Contract A ct of 1965.
available at no cost while supplies last from any of the BLS regional offices shown on the inside front cover.

Alaska
Albany, Ga.
Alpena, Standish, and Tawas City, Mich.
A m a rillo , Tex.
A sh eville, N.C.
Atlantic City, N.J.
Augusta, Ga.—
S.C.
Austin, Tex.
B akersfield, Calif.
Baton Rouge, La.
B iloxi, Gulfport, and Pascagoula, M iss.
Bridgeport, Norwalk, and Stamford, Conn.
Charleston, S.C.
C la rk sville, Tenn., and H opkinsville, Ky.
Colorado Springs, Colo.
Columbia, S.C.
Columbus, Ga.—
Ala.
Crane, Ind.
Dothan, Ala.
Duluth-Superior, M inn—Wis.
Durham, N.C.
E l Paso, Tex.
Eugene, Oreg.
F a r g o —M o o r h e a d , N. D a k .—M in n .
F ayetteville, N.C.
Fitchburg— eo m in ster, M ass.
L
F ort Smith, A rk.—
Okla.
F red erick —
Hagerstown, Md.—P a —W. Va.
Great F a lls, Mont.
Greensboro—
Winston Salem—
High Point, N.C.
H arrisburg, Pa.
Huntsville, Ala.
Knoxville, Tenn.

Copies of public releases are

Laredo, Tex.
Las Vegas, Nev.
Lexington, Ky.
Low er Eastern Shore, Md.—
Va.
Macon, Ga.
Marquette, Escanaba, Sault Ste. M arie, Mich.
M eridian, M iss.
M iddlesex, Monmouth, Ocean and Som erset
Cos., N.J.
M obile, A la., and Pensacola, Fla.
M ontgom ery, Ala.
N ashville, Tenn.
New London—
Groton—
Norwich, Conn.
Northeastern Maine
Ogden, Utah
Orlando, Fla.
Oxnard—
Ventura, Calif.
Panama City, Fla.
Pine Bluff, A rk.
Portsmouth, N.H.—
Maine— ass.
M
Pueblo, Colo.
Reno, Nev,
Sacramento, C alif.
S a n ta B a r b a r a ,

C a lif.

Shreveport, La.
Springfield—
Chicopee— olyoke, Mass —Conn.
H
Stockton, C alif.
Tacom a, Wash.
Topeka, Kans.
Tucson, A r iz .
V a llejo —
Napa, Calif.
Wichita F a lls, Tex.
Wilmington, D e l—
N.J.—
Md.

The eleventh annual report on salaries for accountants, auditors, chief accountants, attorneys, job analysts, d irectors o f personnel,
buyers, chem ists, engineers, engineering technicians, draftsm en, and c le ric a l em ployees. O rder as BLS Bulletin 1693, National
Survey of Profession al, Adm inistrative, Technical, and C le ric a l Pay, June 1970, $1.00 a copy, from the Superintendent of Documents,
U.S. Government Printing O ffice, Washington, D.C., 20402, or any of its regional sales offices.




☆ U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE:

1972 - 745- 103/67




A r e a W a g e Surveys
A list of the latest available bulletins is presented below. A d irectory of area wage studies including m ore lim ited studies conducted at
the request of the Employment Standards Adm inistration of the Department of Labor is available on request. Bulletins may be purchased from the
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing O ffice, Washington, D.C., 20402, or from any of the BLS regional sales offices shown on
the inside front cover.

A rea
Akron, Ohio, July 1971 1
--------------------------------------Albany—
Schenectady—
Troy, N .Y ., Mar. 1971 1---------Albuquerque, N. M ex., Mar. 1971_____ _______________
Allentown—
Bethlehem—
Easton, P a .-N .J ., May 1971—
Atlanta, Ga., May 1971________________________________
B altim ore, M d., Aug. 1971 ----------------------------------Beaum ont-Port Arthur—
Orange, T ex., May 1971 1--Binghamton, N .Y ., July 1971 1------------------------------Birmingham, A la ., Mar. 1971 1 ----------------------------B oise City, Idaho, Nov. 1971__________________________
Boston, M ass., Aug. 1971------------------------------------Buffalo, N .Y ., Oct. 1971--------------------------------------Burlington, V t., Dec. 1971-----------------------------------Canton, Ohio, May 1971_______________________________
Charleston, W. V a ., Mar. 1971_______________________
Charlotte, N.C., Jan. 1971-----------------------------------Chattanooga, Tenn.-Ca., Sept. 1971----------------------Chicago, 111., June 1971 1 ------------------------------------Cincinnati, Ohio—
Ky.—
Ind., Feb. 1971 1------------------Cleveland, Ohio, Sept. 1971___________________________
Columbus, Ohio, Oct. 1971 ----------------------------------Dallas, T ex., Oct. 1971---------------------------------------Davenport—
Rock Island— oline, Iowa—
M
111.,
Feb. 1971______________________________________________
Dayton, Ohio, Dec. 1971 1------------------------------------Denver, Colo., Dec. 1970__________________ -_________
Des Moines, Iowa, May 1971__________________________
D etroit, M ich., Feb. 1971 1__________________ _________
F o rt Worth, T ex., Oct. 1971__________________________
Green Bay, W is., July 1971 ---------------------------------G reen ville, S.C., May 1971 1__________________________
Houston, Tex., Apr. 1971 1 ___________________________
Indianapolis, Ind., Oct. 1971__________________________
Jackson, M iss., Jan. 1972-----------------------------------Jacksonville, F la., Dec. 1971-------------------------------Kansas City, M o.-Kans., Sept. 1971 ---------------------Lawrence— averhill, Mass.—
H
N.H., June 1971 ---------L ittle Rock—
North Little Rock, A rk ., July 1971 ------Los Angeles—Long Beach and Anaheim—
Santa AnaGarden G rove, C alif., Mar. 1971 1 __________________
Lou isville, Ky.—
Ind., Nov. 1971 1 --------------------------Lubbock, T ex., Mar. 1971_____ ______ _______________
Manchester, N.H., July 1971--------------------------------Memphis, T e n n .-A rk ., Nov. 1971 1 ----------------------M iam i, F la., Nov. 1971_______________________________
Midland and Odessa, T ex., Jan. 1972 1
------------------Milwaukee, W is., May 1971___________________________
Minneapolis—
St. Paul, Minn., Jan. 1971—
----------------l

Bulletin number
and p rice
1685-87,
1685-54,
1685-58,
1685-75,
1685-69,
1725-16,
1685-68,
1725-6,
1685-63,
1725-27,
1725-11,
1725-34,
1725-25,
1685-71,
1685-57,
1685-48,
1725-14,
1685-90,
1685-53,
1725-17,
1725-19,
1725-26,

40cents
35cents
30cents
30cents
40cents
35cents
35cents
35cents
40cents
30cents
40cents
45cents
25cents
30cents
30cents
30cents
30cents
70cents
45cents
40cents
30cents
35cents

1685-51,
1725-36,
1685-41,
1685-70,
1685-77,
1725-21,
1725-3,
1685-78,
1685-67,
1725-23,
1725-38,
1725-39,
1725-18,
1685-83,
1725-4,

30cents
35cents
35 cents
30cents
50cents
30cents
30cents
35cents
50cents
30cents
30cents
30cents
35cents
30cents
30cents

1685-66,
1725-29,
1685-60,
1725-2,
1725-40,
1725-28,
1725-37,
1685-76,
1685-44,

50cents
35cents
30cents
30cents
35cents
30cents
30cents
35cents
40cents

Data on establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions are also presented.




A rea
Muskegon—
Muskegon Heights, M ich., June 1971______
Newark and J ersey City, N.J., Jan. 1971____________
New Haven, Conn., Jan. 1972 1 ---------------------------New Orleans, La., Jan. 1972-------------------------------New York, N .Y ., Apr. 1971__________________________
Norfolk—
Portsm outh and Newport News—
Hampton, V a ., Jan. 1971 1 __________________________
Oklahoma City, O kla., July 1971 1___________________
Omaha, N ebr.-Iow a, Sept. 1971*____________________
Paterson—
Clifton— assaic, N.J., June 1971_________
P
Philadelphia, P a .-N .J ., Nov. 1970-----------------------Phoenix, A r i z . , June 1971 ----------------------------------Pittsburgh, Pa., Jan. 1971 1--------------------------------Portland, Maine, Nov. 1971 1
_________________________
Portland, Or eg.—
Wash., May 1971___________________
Providence—
Pawtucket— arwick, R.I.— ass.,
W
M
May 1971 1 ------------------------------------------------------Raleigh, N .C ., Aug. 1971------------------------------------Richmond, V a ., Mar. 1971----------------------------------R ochester, N.Y. (office occupations only),
July 1971 1 ------------------------------------------------------Rockford, 111., May 1971 ------------------------------------St. Louis, Mo.—
111., Mar. 197 1 1______________________
Salt Lake City, Utah, Nov. 1971______________________
San Antonio, T e x ., May 197 1 1_______________________
San Bernardino— iversid e—
R
Ontario, C alif.,
Dec. 1970 1------------------------------------------------------San Diego, C a lif., Nov. 1971 1 -----------------------------San Francisco—
Oakland, C alif., Oct.1971 1___________
San Jose, C a lif., Aug. 1971 1-------------------------------Savannah, G a., May 1971_____________________________
Scranton, P a ., July 1971_____________________________
Seattle— verett, W ash., J an. 1971 1---------------------E
Sioux F a lls , S. Dak., Dec. 1971______________________
South Bend, Ind., Mar. 1971__________________________
Spokane, W ash., June 1971___________________________
Syracuse, N .Y ., July 1971 1 --------------------------------Tampa— P etersbu rg, Fla., Nov. 1971 1___________
St.
Toledo, Ohio— ich ., Apr. 1971 1_____________________
M
Trenton, N .J ., Sept. 1971 -----------------------------------Utica— om e, N .Y ., July 1971 1 ______________________
R
Washington, D.C.—
Md.— a ., Apr. 1971______________
V
W aterbury, Conn., Mar. 1971________________________
W aterloo, Iowa, Nov. 1971___________________________
Wichita, Kans., Apr. 1971___________________________
W orcester, M ass., May 1971________________________
York, P a .. Feb. 1971_________________________________
Youngstown— arren, Ohio, Nov. 1970_______________
W

Bulletin number
and price
1685-82,
1685-47,
1725-41,
1725-35,
1685-89,

30 cents
40 cents
35 cents
30 cents
65 cents

1685-46,
1725-8,
1725- 13,
1685-84,
1685-34,
1685-86,
1685-49,
1725-22,
1685-85,

35 cents
35 cents
35 cents
35 cents
50 cents
30 cents
50 cents
35 cents
35cents

1685-80,
1725-5,
1685-62,

40 cents
30 cents
30 cents

1725-7,
1685-79,
1685-65,
1725-24,
1685-81,

35 cents
30 cents
50 cents
30 cents
35 cents

1685-42,
1725-32,
1725-33,
1725-15,
1685-72,
1725-1,
1685-52,
1725-30,
1685-61,
1685-88,
1725- 10,
1725-31,
1685-74,
1725-12,
1725-9,
1685-56,
1685-55,
1725-20,
1685-64,
1685-73,
1685-50,
1685-24,

40 cents
35 cents
50 cents
35 cents
30 cents
30 cents
35 cents
25 cents
30 cents
30 cents
35 cents
35 cents
40 cents
30 cents
35 cents
40 cents
30 cents
30 cents
30 cents
30 cents
30 cents
30 cents

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
W ASHING TO N, D.C. 20212

O F F IC IA L BUSINESS
PENALTY FOR PR IV A TE USE, $300




FIRST CLASS M AIL
POSTAGE A N D FEES PAID

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102