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A P R 1 81972
DOCUMENT c o l l e c t i o n

REA WAGE SURVEY
s, S o u t h D a k o t a , M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a ,
D e c e m b e r 1971

B u l le t in 1 7 2 5 - 3 0
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR / Bureau of Labor Statistics

BUREAU

OF

LABOR

S T A T IS T IC S

R E G IO N A L

O F F IC E S

ALASKA

Region I




1603-JFK Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: 223-6761 (Area Code 617)

Region II
341 Ninth Ave., Rm. 1003
New York, N .Y . 10001
Phone: 971-5405 (Area Code 212)

Region VI
Region V
8th Floor, 300 South Wacker Drive
1100 Commerce St., Rm. 6B7
Chicago, III. 60606
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone: 353-1880 (Area Code 312)
Phone: 749-3516 (Area Code 214)
Regions V II and V III will be serviced by Kansas City.
Regions IX and X will be serviced by San Francisco.

Region III
406 Penn Square Building
1317 Filbert St.
Philadelphia, Pa. 19107
Phone: 597-7796 (Area Code 215)

Region IV
Suite 540
1371 Peachtree St. NE.
Atlanta, Ga. 30309
Phone: 526-5418 (Area Code 404)

Regions V II and V III
Federal Office Building
911 Walnut St., 10th Floor
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: 374-2481 (Area Code 816)

Regions IX and X
450 Golden Gate Ave.
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: 556-4678 (Area Code 415)

AREA WAGE SURVEY

Bulletin J 7 2 5 -3 0

U.S. DEPARTM ENT OF LABOR, J. D. Hodgson, Secretary

M a rc h 1 9 7 2

B U R EA U OF LABOR S TA TIS TIC S, Geoffrey H. Moore, Commissioner

T h e S io u x F a lls , S o u th D a k o ta , M e tro p o lita n A re a , D e c e m b e r 1971
CONTENTS
Page

1. Introduction
T a b le s :
3.

1. E stablish m en ts and w o rk e rs within scope of su rvey and num ber studied
A.

4.
5.
5.
6.
6.

O ccupational ea rn in gs:
A - l . O ffic e occupations— en and w om en
m
A - 2. P r o fe s s io n a l and tech n ical occupations— en
m
A - 3. O ffic e , p ro fe s s io n a l, and tech n ical occupations^m en and w om en com bined
A - 4 . M aintenance and pow erplant occupations
A - 5. C ustodial and m a te r ia l m ovem en t occupations

8. Appendix.

O ccupational d escrip tio n s




For sale by the Superintendent o f Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 20402 — Price 25 cents

P re fa c e
The Bureau of L a b or S tatistics p ro g ra m of annual occupa­
tional w age su rveys in m etro p o lita n a re a s is designed to p ro vid e data
on occupational earn in gs, and estab lish m en t p ra c tic e s and supplem en­
ta ry w age p ro v is io n s . It yie ld s d eta iled data by sele c te d in du stry
d iv is io n fo r each of the a re a s studied, fo r geograp h ic re g io n s , and
fo r the United States. A m a jo r co n sid era tio n in the p ro g ra m is the
need fo r g r e a te r in sigh t into ( l ) the m ovem en t of w ages by occupa­
tion al c a te g o r y and s k ill le v e l, and (2) the stru ctu re and le v e l of wages
am ong a re a s and in du stry d iv is io n s .
A t the end of each su rvey, an individual a rea bu lletin p r e ­
sents the re s u lts . A ft e r com p letion of a ll individual a rea bulletins
fo r a round of su rv e y s , two su m m ary bu lletin s a re issu ed.
The f ir s t
b rin gs data fo r each o f the m etro p o lita n a re a s studied into one bu l­
letin .
The second presen ts in form a tion which has been p ro je c te d fr o m
individual m etro p o lita n a re a data to r e la te to geograp h ic regio n s and
the United States.
N in ety a re a s c u rre n tly a re included in the p ro g ra m . In each
a re a , in fo rm a tio n on occupational earn in gs is c o lle c te d annually and on
estab lish m en t p ra c tic e s and su pplem en tary w age p ro visio n s b ien n ially.
This bu lletin presen ts re s u lts o f the su rvey in Sioux F a lls ,
S. Dak., in D ecem b er 1971.
The Standard M etrop olita n S ta tistica l
A r e a , as defin ed by the O ffic e of M anagem ent and Budget (fo r m e r ly
the Bureau o f the Budget) through January 1968, con sists o f Minnehaha
County.
This study was conducted by the B u reau 's re g io n a l o ffic e in
Kansas C ity, M o ., under the g e n e ra l d ire c tio n of E dw ard Chaiken,
A s s is ta n t R eg io n a l D ir e c to r fo r O peration s.




Note:
S im ila r tabulations
in sid e back c o v e r .)

a re

a v a ila b le

fo r other a re a s .

(See

Union w age ra te s , in d ica tive of p re v a ilin g pay le v e ls in
the Sioux F a lls a re a , a re a ls o a v a ila b le fo r seven s e le c te d
building tra d e s .

In tro d u c tio n
T h is a re a is 1 o f 90 in which the U.S. D epartm ent o f L a b o r 's
B ureau o f L a b o r S ta tistics conducts su rveys o f occupational earnings
and re la te d b en efits on an a rea w id e b a s is .1

the A - s e r ie s ta b les, because e ith e r (1) em ploym ent in the occupation is
too sm a ll to p ro v id e enough data to m e r it presen tation , o r (2) th ere is
p o s s ib ility o f d is c lo s u re o f in d ivid u al establishm ent data. E arnings
data not shown s e p a ra te ly fo r in du stry d ivision s a re included in the
o v e r a ll c la s s ific a tio n when a su b cla ssifica tio n o f s e c r e ta r ie s o r tru ck d r iv e r s is not shown o r in fo rm a tio n to su b cla ssify is not ava ila b le.

T h is bu lletin presen ts cu rren t occupational em ploym ent and
earn in gs in form a tion obtained la r g e ly by m a il fr o m the establishm ents
v is ite d by Bureau fie ld econ om ists in the la st p revio u s su rvey fo r
occupations re p o rte d in that e a r lie r study. P e r s o n a l v is its w e re made
to nonrespondents and to those respondents rep o rtin g unusual changes
since the p revio u s su rvey.

O ccupational em ploym en t and earnings data a re shown fo r
fu ll-tim e w o r k e r s , i.e ., those h ire d to w o rk a reg u la r w e e k ly schedule.
E arn in gs data exclude p rem iu m pay fo r o v e rtim e and fo r w o rk on
w eeken ds, h olid ays, and late sh ifts. N onproduction bonuses a re e x ­
cluded, but c o s t- o f- liv in g a llow an ces and in cen tive earnings a re in ­
cluded.
W h ere w e e k ly hours a re re p o rte d , as fo r o ffic e c le r ic a l
occupations, re fe r e n c e is to the standard w ork w eek (rounded to the
n e a re s t h a lf hour) fo r w hich em p lo yees r e c e iv e th e ir reg u la r straigh ttim e s a la rie s (e x c lu s iv e o f pay fo r o v e rtim e at reg u la r and/or p r e ­
m ium ra te s ). A v e r a g e w e e k ly earnings fo r these occupations have
been rounded to the n ea rest h a lf d o lla r.

In each a re a , data a re obtained fr o m re p re s e n ta tiv e estab ­
lish m en ts w ithin six b road in du stry d iv is io n s : M anufacturing; tra n s ­
p ortation , com m unication, and oth er public u tilitie s ; w h o lesa le trad e;
r e ta il tra d e; finance, insu rance, and r e a l estate; and s e r v ic e s . M a jo r
indu stry groups excluded fr o m these studies a re govern m en t o p e ra ­
tions and the con stru ction and e x tra c tiv e in d u stries. E stablishm ents
having fe w e r than a p re s c r ib e d num ber o f w o rk e rs a re om itted because
they tend to fu rnish in su fficien t em ploym ent in the occupations studied
to w a rra n t inclusion. Separate tabulations a re p ro vid ed fo r each of
the broad industry d ivision s which m e e t publication c r ite r ia .

T h ese su rveys m ea su re the le v e l o f occupational earnings in
an a rea at a p a rtic u la r tim e. C om p arison s o f individual occupational
a v e ra g e s o v e r tim e m ay not r e fle c t expected w age changes. The
a v e ra g e s fo r in d ividu al jobs a re a ffe c te d by changes in w ages and
em ploym en t pattern s. F o r exam p le, p ro p ortion s o f w o rk e rs em ployed
by h igh - or lo w -w a g e fir m s m a y change o r h igh -w age w o rk e rs m ay
advance to b e tte r jobs and be rep la ced by new w o rk e rs at lo w e r rates.
Such shifts in em ploym en t could d e c re a s e an occupational a vera g e even
though m ost establish m en ts in an a re a in c re a s e w ages during the yea r.
T ren ds in earnings o f occupational grou ps, shown in table 2, a re b etter
in d ica tors o f w age trends than individual job s w ithin the groups.

T h ese su rveys a re conducted on a sam ple b asis because of
the u n n ecessary cost in vo lved in su rveyin g a ll establish m en ts.
To
obtain optim um a ccu ra cy at m inim um cost, a g r e a te r p ro p o rtio n of
la rg e than o f s m a ll establish m en ts is studied. In com bining the data,
h o w ever, a ll establishm ents a re given th e ir ap p rop ria te w eight. E s ­
tim a tes based on the establish m en ts studied a re presen ted , th e re fo re ,
as rela tin g to a ll establishm ents in the indu stry grouping and a rea ,
excep t fo r those b elow the m inim um s iz e studied.
Occupations and E arn in gs
The occupations s e le c te d fo r study a re com m on to a v a r ie ty
o f m anufacturing and nonm anufacturing in d u stries, and a re o f the
fo llo w in g typ es: (1) O ffic e c le r ic a l; (2) p ro fe s s io n a l and tech n ical;
(3) m aintenance and pow erplan t; and (4) cu stodial and m a te r ia l m o v e ­
m ent. O ccupational c la s s ific a tio n is based on a u n iform set o f job
d escrip tio n s design ed to take account o f in teresta b lish m en t v a ria tio n
in duties w ithin the sam e job.
The occupations sele c te d fo r study
a re lis te d and d es c rib e d in the appendix. U nless o th erw ise indicated,
the earnings data fo llo w in g the job title s a re fo r a ll in d u stries co m ­
bined. E arn in gs data fo r som e o f the occupations lis te d and d esc rib e d ,
o r fo r som e in du stry d ivision s w ithin occupations, a re not p resen ted in

Th e a v e ra g e s p resen ted r e fle c t com p osite, areaw id e e s t i­
m ates.
In du stries and establish m en ts d iffe r in pay le v e l and job
staffin g and, thus, contribute d iffe r e n tly to the estim a tes fo r each job.
The pay rela tion sh ip obtainable fr o m the a v e ra g e s m ay fa il to r e fle c t
a c c u ra te ly the w age spread o r d iffe r e n tia l m aintained among job s in
individu al establish m en ts. S im ila r ly , d iffe re n c e s in a v e ra g e pay levels^
fo r m en and w om en in any o f the s e le c te d occupations should not be
assum ed to r e fle c t d iffe re n c e s in pay treatm en t o f the sexes w ithin
individu al establish m en ts. O th er p o ssib le fa c to rs which m ay con ­
tribu te to d iffe re n c e s in pay fo r m en and w om en include: D iffe re n c e s
in p ro g re s s io n w ithin estab lish ed rate ran ges, since only the actual
1
Included in the 90 areas are four studies conducted under contract with the New York State
rates paid incum bents a re c o lle c te d ; and d iffe re n c e s in s p e c ific duties
Department of Labor. These areas are Bingham (New York portion only) Rochester (office occupa­
ton
p e rfo rm e d , although the w o rk e rs a re c la s s ifie d a p p ro p ria te ly w ithin
tions only); Syracuse; and Utica-Rome. In addition, the B
ureau conducts more limited area studies in
the sam e su rvey jo b d escrip tio n . Job d escrip tion s used in c la s s ify in g
65 areas at the request of the Employment Standards Administration of the U. S. Department of Labor.




1

2
em p loyees in these su rveys a re u su ally m o re g e n e ra liz e d than those
used in in d ividu al establish m en ts and a llow fo r m in o r d iffe re n c e s
among estab lish m en ts in the s p e c ific duties p e rfo rm e d .
O ccu pation al em ploym en t estim a tes re p re s e n t the total in a ll
establish m en ts w ith in the scope o f the study and not the number actu­
a lly su rveyed . B ecau se o f d iffe re n c e s in occupational stru ctu re among
esta b lish m en ts, the estim ates o f occupational em ploym ent obtained from
the sam ple o f estab lish m en ts studied s e r v e only to indicate the re la tiv e
im p orta n ce o f the jobs studied.
T h ese d iffe re n c e s in occupational
stru ctu re do not a ffe c t m a te r ia lly the a c c u ra c y of the earnings data.




E stab lish m en t P r a c t ic e s and Supplem entary W age P r o v is io n s

Tabulations on s e le c te d establish m en t p ra c tic e s and supple­
m en ta ry w age p ro v is io n s (B - s e r ie s tables) a re not p resen ted in this
bulletin.
In form a tion fo r these tabulations is c o lle c te d b ien n ially.
T h ese tabulations on m inim um entrance s a la rie s fo r in exp erien ced
w om en o ffic e w o r k e r s; shift d iffe r e n tia ls ; scheduled w e e k ly hours;
paid h olid ays; paid va ca tion s; and health, in su ran ce, and pension
plans a re p resen ted (in the B - s e r ie s tab les) in p revio u s bu lletins
fo r this area .

3

T a b l e 1.

E s t a b lis h m e n t s

and

w o rk e rs

w jth in

scope

of s u rv e y

and

n u m b e r s t u d ie d

in S io u x F a lls , S . D a k .,1

b y m a j o r in d u s tr y d i v i s i o n / D e c e m b e r 1 9 7 1
M in im u m
e m p lo y m e n t
in e s t a b lis h ­
m e n ts in sco p e
o f stu d y

In d u s tr y d iv is io n

A l l d iv is io n s ___ —

N u m b e r o f e s ta b lis h m e n ts

W it h in sco p e
o f stu d y 3

S tu d ie d

— —

M a n u fa c t u r in g ___ — ___ - ___ _
____
_____
__ _ __ ___ —
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and
o th e r p u b lic u t il it i e s 5 _____ _ ___ ___ ___
W h o le s a le tr a d e 6 ______ ______________
—
R e t a il tr a d e 6______________ ___ — _____ F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te 6 -------S e r v i c e s 6 7 ----------------------------------------------

W o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts
W it h in sc o p e o f s t u d y 4
S tu d ie d
N um ber

P e rce n t

73

66

11, 544

100

11,029

50
-

20
53

20
46

5 ,4 7 2
6, 072

47
53

5 ,4 7 2
5, 557

50
50
50
50
50

11
11
21
7
3

11
11
14
7
3

2, 025
690
2, 630
526
201

18
22
5
2

2, 025
690
2. 115
526
201

6

1 The Sioux F a lls Standard M etropolitan S ta tistic al A re a, a s defined by the Office of M anagement and Budget (fo rm erly the B u reau of the
B udget) through Ja n u a ry 1968, c o n sists of Minnehaha County. The '^workers within scope of study" e stim a te s shown in this table provide a reason ably
accu rate d escrip tion of the size and com position of the labor force included in the survey. The e stim a te s a re not intended, however, to serv e as
a b a sis of com p arison with other employment indexes for the a re a to m easu re employment tren ds or le v e ls since (1) planning of wage surveys
re q u ires the use of establishm ent data com piled con sid erably in advance of the p ay roll p eriod studied, and (2) sm a ll establish m en ts a re excluded
from the scope of the survey.
2 The 1967 edition of the Standard Industrial C la ssificatio n Manual w as used in cla ssify in g establish m en ts by in dustry division.
3 Includes a ll establish m en ts with total employment at or above the m inim um lim itation. All outlets (within the area) of com panies in such
in d u stries a s trad e , finance, auto re p a ir se r v ic e , and motion p icture th eaters a re con sid ered as 1 establishm ent.
4 Includes a ll w o rk ers in a ll establish m en ts with total employment (within the area) at or above the m inim um lim itation.
5 A bbreviated to "p ub lic u tilitie s" in the A - se r ie s tab le s. T axicab s and se r v ic e s incidental to w ater tran sp ortation w ere excluded.
6 T h is in d u s t r y d iv is io n is r e p r e s e n t e d in e s t im a t e s f o r " a l l in d u s t r ie s " and " n o n m a n u fa c tu r in g " in th e S e r ie s A t a b le s . S e p a r a te p r e s e n ta tio n
o f d a ta f o r th is d iv is io n i s n ot m a d e f o r one o r m o r e o f th e fo llo w in g r e a s o n s : (1) E m p lo y m e n t in th e d iv is io n is to o s m a ll to p r o v id e en ou gh d a ta
to m e r i t s e p a r a t e s tu d y , (2) th e s a m p le w a s n o t d e s ig n e d i n it i a l ly to p e r m it s e p a r a t e p r e s e n t a t io n , (3) r e s p o n s e w a s in s u f f ic ie n t o r in a d e q u a te to
p e r m it s e p a r a t e p r e s e n t a t io n , and (4) t h e r e is p o s s i b i l i t y o f d is c lo s u r e o f in d iv id u a l e s t a b lis h m e n t d a ta.

7 Hotels and m o tels; laun dries and other p e rso n al s e r v ic e s; b u sin e ss s e r v ic e s; autom obile r e p a ir , ren tal, and parking; motion p ictu re s; nonprofit
m em bersh ip organ izations (excluding relig iou s and charitable organ ization s); and engineering and arch ite ctu ra l se r v ic e s.




A lm ost one-half of the w ork ers within scope of the survey in the Sioux F a lls a re a
w ere employed in m anufacturing firm s. The following p rese n ts the m ajo r in dustry groups
and sp ec ific in d u stries as a percent of a ll m anufacturing:
Industry groups

S p ecific in d u stries

Food and kindred p ro d u c ts____ 72
A p p arel and other textile
p ro d u c ts____________________ 9
F a b ric a te d m etal p ro d u c ts____ 8
M achinery, except e le ctr ic a l— 5

Meat produ cts_________________ 58
M iscellan eous fab ricate d
textile produ cts______________ 9
F ab rica ted stru ctu ral
m etal p rodu cts_______________ 8
D airy produ cts------- ------------- 6

T h is inform ation is based on e stim a te s of total employment derived from universe
m a te r ia ls com piled p rio r to actu al survey. P rop ortion s in vario u s in dustry d ivision s m ay
differ from proportions b a se d on the re su lts of the survey a s shown in table 1 above.

A.

Occupational earnings

T a b le A -1.

O ffic e o c c u p a tio n s —m en and w o m e n

(Average straight-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis by industry division, Sioux F a lls, S. Dak. , December 1971)
Weekly earnings
(standard)

S e x , occu p ation , and in d u stry d iv ision

Number
of
workers

1

N um ber of w o rk e rs r e c e iv in g s tra ig h t-tim e w eek ly ea rn in gs of—

i
Average
weekly
hours1
(standard)

*
60

M edian2

M ean2

Middle range2

$
65

S

t

70

75

*

t

t

80

I
95

10
0

90 _ 25. -IflO
_

1S5.

85

90

i

t

r

*

105

n o

115

10
2

10
1

115

10
2

130

i

t

$

t

I

t

t

S

20
0

130

160

150

160

170

180

190

n o

150

160

170

180

190

20 21
0
0

and
under

1 65

70 _ 15._ fifl.
_
_

.95

MEN

$

$

$

t®*®

3 9 .5

$

1

160*00

11 6 * 5 0

1

3

3

1

2

-

1

WOMEN

2**
25

6 0 .0

2^

ft*

9 0 .5 0

?-*'0

8 9 .5 0

NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------- —

17

3 9 .0

7 2 .5 0

60*0

16

00*50

3 9 .5 1 3 6 .0 0 1 2 7 .5 0
-

-

3

8

3

86*00

TO

*

1
1
1

6 8 .5 0 - 86.00
6 8 .0 0 - 7 9 .5 0

1
1 1 2 .5 0 - 1 5 6 .0 0

Oft ftft
9 7 *5 0
8 7 .5 0

1 2 5 .0 0 1 1 8 .0 0

1

-

.
'

7 6 .0 0 - 1 0 2 .5 0

i

i

1

-

-

3
i

1
2

1 0 6 .5 0 - 1 3 9 .0 0

no ft
T0*0 1 1 2 50

2
2

3 9 .0

2
1

3 9 .5
3 9 .5

9 6 .0 0
9 3 .5 0

8 5 .0 0
0 3 .5 0

6 0 .0

9 1 .5 0

9 2 .5 0

39 0

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONISTS-

8 5 .5 0 - 1 0 1 .5 0

00*'0

80.00
7 5 .5 0

7*"*'0

75*0 0

1

i

6

-

1

2

-

8

2

1
2

2

jf

2

--------

See footnotes at end o f tab les.




15

7 9 .0 0 - 1 0 1 .0 0
7 5 .0 0 -1 0 0 .0 0

1
-

3
I

1
3

3

2

1

-

6
3

3

2

-

1

3

-

-

2

1

3

2

1

3

1

-

1

-

-

-

“

6

2

1
1
1

2

2

-

2
1

2
1
1

-

2
2

J

1

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

*

TRANSCRIBING-NACHINE OPERATORS.
NONMANUFACTURING-------- ■ *
—

6

1
3

7 7 .0 0 - 1 0 6 .0 0

“

1

i

-

-

1
1

1
1

“

*

-

-

5

T a b le A -2 .

P ro fe ssio n a l and tech n ica l o ccu p a tio n s— men

(A v e r a g e s tr a ig h t-tim e w e e k ly hours and ea rn in gs fo r s e le c te d occupations studied on an a re a b a s is by in d u stry d iv is io n , Sioux F a lls , S. D ak., D e c e m b e r 1971)

Weekly e r i g 1
anns
(tnad
sadr)
Number
o
f
wres
oki

Average
weekly
hours1
(tnad
sadr)

N u m b er o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s tr a ig h t-tim e w e e k ly earn in gs of—
$

%

$

120

t

$

S

t

t

S

t

Mean2

Median2

Middle range2

$

*

$

125

130

135

140

145

150

155

160

165

170

175

iao

\ 125

S ex , occu pation , and in d u stry d iv is io n

130

135

140

145

150

155

160

165

170

175

180

185

1

t
$
T --190 195
185

1

and
under

190

195

200

HEN
$
_
$
$
$
140.00*180.00
40.0 149.00 146.00 139.00-159.00

16

2

1

See footn otes at end o f ta b les.

T a b le A -3 .

O ffice, professional, and technical o ccu p a tio n s—men and wom en com bined

(A verage stra ig h t-tim e w e e k ly hours and e arn ing s fo r se le cte d occupations studied on an a re a b a s is by in d u stry d iv is io n , Sioux F a lls , S. Dak., D e cem b er 1971)
Average
Number
O c c u p a t io n a n d in d u s t r y d iv is i o n

of

Weekly
earnings 1
(standard) (standard)
Weekly

3^
15

4 0 .0

{OFFICE OCCUPATIONS - CONTINUED

9 3 .0 0

NUNnANUT A l IU K IW i

4 0 *0

17

4 iU U

39 I 5 1 3 4 . 0 0

17

4 0 .0

9 6 *3 0

21
16

3 9 .0
3 9 .0

8 0 .0 0
7 5 .5 0

PUBLIC UTILITIES * * * * * * * * * * ■ —

CLERKS. ORDER --------------------------------------

16

4 0 .0

1 1 6 .0 0

NONMANUF ACTURIN6 — ------------------------

00

18

b

106

4 0 .0

9 2 .0 0

19
16

4 0 .0
4 0 *0

1 5 3 .5 0
1 4 9 .0 0

50

1 1 5 .5 0

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
22

3 9 .0

1 2 5 .0 0 !

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS B -----------------------------

See footn ote at end o f tables.




L

“ m

J J,—
26

class

Weekly
Weekly
hours 1 earnings 1
(standard) (standard)

1 4 1 .0 0

4 0 .0

Number
of
workers

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONISTS-

**•••*•**•**•*•
NONMANUFACTURING -------- -------------------

Cl e r k s * f i l e *

O c c u p a t io n a n d in d u s t r y d iv is i o n

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS - CONTINUED
$

96

NUNnANUr AL 1UK I FIU

Average

Weekly
Weekly
worker* hours 1 earnings 1
(standard) (standard)
of

; R tTrU H vn UrCKAIUKo* wLAao D ■ 1 - ■■■■
1

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS
L LtK K Of ALLllUni 1ln b f LLAoo A
NUNnANUrAU1UKINo —
PUBLIC UTILITIES -----------------------

Average
Number
O c c u p a tio n a n d in d u s t ry d iv is io n

6

T a b le A -4.

M aintenance and pow erplant occup ations

(A v e r a g e s tr a ig h t- tim e h o u rly earn in gs fo r s e le c te d occu pation s studied on an a re a b a sis by in d u stry d iv is io n , Sioux F a lls , S. Dak. , D e c e m b e r 1971)

T a b le A -5 .

C u stod ial and material m ovem ent occupations

(A v e r a g e s tr a ig h t- tim e h o u rly ea rn in gs fo r s e le c te d occu pation s studied on an a r e a b a s is by in d u stry d iv is io n , S ioux F a lls , S. Dak. , D e c e m b e r 1971)

Hourly earn n s
ig3

N u m b e r of worker s receiving straight-time hourly earnings of—
t
t
t
t
$
t
t
I
*
*
t
t
1.90 2.00 2.10 2.20 2.30 2.40 2.50 2.60 2.70 2.80 2.90 3.00

S e x , occu p ation , and in d u stry d iv is io n

wor e s
kr

Mean 2 Median^

Middle r
ange 2

%
$
t
t
i
$
*
t
t
$
3.10 3.20 3.40 3.60 3.80 4.00 4.20 4.40 4.60 4.80

*
and
1. 90 under
2.00 2.10 2.20 2.30 2.40 2.50 2.60 2.70 2.80 2.90 3.00 3.10

3« 20 -3.40 3.60 3.80 4.0Q 4.J0 4.4Q 4,60 4.80 5.00

MEN
JANITORS, PORTERS, AND CLEANERS MANUFACTURING----------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------

64
29
35

$
2.76
3.08
2.49

$
2.62
3.22
2.49

$
2.112.351.97-

$
3.26
4.13
3.23

4
4

9
2
7

3
1
2

4
2
2

2
2

-

1
1

4
2
2

3
2
1

1

LABORERS, MATERIAL HANDLING -----MANUFACTURING ----------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------

107
86
21

3.75
3.95
2.91

4.12
4.14
2.85

3.44- 4.17
3.97- 4.18
2.44- 3.62

1

_
-

-

“

3
1
2

3
2
1

4
4

2
2

1
1

-

1

ORDER FILLERS ------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------

43
25

3.17
2.64

3.33
2.56

2.53- 3.78
2.33- 3.32

1
1

-

2
2

1
1

2
2

2
2

1
1

7
7

2
2

TRUCKDRI VERS -------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------

103
29
74

3.91
3.76
3.97

4.40
3.76
4.43

3.49- 4.48
3.43- 4.44
3.53- 4.49

*

-

-

7
7

1
1

2
2

-

“

1
1

TRUCKDRIVERS, MEDIUM (1-1/2 TO
AND INCLUDING 4 TONS) ---------

32

4.42

4.69

4.43- 4.85

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

TRUCKDRIVERS, HEAVY (OVER 4 TONS,
TRAILER TYPE) -----------------

52

4.01

4.10

3.56- 4.45

23
23

3.77
3.77

3.69
3.69

3.17- 4.45
3.17- 4.45

-

_

-

_

-

-

1
1

TRUCKERS, POWER (FORKLIFT) ------MANUFACTURING -----------------

See footn otes at end o f ta b le s .




5
5

1

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

1
1

17
6
11

-

-

_
-

9
9

-

_
•

2
2

6
6

1
1

1
1

1
1
~

8
5
3

4
4

8
7
1

50
50
-

12
12
8

_

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

2
“

“

1
1
“

2
2

1

-

-

-

1

-

-

1
1

_

-

.

-

1

.1

-

2

-

•
-

1
1

7
7

8

6
2
4

20
5
15

7
7

-

4

-

-

-

2

2
2

3
3

1
1

“

_

J

3
3
*

*

“

33
4
29

4
4

-

-

-

-

7

4

15

15

7

-

-

-

26

-

-

2
2

2
2

1
1

10
10

15
15

7

Footnotes

1 Standard hours r e fle c t the w ork w eek fo r which em p loyees r e c e iv e th e ir reg u la r s tra ig h t-tim e s a la rie s (e x c lu s iv e o f pay fo r o v e rtim e
at re g u la r and/or p rem iu m ra te s ), and the earnings corresp o n d to these w e e k ly hours.
2 The m ean is com puted fo r each job by totalin g the earnings o f a ll w o rk e rs and divid in g by the num ber o f w o rk e rs ,
The m edian
designates p osition — h a lf of the em p loyees su rveyed r e c e iv e m o re than the rate shown; h a lf r e c e iv e le s s than the rate shown,
The m iddle
range is defined by 2 rates o f pay; a fourth of the w o rk e rs earn le s s than the lo w e r o f these rates and a fourth earn m o re than the high er rate.
3 E xcludes p rem iu m pay fo r o v e rtim e and fo r w o rk on w eekends, h olid a ys, and late shifts.




A p p e n d ix . O c c u p a tio n a l D e s c rip t io n s
The prim ary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau's wage surveys is to assist its field staff in classifying into appropriate
occupations w orkers who are employed under a variety of payroll titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and
from area to area. This perm its the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content. Because of this emphasis on
interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bureau's job descriptions m ay d iffer significantly from those in use in
individual establishments or those prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau's field economists are instructed
to exclude working supervisors; apprentices; learners; beginners; trainees: and handicapped, part-tim e, tem porary, and probationary w orkers.

O F F IC E
C LERK, ACCOUNTING— Continued

B ILLE R , MACHINE
P repares statements, b ills, and invoices on a machine other than an ordinary or electrom atic typew riter. May also keep records as to billings or shipping charges or perform other
cle rica l work incidental to billing operations. F or wage study purposes, b ille rs , machine, are
classified by type of machine, as follows:

Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following definitions.
Class A . Under general supervision, perform s accounting cle rica l operations which
require the application o f experience and judgment, fo r example, c le ric a lly processing com ­
plicated or nonrepetitive accounting transactions, selecting among a substantial va riety of
prescribed accounting codes and classifications, or tracing transactions through previous
accounting actions to determine source of discrepancies. May be assisted by one or m ore
class B accounting clerks.

B ille r, machine (billing m achine). Uses a special billing machine (combination typing
and adding machine) to prepare bills and invoices from custom ers' purchase orders, in ter­
nally prepared orders, shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of p re ­
determined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary extensions, which may or
m ay not be computed on the billing machine, and totals which are automatically accumulated
by machine. The operation usually involves a la rge number of carbon copies of the b ill being
prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.

Class B . Under close supervision, following detailed instructions and standardized p ro­
cedures, perform s one or m ore routine accounting cle rica l operations, such as posting to
led gers, cards, or worksheets where identification of items and locations of postings are
cle a rly indicated; checking accuracy and completeness o f standardized and repetitive records
or accounting documents; and coding documents using a few prescrib ed accounting codes.

B ille r, machine (bookkeeping machine). Uses a bookkeeping machine (with or without
a typ ew riter keyboard) to prepare custom ers' bills as part of the accounts receivable opera­
tion. Generally involves the simultaneous entry o f figures on custom ers' ledger record. The
machine automatically accumulates figures on a number of vertical columns and computes
and usually prints automatically the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowl­
edge of bookkeeping. Works from uniform and standard types of sales and credit slips.

CLERK, F IL E
F ile s , cla ssifies, and retrieves m aterial in an established filin g system. May perform
c le rica l and manual tasks required to maintain file s. Positions are classified into levels on the
basis of the following definitions.
Class A . C lassifies and indexes file m aterial such as correspondence, reports, tech­
nical documents, etc., in an established filin g system containing a number o f varied subject
m atter file s. May also file this m aterial. May keep records of various types in conjunction
with the file s. May lead a small group o f low er lev el file clerks.

BOOKKEEPING-M ACHINE OPERATOR
Operates a bookkeeping machine (with or without a typew riter keyboard) to keep a record
o f business transactions.

Class B . Sorts, codes, and file s unclassified m aterial by simple (subject m atter) head­
ings or partly classified m aterial by finer subheadings. Prepares simple related index and
cro s s-referen ce aids. As requested, locates cle a rly identified m aterial in file s and fo r ­
wards m aterial. May perform related cle rica l tasks required to maintain and service files.

Class A . Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of and experience in basic
bookkeeping principles, and fa m iliarity with the structure of the particular accounting system
used. Determines proper records and distribution of debit and credit item s to be used in each
phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance sheets, and other records
by hand.

Class C . P erform s routine filin g of m aterial that has already been classified or which
is easily classified in a simple serial classification system (e.g., alphabetical, chronological,
or num erical). As requested, locates readily available m aterial in file s and forwards m a­
terial; and m ay f i l l out withdrawal charge. May perform simple cle rica l and manual tasks
required to maintain and service files.

Class B. Keeps a record of one or m ore phases or sections of a set of records usually
requiring little knowledge of basic bookkeeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable,
payroll, custom ers' accounts (not including a simple type o f billing described under b ille r,
machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, inventory control, etc. May check or assist
in preparation of tria l balances and prepare control sheets fo r the accounting department.

C LERK, ORDER
R eceives custom ers' orders fo r m aterial or merchandise by m ail, phone, or personally.
Duties involve any combination of the follow ing: Quoting prices to customers; making out an order
sheet listing the items to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; and distributing order sheets to respective departments to be filled . May check with credit
department to determine credit rating o( customer, acknowledge receipt of orders from customers,
follow up orders to see that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check shipping
invoices with original orders.

C LER K, ACCOUNTING
P e rform s one or m ore accounting cle rica l tasks such as posting to registers and ledgers;
reconciling bank accounts; verifyin g the internal consistency, completeness, and mathematical
accuracy of accounting documents; assigning prescribed accounting distribution codes; examining
and verifyin g fo r cle rica l accuracy various types of reports, lists, calculations, posting, etc.;
or preparing simple or assisting in preparing m ore complicated journal vouchers. May work
in either a manual or automated accounting system.

C LERK, P A Y R O L L

The work requires a knowledge of cle rica l methods and office practices and procedures
which relates to the cle rica l processing and recording of transactions and accounting information.
With experience, the w orker typically becomes fa m iliar with the bookkeeping and accounting term s
and procedures used in the assigned work, but is not required to have a knowledge o f the form al
principles of bookkeeping and accounting.




Computes wages of company employees and enters the necessary data on the payroll
sheets. Duties involve: Calculating w orkers' earnings based on tim e or production records; and
posting calculated data on payroll sheet, showing information such as w orker's name, working
days, tim e, rate, deductions fo r insurance, and total wages due. May make out paychecks and
assist paymaster in making up and distributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

NOTE: The Bureau has discontinued collecting data fo r oilers and plumbers.

8

9
COM PTOM ETER OPERATOR

SECRETARY— Continued

Prim a ry duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathematical computations. This
job is not to be confused with that of statistical or other type of clerk, which may involve fr e ­
quent use of a Comptometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to perform ance of
other duties.

N O TE: The term "corporate office r, " used in the lev el definitions following, refers to
those officials who have a significant corporate-w ide policymaking role with regard to m ajor
company activities. The title "v ic e p residen t," though norm ally indicative of this role, does not
in all cases identify such positions. V ice presidents whose prim ary responsibility is to act p e r­
sonally on individual cases or transactions (e.g., approve or deny individual loan or credit actions;
administer individual trust accounts; directly supervise a cle rica l staff) are not considered to be
"corporate o ffic e rs " for purposes of applying the following level definitions.

KEYPU NCH OPERATOR
Operates a keypunch machine to record or v e rify alphabetic and/or numeric data on
tabulating cards or on tape.
Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following definitions.

1. Secretary to the chairman of the board or president of a company that em ploys, in
all, over 100 but few er than 5,000 persons; or

Class A . Work requires the application of experience and judgment in selecting proce­
dures to be followed and in searching fo r, interpreting, selecting, or coding items to be
keypunched from a variety of source documents. On occasion may also perform some routine
keypunch work. May train inexperienced keypunch operators.
Class B . Work is routine and repetitive. Under close supervision o r following specific
procedures or instructions, works from various standardized source documents which have
been coded, and follows specified procedures which have been prescribed in detail and require
little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting of data to be recorded. R efers to supervisor
problems arising from erroneous item s or codes or m issing information.

Perform s various routine duties such as running errands, operating m inor office m a­
chines such as sealers or m ailers, opening and distributing m ail, and other m inor clerica l work.
Exclude positions that require operation o f a m otor vehicle as a significant duty.
SECRETARY
Assigned as personal secretary, norm ally to one individual. Maintains a close and highly
responsive relationship to the day-to-day work o f the supervisor. Works fa ir ly independently r e ­
ceiving a minimum of detailed supervision and guidance. P erform s varied cle rica l and secretarial
duties, usually including most of the following:
a. Receives telephone calls, personal ca llers, and incoming m ail, answers routine in­
quiries, and routes technical inquiries to the proper persons:
b.

Establishes, maintains, and revises the su pervisor's file s;

c.

Maintains the supervisor's calendar and makes appointments as instructed:

d.

Relays m essages from supervisor to subordinates:

e. Reviews correspondence, memorandums, and reports prepared by others for the
supervisor's signature to assure procedural and typographic accuracy:

3. Secretary to the head, im m ediately below the corporate office r level, of a m ajor
segment or subsidiary of a company that employs, in all, over 25,000 persons.
Class B
1. Secretary to the chairman o f the board or president of a company that employs, in
all, few er than 100 persons; or

3. Secretary to the head, im m ediately below
corporate-w ide functional activity (e.g., marketing,
tions, etc.) m: a m ajor geographic or organizational
a m ajor division) of a company that employs, in
em ployees; or

the officer lev el, over either a m ajor
research, operations, industrial re la ­
segment (e.g., a regional headquarters;
all, over 5,000 but fewer than 25,000

4. Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc. (or other equivalent level
of officia l) that employs, in all, over 5,000 persons; or
5. Secretary to the head of a large and important organizational segment (e.g., a middle
management supervisor of an organizational segment often involving as many as several
hundred persons) or a company that employs, in all, over 25,000 persons.
Class C
1. Secretary to an executive or m anagerial person whose responsibility is not equivalent
to one of the specific level situations in the definition for class B, but whose organizational
unit norm ally numbers at least several dozen employees and is usually divided into organiza­
tional segments which are often, in turn, further subdivided. In some companies, this level
includes a wide range of organizational echelons; in others, only one or two; or
2. Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc. (or other equivalent level
of o fficia l) that employs, in all, few er than 5,000 persons.
Class D

Perform s stenographic and typing work.

May also perform other cle rica l and secretarial tasks of comparable nature and difficulty.
The work typically requires knowledge of office routine and understanding of the organization,
program s, and procedures related to the work of the supervisor.
Exclusions
Not a ll positions that are titled "s e c re ta ry " possess the above characteristics.
of positions which are excluded from the definition are as follows:

2. Secretary to a corporate o ffice r (other than the chairman of the board or president)
of a company that employs, in all, over 5, 000 but few er than 25, 000 persons; or

2. Secretary to a corporate o ffice r (other than the chairman of the board or president)
of a company that employs, in all, over 100 but few er than 5,000 persons; or

MESSENGER (O ffice Boy or G irl)

f.

Class A

1. Secretary to the supervisor or head of a small organizational unit (e.g., few er than
about 25 or 30 persons); mr
2. Secretary to a nonsupervisory staff specialist, professional employee, adm inistra­
tive o ffic e r, or assistant, skilled technician or expert. (NOTE: Many companies assign
stenographers, rather than secretaries as described above, to this level of supervisory or
nonsupervisory w orker.)

Examples

a.

Positions which do not m eet the "personal" secretary concept described above;

b.

Stenographers not fully trained in secretarial type duties;

c. Stenographers serving as office assistants to a group o f professional, technical, or
managerial persons;
d. Secretary positions in which the duties are either substantially m ore routine or sub­
stantially m ore complex and responsible than those characterized in the definition;

STENOGRAPHER
Prim a ry duty is to take dictation using shorthand, and to transcribe the dictation. May
also type from written copy. May operate from a stenographic pool. May occasionally transcribe
from voice recordings (if prim ary duty is transcribing from recordings, see Transcribing-Machine
Operator, General).
N O TE : This job is distinguished from that of a secretary in that a secretary norm ally
works in a confidential relationship with only one manager or executive and perform s m ore
responsible and discretionary tasks as described in the secretary job definition.
Stenographer, General

e. Assistant type positions which involve m ore difficult or m ore responsible tech­
nical, adm inistrative, supervisory, or specialized cle rica l duties which are not typical of
secretarial work.




Dictation involves a normal routine vocabulary. May maintain file s, keep simple records,
or perform other rela tively routine clerica l tasks.

10
STENOGRAPHER— Continued

TAB U LA TIN G -M A C H IN E O PERATO R (E lectric Accounting Machine O perator)— Continued

Stenographer, Senior

Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following definitions.

Dictation involves a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs
or reports on scientific research. May also set up and maintain file s, keep records, etc.
OR
P erform s stenographic duties requiring significantly greater independence and respon­
sibility than stenographer, general, as evidenced by the following: Work requires a high
degree o f stenographic speed and accuracy; a thorough working knowledge of general business
and o ffice procedure; and of the specific business operations, organization, policies, p roce­
dures, file s , workflow, etc. Uses this knowledge in perform ing stenographic duties and
responsible c le rica l tasks such as maintaining followup file s; assembling m aterial fo r reports,
memorandums, and letters; composing simple letters from general instructions; reading and
routing incoming m ail; and answering routine questions^ etc.
SWITCHBOARD O PERATOR
Class A . Operates a single- or m ultiple-position telephone switchboard handling incoming,
outgoing, intraplant or office calls. P erform s full telephone information service or handles
complex calls, such as conference, collect, overseas, or sim ilar calls, either in addition to
doing routine work as described fo r switchboard operator, class B, or as a fu ll-tim e
assignment. (" F u ll" telephone information service occurs when the establishment has varied
functions that are not readily understandable for telephone information purposes, e.g., because
of overlapping or interrelated functions, and consequently present frequent problems as to
which extensions are appropriate fo r calls.)
Class B . Operates a single- or m ultiple-position telephone switchboard handling incoming,
outgoing, intraplant or office calls. May handle routine long distance calls and record tolls.
May perform lim ited telephone information service. ("L im ite d " telephone information service
occurs i f the functions of the establishment serviced are readily understandable fo r telephone
information purposes, or if the requests are routine, e.g., giving extension numbers when
specific names are furnished, or i f complex calls are referred to another operator.)
These classifications do not include switchboard operators in telephone companies who
assist customers in placing calls.
SWITCHBOARD O PE RA TO R -R E C E PTIO N IST
In addition to perform ing duties of operator on a single-position or m onitor-type switch­
board, acts as receptionist and m ay also type or perform routine cle rica l work as part o f regular
duties. This typing or c le ric a l work m ay take the m ajor part o f this w orker's tim e while at
switchboard.
TA B U LA TIN G -M A C H IN E O PERATOR (E le ctric Accounting Machine Operator)
Operates one or a va riety o f machines such as the tabulator, calculator, collator, in ter­
preter, sorter, reproducing punch, etc. Excluded from this definition are working supervisors.
A lso excluded are operators of electronic digital computers, even though they may also operate
EAM equipment.

Class A . P e rform s complete reporting and tabulating assignments including devising
difficult control panel wiring under general supervision. Assignments typically involve a
va riety o f long and complex reports which often are irregu la r or nonrecurring, requiring
some planning of the nature and sequencing of operations, and the use o f a va riety o f m a­
chines. Is typically involved in training new operators in machine operations or training
low er lev el operators in w iring from diagrams and in the operating sequences o f long and
complex reports. Does not' include positions in which wiring responsibility is lim ited to
selection and insertion of prew ired boards.
Class B . P erform s work according to established procedures and under specific in­
structions. Assignments typically involve complete but routine and recurring reports or parts
of la rg e r and m ore complex reports. Operates m ore difficult tabulating or ele ctrica l ac­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition to the sim pler machines
used by class C operators. May be required to do some wiring from diagram s. May train
new em ployees in basic machine operations.
Class C . Under specific instructions, operates simple tabulating or electrica l accounting
machines such as the sorter, interpreter, reproducing punch, collator, etc. Assignments
typically involve portions of a work unit, fo r example, individual sorting or collating runs,
or repetitive operations. May perform simple wiring from diagram s, and do some filin g work.
TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATO R, GENERAL
P rim a ry duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine vocabulary from
transcribing-m achine records. May also type from written copy and do simple c le rica l work.
Workers transcribing dictation involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as
legal briefs or reports on scientific research are not included. A w orker who takes dictation
in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar machine is classified as a stenographer.
T Y P IS T
Uses a typ ew riter to make copies of various m aterials or to make out bills after calcula­
tions have been made by another person. May include typing of stencils, mats, or sim ilar m ate­
rials for use in duplicating processes. May do c le rica l work involving little special training, such
as keeping simple records, filin g records and reports, or sorting and distributing incoming m ail.
Class A . P erform s one or m ore of the follow in g: Typing m aterial in final form when
it involves combining m aterial from several sources; or responsibility fo r correct spelling,
syllabication, punctuation, etc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language m ate­
rial; or planning layout and typing of complicated statistical tables to maintain uniformity
and balance in spacing. May type routine form letters, varying details to suit circumstances.
Class B . P erform s one or m ore of the follow in g: Copy typing from rough or clear
drafts; or routine typing of form s, insurance p o licies, etc.; or setting up simple standard
tabulations; or copying m ore complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

P R O F E S S IO N A L A N D T E C H N IC A L
COM PUTER OPERATOR
Monitors and operates the control console of a digital computer to process data according
to operating! instructions, usually prepared by a program er. Work includes most of the follow in g:
Studies| instructions to determine equipment setup and operations; loads equipment with required
item s (tape| ree ls, cards, etc.); switches necessary auxiliary equipment into circuit, and starts
and operates! computer; makes adjustments to computer to co rrect operating problems and m eet
special! conditions; review s erro rs made during operation and determines cause or refers problem
to supervisor or program er; and maintains operating records. May test and assist in correcting
program .
F or wage study purposes, computer operators are classified as follows:
Class A . Operates independently, or under only general direction, a computer running
program s with m ost of the following ch aracteristics: New programs are frequently tested
and introduced; scheduling requirements are of critica l importance to m inim ize downtime;
the program s are of complex design so that identification of e rro r source often requires a
working knowledge of the total program , and alternate programs may not be available. May
give direction and guidance to low er lev el operators.
Class B. Operates independently, or under only general direction, a computer running
program s with most of the following characteristics: Most of the program s are established
production runs, typically run on a regu larly recurring basis; there is little or no testing




COMPUTER OPERATOR— Continued
of new program s required; alternate program s are provided in case original program needs
m ajor change or cannot be corrected within a reasonable tim e. In common e rro r situa­
tions, diagnoses cause and takes corrective action. This usually involves applying previously
program ed co rrective steps, or using standard correction techniques.
OR
Operates under direct supervision a computer running program s or segments of program s
with the ch aracteristics described fo r class A. May assist a higher level operator by inde­
pendently perform ing less difficult tasks assigned, and perform ing difficult tasks following
detailed instructions and with frequent review of operations perform ed.
Class C . Works on routine program s under close supervision. Is expected to develop
working knowledge of the computer equipment used and ability to detect problems involved in
running routine program s. Usually has received some form al training in computer operation.
May assist higher le v e l operator on complex program s.
COMPUTER PROGRAMER, BUSINESS
Converts statements of business problem s, typ ically prepared by a systems analyst, into
a sequence of detailed instructions which are required to solve the problem s by automatic data
processing equipment. Working from charts or diagram s, the program er develops the precise in ­
structions which, when entered into the computer system in coded language, cause the manipulation

11
COMPUTER PROGRAMER, BUSINESS— Continued
of data to achieve desired results. Work involves most of the follow in g: Applies knowledge of
computer capabilities, mathematics, logic employed by computers, and particular subject matter
involved to analyze charts and diagrams of the problem to be programed; develops sequence
of program steps; w rites detailed flow charts to show order in which data w ill be processed;
converts these charts to coded instructions for machine to follow; tests and corrects programs;
prepares instructions fo r operating personnel during production run; analyzes, review s, and alters
program s to increase operating efficiency or adapt to new requirements; maintains records of
program development and revisions. (NOTE: Workers perform ing both systems analysis and pro­
graming should be classified as systems analysts if this is the skill used to determine their pay.)
Does not include employees prim a rily responsible for the management or supervision of
other electronic data processing em ployees, or program ers p rim a rily concerned with scientific
and/or engineering problem s.
F or wage study purposes, program ers are classified as follows:
Class A . Works independently or under only general direction on complex problems which
require competence in all phases of programing concepts and practices. Working from dia­
grams and charts which identify the nature of desired results, m ajor processing steps to be
accomplished, and the relationships between various steps of the problem solving routine;
plans the full range of programing actions needed to efficiently utilize the computer system
in achieving desired end products.
At this level, programing is difficult because computer equipment must be organized to
produce several interrelated but diverse products from numerous and diverse data elements.
A wide variety and extensive number of internal processing actions must occur. This requires
such actions as development of common operations which can be reused, establishment of
linkage points between operations, adjustments to data when program requirements exceed
computer storage capacity, and substantial manipulation and resequencing of data elements
to form a highly integrated program.
May provide functional direction to low er level program ers who are assigned to assist.
Class B . Works independently or under only general direction on rela tively simple
program s, or on simple segments o f complex program s. Program s (or segments) usually
process information to produce data in two or three varied sequences or form ats. Reports
and listings are produced by refining, adapting, arraying, or making m inor additions to or
deletions from input data which are readily available. While numerous records may be
processed, the data have been refined in prior actions so that the accuracy and sequencing
of data can be tested by using a few routine checks. Typically, the program deals with
routine record-keeping type operations.
OR
Works on complex programs (as described fo r class A ) under close direction of a higher
level program er or supervisor. May assist higher level program er by independently p e r­
form ing less difficult tasks assigned, and perform ing m ore difficult tasks under fa irly close
direction.
May guide or instruct low er level program ers.
Class C . Makes practical applications o f programing practices and concepts usually
learned in form al training courses. Assignments are designed to develop competence in the
application of standard procedures to routine problem s. Receives close supervision on new
aspects of assignments; and work is review ed to v e rify its accuracy and conformance with
required procedures.
COMPUTER SYSTEMS A N A LY S T, BUSINESS
Analyzes business problems to formulate procedures fo r solving them by use of electronic
data processing equipment. Develops a complete description of all specifications needed to enable
program ers to prepare required digital computer program s. Work involves most of the following:
Analyzes subject-m atter operations to be automated and identifies conditions and criteria required
to achieve satisfactory results; specifies number and types of records, file s, and documents to
be used; outlines actions to be perform ed by personnel and computers in sufficient detail for
presentation to management and for programing (typically this involves preparation of work and
data flow charts); coordinates the development of test problems and participates in tria l runs of
new and revised systems; and recommends equipment changes to obtain m ore effective overall
operations. (NOTE: Workers perform ing both systems analysis and programing should be clas­
sified as systems analysts if this is the skill used to determine their pay.)
Does not include employees p rim a rily responsible fo r the management or supervision
of other electronic data processing em ployees, or systems analysts p rim a rily concerned with
scientific or engineering problems.
F or wage study purposes, systems analysts are classified as follows:
Class A . Works independently or under only general direction on complex problems in­
volving all phases of systems analysis. Problem s are complex because o f diverse sources of
input data and multiple-use requirements of output data. (F o r example, develops an integrated
production scheduling, inventory control, cost analysis, and sales analysis record in which




COMPUTER SYSTEMS A N A L Y S T, BUSINESS— Continued
every item of each type is automatically processed through the full system of records and
appropriate followup actions are initiated by the computer.) Confers with persons concerned to
determine the data processing problems and advises subject-m atter personnel on the im plica­
tions of new or revised systems of data processing operations. Makes recommendations, if
needed, for approval of m ajor systems installations or changes and for obtaining equipment.
May provide functional direction to low er level systems analysts who are assigned to
assist.
Class B . Works independently or under only general direction on problems that are
rela tively uncomplicated to analyze, plan, program , and operate. Problem s are of lim ited
complexity because sources of input data are homogeneous and the output data are closely
related. (F or example, develops systems fo r maintaining depositor accounts in a bank,
maintaining accounts receivable in a retail establishment, or maintaining inventory accounts
in a manufacturing or wholesale establishment.) Confers with persons concerned to determine
the data processing problems and advises subject-matter personnel on the implications of the
data processing systems to be applied.
OR
Works on a segment of a complex data processing scheme or system, as described for
class A. Works independently on routine assignments and receives instruction and guidance
on complex assignments. Work is review ed fo r accuracy of judgment, compliance with in­
structions, and to insure proper alinement with the overall system.
Class C . Works under immediate supervision, carrying out analyses as assigned, usually
of a single activity. Assignments are designed to develop and expand practical experience
in the application of procedures and skills required for systems analysis work. For example,
may assist a higher le v e l systems analyst by preparing the detailed specifications required
by program ers from information developed by the higher level analyst.
DRAFTSM AN
Class A . Plans the graphic presentation of complex items having distinctive design
features that d iffer significantly from established drafting precedents. Works in close sup­
port with the design originator, and m ay recommend m inor design changes. Analyzes the
effect o f each change on the details of form , function, and positional relationships of com ­
ponents and parts. Works with a minimum o f supervisory assistance. Completed work is
review ed by design originator for consistency with prior engineering determinations. May
either prepare drawings, or direct their preparation by lower level draftsmen.
Class B. P e rform s nonroutine and complex drafting assignments that require the appli­
cation o f m ost of the standardized drawing techniques regularly used. Duties typically in­
volve such work as: P repares working drawings of subassemblies with irregu la r shapes,
multiple functions, and precise positional relationships between components; prepares archi­
tectural drawings fo r construction of a building including detail drawings of foundations, wall
sections, flo or plans, and roof. Uses accepted formulas and manuals in making necessary
computations to determine quantities o f m aterials to be used, load capacities, strengths,
stresses, etc.
R eceives initial instructions, requirements, and advice from supervisor.
Completed work is checked for technical adequacy.
Class C . P repares detail drawings of single units or parts for engineering, construction,
manufacturing, or repair purposes. Types of drawings prepared include isom etric projections
(depicting three dimensions in accurate scale) and sectional views to c la rify positioning of
components and convey needed information. Consolidates details from a number of sources
and adjusts or transposes scale as required. Suggested methods of approach, applicable
precedents, and advice on source m aterials are given with initial assignments. Instructions
are less complete when assignments recur. Work may be spot-checked during progress.
D RAFTSM AN -TRACE R
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others by placing tracing cloth or paper over
drawings and tracing with pen or pencil. (Does not include tracing lim ited to plans p rim a rily
consisting of straight lines and a large scale not requiring close delineation.)
AND/OR
Prepares simple or repetitive drawings of easily visualized item s. Work is closely supervised
during progress.
ELECTRO NIC TECHNICIAN
Works on various types of electronic equipment or systems by perform ing one or m ore
of the following operations: Modifying, installing, repairing, and overhauling. These operations
require the perform ance of most or all of the following tasks: Assem bling, testing, adjusting,
calibrating, tuning, and alining.
Work is nonrepetitive and requires a knowledge of the theory and practice of electronics
pertaining to the use o f general and specialized electronic test equipment; trouble analysis; and
the operation, relationship, and alinement of electronic systems, subsystems, and circuits having
a variety of component parts.

12
ELECTRONIC TECHNICIAN— Continued

NURSE, IND USTRIAL (R egistered )

E lectronic equipment or systems worked on typ ically include one or m ore of the following:
Ground, vehicle, or airborne radio communications systems, relay systems, navigation aids;
airborne or ground radar systems; radio and television transmitting or recording systems; e le c ­
tronic computers; m iss ile and spacecraft guidance and control systems; industrial and m edical
measuring, indicating and controlling devices; etc.

A registered nurse who gives nursing service under general m edical direction to i l l or
injured employees or other persons who become i l l or suffer an accident on the prem ises of a
factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the follow in g; Giving firs t aid
to the ill or injured; attending to subsequent dressing of em ployees' injuries; keeping records
of patients treated; preparing accident reports fo r compensation or other purposes; assisting in
physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants and em ployees; and planning and c a r r y ­
ing out program s involving health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment,
or other activities affecting the health, w elfa re, and safety of a ll personnel. Nursing supervisors
or head nurses in establishments employing m ore than one nurse are excluded.

(Exclude production assem blers and testers, craftsm en, draftsmen, designers, engineers,
and repairm en of such standard electronic equipment as office machines, radio and television
receivin g sets.)

M A IN T E N A N C E A N D P O W E R P L A N T
C AR PE N TER , M AIN TEN AN CE

MACHINIST, M AINTENANCE

P e rform s the carpentry duties necessary to construct and maintain in good repair build­
ing woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs, counters, benches, partitions, doors, flo ors,
stairs, casings, and trim made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most of the follow ing:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, m odels, or verbal instructions; using a
variety of carpenter's handtools, portable power tools, and standard measuring instruments; mak­
ing standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work; and selecting m aterials necessary
fo r the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a form a l apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of m etal parts of mechanical
equipment operated in an establishment. Work involves most of the follow in g: Interpreting written
instructions and specifications; planning and laying out of work; using a va riety o f m achinist's
handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and operating standard machine tools;
shaping of m etal parts to close tolerances; making standard shop computations relating to dimen­
sions of work, tooling, feeds, and speeds of machining; knowledge of the wording properties of
the common m etals; selecting standard m aterials, parts, and equipment required for his work;
and fitting and assembling parts into mechanical equipment. In general, the machinist's work
norm ally requires a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a form al
apprenticeship or equivalent training' and experience.

E LE C TR IC IA N , M AIN TEN AN CE
P e rform s a va riety of e le ctrica l trade functions such as the installation, maintenance, or
rep air of equipment fo r the generation, distribution, or utilization of ele ctric energy in an estab­
lishment. Work involves most of the follow in g: Installing or repairing any of a va riety of ele c­
tric a l equipment such as generators, transform ers, switchboards, controllers, circuit breakers,
m otors, heating units, conduit systems, or other transmission equipment; working from blue­
prints, drawings, layouts, or other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the ele ctrica l
system or equipment; working standard computations relating to load requirements of w iring or
ele ctrica l equipment; and using a va riety of electricia n 's handtools and measuring and testing
instruments. In general, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
ENGINEER, STATIO N ARY
Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation of stationary engines and
equipment (mechanical or e le c tric a l) to supply the establishment in which employed with power,
heat, refrigeration , or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining equipment
such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, m otors, turbines, ventilating and r e fr ig ­
erating equipment, steam boilers and b o iler-fe d water pumps; making equipment repairs; and
keeping a record of operation of m achinery, tem perature, and fuel consumption. May also su­
pervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establishments employing m ore than one
engineer are excluded.
FIREM AN , STATIO N A RY BOILER
F ire s stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which employed with heat, power,
or steam. Feeds fuels to fir e by hand or operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; and
checks water and safety valves. May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom equipment.
H E LPE R , M AINTENANCE TRADES
A ssists one or m ore w orkers in the skilled maintenance trades, by perform ing specific
or general duties of les se r skill, such as keeping a w orker supplied with m aterials and tools;
cleaning working area, machine, and equipment; assisting journeyman by holding m aterials or
tools; and perform ing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of work the
helper is perm itted to perform varies from trade to trade: In some trades the helper is confined
to supplying, lifting, and holding m aterials and tools, and cleaning working areas; and in others
he is permitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade that are also
perform ed by w orkers on a fu ll-tim e basis.
M AC H INE -TO O L OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation of one or m ore types of machine tools, such as jig borers,
cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes, or m illing machines, in the construction of
machine-shop tools, gages, jig s, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most of the follow ing: Planning
and perform ing difficult machining operations; processing item s requiring complicated setups or
a high degree of accuracy; using a va riety of precision measuring instruments; selecting feeds,
speeds, tooling, and operation sequence; and making necessary adjustments during operation
to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recognize when tools need
dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating oils. F or
cross-industry wage study purposes, m achine-tool operators, toolroom , in tool and die jobbing
shops are excluded from this classification.




MECHANIC, AUTO M O TIVE (Maintenance)
Repairs automobiles, buses, m otortrucks, and tractors of an establishment. Work in­
volves most of the follow ing: Examining automotive equipment to diagnose source of trouble; d is­
assembling equipment and perform ing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gages, d rills , or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts; replacing broken or
defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting valves; reassem bling and installing the various
assem blies in the vehicle and making necessary adjustments; and alining w heels, adjusting brakes
and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive mechanic requires
rounded training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.
This classification does not include mechanics who repair custom ers' vehicles in auto­
m obile repair shops.
MECHANIC, M AIN TEN AN CE
Repairs m achinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment. Work involves most
of the follow ing: Examining machines and mechanical equipment to diagnose source of trouble;
dismantling or partly dismantling machines and perform ing repairs that mainly involve the use
of handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts with item s obtained
from stock; ordering the production of a replacement part by a machine shop or sending of the
machine to a machine shop for m ajor repairs; preparing w ritten specifications for m ajor repairs
or fo r the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassem bling machines; and making
all necessary adjustments fo r operation. In general, the work of a maintenance mechanic requires
rounded training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classification are w orkers whose prim ary duties
involve setting up or adjusting machines.
M ILLW RIG H T
Installs new machines or heavy equipment, and dismaiu.._and installs machines or heavy
equipment when changes in the plant layout are required. Work involves most of the follow ing:
Planning and laying out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a variety
of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations relating to stresses, strength of
m aterials, and centers of gravity; alining and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools,
equipment, and parts to be used; and installing and maintaining in good order power transmission
equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the m illw righ t's work norm ally requires
a rounded training and experience in the trade acquired through a form al apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.
P A IN TE R , M AINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an establishment. Work involves
the follow ing: Knowledge of surface pecu liarities and types of paint required for different applica­
tions; preparing surface fo r painting by rem oving old finish or by placing putty or fille r in nail

P A IN TE R , M AIN TEN AN CE— Continued

S H E E T-M E T A L WORKER, M AINTENANCE— Continued

holes and in terstices; and applying paint with spray gun or brush. May m ix colors, oils, white
lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper color or consistency. In general, the work of the
maintenance painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a form al
apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

up and operating all available types o f sheet-m etal working machines; using a variety of handtools
in cutting, bending, form ing, shaping, fitting, and assembling; and installing sheet-metal articles
as required. In general, the work of the maintenance sheet-metal worker requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.

P IP E F IT T E R , M AINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and pipefittings in an
establishment. Work involves most of the following: Laying out of work and measuring to locate
position of pipe from drawings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to
co rrect lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting machines; threading
pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by hand-driven or power-driven machines; assembling
pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to
pressu res, flow, and size of pipe required; and making standard tests to determine whether fin­
ished pipes m eet specifications. In general, the work of the maintenance pipefitter requires
rounded training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Workers p rim a rily engaged in installing and repairing building sanitation
or heating systems are excluded.
SH E E T-M E T A L WORKER, M AINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheet-metal equipment and fixtures
(such as machine guards, grease pans, shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal
roofing) of an establishment. Work involves most of the follow ing: Planning and laying out all
types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, m odels, or other specifications; setting

TO O L AND DIE MAKER
(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture m aker; gage m aker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gages, jigs,' fixtures or dies for forgings,
punching, and other m etal-form ing work. Work involves m ost of the following: Planning and
laying out of work from m odels, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifications;
using a va riety of tool and die m aker's handtools and precision measuring instruments; under­
standing of the working properties of common m etals and alloys; setting up and operating of
machine tools and related equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heat-treating o f m etal parts during fabrication
as w ell as of finished tools and dies to achieve required qualities; working to close tolerances;
fitting and assembling of parts to prescribed tolerances and allowances; and selecting appropriate
m aterials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die m aker's work requires a rounded
training in machine-shop and toolroom practice usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship
or equivalent training and experience.
F or cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers in tool and die jobbing
Shops are excluded from this classification.

C U S T O D IA L A N D M A T E R IA L M O V E M E N T
GUARD AND WATCHMAN

PACKER, SHIPPING— Continued

Guard. Perform s routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour, maintaining order,
using arms or fo rce where necessary. Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check
on identity of employees and other persons entering.

and size o f container; inserting enclosures in container; using excelsior or other m aterial to
prevent breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; and applying labels or entering
identifying data on container. Packers who also make wooden boxes or crates are excluded.

Watchman. Makes rounds of prem ises periodically in protecting property against fire ,
theft, and illega l entry.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an o rd erly condition factory working areas and washrooms, or
prem ises of an office, apartment house, or com m ercial or other establishment. Duties involve
a combination of the following: Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing flo ors; removing
chips, trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polishing m etal fix ­
tures or trim m ings: providing supplies and m inor maintenance services; and cleaning lavatories,
showers, and restroom s. Workers who specialize in window washing are excluded.

Prepares merchandise fo r shipment, or receives and is responsible fo r incoming ship­
ments of merchandise or other m aterials. Shipping work involves: A knowledge of shipping p ro­
cedures, practices, routes, available means of transportation, and rates; and preparing records
of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping charges, and keeping
a file of shipping records. May direct or assist in preparing the merchandise for shipment.
Receiving work in volves: V erifyin g or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipments
against bills of lading, invoices, or other records; checking for shortages and rejecting dam­
aged goods; routing merchandise or m aterials to proper departments; and maintaining necessary
records and file s.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:
Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receivin g clerk

LABORER, M A T E R IA L HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker;
warehouseman or warehouse helper)

shelver; trucker;

stockman or stock helper;

TRUCKDRIVER

A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store, or other establishment
whose duties involve one or m ore of the following: Loading and unloading various m aterials and
merchandise on or from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelving,
or placing m aterials or merchandise in proper storage location; and transporting m aterials or
merchandise by ’ .andtruck, car, or wheelbarrow. Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are
excluded.

Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport m aterials, merchandise,
equipment, or men between various types of establishments such as:' Manufacturing plants, freight
depots, warehouses, wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments and
custom ers' houses or places o f business. May also load or unload truck with or without helpers,
make m inor mechanical repairs, and keep truck in good working order. D river-salesm en and
over-th e-road d rivers are excluded.

ORDER F IL L E R

follows:

(O rder picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
F ills shipping or transfer orders fo r finished goods from stored merchandise in accord­
ance with specifications on sales slips, custom ers' orders, or other instructions. May, in addition
to fillin g orders and indicating items fille d or omitted, keep records o f outgoing orders, requi­
sition additional stock or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform other related duties.

F or wage study purposes, tru ckdrivers are classified by size and type of equipment, as
(T r a c to r -tr a ile r should be rated on the basis of tra ile r capacity.)
Tru ckdriver
Tru ckdriver,
Tru ckdriver,
Tru ckdriver,
Tru ckdriver,

(combination of sizes listed separately)
light (under 1 V2 tons)
medium ( 1 V2 to and including 4 tons)
heavy (over 4 tons, tra ile r type)
heavy (over 4 tons, other than tra ile r type)

TRUCKER, POWER
PACKER, SHIPPING
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing them in shipping con­
tainers, the specific operations perform ed being dependent upon the type, size, and number
of units to be packed, the type of container employed, and method o f shipment. Work requires
the placing o f items in shipping containers and may involve one or m ore of the following;
Knowledge of various item s of stock in order to v e r ify content; selection o f appropriate type




Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered truck or tractor to transport
goods and m aterials of a ll kinds about a warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
F o r wage study purposes, w orkers are classified by type o f truck, as follows:
Trucker, power (fo rk lift)
Trucker, power (other than fork lift)

A v a ila b le O n R e q u e s t-----

a v a ila b le

T h e f o l l o w in g a r e a s a r e s u r v e y e d p e r i o d i c a l l y f o r u s e in a d m in is t e r in g th e S e r v i c e C o n t r a c t A c t o f 1965.
a t no c o s t w h ile s u p p lie s l a s t f r o m a n y o f th e B L S r e g io n a l o f f i c e s sh o w n on th e in s id e f r o n t c o v e r .

A la s k a
A lb a n y , G a.
A lp e n a , S ta n d is h , and T a w a s C it y , M ic h .
A m a r illo , T e x .
A s h e v i l l e , N .C .
A t la n t ic C it y , N .J .
A u g u s ta , G a —S .C .
A u s t in , T e x .
B a k e r s fie ld , C a lif.
B a to n R o u g e , L a .
B i l o x i , G u lfp o r t, an d P a s c a g o u la , M is s .
B r i d g e p o r t , N o r w a lk , and S t a m fo r d , C on n .
C h a r le s t o n , S .C .
C l a r k s v i l l e , T e n n ., and H o p k in s v ille , K y .
C o lo r a d o S p r in g s , C o lo .
C o lu m b ia , S .C .
C o lu m b u s , G a.—A l a .
C r a n e , In d .
D oth a n , A l a .
D uluth—S u p e r i o r , M in n .—W is .

C o p ie s

of

p u b lic

r e le a s e s

are

Lared o, T ex.
L as V egas, N ev.
L e x in g t o n , K y .
L o w e r E a s t e r n S h o r e , M d .—V a .
M a c o n , G a.
M a r q u e t t e , E s c a n a b a , S a u lt S te . M a r i e , M ic h .
M e r id ia n , M i s s .
M id d le s e x , M o n m o u th , O c e a n and S o m e r s e t
C o s ., N .J .
M o b ile , A l a . , and P e n s a c o la , F la .
M o n t g o m e r y , A la .
N a s h v ille , T e n n .
N e w L o n d o n — r o to n —N o r w ic h , C on n .
G
N o r t h e a s t e r n M a in e
O g d e n , U tah
O r la n d o , F la .
O x n a rd —V e n t u r a , C a l i f .
P a n a m a C it y , F la .
P in e B lu ff , A r k .
P o r t s m o u t h , N .H .—M a in e —M a s s .

D urham , N .C .

P u e b lo , C o lo .

E l Paso, Tex.
E u gen e, O re g .
F a r g o — o o r h e a d , N . D ak .—M in n .
M
F a y e t t e v i l l e , N .C .
F it c h b u r g - L e o m in s t e r , M a s s .
F o r t S m ith , A r k . —O k la .
F r e d e r i c k —H a g e r s t o w n , M d .—P a .—W . V a .
G r e a t F a l l s , M o n t.
G r e e n s b o r o —W in s to n S a le m —H ig h P o in t , N .C .
H a r r is b u r g , P a .
H u n t s v ille , A l a .
K n o x v ille , T en n .

R en o, N ev.
S a c ra m e n to , C a lif.
S an ta B a r b a r a , C a l i f .
S h re v e p o rt, L a.
S p r in g f ie ld — h ic o p e e —H o ly o k e , M a s s .—C o n n .
C
S to c k to n , C a lif .
T a c o m a , W ash.
T op ek a , K an s.
Tucson, A r iz .
V a l l e j o —N a p a , C a lif .
W ic h it a F a l l s , T e x .
W ilm in g to n , D e l —N .J —M d .

T h e e le v e n t h an n u al r e p o r t on s a l a r i e s f o r a c c o u n ta n ts , a u d it o r s , c h ie f a c c o u n ta n ts , a t t o r n e y s , jo b a n a ly s t s , d i r e c t o r s o f p e r s o n n e l,
b u y e r s , c h e m is t s , e n g i n e e r s , e n g in e e r in g t e c h n ic ia n s , d r a f t s m e n , and c l e r i c a l e m p lo y e e s .
O r d e r as B L S B u lle t in 1693, N a tio n a l
S u r v e y o f P r o f e s s i o n a l , A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , T e c h n ic a l, and C l e r i c a l P a y , June 1 97 0 , $1.00 a c o p y , f r o m th e S u p e r in te n d e n t o f D o c u m e n ts ,
U .S . G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , W a s h in g to n , D . C ., 20402, o r an y o f its r e g io n a l s a le s o f f i c e s .




☆

U. S. G O VER N M EN T

P R IN T IN G

O F F IC E :

1 9 7 2 —7 4 5

1 0 2 /5 4

A re a W a g e S u rv ey s
A l i s t o f th e l a t e s t a v a ila b le b u lle t in s is p r e s e n t e d b e lo w .
A d i r e c t o r y o f a r e a w a g e s tu d ie s in c lu d in g m o r e l im it e d s tu d ie s c o n d u c te d at
th e r e q u e s t o f th e E m p lo y m e n t S ta n d a r d s A d m i n i s t r a t io n o f th e D e p a r tm e n t o f L a b o r is a v a ila b le on r e q u e s t . B u lle t in s m a y b e p u r c h a s e d f r o m th e
S u p e r in te n d e n t o f D o c u m e n ts , U .S . G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , W a s h in g to n , D . C ., 20402, o r f r o m an y o f th e B L S r e g io n a l s a le s o f f i c e s show n on
th e in s id e f r o n t c o v e r .

A rea
A k r o n , O h io , J u ly 1971 1
____________________________________
A lb a n y —S c h e n e c ta d y —T r o y , N . Y . , M a r . 1971 1-----------A lb u q u e r q u e , N . M e x . , M a r . 1 9 7 1 _____ ______________ __
A lle n to w n —B e th le h e m —E a s to n , P a . —N . J ., M a y 1971—
A t la n ta , G a . , M a y 1 9 7 1 _____________________________________
B a lt im o r e , M d . , A u g . 1971 ----------------------------------------B e a u m o n t— o r t A r t h u r — r a n g e , T e x . , M a y 1971 1---P
O
B in g h a m to n , N . Y . , J u ly 1971 1-----------------------------------B ir m in g h a m , A l a . , M a r . 1971 1 ---------------------------------B o is e C it y , Id a h o , N o v . 1971--------------------------------------B o s to n , M a s s . , A u g . 1971__________________________________
B u ffa lo , N . Y . , O c t. 1970 1__________________________________
B u r lin g to n , V t . , D e c . 1971----------------------------------------C a n to n , O h io , M a y 1 9 7 1 ____________________________________
C h a r le s t o n , W . V a . , M a r . 1971----------------------------------C h a r lo t t e , N . C . , J an . 1971_________________________________
C h a tta n o o g a , T e n n . - G a . , S ep t. 1971---------------------------C h ic a g o , 111., June 1970----- ------------ ---------------------------C in c in n a ti, O h io — y .—In d ., F e b . 1971 1----------------------K
C le v e la n d , O h io , S ep t. 1 9 7 1 ---------------------------------------C o lu m b u s , O h io , O c t. 1 9 7 1 ----------------------------------------D a lla s , T e x . , O c t. 1971_____________________________________
D a v e n p o r t —R o c k Is la n d — o lin e , I o w a ^ I ll.,
M
F e b . 1971_____________________________________________________
D a y to n , O h io , D e c . 1970 1__________________________________
D e n v e r , C o l o ., D e c . 1 9 7 0 ________________ _____________ _——
D e s M o in e s , Io w a , M a y 1971______________________________
D e t r o i t , M ic h . , F e b . 1971 1____________ ______ ____ _______
F o r t W o r th , T e x . , O c t. 1971----- 1-------------------------------G r e e n B a y , W i s ., J u ly 1971 ---------------------------------------G r e e n v i l l e , S .C ., M a y 1971 1--------------------------------------H o u s to n , T e x . , A p r . 1971 1 ----------------------------------------In d ia n a p o lis , In d ., O c t. 1971------ -------------------------------J a c k s o n , M i s s . , Jan. 1971 1 _______________________________
J a c k s o n v ille , F l a . , D e c . 1970 1___________________________
K a n s a s C it y , M o . - K a n s . , S ep t. 1971 -------------------------L a w r e n c e — a v e r h i l l , M a s s .—N . H ., Jun e 1 9 7 1 -----------H
L i t t l e R o c k —N o r t h L i t t l e R o c k , A r k . , J u ly 1 9 7 1 -------L o s A n g e le s —L o n g B e a c h and A n a h e im — an ta A n a S
G a r d e n G r o v e , C a l i f . , M a r . 1971 1 -------------------------L o u i s v i l l e , K y .—In d ., N o v . 1971 1 ________________________
L u b b o c k , T e x . , M a r . 1 9 7 1 _________________________________
M a n c h e s t e r , N .H ., J u ly 1971--------------------------------------M e m p h is , T e n n .—A r k . , N o v . 1970------------------------------M ia m i , F l a . , N o v . 1971----- ----------------------------— — ——
M id la n d and O d e s s a , T e x . , Jan. 1971------------------------M ilw a u k e e , W i s . , M a y 1 9 7 1 ---------------------------------------M in n e a p o lis —St. P a u l, M in n ., J an . 1971 _________________

B u lle t in n u m b e r
and p r i c e
1 6 8 5 -8 7 ,
1 6 8 5 -5 4 ,
1 6 8 5 -5 8 ,
1 6 8 5 -7 5 ,
1 6 8 5 -6 9 ,
1 7 2 5 -1 6 ,
1 6 8 5 -6 8 ,
1 7 2 5 -6 ,
1 6 8 5 -6 3 ,
1 72 5-2 7 ,
1 7 2 5 -1 1 ,
1 6 8 5 -4 3 ,
172 5-2 5 ,
1 6 8 5 -7 1 ,
1 6 8 5 -5 7 ,
1 6 8 5 -4 8 ,
1 7 2 5 -1 4 ,
1 6 6 0 -9 0 ,
1 6 8 5 -5 3 ,
1 7 2 5 -1 7 ,
1 7 2 5 -1 9 ,
172 5-2 6 ,

40
35
30
30
40
35
35
35
40
30
40
50
25
30
30
30
30
60
45
40
30
35

1 6 8 5 -5 1 ,
1 6 8 5 -4 5 ,
1 6 8 5 -4 1 ,
1 6 8 5 -7 0 ,
1 6 8 5 -7 7 ,
1 7 2 5 -2 1 ,
1 7 2 5 -3 ,
1 6 8 5 -7 8 ,
1 6 8 5 -6 7 ,
1 72 5-2 3 ,
1 6 8 5 -3 9 ,
1 6 8 5 -3 7 ,
1 7 2 5 -1 8 ,
1 6 8 5 -8 3 ,
1 7 2 5 -4 ,

30 c e n ts
40 c e n ts
35 c e n ts
30 c e n ts
50 c e n ts
30 c e n ts
30 c e n ts
35 c e n ts
50 c e n ts
30 c e n ts
35 c e n ts
35 c e n ts
35 c e n ts
30 c e n ts
30 c e n ts

1 6 8 5 -6 6 ,
172 5-2 9 ,
1 6 8 5 -6 0 ,
1 7 2 5 -2 ,
1 6 8 5 -3 0 ,
1 72 5-2 8 ,
1 6 8 5 -4 0 ,
1 6 8 5 -7 6 ,
1 6 8 5 -4 4 ,

50
35
30
30
30
30
30
35
40

* Data on establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions are also presented.




c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts

c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts *

A rea
M u s k e g o n — u s k e g o n H e ig h t s , M ic h . , June 1971_______
M
N e w a r k and J e r s e y C it y , N . J ., Jan. 1971______________
N e w H a v e n , C o n n ., Jan . 1 9 7 1 ____________________________
N e w O r le a n s , L a . , Jan. 1971 1___________________________
N e w Y o r k , N . Y . , A p r . 1971_______________________________
N o r f o l k — o r t s m o u t h and N e w p o r t N e w s —
P
H a m p to n , V a . , Jan . 1971 1 ______________________________
O k la h o m a C it y , O k la . , J u ly 1971 1______________________
O m a h a , N e b r . —Io w a , S ep t. 1971 1 -----------------------------P a t e r s o n —C lif t o n — a s s a i c , N . J ., June 1971___________
P
P h ila d e lp h ia , P a . —N . J ., N o v . 1970----------------------------P h o e n ix , A r i z . , June 1 9 7 1 ________________________________
P it t s b u r g h , P a . , Jan . 1971 1-------------------------------------P o r t la n d , M a in e , N o v . 1971 1 ____________________________
P o r t la n d , O r e g . —W a s h ., M a y 1971______________________
P r o v i d e n c e — a w t u c k e t —W a r w ic k , R .I. —M a s s . ,
P
M a y 1971 1 ---------------------------------------------------------------R a le ig h , N . C . , A u g . 1971__________________________________
R ic h m o n d , V a . , M a r . 1971_______________________________ _
R o c h e s t e r , N . Y . ( o f f i c e o c c u p a tio n s o n ly ),
J u ly 1971 1 ---------------------------------------------------------------R o c k fo r d , 111., M a y 1 9 7 1 __________________________________
St. L o u is , M o .—111., M a r . 1971 1-------------------------------S a lt L a k e C it y , U ta h , N o v . 1971_________________________
San A n t o n io , T e x . , M a y 1971 1----------------------------------San B e r n a r d in o —R i v e r s i d e —O n t a r io , C a l i f . ,
D e c . 1970 1---------------------------------------------------------------San D ie g o , C a l i f . , N o v . 1 9 7 0 ------------------------------------San F r a n c i s c o — a k la n d , C a l i f . , O c t. 1970______________
O
San J o s e , C a l i f . , A u g . 1971 1------------------------------------S a van n ah , G a ., M a y 1971_________________________________
S c r a n to n , P a . , J u ly
1971 -----------------------------------------S e a tt le —E v e r e t t , W a s h ., Jan . 1971 1____________________
S io u x F a l l s , S. D a k ., D e c . 1971-------------------------------South B e n d , In d ., M a r . 1971______________________________
S p o k a n e , W a s h ., June 1 9 7 1 ---------------------------------------S y r a c u s e , N . Y . , J u ly 1971 1 --------------------------------------Tam pa—
St. P e t e r s b u r g , F l a . , N o v . 1 9 7 0 ------------------T o le d o , O h io — ic h . , A p r . 1971 1________________________
M
T r e n t o n , N . J ., S ep t. 1 9 7 1 _________________________________
U t ic a — o m e , N . Y . , J u ly 1971 1 __________________________
R
W a s h in g to n , D .C .—M d .—V a . , A p r . 1 9 7 1 _________________
W a t e r b u r y , C o n n ., M a r . 1971____________________________
W a t e r lo o , Io w a , N o v . 1971----------------------------------------W ic h it a , K a n s . , A p r . 1 9 7 1 ----------------------------------------W o r c e s t e r , M a s s . , M a y 1 9 7 1 ____________________________
Y o r k , P a . , F e b . 1971_______________________________________
Y o u n g s to w n — a r r e n , O h io , N o v . 1970__________________
W

B u lle t in n u m b e r
and p r i c e
1 6 8 5 -8 2 ,
1 6 8 5 -4 7 ,
1 6 8 5 -3 5 ,
1 6 8 5 -3 6 ,
1 6 8 5 -8 9 ,

30
40
30
40
65

c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts

1 6 8 5 -4 6 ,
1 7 2 5 -8 ,
1 7 2 5 -1 3 ,
1 6 8 5 -8 4 ,
1 6 8 5 -3 4 ,
1 6 8 5 -8 6 ,
1 6 8 5 -4 9 ,
1 72 5-2 2 ,
1 6 8 5 -8 5 ,

35 c e n ts
35 c e n ts
35 c e n ts
35 c e n ts
50 c e n ts
30 c e n ts
50 c e n ts
35 c e n ts
35 c e n ts

1 6 8 5 -8 0 ,
1 7 2 5 -5 ,
1 6 8 5 -6 2 ,

40 c e n ts
30 c e n ts
30 c e n ts

1 7 2 5 -7 ,
1 6 8 5 -7 9 ,
1 6 8 5 -6 5 ,
4 7 2 5 -2 4 ,
1 6 8 5 -8 1 ,

35 c e n ts
30 c e n ts
50 c e n ts
30. c e n ts
35 c e n ts

1 6 8 5 -4 2 ,
1 6 8 5 -2 0 ,
1 6 8 5 -2 3 ,
1 7 2 5 -1 5 ,
1 6 8 5 -7 2 ,
1 7 2 5 -1 ,
1 6 8 5 -5 2 ,
172 5-3 0 ,
1 6 8 5 -6 1 ,
1 6 8 5 -8 8 ,
1 7 2 5 -1 0 ,
1 6 8 5 -1 7 ,
1 6 8 5 -7 4 ,
1 7 2 5 -1 2 ,
1 7 2 5 -9 ,
1 6 8 5 -5 6 ,
1 6 8 5 -5 5 ,
1 725-20,
1 6 8 5 -6 4 ,
1 6 8 5 -7 3 ,
1 6 8 5 -5 0 ,
1 6 8 5 -2 4 ,

40 c e n ts
30 c e n ts
40 c e n ts
35 c e n ts
30 c e n ts
30 c e n ts
35 c e n ts
25 c e n ts
30 c e n ts
30 c e n ts
35 c e n ts
30 c e n ts
40 c e n ts
30 c e n ts
35 c e n ts
40 c e n ts
30 c e n ts
30 c e n ts
30 c e n ts
30 c e n ts
30 c e n ts
30 c e n ts


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102