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L




A R EA WAGE SURVEY
T h e W a te rlo o , Iowa, M etropolitan A re a ,
N ovem ber 1970
Dayton & Montgomery Co.
Public Library
J U N 4 -1 9 7 1
DOCUMENT COLLECTION

Bulletin 16 8 5 -3 2
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR / Bureau o f Labor Statistics

BUREAU

G overnm ent Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: 223-6762 (Area Code 617)

OF

LABOR

S T A T IS T IC S

R E G IO N A L

O F F IC E S

New Y o rk , N .Y . 10001
Phone: 971-5405 (Area Code 212)

1317 F ilb e rtS t.
Philadelphia, Pa. 19107
Phone 597-7796 (Area Code 215)

1371 Peachtree St. NE.
A tla n ta , Ga. 30309
Phone: 526-5418 (Area Code 404)

Region VI
337 M ayflow er Building
411 N o rth A kard St.
Dallas, Tex. 75201
Phone: 749-3516 (Area Code 214)
* Regions V II and V III w ill be serviced by Kansas C ity .
* Regions IX and X w ill be serviced by San Francisco

Regions V II and V III
Federal O ffice Building
911 W alnut S t., 10th F loor
Kansas C ity , M o. 64106
Phone: 374-2481 (Area Code 816)

Regions IX and X
450 Golden Gate Ave.
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: 556-4678 (Area Code 415)

Region V
219 South Dearborn St.
Chicago, III. 60604
Phone: 353-7230 (Area Code 312)




U.S. DEPARTM ENT OF LABOR




J. D. Hodgson, Secretary

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Geoffrey H. Moore, Commissioner

AR EA WAGE SURVEY
T h e W a te rlo o , Iow a, M etropolitan A re a ,
N ovem ber 1970

Bulletin 1 6 8 5 -3 2
March 1971

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 20402 — Price 3 5 cents




C o n te n ts

P re fa c e

Page
T h e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S ta tistic s p r o g r a m o f annual
o c c u p a t i o n a l w a g e s u r v e y s in m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s i s d e ­
s i g n e d to p r o v i d e data o n o c c u p a t i o n a l e a r n i n g s , and e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and s u p p le m e n t a r y w age p r o v is io n s .
It
y ie ld s d e t a ile d data b y s e l e c t e d in d u str y d iv is io n f o r e a c h
o f th e a r e a s s t u d i e d , f o r g e o g r a p h i c r e g i o n s , a n d f o r th e
U n ited S ta te s .
A m a j o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n in t h e p r o g r a m is
th e n e e d f o r g r e a t e r i n s i g h t i n t o (1) t h e m o v e m e n t o f w a g e s
b y o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r y a n d s k i l l l e v e l , a n d (2) t h e s t r u c ­
tu re and l e v e l o f w a g e s a m o n g a r e a s and in d u s tr y d iv is io n s .

T a b les:
1.
2.

A.

T h i s b u l l e t i n p r e s e n t s r e s u l t s o f th e s u r v e y in
W a t e r l o o , I o w a , in N o v e m b e r 1 9 7 0 .
The Standard M e t r o ­
p o l i t a n S t a t i s t i c a l A r e a , a s d e f i n e d b y t h e B u r e a u o f the,,
B u d g e t th ro u g h J a n u a ry 1968,
c o n s is t s o f B la c k Hawk
C ounty.
T h i s s t u d y w a s c o n d u c t e d b y th e B u r e a u ' s r e ­
g i o n a l o f f i c e in K a n s a s C i t y , M o . , u n d e r th e g e n e r a l d i r e c ­
tion o f E d w a r d C h a ik e n , A s s is t a n t R e g io n a l D i r e c t o r fo r
O p era tion s.




E s t a b l i s h m e n t s a n d w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e o f s u r v e y and
n u m b e r s t u d i e d ___________________________________________________________
In d ex es o f sta n d a rd w e e k ly s a la r ie s and s t r a ig h t -t im e
h o u r l y e a r n i n g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s , and
p e r c e n t s o f i n c r e a s e f o r s e l e c t e d p e r i o d s _________________________

4

6

O ccu p a tio n a l ea rn in gs:
A -l.
O f f i c e o c c u p a t i o n s —w o m e n _____________________________________
A - 2.
P r o f e s s i o n a l a n d t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s —m e n ______________
A -3.
O f f ic e , p r o f e s s i o n a l , and te c h n ic a l o c c u p a t io n s —
m e n a n d w o m e n c o m b i n e d ____________________________________
A -4 .
M a i n t e n a n c e a n d p o w e r p l a n t o c c u p a t i o n s ___________________
A - 5.
C u s t o d i a l a n d m a t e r i a l m o v e m e n t o c c u p a t i o n s ____________

1

E s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and su p p le m e n ta ry w a g e p r o v is io n s :
B -l.
M in im u m en tran ce s a la rie s for w o m e n o ffic e
w o r k e r s ____________________________________________________________
B -2 .
S h i f t d i f f e r e n t i a l s ________________________________________________
B -3 .
S c h e d u l e d w e e k l y h o u r s ________________________________________
B -4 .
P a i d h o l i d a y s ______________________________________________________
B -5 .
P a i d v a c a t i o n s ____________________________________
B -6 .
H e a l t h , i n s u r a n c e , a n d p e n s i o n p l a n s _______________________

11
12
13
14
15
17

A p p en d ix.

O c c u p a t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n s _________________________________________

NOTE: For
in gs i n f o r m a t i o n
N o v e m b e r 1970,
r e t r o a c t i v e t o an

m an u fa ctu rin g esta b lish m en ts on ly, e a r n ­
e x clu d e w age in c r e a s e s n egotia ted a fter
a l t h o u g h th e i n c r e a s e s m a y h a v e b e e n
e a r l i e r date.

7
8

O

B.
N i n e t y a r e a s c u r r e n t l y a r e i n c l u d e d in th e p r o ­
gram .
In e a c h a r e a , i n f o r m a t i o n o n o c c u p a t i o n a l e a r n i n g s
is c o l l e c t e d a n n u a lly and on e s t a b l i s h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and
su p p le m e n ta ry w age p r o v is io n s bien n ia lly.

1
5

00 O

A t th e e n d o f e a c h s u r v e y , an i n d i v i d u a l a r e a b u l ­
le t in p r e s e n t s the s u r v e y r e s u l t s .
A f t e r c o m p le t io n o f a ll
o f th e i n d i v i d u a l a r e a b u l l e t i n s f o r a r o u n d o f s u r v e y s , t w o
s u m m a r y bulletin s a r e is su e d .
T h e f i r s t b r in g s data fo r
e a c h o f th e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s s t u d i e d i n t o o n e b u l l e t i n .
T h e s e c o n d p r e s e n t s in fo r m a t io n w h ich has b e e n p r o j e c t e d
f r o m in d iv id u a l m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a data to r e l a t e to g e o ­
g r a p h i c r e g i o n s a n d th e U n i t e d S t a t e s .

I n t r o d u c t i o n ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------W a g e t r e n d s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s ______________________________

19




In tro d u c tio n
T h i s a r e a i s 1 o f 90 in w h i c h t h e U . S . D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r ' s
B u re a u of L a b o r S ta tistics con d u cts s u rv e y s o f o c cu p a tio n a l ea rn in gs
a n d r e l a t e d b e n e f i t s o n a n a r e a w i d e b a s i s . 1 In t h i s a r e a , d a t a w e r e
ob ta in ed b y p e r s o n a l v is it s o f B u r e a u fie ld e c o n o m is t s to r e p r e s e n t ­
ative
e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith in s ix b r o a d in d u s tr y d iv is io n s :
Manu­
fa c tu r in g ; tr a n s p o r t a tio n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o th e r p u b lic u tilitie s ;
w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e ; and
serv ices.
M a jo r in d u stry g ro u p s e x clu d e d f r o m th ese stu d ies a re
g o v e r n m e n t o p e r a t i o n s a n d th e c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d e x t r a c t i v e i n d u s t r i e s .
E s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v in g f e w e r than a p r e s c r i b e d n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s a r e
o m i t t e d b e c a u s e t h e y t e n d t o f u r n i s h i n s u f f i c i e n t e m p l o y m e n t in th e
o c c u p a tio n s stu died to w a r r a n t in clu s io n .
S ep arate tabu lation s a re
p r o v i d e d f o r e a c h o f the b r o a d i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s w h i c h m e e t p u b l i ­
cation c r ite r ia .

O c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t and e a r n in g s data a r e show n f o r
f u ll- t i m e w o r k e r s , i . e . , th o s e h ir e d to w o r k a r e g u la r w e e k ly sch e d u le
in th e g i v e n o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .
E a r n in g s data e x c lu d e p r e ­
m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o l i d a y s , and
la te s h ifts.
N o n p r o d u c t io n b o n u s e s a r e e x c lu d e d , but c o s t - o f - l i v i n g
a llo w a n c e s and in cen tiv e ea rn in g s a re in clu d ed. W h e r e w e e k ly h o u rs
a r e r e p o r t e d , as f o r o f f i c e c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s , r e f e r e n c e is to the
s t a n d a r d w o r k w e e k ( r o u n d e d t o th e n e a r e s t h a l f h o u r ) f o r w h i c h e m ­
p lo y e e s r e c e iv e th eir r e g u la r s tr a ig h t-tim e s a la r ie s (e x c lu siv e of pay
f o r o v e r t i m e at r e g u l a r a n d / o r p r e m i u m r a t e s ) . A v e r a g e w e e k l y e a r n ­
in g s f o r t h e s e o c c u p a t i o n s h a v e b e e n r o u n d e d to the n e a r e s t h a l f d o l l a r .

T h e s e s u r v e y s m e a s u r e th e l e v e l o f o c c u p a t i o n a l e a r n i n g s in
an a r e a at a p a r t i c u l a r t i m e . C o m p a r i s o n s o f i n d i v i d u a l o c c u p a t i o n a l
a v e r a g e s o v e r t i m e m a y r.ot r e f l e c t e x p e c t e d w a g e c h a n g e s .
The
a v e r a g e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l j o b s a r e a f f e c t e d b y c h a n g e s in w a g e s a n d
e m p lo y m e n t pattern s. F o r e x a m p le, p r o p o rtio n s of w o r k e r s e m p loy ed
by h igh - o r lo w -w a g e fir m s m a y change o r h ig h -w a g e w o r k e r s m a y
a d v a n c e t o b e t t e r j o b s a n d b e r e p l a c e d b y n e w w o r k e r s at l o w e r r a t e s .
S u c h s h i f t s in e m p l o y m e n t c o u l d d e c r e a s e a n o c c u p a t i o n a l a v e r a g e
e v e n t h o u g h m o s t e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in a n a r e a i n c r e a s e w a g e s d u r i n g
t h e y e a r . T r e n d s in e a r n i n g s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s , s h o w n in t a b l e
2, a r e b e t t e r i n d i c a t o r s o f w a g e t r e n d s th a n i n d i v i d u a l j o b s w i t h i n
the g r o u p s .

T h e s e s u r v e y s a r e c o n d u c te d on a s a m p le b a s is b e c a u s e of
t h e u n n e c e s s a r y c o s t i n v o l v e d in s u r v e y i n g a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s .
To
o b t a i n o p t i m u m a c c u r a c y at m i n i m u m c o s t , a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f
l a r g e th a n o f s m a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i s s t u d i e d . In c o m b i n i n g t h e d a t a ,
h o w e v e r , all e sta b lis h m e n ts a re g iv e n th e ir a p p ro p ria te w eigh t. E s ­
t i m a t e s b a s e d o n th e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s t u d i e d a r e p r e s e n t e d , t h e r e f o r e ,
a s r e l a t i n g t o a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in t h e i n d u s t r y g r o u p i n g a n d a r e a ,
e x c e p t f o r t h o s e b e l o w th e m i n i m u m s i z e s t u d i e d .
O c c u p a tio n s and E a rn in g s
T h e o c c u p a t io n s s e l e c t e d f o r study a r e c o m m o n to a v a r ie t y
o f m a n u fa c tu r in g and n o n m a n u fa c t u r in g i n d u s t r ie s ,
a n d a r e o f th e
follow in g ty p es;
( l ) O f f i c e c l e r i c a l ; (2) p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d t e c h n i c a l ;
(3) m a i n t e n a n c e a n d p o w e r p l a n t ; a n d (4) c u s t o d i a l a n d m a t e r i a l m o v e ­
m ent.
O c c u p a tio n a l c la s s if i c a t io n is b a s e d on a u n ifo r m s e t o f jo b
d e s c r i p t i o n s d e s ig n e d to take a c c o u n t o f in t e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t v a r ia t io n
in d u t i e s w i t h i n t h e s a m e j o b .
T h e o c c u p a t io n s s e l e c t e d f o r study
a r e l i s t e d and d e s c r i b e d in the a p p e n d ix . T h e e a r n i n g s da ta f o l l o w i n g
th e j o b t i t l e s a r e f o r a l l i n d u s t r i e s c o m b i n e d . E a r n i n g s d a t a f o r s o m e
o f the o c c u p a t i o n s l i s t e d and d e s c r i b e d , o r f o r s o m e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s
w ith in o c c u p a t i o n s , a r e not p r e s e n t e d in the A - s e r i e s t a b l e s , b e c a u s e
e i t h e r ( l ) e m p l o y m e n t in th e o c c u p a t i o n i s t o o s m a l l t o p r o v i d e e n o u g h
d a t a t o m e r i t p r e s e n t a t i o n , o r (2) t h e r e i s p o s s i b i l i t y o f d i s c l o s u r e
o f in d iv id u a l e s t a b lis h m e n t data. E a r n in g s data not s h ow n s e p a r a t e l y
f o r i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s a r e i n c l u d e d in a l l i n d u s t r i e s c o m b i n e d d a t a ,
w h e r e s h o w n . L i k e w i s e , d a t a a r e i n c l u d e d in t h e o v e r a l l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n
w h en a s u b c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f s e c r e t a r i e s o r t r u c k d r i v e r s is not show n
o r in f o r m a t io n to s u b c l a s s i f y is not a v a ila b le .

The a v e ra g e s p re se n te d re fle c t c o m p o s ite , a rea w ide e s t i­
m ates.
I n d u s t r i e s a n d e s t a b l i s h m e n t s d i f f e r in p a y l e v e l a n d j o b
s ta ffin g and, th u s, c o n t r i b u t e d i f f e r e n t l y to the e s t i m a t e s f o r e a c h jo b .
T h e p a y r e l a t i o n s h i p o b t a in a b le f r o m the a v e r a g e s m a y f a i l to r e f l e c t
a c c u r a t e l y t h e w a g e s p r e a d o r d i f f e r e n t i a l m a i n t a i n e d a m o n g j o b s in
i n d i v i d u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . S i m i l a r l y , d i f f e r e n c e s in a v e r a g e p a y l e v e l s
f o r m e n a n d w o m e n in a n y o f th e s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s s h o u l d n o t b e
a s s u m e d t o r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n c e s in p a y t r e a t m e n t o f t h e s e x e s w i t h i n
in d ivid u a l e s ta b lis h m e n ts .
O th er p o s s ib le fa c to r s w h ich m a y c o n ­
tr ib u t e to d i f f e r e n c e s in p a y f o r m e n and w o m e n in c l u d e ; D i f f e r e n c e s
in p r o g r e s s i o n w i t h i n e s t a b l i s h e d r a t e r a n g e s , s i n c e o n l y th e a c t u a l
r a t e s p a i d i n c u m b e n t s a r e c o l l e c t e d ; a n d d i f f e r e n c e s in s p e c i f i c d u t i e s
p e r f o r m e d , a lth o u g h the w o r k e r s a r e c l a s s i f i e d a p p r o p r i a t e l y w ith in
t h e s a m e s u r v e y j o b d e s c r i p t i o n . J o b d e s c r i p t i o n s u s e d in c l a s s i f y i n g
e m p l o y e e s in t h e s e s u r v e y s a r e u s u a l l y m o r e g e n e r a l i z e d th a n t h o s e
u s e d in i n d i v i d u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a n d a l l o w f o r m i n o r d i f f e r e n c e s
a m o n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in t h e s p e c i f i c d u t i e s p e r f o r m e d .

1
In clu d ed in the 90 areas are four studies c o n d u c te d under co n tra ct w ith the N ew Y ork State
D epartm en t o f Labor. T h ese areas are Bingham ton (N ew Y o rk p ortion o n ly ); R o ch e ste r ( o f f i c e o c c u ­
pations on ly ); Syracuse; and U tic a —R o m e . In ad d itio n , the Bureau conducts m ore lim it e d area studies
in 77 areas at the request o f the W age and H our D iv isio n o f the U .S . D ep artm en t o f Labor.




1

O c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t e s t i m a t e s r e p r e s e n t t h e t o t a l in
a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w i t h i n th e s c o p e o f th e s t u d y a n d n o t th e n u m b e r
actu ally su rv ey ed .
B e c a u s e o f d i f f e r e n c e s in o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e

2
a m o n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , th e e s t i m a t e s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t o b ­
t a i n e d f r o m th e s a m p l e o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s t u d i e d s e r v e o n l y t o i n d i c a t e
the r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f th e j o b s s t u d i e d .
T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s in
o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e d o n o t a f f e c t m a t e r i a l l y the a c c u r a c y o f the
e a r n i n g s da ta .
E s t a b l i s h m e n t P r a c t i c e s and S u p p l e m e n ta r y W a ge P r o v i s i o n s
I n f o r m a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d ( in the B - s e r i e s t a b l e s ) o n s e l e c t e d
e s t a b l i s h m e n t p r a c t i c e s a nd s u p p l e m e n t a r y w a g e p r o v i s i o n s a s t h e y
r e l a t e to p la n t a n d o f f i c e w o r k e r s .
D a t a f o r i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s not
p r e s e n t e d s e p a r a t e l y a r e i n c l u d e d in th e e s t i m a t e s f o r " a l l i n d u s t r i e s . "
A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , e x e c u t i v e , a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l e m p l o y e e s , and c o n s t r u c ­
tion w o r k e r s w ho a r e u tiliz e d as a s e p a r a t e w o r k f o r c e a r e e x c lu d e d .
" P l a n t w o r k e r s " i n c l u d e w o r k i n g f o r e m e n a nd a l l n o n s u p e r v i s o r y
w o r k e r s ( i n c l u d i n g l e a d m e n and t r a i n e e s ) e n g a g e d in n o n o f f i c e f u n c ­
tions.
" O f f i c e w o r k e r s " in clu d e w o r k in g s u p e r v i s o r s and n o n s u p e r ­
v i s o r y w o r k e r s p e r fo r m in g c l e r i c a l o r re la te d fun ction s.
C a feteria
w o r k e r s a n d r o u t e m e n a r e e x c l u d e d in m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s , b u t
i n c l u d e d in n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s .
M i n im u m e n tr a n c e s a l a r i e s f o r w o m e n o f f i c e w o r k e r s (table
B - l ) r e l a t e o n l y to the e s t a b l i s h m e n t s v i s i t e d . B e c a u s e o f the o p t i m u m
s a m p l i n g t e c h n i q u e s u s e d , and th e p r o b a b i l i t y th at l a r g e e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t s a r e m o r e l i k e l y to h a v e f o r m a l e n t r a n c e r a t e s f o r w o r k e r s
a b o v e the s u b c l e r i c a l l e v e l th an s m a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , th e t a b l e i s
m o r e - r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f p o l i c i e s in m e d i u m a n d l a r g e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s .
S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l da t a ( t a b l e B - Z ) a r e l i m i t e d to p l a n t w o r k e r s
in m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s .
T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d b o t h in
t e r m s o f (1) e s t a b l i s h m e n t p o l i c y , 2 p r e s e n t e d in t e r m s o f t o t a l p la n t
w o r k e r e m p l o y m e n t , a nd (2) e f f e c t i v e p r a c t i c e , p r e s e n t e d in t e r m s
o f w o r k e r s a c t u a l l y e m p l o y e d o n th e s p e c i f i e d s h i f t at th e t i m e o f the
survey.
In e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v i n g v a r i e d d i f f e r e n t i a l s , th e a m o u n t
a p p l y i n g to a m a j o r i t y w a s u s e d o r , i f n o a m o u n t a p p l i e d to a m a j o r i t y ,
th e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n " o t h e r " w a s u s e d . In e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in w h i c h s o m e
l a t e - s h i f t h o u r s a r e p a i d at n o r m a l r a t e s , a d i f f e r e n t i a l w a s r e c o r d e d
o n l y i f it a p p l i e d t o a m a j o r i t y o f t h e s h i f t h o u r s .
T h e s c h e d u l e d w e e k l y h o u r s ( t a b l e B - 3 ) o f a m a j o r i t y o f the
f i r s t - s h i f t w o r k e r s in an e s t a b l i s h m e n t a r e t a b u l a t e d a s a p p l y i n g to
a l l o f th e p l a n t o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s o f th at e s t a b l i s h m e n t .
S ch edu led
w e e k ly h o u rs a re th ose w hich a m a j o r it y of fu ll-t i m e e m p lo y e e s w e r e
e x p e c t e d t o w o r k , w h e t h e r t h e y w e r e p a i d f o r at s t r a i g h t - t i m e o r
o v e rtim e rates.

a m a jo r i t y o f such w o r k e r s a re e lig ib le o r m a y even tu ally q u alify fo r
the p r a c t i c e s l i s t e d . S u m s o f i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s in t a b l e s B - 2 t h r o u g h
B - 6 m a y not equ al to ta ls b e c a u s e o f rou nding.
D a t a o n p a i d h o l i d a y s ( t a b l e B - 4 ) a r e l i m i t e d to data on h o l i ­
days g ra n te d ann ually on a f o r m a l b a s i s ; i . e . , ( l) a r e p r o v id e d f o r
in w r i t t e n f o r m , o r (2) h a v e b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d b y c u s t o m .
H olidays
o r d i n a r i l y g r a n te d a r e in c lu d e d e v e n though th ey m a y f a l l on a n o n ­
w o r k d a y and the w o r k e r i s n o t g r a n t e d a n o t h e r d a y o f f.
The first
p a r t o f th e p a i d h o l i d a y s t a b l e p r e s e n t s t h e n u m b e r o f w h o l e and h a l f
h olid a y s a ctu a lly granted .
T h e s e c o n d p a r t c o m b i n e s w h o l e and h a l f
h o lid a y s to sh ow to ta l h o lid a y t i m e .
T h e s u m m a r y o f v a c a t i o n p l a n s ( t a b l e B - 5 ) is l i m i t e d to a
statistical m e a s u r e of vacation p r o v is io n s .
It i s n o t i n t e n d e d as a
m e a s u r e o f the p r o p o r t i o n o f w o r k e r s a c t u a l l y r e c e i v i n g s p e c i f i c b e n e ­
f i t s . P r o v i s i o n s o f an e s t a b l i s h m e n t f o r a l l l e n g t h s o f s e r v i c e w e r e
t a b u l a t e d as a p p l y i n g t o a l l p la n t o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s o f th e e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t, r e g a r d l e s s o f length o f s e r v i c e .
P r o v i s i o n s f o r p a y m e n t on
o t h e r th an a t i m e b a s i s w e r e c o n v e r t e d t o a t i m e b a s i s ; f o r e x a m p l e ,
a p a y m e n t o f 2 p e r c e n t o f a n n u a l e a r n i n g s w a s c o n s i d e r e d a s the e q u i v ­
alent o f 1 w e e k 's pay.
O nly b a s ic plans a r e in clud ed.
E stim ates
e x c l u d e v a c a t i o n b o n u s a n d v a c a t i o n - s a v i n g s p l a n s and t h o s e w h i c h
o f f e r " e x t e n d e d " o r " s a b b a t i c a l " b e n e f i t s b e y o n d b a s i c p l a n s w ith
q u a l i f y i n g l e n g t h s o f s e r v i c e . S u c h e x c l u s i o n s a r e t y p i c a l in th e s t e e l ,
a l u m i n u m , and c a n i n d u s t r i e s .
D a ta on h e a l t h , i n s u r a n c e , and p e n s i o n p l a n s ( t a b le B - 6 ) i n ­
c l u d e t h o s e p l a n s f o r w h i c h the e m p l o y e r p a y s at l e a s t a p a r t o f the
c o s t. Such plan s in clu d e th o s e u n d e r w r itt e n b y a c o m m e r c i a l in su ra n c e
c o m p a n y and t h o s e p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h a u n i o n fund o r p a i d d i r e c t l y b y
the e m p l o y e r out o f c u r r e n t o p e r a t i n g f u n d s o r f r o m a fund s e t a s i d e
f o r th is p u r p o s e . A n e s t a b l i s h m e n t w a s c o n s i d e r e d to h a v e a p l a n if
the m a j o r i t y o f e m p l o y e e s w a s e l i g i b l e to be c o v e r e d u n d e r the p la n ,
e v e n i f l e s s th an a m a j o r i t y e l e c t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e b e c a u s e e m p l o y e e s
w e r e r e q u i r e d to c o n t r i b u t e t o w a r d the c o s t o f th e p la n .
Leg ally
r e q u ir e d pla n s, su ch as w o r k m e n 's c o m p e n s a t io n , s o c i a l s e c u r ity ,
and r a i l r o a d r e t i r e m e n t w e r e e x c l u d e d .

S i c k n e s s a nd a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e i s l i m i t e d t o that t y p e o f
in su ran ce under w hich p r e d e te r m in e d ca sh paym ents are m ade d ir e ctly
to th e i n s u r e d d u r i n g i l l n e s s o r a c c i d e n t d i s a b i l i t y .
I n fo rm a tio n is
p r e s e n t e d f o r a l l s u c h p l a n s t o w h i c h th e e m p l o y e r c o n t r i b u t e s . H o w ­
e v e r , in N e w Y o r k and N e w J e r s e y , w h i c h h a v e e n a c t e d t e m p o r a r y
P a i d h o l i d a y s ; pa id v a c a t i o n s ; and h ealth , in s u r a n c e ,
and
d is a b ility in su r a n c e law s w h ich r e q u ir e e m p lo y e r co n trib u tio n s ,
plan s
p e n s i o n p l a n s ( t a b l e s B - 4 t h r o u g h B - 6 ) a r e t r e a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y on
a r e i n c l u d e d o n l y i f the e m p l o y e r ( l ) c o n t r i b u t e s m o r e th an is l e g a l l y
th e b a s i s th at t h e s e a r e a p p l i c a b l e to a l l p la n t o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s i f
r e q u i r e d , o r (2) p r o v i d e s th e e m p l o y e e w ith b e n e f i t s w h i c h e x c e e d the
2
A n establishm ent was considered as having a p o lic y i f it m et eith er o f the fo llo w in g c o n ­
r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the la w .
T a b u la tio n s o f pa id s ic k le a v e plan s a re
ditions: (1 ) O perated late shifts at the tim e o f the survey, or (2 ) had form al provisions coverin g
late shifts. A n establishm ent was considered as having form al provisions i f it (1 ) had operated late
shifts during the 12 months prior to the survey, or (2 ) had provisions in w ritten form for operating
late shifts.




^ The tem porary
contributions.

disability laws

in C a liforn ia

and Rhode Island do not require

em ployer

3
l i m i t e d to f o r m a l p l a n s 4 w h i c h p r o v i d e f u l l p a y o r a p r o p o r t i o n o f th e
w o r k e r 's pa y du rin g a b s e n c e f r o m w o r k b e c a u s e o f illn e s s . S e p a ra te
ta b u la tion s a r e p r e s e n t e d a c c o r d in g to (l) plan s w h ich p r o v id e fu ll pay
a n d n o w a i t i n g p e r i o d , a n d (2) p l a n s w h i c h p r o v i d e e i t h e r p a r t i a l p a y
o r a w a i t i n g p e r i o d . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e p r o p o r t i o n s
o f w o r k e r s w h o a r e p r o v i d e d s ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e o r p a id
s i c k l e a v e , an u n d u p l i c a t e d t o t a l i s s h o w n o f w o r k e r s w h o r e c e i v e
e ith er o r both ty p e s of b e n e fits.
4
A n establishm ent was co n sid e re d as h aving a fo rm a l p lan if it established at least the
m in im u m num ber o f days o f s ick le a v e a v a ila b le to e a ch e m p lo y e e .
Such a p lan n e e d n o t be
w ritten , but in form al s ick le a v e a llo w a n c e s , d eterm in ed on an in d ivid u a l basis, w e re e x clu d e d .




M a jo r m e d ic a l in s u r a n c e in clu d e s th o s e plan s w h ich a r e d e ­
s i g n e d t o p r o t e c t e m p l o y e e s in c a s e o f s i c k n e s s a n d i n j u r y i n v o l v i n g
e x p e n s e s b e y o n d th e c o v e r a g e o f b a s i c h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , m e d i c a l , a n d
s u r g i c a l p la n s . M e d i c a l in s u r a n c e r e f e r s to p la n s p r o v id in g f o r c o m ­
plete o r p a rtia l pa ym en t o f d o c t o r s ' fe e s .
D ental in su ra n c e u su a lly
c o v e r s f illin g s , e x t r a c t io n s , and X - r a y s .
E x c lu d e d a re p la n s w h ich
c o v e r on ly o r a l s u r g e r y or a ccid e n t d a m a g e.
P la n s m a y be u n d e r­
w ritten b y c o m m e r c i a l in su ra n c e co m p a n ie s o r n on p rofit o rg a n iza tion s
o r t h e y m a y b e p a i d f o r b y th e e m p l o y e r o u t o f a f u n d s e t a s i d e f o r
this p u r p o s e . T a b u la tio n s o f r e t i r e m e n t p e n s io n p la n s a r e lim it e d to
t h o s e p l a n s th a t p r o v i d e r e g u l a r p a y m e n t s f o r t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e
w o r k e r 's life.

4

T a b le 1.

E s ta b lis h m e n ts an d w o rk e rs w ith in s c o p e o f s u rv e y an d n u m b e r stu d ied in W a te rlo o , Io w a ,1 by m a jo r industry division,2 N o v e m b e r 1 9 7 0
Number of establishments

Industry division

Minimum
employment
in establish­
ments in scope
of study

W orkers in establishments
Within scope of study

Within scope
of study *

Studied

Studied

T o ta l4
Plant
Number

All d iv is io n s ---------------------------------------------------Manufacturing______________ _______________________
Nonmanufacturing__________________________________
Transportation, communication, and
other public utilities 5 _______________________
Wholesale trade .................... - ______ ___
Retail trade
________ __ __ _ _______________
Finance, insurance, and real e sta te________
Services 9 _______________________________________

-

50
-

50
50
50
50
50

Office

Percent

Total4

72

48

2 1 ,7 0 0

100

16 ,3 9 4

2, 155

19,431

30
42

23
25

16,012
5, 688

74
26

1 2,333
4, 061

1,513
642

15,436
3, 995

7

6
1
11
2

1, 595
53
3, 245
196
599

1

24
3
7

5

7
(6)
15
1

3

758
C)

241
(7)

C )

C)

•
(7)

D

C)

1,499
53
1,817
137
489

1 The Waterloo Standard Metropolitan Statistical A rea, as defined by the Bureau of the Budget through January 1968, consists of Black Hawk County. The "w orkers within scope of study"
estim ates shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate description of the size and composition of the labor force included in the survey. The estim ates are not intended, however, to serve
as a basis of com parison with other employment indexes for the area to m easure employment trends or levels since (1) planning of wage surveys requires the use of establishment data compiled
considerably in advance of the payroll period studied, and (2) sm all establishm ents are excluded from the scope of the survey.
2 The 1967 edition of the Standard Industrial C lassification Manual was used in classifying establishm ents by industry division.
3 Includes all establishm ents with total employment at or above the m inimum lim itation. A ll outlets (within the area) of companies in such industries as trade, finance, auto repair service,
and motion picture theaters are considered as 1 establishm ent.
4 Includes executive, professional, and other w orkers excluded from the separate plant and office categories.
5 Abbreviated to "public u tilities" in the A - and B -s e r ie s tables.
Taxicabs and services incidental to water transportation were excluded.
6 L e ss than 0.5 percent.
7 This industry division is represented in estim ates for "a ll indu stries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the Series A tables, and for "a ll industries" in the Series B tables. Separate presentation
of data for this division is not made for one or m ore of the following reasons: (1) Employment in the division is too sm all to provide enough data to m erit separate study, (2) the sample was not
designed initially to perm it separate presentation, (3) response was insufficient or inadequate to permit separate presentation, and (4) there is possibility of disclosure of individual establishment data.
8 W orkers from this entire industry division are represented in estim ates for "a ll indu stries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the Series A tables, but from the real estate portion only in estim ates
for "a ll indu stries" in the Series B tables. Separate presentation of data for this1 division is not made for one or m ore of the reasons given in footnote 7 above.
9 Hotels and m otels; laundries and other personal serv ice s; business service s; automobile repair, rental, and parking; motion pictures; nonprofit m em bership organizations (excluding religious
and charitable organizations); and engineering and architectural service s.




Over three-fourths of the workers within scope of the survey in the Waterloo area
were employed in manufacturing firm s.
The following presents the m ajor industry groups
and specific industries as a percent of all manufacturing:
Industry groups

Specific industries

M achinery, except electrical___ 57
Food and kindred products______23
Fabricated m etal products______ 8
Ordnance and acc esso ries---------- 5

Farm m ach in ery_________________ 50
Meat products____________________ 20
Ordnance_________________________ 5
Fabricated structural-m etal
products________________________ 4

This information is based on estim ates of total employment derived from universe
m aterials compiled prior to actual survey. Proportions in various industry divisions m ay
differ from proportions based on the results of the survey as shown in table 1 above.

W age

T ren d s

fo r S e le c te d

P r e s e n t e d i n t a b l e 2 a r e i n d e x e s and p e r c e n t a g e s o f c h a n g e
i n a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s o f o f f i c e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s a nd i n d u s t r i a l n u r s e s ,
and in a v e r a g e e a r n i n g s o f s e l e c t e d pla n t w o r k e r g r o u p s .
The in dexes
a r e a m e a s u r e o f w a g e s at a g i v e n t i m e , e x p r e s s e d as a p e r c e n t o f
w a g e s d u r in g the b a s e p e r i o d .
S u b t r a c t i n g 100 f r o m t h e i n d e x y i e l d s
th e p e r c e n t a g e c h a n g e i n w a g e s f r o m t h e b a s e p e r i o d t o t h e d a t e o f
th e i n d e x .
T h e p e r c e n t a g e s o f c h a n g e o r i n c r e a s e r e l a t e to w a g e
c h a n g e s b e t w e e n the i n d i c a t e d d a t e s .
Annual rates of in c r e a s e , w here
s h o w n , r e f l e c t th e a m o u n t o f i n c r e a s e f o r 12 m o n t h s w h e n t h e t i m e
p e r i o d b e t w e e n s u r v e y s w a s o t h e r th a n 12 m o n t h s . T h e s e c o m p u t a t i o n s
w e r e b a s e d o n t h e a s s u m p t i o n th a t w a g e s i n c r e a s e d at a c o n s t a n t r a t e
betw een s u rv e y s.
T h e s e e s tim a te s a re m e a s u r e s o f ch a n ge in a v e r ­
a g e s f o r th e a r e a ; t h e y a r e n o t i n t e n d e d t o m e a s u r e a v e r a g e p a y
c h a n g e s i n th e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i n t h e a r e a .

O c c u p a tio n a l

G ro u p s

s h o w s the p e r c e n t a g e c h a n g e .
T h e in d e x i s the p r o d u c t o f m u lt ip ly in g
th e b a s e y e a r r e l a t i v e ( 1 0 0 ) b y t h e r e l a t i v e f o r th e n e x t s u c c e e d i n g
y e a r a nd c o n t i n u i n g t o m u l t i p l y ( c o m p o u n d ) e a c h y e a r ' s r e l a t i v e b y th e
p re v io u s y e a r 's index.
F o r o f f i c e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s and i n d u s t r i a l n u r s e s , th e w a g e
t r e n d s r e l a t e t o r e g u l a r w e e k l y s a l a r i e s f o r th e n o r m a l w o r k w e e k ,
e x clu s iv e of ea rn in gs fo r o v e rtim e .
F o r plant w o r k e r g r o u p s , th ey
m e a s u r e ch a n g es in a v e ra g e s tr a ig h t -t im e h o u rly e a rn in g s , exclu din g
p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s , h o l i d a y s , and
la te s h if t s .
The p e r c e n t a g e s a re b a s e d on data f o r s e le c t e d k ey o c c u ­
p a t i o n s and i n c l u d e m o s t o f t h e n u m e r i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t j o b s w it h in
each group.
L im itation s

o f D ata

M ethod of C om pu tin g
T h e i n d e x e s and p e r c e n t a g e s o f c h a n g e ,
as m e a s u r e s
of
ch a n ge in a r e a a v e r a g e s , a re in flu e n ce d by:
(1) g e n e r a l s a l a r y and
w a g e c h a n g e s , (2 ) m e r i t o r o t h e r i n c r e a s e s i n p a y r e c e i v e d b y i n d i ­
v i d u a l w o r k e r s w h i l e i n th e s a m e j o b , and (3) c h a n g e s i n a v e r a g e
w a g e s d u e t o c h a n g e s i n th e l a b o r f o r c e r e s u l t i n g f r o m l a b o r t u r n ­
o v e r , f o r c e e x p a n s i o n s , f o r c e r e d u c t i o n s , and c h a n g e s i n t h e p r o p o r ­
tio n s o f w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d b y e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith d iffe r e n t pay l e v e l s .
C h a n g e s i n th e l a b o r f o r c e c a n c a u s e i n c r e a s e s o r d e c r e a s e s in th e
o c c u p a t io n a l a v e r a g e s w ithout a ctu al w a g e c h a n g e s .
It i s c o n c e i v a b l e
th a t e v e n t h o u g h a ll e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i n an a r e a g a v e w a g e i n c r e a s e s ,
a v e ra g e w a g es m a y have d e c lin e d b e c a u s e lo w e r -p a y in g esta b lish m en ts
e n t e r e d the a r e a o r e x p a n d e d t h e ir w o r k f o r c e s .
S im ila rly, wages
m a y h a v e r e m a i n e d r e l a t i v e l y c o n s t a n t , y e t th e a v e r a g e s f o r an a r e a
m a y have r is e n c o n s id e r a b ly b e c a u s e h ig h e r-p a y in g e sta b lish m e n ts
e n t e r e d th e a r e a .

E a c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g k e y o c c u p a t i o n s w i t h i n an o c c u p a t i o n a l
g r o u p w a s a s s ig n e d a co n sta n t w eigh t b a s e d on its p r o p o r t io n a te e m ­
p l o y m e n t in the o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p ;
O ff ic e c le r i c a l (m e n and w o m e n ):
B o o k k e e p in g -m a ch in e
operators, class B
C lerks, a c c o u n tin g , classes
A and B
C lerks, f i l e , classes
A , B, and C
C lerks, order
C lerks, p a y roll
C o m p to m e te r operators
K eypunch operators, classes
A and B
M essengers ( o f f i c e boys or
girls)

The
p li e d b y the
in the g r o u p
w e re rela ted
ga te f o r the

O ffic e c le r ic a l (m e n and w o m e n )—
C on tin u ed
Secretaries
Stenographers, general
Stenographers, senior
S w itchboa rd operators, classes
A and B
T a b u la tin g -m a c h in e operators,
class B
Typists, classes A and B
Industrial nurses (m e n and
w o m e n ):
Nurses, industrial (reg istered )

S k ille d m a in te n a n ce (m e n ):
Carpenters
E lectrician s
M achinists
M e ch a n ics
M e ch a n ics (a u to m o tiv e )
Painters
Pipefitters
T o o l and d i i m akers
U n skilled plant (m e n ):
Janitors, porters, and
cleaners
Laborers, m a te ria l han dling

T h e u s e o f c o n s t a n t e m p l o y m e n t w e ig h ts e l i m i n a t e s the e f f e c t
o f c h a n g e s i n th e p r o p o r t i o n o f w o r k e r s r e p r e s e n t e d i n e a c h j o b i n ­
c l u d e d i n th e d a t a .
The p e r c e n t a g e s of ch ange r e fle c t on ly ch an ges
in a v e r a g e p a y f o r s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r s .
T h e y a r e not i n f l u e n c e d b y
c h a n g e s i n s t a n d a r d w o r k s c h e d u l e s , as s u c h , o r b y p r e m i u m p a y
for overtim e.
W h e r e n e c e s s a r y , d a t a w e r e a d j u s t e d to r e m o v e f r o m
th e i n d e x e s a nd p e r c e n t a g e s o f c h a n g e a n y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t c a u s e d
b y c h a n g e s in the s c o p e o f the s u r v e y .

a v e r a g e (m ean) e a r n in g s f o r e a c h o c c u p a tio n w e r e m u lt i­
o c c u p a t i o n a l w e i g h t , and t h e p r o d u c t s f o r a l l o c c u p a t i o n s
w e r e tota led .
The a ggregates fo r 2 con secu tiv e y e a rs
b y d i v i d i n g th e a g g r e g a t e f o r t h e l a t e r y e a r b y th e a g g r e ­
e a rlier yea r.
T h e r e s u l t a n t r e l a t i v e , l e s s 100 p e r c e n t ,




5




T a b le 2 .
In d e x e s o f s ta n d a rd w e e k ly s a la rie s and s tra ig h t-tim e h o u rly e a rn in g s fo r s e le c te d
o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p s in W a te rlo o , Io w a, N o v e m b e r 1 9 7 0 an d Ja n u a ry 1 9 7 0 ,
and p e rc e n ts o f in crease fo r s e le c te d p e rio d s
Office
clerical
(men and
women)

Period

Industrial
nurses
(men and
women)

Skilled
maintenance
trades
(men)

Unskilled
plant
w orkers
(men)

Indexes (November 1967=100)
Novem ber 1970 ----------------------------------------------------------------January 19 7 0 ------------------------------------------------------------ -------

117.9
113.8

(*)
C )

115.7
112.7

119.2
116.9

Indexes (November 1960=100)
November 1970 ----------------------------------------------------------------November 19 6 7 ------------------------------------------------------------------

149.7
126.9

(*)
(*)

158.1
136.5

161.2
135.2

Percents of increase
January 1970 to November 1970:
10-month in crease--------------------------------- ------------------Annual rate of in c re a s e ----------------------------------------------

3.6
4.3

(M

Novem ber 1968 to January 1970:
14-month in crease---------- ------------- -------------------------Annual rate of in c r e a s e ------ -------------------------------------

6.2
5.3

<; >

November
November
November
November
November
November
November
November

7.2
5.0
2.2
4.2
3.5
4.3
.8
4.4

1967
1966
1965
1964
1963
1962
1961
I960

to November
to.Novem ber
to November
to November
to November
to November
to November
to November

1968 -- ----------------------------1967--------------------------------1966 ---------------- ------------1965--------------------------------1964--------------------------------1963--------- --------------------1962--------------------------------1961----------- ---------------

(

)

(M

(!)
(*)
(')
C )
n
(*)
(>
(*)

2.7
3.2

2.0
2.4

5.5
4.7

8.3
7.1

6.8
8.4
5.1
3.5
1.8
5.2
2.9
5.0

7.9
8.5
3.2
3.5
1.4
' 4.4
4.0
6.0

1 Data do not m eet publication criteria.

NOTE:
Previously published indexes for the W aterloo area used November 1960 as
the base period.
They can be converted to the new base period by dividing them by the
corresponding index numbers for November 1967 on the November I960 base period as shown
in the table. (The result should be multiplied by 100.)

A.

Occupational earnings

T a b l e A-1 .

O f f i c e o c c u p a t i o n s —w o m e n

(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis by industry division, Waterloo, Iowa, November 1970)
Weekly earnings 1
(standard)

Number of w ork ers re ceiving straight-time weekly earnings of—
$

p u pation, and in d u s tr y d iv is

Average
weekly

60

70

75

80

85

70

75

80

85

90

11
1

15
5

$

$

10

10

90

10

65

$

105

110

115

120

125

130

140

150

160

170

180

190

_ 9 5 100

105

110

115

120

125

130

140

150

160

170

180

190

200

■ 92.50

40.0 140.50 137.50 122 . 00 -•164.00
40.0 146.50 140.00 125.00- ■175.00

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS B ------MA NU FACTURING -------------------NONMANUF AC TU RI NG ----------------

90.00
85.00
40.0
40.0 102.50 101.50
77.00
79.00
40.0

75.50- •1 0 2 .0 0
86.50- ■117.50
71.00- - 87.00

CLERKS, FILE, CLASS B -------------MA NUFACTURING --------------------

39.0
40.0

92.50
93.00
98.50 1 1 0 . 0 0

73.00- ■115.50
75.00- ■117.00

2

CLERKS, PAYROLL --------------------MA NUFACTURING --------------------

95.00- ■155.00
40.0 122.50 114.00
40.0 130.50 142.50 101 . 00 -•157.00

1

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS B ------NO NM AN UF AC TU RI NG ----------------

40.0 106.50 112.50
71.00
72.00
39.5

84.50- ■131.00
65.50- ■ 78.50

5

SECRETARIES -------------------------MA NU FA CT UR IN G --------------------

40.0 131.00 132.50 103.00- ■160.00
40.0 134.50 140.00 107.50- -162.00

SECRETARIES, CLASS B ------------MA NU FA CT UR IN G --------------------

40.0 141.50 149.00 113.00- •181.00
40.0 145.50 166.00 109.00- ■182.00

SECRETARIES, CLASS C ---- :
--------

40.0 119.50 130.00
98.50- •134.50
40.0 121.50 130.50 107.50- •134.00
92.50
39.0 109.50
83.00- •151.00

STENOGRAPHERS, SENIOR -------------MANUFACTURING --------------------

39.5 122.50 119.50
97 . 50- ■154.50
40.0 138.00 151.00 115.50- •158.00

2

40.0 130.50 141.00 105.50- ■157.00
40.0 130.50 141.00 105.50- •157.00

STENOGRAPHERS, GENERAL ------------MANUFACTURING -------------------NO NM AN UF AC TU RI NG ----------------

4

94.0 0- 16 5. 00

SECRETARIES, CLASS 0 ------------MA NUFACTURING --------------------

85.50

84.00

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-R EC EP TI ON IS TS

40.0

TYPISTS, CLASS A --------------------

40.0 1 2 0 . 0 0

TYPISTS, CLASS B -------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------

40.0 100.50 105.50
40.0 1 0 2 . 0 0 108.00




%

*

100

$

$

83.50

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS A -----MANUFA CT UR IN G --------------------

See footnotes at end of tables.

$

95

and
under

(standard)

BOOKKE EP IN G- MA CH IN E OPERATORS,
CLASS B -----------------------------

65

77.50-

96.00

125.00 1 1 0 . 0 0 - •133.50
8 6 .0 0 -■115.00
86.50- •116.00

2

2
27
27

12
10
2

8
T a b le A -2 .

P r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s —m e n

(A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a rn in g s fo r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is b y in d u s tr y d i v is i o n , W a t e r lo o , I o w a , N o v e m b e r 1970)
Weekly earnings 1
(standard)

S e x , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s tr y d iv is io n

Number
of

N u m b er o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s s t r a i g h t - t im e w e e k ly e a rn in g s o f—

*
Average
weekly

90

U n der
Mean 2

M edian 2

Middle range2

(standard)

$
90

i

t

i

t

i

t

t

i

s

t

$

t

t

t

t

t

s

t

t

95

100

105

110

115

120

125

130

135

140

145

150

160

170

180

190

200

210

100

105

110

115

120

125

130

135

140

145

150

160

170

180

190

200

210

220

8

16
15

and
u n d er

95

and

MEN
DRAFTSMEN, CLASS
MANUFA CT UR IN G

19

40.0

$
$
$
$
1 9 7 .0 0
182.50-207 .50
1 9 7 .0 0 19 5 .0 0 1 7 5 . 0 0 - 2 1 2 . 5 0

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS
MANUFA CT UR IN G

50
45

40.0
40.0

15 8 .5 0 1 6 0 .5 0 1 4 7 . 5 0 1 5 8 .0 0 16 0 .0 0 1 4 7 . 5 0 -

16 9 .0 0
16 8. 00

DR AFTSMEN, CLASS
MANUFA CT UR IN G

35

'0 0

12 6 .5 0 13 2 .5 0 1 1 5 . 0 0 1 2 8 .0 0 14 0 .5 0 1 1 4 . 0 0 -

14 9 .0 0
15 0 .5 0

30

4

6

4

1

-

1
6

S e e fo o t n o t e s a t end o f t a b le s .

T a b le A -3 .

O f f ic e , p r o f e s s i o n a l , and t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s —m e n a nd w o m e n c o m b in e d

(A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a r n in g s fo r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is b y in d u s t r y d i v is i o n , W a t e r lo o , I o w a , N o v e m b e r 1970)
A ve rage

Occupation and industry division

W eekly
W eekly
e arnings 1
(standard) (standard)

of

OFFICE OC CUPATIONS

A verage

Occupation and industry division

N um ber
of

W eekly
hour, 1
(standard)

W eekly
earn in gs 1
(standard)

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS A -------MANUFA CT UR IN G ---------------------

33
28

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS B -------MA NU FA CT UR IN G --------------------N O N M A N UF AC TU RI NG -----------------------------

4 0 . 0 Ju.oo
4 0 . 0 1 3 4 .5 0

$
83 . 5 0

SE CRETARIES -----------MA NU FA CT UR IN G ------

68

O
O
't

19

40.0
40.0

15 0 .5 0
15 6 .5 0

SECRETARIES, CLASS 8
MA NU FA CT UR IN G ------

20

16

4 0 . 0 14 1 .5 0
4 0 . 0 1 4 5 .5 0

94
43
51

40.0
92.00
4 0 . 0 1 0 2 .5 0
83 . 5 0
40.0

SECRETARIES, CLASS C

15

40.0

28
28

4 0 . 0 13 0 .5 0
4 0 . 0 1 3 0 .5 0

CLERKS, FILE, CLASS B ------------------------MA NU FA CT UR IN G -----------------------------------

SECRETARIES, CLASS 0
MA NU FA CT UR IN G ------

25
19

39.0
40.0

93.00
98.50

93

CLERKS, PAYROLL ------------------------------------MANUFA CT UR IN G -----------------------------------

45
37

40.0
40.0

12 6 .5 0
13 4 .0 0

STENOGRAPHERS, GENERAL
MA NU FA CT UR IN G -----N O NM AN UF AC TU RI NG —

40.0
40.0
39 .0

STENOGRAPHERS, SENIOR
MANUFA CT UR IN G -----

49

KE YPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS B ------------N O N M A N UF AC TU RI NG ----------------------------See fo o t n o t e a t end o f t a b le s .




77
16

4 0 . 0 10 6 .5 0
39.5
72.00

Average

Occupation and industry division

57

77
16

31

Num ber
of

Weekly
(standard)

OFFICE OC CU PA TI ON S

OFFICE OC CU PA TI ON S - CO NT IN UE D

B O O K KE EP IN G- MA CH IN E OPERATORS,
CLASS B -------------------------------

220

Weekly
earnings 1
(standard)

- CO NT IN UE D

SW ITCHBOARD 0 P E R AT 0R -R EC EP TI ON ISTS-

17

4 0 .0

$
8 5 .5 0

TYPISTS, CLASS A ---------------------

23

4 0 .0

1 2 0 .0 0

TYPISTS, CLASS B --------------------MANUFA CT UR IN G ---------------------

44
38

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 0 0 .5 0
1 0 2 .0 0

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS A -----------------MANUFA CT UR IN G ---------------------

29
19

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 9 7 .0 0
1 9 7 .0 0

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS B -----------------MANUFA CT UR IN G ---------------------

51
46

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 5 8 .0 0
1 5 7 .5 0

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS C
MA NU FA CT UR IN G -

35
30

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 2 6 .5 0
1 2 8 .0 0

1 2 0 .5 0

11 9 .5 0
12 1 .5 0
10 9 .5 0

3 9 . 5 12 2 .5 0
4 0 . 0 13 8 .0 0

PR OF ES SI ON AL AND TECHNICAL
OCCUPATIONS

9
T a b ie A -4 .

M a in t e n a n c e a nd p o w e r p l a n t o c c u p a t i o n s

(Average straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis by industry division, Waterloo, Iowa, November 1970)
Number of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings of

Hourly earnings3

t
3 .2 0

Sex, occupation, and industry division

and
under
3 .3 0

$

4 .4 3
4 .4 6

4.4 6
4 .4 7

4 .4 2 4 .4 2 -

4 .7 2

5 .0 1

4 .8 3 -

4 .7 2

4 .7 3

4 .6 3 -

4.1 0
4 .1 7

3.8 9
4.4 1

3 .7 4 3 .7 6 -

4 .5 7
4 .5 7

4 .7 3
4.7 3

4 .6 1 4 .5 9 -

4 .7 7
4.7 7

PAINTERS, MAINTENANCE ------

4 .2 7

4 .3 0

4 .0 3 -

4 .5 6

PIPEFITTERS, MAINTENANCE

4.7 0

4 .7 4

4 .7 0 -

4.8 5
4 .8 5

5 .2 3
5 .2 3

4 .0 8 4 .0 8 -

5.2 6
5 .2 6

S
4 .0 0

t
4 .1 0

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

3 .4 0

3 .5 0

3 .6 0

3 .7 0

3 .8 0

3.9 0

4.0 0

4 .1 0

4 .2 0

(
4 .2 0

t
4 .3 0

—,

(
4 .4 0

S
4 .5 0

—

—

4 .3 0 4 .4 0

4 .5 0

4 .6 0

20
20

1
4 .6 0

-

S
4 .7 0

—

$
4.8 0

4 .7 0

-

$
4 .9 0

s
5.0 0

4 .8 0

—

—

—

4 .9 0

5 .0 0

t
5 .1 0

5.1 0

t
5.2 0

2
2

4 .7 7

TOOL AND DIE MAKERS ---------MANUFACTURING ---------------

t
3.9 0

—

4.4 6
4.4 6

222

S
3.8 0

-

—

5 .2 0

5.3 0

5 .0 2

49
34

I
3 .7 0

5 .0 6

ENGINEERS, STATIONARY ------

t
3 .6 0

4 .5 9
4.6 3

ELECTRICIANS, MAINTENANCE

t
S
3.4 0 3.5 0

$

CARPENTERS, MAINTENANCE MANUFACTURING------- ---------

i
3.3 0

MECHANICS, AUTOMOTIVE
(MAINTENANCE) -------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------MECHANICS, MAINTENANCE —
MANUFACTURING ----------------

See footnotes at end of tables.




219

1
1

1
1
1
1

10
10

-

-

1
16

6

5
5

14
14

11

-

8

-

6
5
5

-

-

-

3

—

8

2
-

2

—

139
139

-

3
3

-

-

-

—

3

-

-

2

-

40
-

14
14

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

57
57

t
5.3 0

and
over

10
T a b le A -5 .

C u s t o d ia l a n d m a te r ia l m o v e m e n t o c c u p a t i o n s

(Average straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis by industry division, Waterloo, Iowa, November 1970)
Hourly ea raings ^

N L
Sex, occupation, and industry division

of
workers

Mean 2

M edian2

Number of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings of—
$
$
S
t
*
$
*
$
$
$
$
$
t
$
t
S
$
$
$
$
S
$
%
1 . 5 0 1 . 6 0 1 . 7 0 1 . 8 0 1 . 9 0 2 . 0 0 2 . 1 0 2 . 2 0 2 . 3 0 2 . 4 0 2. 50 2 . 6 0 2 . 8 0 3 . 0 0 3 .2 0 3 . 4 0 3 . 6 0 3 . 8 0 4 . 0 0 4 . 2 0 4 . 4 0 4 . 6 0 4 . 8 0

Middle range 2

under
1.60

1.70 1.80

1 . 9 0 2 . 0 0 2 . 1 0 2 . 2 0 2 . 3 0 2 . 4 0 2 . 5 0 2. 60 2 . 8 0 3 . 0 0

3 . 2 0 3 .4 0 3 . 6 0 3 . 8 0 4 . 0 0 4 . 2 0 4 . 4 0 4 . 6 0 4 . 8 0

over

M
EN
GUARDS AND W
ATCHMEN -----------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------

74
72

$
3.56
3.54

$
3.65
3.65

$
$
3 . 6 1 - 3. 7 5
3 .6 1 - 3.70

JANITORS. PORTERS, AND CLEANERS ----NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------------

186
48

3.06
2.20

3.33
2.23

2 . 6 0 - 3.39
1 .8 6 - 2.44

1
1

9
9

-

LABORERS, MATERiAL HANDLING ------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------

455
454

3.62
3.62

3.48
3.48

3 .4 1 - 3.94
3 . 4 1 - 3.94

-

-

-

ORDER FILLERS ---------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------

113
113

3.94
3.94

3.88
3.88

3 .8 2 - 4.14
3 .8 2 - 4.14

RECEIVING CLERKS ------------------------------------

29

3.56

3.65

3 .4 5 - 3.75

SHIPPING CLERKS --------------------------------------

24

3.92

4.02

3 .9 5 - 4.07

TRUCKDRIVERS -----------------------------------------MANUFACTURING-----------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------

97
73
24

3.71
3.73
3.64

3.73
3.72
3.92

3 . 6 2 - 3 .9 3
3 . 6 2 - 3.79
3 . 2 3 - 3.96

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

TRUCKDRIVERS, MEDIUM ( 1 - 1 / 2 TO
AND INCLUDING 4 TONS! -------------------

36

4.00

3.97

3 .8 3 - 4.64

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

26

2.72

2.65

1 .9 5 - 3.39

-

2

4

-

-

1

5

-

-

-

3
3

2
2
4
4

-

7
6

2
2

10
10

-

-

-

2
2

6
5

8
8

1
1

-

2
2

40
40

11
11

5
5

2
-

_

23

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

5
5

4
4

-

-

-

-

*

5
4

4
2

5
4

7
1

14
1

4
-

73
2

18
2

_

9
9

-

3
3

4
4

35
35

39
39

171
171

5
5

158
158

6
6

3
3

-

9
9

7
7

50
50

42
42

_

“

-

1

-

-

-

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

3

13

7

-

-

-

1

1

5

15

-

-

-

2
2
“

1
1
*

48
44
4

15
1
14

-

-

-

-

-

“

13
13
“

14

~

-

-

13

-

-

-

-

4
3
1

~

12
7
5

-

-

-

4

2

1

1

-

3

-

-

6

-

-

l
1

-

-

-

W EN
OM
JANITORS, PORTERS, AND CLEANERS -----

See footnotes at end of tables.




5

-

6
6
2
2

-

2

-

3

-

B.

E s t a b l i s h m e n t practices and s u p p le m e n t a r y w a g e provisions

T a b le

B -1.

M in im u m

e n tr a n c e s a la rie s f o r w o m e n

o ffic e w o r k e r s

(Distribution of establishm ents studied in all industries and in industry divisions by minim um entrance salary for selected categories
o f inexperienced women office w orkers, W aterloo, Iowa, November 1970)

Inexperienced typists
Nonmanufacturing

Ma nufa during
Minimum weekly straight-tim e s a la ry 4

Other inexperienced clerical workers 5

Based on standard weekly hours6 of—

All
industries

All
schedules

Establishments studied------------------------------------------------------

48

23

Establishments having a specified m inim um -------------------------

40

All
schedules

Manufacturing
All
industries

All
schedules

40

Nonmanufacturing

Based on standard weekly hours6 of—
40

All
schedule s

40

XXX

25

XXX

48

23

XX X

25

XXX

10

5

5

5

4

17

8

8

9

7

under $ 62.5 0 -----------------------------------------------------under $ 65.00-----------------------------------------------------under $ 67.5 0 --------------------- — - ----------------under $ 70.00-----------------------------------------------------under $ 72.50 ----------------------------------------------------o v e r ______________________________ _______
___

_
5
1
1
3

_
1
1
1
2

_
1

4
~
1

_
3
1

1
10
1
2
3

-

4
1
1
2

4
1
1
2

1
6
1
1

_
5
1
1

Establishments having no specified m inim um ----------------------

8

6

XXX

2

XXX

19

13

XXX

6

XXX

Establishments which did not employ workers
in this category-------------------------------------------------------------------------

30

12

XXX

18

XXX

12

2

XXX

10

XXX

$ 60.00
$ 62.50
$ 65.00
$ 67.50
$ 70.00
$ 72.50

and
and
and
and
and
and

See footnotes at end of tables.




-

1
1
2




T a b le

B -2 .

S h ift d iffe r e n tia ls

(L ate-sh ift pay provisions for manufacturing plant workers by type and amount of pay differential,
W aterloo, Iowa, November 1970)
(All plant workers in manufacturing = 100 percent)
Percent of manufacturing plant w orkers—

L ate-sh ift pay provision

In establishments having provisions 7
for late shifts

Actually working on late shifts

Second shift

T otal-------------

--------------------------------------------------

No pay differential for work on late sh ift---------Pay differential for work on late sh ift— -----------

Third or other
shift

Second shift

97.8

92.7

22.3

_

_

_

Third or other
shift

4.0
_

97.8

92.7

22.3

4.0

Uniform cents (per hou r)---------------------------

97.8

92.7

22.3

4.0

10 cents- _ ____________ _______________
12 cents----------------------------------------------------14 cents---------- -------------------------------------15 cents----------------------------------------------16 cents _ ----------------------------------------------18 cents----------------------------------------------------20 cents- __ _ _ — _ _ _ ------------------ -254 c e n t s -- -------------— -------------- — -------/5

27.3
1.4
22.7
.5
1.2
44.8

5.5

5.1
.2
6.6
.1
.1
10.2

Type and amount of differential:

See footnote at end of tables.

-

-

22.7
14.7
-

4.9
44.8

-

_
1 . 0

.2
-

.3
2.5

13

T a b le

B -3 .

S c h e d u le d w e e k ly h o u rs

(Percent distribution of plant and office w orkers in all industries and in industry divisions by scheduled weekly hours
of first-sh ift w orkers, W aterloo, Iowa, November 1970)
Plant workers

Office workers

Weekly hours
A ll industries

All w orkers------------------------------------------------------

100

Manufacturing

100

Public utilities

100

See footnote at end of tables.




1
23
76
1

100

1
3
1

2
2
3
17
72
2
2

A ll industries

Manufacturing

Public utilities

100

100

_

_

(9 )

_
92
8

94
1
(»)

99

100

14

T a b le

B -4 .

P a id

h o lid a y s

(Percent distribution of plant and office w orkers in all industries and in industry divisions by number of paid holidays
provided annually, W aterloo, Iowa, November 1970)
Plant workers

Office workers

Item
A ll industries

A ll w orkers___________________________________

W orkers in establishm ents providing
paid holid a ys_____________________________________
W orkers in establishm ents providing
no paid h o lid a ys__________________________________

Manufacturing

100

100

100

100

100

-

1
1
18
3
1
7
61
6
2

3
2
3
81
8
2

Public utilities

A ll industries

Manufacturing

Public utilities

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

-

-

-

-

'

-

8
13
25
54
"
-

(9 )
23
3
2
10
53
6
3

Number of days
1
5
6
7
7

holiday-------------------------------------------------------------------holid a ys----------------------------------------------------------------holid a ys--- ----------------------------------------------------------holid a ys----------------------------------------------------------------holidays plus 2 half d a y s-----------------------------------8 h o lid a ys__________________________________________
9 h o lid a ys---- --------------------------------------------------------10 holidays__________________________________________
11 holidays__________________________________________

-

-

-

-

5
4
3
75
9
4

24
4
16
56
-

-

Total holiday tim e 1
0
11 days----------------------------------------------------------------------10 days or m o re -,
-------------------------------------9 days or m o r e --------------- ------------------------------------8 days or m ore --------------------------------- ------7 days or m o r e --------------------- -- - -------------------6 days or m o r e -------- -------------------------------------5 days or m ore ------------------— ------------------------ -1 day or m o re ----------------------------------------------------------

See footnotes at end of tables.




2
8
69
77
80
97
99
100

2

ii
92
95
.9 7
io o

100
100

-

79
92
100
100
100

3
9
62
74
77
99
99
100

4
13
88
91
95
100
100
100

-

~
72
75
100
100
100

15

T a b le

B -5 .

P a id v a c a tio n s

(Percent distribution of plant and office w orkers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay provisions, W aterloo, Iowa, November 1970)
Plant workers

Office workers

Vacation policy
A ll industries

A ll -workers - -

—

-

-----------------------

Manufacturing

Public utilities

A ll industries

Manufacturing

Public utilities

100

100

100

100

100

100

100
52
48

100
38
62

100
100
-

100
98
2

100
99
1

100
100
-

"

“

“

34
5
2

45
3
-

56
35
9
-

50
46
4
-

100

37
35
27
1

45
45
9
1

27

1
3
93
3
1
'

1
2
92
4
1
-

-

1
3
93
3
1
-

1
2
92
4
1
-

61
35
3
1

48
47
4
1

Method of payment
W orkers in establishm ents providing
paid vacations------------------------------------------------------L ength-of-tim e paym ent---------------------------------Percentage payment-----------------------------------------W orkers in establishm ents providing
no paid vacations------ -----------------------------------------

"

Amount of vacation pay 1
1
After 6 months of service
Under 1 week-----------------------------------------------------------1 week-----------------------------------------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 w e e k s-------------------------------------

_
-

-

_

1
43
2

2
48
-

50
23
27

46
16
38

100

12
1
60
27

14
49
38

22

(9 )
1
67
3
2
27

(9 )
54
4
3
38

100
“

(9 )
1
67
3
2
27

(9 )
54
4
3
38

"
100
-

66
1
7
27

52
1
9
38

-

-

After 1 year of service
1 week----------------------------------------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 w eek s------------------------------------2 w eek s_____________________________________________
Over 2 and under 3 weeks -----------------------------------

-

-

-

-

After 2 years of service
1 week------------------------------------------- ----------------------Over 1 and under 2 w eek s------------------------------2 w eek s-------------------------------------------------------------,------Over 2 and under 3 weeks -------------- -----------------

-

73
-

-

78
-

After 3 years of service
1 week_______________________________________________
Over 1 and under 2 w eek s-------------- - - —- -----2 w eek s--------------------------------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 w eek s------------------------------------3 w eek s--------------------------------------------------------------------Over 3 and under 4 w eek s-------------------------------------

-

100
-

-

After 4 years of service
1 week— -------------- _ --------------------- ------------------Over 1 and under 2 w eek s------------------------------------2 w eek s--------------------------------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 weeks ----------------------------3 w eek s------------------------- --------------Over 3 and under 4 w eek s-------------------------------------

-

100
-

-

-

After 5 years of service
2 w e e k s------------------ ----------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 weeks ------- — — _
3 w eek s_____________________________________________
Over 3 and under 4 w eek s-------------------------------------

100
-

'
See footnotes at end of tables.




100
-

16

T a b le

B -5 .

P a i d v a c a t i o n s ----- C o n t i n u e d

(Percent distribution of plant and office w orkers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay provisions, W aterloo, Iowa, November 1970)
Plant workers

Office workers

Vacation policy
A ll industries

Manufacturing

20
2
76
3
-

14
2
79
4
-

7
2
88
3
1
-

1
2
93
4
-

7
35
35
22

1
25
47
26

-

-

-

1

1

-

7
15
26
34
17
1

1
19
12
45
23
1

7
8
31
34
19
1

1
8
22
45
23
1

7
8
31
34
19

1
8
22
45
23

-

-

Public utilities

A ll industries

Manufacturing

Public utilities

Amount of vacation pay 11— Continued
After 10 years of service
2 w eek s--------------------------------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 w e e k s------------------------------------3 weeks -------------------------------------------------------------------Over 3 and under 4 w e e k s------------------------------------Over 4 and under 5 w e e k s________________________

_
-

100
-

*

22
-

16
-

18
-

48
3
27

42
4
38

82

14
56
3
(9 )
27

4
54
4
38

18
78
4
-

10
39
1
24
27
-

2

27
1
32
38
-

18
78

-

-

After 12 years of service
2 w eek s--------------------------------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 w e e k s________________________
3 weeks _ __________________________________________
Over 3 and under 4 w e e k s------------------------------------4 w eek s------------------------------- ----------------------------Over 4 and under 5 w eek s________________________

-

-

87
13
-

After 15 years of service
2 w eek s--------------------------------------------------------------------3 w eek s---------------- ------ --------------------------------------------Over 3 and under 4 w eek s-------- -------------- ------------4 w e e k s--------------------------------------------------------------------Over 4 and under 5 w e e k s------------------------------------5 w eek s---------------------------------------------------------------------

_

87
-

13

-

4
-

-

After 20 years of service
2 w eek s--------------------------------------------------------------------3 w eek s--------------------------------------------------------------------4 w eek s_____________________________________________
Over 4 and under 5 w eek s------------------------------------5 w eek s--------------------------------------------------------------------Over 6 w eeks------- ------------- --------------------------------------

10
13
35
27
16
“

2
14
24
38
23

59

10
7
36

2
6
32

-

-

-

-

-

100
-

'

18
-

82
-

-

After 25 years of service
2 w eek s--------------------------------------------------------------------3 w eek s--------------------------------------------------------------------4 w eek s--------------------------------------------------------------------Over 4 and under 5 w e e k s------------------------------------5 w eek s--------------------------------------------------------------------Over 5 and under 6 w e e k s------------------------------------Over 6 w eeks------------------------------------------------------------

-

-

18
-

44

41
'

20
27
-

23
38

38
-

-

10
7
36

2
6
32
22
38
1

18
44
~
38

Maximum vacation available *
2 w eek s--------------------------------------------------------------------3 w eek s--------------------------------------------------------------------4 w eek s--------------------------------------------------------------------Over 4 and under 5 w eek s------------------------------------5 w eek s_____________________________________________
Over 5 and under 6 w e e k s------------------------------------6 w eek s_____________________________________________
Over 6 w eeks_______________________________________

*

(9 )
1

Estim ates of provisions for 30 years of service are identical.

See footnotes at end of tables,




1
1

59
-

41
-

20
27
1

17

T a b le

B -6 .

H e a lth , in s u ra n c e , and p e n s io n

p la n s

(Percent of plant and office workers in all industries and in industry divisions employed in establishm ents providing
health, insurance, or pension benefits, W aterloo, Iowa, November 1970)
Plant workers
Type of benefit and
financing 1
2

A ll industries

Manufacturing

Office workers
Public utilities

A ll industries

Manufacturing

Public utilities

100

100

A ll w orkers___________________________________

100

100

100

100

W orkers in establishm ents providing at
least 1 of the benefits shown below ___________

100

100

100

100

100

100
100
78

Life insurance--------------------------------------------------Noncontributory p la n s--------------------------------Accidental death and dism em berm ent
insurance-------------------------- -------------------------------Noncontributory p la n s--------------------------------Sickness and accident insurance or
sick leave or both 13__________________________

98
77

100
93

100
67

99
78

100
89

90
69

95
89

100
27

90
66

91
83

100
40

95

100

86

68

62

100

Sickness and accident insurance---------— _
Noncontributory plans — _ ----------------Sick leave (full pay and no
waiting period)____________________________
Sick leave (partial pay or
waiting period)____________________________

84
70

99
88

38
13

50
30

59
41

16
-

10

2

33

28

20

62

2

41

21

22

38

100
88
100
88
100
88
'97
87

100
54
100
54
100
54
100
54

99
64
99
64
98
64
97
62
-

99
80
99
80
99
80
97
78
-

85
60

93
76

100
60
100
60
100
60
100
60
60
44

Hospitalization insurance--------------------------------Noncontributory p la n s-------------------------------Surgical insurance_____ _____ -----Noncontributory plans ----— -----—
Medical insurance------------------------__
----Noncontributory plans ------------------------- —
M ajor m edical insurance--------------------------------Noncontributory p la n s------------------------------Dental insurance------ ----------------------- ---------Noncontributory p lan s------------------ ---------Retirement pension____________________________
Noncontributory p la n s---------------------------------

See footnotes at end of tables.




5
99
71
99
71
98
71
94
69
(9 )

n
84

69

n

(9 )
91
84

-

86
61

18
F o o tn o te s

A l l o f t h e s e s ta n d a r d f o o t n o t e s m a y n ot a p p ly to th is b u lle tin .

1
S t a n d a r d h o u r s r e f l e c t t h e w o r k w e e k f o r w h i c h e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e t h e i r r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r i e s ( e x c l u s i v e o f p a y f o r o v e r t i m e at
r e g u l a r a n d / o r p r e m i u m r a t e s ) , a n d th e e a r n i n g s c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e s e w e e k l y h o u r s .
2
T h e m e a n is c o m p u t e d f o r e a c h j o b b y to t a lin g the e a r n i n g s o f a l l w o r k e r s and d iv id in g b y the n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s . T h e m e d i a n d e s ig n a t e s
p o s i t i o n — h a l f o f t h e e m p l o y e e s s u r v e y e d r e c e i v e m o r e th a n t h e r a t e s h o w n ; h a l f r e c e i v e l e s s th a n t h e r a t e s h o w n . T h e m i d d l e r a n g e i s d e f i n e d b y
2 r a t e s o f p a y ; a f o u r t h o f th e w o r k e r s e a r n l e s s th a n th e l o w e r o f t h e s e r a t e s a n d a f o u r t h e a r n m o r e th a n t h e h i g h e r r a t e .
3
E x c l u d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o l i d a y s , and la te s h ifts.
4
T h e s e s a l a r i e s r e l a t e t o f o r m a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d m i n i m u m s t a r t i n g ( h i r i n g ) r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r i e s th a t a r e p a i d f o r s t a n d a r d
w orkw eeks.
5
E x c l u d e s w o r k e r s in s u b c l e r i c a l j o b s s u c h a s m e s s e n g e r o r o f f i c e g i r l .
6
D a t a a r e p r e s e n t e d f o r a l l s t a n d a r d w o r k w e e k s c o m b i n e d , a n d f o r th e m o s t c o m m o n s t a n d a r d w o r k w e e k s r e p o r t e d .
7
I n c l u d e s a l l p l a n t w o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s c u r r e n t l y o p e r a t i n g l a t e s h i f t s , a n d e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w h o s e f o r m a l p r o v i s i o n s c o v e r l a t e
s h i f t s , e v e n t h o u g h th e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w e r e n o t c u r r e n t l y o p e r a t i n g l a t e s h i f t s .
8
L e s s than 0 .0 5 p e r c e n t .
9
L e s s th a n 0 . 5 p e r c e n t .
10 A l l c o m b i n a t i o n s o f f u l l a n d h a l f d a y s th a t a d d t o t h e s a m e a m o u n t a r e c o m b i n e d ; f o r e x a m p l e , t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g a t o t a l
o f 9 d a y s i n c l u d e s t h o s e w i t h 9 f u l l d a y s a n d n o h a l f d a y s , 8 f u l l d a y s a n d 2 h a l f d a y s , 7 f u l l d a y s a n d 4 h a l f d a y s , a n d s o on . P r o p o r t i o n s th e n
w e r e cu m u lated .
11 I n c l u d e s p a y m e n t s o t h e r t h a n " l e n g t h o f t i m e , " s u c h a s p e r c e n t a g e o f a n n u a l e a r n i n g s o r f l a t - s u m p a y m e n t s , c o n v e r t e d t o a n e q u i v a l e n t
tim e b a s i s ; f o r e x a m p le , a p a y m e n t of 2 p e r c e n t of annual e a rn in g s w as c o n s i d e r e d as 1 w e e k 's pay. P e r i o d s o f s e r v i c e w e r e c h o s e n a r b itr a r ily
a n d d o n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t t h e i n d i v i d u a l p r o v i s i o n s f o r p r o g r e s s i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , th e c h a n g e s in p r o p o r t i o n s i n d i c a t e d at 10 y e a r s ' s e r v i c e
i n c l u d e c h a n g e s i n p r o v i s i o n s o c c u r r i n g b e t w e e n 5 a n d 10 y e a r s . E s t i m a t e s a r e c u m u l a t i v e . T h u s , t h e p r o p o r t i o n e l i g i b l e f o r 3 w e e k s ' p a y o r
m o r e a f t e r 10 y e a r s i n c l u d e s t h o s e e l i g i b l e f o r 3 w e e k s ' p a y o r m o r e a f t e r f e w e r y e a r s o f s e r v i c e .
12 E s t i m a t e s l i s t e d a f t e r t y p e o f b e n e f i t a r e f o r a l l p l a n s f o r w h i c h at l e a s t a p a r t o f t h e c o s t i s b o r n e b y th e e m p l o y e r . " N o n c o n t r i b u t o r y
p l a n s " in c lu d e o n l y t h o s e p la n s f i n a n c e d e n t i r e l y b y the e m p l o y e r . E x c l u d e d a r e l e g a l l y r e q u i r e d p l a n s , s u c h a s w o r k m e n ' s c o m p e n s a t i o n , s o c i a l
s e c u r i t y , and r a i l r o a d r e t i r e m e n t .
13 U n d u p l i c a t e d t o t a l o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g s i c k l e a v e o r s i c k n e s s a n d a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y b e l o w . S i c k l e a v e p l a n s a r e
l i m i t e d t o t h o s e w h i c h d e f i n i t e l y e s t a b l i s h at l e a s t t h e m i n i m u m n u m b e r o f d a y s ' p a y th a t c a n b e e x p e c t e d b y e a c h e m p l o y e e . I n f o r m a l s i c k l e a v e
a l l o w a n c e s d e t e r m i n e d o n an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s a r e e x c l u d e d .




A p p e n d ix .

O c c u p a tio n a l

D e s c rip tio n s

The prim ary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau's wage surveys is to assist its field staff in classifying into appropriate
occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and
from area to area.
This perm its the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content. Because of this emphasis on
interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bureau's job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in
individual establishm ents or those prepared for other purposes.
In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau's field economists are instructed
to exclude working sup ervisors; apprentices; learn ers; beginners; trainees; and handicapped, part-tim e, tem porary, and probationary workers.

OFFICE
CLERK, ACCOUNTING— Continued

B IL LE R , MACHINE
P repares statements, b ills , and invoices on a machine other than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter.
May also keep records as to billings or shipping charges or perform other
clerical work incidental to billing operations. For wage study purposes, b ille rs, machine, are
classified by type of machine, as follows:
B iller, machine (billing m achine). U ses a special billing machine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott
F ish er, Burroughs, etc., which are combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills
and invoices from custom ers' purchase orders, internally prepared orders, shipping m em o­
randums, etc. Usually involves application of predetermined discounts and shipping charges,
and entry of necessary extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing machine,
and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine. The operation usually involves
a large number of carbon copies of the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold
machine.
B iller, machine (bookkeeping machine). U ses a bookkeeping machine (Sundstrand, Elliott
F ish er, Remington Rand, etc., which m ay or m ay not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare
custom ers' b ills as part of the accounts receivable operation. G enerally involves the sim ulta­
neous entry of figures on custom ers' ledger record. The machine automatically accumulates
figures on a number of vertical columns and computes, and usually prints automatically the
debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of bookkeeping. Works from uniform
and standard types of sales and credit slips.
BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott F ish er, Sundstrand, Burroughs,
National Cash R egister, with or without a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business
transactions.
C lass A . Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of and experience in basic
bookkeeping principles, and fam iliarity with the structure of the particular accounting system
used. Determines proper records and distribution of debit and credit item s to be used in each
phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance sheets, and other records
by hand.
C lass B . Keeps a record of one or m ore phases or sections of a set of records usually
requiring little knowledge of basic bookkeeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable,
payroll, custom ers' accounts (not including a simple type of billing described under biller,
machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, inventory control, etc. May check or assist
in preparation of trial balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.
CLERK, ACCOUNTING
P erform s one or m ore accounting clerical tasks such as posting to registers and ledgers;
reconciling bank accounts; verifying the internal consistency, com pleteness, and mathematical
accuracy of accounting documents; assigning prescribed accounting distribution codes; examining
and verifying for clerical accuracy various types of reports, lis ts , calculations, posting, etc.;
or preparing simple or assisting in preparing m ore complicated journal vouchers.
May work
in either a manual or automated accounting system .
The work requires a knowledge of clerical methods and office practices and procedures
which relates to the clerical processing and recording of transactions and accounting information.
With experience, the worker typically becom es fam iliar with the bookkeeping and accounting term s
and procedures used in the assigned work, but is not required to have a knowledge of the form al
principles of bookkeeping and accounting.




NOTE:

Since the last survey in this area,

Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following definitions.
C lass A . Under general supervision, perform s accounting clerical operations which
require the application of experience and judgment, for example, clerically processing com ­
plicated or nonrepetitive accounting transactions, selecting among a substantial variety of
prescribed accounting codes and classifications, or tracing transactions through previous
accounting actions to determine source of discrepancies. May be assisted by one or m ore
class B accounting clerks.
C lass B . Under close supervision, following detailed instructions and standardized pro­
cedures, perform s one or m ore routine accounting clerical operations, such as posting to
ledgers, cards, or worksheets where identification of items and locations of postings are
clearly indicated; checking accuracy and completeness of standardized and repetitive records
or accounting documents; and coding documents using a few prescribed accounting codes.
CLERK, FILE
C lass A . In an established filing system containing a number of varied subject matter
file s , classifies and indexes file m aterial such as correspondence, reports, technical docu­
m ents, etc. May also file this m aterial. May keep records of various types in conjunction
with the files.
May lead a sm all group of lower level file clerks.
Class B . Sorts, codes, and files unclassified m aterial by simple (subject matter) head­
ings or partly classified m aterial by finer subheadings. Prepares simple related index and
cro ss-refere n ce aids. As requested, locates clearly identified m aterial in files and forwards
m aterial.
May perform related clerical tasks required to maintain and service files.
C lass C . P erform s routine filing of m aterial that has already been classified or which
is easily classified in a simple serial classification system (e.g ., alphabetical, chronological,
or numerical). As requested, locates readily available m aterial in files and forwards m a­
terial; and may fill out withdrawal charge. P erform s simple clerical and manual tasks re­
quired to maintain and service files.
CLERK, ORDER
Receives custom ers' orders for m aterial or merchandise by m ail, phone, or personally.
Duties involve any combination of the following: Quoting prices to custom ers; making out an order
sheet listing the items to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of item s on order
sheet; and distributing order sheets to respective departments to be filled. May check with credit
department to determine credit rating of custom er, acknowledge receipt of orders from customers,
follow up orders to see that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check shipping
invoices with original orders.

CLERK, PA YR O LL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the necessary data on the payroll
sheets. Duties involve; Calculating w orkers' earnings based on time or production records; and
posting calculated data on payroll sheet, showing information such as w orker's name, working
days, tim e, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May make out paychecks and
a ssist paymaster in making up and distributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

the Bureau has discontinued collecting data for oilers and plumbers.

19

20
COM PTOM ETER OPERATOR

SECRETARY— Continued

P rim ary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform m athematical computations. This
job is not to be confused with that of statistical or other type of clerk, which may involve fr e ­
quent use of a Comptometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to perform ance of
other duties.
KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Operates a keypunch machine
tabulating cards or on tape.

or verify

alphabetic

and/or numeric

a. Secretary to the chairman of the board or president of a company that employs, in
fewer than 100 person s; or

data on

C lass A . Work requires the application of experience and judgment in selecting p roce­
dures to be followed and in searching for, interpreting, selecting, or coding item s to be
keypunched from a variety of source documents. On occasion may also perform some routine
keypunch work. May train inexperienced keypunch operators.
Class B . Work is routine and repetitive. Under close supervision or following specific
procedures or instructions, works from various standardized source documents which have
been coded, and follows specified procedures which have been prescribed in detail and require
little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting of data to be recorded. Refers to supervisor
problems arising from erroneous item s or codes or m issing information.
MESSENGER (Office Boy or Girl)
P erform s various routine duties such as running errands, operating minor office m a­
chines such as sealers or m a ilers, opening and distributing m ail, and other minor clerical work.
Exclude positions that require operation of a motor vehicle as a significant duty.
SECRETARY
Assigned as personal secretary, norm ally to one individual. Maintains a close and highly
responsive relationship to the d a y-to-day work activities of the supervisor. Works fairly inde­
pendently receiving a minimum of detailed supervision and guidance. P erform s varied clerical
and secretarial duties, usually including m ost of the following: (a) R eceives telephone calls,
personal c a lle rs, and incoming m ail, answers routine inquiries, and routes the technical inquiries
to the proper persons; (b) establishes, maintains, and revises the sup ervisor's file s ; (c) maintains
the su p ervisor's calendar and makes appointments as instructed; (d) relays m essages from super­
visor to subordinates; (e) reviews correspondence, m em orandum s, and reports prepared by others
for the su p ervisor's signature to assure procedural and typographic accuracy; and (f) perform s
stenographic and typing work.
May also perform other clerical and secretarial tasks of comparable nature and difficulty.
The work typically requires knowledge of office routine and understanding of the organization,
program s, and procedures related to the work of the supervisor.
Exclusions
Not all positions that are titled "s e c r e t a r y " p o ssess the above characteristics. Examples
of positions which are excluded from the definition are as follow s; (a) Positions which do not meet
the "p erso n a l" secretary concept described above; (b) stenographers not fully trained in secretarial
type duties; (c) stenographers serving as office assistants to a group of professional, technical,
or m anagerial persons; (d) secretary positions in which the duties are either substantially more
routine or substantially m ore com plex and responsible than those characterized in the definition;
and (e) assistant type positions which involve m ore difficult or m ore responsible technical, admin­
istrative, supervisory, or specialized clerical duties which are not typical of secretarial work.
N O T E: The term "corporate o f f ic e r ," used in the level definitions following, refers to
those officials who have a significant corporate-w ide policymaking role with regard to major
company activities. The title "v ic e p re sid en t," though norm ally indicative of this role, does not
in all cases identify such positions. Vice presidents whose prim ary responsibility is to act p e r­
sonally on individual cases or transactions (e .g ., approve or deny individual loan or credit actions;
administer individual trust accounts; directly supervise a clerical staff) are not considered to be
"corporate o fficers" for purposes of applying the following level definitions.
C lass A
a. Secretary to the chairman of the board or president of a company that em ploys, in
over 100 but fewer than 5 ,0 0 0 person s; or

b. Secretary to a corporate officer (other than the chairman of the board or president)
of a company that em ploys, in all, over 5, 000 but fewer than 25, 000 p ersons; or
c. Secretary to the head (imm ediately below the corporate officer level) of a m ajor
segment or subsidiary of a company that em ploys, in all, over 2 5 ,0 0 0 person s.




all,

b. Secretary to a corporate officer (other than the chairman of the board or president)
of a company that em ploys, in all, over 100 but fewer than 5, 000 person s; or
to record

Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following definitions.

all,

Class B

c. Secretary to the head (immediately below the officer level) over either a major
corporate-wide functional activity (e .g ., marketing, research, operations, industrial relations, etc.) or a m ajor geographic or organizational segment (e .g ., a regional headquarters;
a m ajor division) of a company that em ploys, in all, over 5, 000 but fewer than 2 5,000
em ployees; or
d. Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc. (or other equivalent level
of official) that em ploys, in all, over 5, 000 person s; or
e. Secretary to the head of a large and important organizational segment (e .g ., a middle
management supervisor of an organizational segment often involving as many as several
hundred persons) of a company that em ploys, in all, over 2 5 ,0 0 0 person s.
Class C
a. Secretary to an executive or managerial person whose responsibility is not equivalent
to one of the specific level situations in the definition for class B, but whose subordinate staff
norm ally numbers at least several dozen employees and is usually divided into organizational
segments which are often, in turn, further subdivided. In some companies, this level includes
a wide range of organizational echelons; in others, only one or two; 0 £
b. Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc. (or other equivalent level
of official) that em ploys, in all, fewer than 5, 000 person s.
C lass D
a. Secretary to the supervisor or head of a sm all organizational unit (e .g ., fewer than
about 25 or 30 persons); or
b.
Secretary to a nonsupervisory staff specialist, professional employee, administra­
tive officer, or assistant, skilled technician or expert.
(NOTE; Many companies assign
stenographers, rather than secretaries as described above, to this level of supervisory or
nonsupervisory worker.)
STENOGRAPHER, G ENERAL
P rim ary duty is to take dictation involving a norm al routine vocabulary from one or more
persons either in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar machine; and transcribe dictation. May
also type from written copy. May maintain file s , keep simple records, or perform other relatively
routine clerical tasks.
May operate from a stenographic pool.
Does not include transcribingmachine work. (See transcribing-m achine operators.)
STENOGRAPHER, SENIOR
P rim ary duty is to take dictation involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary
such as in legal briefs or reports on scientific research from one or m ore persons either in short­
hand or by Stenotype or sim ilar machine; and transcribe dictation. May also type from written
copy.
May also set up and maintain files, keep records, etc.
OR
P erform s stenographic duties requiring significantly greater independence and responsi­
bility than stenographers, general as evidenced by the following; Work requires high degree of
stenographic speed and accuracy; and a thorough working knowledge of general business and office
procedures and of the specific business operations, organization, policies, procedures, files,
workflow, etc.
Uses this knowledge in performing stenographic duties and responsible clerical
tasks such as, maintaining followup file s; assembling m aterial for reports, mem orandums, letters,
etc.; composing simple letters from general instructions; reading and routing incoming m ail; and
answering routine questions, etc.
Does not include transcribing-m achine work.
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
C lass A . Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard handling incoming,
outgoing, intraplant or office calls. P erform s full telephone information service or handles
complex calls, such as conference, collect, overseas, or sim ilar calls, either in addition to
doing routine work as described for switchboard operator, class B, or as a full-tim e

21
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR— Continued

TABU LATIN G -M ACH INE OPERATOR (Electric Accounting Machine Operator)— Continued

assignment. ( "F u ll" telephone information service occurs when the establishment has varied
functions that are not readily understandable for telephone information purposes, e .g ., because
of overlapping or interrelated functions, and consequently present frequent problem s as to
which extensions are appropriate for calls.)
Class B . Operates a single- or m ultiple-position telephone switchboard handling incoming,
outgoing, intraplant or office calls. May handle routine long distance calls and record tolls.
May perform limited telephone information service. ("L im ite d " telephone information service
occurs if the functions of the establishment serviced are readily understandable for telephone
information purposes, or if the requests are routine, e .g ., giving extension numbers when
specific names are furnished, or if com plex calls are referred to another operator.)

C lass B . P erform s work according to established procedures and under specific in­
structions. Assignm ents typically involve complete but routine and recurring reports or parts
of larger and m ore complex reports. Operates m ore difficult tabulating or electrical ac­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition to the sim pler machines
used by class C operators. May be required to do some wiring from diagrams. May train
new employees in basic machine operations.
C lass C . Under specific instructions, operates simple tabulating or electrical accounting
machines such as the sorter, interpreter, reproducing punch, collator, etc. Assignments
typically involve portions of a work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs,
or repetitive operations. May perform simple wiring from diagram s, and do some filing work.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATO R-RECEPTIO NIST

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE O PERATOR, GENERAL

In addition to performing duties of operator on a single-position or m onitor-type switch­
board, acts as receptionist and may also type or perform routine clerical work as part of regular
duties.
This typing or clerical work may take the m ajor part of this w orker's time while at
switchboard.

P rim ary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine vocabulary from
transcribing-m achine records.
May also type from written copy and do simple clerical work.
W orkers transcribing dictation involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as
legal briefs or reports on scientific research are not included. A worker who takes dictation
in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar machine is classified as a stenographer, general.

TA B U LATIN G -M ACH INE OPERATOR (Electric Accounting Machine Operator)
TYPIST
Operates one or a variety of machines such as the tabulator, calculator, collator, inter­
p reter, sorter, reproducing punch, etc. Excluded from this definition are working supervisors.
A lso excluded are operators of electronic digital com puters, even though they may also operate
EAM equipment.

U ses a typewriter to make copies of various m aterial or to make out bills after calcula­
tions have been made by another person. MaV include typing of stencils, m ats, or sim ilar m ate­
rials for use in duplicating p ro cesses. May do clerical work involving little special training, such
as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting and distributing incoming mail.

Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following definitions.
C lass A . P erform s complete reporting and tabulating assignments including devising
difficult control panel wiring under general supervision. Assignm ents typically involve a
variety of long and com plex reports which often are irregular or nonrecurring, requiring
some planning of the nature and sequencing of operations, and the use of a variety of machines.
Is typically involved in training new operators in machine operations or training lower level
operators in wiring from diagrams and in the operating sequences of long and complex reports.
Does not include positions in which wiring responsibility is lim ited to selection and insertion
of prewired boards.

C lass A . P erform s one or more of the following: Typing m aterial in final form when
it involves combining m aterial from several sources or responsibility for correct spelling,
syllabication, punctuation, etc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language m ate­
rial; and planning layout and typing of complicated statistical tables to maintain uniformity
and balance in spacing. May type routine form letters varying details to suit circum stances.
Class B . P erform s one or m ore of the following: Copy typing, from rough or clear
drafts; routine typing of form s, insurance policies, etc.; and setting up simple standard
tabulations, or copying m ore complex tables already setup and spaced properly.

P R O F E S S IO N A L A N D T E C H N IC A L
COMPUTER OPERATOR— Continued

COMPUTER OPERATOR
Monitors and operates the control console of a digital computer to process data according
to operating instructions, usually prepared by a program er. Work includes m ost of the following:
Studies instructions to determine equipment setup and operations; loads equipment with required
items (tape reels, cards, etc.); switches n ecessary auxiliary equipment into circuit, and starts
and operates computer; makes adjustments to computer to correct operating problem s and meet
special conditions; reviews erro rs made during operation and determines cause or refers problem
to supervisor or program er; and maintains operating records. May test and a ssist in correcting
program.
For wage study purposes,

computer operators are classified as follow s;

C lass A . Operates independently, or under only general direction, a computer running
program s with m ost of the following ch aracteristics: New program s are frequently tested and
introduced; scheduling requirements are of critical importance to m inim ize downtime; the
program s are of complex design so that identification of erro r source often requires a working
knowledge of the total program , and alternate program s may not be available.
May give
direction and guidance to lower level operators.
C lass B . Operates independently, or under only general direction, a computer running
program s with m ost of the following ch aracteristics: M ost of the program s are established
production runs, typically run on a regularly recurring b asis; there is little or no testing
of new program s required; alternate program s are provided in case original program needs
m ajor change or cannot be corrected within a reasonable tim e. In common error situations,
diagnoses cause and takes corrective action. This usually involves applying previously pro­
gramed corrective steps, or using standard correction techniques.
OR
Operates under direct supervision a computer running program s or segments of program s
with the characteristics described for class A . May a ssist a higher level operator by inde­
pendently performing less difficult tasks assigned, and performing difficult tasks following
detailed instructions and with frequent review of operations perform ed.




C lass C . Works on routine program s under close supervision.
Is expected to develop
working knowledge of the computer equipment used and ability to detect problem s involved in
running routine program s. Usually has received some form al training in computer operation.
May a ssist higher level operator on complex program s.
COMPUTER PROGRAM ER. BUSINESS
Converts statements of business problem s, typically prepared by a system s analyst, into
a sequence of detailed instructions which are required to solve the problems by automatic data
processing equipment.
Working from charts or diagram s, the program er develops the precise
instructions which, when entered into the computer system in coded language, cause the manipu­
lation of data to achieve desired results. Work involves m ost of the following: Applies knowledge
of computer capabilities, m athematics, logic employed by computers, and particular subject matter
involved to analyze charts and diagrams of the problem to be programed.
Develops sequence
of program steps, writes detailed flow charts to show order in which data will be processed;
converts these charts to coded instructions for machine to follow; tests and corrects program s;
prepares instructions for operating personnel during production run; analyzes, review s, and alters
program s to increase operating efficiency or adapt to new requirements; maintains records of
program development and revisions. (NOTE: W orkers performing both system s analysis and pro­
graming should be classified as system s analysts if this is the skill used to determine their pay.)
Does not include employees prim arily responsible for the management or supervision of
other electronic data processing (EDP) em ployees, or program ers prim arily concerned with
scientific and/or engineering problem s.
For wage study purposes, program ers are classified as follows:
C lass A . Works independently or under only general direction on complex problem s which
require competence in all phases of programing concepts and practices. Working from dia­
gram s and charts which identify the nature of desired results, m ajor processing steps to be
accomplished, and the relationships between various steps of the problem solving routine;
plans the full range of programing actions needed to efficiently utilize the computer system
in achieving desired end products.

22
COM PUTER PROGRAM ER, BUSINESS— Continued
At this level, programing is difficult because computer equipment m ust be organized to
produce several interrelated but diverse products from numerous and diverse data elements.
A wide variety and extensive number of internal processing actions must occur. This requires
such actions as development of common operations which can be reused, establishment of
linkage points between operations, adjustments to data when program requirements exceed
computer storage capacity, and substantial manipulation and resequencing of data elements
to form a highly integrated program .
May provide functional direction to lower level program ers who are assigned to a ssist.

C lass B . Works independently or under only general direction on relatively simple
program s, or on simple segments of com plex program s. Program s (or segments) usually
process information to produce data in two or three varied sequences or form ats. Reports
and listings are produced by refining, adapting, arraying, or making minor additions to or
deletions from input data which are readily available. While numerous records may be
processed , the data have been refined in prior actions so that the accuracy and sequencing
of data can be tested by using a few routine checks.
Typically, the program deals with
routine record-keeping type operations.
OR
Works on com plex program s (as described for class A) under close direction of a higher
level program er or supervisor.
May a ssist higher level programmer by independently per­
forming less difficult tasks assigned, and perform ing m ore difficult tasks under fairly close
direction.
May guide or instruct lower level program ers.
Glass C . Makes practical applications of programing practices and concepts usually
learned in form al training cou rses. Assignm ents are designed to develop competence in the
application of standard procedures to routine problem s. Receives close supervision on new
aspects of assignm ents; and work is reviewed to ,v e rify its accuracy and conformance with
required procedures.

COMPUTER SYSTEMS AN A L Y S T , BUSINESS

COMPUTER SYSTEMS A N A LYS T, BUSINESS— Continued
maintaining accounts receivable in a retail establishment, or maintaining inventory accounts
in a manufacturing or wholesale establishment.) Confers with persons concerned to determine
the data processing problem s and advises subject-m atter personnel on the implications of the
data processing system s to be applied.
OR
Works on a segment of a com plex data processing scheme or system , as described for
class A. Works independently on routine assignments and receives instruction and guidance
on complex assignm ents. Work is reviewed for accuracy of judgment, compliance with in­
structions, and to insure proper alinement with the overall system .
C lass C . Works under immediate supervision, carrying out analyses as assigned, usually
of a single activity.
Assignm ents are designed to develop and expand practical experience
in the application of procedures and skills required for system s analysis work. For example,
m ay a ssist a higher level system s analyst by preparing the detailed specifications required
by program ers from information developed by the higher level analyst.
DRAFTSMAN
C lass A . Plans the graphic presentation of complex items having distinctive design
features that differ significantly from established drafting precedents. W orks in close sup­
port with the design originator, and may recommend minor design changes. Analyzes the
effect of each change on the details of form , function, and positional relationships of com ­
ponents and parts.
W orks with a minimum of supervisory assistance.
Completed work is
reviewed by design originator for consistency with prior engineering determinations. May
either prepare drawings, or direct their preparation by lower level draftsmen.
C lass B . P erform s nonroutine and complex drafting assignments that require the appli­
cation of m ost of the standardized drawing techniques regularly used.
Duties typically in­
volve such work as; P repares working drawings of subassem blies with irregular shapes,
multiple functions, and precise positional relationships between components; prepares archi­
tectural drawings for construction of a building including detail drawings of foundations, wall
sections, floor plans, and roof. U ses accepted form ulas and manuals in making necessary
computations to determine quantities of m aterials to be used, load capacities, strengths,
s tr e s s e s , etc.
R eceives initial instructions, requirem ents, and advice from supervisor.
Completed work is checked for technical adequacy.
C lass C . P repares detail drawings of single units or parts for engineering, construction,
manufacturing, or repair purposes. Types of drawings prepared include isom etric projections
(depicting three dimensions in accurate scale) and sectional views to clarify positioning of
components and convey needed information. Consolidates details from a number of sources
and adjusts or transposes scale as required.
Suggested methods of approach, applicable
precedents, and advice on source m aterials are given with initial assignm ents. Instructions
are le ss complete when assignments recur.
Work m ay be spot-checked during progress.

Analyzes business problem s to formulate procedures for solving them by use of electronic
data processing equipment. Develops a complete description of all specifications needed to enable
program ers to prepare required digital computer program s. Work involves m ost of the following;
Analyzes subject-m atter operations to be automated and identifies conditions and criteria required
to achieve satisfactory resu lts; specifies number and types of records, file s , and "documents to
be used; outlines actions to be perform ed by personnel and computers in sufficient detail for
presentation to management and for programing (typically this involves preparation of work and
data flow charts); coordinates the development of test problem s and participates in trial runs of
new and revised system s; and recommends equipment changes to obtain m ore effective overall
operations. (NOTE; W orkers perform ing both system s analysis and programing should be c la s ­
sified as system s analysts if this is the skill used to determine their pay.)

D RA FTSM AN -TR AC ER

Does not include employees prim arily responsible for the management or supervision of
other electronic data processing (EDP) em ployees, or system s analysts prim arily concerned with
scientific or engineering problem s.

P repares simple or repetitive drawings of easily visualized item s.
during progress.

Copies plans and drawings prepared by others by placing tracing cloth or paper over
drawings and tracing with pen or pencil.
(Does not include tracing lim ited to plans prim arily
consisting of straight lines and a large scale not requiring close delineation.)
A N D /O R

For wage study purposes,

system s analysts are classified as follows:

C lass A . W orks independently or under only general direction on complex problems
involving all phases of system s analysis. Problem s are complex because of diverse sources
of input data and m ultiple-use requirements of output data. (For example, develops an inte­
grated production scheduling, inventory control, cost analysis, and sales analysis record in
which every item of each type is automatically processed through the full system of records
and appropriate followup actions are initiated by the computer.) Confers with persons con­
cerned to determine the data processing problem s and advises subject-m atter personnel on
the implications of new or revised system s of data processing operations.
Makes recom ­
mendations, if needed, for approval of m ajor system s installations or changes and for
obtaining equipment.
May provide functional direction to lower level system s analysts who are assigned to
assist.
C lass B . Works independently or under only general direction on problem s that are
relatively uncomplicated to analyze, plan, program , and operate. Problem s are of limited
complexity because sources of input data are homogeneous and the output data are closely
related.
(For example, develops system s for maintaining depositor accounts in a bank,




Work is closely supervised

ELECTRONIC TECHNICIAN
Works on various types of electronic equipment or system s by performing one or more
of the following operations; Modifying, installing, repairing, and overhauling. These operations
require the performance of m ost or all of the following tasks: Assem bling, testing, adjusting,
calibrating, tuning, and alining.
Work is nonrepetitive and requires a knowledge of the theory and practice of electronics
pertaining to the use of general and specialized electronic test equipment; trouble analysis; and
the operation, relationship, and alinement of electronic system s, subsystem s, and circuits having
a variety of component parts.
Electronic equipment or system s worked on typically include one or m ore of the following:
Ground, vehicle, or airborne radio communications system s, relay system s, navigation aids;
airborne or ground radar system s; radio and television transmitting or recording system s; e lec­
tronic computers; m issile and spacecraft guidance and control system s; industrial and medical
m easuring, indicating, and controlling devices; etc.
(Exclude production assem blers and testers, craftsm en, draftsmen, designers, engineers,
and repairmen of such standard electronic equipment as office m achines, radio and television
receiving sets.)

23
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (Registered)

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (Registered)— Continued

A registered nurse who gives nursing service under general m edical direction to ill or
injured employees or other persons who becom e ill or suffer an accident on the prem ises of a
factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following; Giving first aid
to the ill or injured; attending to subsequent dressing of em ployees' injuries; keeping records

of patients treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes; assisting in
physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants and em ployees; and planning and carry­
ing out program s involving health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment,
or other activities affecting the health, w elfare, and safety of all personnel.

M A IN T E N A N C E

AND

POW ERPLANT

CAR PENTER , MAINTENANCE

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE

P erform s the carpentry duties n ecessary to construct and maintain in good repair building
woodwork and equipment such as bins, crib s, counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs,
casings, and trim made of wood in an establishment. Work involves m ost of the following: Planning
and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, m odels, or verbal instructions using a variety
of carpenter's handtools, portable power tools, and standard measuring instrum ents; making
standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work; and selecting m aterials necessary
for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of metal parts of mechanical
equipment operated in an establishment. Work involves most of the following: Interpreting written
instructions and specifications; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of m achinist's
handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and operating standard machine tools;
shaping of m etal parts to close tolerances; making standard shop computations relating to dimen­
sions of work, tooling, feeds, and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working properties of
the common m etals; selecting standard m aterials, parts, and equipment required for his work;
and fitting and assem bling parts into mechanical equipment.
In general, the m achinist's work
norm ally requires a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a form al
apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

ELEC TR ICIAN, MAINTENANCE
P erform s a variety of electrical trade functions such as the installation, maintenance,
or repair of equipment for the generation, distribution, or utilization of electric energy in an
establishment.
Work involves m ost of the following; Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transform ers, switchboards, con trollers, circuit
breakers, m otors, heating units, conduit system s, or other transm ission equipment; working
from blueprints, drawings, layouts, or other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in
the electrical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to load requirements
of wiring or electrical equipment; and using a variety of electrician's handtools and measuring
and testing instruments.
In general, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and m ay also supervise the operation of stationary engines and
equipment (mechanical or electrical) to supply the establishment in which employed with power,
heat, refrigeration, or air-conditioning.
W ork involves: Operating and maintaining equipment
such as steam engines, air co m p ressors, generators, m otors, turbines, ventilating and refrig­
erating equipment, steam boilers and b oiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; and
keeping a record of operation of m achinery, tem perature, and fuel consumption. May also su­
pervise these operations.
Head or chief engineers in establishments employing m ore than one
engineer are excluded.
FIREM AN, STATIONARY BOILER
F ires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which employed with heat, power,
or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or operates a mechanical stoker, or gas or oil burner;
and checks water and safety valves. May clean, oil, or a ssist in repairing boilerroom equipment.
HELPER, MAINTENANCE TRADES
A ssists one or m ore workers in the skilled maintenance trades, by performing specific
or general duties of le s s e r skill, such as keeping a worker supplied with m aterials and tools;
cleaning working area, machine, and equipment; assisting journeyman by holding m aterials or
tools; and performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman.
The kind of work the
helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade:
In some trades the helper is con­
fined to supplying, lifting, and holding m aterials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in
others he is permitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade that are
also perform ed by workers on a fu ll-tim e basis.
M AC H IN E -TOO L O PERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation of one or m ore types of machine tools, such as jig borers,
cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes, or milling m achines, in the construction of
m achine-shop tools, gages, jig s , fixtures, or dies. Work involves m ost of the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring complicated setups or
a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of precision measuring instruments; selecting feeds,
speedSi tooling, and operation sequence; and making necessary adjustments during operation
to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions.
May be required to recognize when tools need
dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating oils.
For
cross-in d u stry wage study purposes, m achine-tool operators, toolroom , in tool and die jobbing
shops are excluded from this classification.




MECHANIC, AUTOM OTIVE (Maintenance)
Repairs automobiles, bu ses, motortrucks, and tractors of an establishment. Work in­
volves m ost of the following: Examining automotive equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dis­
assem bling equipment and performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gages, d rills, or specialized equipment in disassem bling or fitting parts; replacing broken or
defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting valves; reassem bling and installing the various
assem blies in the vehicle and making necessary adjustments; and alining wheels, adjusting brakes
and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive mechanic requires
rounded training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.
MECHANIC, M AINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment. Work involves most
of the following: Examining machines and mechanical equipment to diagnose source of trouble;
dismantling or partly dismantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use
of handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts with items obtained
from stock; ordering the production of a replacement part by a machine shop or sending of the
machine to a machine shop for m ajor repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs
or for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassem bling m achines; and making
all necessary adjustments for operation. In general, the work of a maintenance mechanic requires
rounded training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.
Excluded from this classification are workers whose prim ary duties
involve setting up or adjusting machines.
MILLWRIGHT
Installs new machines or heavy equipment, and dismantles and installs machines or heavy
equipment when changes in the plant layout are required. W ork involves most of the following:
Planning and laying out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a variety
of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations relating to s tre sse s, strength of
m aterials, and centers of gravity; alining and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools,
equipment, and parts to be used; and installing and maintaining in good order power transm ission
equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the m illw right's work norm ally requires
a rounded training and experience in the trade acquired through a form al apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.
PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an establishment. Work involves
the following: Knowledge of surface peculiarities and types of paint required for different applica­
tions; preparing surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in nail
holes and interstices; and applying paint with spray gun or brush. May m ix colors, oils, white
lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper color or consistency. In general, the work of the
maintenance painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a form al
apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
PIP EF IT TE R , MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam , gas, or other types of pipe and pipefittings in an
establishment. Work involves m ost of the following: Laying out of work and measuring to locate
position of pipe from drawings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to
correct lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting machine; threading
pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by hand-driven or power-driven m achines; assembling

24
P IP E F IT TE R , M AINTENANCE— Continued

TOOL AND DIE MAKER

pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to
p re ssu res, flow, and size of pipe required; and making standard tests to determine whether fin­
ished pipes m eet specifications.
In general, the work of the maintenance pipefitter requires
rounded training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. W orkers prim arily engaged in installing and repairing building sanitation
or heating system s are excluded.
S H E E T -M E T A L WORKER, M AINTENANCE
Fabricates, in stalls, and maintains in good repair the sheet-m etal equipment and fixtures
(such as machine guards, grease pans, shelves, lock e rs, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal
roofing) of an establishment. W ork involves m ost of the following: Planning and laying out all
types of sheet-m etal maintenance work from blueprints, m odels, or other specifications; setting
up and operating all available types of sheet-m etal working m achines; using a variety of handtools
in cutting, bending, form ing, shaping, fitting, and assem bling; and installing sheet-m etal articles
as required.
In general, the work of the maintenance sheet-m etal worker requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.

C U S T O D IA L

AND

Constructs and repairs m achine-shop tools, gages, jig s, fixtures or dies for forgings,
punching, and other m etal-form in g work.
Work involves m ost of the following: Planning and
laying out of work from m odels, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifications;
using a variety of tool and die m aker's handtools and precision measuring instruments; under­
standing of the working properties of common m etals and alloys; setting up and operating of
machine tools and related equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of m achines; heat-treating of m etal parts during fabrication
as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve required qualities; working to close tolerances;
fitting and assem bling of parts to prescribed tolerances and allowances; and selecting appropriate
m aterials, tools, and p ro cesses. In general, the tool and die m aker's work requires a rounded
training in machine-shop and toolroom practice usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship
or equivalent training and experience.
For cross-in d u stry wage study purposes,
shops are excluded from this classification.

M A T E R IA L

GUARD AND WATCHMAN
Guard. P erform s routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour, maintaining
order, using arm s or force where necessary.
Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate
and check on identity of employees and other persons entering.
Watchman. Makes rounds of prem ises periodically in protecting property against fire,
theft, and illegal entry.
JANITOR,

(Die m aker; jig m aker; tool m aker; fixture maker; gage maker)

PORTER, OR CLEANER

tool and die m akers in tool and die jobbing

MOVEMENT

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is responsible for incoming ship­
ments of merchandise or other m aterials. Shipping work involves: A knowledge of shipping
procedures, practices, routes, available means of transportation, and rate; and preparing re c ­
ords of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping charges, and
keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or assist in preparing the merchandise for ship­
ment. Receiving work involves: Verifying or directing others in verifying the correctness of
shipments against bills of lading, invoices, or other records; checking for shortages and rejecting
damaged goods; routing merchandise or m aterials to proper departments; and maintaining neces­
sary records and files.

(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas and washroom s, or
prem ises of an office, apartment house, or com m ercial or other establishment. Duties involve
a combination of the following: Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing
chips, trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polishing metal fixtures
or trim m ings; providing supplies and minor maintenance services; and cleaning lavatories, show­
e rs, and restroom s. W orkers who specialize in window washing are excluded.
LABORER, M ATER IAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; w are­
houseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store, or other establishment
whose duties involve one or m ore of the following: Loading and unloading various m aterials and
merchandise on or from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelving,
or placing m aterials or merchandise in proper storage location; and transporting m aterials or
merchandise by handtruck, car, or wheelbarrow. Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are
excluded.

Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
TRUCKDRIVER
Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport m aterials, merchandise,
equipment, or men between various types of establishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight
depots, warehouses, wholesale and retail establishm ents, or between retail establishments and
customers* houses or places of business. May also load or unload truck with or without helpers,
make minor mechanical repairs, and keep truck in good working order. D riv er-sale sm en and
over-the-road drivers are excluded.
For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size and type of equipment,
as follows: (T ra ctor-tra iler should be rated on the basis of trailer capacity.)

ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored merchandise in accord­
ance with specifications on sales slip s, customers* ord ers, or other instructions. May, in addition
to filling orders and indicating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders, requi­
sition additional stock or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform other related duties.

Truckdriver (combination of sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under lV2 tons)
Truckdriver, medium (lV2 to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)

TRUCKER,

POWER

PACKER, SHIPPING
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing them in shipping con­
tainers, the specific operations performed being dependent upon the type, size, and number of
units to be packed, the type of container employed, and methcd of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or more of the following: Knowl­
edge of various items of stock in order to verify content; selection of appropriate type and size
of container; inserting enclosures in container; using excelsior or other m aterial to prevent
breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; and applying labels or entering identifying
data on container. Packers who also make wooden : i xe s :r crates are excluded.




Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-pow ered truck or tractor to
transport goods and m aterials of all kinds about a warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other
establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of truck, as follows:
Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)

* U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1971 O - 432-466 (18)

A rea W ag e

Surveys

A l i s t o f the l a t e s t a v a ila b le b u ll e t in s is p r e s e n t e d b e l o w . A d i r e c t o r y o f a r e a w a g e s tu d ie s in clu d in g m o r e l i m i t e d stu d ie s c o n d u c t e d at the
r e q u e s t o f the W a g e and H o u r D i v i s i o n o f the D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r is a v a ila b le o n r e q u e s t . B u lle t in s m a y b e p u r c h a s e d f r o m the S u perin ten den t o f
D o c u m e n t s , U.S. G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , W a s h in g t o n , D . C . , 204 02 , o r f r o m any o f the BLS r e g i o n a l s a l e s o f f i c e s s h o w n on the in s i d e f r o n t c o v e r .

Area
A k r o n , O h i o , J u ly 1970_____________________ ___ __________
A lb a n y —S c h e n e c t a d y —T r o y , N . Y . , F e b . 1970___________
A l b u q u e r q u e , N. M e x . , M a r . 1 9 7 0 1_____________________
Allentowrr— e t h le h e m —E a s t o n , P a . —N . J . , M a y 1970 1
B
—
A t la n t a , G a . , M a y 1970 1__________________________________
B a l t i m o r e , M d . , Aug. 1970 1 --------------------------------------------B e a u m o n t — o r t A r t h u i—O r a n g e , T e x . , M a y 1 9 7 0 ------P
B in g h a m t o n , N . Y . , J u ly 1 9 7 0 _____ _______________________
B i r m i n g h a m , A l a . , M a r . 1970___________________________
B o i s e C it y , Idaho, N o v. 1970 1 __________________________
B o s t o n , M a s s . , Aug. 1 9 7 0 1 ---------------------------------------------B u f f a l o , N . Y . , O c t . 1 9 6 9 ---------------------------------------------------B u r lin g t o n , V t ., M a r . 1970_______________________________
C a nto n, O h i o , M a y 1970 1-------------------------------------------------C h a r l e s t o n , W. V a . , A p r . 1970 1_________________________
C h a r l o t t e , N . C . , M a r . 1970 1 ------------------------------------------C h a t ta n o o g a , T e n n . - G a . , Sept. 1970 1 ---------------------------C h i c a g o , 111., June 1970----------------------------------------------------C in c in n a t i, Ohicr-Ky.—I n d . , F e b . 1 9 7 0 ---------------------------C l e v e l a n d , O h i o , Sept. 1969---------------------------------------------C o l u m b u s , O h i o , O c t . 1969_______________________________
D a l l a s , T e x . , O ct . 1 9 6 9 ___________________________________
D a v e n p o r t — o c k Isla nd—M o l i n e , Iowa—111.,
R
O ct . 1969 1_________________________________________________
D ayto n, O h i o , D e c . 1 9 6 9 --------------------------------------------------D e n v e r , C o l o . , D e c . 1969 1----------------------------------------------D e s M o i n e s , Iow a, M a y 1970 1 ----------------------------------------D e t r o i t , M i c h . , F e b . 1 9 7 0 ________________________________
F o r t W o r t h , T e x . , O c t . 1969_____________________________
G r e e n B a y , W i s . , J u ly 1 9 7 0 * ------------------------------------------G r e e n v i l l e , S . C . , M a y 1 9 7 0 ---------------------------------------------H o u s to n , T e x . , A p r . 1970_„----------------------------------------------I n d ia n a p o lis , Ind., O c t . 1969_____________________________
J a c k s o n , M i s s . , Jan. 1970------------------------------------------------J a c k s o n v i l l e , F l a . , D e c . 1 9 6 9 -----------------------------------------K a n s a s C it y , M o . - K a n s . , Sept. 1970 1---------------------------L a w r e n c e —H a v e r h i l l , M a s s . — .H ., June 1 9 7 0 * _______
N
L ittle R o c k — o r t h L ittle R o c k , A r k . , J u ly 1970 1_____
N
L o s A n g e l e s —L o n g B e a c h and A n a h e im —Santa A n a G a r d e n G r o v e , C a l i f . , M a r . 1970______________________
L o u i s v i l l e , K y.—I n d . , N o v. 1969 1________________________
L u b b o c k , T e x . , M a r . 1 9 7 0 1---------------------------------------------M a n c h e s t e r , N .H ., J u ly 1970 1 __________________________
M e m p h i s , T e n n . - A r k . , N o v. 1969 1 _____________________
M i a m i , F l a . , N ov. 1 9 6 9 ___________________________________
M id la n d and O d e s s a , T e x . , Jan. 1970 1 ------------------------M i l w a u k e e , W i s . , M a y 1970 1____________________________
M i n n e a p o l i s —St. P a u l , M in n ., Jan. 1970 1 ______________

B u lle t in n u m b e r
and p r i c e
1660-88,
1660-51,
1660-55,
1660-83,
1660-76,
1685-18,
1660-84,
1685-6,
1660-57,
1685-21,
16 8 5-1 1,
1660-29,
1660-53,
1660-81,
1660-68,
1660-61,
1685-10,
1660-90,
1660-49,
1660-22,
1660-27,
1660-23,

30 c e n t s
30 c e n ts
35 ce n ts
35 c e n ts
50 c e n ts
50 c e n ts
30 c e n t s
30 ce n ts
30 ce n ts
35 c e n t s
50 c e n t s
45 c e n ts
25 c e n ts
35 c e n t s
35 c e n ts
40 ce n ts
35 c e n ts
60 c e n t s
35 c e n ts
40 ce n ts
30 c e n ts
35 ce n ts

1660-20,
1660-37,
1660-41,
1660-73,
1660-58,
1660-18,
1685-4,
1660-79,
1660-67,
1660-25,
1660-39,
1660-35,
1685-16,
1660-82,
1665- 1,

35
30
40
35
35
30
35
30
35
30
30
30
45
35
35

ce n ts
ce n ts
c e n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
c e n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
cents

1660-64,
1660-28,
1660-50,
1685-2,
1660-31,
1660-32,
1660-44,
1660-74,
1660-46,

45
40
35
35
40
30
35
50
50

ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
c e n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
c e n ts
ce n ts

Data on establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions are also presented.




A rea
M u s k e g o n —M u s k e g o n H e i g h t s , M i c h . , June 1970 1_____
N e w a r k and J e r s e y C it y , N . J . , Jan. 1970 1_____________
New H av e n, C o n n . , Jan. 1970 1
___________________________
New O r l e a n s , L a . , Jan. 1970_____________________________
New Y o r k , N . Y . , A p r . 1 9 7 0 * _____________________________
N o r f o l k r - P o r t s m o u t h and N e w p o r t N e w s —
H a m p t o n , V a . , Jan. 1970 1 ---------------------------------------------O k l a h o m a C it y , O k l a . , J u ly 1970________________________
O m a h a , N e b r . —Iow a, Sept. 1970 1________________________
P a t e r s o n — l i f t o n — a s s a i c , N . J . , June 1970 1__________
C
P
P h i l a d e l p h i a , P a . —N . J . , N ov. 1969 1_____________________
P h o e n i x , A r i z . , M a r . 1 9 7 0 1______________________________
P i t t s b u r g h , P a . , Jan. 1 9 7 0 1______________________________
P o r t l a n d , M a in e , N o v . 1970_______________________________
P o r t l a n d , O r e g . —W a s h . , M a y 1970 1_____________________
P r o v i d e n c e —P a w t u c k e t — a r w i c k , R .I .—M a s s . ,
W
M a y 1 9 7 0 ___________________________________________________
R a l e i g h , N . C . , Aug. 1 9 7 0 1________________________________
R i c h m o n d , V a . , M a r . 1 9 7 0 1______________________________
R o c h e s t e r , N . Y . ( o f f i c e o c c u p a t i o n s o n ly ),
A u g . 1970___________________________________________________
R o c k f o r d , 111., M a y 1970 1 ________________________________
St. L o u i s , M o .—111., M a r . 1970___________________________
Salt L a k e C it y , Utah, Nov. 1969 1-----------------------------------San A n t o n io , T e x . , M a y 1970-------------------------------------------San B e r n a r d i n c r - R i v e r s i d e — n t a r i o , C a l i f . ,
O
D a c. 1969___________________________________________________
San D i e g o , C a l i f . , N o v. 1970_____________________________
San F r a n c i s c o - -O a kla nd , C a l i f . , O ct . 1969 1-----------------San J o s e , C a l i f . , A u g . 1970_______________________________
Savannah, G a . , M a y 1970 1________________________________
S c r a n t o n , P a . , J u ly 1970 1 ________________________________
S e a ttle —E v e r e t t , W a s h ., Jan. 1970----------------------------------S io u x F a l l s , S. D a k., Sept. 1969_________________________
South B e n d , Ind., M a r . 1 9 7 0 1____________________________
Sp o k a n e , W a s h ., June 1970 1 -------------------------------------------S y r a c u s e , N . Y . , J u ly 1 9 7 0 ------------------------------------------------Tam pa—
St. P e t e r s b u r g , F l a . , N o v . 1970------------------------T o l e d o , O h i o - M i c h . , F e b . 1970__________________________
T r e n t o n , N . J . , Sept. 1 9 7 0 1 _______________________________
U t i c a - R o m e , N . Y . , J u ly 1 9 7 0 ____________________________
W a s h in g t o n , D . C . —M d.—V a . , Sept. 1969 1-----------------------W a t e r b u r y , C o n n ., M a r . 1 9 7 0 1__________________________
W a t e r l o o , Iow a, Jan. 1 9 7 0 ________________________________
W i c h i t a , K a n s . , A p r . 1 9 7 0 1 ---------------------------------------------W o r c e s t e r , M a s s . , M a y 1 9 7 0 1 __________________________
Y o r k , P a . , F e b . 1970 1____________________________________
Y o u n g s to w n — a r r e n , O h i o , N o v. 1 9 6 9 * ------------------------W

B u lle tin n u m b e r
and p r i c e
1660-85,
1660-47,
1660-40,
1660-42,
1660-89,

35 c e n ts
50ce n ts
35 c e n ts
30 ce n ts
75 c e n ts

1660-59,
1685-5,
1685-14,
1660-87,
1660-48,
1660-70,
1660-60,
1685-19,
1660-77,

35 ce n ts
30c e n ts
35c e n ts
45 c e n t s
60 ce n ts
35ce n ts
50ce n ts
30c e n ts
40 ce n ts

1660-72,
1685-12,
1660-65,

30 ce n ts
35c e n ts
40 ce n ts

1685-7,
1660-75,
1660-66,
1660-30,
1660-71,

30ce n ts
35ce n ts
40 ce n ts
35ce n ts
30 ce n ts

1660-43,
1685-20,
1660-33,
1 6 8 5- 13,
1660-80,
1685-3,
1660-52,
1660-14,
1660-62,
1660-86,
1685-8,
1685-17,
1660-56,
16 8 5- 15,
1685-9,
1660-19,
1660-54,
1660-45,
1660-69,
1660-78,
1660-63,
1660-38,

30 ce n ts
30ce n ts
50cen ts
30ce n ts
35ce n ts
35cen ts
30 cen ts
25cen ts
35cen ts
35ce n ts
30cen ts
30ce n ts
30ce n ts
35ce n ts
30ce n ts
50ce n ts
35cen ts
30 cen ts
35
35cen ts
35ce n ts
35cen ts

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