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A re a Wage S u rvey

The Charleston, West Virginia, Metropolitan Area
April 1970

Bulletin 1660-68




u.s.

d e p a r tm e n t of labor
BUREAU OF LABOR ST A T I S T I CS

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS REGIONAL OFFICES

R e g io n I

R e g io n II
341 N inth A v e .
N ew Y ork , N. Y . 10001
Phone: 9 7 1 -5 4 0 5 (A rea C od e 2 1 2 )

R e g io n III
406 Penn Square B u ildin g
1317 F ilbert St.
P h ila d e lp h ia , Pa. 19107
Phone: 5 9 7 -7 7 9 6 (A rea C o d e 2 1 5 )

R e g io n IV
Su ite 540
1371 P e a ch tre e St. NE.
A tla n ta , G a. 3 0 3 09
P h one: 5 2 6 -5 4 1 8 (A rea C od e 4 0 4 )

R e g io n VI
R e g io n V
3 3 7 M a y flo w e r B u ildin g
219 South D ea rb orn St.
411 North A k a rd St.
C h ic a g o , 111. 6 0 6 0 4
D a lla s , T e x . 75201
P h one: 3 5 3 -7 2 3 0 (A rea C od e 3 1 2 )
P h one: 7 4 9 -3 5 1 6 (A rea C od e 2 1 4 )

R e g io n s VII and VIII
F ederal O ffic e B u ildin g
911 W aln ut St. , 10th F loor
Kansas C ity , M o. 6 4 1 0 6
P h one: 3 7 4 -2 4 8 1 (A rea C o d e 8 1 6 )

R e g io n s IX and X
4 5 0 G o ld e n G ate A v e .
Box 3 6 0 1 7
San F r a n cis co , C a lif. 94102
Phone: 5 5 6 -4 6 7 8 (A rea C o d e 4 1 5 )

1 6 0 3 -B F ederal B u ildin g
G o v e rn m e n t C en ter
B oston, M ass. 0 2 2 0 3
Phone: 2 2 3 -6 7 6 2 (A rea C od e


* R e g io n s VII and VIII w ill be s e r v ic e d b y Kansas C ity.
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
** R e g io n s IX and X w ill be s e r v ic e d by San F ra n cisco.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Area Wage Survey
The Charleston, West Virginia, Metropolitan Area




April 1970

Bulletin 1660-68
J u ly 1 9 7 0

U.S. D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
J. D. Hodgson, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR S T A T IS T IC S
G e o ffre y H . M o o re, C o m m is s io n e r

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D C., 20402 - Price 35 cents




Contents

Preface

Page
T h e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s p r o g r a m o f ann ual
o c c u p a t i o n a l w a g e s u r v e y s in m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s i s d e ­
s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e da t a o n o c c u p a t i o n a l e a r n i n g s , and e s t a b ­
l i s h m e n t p r a c t i c e s a n d s u p p l e m e n t a r y w a g e p r o v i s i o n s . It
y i e l d s d e t a i l e d da ta b y s e l e c t e d i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n f o r e a c h
o f the a r e a s s t u d i e d , f o r g e o g r a p h i c r e g i o n s , and f o r the
U n ite d S t a t e s .
A m a j o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n in the p r o g r a m is
th e n e e d f o r g r e a t e r i n s i g h t in to ( l ) the m o v e m e n t o f w a g e s
b y o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r y and s k i l l l e v e l , and (Z) th e s t r u c ­
t u r e a nd l e v e l o f w a g e s a m o n g a r e a s and i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s .

W a g e t r e n d s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s __________________________ ___
Tables;
1.
Z.

A t th e e n d o f e a c h s u r v e y , an i n d i v i d u a l a r e a b u l ­
l e t i n p r e s e n t s s u r v e y r e s u l t s f o r e a c h a r e a s t u d ie d . A f t e r
c o m p l e t i o n o f a l l o f th e i n d i v i d u a l a r e a b u l l e t i n s f o r a r o u n d
of s u r v e y s , tw o s u m m a r y bu lletin s a r e is s u e d . The f i r s t
b r i n g s data f o r e a c h o f the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s s t u d i e d in to
one bulletin .
The s e c o n d p r e s e n ts in fo r m a tio n w h ich has
b e e n p r o j e c t e d f r o m i n d i v i d u a l m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a da ta to
r e l a t e to g e o g r a p h i c r e g i o n s and the U n ite d S t a t e s .

A.

N i n e t y a r e a s c u r r e n t l y a r e i n c l u d e d in the p r o ­
g r a m . In e a c h a r e a , i n f o r m a t i o n o n o c c u p a t i o n a l e a r n i n g s
i s c o l l e c t e d a n n u a lly and o n e s t a b l i s h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and
su p p le m e n ta ry w age p r o v is io n s b ienn ially.

B.

T h i s b u l l e t i n p r e s e n t s r e s u l t s o f th e s u r v e y in
C h a r l e s t o n , W. V a . , in A p r i l 1970.
The Standard M e t r o ­
p o l i t a n S t a t i s t i c a l A r e a , as d e f i n e d b y th e B u r e a u o f the
B udget through J a n u a ry 1968, c o n s i s t s o f Kanaw ha County.
T h i s s t u d y w a s c o n d u c t e d b y the B u r e a u ' s r e g i o n a l o f f i c e
in P h i l a d e l p h i a , P a . , u n d e r the g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n o f I r w i n L.
F eig en b a u m , A s s is ta n t R egion a l D ir e c t o r fo r O pera tion s.




5

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s and w o r k e r s w i t h i n s c o p e o f s u r v e y and
n u m b e r s tu d ie d _________________________________________________________
I n d e x e s o f s t a n d a r d w e e k l y s a l a r i e s a nd s t r a i g h t - t i m e
h o u r l y e a r n i n g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s , and
p e r c e n t s o f c h a n g e f o r s e l e c t e d p e r i o d s ---------------------------------------O ccu pation al earn ings:
A - 1. O f f i c e o c c u p a t i o n s —m e n and w o m e n __________________________
A - Z . P r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s —m e n and
w o m e n ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------A - 3 . O f f i c e , p r o f e s s i o n a l , and t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s —
m e n and w o m e n c o m b i n e d ____________________________________
A - 4 . M a i n t e n a n c e and p o w e r p l a n t o c c u p a t i o n s -----------------------------A - 5 . C u s t o d i a l and m a t e r i a l m o v e m e n t o c c u p a t i o n s ____________

4

6

7
8
9
10
11

E s t a b l i s h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and s u p p l e m e n t a r y w a g e p r o v i s i o n s :
B - l . M in im u m en tra n ce s a la r ie s fo r w o m e n o ffic e
B -Z.
B -3.

S h if t d i f f e r e n t i a l s _______________________________________________
S c h e d u l e d w e e k l y h o u r s ________________________________________

13
14

B -5.
B -6.
B -7.

P a i d v a c a t i o n s ___________________________________________________
H e a l t h , i n s u r a n c e , and p e n s i o n p l a n s _______________________
M e t h o d o f w a g e d e t e r m i n a t i o n and f r e q u e n c y o f

16
19

O c c u p a t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n s _______________________________________

Z1

A ppendix.

areas.

N O T E : S im ila r tabu lation s a r e
(See in sid e b a c k c o v e r . )

available

for

other

U n io n s c a l e s , i n d i c a t i v e o f p r e v a i l i n g p a y l e v e l s in
the C h a r l e s t o n a r e a , a r e a l s o a v a i l a b l e f o r s e v e n s e l e c t e d
buildin g tr a d e s .




Area Wage Survey-----The Charleston, W. Va., Metropolitan Area
Introduction
T h i s a r e a is 1 o f 90 in w h i c h the U .S . D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r ' s
B u re a u o f L a b o r S ta tistics con du cts s u rv e y s of o ccu pa tion a l earnings
a nd r e l a t e d b e n e f i t s o n an a r e a w i d e b a s i s . 1 In t h is a r e a , da t a w e r e
o b t a i n e d b y p e r s o n a l v i s i t s o f B u r e a u f i e l d e c o n o m i s t s to r e p r e s e n t ­
a t i v e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w ith in s i x b r o a d i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s :
Manu­
f a c t u r i n g ; t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , and o t h e r p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s ;
w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e ; and
serv ices.
M a jo r in d u stry gro u p s e x clu d e d f r o m th ese stu dies a re
g o v e r n m e n t o p e r a t i o n s and the c o n s t r u c t i o n and e x t r a c t i v e i n d u s t r i e s .
E s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v i n g f e w e r than a p r e s c r i b e d n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s a r e
o m i t t e d b e c a u s e t h e y t e n d t o f u r n i s h i n s u f f i c i e n t e m p l o y m e n t in the
o c c u p a t i. o n s s t u d i e d t o w a r r a n t i n c l u s i o n .
S ep arate tabu lation s a re
p r o v i d e d f o r e a c h o f th e b r o a d i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s w h i c h m e e t p u b l i ­
cation c r it e r ia .

O c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t and e a r n i n g s da t a a r e s h o w n f o r
fu ll-ti m e w o r k e r s , i .e ., th ose h ir e d to w o r k a re g u la r w e e k ly schedule
in th e g i v e n o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .
E a r n i n g s da t a e x c l u d e p r e ­
m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s , h o l i d a y s , and
la te s h i f t s .
N o n p r o d u c t i o n b o n u s e s a r e e x c l u d e d , but c o s t - o f - l i v i n g
a l l o w a n c e s and i n c e n t i v e e a r n i n g s a r e i n c l u d e d . W h e r e w e e k l y h o u r s
a r e r e p o r t e d , a s f o r o f f i c e c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s , r e f e r e n c e is to the
s t a n d a r d w o r k w e e k ( r o u n d e d to the n e a r e s t h a l f h o u r) f o r w h i c h e m ­
p lo y e e s r e c e iv e their reg u la r s tr a ig h t-tim e s a la r ie s (e x c lu siv e of pay
f o r o v e r t i m e at r e g u l a r a n d / o r p r e m i u m r a t e s ) . A v e r a g e w e e k l y e a r n ­
in g s f o r t h e s e o c c u p a t i o n s h a v e b e e n r o u n d e d t o th e n e a r e s t h a l f d o l l a r .
The a v e ra g e s p re se n te d r e fle c t co m p o s ite , areaw ide e s t i­
m ates.
I n d u s t r i e s and e s t a b l i s h m e n t s d i f f e r in p a y l e v e l and j o b
s t a f fin g a nd , t h u s , c o n t r i b u t e d i f f e r e n t l y to th e e s t i m a t e s f o r e a c h j o b .
T h e p a y r e l a t i o n s h i p o b t a i n a b l e f r o m the a v e r a g e s m a y f a i l to r e f l e c t
a c c u r a t e l y the w a g e s p r e a d o r d i f f e r e n t i a l m a i n t a i n e d a m o n g j o b s in
i n d i v i d u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . S i m i l a r l y , d i f f e r e n c e s in a v e r a g e p a y l e v ­
e l s f o r m e n and w o m e n in a n y o f th e s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s s h o u ld
not b e a s s u m e d t o r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n c e s in p a y t r e a t m e n t o f the s e x e s
w it h in i n d i v i d u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s .
O ther p o s s i b l e f a c t o r s w h ich m a y
c o n t r i b u t e to d i f f e r e n c e s in p a y f o r m e n and w o m e n i n c l u d e :
D iffer­
e n c e s in p r o g r e s s i o n w it h in e s t a b l i s h e d r a te r a n g e s , s i n c e o n l y the
a c t u a l r a t e s p a id i n c u m b e n t s a r e c o l l e c t e d ; and d i f f e r e n c e s in s p e c i f i c
d u t ie s p e r f o r m e d , a lth o u g h th e w o r k e r s a r e c l a s s i f i e d a p p r o p r i a t e l y
w it h in th e s a m e s u r v e y j o b d e s c r i p t i o n .
J o b d e s c r i p t i o n s u s e d in
c l a s s i f y i n g e m p l o y e e s in t h e s e s u r v e y s a r e u s u a l l y m o r e g e n e r a l i z e d
th a n t h o s e u s e d in i n d i v i d u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s and a l l o w f o r m i n o r
d i f f e r e n c e s a m o n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in the s p e c i f i c d u tie s p e r f o r m e d .

T h e s e s u r v e y s a re con d u cted on a sa m p le b a s is b e c a u s e of
th e u n n e c e s s a r y c o s t i n v o l v e d in s u r v e y i n g a ll e s t a b l i s h m e n t s .
To
o b t a i n o p t i m u m a c c u r a c y at m i n i m u m c o s t , a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f
l a r g e than o f s m a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s is s t u d ie d . In c o m b i n i n g th e d a ta ,
h o w e v e r , all e s ta b lis h m e n ts a r e g iv en th e ir a p p ro p ria te w eigh t.
E s­
t i m a t e s b a s e d on the e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s t u d ie d a r e p r e s e n t e d , t h e r e f o r e ,
a s r e l a t i n g t o a ll e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in the i n d u s t r y g r o u p i n g and a r e a ,
e x c e p t f o r t h o s e b e l o w th e m i n i m u m s i z e s t u d ie d .
O c c u p a t i o n s and E a r n i n g s
T h e o c c u p a t i o n s s e l e c t e d f o r s tu d y a r e c o m m o n t o a v a r i e t y
o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g and n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s , and a r e o f the
follow in g types:
(1) O f f i c e c l e r i c a l ; (2) p r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l ;
(3) m a i n t e n a n c e and p o w e r p l a n t ; and (4) c u s t o d i a l and m a t e r i a l m o v e ­
m ent.
O c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n is b a s e d o n a u n i f o r m s e t o f j o b
d e s c r i p t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o ta ke a c c o u n t o f i n t e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t v a r i a t i o n
in d u t ie s w it h in the s a m e j o b .
T h e o c c u p a t i o n s s e l e c t e d f o r s tu d y
a r e l i s t e d and d e s c r i b e d in th e a p p e n d i x . T h e e a r n i n g s da t a f o l l o w i n g
the j o b t i t l e s a r e f o r a ll i n d u s t r i e s c o m b i n e d . E a r n i n g s da ta f o r s o m e
o f the o c c u p a t i o n s l i s t e d and d e s c r i b e d , o r f o r s o m e i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s
w it h in o c c u p a t i o n s , a r e not p r e s e n t e d in the A - s e r i e s t a b l e s , b e c a u s e
e i t h e r (1) e m p l o y m e n t in the o c c u p a t i o n i s t o o s m a l l t o p r o v i d e e n o u g h
da t a t o m e r i t p r e s e n t a t i o n , o r (2) t h e r e is p o s s i b i l i t y o f d i s c l o s u r e
o f i n d iv id u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t da ta .

O c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t e s t i m a t e s r e p r e s e n t the to t a l in
a ll e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w it h in the s c o p e o f the s tu d y and not the n u m b e r
actu a lly su r v e y e d .
B e c a u s e o f d i f f e r e n c e s in o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e
a m o n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , th e e s t i m a t e s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t o b ­
t a i n e d f r o m th e s a m p l e o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s t u d i e d s e r v e o n l y t o i n d i c a t e
the r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f th e j o b s s t u d ie d .
T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s in
o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e d o n ot a f f e c t m a t e r i a l l y th e a c c u r a c y o f the
e a r n i n g s data.
E sta b lish m en t P r a c t ic e s

and S u p p l e m e n t a r y W a g e P r o v i s i o n s

I n f o r m a t i o n is p r e s e n t e d ( in the B - s e r i e s

tables) on s e le c t e d

1
Included in the 90 areas are four studies conducted under contract with the New York State
e s t a b l i s h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and s u p p l e m e n t a r y w a g e p r o v i s i o n s a s t h e y
Department of Labor. These areas are Binghamton (New York portion only); Rochester (office occu ­
r e l a t e t o p la n t and o f f i c e w o r k e r s .
A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , e x e c u t i v e , and
pations only); Syracuse; and Utica—Rome. In addition, the Bureau conducts more lim ited area studies
p r o f e s s i o n a l e m p l o y e e s , and c o n s t r u c t i o n w o r k e r s w h o a r e u t i l i z e d
in 78 areas at the request of the Wage and Hour and Public Contracts Divisions of the U. S. De­
as a s e p a r a t e w o r k f o r c e a r e e x c l u d e d .
" P l a n t w o r k e r s " i n c lu d e
partment of Labor.




1

2
w o r k i n g f o r e m e n and a ll n o n s u p e r v i s o r y w o r k e r s
(inclu din g le a d m e n and t r a i n e e s ) e n g a g e d in n o n o f f i c e f u n c t i o n s .
"O ffice w o rk e rs"
i n c l u d e w o r k i n g s u p e r v i s o r s and n o n s u p e r v i s o r y w o r k e r s p e r f o r m i n g
c l e r i c a l o r re la te d fun ction s.
C a f e t e r i a w o r k e r s and r o u t e m e n a r e
e x c l u d e d in m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s , but i n c l u d e d in n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g
in du stries.
M i n i m u m e n t r a n c e s a l a r i e s f o r w o m e n o f f i c e w o r k e r s (ta b le
B - l ) r e l a t e o n l y to th e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s v i s i t e d . B e c a u s e o f the o p t i m u m
s a m p l i n g t e c h n i q u e s u s e d , and the p r o b a b i l i t y that l a r g e e s t a b l i s h ­
m en ts a re m o r e lik e ly to have f o r m a l e n tra n ce ra te s f o r w o r k e r s
a b o v e the s u b c l e r i c a l l e v e l th an s m a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , the t a b l e is
m o r e - r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f p o l i c i e s in m e d i u m and l a r g e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s .

Sh ift d i f f e r e n t i a l data ( t a b le B - 2 ) a r e l i m i t e d to plant w o r k e r s
in m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s .
T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d b o t h in
t e r m s o f (1) e s t a b l i s h m e n t p o l i c y , 2 p r e s e n t e d in t e r m s o f t o t a l pla n t
w o r k e r e m p l o y m e n t , a nd (2) e f f e c t i v e p r a c t i c e , p r e s e n t e d in t e r m s
o f w o r k e r s a c t u a l l y e m p l o y e d o n the s p e c i f i e d s h if t at th e t i m e o f the
survey.
In e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v in g v a r i e d d i f f e r e n t i a l s , the a m o u n t
a p p l y i n g to a m a j o r i t y w a s u s e d o r , if no a m o u n t a p p l i e d to a m a j o r i t y ,
the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n " o t h e r " w a s u s e d . In e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in w h i c h s o m e
l a t e - s h i f t h o u r s a r e p a i d at n o r m a l r a t e s , a d i f f e r e n t i a l w a s r e c o r d e d
o n l y if it a p p l i e d to a m a j o r i t y o f th e s h if t h o u r s .

T h e s c h e d u l e d w e e k l y h o u r s ( ta b le B - 3 ) o f a m a j o r i t y o f the
f i r s t - s h i f t w o r k e r s in an e s t a b l i s h m e n t a r e t a b u l a t e d a s a p p l y i n g to
a ll o f the p la n t o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s o f th at e s t a b l i s h m e n t .
S cheduled
w e e k ly h o u rs a r e th o s e w h ich f u l l - t i m e e m p l o y e e s w e r e e x p e c te d to
w o r k , w h e t h e r t h e y w e r e p a i d f o r at s t r a i g h t - t i m e o r o v e r t i m e r a t e s .

P a i d h o l i d a y s ; p a i d v a c a t i o n s ; h e a l t h , i n s u r a n c e , and p e n s i o n
f r e q u e n c y o f w age paym ent (tables B - 4 th rou gh B -7 )
a r e t r e a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y o n th e b a s i s th at t h e s e a r e a p p l i c a b l e t o a ll
pla n t o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s if a m a j o r i t y o f s u c h w o r k e r s a r e e l i g i b l e o r
m a y e v e n t u a l l y q u a l i f y f o r th e p r a c t i c e s l i s t e d .
S u m s o f i n d iv id u a l
i t e m s in t a b l e s B - 2 t h r o u g h B - 7 m a y not e q u a l t o t a l s b e c a u s e o f
rou nd ing.
p lan s;

and

D a ta on p a i d h o l i d a y s ( ta b le B - 4 ) a r e l i m i t e d to da ta o n h o l i ­
d a y s g r a n t e d a n n u a l l y o n a f o r m a l b a s i s ; i . e . , (1) a r e p r o v i d e d f o r
in w r i t t e n f o r m , o r (2) h a v e b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d b y c u s t o m .
H olidays
o r d i n a r i l y gra n ted a r e in clu d e d e v e n though th e y m a y fa ll on a n o n ­
w o r k d a y and the w o r k e r is not g r a n t e d a n o t h e r d a y o f f .
The fir s t

p a r t o f th e p a i d h o l i d a y s t a b l e p r e s e n t s th e n u m b e r o f w h o l e and h a lf
h o l i d a y s a c t u a l l y g r a n t e d . T h e s e c o n d p a r t c o m b i n e s w h o l e and h a lf
h o l i d a y s t o s h o w to t a l h o l i d a y t i m e .
T h e s u m m a r y o f v a c a t i o n p l a n s ( ta b le B - 5 ) is l i m i t e d t o a
sta tistica l m e a s u re of v a ca tion p r o v is io n s .
It is n o t in t e n d e d a s a
m e a s u r e o f the p r o p o r t i o n o f w o r k e r s a c t u a l l y r e c e i v i n g s p e c i f i c b e n e ­
f i t s . P r o v i s i o n s o f an e s t a b l i s h m e n t f o r a ll l e n g t h s o f s e r v i c e w e r e
t a b u l a t e d a s a p p l y i n g t o a ll p la n t o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s o f th e e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t, r e g a r d l e s s o f length of s e r v i c e .
P r o v i s i o n s f o r p a y m e n t on
o t h e r th a n a t i m e b a s i s w e r e c o n v e r t e d t o a t i m e b a s i s ; f o r e x a m p l e ,
a p a y m e n t o f 2 p e r c e n t o f a n n u a l e a r n i n g s w a s c o n s i d e r e d as the e q u i v ­
a le n t o f 1 w e e k ' s p a y . E s t i m a t e s e x c l u d e v a c a t i o n - s a v i n g s p la n s and
th ose w h ich o ffe r "e x te n d e d " or " s a b b a t ic a l" benefits beyond b a s ic
p la n s t o w o r k e r s w ith q u a l i f y i n g l e n g t h s o f s e r v i c e .
T y p ica l of such
e x c l u s i o n s a r e p l a n s in th e s t e e l , a l u m i n u m , and c a n i n d u s t r i e s .

D a ta on h e a l t h , i n s u r a n c e , and p e n s i o n p la n s ( ta b le B - 6 ) i n ­
c l u d e t h o s e p la n s f o r w h i c h th e e m p l o y e r p a y s at l e a s t a p a r t o f the
c o s t . S u c h p la n s i n c l u d e t h o s e u n d e r w r i t t e n b y a c o m m e r c i a l i n s u r a n c e
c o m p a n y and t h o s e p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h a u n io n fun d o r p a i d d i r e c t l y b y
the e m p l o y e r out o f c u r r e n t o p e r a t i n g f u n d s o r f r o m a fund s e t a s i d e
f o r th is p u r p o s e .
A n e s t a b l i s h m e n t w a s c o n s i d e r e d t o h a v e a p la n
if the m a j o r i t y o f e m p l o y e e s w a s e l i g i b l e t o b e c o v e r e d u n d e r the
p l a n , e v e n if l e s s th a n a m a j o r i t y e l e c t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e b e c a u s e e m ­
p l o y e e s w e r e r e q u i r e d t o c o n t r i b u t e t o w a r d th e c o s t o f th e p la n .
Le­
g a lly r e q u ir e d p la n s, such as w o r k m e n ’ s c o m p e n s a t io n , s o c ia l s e ­
c u r i t y , and r a i l r o a d r e t i r e m e n t w e r e e x c l u d e d .

S i c k n e s s and a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e is l i m i t e d t o that ty p e o f
in su ra n ce under w hich p r e d e te r m in e d ca sh paym ents are m ade d ir e ctly
to the i n s u r e d d u r i n g i l l n e s s o r a c c i d e n t d i s a b i l i t y .
I n f o r m a t i o n is
p r e s e n t e d f o r a ll s u c h p la n s t o w h i c h th e e m p l o y e r c o n t r i b u t e s .
H ow­
e v e r , in N e w Y o r k a nd N e w J e r s e y , w h i c h h a v e e n a c t e d t e m p o r a r y
d i s a b i l i t y i n s u r a n c e l a w s w h i c h r e q u i r e e m p l o y e r c o n t r i b u t i o n s , 3 p la n s
a r e i n c l u d e d o n l y if th e e m p l o y e r (1) c o n t r i b u t e s m o r e th an is l e g a l l y
r e q u i r e d , o r (2) p r o v i d e s the e m p l o y e e w it h b e n e f i t s w h i c h e x c e e d the
r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the la w .
T a b u l a t i o n s o f p a i d s i c k l e a v e p la n s a r e
l i m i t e d t o f o r m a l p l a n s 4 w h i c h p r o v i d e f u ll p a y o r a p r o p o r t i o n o f the
w o r k e r 's pay during a b s e n c e f r o m w o r k b e c a u s e of ill n e s s .
Separate
t a b u l a t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d a c c o r d i n g t o (1) p l a n s w h i c h p r o v i d e f u l l p a y
and no w a i t i n g p e r i o d , and (2) p la n s w h i c h p r o v i d e e i t h e r p a r t i a l p a y
o r a w a i t i n g p e r i o d . In a d d i t i o n t o th e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f th e p r o p o r t i o n s
o f w o r k e r s w h o a r e p r o v i d e d s i c k n e s s a nd a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e o r p a id
s i c k l e a v e , an u n d u p l i c a t e d t o t a l i s s h o w n o f w o r k e r s w h o r e c e i v e
e ith e r o r both ty pes of b e n e fit s .

2
An establishment was considered as having a policy if it met either of the following con­
The temporary disability laws in California and Rhode Island do not require employer
ditions: (1) Operated late shifts at the time of the survey, or (2) had formal provisions covering
contributions.
late shifts. An establishment was considered as having formal provisions if it (1) had operated late
An establishment was considered as having a formal plan if it established at least the
shifts during the 12 months prior to the survey, or (2) had provisions in written form for operating
minimum number of days of sick leave available to each employee.
Such a plan need not be
late shifts.
written, but informal sick leave allowances, determined on an individual basis, were excluded.




3
M a j o r m e d i c a l i n s u r a n c e i n c l u d e s t h o s e p la n s w h i c h a r e d e ­
s i g n e d to p r o t e c t e m p l o y e e s in c a s e o f s i c k n e s s and i n j u r y i n v o l v i n g
e x p e n s e s b e y o n d the c o v e r a g e o f b a s i c h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , m e d i c a l , and
s u r g ic a l plan s.
M e d i c a l i n s u r a n c e r e f e r s to p la n s p r o v i d i n g f o r c o m ­
p le t e o r p a r t i a l p a y m e n t o f d o c t o r s ' f e e s .
S u ch p la n s m a y b e u n d e r ­
w ritte n by c o m m e r c i a l in su r a n c e c o m p a n ie s o r n on p r o fit o r g a n iz a tio n s
o r t h e y m a y b e p a id f o r b y the e m p l o y e r out o f a fund s e t a s i d e f o r
th is p u r p o s e .
T a b u l a t i o n s o f r e t i r e m e n t p e n s i o n p la n s a r e l i m i t e d to
t h o s e p la n s that p r o v i d e r e g u l a r p a y m e n t s f o r the r e m a i n d e r o f the
w o r k e r 's life.
M e t h o d o f w a g e d e t e r m i n a t i o n ( ta b le B - 7 ) r e l a t e s t o b a s i c
t y p e s o f r a t e s t r u c t u r e f o r w o r k e r s p a i d u n d e r v a r i o u s t i m e and i n ­
cen tive s y s te m s .
U n d e r a s i n g l e r a t e s t r u c t u r e the s a m e r a t e is p a id
t o a ll e x p e r i e n c e d w o r k e r s in th e s a m e j o b c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . A n i n d i v i d ­
ual w o r k e r o c c a s i o n a l l y m a y be p a id a b o v e o r b e l o w th e s i n g l e r a t e




f o r s p e c i a l r e a s o n s , but s u c h p a y m e n t s a r e e x c e p t i o n s . A r a n g e - o f r a t e s p la n s p e c i f i e s th e m i n i m u m a n d / o r m a x i m u m r a t e p a i d e x p e r i ­
e n c e d w o r k e r s f o r th e s a m e j o b . I n f o r m a t i o n a l s o is p r o v i d e d o n the
m e t h o d o f p r o g r e s s i o n t h r o u g h the r a n g e . In the a b s e n c e o f a f o r m a l
r a t e s t r u c t u r e , th e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f th e i n d i v i d u a l w o r k e r d e t e r m i n e
the p a y r a t e . I n f o r m a t i o n o n t y p e s o f i n c e n t i v e p l a n s is p r o v i d e d o n l y
f o r p la n t w o r k e r s b e c a u s e o f the l o w i n c i d e n c e o f s u c h p la n s f o r o f f i c e
w orkers.
U n d e r a p i e c e w o r k s y s t e m , a p r e d e t e r m i n e d r a t e is p a id
f o r e a c h unit o f ou tpu t. P r o d u c t i o n b o n u s e s a r e b a s e d o n p r o d u c t i o n
o v e r a q u o t a o r c o m p l e t i o n o f a j o b in l e s s th a n s t a n d a r d t i m e .
Com ­
p e n s a tio n on a c o m m i s s i o n b a s is r e p r e s e n t s p a y m e n ts b a s e d on a
p e r c e n t a g e of valu e of s a l e s , o r on a c o m b in a tio n of a stated s a la r y
p lu s a p e r c e n t a g e .

table

D a ta
B -7.

on

frequen cy

of

wage

paym ent

a lso

are

p rovided

in

4

T a b le 1.

E s t a b li s h m e n t s and W o r k e r s W ith in S c o p e o f S u r v e y and N u m b e r S tu d ie d in C h a r l e s t o n ,

W . V a . , 1 b y M a j o r I n d u s t r y D iv i s i o n , 2 A p r i l 1970)

N u m b e r o f e s t a b l is h m e n t s

In d u s try d iv is io n

M in im u m
e m p lo y m e n t
in e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t s in s c o p e
o f stu d y

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s
W it h in s c o p e o f s t u d y

W it h in s c o p e
o f stu d y ’

S tu d ie d
T o t a l4

S tu d ie d

P la n t
N um ber

A l l d i v i s i o n s --------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa c t u r in g ---------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g ------------------------------------------------------T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t io n , and
o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s 5__________________________
W h o l e s a le t r a d e ---------------------------------------------------R e t a i l t r a d e ------------------------------------------------------------F in a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , an d r e a l e s t a t e ------------S e r v i c e s 8-----------------------------------------------------------------

O ffic e

P ercen t

T o ta l4

.

112

65

3 0 , 155

100

17, 270

5, 273

2 5, 9 65

50
-

27
85

20
45

15, 7 70
14, 385

52
48

9, 3 1 1
7, 959

2, 4 5 5
2, 818

1 5 ,0 7 9
10, 886

50
50
50
50
50

15
20
30
7
13

13
9
13
4
6

6, 647
1, 514
4, 003
766
1, 4 55

22
5
13
3
5

2, 515

1, 570
(6 )
(‘ )
(‘ )
(6 )

(‘ )
(6 )
()
(6 )

6, 4 10
815
2, 4 39
527
695

1 T h e C h a r l e s t o n S ta n d a rd M e t r o p o l it a n S t a t i s t i c a l A r e a , a s d e f in e d b y th e B u r e a u o f th e B u d g e t t h r o u g h J a n u a r y 1 9 6 8 , c o n s i s t s o f K a n a w h a C o u n t y .
T h e " w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e o f s t u d y "
e s t i m a t e s sh o w n in t h is t a b le p r o v i d e a r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f th e s i z e a n d c o m p o s i t i o n o f th e la b o r f o r c e in c lu d e d in th e s u r v e y .
T h e e s t i m a t e s a r e n o t in te n d e d , h o w e v e r , to s e r v e
a s a b a s i s o f c o m p a r i s o n w ith o t h e r e m p l o y m e n t i n d e x e s f o r th e a r e a t o m e a s u r e e m p l o y m e n t t r e n d s o r l e v e l s s i n c e (1 ) p la n n in g o f w a g e s u r v e y s r e q u i r e s th e u s e o f e s t a b l is h m e n t d a ta c o m p i l e d
c o n s i d e r a b l y in a d v a n c e o f th e p a y r o l l p e r i o d s t u d ie d , a n d (2 ) s m a l l e s t a b l is h m e n t s a r e e x c l u d e d f r o m th e s c o p e o f th e s u r v e y .
2 T h e 1967 e d i t io n o f th e S t a n d a r d I n d u s t r ia l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a n u a l w a s u s e d in c l a s s i f y i n g e s t a b l is h m e n t s b y in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n .
3 I n c l u d e s a l l e s t a b l is h m e n t s w ith t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t a t o r a b o v e th e m in i m u m li m i t a t i o n .
A l l o u t le t s (w ith in th e a r e a ) o f c o m p a n i e s in s u c h in d u s t r i e s a s t r a d e , fi n a n c e , a u to r e p a i r s e r v i c e ,
a n d m o t io n p i c t u r e t h e a t e r s a r e c o n s i d e r e d a s 1 e s t a b l is h m e n t .
4 I n c l u d e s e x e c u t i v e , p r o f e s s i o n a l , a n d o t h e r w o r k e r s e x c l u d e d f r o m th e s e p a r a t e p la n t a n d o f f i c e c a t e g o r i e s .
5 T a x i c a b s a n d s e r v i c e s in c id e n t a l t o w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t io n w e r e e x c l u d e d .
6 T h is in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n i s r e p r e s e n t e d in e s t i m a t e s f o r " a l l i n d u s t r i e s " a n d " n o n m a n u fa c t u r i n g " in th e S e r i e s A t a b l e s , a n d f o r " a l l i n d u s t r i e s " in th e S e r i e s B t a b l e s .
S e p a r a t e p r e s e n t a t io n
o f d a t a f o r t h is d i v i s i o n i s n o t m a d e f o r o n e o r m o r e o f th e f o l lo w i n g r e a s o n s :
( l ) E m p lo y m e n t in th e d i v i s i o n is t o o s m a l l t o p r o v i d e e n o u g h d a t a t o m e r i t s e p a r a t e s tu d y , (2 ) th e s a m p l e w a s
n o t d e s ig n e d i n i t i a l l y t o p e r m i t s e p a r a t e p r e s e n t a t io n , (3 ) r e s p o n s e w a s in s u f f i c i e n t o r in a d e q u a t e t o p e r m i t s e p a r a t e p r e s e n t a t io n , and (4 ) t h e r e i s p o s s i b i l i t y o f d i s c l o s u r e o f in d iv id u a l
e s t a b l is h m e n t d a t a .
7 W o r k e r s f r o m t h is e n t ir e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n a r e r e p r e s e n t e d in e s t i m a t e s f o r " a l l i n d u s t r i e s " a n d " n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g " in th e S e r i e s A t a b l e s , b u t f r o m th e r e a l e s t a t e p o r t i o n o n ly in e s t i m a t e s
f o r " a l l i n d u s t r i e s " in th e S e r i e s B t a b l e s .
S e p a r a t e p r e s e n t a t io n o f d a t a f o r t h is d i v i s i o n i s n o t m a d e f o r o n e o r m o r e o f th e r e a s o n s g iv e n in f o o t n o t e 6 a b o v e .
8 H o t e l s and m o t e l s ; l a u n d r i e s a n d o t h e r p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s ; b u s i n e s s s e r v i c e s ; a u t o m o b i le r e p a i r , r e n t a l, and p a r k in g ; m o t io n p i c t u r e s ; n o n p r o f i t m e m b e r s h i p o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( e x c l u d i n g r e l i g i o u s
a n d c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s ) ; a n d e n g in e e r in g and a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s .




O v e r o n e - h a l f o f th e w o r k e r s w it h in s c o p e o f th e s u r v e y in th e C h a r l e s t o n a r e a w e r e
e m p l o y e d in m a n u fa c t u r in g f i r m s .
T h e f o l lo w i n g p r e s e n t s th e m a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p s and
s p e c i f i c in d u s t r i e s a s a p e r c e n t o f a ll m a n u fa c t u r in g :
In d u stry g ro u p s

S p e c i f i c in d u s t r i e s

C h e m i c a l s a n d a l l i e d p r o d u c t s - .7 9
S to n e , c l a y , a n d g l a s s
p r o d u c t s — ------------------------------------- 6
F a b r i c a t e d m e t a l p r o d u c t s --------- 4
F o o d a n d k in d r e d p r o d u c t s --------- 4

I n d u s t r ia l c h e m i c a l s _____________ 77
F la t g l a s s ----------------------------------------- 5

T h is in f o r m a t i o n i s b a s e d o n e s t i m a t e s o f t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t d e r i v e d f r o m u n i v e r s e
m a t e r i a l s c o m p i l e d p r i o r to a c t u a l s u r v e y .
P r o p o r t i o n s in v a r i o u s in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s m a y
d i f f e r f r o m p r o p o r t i o n s b a s e d o n the r e s u l t s o f th e s u r v e y a s s h o w n in t a b le 1 a b o v e .

Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups
P r e s e n t e d in ta b l e 2 a r e i n d e x e s and p e r c e n t a g e s o f c h a n g e
in a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s o f o f f i c e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s and i n d u s t r i a l n u r s e s ,
and in a v e r a g e e a r n i n g s o f s e l e c t e d pla n t w o r k e r g r o u p s .
The in d e x e s
a r e a m e a s u r e o f w a g e s at a g i v e n t i m e , e x p r e s s e d as a p e r c e n t o f
w a g e s d u r i n g th e b a s e p e r i o d . S u b t r a c t i n g 100 f r o m th e i n d e x y i e l d s
the p e r c e n t a g e c h a n g e in w a g e s f r o m the b a s e p e r i o d t o th e da te o f the
i n d e x . T h e p e r c e n t a g e s o f c h a n g e o r i n c r e a s e r e l a t e to w a g e c h a n g e s
b e t w e e n th e i n d i c a t e d d a t e s . T h e s e e s t i m a t e s a r e m e a s u r e s o f c h a n g e
in a v e r a g e s f o r the a r e a ; t h e y a r e n o t in t e n d e d to m e a s u r e a v e r a g e
pa y c h a n g e s in the e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in the a r e a .

F o r o f f i c e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s a n d i n d u s t r i a l n u r s e s , the w a g e
t r e n d s r e l a t e to r e g u l a r w e e k l y s a l a r i e s f o r the n o r m a l w o r k w e e k ,
e x c lu s iv e of earn ings fo r o v e r t im e .
F o r pla n t w o r k e r g r o u p s , th e y
m e a s u r e c h a n g e s in a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s , e x c l u d i n g
p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s , h o l i d a y s , and
la te s h i f t s .
T h e p e r c e n t a g e s a r e b a s e d o n data f o r s e l e c t e d k e y o c c u ­
p a t io n s a nd i n c l u d e m o s t o f the n u m e r i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t j o b s w ith in
each group.

L i m i t a t i o n s o f Data
M ethod o f C om putin g
The in d e x e s and p e r c e n t a g e s o f ch a n g e , a s m e a s u r e s of
c h a n g e in a r e a a v e r a g e s , a r e i n f l u e n c e d b y :
(1) g e n e r a l s a l a r y and
w a g e c h a n g e s , (2) m e r i t o r o t h e r i n c r e a s e s in p a y r e c e i v e d b y i n d i ­
v i d u a l w o r k e r s w h i le in the s a m e j o b , and (3) c h a n g e s in a v e r a g e
w a g e s due to c h a n g e s in the l a b o r f o r c e r e s u l t i n g f r o m l a b o r t u r n ­
o v e r , f o r c e e x p a n s i o n s , f o r c e r e d u c t i o n s , a nd c h a n g e s in the p r o p o r ­
t i o n s o f w o r k e r s e m p l o y e d b y e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w ith d i f f e r e n t p a y l e v e l s .
C h a n g e s in the l a b o r f o r c e c a n c a u s e i n c r e a s e s o r d e c r e a s e s in the
o c c u p a t i o n a l a v e r a g e s w it h o u t a c t u a l w a g e c h a n g e s .
It i s c o n c e i v a b l e
that e v e n t h o u g h a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in a n a r e a g a v e w a g e i n c r e a s e s ,
a v e r a g e w a g e s m a y have d e c lin e d b e c a u s e lo w e r - p a y in g e s ta b lis h m e n ts
e n t e r e d the a r e a o r e x p a n d e d t h e i r w o r k f o r c e s .
S im ilarly, wages
m a y h a v e r e m a i n e d r e l a t i v e l y c o n s t a n t , y e t th e a v e r a g e s f o r a n a r e a
m a y have r is e n c o n s i d e r a b l y b e c a u s e h ig h e r -p a y in g e s ta b lis h m e n ts
e n t e r e d the a r e a .

E a c h o f th e s e l e c t e d k e y o c c u p a t i o n s w it h in an o c c u p a t i o n a l
g r o u p was a s sig n e d a con sta n t w eigh t b a s e d on its p r o p o r t io n a te e m ­
p l o y m e n t in the o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p . T h e a v e r a g e ( m e a n ) e a r n i n g s f o r
e a c h o c c u p a t i o n w e r e m u l t i p l i e d b y th e o c c u p a t i o n a l w e i g h t , and the
p r o d u c t s f o r all o c c u p a t i o n s in th e g r o u p w e r e t o t a l e d . T h e a g g r e g a t e s
f o r 2 c o n s e c u t i v e y e a r s w e r e r e l a t e d b y d i v i d i n g th e a g g r e g a t e f o r
the l a t e r y e a r b y th e a g g r e g a t e f o r the e a r l i e r y e a r .
The resultant
r e l a t i v e , l e s s 100 p e r c e n t , s h o w s th e p e r c e n t a g e c h a n g e .
The in d ex
i s the p r o d u c t o f m u l t i p l y i n g the b a s e y e a r r e l a t i v e (100) b y the r e l a t i v e
f o r the n e xt s u c c e e d i n g y e a r and c o n t i n u i n g t o m u l t i p l y ( c o m p o u n d )
e a c h y e a r ' s r e l a t i v e b y th e p r e v i o u s y e a r ' s i n d e x . A v e r a g e e a r n i n g s
f o r the f o l l o w i n g o c c u p a t i o n s w e r e u s e d i n c o m p u t i n g the w a g e t r e n d s :
Office clerical (men and women): Office clerical (men and women)— Skilled maintenance (men):
Continued
Bookkeeping-machine
Carpenter
operators, class B
Secretaries
Electricians
Cleiks, accounting, classes
Stenographers, general
Machinists
A and B
Stenographer, senior
Mechanics
Cleiks, file, classes
Switchboard operator, classes
Mechanics (automotive)
A, B, and C
A and B
Painter
Cleiks, order
Tabulating-machine operators,
Pipefitter
Cleiks, payroll
class B
Tool and die maker
Comptometer operators
Typists, classes A and B
Keypunch operators, classes
Unskilled plant (men):
A and B
Industrial nurses (men and women):
Janitor, porter, and cleaner
Nurses, industrial (registered)
Office boys and girls
Laborer, material handling




T h e u s e o f c o n s t a n t e m p l o y m e n t w e i g h t s e l i m i n a t e s the e f f e c t
o f c h a n g e s in th e p r o p o r t i o n o f w o r k e r s r e p r e s e n t e d in e a c h j o b i n ­
c l u d e d in the d a ta .
The p e r c e n t a g e s o f ch an ge r e f le c t on ly ch a n ges
in a v e r a g e p a y f o r s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r s .
T h e y a r e not i n f l u e n c e d b y
c h a n g e s in s t a n d a r d w o r k s c h e d u l e s , a s s u c h , o r b y p r e m i u m pay
for overtim e.
W h e r e n e c e s s a r y , data w e r e a d j u s t e d to r e m o v e f r o m
the i n d e x e s a n d p e r c e n t a g e s o f c h a n g e a n y s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t c a u s e d
b y c h a n g e s in the s c o p e o f the s u r v e y .

5

6

T a b l e 2.

I n d e x e s o f S t a n d a r d W e e k l y S a l a r i e s and S t r a i g h t - T i m e H o u r l y E a r n i n g s f o r S e l e c t e d O c c u p a t i o n a l G r o u p s
in C h a r l e s t o n , W. V a . , A p r i l 1970 and A p r i l 1969, and P e r c e n t s o f C h a n g e 1 f o r S e l e c t e d P e r i o d s
A ll in du stries

P e rio d

O ffice
clerical
( m e n and
w om en)

In du strial
nurses
( m e n and
women)

Skilled
m a in ten ance
trades
(men)

M anufacturing
U n skilled
p la n t
w orkers
(men)

O ffice
cle rica l
( m e n and
women)

In dustrial
nurses
( m e n and
women)

S k illed
m ain ten ance
trades
(men)

U n skilled
pla n t
w orkers
(men)

123.0
1 1 6 .4

115.0
108.1

107.1
107.3

140.2
1 1 4 .0

129.3
112.5

125.1
116.8

5.6
8 .4
7 .4
1.2
3.0
1.7
1.8
4.6
.9
4.4

6 .3
4.9
3.1
2.1
2 .6
1.8
2.5
2.5
.5
3.1

3—0.2
3.9
3.3
2 .3
3.0
4.5
2 .2
3.0
.7
1.4

I n d e x e s ( A p r i l 1 9 67= 100)
A p r i l 1970____________________________________
A p r i l 1969____________________________________

1 1 2 .0
107.6

123.0
116.1

1 1 5 .4
1 0 8 .6

101.3
1 0 3 .5

(2)
1 1 1 .0

I n d e x e s ( A p r i l 19 6 1= 1 0 0 )
A p r i l 1970____________________________________
A p r i l 1967. -------------- ------------ ---------

1 2 9 .4
115.6

141.7
115.2

130.7
113.3

114.1
1 12.6

( 2)
109.2

P e r ce n ts of change 1
A p ril
A pril
A pril
A p ril
A pril
A pril
A p ril
A pril
A pril
A pril

1969
1968
1967
1966
1965
1964
1963
1962
1961
1960

to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to

A p ril
A p ril
A p ril
A pril
A pril
A pril
A pril
A p ril
A p ril
A p ril

1 9 7 0 ---------------------------1969
-----------1 9 6 8 — ------------1 9 6 7 - — ---------1966 - - ------ —
1 9 6 5 — - ____________
1 9 6 4 ------ -------1 9 6 3 ---------- — - —
1 9 6 2 ---------------------------1 9 6 1 - -------------------------

4.1
3.3
4 .2
1.7
2 .2
1.2
2 .6
2.1
4.9
.3

6 .0
8.5
7 .0
1.7
3.0
2 .2
.4
4 .6
2.4
3.9

6.3
5.2
3.2
2 .0
2 .8
1.7
2 .6
2 .6
1.0
3.3

3—2 .2
1.6
1.9
1.4
.9
4 .0
3—.2
3.0
2.9
2 .2

( 2)
6 .3
4.4
1.0
3.3
.7
.4
1.9
1.7
1.6

1 U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e i n d i c a t e d , a ll c h a n g e s a r e i n c r e a s e s .
2 D a ta d o n o t m e e t p u b l i c a t i o n c r i t e r i a .
3 T h i s d e c l i n e l a r g e l y r e f l e c t s s h i f t s in e m p l o y m e n t b e t w e e n h i g h - and l o w - w a g e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s r a t h e r th an w a g e d e c r e a s e s .




NOTE:
P r e v i o u s l y p u b l i s h e d i n d e x e s f o r the C h a r l e s t o n a r e a u s e d A p r i l 1961 as the b a s e p e r i o d .
T h e y c a n b e c o n v e r t e d to the n e w b a s e p e r i o d b y d i v i d i n g t h e m b y the c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n d e x n u m b e r s f o r
A p r i l 1967 o n the A p r i l 1961 b a s e p e r i o d as s h o w n in the t a b l e .
( T h e r e s u l t s h o u l d b e m u l t i p l i e d b y 100.)

7

A.
Table A-l.

Occupational Earnings

Office Occupations—Men and Women

(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e w e e k ly h ou rs and ea rn in g s fo r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u str y d i v is i o n , C h a r le s t o n , W . V a . , A p r il 1970)
Weekly earnings1

N u m b er o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a ig h t - t im e w ee k ly ea rn in g s o f—

t

Average

t

S

(standard)

M ean2

Middle range 2

$
$
132.50 130.50

U n der
55
A
and
55
u n d er

60

__________ 60

S ex , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s tr y d iv is i

65

BILLERS, MACHINE (BILLING
MACHINE) ----------------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------

23
22

38.5
38.5

79.50
78.00

71.50
71.00

66.0 0-11 0.0 0
6 6 .0 0 - 95.00

2
2

_

BILLERS, MACHINE (BOOKKEEPING
MACHINE) ----------------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------

21
21

40.0
40.0

77.50
77.50

78.50
78.50

7 0 .5 07 0.5 0-

_

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE o p e r a t o r s ,
CLASS B ------------------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------

48
39

40.0
40.0

85.00
82.00

86.00
76.50

6 8 .0 0-10 0.5 0
6 7 .0 0 - 99.00

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS A -------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------PUBLIC UT I L IT I E S 3---------------------------

45
39
20

4 0.0
40.0
40.0

118.00
110.00
115.50

115.00
112.50
116.00

99.0 0-13 4.0 0
95.0 0-13 1.0 0
1 00 .50 -1 32 .00

-

-

*

-

139
18
121
31

39.5
39.5
39.5
40.0

85.00
112.00
81.00
101.50

79.00
114.00
76.00
109.00

6 8 .0 0-10 0.0 0
93.0 0-12 8.0 0
6 6 .5 0 - 92.50
85.0 0-11 5.0 0

2
2
_

PAYROLL ----------------------------------------

23

39.5

117.00

110.00

92.5 0-14 5.0 0

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS A -------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------

20
19

40.0
40.0

122.50
124.00

124.00
125.00

1 10 .50 -1 33 .00
1 11 .50 -1 33 .50

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS B -------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L IT I E S 3---------------------------

91
72
55

39.0
39.0
38.5

84.00
82.00
83.50

81.00
79.00
79.50

SECRETARIES4------------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------- --------------

264
148

39.5
39.5

135.50
127.00

SECRETARIES, CLASS B ------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S 3---------------------------

42
40
20

39.5
39.0
39.0

SECRETARIES, CLASS C ------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------- ---------------------

78
48
30

SECRETARIES, CLASS 0 ------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------

CLASS A --------------

*
70

$
75

t

*
80

90

85

(
95

(
100

(
105

t
110
-

70

75

80

85

90

t

A

-

-

95

130 1 AO

S

t

t

t

140

150

160

170

180

190

-

120 130

-

—

-

-

and

150

160

170

180

190

over

4

3

100

105

110

120

5

40.0

ACCOUNTING,

65

$
$
121 .00 -1 46 .00

56

CLERKS,

$

1

3

3

16

10

8

_
~

i
“

4
4

1
1

-

“

”

_
“

t

i
i

-

-

3

W
OMEN

84.00
84.00

3
3

5
5

6
6

~

_

i
i

3
3

1
1

4
4

3
3

_

_

~

-

6
6

11
11

2
2

_
-

-

“

“

-

6
6

_

2
2

_

4
3

1
1

2
2

5
2

5
4

6
4

4
2

i
i

1
1

_

1
1
*

2
2

2
2
1

3
3

2
2
2

2
2
2

5
5
2

_
“

8
8
5

3
3
3

9
9
3

3
2
2

18
18
4

15
3
12
“

11

12
3
9
3

3

2
-

13
*
9
8

8
3
5
5

_

-

11
2

6
6
i

*

2
1
1
1

8

17
17

13
13
2

-

-

-

-

3

1

-

i

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

90.00
85.00
87.00

-

-

-

-

~

_
-

-

-

11
11
4

32
32
27

138.50
131.50

1 21 .00-155.50
1 0 7 .00 -1 45 .50

_

-

-

-

-

“

i
i

127.50
128.50
149.00

132.50
133.00
156.00

104 .50 -1 56 .00
103 .00 -1 56 .50
1 36 .00 -1 60 .00

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

i
i

40.0
40.0
40.0

146.50
161.00
123.00

155.50
162.50
131.00

1 34 .50 -1 67 .50
154 .00 -1 72 .00
98.0 0-14 6.0 0

-

88
17
71

39.5
39.5
39.5

127.50
136.00
125-50

132.00
139.00
130-00

1 15 .50 -1 43 .00
1 17 .50 -1 67 .00
1 15 .00-141.50

-

STENOGRAPHERS, GENERAL ------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING — ---------------------------

129
45
84

40.0
40.0
39.5

101.50
107.00
98.50

97.00
97.00
97.50

89.0 0-11 3.0 0
91.0 0-13 2.0 0
87.5 0-11 1.0 0

STENOGRAPHERS, SENIOR --------------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------

78
70

40.0
40.0

119.50
121.00

116.00
117.50

1 01 .50 -1 38 .00
1 02 .00-143.00

CLERKS,

ACCOUNTING,

MANUFACTURING

CLASS B --------------

----------------------------------------------------

NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 3--------------------------CLERKS,

S e e fo o tn o te s at end o f ta b le .




7 7 .0 0 7 6 .0 0 7 7 .0 0 -

8

1
1

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

~

*
-

-

-

3

1

1

1

2

*

3

-

-

_

1

-

i
i

3
3

4
4

5
5

3
3

3
3

-

-

_
-

_

-

13
12
9

13
7
5

7
2
2

7
3
3

2
1
1

3
1
1

2
2
2

1
1
1

-

_
-

_
-

_

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

2
2

9
7

7
6

5
5

8
8

9
7

5
3

17
11

30
19

46
26

39
26

44
19

21
3

15
4

-

6
6

_

2
2

_

2
2
1

1

3
2

3
3
3

8

-

8
2

2
2
1

10
10
9

2
2
2

2
2
2

6

1

2

2

3

4

9

22

10

i

3

17

9

10
10

1

2

1
1

2

6

1

3

6

5

i

-

14

21

17
1
16

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

-

-

2

2

5

l

8

2

1

i

-

-

1

2

2

2

4

1

8

4

7

15

2

8

25
9

12
9

14

-

5

7

16

3

12

6

_

_

_

13
11

6

-

2
2

11

-

9

5

2
2

-

2

-

7

-

-

“

2

*

7

4

-

1
1

_

2

*

3

-

-

-

2
“

1

-

_

1
-

i

-

-

_

*

2

*

-

-

2
i

-

-

_
“

“

_

-

~

3

4

-

-

7
2
5
4

■

-

_
~

3

3

2

6
-

-

-

2
2
-

-

6

14

15

12

7

12

1
11

2

5

6
6

14
11

7
7

6
6

-

*

4

5

-

5

4

-

*

2
1

-

-

-

-

*

“

4
4

1

1

-

“

2

-

4

-

4
4

2

-

*

-

8
8

10
10

_

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

*

*

8
Table A-l.

Office Occupations—Men and Women----Continued

(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e w e e k ly h ou rs and ea rn in g s fo r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a re a b a s is
b y in d u str y d iv is io n , C h a r le s t o n , W . V a . , A p r il 1970)
Weekly ea rn in g^ ^ ^ ^
( standard)

S ex , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s tr y d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

N u m b er o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a ig h t - t im e w e e k ly e a rn in g s o f—

$

Average
weekly
(standard)

M ean 2

Median 2

Middle range 2

5
5

Unde r
S
and
55
u n d er

S

60

t

65

$

70

-

75

$

80

$

85

*

90

s
95

t

100

«

105

$

t

no

$

%

120

130

140

t

t
150

t
160

170

$

%

65

70

75

14
14

3
3

9
9

5
1

1
1

_

1

“

4
4

_

_

_

-

-

-

17
1
16

_
-

8
1
7

80

85

90

95

-

1
1

2
2

_

2

105

no

120

130

4
4

100

“

140

150

160

170

180

180

190

~

-

60

WOMEN

*

and

190 o v e r

CO NTI NU ED

S W I T C H B O A R D O P E R A T O R S , C L A S S B ---------N O N M A N l J F A C T U R I N G ----------------------------------------

40
35

39.0
39.0

$
72.00
70.00

$
66.50
65.00

$
5 8.5 05 8.0 0-

$
74.00
70.00

swit chb oa rd op e r a t o r - r e c e p t i o n i s t s N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----------------------------------------

28
21

40.0
40.0

82.50
81.00

80.50
80.00

7 6.0 07 2.5 0-

93.00
84.50

-

T Y P I S T S , C L A S S A -----------------------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -------------------------------------------------

28
23

39.5
40.0

111.00
115.00

116.00
121.50

94.0 0-12 6.5 0
1 05 .00 -1 27 .00

-

T Y P I S T S , C L A S S B ------------------------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----------------------------------------

75
25
50

39.5
40.0
39.0

80.00
87.00
76.50

79.00
87.00
76.00

71.0 082.5064.0 0-

88.00
92.50
80.50

1
1

-

8
6

6
6

“

3
1

2
-

i
-

2
2

3

-

3

*

17

9
5

4

4

10
9
1

4

2

15

3
1

2
2

2
2

-

-

“

1
1
2
2

1
~
-

*

1
1

3
1

4
4

12
12

-

-

~

-

*

4

-

“

-

2
2

-

~
_

”
-

-

“
-

“

~

1 S ta n da rd h o u r s r e f l e c t the w o rk w e e k fo r w h ich e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv e t h e ir r e g u la r s t r a ig h t - t im e s a la r i e s (e x c lu s iv e o f pay fo r o v e r t im e at r e g u la r a n d /o r p r e m iu m r a t e s ) , and the e a rn in g s c o r r e s p o n d
to t h e s e w e e k ly h ou rs
2 T h e m e a n is c o m p u te d fo r e a ch jo b b y to ta lin g the e a rn in g s o f a ll w o r k e r s and d iv id in g by the n u m b er o f w o r k e r s .
T h e m e d ia n d e s ig n a t e s p o s it io n — h a lf o f the e m p lo y e e s s u r v e y e d r e c e iv e m o r e
than the ra te show n; h a lf r e c e iv e le s s than the ra te sh ow n .
T h e m id d le ra n g e is d e fin e d b y 2 ra te s o f p a y ; a fou rth o f the w o r k e r s e a rn le s s than the lo w e r o f t h e s e ra te s and a fo u r th e a rn m o r e than
the h ig h e r ra te .
3 T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .
4 M ay in c lu d e w o r k e r s o t h e r than t h o s e p r e s e n t e d s e p a r a t e ly .

Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations—Men and Women
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e w e e k ly h ou rs and e a rn in g s fo r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u str y d i v is i o n , C h a r le s t o n , W . V a . , A p r il 1970)

1 S ta n d a rd h o u r s r e f le c t the w o rk w e e k fo r w h ich e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv e t h e ir r e g u la r s t r a ig h t - t im e s a la r ie s (e x c l u s i v e o f pay f o r o v e r t im e at r e g u la r a n d /o r p r e m iu m r a t e s ) , and the ea rn in gs
c o r r e s p o n d to th e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .
2 F o r d e fin it io n o f t e r m s , s e e fo o tn o te 2, ta b le A - l .




Table A -3.

Office, Professional, and Technical Occupations—M en and W o m e n Combined

(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Charleston, W. Va., April 1970)
Average
Number
of
woikers

Weekly
Weekly
hours 1 earnings 1
(standard) (standard)

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS
BILLERS. MACHINE (BILLING
MACHINE) -------------------------------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------

26
25

38.5
39.0

$
78.00
76.50

BILLERS, MACHINE (BOOKKEEPING
MACHINE) -------------------------------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

21
21

40.0
40.0

77.50
77.50

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATORS,
CLASS B ----------------------------------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

48
39

4 0.0
4 0.0

85.00
82.00

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS A -------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S 2---------------------------

101
87
60

40.0
4 0.0
4 0.0

126.00
120.50
128.00

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS B -----------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L IT I E S 2-----------------------------------

154
24
130
40

39.5
40.0
39.5
40.0

89.00
120.00
83.50
104.00

CLERKS, PAYROLL --------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------------------

36
24

39.5
4 0.0

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS A -----------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------------------

23
22

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS B

91
72
55

-----------------n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S 2-----------------------------------

Average

Average

O cc u pa t io n and ind ust ry di v is i on

-

Number
of

Weekly
hours 1
(standard]

Weekly
earnings 1
(standard)

O c c u p a t i o n and i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n

O F F IC E

CONTINUED
23

39.0

OCCUPATIONS

-

Number
of

Weekly
hours 1
(standard)

Weekly
earnings 1
(standard)

CONTINUED

S W I T C H B O A R D O P E R A T O R S , C L A S S B ----------N 0 N ) J A N U F A C T U R I NG --------------------------------------------

40
35

3 9 .0
3 9 .0

$
7 2 .0 0
7 0 .0 0

135.50
127.00

S W I TC H B OARD O P E R A T O R - R E C E P T I O N I S T S N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------------------------------

28
21

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

8 2 .5 0
8 1 .0 0

127.50
128.50
149.00

T Y P I S T S , C L A S S A ---------------------------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------------------------------------

28
23

3 9 .5
4 0 .0

111.00

T Y P I S T S , C L A S S B ----------------------------------------------------M A N U F A C T U R I N G ----------------------------------------------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G --------------------------------------------

75
25
50

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .0

8 0 .0 0
8 7 .0 0
7 6 .5 0

OFFICE BOYS AND GIRLS -------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING:
PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S 2- --------------------------------

17

38.5

81.50

SECRETARIES3--------------------------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------

268
148

39.5
39.5

SECRETARIES, CLASS B ------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S 2---------------------------

42
40
20

39.5
39.0
39.0

o
o

O cc u p a t io n and ind ust ry di v is i o n

SECRETARIES, CLASS C ------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------

78
48
30

4 0.0
40.0
4 0.0

146.50
161.00
123.00

SECRETARIES, CLASS D -------------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------

92
21
71

39.5
40.0
39.5

128.00
135.50
125.50

127.00
139.50

STENOGRAPHERS, GENERAL -------------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S 2-----------------------------------

131
45
86
60

4 0.0
4 0.0
39.5
39.5

102.00
107.00
99.50
104.00

40.0
40.0

125.00
126.50

STENOGRAPHERS, SENIOR ----------------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------------------

78
70

4 0.0
4 0.0

119.50
121.00

39.0
39.0
38.5

84.00
82.00
83.50

11 5.0 0

PROFESS I O N A L ANO TECHNICAL
OCCUPATIONS

COM PUTE R

OPERATORS,

B --------------------

23

3 9 .5

1 3 1.50

C L A S S C ---------------------------------------------------------------

26
15

3 9 .5
3 9 .0

105.00
8 8 .5 0

C ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

33
30

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

13 2.0 0
1 3 2.00

N U R S E S , I N D U S T R I A L ( R E G I S T E R E D ) -------M A N U F A C T U R I N G -----------------------------------------------------

37
33

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

14 9.5 0
1 5 0.0 0

COM PUTE R O P E R A T O R S ,
NONMANUFACTURING
DRAFTSMEN, CLASS
MANUFACTURING

CLASS

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries (exclusive of pay for overtime at regular and/or premium rates), and the earnings
correspond to these weekly hours.
2 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
3 May include workers other than those presented separately.




1
0
Table A - 4 .

Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations

(Average straight-time hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Charleston, W. Va. , April 1970)
Hourly earnings

t
S
$
t
>
Under2' 60 2*70 2 . 8 0 2 . 9 0 3 . 0 0 3 . 1 0 3 . 2 0 3 . 3 0 3 . 4 0 3 . 5 0 3 . 6 0 3 . 7 0 3 . 8 0 3 . 9 0 4 . 0 0 4 . 1 0 4 . 2 0 4 . 3 0 4 . 4 0 4 . 5 0
$

Occupation and industry division

Number of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings of—
$
t
t
S
s
S
$
*
$
«
%

1

Number
of
M ean 2

Median 2

$

S

S

2 .8 0

2 .9 0

3 .0 0

Middle range 2

2.6 0

2 .7 0

CARPENTERS, MAINTENANCE ----------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------

126
125

$
4 .2 4
4 .2 4

$
4 .4 1
4 .4 1

$
4 .1 4 4 .1 4 -

278
275

4 .2 5
4 .2 6

4 .2 8
4.2 9

4 .1 5 4 .1 5 -

4 .4 5
4.4 5

ENGINEERS, STATIONARY --------------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------

178
164

4.1 5
4.2 1

4 .1 7
4 .1 8

4 .1 2 4 .1 3 -

4.4 3
4.4 3

MACHINISTS, MAINTENANCE ----------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------

148
130

4.1 5
4.1 6

4 .1 6
4.1 6

4 .1 1 4 .1 1 -

177
39
138
131

3 .9 4
3 .6 5
4.0 3
4 .0 4

4.1 8
4.0 9
4.2 2
4.2 3

3 .9 5 3 .1 7 4 .1 1 4 .1 2 -

4 .3 1
4.1 7
4.3 2
4.3 2

MECHANICS, MAINTENANCE ------------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------

369
368

4.2 4
4 .2 4

4.1 9
4.1 9

4 .1 4 4 .1 4 -

4.4 4
4.4 4

MILLWRIGHTS ------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------

170
170

4.2 2
4.2 2

4.1 8
4.1 8

4 .1 4 4 .1 4 -

4.4 3
4 .4 3

PAINTERS, MAINTENANCE ---------------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------

93
91

4 .2 3
4.2 8

4.4 2
4.4 2

4 .1 5 4 .1 6 -

4.4 6
4.4 6

PIPEFITTERS, MAINTENANCE --------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------

510
510

4.2 5
4 .2 5

4.4 1
4 .4 1

4 .1 4 4 .1 4 -

4.4 5
4 .4 5

SHEET-METAL WORKERS, MAINTENANCE —
MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------

46
46

4.2 8
4.2 8

4 .4 1
4 .4 1

4 .1 5 4 .1 5 -

4.4 6
4 .4 6

3 .2 0

3.3 0

3.5 0

3 .6 0

3 .7 0

3.8 0

i

i
i

-

-

*

-

i

3.4 0

-

-

4.3 0
4.3 9

MECHANICS, AUTOMOTIVE
(MAINTENANCE) ------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------PUBLIC UT I L IT I E S 3 ---------------------------

3 .1 0

$
4.4 5
4.4 5

ELECTRICIANS, MAINTENANCE ------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------

and

under

i

-

-

_

_

4

_

1

_

-

4
4
5

i

-

i
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

“

-

“

i
-

-

4
4

-

i

-

25
3
22
22
1
1

*

_
i
i

-

1
1

_
“

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

_

_

_
_

_

-

-

-

“

-

_

_
“

4.2 0

10
10

1
1

3
3

44
44

6
6

20
20

_
12
12

2
2

-

_

_

-

_

4

4

_

_

-

-

_

“

5
5

4
2
2
2

46
14
32
29

33

-

42

33
32

42
42

11
11

199
198

6
6

1
1

1
1

23
23

11
11

4
4

185
1 85

-

i

21
21

1
1

-

_

-

33
33

_

_

ii

-

*

-

72
70

_

_

_

1
l

-

“

*

10
10

-

-

-

-

4
4

-

-

-

90
90

5
-

_

4.4 0

24
23

_
-

6

4 .3 0

92
92

_
-

*

“

-

1

-

1
1

-

“

_

1
1

14
5

4 .1 0

“

i
i

-

_

-

4 .0 0

6

_

7
7

-

_
“

3
3

-

2

1 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
2 For definition of term s, see footnote 2, table A - l.
3 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.




_

3.9 0

5
3

_

i

1 04
104

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

_

-

_
-

_

4.5 0

66
66
1 33
133

over

1
1

_

59
59

-

29
29

2
2

5

5

156
156
60
60
59
59
272
27 2
24
24

_
-

_
_
_

11
Table A -5.

Custodial and Material M ovement Occupations

(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly e a rn in g s fo r s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ied on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u str y d iv is io n , C h a rle s to n , W. V a . , A p r il 1970)

Number of workers rec eiving straight-time hourly earnings

H
ourly earnings 2
t
1 .AO 1 . 5 0

i

»

1 .6 0

$
1.7 0

1.8 0

1 90

1.6 0

1.70

1 .8 0

1 .9 0

2

~

-

*

Occupation1 and industry division

of
woikeis

Mean 3

Median 3

$
ith

1. U ■

----------------------------------------

50

1 UK 1 Pi o

$

$

3 .A 5
*

3.8 3
#

$

3 .3 A -

2.01

1.68

2 .9 3

3 .2 2

1 .6 3 2 .5 5 -

2.68

2 .7 9

2.22
2 .5 A
1.9 6

2.1 8
2 .6 A
1.76

55

3.3 8

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERKS ----------

23

TRUCKDRIVERS5 --------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------

519

JANITORS, PORTERS, AND CLEANERS ------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING:
PUBLIC U TI LIT IE S4 ---------------------------

556

A3

LABORERS, MATERIAL HANDLING -------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------

83
37
46

RECEIVING CLERKS --------------------------------------

TRUCKDRIVERS, LIGHT (UNDER
1 - 1 / 2 TONS) ------------------------------------------

TRUCKDRIVERS, MEDIUM ( 1 - 1 / 2 TO
AND INCLUDING A TONS) --------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------TRUCKDRIVERS,

220
299
171

2

2 .2 5 -

3 .1 A

-

1 .7 3 2 .1 9 1 .6 7 -

2.6 6
2 .7 0
2.3 3

_
-

3 .7 A

3 .4 9 -

3 .7 7

3.3 1

3 .2 9

2 .5 9 -

A . 15

3 .A 5
3.3 9
3 .4 9
A . 19

3 .6 5
3.5 5
A. 12
A . 21

3 .0 3 3 .0 7 2 .3 8 -

.1

A . 15
3.6 6
A . 22
*• 6
T

3
3

1.8 9

1 .7 9

1 .6 3 I. U

1 .9 5
L. H

1

2 .0 5 2 .0 3 -

3.7 0
3 .9 1

69
59

2.7 2
2.6 3

A*

2 .A2
2 .3 2

2 .8 0

$
3 .0 0

3 .2 0

2 .3 0

2 . AO

2 .5 0

2.6 0

2.7 0

2.8 0

3 .0 0

3.2 0

3 . A0 3 . 6 0

3.8 0

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

29

-

-

-

6

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

i

$

2

-

00 2.10 2.20

-

-

-

1

-

1A

A . 00 A . 20

4.40 4.60

irt

34
-

1.86

$
2.7 0

->

2 .3 8
3 .2 7

36
3A

S

$
2.6 0

t

$
4 .0 0

4.40

2 .5 0

$

$
3.8 0

$

2. A0

*

$
(
3 . A0 3 . 6 0

A . 20

2 .3 0

$

$

5
-

301
3

_
-

17

16

-

-

-

-

-

28

9
3

1A
5

1
12

4
4

_
-

1

i

6

-

~

8

1

1

1
13

22
1
21

8
8

1

9

-

1
1

-

8

12

10
6

8

2

4

3

-

9

_
-

4

_
-

9
-

1

1

13

10

2

-

4
3

1

1

32

-

12

75
75

2

1

20

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

4
3

3
3
“

_
“

_
-

_
-

_
“

_
-

_
-

1

1

39

-

-

2

-

2

2

3
i

1

6

-

-

12

6

6

6

b

0

8
1

-

5
5

-

17
17
-

"

1

4
4

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

2
1
1

5
-

2

5

-

-

4

-

2

-

-

3

18

_
-

3
3

5
5

5
5

5
3

21
21

6
6

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

17

2
2

2

-

-

7
7
-

-

-

-

1
27
27
-

-

3

-

-

63
5A
9

57
49

66

65

8

35
31

64

-

-

-

17
17

13
7

5
1
2
2

-

i
i

6
6

-

-

1
1
16
16

1

3

3

20

b

3

-

1

1

-

97
97

1
1

-

V*
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5

-

-

3
3

5
5

5
5

5

2

-

-

-

-

-

8

-

-

-

-

-

-

i

-

HEAVY (OVER A TONS,

TRUCKDRIVERS,

121

3.92

•

$

2.00 2.10 2.20

and
under

Middle range 3

1 .5 C

GUARDS AND WATCHMEN

$

HEAVY (OVER A TONS,

*

2*

*

*

1
2
3
4
5

47
40

2 .8 9
3 .0 9

3 .0 4
3 .0 8

2 .A 32.A 7-

3 .7 2
3.7 3

_

_

_

7

D ata lim it e d to m en w o r k e r s .
E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m pay fo r o v e r t im e and f o r w o rk on w eek en d s, h o lid a y s , and late sh ifts .
F o r d e fin it io n o f t e r m s , see fo o tn o te 2, ta b le A - l .
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , co m m u n ica tio n , and o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .
In clu d e s a ll d r iv e r s , a s d e fin e d , r e g a r d le s s o f s iz e and type o f tr u c k o p e r a te d .




ru

0

*
TRUCKERS, POWER (FORKLIFT) -------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------

_

_

-

-

2
2

-

12
12

_

-

-

-

8
8

-

5
5

13
13

-

12
B. Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Table B-l. Minimum Entrance Salaries for Women Office Workers
(Distribution of establishments studied in all industries and in industry divisions by minimum entrance salary for selected categories
of inexperienced women office w ork ers, Charleston, W. Va., A pril 1970)
Inexperienced typists
Manufacturing
Minimum weekly straight-tim e s a la ry 1

Based on standard weekly hours 3 of---

All
industries

All
schedules

Establishments studied__

__

Establishments having a specified minimum__
Under $ 55.00
$ 55.00 and under
$ 57.50 and under
$60.00 and under
$62.50 and under
$ 65.00 and under
$67.50 and under
$70.00 and under
$ 72.50 and under
$75.00 and under
$ 77.50 and under
$80.00 and under
$82.50 and under
$85.00 and under

_ _ _
$ 57.50------------------------------------------------$60.00
$62.50
$65.00__
$ 67.50 —
—
$70.00 _
$72.50
$75.00
$77.50
_
_ __
_
___
$80.00
- _ _
_____ ___ ___
$82.50
$85.00
$87.50
-

Establishments having no specified minimum
Establishm ents which did not em ploy w orkers
in this category_
_

Other inexperienced cle rica l workers 2
Nonmanufacturing

40

Manufacturing
All
industries

All
schedules

40

All
schedules

40

All
schedule s

40

65

20

XXX

45

XXX

65

20

XXX

45

XXX

13

7

7

6

4

25

7

6

18

11

_
1
3

_
2
-

_
_
2
1
1
_
3

.
_
1
1
_
1

-

_
_
1
1
1
_
1
1

1
1
2
8
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
4

_
1
_
_
3

1
-

1
1
2
1
3
8
44

1

1
3

-

1

_
-

-

1
_
-

_
_
1
2
.

_
_
_
2

_

_
_

_

-

_
_
1
_
_
3

1
1
_
1
6
2
1
1

_
_
6
1
1

1

_

1
1
1
_
1

1
_
_

1

1

-

XXX

8

XXX

10

-

XXX

10

XXX

13

XXX

31

XXX

30

13

XXX

17

XXX

These salaries relate to form ally established minimum starting (hiring) regular straight-tim e salaries that are paid for standard workweeks.
Excludes w orkers in subcle^i^al jobs such as m essenger or office girl.
Data are presented for ail standard workweeks com bined, and for the m ost com m on standard workweek reported.




Nonmanufacturing

Based on standard veekly hours 3 of---




Table B-2. Shift Differentials
(L a te-sh ift pay p rovisions fo r manufacturing plant w orkers by type and amount of pay differen tial,
C harleston, W. V a., A pril 1970)
(A ll plant w ork ers in m anufacturing ■ 100 percent)
P ercen t of m anufacturing plant w ork ers—
L a te-sh ift pay provision

In establishm ents having p rovisions 1
fo r late shift

A ctually working on late shifts

Second shift

Third o r other
shift

Second shift

Third o r other
shift

Total--------------------------------------------------------------

97.8

90.7

11.3

7.4

No pay d ifferential for work on late sh ift---------

1.4

0.2

-

Pay differential for work on late sh ift--------------

96.4

90.7

11.1

7.4

93.5

90.0

10.0

7.4

3.5
.8
6.3
8.6
3.2
.8
15.0
17.1
38.2
-

.8

.2

_

Type and amount of d ifferential:
Uniform cents (per h o u r)________________
______________ ___
5 c e n ts __________
7 c e n ts _____________________
- ---- -- _
8 c e n ts __________________
__________
9 c e n ts _____________ — - -----------------10 cents________________________________
12 cen ts------------------------------------------------14 cen ts_______________________ _______
15 cen ts----------------------------------------16 cen ts------------------ ---------------- — —
17 cen ts______________
_________
18 cen ts------------------------------------------------20 cents __ _ _
___ -------- ------------ ------22 cen ts____ _ ------------ --------25 cen ts________________________________
Other form a l pay d ifferential------- ---------

-

2.9

-

1.0
14.7
1.4
.8
16.0
6.9
48.4
.7

1
Includes all plant w orkers in establishm ents cu rren tly operating, or
even though the establishm ents w ere not cu rren tly operating late shifts.

.1
.7
1.1
.5
.1
1.6
1.6
4.1
-

_
-

-

.6
.1
.1
1.6
.9
4.0

1.1

"

-

having form a l

p rovisions coverin g

late shifts,

14

Table B-3. Scheduled Weekly Hours
(Percent distribution of plant and office w orkers in all industries and in industry divisions by scheduled weekly hours 1
of firs t-s h ift w ork ers, Charleston, W. Va., A pril 1970)
Plant workers

Office workers

Weekly hours
All industries 2

All w orkers— ------------------

— --------------

Under 371 hours
/
3 7Vz hours — — — — — — — — — —
Over 3 7 V2 and under 40 h o u r s - _
—
40 h o u rs_________ __ _____________ __ ___________
Over 40 and under 45 hours_______ —
----------------45 hours — ——
—— — — — —
— _—— — —— —
Over 45 and under 48 hours__
48 h ou rs—
_______ _______ _______ _____________
50 h ou rs---------------------------------------------—--------------

100

4
2
4

82
2
3
(5)
2
1

Manufacturing

100

3
96
(5)
1
-

Public utilities 3

100

-

90
10
-

All industries 4

Manufacturing

100

100

100

2
98

44
55
1
-

2
17
1
78
(5)
1
1
(5)

-

-

___________________________
1
2
3
4
5

Scheduled hours are the weekly hours which a m ajority of the full-tim e w orkers were expected to work, whether they were paid for at straight-tim e or overtim e rates.
Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and se rv ice s , in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Transportation, com m unication, and other public utilities.
Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and se rv ice s , in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Less than 0.5 percent.




Public utilities3

15

Table B-4.

Paid Holidays

(Percent distribution of plant and office workers in all industries and in industry divisions by number of paid holidays
provided annually, Charleston, W. V a., A pril 1970)
Office workers

Plant workers
Item
All industries 3

Manufacturing

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

11
8
10
71
-

2
60
10
29

n
(4)
(4)
23
3
(4)
18
3
42
10

_
7
2
3

_
5
6
51

-

-

88
-

4
34

All industries 1

A ll w orkers-

— -

W orkers in establishm ents providing
paid holidays ..
W orkers in establishments providing
no paid holidays
—
-

Manufacturing

100

100

95
5

2
2
1
23
6
1
16
1
40
4

4
44
45
61
62
68
90
91
93
94
95

71
71
81
81
89
100
100
100
100
100

Public utilities 2

Public utilitie s 2

Number of davs
Less than 4 holidays
—
—
4 h olid a ys_________________________________— ___
5 h olid a ys__________________________ — -------------6 holidays
------------ — _
—
7 holidays —
7 holidays plus 1 half day
8 holidays — — __
_
- — 8 holidays plus 1 half day
9 holidays __
. . .
10 holidays---------------------------------------------------------Total holiday time
10 d ays.. ------. . . .
__
_ — ~ ___
9 days or m o r e ___ - __ __
8V2 days or m o r e ---- — -------—
— __
8 days or m o r e __
7 V2 days or *-n*• e — ---------- — .----- ----- ----*
>•
—
7 days or m o r e __
4 days or m ore
3 days or m o r e -------------------------------------------------1 day or m ore-

1
2
3
4

_

29
39
39
98
98
100
100
100
100
100
100

10
53
55
73
74
76
99
99
99
99
100

_
88
88
91
91
93
100
100
100
100
100

Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and se rv ice s , in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and se rv ice s , in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Less than 0.5 percent.




34
38
38
89
89
95
100
100
100
100
100

16

Table B-5.

Paid Vacations1

(P ercent distribution of plant and office w orkers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, Charleston, W. V a., A pril 1970)
Plant workers
Vacation p olicy

All w orkers

--------

--- -

All industries 2

—

- —

Manufacturing

Office workers
Public utilities3

All industries4

Manufacturing

Public utilities3

100

100

100

100

100

100

100
95
5
-

100
90
10
-

100
100
-

100
100
-

100
100
-

100
100
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

15
1
-

14
*

_
-

49
3
(6)

86
3
-

_
1

51
3
46

31
69

78
22
-

42
58

4
96

96
4

28
4
67
(6)

22
2
76
-

1
22
77
-

8
92
-

98
-

18
1
77
3
-

14
2
84
-

-

18
1
77
3
-

14
2
84

Method of payment
W orkers in establishm ents providing
paid vacations-------------------------------------------------L ength-of-tim e paym ent-------------------------- —
P ercentage payment—
_
O ther______________________________ —
_______
W orkers in establishm ents providing
no paid vacations--------------------------------------------Amount of vacation pav 5
A fter 6 months of service
1 weekOver 1 and under 2 w eek s-------------------------------2 w eeks-------------------------------------------------------------A fter 1 year of s ervice
week__________________________________________
Over 1 and under 2 w eek s-------------------------------2 w eek s-------------------------------------------------------------1

A fter 2 years of service
1 weekOver 1 and under 2 w eek s-------------------------------2 w eek s-------------------------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 w eek s--------------------------------

2
-

4
-

96
-

After 3 years of service
1 week_________________ — ----------------—--------------Over 1 and under 2 w eek s-------------------------------2 w eek s----------------------------------— -----------------------Over 2 and under 3 w eek s----------------------------------------------3 w e ek s------------------------------------------ —

78
22
-

2
98
(‘ )

99
1

100
-

2
98
(‘ )

99
1

100

-

-

A fter 4 years of service
1 weekOver 1 and under 2 w eek s-------------------------------2 w eek s-------------------------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 w eek s-------------------------------3 w e ek s--------------------------------------------------------------

-

78
22

-

-

-

After 5 years of s ervice
1 week---------------------------------------------------------------2 w eek s-------------------------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 w eek s-------------------------------3 w e ek s--------------- —---------- — ---- ------------------------

See footnotes at end of table.




8
52
3
37

_

-

36

78
22

-

64

(6)
58
1
40

-

-

16

100

-

84

-

17

---Table B-5. Paid Vacations1 Continued
(Percent distribution of plant and office workers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
p rovisions, Charleston, W. Va., A pril 1970)
Plant workers

Office workers

Vacation policy
All industries 2

Manufacturing

Public utilities3

_
14
-

_
5
73

All industries4

Manufacturing

Public u tilities3

Amount of vacation p a v 5— Continued
After 10 years of service

1 wee]c
Z w eek s------------------------------------------------------------Over Z and under 3 w eek s-------------------------------3 w eek s____________ _________ ________________
Over 3 and under 4 w eek s_____________________
4 w eek s-------------------------------------------------------------

8
20
(6)
34
3
35

22
64

22
-

(6)
14
46
39

_
5
-

_

1

83

99
-

_
5
-

_
-

12

100

_

_

12

After 1Z years of service

1 week
Z w eek s------------------------------------------------------------Over Z and under 3 w eeks_____________________
3 weeks -_______________________________________
Over 3 and under 4 w eek s_____________________
4 w eek s--------------------------------------------------------------

8
20
(6)
34
3
35

_
14
-

22
64

_
5
73

22

(6)
14
47
39

83

"

A fter 15 years of service

1 week-------------------------

---------- ---- ---- — —
Z w eek s__________________ _____ _ __ _
Over Z and under 3 w eek s-------------------------------3 w eek s______ -_______- _______
Over 3 and under 4 w eek s---------------- —
4 w eek s____ ______ _____ _____________________
Over 4 and under 5 w eek s_____________________
5 w eek s-------------------------------------------------------------

8

_

13
(6)
37
39
3
"

4
24
71

8
10

_

-

_
78
-

22

(‘ )

8

44

10

90

46

88

10

1

-

z
-

■

_

_
-

(6)

“

-

-

After Z0 years of service
week____
.... ______ _
Z w eek s____ _______ ___________________________
Over Z and under 3 w eeks-------------------------------3 w eek s_________________________________ _____
4 w eek s __ ____
Over 4 and under 5 w eek s-------------------------------5 w eek s____________________ —
--------------------------1

(‘ )

22
22

1

23

12

_
3
75

22

3
35

64

8
10

1

_
3

11

48

-

(6)
7
14
40
39

1
-

8
8

83

1
99
-

After Z5 years of service

1 week
Z w eek s_____ __________________________________
Over Z and under 3 w eek s-------------------------------3 w eek s------------------------------------------------------------Over 3 and under 4 weeks — --------------- ----- ------4 w eek s___ _______
____
_ _ _____
Over 4 and under 5 w eek s------- -

(6)
13
5
18
3
44

See footnotes at end of table.




_
7
9

-

_
-

(6)
7
-

-

11
1
25

2
2
6
-

55
-

88

44

-

22

1

73

27

55

1
-

1

18

---Table B-5. Paid Vacations1 Continued
(P ercent distribution of plant and office workers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
p rovisions, Charleston, W. V a., A pril 1970)
Plant workers

Office workers

Vacation p olicy
All industries 2

Manufacturing

Public u tilities3

_
i

_

All industries 4

Manufacturing

Public utilities3

Amount of vacation pay 5— Continued
A fter 30 years of service
week__________________________________________
2 w eek s-------------------------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 w eek s—
___ ___ _
3 weeks - — - ------------- - — — ------ Over 3 and under 4 w eek s-------------------------------4 w eek s______________________
__
Over 4 and under 5 w eek s-------------------------------5 weeks ____ --------------- ------r
__------------------- ,----- ,
6 w e ek s-------------------------------------------------------------\

8
10
(6)
11
5
16
3
23
25

-

-

3
9
15
26
46

3
17
22
58

_
1

_

_
i

-

-

-

-

11
1
15

2
2
7
15
73

i
_
20
79
-

(6)
7

-

32
34

_

Maximum vacation available
1 week_— -------------------------------- -------- --------2 w eek s-------------------------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 w eek s-------------------------------3 w e ek s —,-T
r
__
Over 3 and under 4 w eek s_____________________
4 w e ek s— ---- ----- —
- - ------- -------------Over 4 and under 5 w eek s_____________________
5 w e ek s_______ ____ __________________________

8
10
<‘ )
11
5
16
3
23
25

-

3
9
15
-

25
47

3
-

17
22
58

_

(‘ )
1

-

11
1
15
32
34

2
2
7
15
73

1 Includes basic plans only. Excludes plans such as vacation bonus, vacation-savin gs, and those plans which offer "extended" or "sabbatical" benefits
with qualifying lengths of service. Typical of such exclusions are plans in the steel, aluminum, and can industries.
2 Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and se rv ice s , in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
3 Transportation, com m unication, and other public utilities.
4 Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and s e rv ice s , in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
5 Includes payment other than "length of tim e ," such as percentage of annual earnings or flat-sum payments, converted to an equivalent time basis; for
of annual earnings^ was con sidered as 1 w eek's pay. P eriod s of s ervice were chosen arbitrarily and do not n ecessarily reflect the individual p rovisions for
changes in proportions indicated at 10 yea rs' serv ice include changes in provisions occurring between 5 and 10 years. Estimates are cumulative. Thus, the
pay or m ore after 10 years includes those eligible for 3 w eeks' pay or m ore after few er years of service.
6 Less than 0.5 percent.




-

1
-

20
-

79

beyond b asic plans to workers

exam ple, a payment of 2 percent
p rogression . F or example, the
proportion eligible for 3 weeks'

19

Table B-6. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
(P ercent of plant and office workers in all industries and in industry divisions em ployed in establishments providing
health, insurance, or pension benefits, Charleston, W. V a „ A pril 1970)
Plant workers
Type of benefit and
financing 1

All industries2

Manufacturing

Office workers
Public u tilities3

All w orkers------------------------------------------------

100

100

100

W orkers in establishm ents providing at
least 1 of the benefits shown below ---------------

99

100

91
39

100
39

56

52

Life in surance_____________________________
Noncontributory plans---------------------------Accidental death and dism em berm ent
insurance---------------------------------------------------Noncontributory plans__________________
Sickness and accident insurance or
sick leave or both 5_______________________

21

21

All industries 4

Manufacturing

Public utilities3

100

100

100

100

99

100

100

100

98
16

100

61

95
39

92
60

77
57

73

66

95
60

65

89

100

91

94

98

96

Sickness and accident insurance________
Noncontributory plans----------------------Sick leave (full pay and no
waiting period)_________________________
Sick leave (partial pay or
waiting period)— -----------------------------------

72
34

98
47

57
53

65
26

83
9

49
48

20

17

30

85

95

92

19

11

37

5

(6)

Hospitalization insurance---------------------------Noncontributory plans---------------------------Surgical insurance--------------------------------------Noncontributory plans---------------------------Medical insurance--------------------------------------Noncontributory plans---------------------------Major m edical insurance—-------------------------Noncontributory plans---------------------------Retirem ent pension-------------------------------------Noncontributory plans----------------------------

94
61
92
61
82
54
64
13
78
70

100

100

98
71
98
71
95
69
91
30

99
94
99
93
98
93
89

93

60

100

100

92
95
87
65

60
78
38
81
41
90

12

96
94

88

86
74

8

97
93

4

100
57

100
57
96
53

100
57
89

88

1 Estim ates listed after type of benefit are for all plans for which at least a part of the cost is borne by the em ployer. "Noncontributory plans" include only those plans financed
entirely by the em ployer. Excluded are legally required plans, such as workm en's com pensation, social security, and railroad retirem ent.
2 Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and se rv ice s , in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
3 Transportation, com m unication, and other public utilities.
4 Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and se rv ice s , in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
5 Unduplicated total of workers receiving sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately below. Sick leave plans are limited to those which definitely establish at
least the minimum number of days' pay that can be expected by each em ployee. Inform al sick leave allowances determ ined on an individual basis are excluded.
6 Less than 0.5 percent.




20

Table B-7.

Method of Wage Determination and Frequency of Payment

(P ercent distribution of plant and office w orkers in all industries and in industry divisions by method of wage determ ination1
and frequency of wage payment, Charleston, W. V a ., A pril 1970)
Plant workers

Office workers

Item
All industries 2

All w orkers-

---------------------------------------------

Manufacturing

Public utilities3

All industries4

Manufacturing

Public utilities3

100

100

100

100

100

100

92
73
46
27

93
89
60
29

100
100

100

100

84

100

1

92

64
36

-

93
5

92

88

15

18

36

18

2

47

9

10

-

45

80

7

1

-

4
7

-

19
16

10
8

-

-

-

34
7
-

Method of wage d eterm in ation1
Paid time rates--------------------------------------------------Form al rate p o lic y ---------------------------------------Single ra te -----------------------------------------------Range of ra te s -----------------------------------------P rog ression based on automatic
advancement according to
length of s e r v ic e --------------------- --------P rog ression based on m erit
review-----------------------------------------------P rog ression based on a
com bination of length of
service and m erit review___________
No form al rate p olicy-----------------------------------Paid by incentive m ethods--------------------------P iece rate-------------------------- ---------------------------Individual--------------------------------------------------Group--------------------------------------------------------Production bonus------------------------- -----------------Individual----- --------------------------------------------Group--------------------------------------------------------C om m ission ---------------------------------------------------

3
19

8
1
1

4

2
2

4

1
1

-

-

-

83

7
3
3
-

-

Method of determ ining incentive pay of office workers not presented

-

-

Frequency of wage payment
W eekly---------------------------------------------------------------Biweekly-------------------------------------------------------------Semimonthly____________________________________
Monthly--------------------------------------------------------------Other frequ en cy-------------------------------------------------

59
32

8
1

73

22
5

51
44
5
-

25
13
17
45

11
2

54

3
83

37

F or a d escription of the methods of wage determination, see Introduction.
Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and se rv ice s, in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Transportation, com m unication, and other public utilities.
Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and se rv ice s, in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Less than 0. 5 percent.




8
1

Appendix.

O ccupational D escriptions

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau's wage surveys is to assist its field staff in classifying into appropriate
occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and
from area to area. This permits the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content. Because of this emphasis on
interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bureau's job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in
individual establishments or those prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau's field economists are instructed
to exclude working supervisors; apprentices; learners; beginners; trainees; and handicapped, part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.

OFFICE

CLERK, FILE

BILLER, MACHINE
Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as to billings or shipping charges or perform other
clerical work incidental to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
classified by type of machine, as follows:
Biller, machine (billing machine). Uses a special billing machine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott
Fisher, Burroughs, etc., which are combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills
and invoices from customers' purchase orders, internally prepared orders, shipping memo­
randums, etc. Usually involves application of predetermined discounts and shipping charges,
and entry of necessary extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing machine,
and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine. The operation usually involves
a large number of carbon copies of the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold
machine.
Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine). Uses a bookkeeping machine (Sundstrand, Elliott
Fisher, Remington Rand, etc., which may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare
customers' bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally involves the simulta­
neous entry of figures on customers' ledger record. The machine automatically accumulates
figures on a number of vertical columns and computes, and usually prints automatically the
debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of bookkeeping. Works from uniform
and standard types of sales and credit slips.

Class B. Sorts, codes, and files unclassified material by simple ( subject matter) head­
ings "or- partly classified material by finer subheadings. Prepares simple* related index and
cross-reference aids. As requested, locates clearly identified material in files and forwards
material. May perform related clerical tasks required to maintain and service files.
Class C. Performs routine filing of material that has already been classified or which
is easily classified in a simple serial classification system (e.g., alphabetical, chronological,
or numerical). As requested, locates readily available material in files and forwards ma­
terial; and may fill out withdrawal charge. Performs simple clerical and manual tasks re­
quired to maintain and service files.
CLERK, ORDER
Receives customers' orders for material or merchandise by mail, phone, or personally.
Duties involve any combination of the following: Quoting prices to customers; making out an order
sheet listing the items to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; and distributing order sheets to respective departments to be filled. May check with credit
department to determine credit rating of customer, acknowledge receipt of orders from customers,
follow up orders to see that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check shipping
invoices with original orders.

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs,
National Cash Register, with or without a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business
transactions.
Class A. Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of and experience in basic
bookkeeping principles, and familiarity with the structure of the particular accounting system
used. Determines proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used in each
phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance sheets, and other records
by hand.
Class B. Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of a set of records usually
requiring little knowledge of basic bookkeeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable,
payroll, customers' accounts (not including a simple type of billing described under biller,
machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, inventory control, etc. May check or assist
in preparatipn of trial balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.
CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A. Under general direction of a bookkeeper or accountant, has responsibility for
keeping one or more sections of a complete set of books or records relating to one phase
of an establishment's business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing subsidiary
ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts payable; examining and coding
invoices or vouchers with proper accounting distribution; and requires judgment and experi­
ence in making proper assignations and allocations. May assist in preparing, adjusting, and
closing journal entries; and may direct class B accounting clerks.
Class B. Under supervision, performs one or more routine accounting operations such
as posting simple journal vouchers or accounts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in
voucher registers; reconciling bank accounts; and posting subsidiary ledgers controlled by
general ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data. This job does not require a knowl­
edge of accounting and bookkeeping principles but is found in offices in which the more routine
accounting work is subdivided on a functional basis among several workers.




Class A. In an established filing system containing a number of varied subject matter
files, classifies and indexes file material such as correspondence, reports, technical docu­
ments, etc. May also file this material. May keep records of various types in conjunction
with the files. May lead a small group of lower level file clerks.

21

CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the necessary data on the payroll
sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers' earnings based on time or production records; and
posting calculated data on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker's name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May make out paychecks and
assist paymaster in making up and distributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.
COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathematical computations. This
job is not to be confused with that of statistical or other type of clerk, which may involve fre ­
quent use of a Comptometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance of
other duties.
KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Class A. Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or combination keypunch •
machine to
transcribe data from various source documents to keypunch tabulating cards. Performs same
tasks as lower level keypunch operator but, in addition, work requires application of coding
skills and the making of some determinations, for example, locates on the source document
the items to be punched; extracts information from several documents; and searches for and
interprets information on the document to determine information to be punched. May train
inexperienced operators.

22

SECRETARY— Continued

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR--- Continued
Class B. Under close supervision or following specific procedures or instructions,
transcribes data from source documents to punched cards. Operates a numerical and/or
alphabetical or combination keypunch machine to keypunch tabulating cards. May verify cards.
Working from various standardized source documents, follows specified sequences which have
been coded or prescribed in detail and require little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting
of data to be punched. Problems arising from erroneous items or codes, missing information,
etc., are referred to supervisor.
OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands, operating minor office ma­
chines such as sealers or mailers, opening and distributing mail, and other minor clerical work.
SECRETARY
Assigned as personal secretary, normally to one individual. Maintains a close and highly
responsive relationship to the day-to-day work activities of the supervisor. Works fairly inde­
pendently receiving a minimum of detailed supervision and guidance. Performs varied clerical
and secretarial duties, usually including most of the following: (a) Receives telephone calls,
personal callers, and incoming mail, answers routine inquiries, and routes the technical inquiries
to the proper persons; (b) establishes, maintains, and revises the supervisor's files; (c) maintains
the supervisor's calendar and makes appointments as instructed; (d) relays messages from super­
visor to subordinates; (e) reviews correspondence, memoranda, and reports prepared by others
for the supervisor's signature to assure procedural and typographic accuracy; and (f) performs
stenographic and typing work.
May also perform other clerical and secretarial tasks of comparable nature and difficulty.
The work typically requires knowledge of office routine and understanding of the organization,
programs, and procedures related to the work of the supervisor.
Exclusions
Not all positions that are titled "secretary" possess the above characteristics. Examples
of positions which are excluded from the definition are as follows: (a) Positions which do not meet
the "personal" secretary concept described above; (b) stenographers not fully trained in secretarial
type duties; (c) stenographers serving as office assistants to a group of professional, technical,
or managerial persons; (d) secretary positions in which the duties are either substantially more
routine or substantially more complex and responsible than those characterized in the definition;
and (e) assistant type positions which involve more difficult or more responsible technical, admin­
istrative, supervisory, or specialized clerical duties which are not typical of secretarial work.
NOTE: The term "corporate o ffice r," used in the level definitions following, refers to
those officials who have a significant corporate-wide policymaking role with regard to major
company activities. The title "vice president," though normally indicative of this role, does not
in all cases identify such positions. Vice presidents whose primary responsibility is to act per­
sonally on individual cases or transactions (e.g., approve or deny individual loan or credit actions;
administer individual trust accounts; directly supervise a clerical staff) are not considered to be
"corporate officers" for purposes of applying the following level definitions.
Class A
a. Secretary to the chairman of the board or president of a company that employs, in
all, over 100 but fewer than 5,000 persons; or
b. Secretary to a corporate officer (other than the chairman of the board or president)
of a company that employs, in all, over 5, 000 but fewer than 25, 000 persons; or
c. Secretary to the head (immediately below the corporate officer level) of a major
segment or subsidiary of a company that employs, in all, over 25, 000 persons.
Class B
a. Secretary to the chairman of the board or president of a company that employs, in
all, fewer than 100 persons; or
b. Secretary to a corporate officer (other than the chairman of the board or president)
of a company that employs, in all, over 100 but fewer than 5,000 persons; or
c. Secretary to the head (immediately below
corporate-wide functional activity (e.g., marketing,
tions^ etc.) or~a major geographic or organizational
a major division) of a company that employs, in
employees; or




the officer level) over either a major
research, operations, industrial rela­
segment (e.g., a regional headquarters;
all, over 5,000 but fewer than 25,000

d. Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc. (or other equivalent level
of official) that employs, in all, over 5, 000 persons; or
e. Secretary to the head of a large and important organizational segment (e.g., a middle
management supervisor of an organizational segment often involving as many as several
hundred persons) of a company that employs, in all, over 25, 000 persons.
Class C
a. Secretary to an executive or managerial person whose responsibility is not equivalent
to one of the specific level situations in the definition for class B, but whose subordinate staff
normally numbers at least several dozen employees and is usually divided into organizational
segments which are often, in turn, further subdivided. In some companies, this level includes
a wide range of organizational echelons; in others, only one or two; oj*
b. Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc. (or other equivalent level
of official) that employs, in all, fewer than 5, 000 persons.
Class D
a. Secretary to the supervisor or head of a small organizational unit (e.g., fewer than
about 25 or 30 persons); 0 £
b. Secretary to a nonsupervisory staff specialist, professional employee, administra­
tive officer, or assistant, skilled technician or expert. (NOTE; Many companies assign
stenographers, rather than secretaries as described above, to this level of supervisory or
nonsupervisory worker.)
STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation involving a normal routine vocabulary from one or more
persons either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine; and transcribe dictation. May
also type from written copy. May maintain files, keep simple records, or perform other relatively
routine clerical tasks. May operate from a stenographic pool. Does not include transcribingmachine work. (See transcribing-machine operator.)
STENOGRAPHER, SENIOR
Primary duty is to take dictation involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary
such as in legal briefs or reports on scientific research from one or more persons either in short­
hand or by Stenotype or similar machine; and transcribe dictation. May also type from written
copy. May also set up and maintain files, keep records, etc.
OR
Performs stenographic duties requiring significantly greater independence and responsi­
bility than stenographers, general as evidenced by the following: Work requires high degree of
stenographic speed and accuracy; and a thorough working knowledge of general business and office
procedures and of the specific business operations, organization, policies, procedures, files,
workflow, etc. Uses this knowledge in performing stenographic duties and responsible clerical
tasks such as, maintaining followup files; assembling material for reports, memorandums, letters,
etc.; composing simple letters from general instructions; reading and routing incoming mail; and
answering routine questions, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work.
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Class A. Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard handling incoming,
outgoing, intraplant or office calls. Perform s full telephone information service or handles
complex calls, such as conference, collect, overseas, or similar calls, either in addition to
doing routine work as described for switchboard operator, class B, or as a full-time
assignment. ("Full" telephone information service occurs when the establishment has varied
functions that are not readily understandable for telephone information purposes, e.g., because
of overlapping or interrelated functions, and consequently present frequent problems as to
which extensions are appropriate for calls.)
Class B. Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard handling incoming,
outgoing, intraplant or office calls. May handle routine long distance calls and record tolls.
May perform limited telephone information service. ("Limited" telephone information service
occurs if the functions of the establishment serviced are readily understandable for telephone
information purposes, or if the requests are routine, e.g., giving extension numbers when
specific names are furnished, or if complex calls are referred to another operator.)

23

S W IT C H B O A R D O P E R A T O R -R E C E P T IO N IS T

T A B U L A T IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R — C ontinued

In a d d ition to p e r fo r m in g d u ties o f o p e r a t o r on a s in g le -p o s it io n o r m o n it o r -t y p e s w itc h ­
b o a r d , a cts as r e c e p t io n is t and m a y a ls o type o r p e r fo r m rou tin e c l e r i c a l w o rk as pa rt o f r e g u la r
d u tie s .
T h is typing o r c l e r i c a l w o rk m a y take the m a jo r pa rt o f this w o r k e r 's tim e w h ile at
s w itc h b o a r d .

C la s s C . O p e r a te s sim p le tabu latin g o r e le c t r i c a l a ccou n tin g m a ch in e s such as the
s o r t e r , re p r o d u c in g punch, c o l la t o r , e t c ., w ith s p e c i fic in s tr u c tio n s .
M ay in clu d e sim p le
w ir in g fr o m d ia g r a m s and s o m e filin g w o rk . The w o rk t y p ic a lly in v o lv e s p o r tio n s o f a w o rk
unit, fo r e x a m p le , in div idu a l so r tin g o r c o lla t in g runs o r r e p e titiv e o p e r a tio n s .
T R A N S C R IB IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R ,

GENERAL

T A B U L A T IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R

C la s s A . O p e r a te s a v a r ie t y o f ta bu latin g o r e l e c t r i c a l a cco u n tin g m a c h in e s , t y p ic a lly
in clu d in g su ch m a ch in e s as the ta b u la to r , c a lc u la t o r , in t e r p r e t e r , c o l la t o r , and o t h e r s .
P e r f o r m s co m p le t e r e p o r tin g a s s ig n m e n ts w ithout c l o s e s u p e r v is io n , and p e r fo r m s d iffic u lt
w ir in g as r e q u ir e d .
The co m p le t e r e p o r tin g and tabulating a s s ig n m e n ts t y p ic a lly in v o lv e a
v a r ie t y o f lon g and c o m p le x r e p o r t s w h ich often a re o f ir r e g u la r o r n o n r e c u r r in g ty p e r e ­
q u irin g s o m e planning and se q u e n cin g o f step s to be taken. A s a m o r e e x p e r ie n c e d o p e r a t o r ,
is t y p ic a lly in v o lv e d in tra in in g new o p e r a t o r s in m a ch in e o p e r a t io n s , o r p a r t ia lly tra in e d
o p e r a t o r s in w ir in g fr o m d ia g r a m s and o p e r a tin g se q u e n c e s o f lon g and c o m p le x r e p o r t s .
D o e s not in clu d e w o rk in g s u p e r v is o r s p e r fo r m in g ta b u la tin g -m a c h in e o p e r a tio n s and d a y -t o day s u p e r v is io n o f the w o rk and p r o d u c tio n of a g rou p o f ta b u la tin g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s .

C la s s B . O p e r a te s m o r e d iffic u lt ta bulating o r e l e c t r i c a l a cco u n tin g m a ch in e s su ch as the
ta b u la tor and c a lc u la t o r , in a d d ition to the s o r t e r , r e p r o d u c e r , and c o l la t o r .
T h is w o rk is
p e r fo r m e d under s p e c i f ic in s tr u c tio n s and m a y in clu d e the p e r fo r m a n c e o f s o m e w ir in g fr o m
d ia g r a m s . The w o rk t y p ic a lly in v o lv e s , fo r e x a m p le , ta bu lation s in v o lv in g a r e p e titiv e
a cco u n tin g e x e r c i s e , a c o m p le te but s m a ll tabulating stu d y, o r p a rts o f a lo n g e r and m o r e
c o m p le x r e p o r t . Such r e p o r t s and stu d ies a re u su a lly o f a r e c u r r in g nature w h e re the p r o ­
c e d u r e s a r e w e ll e s t a b lis h e d .
M a y a ls o in clu d e the tra in in g o f new e m p lo y e e s in the b a s ic
o p e r a t io n o f the m a ch in e .

P r i m a r y duty is to t r a n s c r ib e d icta tio n in volvin g a n o rm a l rou tin e v o c a b u la r y fr o m
t r a n s c r ib in g - m a c h in e r e c o r d s .
M ay a ls o type fr o m w ritte n c o p y and do sim p le c l e r i c a l w o rk .
W o r k e r s t r a n s c r ib in g d icta tio n in v olv in g a v a r ie d te c h n ic a l o r s p e c ia liz e d v o c a b u la r y such as le g a l
b r ie f s o r r e p o r t s on s c ie n t i fic r e s e a r c h a re not in clu d e d . A w o r k e r w ho ta k es d icta tio n in s h o r t ­
hand o r b y S tenotype o r s im ila r m a ch in e is c l a s s i fie d as a ste n o g r a p h e r , g e n e ra l.
T Y P IS T
U s es a t y p e w r it e r to m ake c o p ie s o f v a r io u s m a te r ia l o r to m ake out b ills a fte r c a lc u la ­
tion s have b een m ade by a n other p e r s o n . M ay in clu d e typing o f s t e n c ils , m a ts , o r s im ila r m a te ­
r ia ls fo r u se in d u p lica tin g p r o c e s s e s . M ay do c l e r i c a l w o rk in v o lv in g little s p e c ia l tra in in g , such
as k eep in g s im p le r e c o r d s , filin g r e c o r d s and r e p o r t s , o r s o r t in g and d istr ib u tin g in co m in g m a il.
C la s s A . P e r fo r m s one o r m o r e o f the fo llo w in g : T yp in g m a te r ia l in fin a l fo r m w hen it
in v o lv e s co m b in in g m a te r ia l fr o m s e v e r a l s o u r c e s o r r e s p o n s ib ilit y fo r c o r r e c t sp e llin g ,
s y lla b ic a t io n , pu n ctu a tion , e t c ., o f t e c h n ic a l o r unusual w o r d s o r fo r e ig n la ngua ge m a te r ia l;
and planning la you t and ty pin g o f c o m p lic a t e d s t a t is tic a l ta b le s to m a in ta in u n ifo rm ity and
b a la n c e in sp a c in g .
M a y type rou tin e fo r m le t t e r s v a r y in g d e ta ils to suit c ir c u m s t a n c e s .
C la s s B . P e r fo r m s one o r m o r e o f the fo llo w in g : C op y typing fr o m rou g h o r c le a r d r a fts ;
rou tin e typin g o f f o r m s , in su ra n ce p o l i c i e s , e t c .; and settin g up sim p le sta n d a rd ta b u la tion s,
o r cop y in g m o r e c o m p le x ta b le s a lr e a d y setup and s p a c e d p r o p e r ly .

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
COMPUTER OPERATOR

COMPUTER PROGRAMER, BUSINESS

Monitors and operates the control console of a digital computer to process data according
to operating instructions, usually prepared by a programer. Work includes most of the following:
Studies instructions to determine equipment setup and operations; loads equipment with required
items (tape reels, cards, etc.); switches necessary auxiliary equipment into circuit, and starts
and operates computer; makes adjustments to computer to correct operating problems and meet
special conditions; reviews errors made during operation and determines cause or refers problem
to supervisor or programer; and maintains operating records. May test and assist in correcting
program.

Converts statements of business problems, typically prepared by a systems analyst, into
a sequence of detailed instructions which are required to solve the problems by automatic data
processing equipment. Working from charts or diagrams, the programer develops the precise
instructions which, when entered into the computer system in coded language, cause the manipu­
lation of data to achieve desired results. Work involves most of the following: Applies knowledge
of computer capabilities, mathematics, logic employed by computers, and particular subject matter
involved to analyze charts and diagrams of the problem to be programed. Develops sequence
of program steps, writes detailed flow charts to show order in which data will be processed;
converts these charts to coded instructions for machine to follow; tests and corrects programs;
prepares instructions for operating personnel during production run; analyzes, reviews, and alters
programs to increase operating efficiency or adapt to new requirements; maintains records of
program development and revisions. (NOTE: Workers performing both systems analysis and pro­
graming should be classified as systems analysts if this is the skill used to determine their pay.)

For wage study purposes, computer operators are classified as follows:
Class A. Operates independently, or under only general direction, a computer running
programs with most of the following characteristics: New programs are frequently tested and
introduced; scheduling requirements are of critical importance to minimize downtime; the
programs are of complex design so that identification of error source often requires a working
knowledge of the total program, and alternate programs may not be available. May give
direction and guidance to lower level operators.
Class B. Operates independently, or under only general direction, a computer running
programs with most of the following characteristics: Most of the programs are established
production runs, typically run on a regularly recurring basis; there is little or no testing
of new programs required; alternate programs are provided in case original program needs
major change or cannot be corrected within a reasonable time. In common error situations,
diagnoses cause and takes corrective action. This usually involves applying previously pro­
gramed corrective steps, or using standard correction techniques.

Does not include employees primarily responsible for the management or supervision of
other electronic data processing (EDP) employees, or programers primarily concerned with
scientific and/or engineering problems.
For wage study purposes, programers are classified as follows:
Class A. Works independently or under only general direction on complex problems which
require competence in all phases of programing concepts and practices. Working from dia­
grams and charts which identify the nature of desired results, major processing steps to be
accomplished, and the relationships between various steps of the problem solving routine;
plans the full range of programing actions needed to efficiently utilize the computer system
in achieving desired end products.

OR
Operates under direct supervision a computer running programs or segments of programs
with the characteristics described for class A. May assist a higher level operator by inde­
pendently performing less difficult tasks assigned, and performing difficult tasks following
detailed instructions and with frequent review of operations performed.
Class C. Works on routine programs under close supervision. Is expected to develop
working knowledge of the computer equipment used and ability to detect problems involved in
running routine programs. Usually has received some formal training in computer operation.
May assist higher level operator on complex programs.




At this level, programing is difficult because computer equipment must be organized to
produce several interrelated but diverse products from numerous and diverse data elements.
A wide variety and extensive number of internal processing actions must occur. This requires
such actions as development of common operations which can be reused, establishment of
linkage points between operations, adjustments to data when program requirements exceed
computer storage capacity, and substantial manipulation and resequencing of data elements
to form a highly integrated program.
May provide functional direction to lower level programers who are assigned to assist.

24

COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYST, BUSINESS— Continued

COMPUTER PROGRAMER, BUSINESS— Continued
Class B. Works independently or under only general direction on relatively simple
programs, or on simple segments of complex programs. Programs (or segments) usually
process information to produce data in two or three varied sequences or formats. Reports
and listings are produced by refining, adapting, arraying, or making minor additions to or
deletions from input data which are readily available. While numerous records may be
processed, the data have been refined in prior actions so that the accuracy and sequencing
of data can be tested by using a few routine checks. Typically, the program deals with
routine record-keeping type operations.
OR
Works on complex programs (as described for class A) under close direction of a higher
level programer or supervisor. May assist higher level programer by independently per­
forming less difficult tasks assigned, and performing more difficult tasks under fairly close
direction.
May guide or instruct lower level programers.
Class C. Makes practical applications of programing practices and concepts usually
learned in formal training courses. Assignments are designed to develop competence in the
application of standard procedures to routine problems. Receives close supervision on new
aspects of assignments; and work is reviewed to verify its accuracy and conformance with
required procedures.
COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYST, BUSINESS
Analyzes business problems to formulate procedures for solving them by use of electronic
data processing equipment. Develops a complete description of all specifications needed to enable
programers to prepare required digital computer programs. Work involves most of the following:
Analyzes subject-matter operations to be automated and identifies conditions and criteria required
to achieve satisfactory results; specifies number and types of records, files, and documents to
be used; outlines actions to be performed by personnel and computers in sufficient detail for
presentation to management and for programing (typically this involves preparation of work and
data flow charts); coordinates the development of test problems and participates in trial runs of
new and revised systems; and recommends equipment changes to obtain more effective overall
operations. (NOTE; Workers performing both systems analysis and programing should be cla s­
sified as systems analysts if this is the skill used to determine their pay.)
Does not include employees primarily responsible for the management or supervision of
other electronic data processing (EDP) employees, or systems analysts primarily concerned with
scientific or engineering problems.
For wage study purposes, systems analysts are classified as follows;
Class A. Works independently or under only general direction on complex problems
involving all phases of systems analysis. Problems are complex because of diverse sources
of input data and multiple-use requirements of output data. (For example, develops an inte­
grated production scheduling, inventory control, cost analysis, and sales analysis record in
which every item of each type is automatically processed through the full system of records
and appropriate followup actions are initiated by the computer.) Confers with persons con­
cerned to determine the data processing problems and advises subject-matter personnel on
the implications of new or revised systems of data processing operations. Makes recom ­
mendations, if needed, for approval of major systems installations or changes and for
obtaining equipment.
May provide functional direction to lower level systems analysts who are assigned to
assist.
Class B. Works independently or under only general direction on problems that are
relatively uncomplicated to analyze, plan, program, and operate. Problems are of limited
complexity because sources of input data are homogeneous and the output data are closely
related. (For example, develops systems for maintaining depositor accounts in a bank,

maintaining accounts receivable in a retail establishment, or maintaining inventory accounts
in a manufacturing or wholesale establishment.) Confers with persons concerned to determine
the data processing problems and advises subject-matter personnel on the implications of the
data processing systems to be applied.
OR
Works on a segment of a complex data processing scheme or system, as described for
class A. Works independently on routine assignments and receives instruction and guidance
on complex assignments. Work is reviewed for accuracy of judgment, compliance with in­
structions, and to insure proper alinement with the overall system.
Class C. Works under immediate supervision, carrying out analyses as assigned, usually
of a single activity. Assignments are designed to develop and expand practical experience
in the application of procedures and skills required for systems analysis work. For example,
may assist a higher level systems analyst by preparing the detailed specifications required
by programers from information developed by the higher level analyst.
DRAFTSMAN
Class A. Plans the graphic presentation of complex items having distinctive design
features that differ significantly from established drafting precedents. Works in close sup­
port with the design originator, and may recommend minor design changes. Analyzes the
effect of each change on the details of form, function, and positional relationships of com ­
ponents and parts. Works with a minimum of supervisory assistance. Completed work is
reviewed by design originator for consistency with prior engineering determinations. May
either prepare drawings, or direct their preparation by lower level draftsmen.
Class B. Performs nonroutine and complex drafting assignments that require the appli­
cation of most of the standardized drawing techniques regularly used. Duties typically in­
volve such work as; Prepares working drawings of subassemblies with irregular shapes,
multiple functions, and precise positional relationships between components; prepares archi­
tectural drawings for construction of a building including detail drawings of foundations, wall
sections, floor plans, and roof. Uses accepted formulas and manuals in making necessary
computations to determine quantities of materials to be used, load capacities, strengths,
stresses, etc. Receives initial instructions, requirements, and advice from supervisor.
Completed work is checked for technical adequacy.
Class C. Prepares detail drawings of single units or parts for engineering, construction,
manufacturing, or repair purposes. Types of drawings prepared include isom etric projections
(depicting three diminsions in accurate scale) and sectional views to clarify positioning of
components and convey needed information. Consolidates details from a number of sources
and adjusts or transposes scale as required. Suggested methods of approach, applicable
precedents, and advice on source materials are given with initial assignments. Instructions
are less complete when assignments recur. Work may be spot-checked during progress.
DRAFTSMAN-TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others by placing tracing cloth or paper over
drawings and tracing with pen or pencil. (Does not include tracing limited to plans primarily
consisting of straight lines and a large scale not requiring close delineation.)
and/or
Prepares simple or repetitive drawings of easily visualized items. Work is closely supervised
during progress.
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
A registered nurse who gives nursing service under general medical direction to ill or
injured employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the premises of a
factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following; Giving first aid
to the ill or injured; attending to subsequent dressing of employees' injuries; keeping records
of patients treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes; assisting in
physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants and employees; and planning and carry­
ing out programs involving health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment,
or other activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.

MAINTENANCE AND POWERPLANT
CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE— Continued

Perform s the carpentry duties necessary to construct and maintain in good repair building
woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs, counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs,
casings, and trim made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most of the following: Planning
and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or verbal instructions using a variety

of carpenter's handtools, portable power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making
standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work; and selecting materials necessary
for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.




25

E L E C T R IC IA N ,

MAINTENANCE

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the installation, maintenance,
or repair of equipment for the generation, distribution, or utilization of electric energy in an
establishment. Work involves most of the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety of
electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards, controllers, circuit break­
ers, motors, heating units, conduit systems, or other transmission equipment; working from
blueprints, drawings, layouts, or other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the
electrical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to load requirements of
wiring or electrical equipment; and using a variety of electrician's handtools and measuring and
testing instruments. In general, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.
ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation of stationary engines and
equipment (mechanical or electrical) to supply the establishment in which employed with power,
heat, refrigeration, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining equipment
such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, motors, turbines, ventilating and refrig­
erating equipment, steam boilers and boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; and
keeping a record of operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May also su­
pervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establishments employing more than one
engineer are excluded.
FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which employed with heat, power,
or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or operates a mechanical stoker, or gas or oil burner;
and checks water and safety valves. May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom equipment.
HELPER, MAINTENANCE TRADES
Assists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades, by performing specific
or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping a worker supplied with materials and tools;
cleaning .working area, machine, and equipment; assisting journeyman by holding materials or
tools; and performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of work the
helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In some trades the helper is con­
fined to supplying, lifting, and holding materials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in
others he is permitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade that are
also performed by workers on a full-time basis.
MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine tools, such as jig borers,
cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes, or milling machines, in the construction of
machine-shop tools, gages, jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most of the following: Plan­
ning and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring complicated setups
or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of precision measuring instruments; selecting feeds,
speeds, tooling, and operation sequence; and making necessary adjustments during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recognize when tools need dress­
ing, to dress tools, and to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating oils. For cro ss­
industry wage study purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classification.
MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of metal parts of mechan­
ical equipment operated in an establishment. Work involves most of the following: Interpreting
written instructions and specifications; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
chinist's handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and operating standard machine
tools; shaping of metal parts to close tolerances; making standard shop computations relating to
dimensions of work, tooling, feeds, and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working properties
of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts, and equipment required for his work;
and fitting and assembling parts into mechanical equipment. In general, the machinist's work
normally requires a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a formal
apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an establishment. Work in­
volves most of the following: Examining automotive equipment to diagnose source of trouble;
disassembling equipment and performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as
wrenches, gages, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts; replacing
broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting valves; reassembling and installing




MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)— Continued
the various assemblies in the vehicle and making necessary adjustments; and alining wheels,
adjusting brakes and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal appren­
ticeship or equivalent training and experience.
MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment. Work involves most
of the following: Examining machines and mechanical equipment to diagnose source of trouble;
dismantling or partly dismantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use
of handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts with items obtained
from stock; ordering the production of a replacement part by a machine shop or sending of the
machine to a machine shop for major repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs
or for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling machines; and making
all necessary adjustments for operation. In general, the work of a maintenance mechanic re ­
quires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience. Excluded from this classification are workers whose primary
duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.
MILLWRIGHT
Installs new machines or heavy equipment, and dismantles and installs machines or
heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout are required. Work involves most of the fol­
lowing: Planning and laying out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using
a variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations relating to stresses,
strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining and balancing of equipment; selecting stand­
ard tools, equipment, and parts to be used; and installing and maintaining in good order power
transmission equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the millwright's work
normally requires a rounded training and experience in the trade acquired through a formal
apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
OILER
Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing surfaces of mechanical
equipment of an establishment.
PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an establishment. Work in­
volves the following: Knowledge of surface peculiarities and types of paint required for different
applications; preparing surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler
in nail holes and interstices; and applying paint with spray gun or brush. May mix colors, oils,
white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper color or consistency. In general, the
work of the maintenance painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and pipefittings in an
establishment. Work involves most of the following: Laying out of work and measuring to lo­
cate position of pipe from drawings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe
to correct lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting machine; thread­
ing pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by hand-driven or power-driven machines; assembling
pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating
to pressures, flow, and size of pipe required; and making standard tests to determine whether
finished pipes meet specifications. In general, the work of the maintenance pipefitter requires
rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building sanita­
tion or heating systems are excluded.
PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order. Work involves: Knowledge
of sanitary codes regarding installation of vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or re­
pairing pipes and fixtures; and opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber's snake. In
general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheet-metal equipment and fix­
tures (such as machine guards, grease pans, shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts,
metal roofing) of an establishment. Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying
out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, models, ox other specifications;
setting up and operating all available types of sheet-metal working machines; using a variety of

26

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE--- Continued

TOOL AND DIE MAKER— Continued

handtools in cutting, bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; and installing sheetmetal articles as required. In general, the work of the maintenance sheet-metal worker requires
rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.

using a variety of tool and die maker's handtools and precision measuring instruments; under­
standing of the working properties of common metals and alloys; setting up and operating of
machine tools and related equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heat-treating of metal parts during fabrication
as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve required qualities; working to close tolerances;
fitting and assembling of parts to prescribed tolerances and allowances; and selecting appropriate
materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die maker's work requires a rounded
training in machine-shop and toolroom practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship
or equivalent training and experience.

TOOL AND DIE MAKER
(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gage maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gages, jigs, fixtures or dies for forgings,
punching, and other metal-forming work. Work involves most of the following: Planning and
laying out of work from models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifications;

For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers in tool and die jobbing
shops are excluded from this classification.

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT
GUARD AND WATCHMAN
Guard. Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour, maintaining
order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate
and check on identity of employees and other persons entering.
Watchman. Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property against fire,
theft, and illegal entry.
JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas and washrooms, or
premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial or other establishment. Duties involve
a combination of the following: Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing
chips, trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polishing metal fixtures
or trimmings; providing supplies and minor maintenance services; and cleaning lavatories, show­
ers, and restrooms. Workers who specialize in window washing are excluded.
LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; ware­
houseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store, or other establishment
whose duties involve one or more of the following: Loading and unloading various materials and
merchandise on or from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelving,
or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; and transporting materials or
merchandise by handtruck, car, or wheelbarrow. Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are
excluded.
ORDER

FILLER

(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
Fills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored merchandise in accord­
ance with specifications on sales slips, custom ers' orders, or other instructions. May, inaddition
to filling orders and indicating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders, requi­
sition additional stock or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform other related duties.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is responsible for incoming ship­
ments of merchandise or other materials. Shipping work involves: A knowledge of shipping
procedures, practices, routes, available means of transportation, and rate; and preparing re c­
ords of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping charges, and
keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or assist in preparing the merchandise for ship­
ment. Receiving work involves: Verifying or directing others in verifying the correctness of
shipments against bills of lading, invoices, or other records; checking for shortages and rejecting
damaged goods; routing merchandise or materials to proper departments; and maintaining neces­
sary records and files.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:
Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
TRUCKDRIVER
Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport materials, merchandise,
equipment, or men between various types of establishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight
depots, warehouses, wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments and
customers' houses or places of business. May also load or unload truck with or without helpers,
make minor mechanical repairs, and keep truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and
over-the-road drivers are excluded.
For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size and type of equipment,
as follows: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on the basis of trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver (combination of sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under lV2 tons)
Truckdriver, medium (lV2 to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)
TRUCKER, POWER

PACKER, SHIPPING
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing them in shipping con­
tainers, the specific operations performed being dependent upon the type, size, and number of
units to be packed, the type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or more of the following: Knowl­
edge of various items of stock in order to verify content; selection of appropriate type and size
of container; inserting enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; and applying labels or entering identifying
data on container. Packers who also make wooden boxes or crates are excluded.




Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered truck or tractor to
transport goods and materials of all kinds about a warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other
establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of truck, as follows:
Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)




Avail abl e On Request

T h e t e nt h a n n ua l r e p o r t o n s a l a r i e s f o r a c c o u n t a n t s , a u d i t o r s , a t ­
torneys,
chem ists,
engineers,
engineering technicians,
draftsm en,
t r a c e r s , j o b a n a l y s t s , d i r e c t o r s o f p e r s o n n e l , b u y e r s , a nd c l e r i c a l
em ployee s .
O r d e r as B L S B u lle tin 1654, N a tio n a l S u r v e y of P r o f e s s i o n a l , A d ­
m i n i s t r a t i v e , T e c h n i c a l , and C l e r i c a l P a y , J un e 1 9 6 9 - S e v e n t y - f i v e
cents a copy.




Area Wage Surveys
A l i s t o f the l a t e s t a v a i l a b l e b u ll e t in s is p r e s e n t e d b e l o w . A d i r e c t o r y o f a r e a w a g e s t u d ie s i n c lu d in g m o r e l i m i t e d s t u d ie s c o n d u c t e d at the
r e q u e s t o f the W a g e and H o u r and P u b l i c C o n t r a c t s D i v i s i o n s o f the D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r is a v a i l a b l e on r e q u e s t . B u l l e t i n s m a y b e p u r c h a s e d f r o m
the S u p e r in t e n d e n t o f D o c u m e n t s , U.S. G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , W a s h in g t o n , D . C . , 2 0 4 02 , o r f r o m a n y o f the B L S r e g i o n a l s a l e s o f f i c e s s h o w n on
the in s i d e f r o n t c o v e r .

A rea
A k r o n , O h i o , J u ly 1969 1------------------------ -----------------------------A lb a n y — c h e n e c t a d y —T r o y , N . Y . , F e b . 1970------------------S
_
A l b u q u e r q u e , N . M e x . , M a r . 1970 1__ ____________ __
A l l e n t o w i r - B e t h l e h e m —E a s t o n , P a . —N . J . , M a y 1969-----A t la n t a , G a . , M a y 1 9 6 9 -------------------------------------------------------B a l t i m o r e , M d . , A u g . 1969----------------------- —----------------------B e a u m o n t — o r t A r t h u r —O r a n g e , T e x . , M a y 1969 1-------P
B in g h a m t o n , N . Y . , J u l y 19 6 9 ----------------------------------------------B i r m i n g h a m , A l a . , M a r . 1970-------------------------------------------B o i s e C it y , Idaho, N o v . 19 6 9 ______________________________
B o s t o n , M a s s . , A u g . 1969--------------------------------------------------B u f f a l o , N . Y . , O c t . 1969____________________________________
B u r l i n g t o n , V t . , M a r . 1970________________________________
C a n to n , O h i o , M a y 1 9 6 9 ------------------------------------------------------C h a r l e s t o n , W. V a . , A p r . 1970 1
----------------------------------------C h a r l o t t e , N . C . , M a r . 1 9 7 0 1 ---------------------------------------------C h a t t a n o o g a , T e n n . - G a . , Sep t. 1969---------------------------------C h i c a g o , 111., A p r . 1969 1 __________________________________
C in c in n a t i, O h i o - K y . —I n d . , F e b . 19 7 0-----------------------------C l e v e l a n d , O h i o , Sept. 19 6 9 -----------------------------------------------C o l u m b u s , O h i o , O c t . 1969------------------------------------------------D a l l a s , T e x . , O c t . 1969------------------------------------------------------D a v e n p o r t —R o c k I s la n d — o l i n e , I o w a ^ I ll. ,
M
O c t . 1969 *___________________________________________________
D a y to n , O h i o , D e c . 1969____________________________________
D e n v e r , C o l o . , D e c . 1 9 6 9 * --------------------- ---------------------------D e s M o i n e s , I o w a , M a r . 1969--------------------------------------------D e t r o i t , M i c h . , F e b . 1970_________________________________
F o r t W o r t h , T e x . , O c t . 1969----------------------------------------------G r e e n B a y , W i s . , J u l y 1 9 6 9 -----------------------------------------------G r e e n v i l l e , S . C . , M a y 1969 1---------------------------------------------H o u s to n , T e x . , A p r . 1970---------------------------------------------------I n d ia n a p o lis , Ind., O c t . 1969----------------------------------------------J a c k s o n , M i s s . , J a n . 1970_________________________________
J a c k s o n v i l l e , F l a . , D e c . 19 6 9------------------------------------------K a n s a s C it y , M o . —K a n s . , Sep t. 1969--------------------------------L a w r e n c e —H a v e r h i l l , M a s s . —N . H . , June 1 9 6 9 ---------------L it tl e R o c k — o r t h L it tl e R o c k , A r k . , J u ly 1969-----------N
L o s A n g e l e s —L o n g B e a c h and A n a h e i m - S a n t a A n a G a r d e n G r o v e , C a l i f . , M a r . 1970----------------------------------L o u i s v i l l e , K y.—I n d . , N o v . 1 9 6 9 * __________________________
L u b b o c k , T e x . , M a r . 1 970 1 ------------ —--------------------------------M a n c h e s t e r , N .H ., J u l y 19 6 9 ---------------------------------------------M e m p h i s , T e n n .—A r k . , N o v . 1969 1----------------------------------M i a m i , F l a . , N o v . 1 9 6 9 _____________ ——__________________
M id la n d and O d e s s a , T e x . , J a n . 1 9 7 0 1--------------------------M i l w a u k e e , W i s . , A p r . 1969_______________________________
M i n n e a p o l i s —St. P a u l , M i n n . , Jan. 1 970 1________________


http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/ establishment
1 Data on
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Bulletin n um ber
and p r i c e
1625-89,
1660-51,
1660-55,
1625-86,
1625-77,
1660-11 ,
1625-75,
1660-5,
1660-57,
1660-34,
1660-16,
1660-29,
1660-53,
1625-73,
1660-68 ,
1660-61,
1660-9,
1625-82,
1660-49,
1660-22,
1660-27,
1660-23,

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cents

1660-20,
1660-37,
1660-41,
1625-62,
1660-58,
1660-18,
1660-8,
1625-70,
1660-67,
1660-25,
1660-39,
1660-35,
1660-10,
1625-79,
1660-2 ,

35
30
40
30
35
30
30
35
35
30
30
30
35
30
30

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
c e n ts
cents
cents
cents

1660-64,
1660-28 ,
1660-50,
1660-3,
1660-31,
1660-32,
1660-44,
1625-66,
1660-46,

45
40
35
30
40
30
35
35
50

cents
cents
cents
cents
c e n ts
c e n ts
cents
c e n ts
cents

practices and supplementary wage provisions are also presented.

A rea
M u s k e g o n — u s k e g o n H e i g h t s , M i c h . , M a y 1 9 6 9 ________
M
N e w a r k and J e r s e y C it y , N . J . , Jan. 1 9 7 0 1______________
N ew H a v e n , C o n n . , J an. 1 970 1____________________________
N e w O r l e a n s , L a . , J an. 19 7 0 ______________________________
N e w Y o r k , N . Y . , A p r . 1969_____________________ - _______ __
N o r f o I k P o r t s m o u t h and N e w p o r t N e w s —
H a m p t o n , V a . , J a n . 1970 1_______________________________
O k l a h o m a C i t y , O k l a . , J u l y 1969 _______________________
O m a h a , N e b r . —Io w a , Sept. 1969___________________________
P a t e r s o i r - C l i f t o n — a s s a i c , N . J . , M a y 1969_____________
P
P h i l a d e l p h i a , P a . —N . J . , N o v . 1969 1______________________
P h o e n i x , A r i z . , M a r . 1969_________________________________
P i t t s b u r g h , P a . , J an. 1970 1_______________________________
P o r t l a n d , M a i n e , N o v. 1969 1_____________________________
P o r t l a n d , O r e g . —W a s h . , M a y 1969________________________
P r o v i d e n c e —P a w t u c k e t — a r w i c k , R .I.—M a s s .,
W
M a y 1970
__________________________________________________
R a l e i g h , N . C . , A u g. 19 6 9 ___________________________________
R i c h m o n d , V a . , M a r . 1969_________________________________
R o c h e s t e r , N .Y . ( o f f i c e o c c u p a t i o n s o n ly ),
J u l y 1 9 6 9 ____________________________________________________
R o c k f o r d , 111., M a y 1969 _________________________ _____ ____
St. L o u i s , M o . —111., M a r . 197 0_____________________________
Sa lt L a k e C it y , Utah, N o v . 1969 1________________________
San A n t o n i o , T e x . , M a y 1970 _____________________ ______
San B e r n a r d i n o - R i v e r s i d e — n t a r i o , C a l i f . ,
O
San D i e g o , C a l i f . , N o v. 1969 1_____________________________
San F r a n c i s c o — a k la n d , C a l i f . , O c t . 1 969 1____________
O
San J o s e , C a l i f . , Sept. 1969 1_____________________________
Sa va n na h , G a . , M a y 1969___________________________________
S c r a n t o n , P a . , J u l y 1969___________________________________
S e a t t le — v e r e t t , W a s h . , J an. 1970_______________________
E
S io u x F a l l s , S. D a k . , Sept. 1969_______________________ __
South B e n d , I n d . , M a r . 1 9 7 0 1_____________________________
S p o k a n e , W a s h . , June 1 9 6 9 ________________________________
S y r a c u s e , N . Y . , J u ly 1969_________________________________
T a m p a ^ S t. P e t e r s b u r g , F l a . , A u g. 1 9 6 9 * _______________
T o l e d o , O h i o — i c h . , F e b . 1970____________________________
M
T r e n t o n , N . J . , Sept. 1969__________________________________
U t ica —R o m e , N . Y . , J u ly 1969______________________________
W a s h in g t o n , D . C . —M d .—V a . , Sept. 1 9 6 9 * _________________
W a t e r b u r y , C o n n . , M a r . 1 970 1____________________________
W ate r l o o , Iow a, J an. 1970_________________________________
W i c h i t a , K a n s . , D e c . 1 9 6 8 _________________________________
W o r c e s t e r , M a s s . , M a y 1969______________________________
Y o r k , P a . , F e b . 1 9 7 0 * ______________________________________
Y o u n g s t o w n —W a r r e n , O h i o , N ov. 1969 1__________________

B u lle t in n u m b e r
and p r i c e
1625-80,
1660-47,
1660-40,
1660-42,
1625-88,

30
50
35
30
60

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

1660-59,
1660-17,

1625-87,
1660-48,
1625-60,
1660-60,
1660-26,
1625-76,

35
35
30
35
60
30
50
35
30

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

1660-72,
1660-6,
1625-69,

30 c e n t s
30 c e n t s
30 c e n t s

1660-4,
1625-72,
1660 - 66 ,
1660-30,
1660-71.

30
30
40
35
30

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

1660-43,
1660-36,
1660-33,
1660-24,
1625-68,
1660-15,
1660-52,
1660-14,
1660-62,
1625-81,
1660-13,
1660-7,
1660-56,
1660 - 21 ,
1660-1,
1660-19,
1660-54,
1660-45,
1625-41,
1625-84,
1660-63,
1660-38,

30
35
50
35
30
30
30
25
35
30
30
35
30
30
30
50
35
30
30
30
35
35

c e n ts
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

1660 - 12 ,

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
B U REA U O F LA B O R S T A T IS T IC S
WASHINGTON, D .C .

20212

O F F I C I A L BUSINESS




POSTAGE AND FEES PAID
U.S. D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R

FIRST CLASS MAIL


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102