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A re a Wage S u rv e y 1
The New Haven, Connectieut, Metropolitan Area
J a n u a r y 19 66

Bulletin No. 1465-37




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Arthur M. Ross, Com m is sio ner




Area Wage Survey
T h e New H aven, C onnecticut, M etro p o litan A rea




January 1966

B u l le t in No. 1 465-37
March 1966

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

Arthur M. Ross, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 2 0 4 0 2 - Price 25 cents




P reface

C ontents
Page

The Bureau o f L a b o r S ta tistics p ro g ra m o f annual
occupational w age su rveys in m e tro p o lita n a re a s is d e ­
signed to p ro v id e data on occu pational earn in gs, and esta b ­
lishm ent p r a c tic e s and su pplem en tary w a ge p ro v is io n s . It
y ie ld s d eta iled data by se le c te d indu stry d iv is io n s fo r each
o f the a re a s studied, fo r econ om ic re g io n s , and fo r the
United States. A m a jo r co n sid era tio n in the p ro g ra m is the
need fo r g r e a te r insight into (1) the m ovem en t o f w a ges by
occupational c a te g o ry and s k ill le v e l, and (2) the stru ctu re
and le v e l o f w a ges among a re a s and industry d ivis io n s .

Introduction_____________________________________________________________________
W age trends fo r se le c te d occu pational grou p s_____________________________
T a b le s :
1.
2.

3

4

O ccupational e a rn in g s :*
A - 1.
O ffic e occupations— en and w om en _________________________
m
5
A -2 .
P r o fe s s io n a l and tech n ica l occupations— en and w o m e n ..
m
7
A - 3. O ffic e , p ro fe s s io n a l, and tech n ical occupations—
m en and w om en co m b in ed ___________________________________
8
A -4 .
M aintenance and pow erplan t occu pations___________________
9
A -5 .
C u stodial and m a te r ia l m ovem en t o ccu p a tio n s____________ 10

B.

E stablish m en t p ra c tic e s and supplem entary w age p r o v is io n s :*
B - l.
M inim um entrance s a la rie s fo r w om en o ffic e w o r k e r s __
B -2 .
Shift d iffe r e n t ia ls _____________________________________________
B -3 .
Scheduled w e e k ly h o u rs ______________________________________
B -4 .
P a id h olid a ys__________________________________________________
B -5 .
P a id v a c a tio n s _________________________________________________
B -6 .
H ealth, insu ran ce, and pension plan s______________________
B -7 . H ealth insurance b en efits p ro v id e d em p loyees and
th e ir dependents______________________________________________
B -8 .
P r o fit-s h a r in g p la n s __________________________________________

19
20

A ppen dixes:
A . Changes in occupational d e s c rip tio n s _______________________________
B. O ccupational d e s c rip tio n s ____________________________________________

21
22

E ig h ty -fiv e a re a s c u rre n tly a r e included in the
p ro g ra m . In form ation on occupational earn in gs is c o lle c te d
annually in each a re a . In form ation on establish m en t p r a c ­
tic e s and su pplem entary w age p ro v is io n s is obtained b ie n ­
n ia lly in m o st o f the a re a s .




E stablish m en ts and w o rk e rs w ithin scope o f s u rv e y and
num ber stu d ied _______________________________________________________
Indexes o f standard w e e k ly s a la rie s and s tra ig h t-tim e h ou rly
earn in gs fo r s e le c te d occu pational grou ps, and p ercen ts o f
in c re a s e fo r s e le c te d p e r io d s ______________________________________

A.

A t the end o f each su rvey , and in dividu al a rea
bu lletin p resen ts su rvey resu lts fo r each a re a studied.
A ft e r com p letion o f a ll o f the in dividu al a re a b u lletin s fo r
a round o f s u rv e y s , a tw o -p a rt sum m ary bu lletin is issued.
The fir s t p a rt b rin gs data fo r each o f the m etro p o lita n
a re a s studied into one bu lletin . Th e second p a rt p resen ts
in fo rm a tio n w hich has been p ro je c te d fro m in dividu al m e t­
rop olita n a re a data t o ' r e la te to econ om ic reg io n s and the
United States.

T h is b u lletin p resen ts resu lts o f the su rvey in
N ew Haven, Conn. , in January 1966. T h e Standard M e t r o ­
politan S ta tis tic a l A r e a , as defin ed by the Bureau o f the
Budget through M a rc h 1965, con sists o f the c ity o f N ew
Haven; and the towns o f Bethany, B ra n fo rd , E ast Haven,
G u ilfo rd , Ham den, N orth B ra n fo rd , N o rth H aven, O range,
W est Haven, and W ood b rid ge in N ew Haven County. This
study w as conducted by the Bureau*s re g io n a l o ffic e in
B oston, M a ss. , W en d ell D. M acD onald, D ir e c to r ; by L e o
E pstein , under the d ire c tio n o f P a u l V . M u lk ern , A s s is ta n t
R eg io n a l D ir e c to r fo r W ages and In d u strial R ela tion s.

1
4

a re a s .

* N O T E : S im ila r tabulations a re a v a ila b le fo r other
(See inside back c o v e r .)

Union s c a le s , in d ica tive o f p re v a ilin g pay le v e ls in
the N ew Haven a re a , a re a lso a va ila b le fo r building con ­
stru ction , p rin tin g, lo c a l-tr a n s it op era tin g e m p lo y ees, and
m o to rtru ck d r iv e r s and h elp ers.

ii!

12
13
14
15
16
18




Area Wage Survey--The New Haven, Conn., Metropolitan Area
Introduction
reported, as for office clerical occupations, reference is to the work
schedules (rounded to the nearest half hour) for which straight-time
salaries are paid; average weekly earnings for these occupations have
been rounded to the nearest half dollar.
The averages presented reflect composite, areawide e sti­
m ates. Industries and establishments differ in pay level and job
staffing and, thus, contribute differently to the estim ates for each job.
The pay relationship obtainable from the averages may fail to reflect
accurately the wage spread or differential maintained among jobs in
individual establishments. Similarly, differences in average pay levels
for men and women in any of the selected occupations should not be
assumed to reflect differences in pay treatment of the sexes within
individual establishments. Other possible factors which may contrib­
ute to differences in pay for men and women include: Differences in
progression within established rate ranges, since only the actual rates
paid incumbents are collected; and differences in specific duties p er­
formed, although the workers are appropriately classified within the
same survey job description. Job descriptions used in classifying
employees in these surveys are usually more generalized than those
used in individual establishments and allow for minor differences
among establishments in the specific duties performed.

This area is 1 of 85 in which the U .S. Department of Labor's
Bureau of Labor Statistics conducts surveys of occupational earnings
and related wage benefits on an areawide b asis. In this area, data
were obtained by personal visits of Bureau field economists to repre­
sentative establishments within six broad industry divisions: Manu­
facturing; transportation, communication, and other public utilities;
wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and
services. Major industry groups excluded from these studies are
government operations and the construction and extractive industries.
Establishments having fewer than a prescribed number of workers are
omitted because they tend to furnish insufficient employment in the
occupations studied to warrant inclusion. Separate tabulations are
provided for each of the broad industry divisions which meet pub­
lication criteria.
These surveys are conducted on a sample basis because of
the unnecessary cost involved in surveying all establishments. To
obtain optimum accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of
large than of sm all establishments is studied. In combining the data,
however, all establishments are given their appropriate weight. E s ­
timates based on the establishments studied are presented, therefore,
as relating to all establishments in the industry grouping and area,
except for those below the minimum size studied.

Occupational employment estim ates represent the total in
all establishments within the scope of the study and not the number
actually surveyed. Because of differences in occupational structure
among establishments, the estim ates of occupational employment ob­
tained from the sample of establishments studied serve only to indicate
the relative importance of the jobs studied. These differences in
occupational structure do not m aterially affect the accuracy of the
earnings data.

Occupations and Earnings
The occupations selected for study are common to a variety
of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries, and are of the
following types: (l) Office clerical; (2) professional and technical;
(3) maintenance and powerplant; and (4) custodial and m aterial move­
ment. Occupational classification is based on a uniform set of job
descriptions designed to take account of inter establishment variation
in duties within the same job. The occupations selected for study
are listed and described in appendix B. Earnings data for some of
the occupations listed and described are not presented in the A -series
tables because either (l) employment in the occupation is too sm all
to provide enough data to m erit presentation, or (2) there is p o ssi­
bility of disclosure of individual establishment data.
Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for
full-time workers, i.e., those hired to work a regular weekly schedule
in the given occupational classification. Earnings data exclude p re­
mium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and
late shifts. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded, but cost-of-living
bonuses and incentive earnings are included. Where weekly hours are




Establishment P ractices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Information is presented (in the B -series tables) on selected
establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions as they
relate to plant and office workers. Administrative, executive, and
professional employees, and force-account construction workers who
are utilized as a separate work force are excluded. "Plant workers"
include working foremen and all nonsupervisory workers (including
leadmen and trainees) engaged in nonoffice functions. "Office work­
e r s" include working supervisors and nonsupervisory workers p er­
forming clerical or related functions. Cafeteria workers and routemen
are excluded in manufacturing industries, but included in nonmanu­
facturing industries.
1

2
Minimum entrance salaries (table B -l) relate only to the e s ­
tablishments visited. They are presented in term s of establishments
with formal minimum entrance salary policies.
Shift differential data (table B-2) are limited to plant workers
in manufacturing industries. This information is presented both in
terms of (1) establishment policy, 1 presented in terms of total plant
worker employment, and (2) effective practice, presented in terms of
workers actually employed on the specified shift at the time of the
survey. In establishments having varied differentials, the amount
applying to a majority was used or, if no amount applied to a majority,
the classification "other" was used. In establishments in which some
late-shift hours are paid at normal rates, a differential was recorded
only if it applied to a majority of the shift hours.

workmen's compensation, social security, and railroad retirement.
Such plans include those underwritten by a commercial insurance
company and those provided through a union fund or paid directly by
the employer out of current operating funds or from a fund set aside
for this purpose. Death benefits are included as a form of life in­
surance. Selected health insurance benefits provided employees and
dependents are also presented.

The scheduled weekly hours (table B-3) of a majority of the
first-sh ift workers in an establishment are tabulated as applying to
all of the plant or office workers of that establishment. Paid holidays;
paid vacations; health, insurance, and pension plans; and profit-sharing
plans (tables B-4 through B-8) are treated statistically on the basis
that these are applicable to all plant or office workers if a majority
of such workers- are eligible or may eventually qualify for the prac­
tices listed. Sums of individual items in tables B-2 through B-8 may
not equal totals because of rounding.
Data on paid holidays (table B-4) are limited to data on holi­
days granted annually on a formal b asis; i . e ., (l) are provided for
in written form, or (2) have been established by custom. Holidays
ordinarily granted are included even though they may fall on a non­
workday, even if the worker is not granted another day off. The first
part of the paid holidays table presents the number of whole and half
holidays actually granted. The second part combines whole and half
holidays to show total holiday tim e.
The summary of vacation plans (table B-5) is limited to
formal policies, excluding informal arrangements whereby time off
with pay is granted at the discretion of the employer. Estim ates
exclude vacation-savings plans and those which offer "extended" or
"sabbatical" benefits beyond basic plans to workers with qualifying
lengths of service. Typical of such exclusions are plans in the steel,
aluminum, and can industries. Separate estim ates are provided ac­
cording to employer practice in computing vacation payments, such as
time payments, percent of annual earnings, or flat-sum amounts. How­
ever, in the tabulations of vacation pay, payments not on a time basis
were converted to a time b asis; for example, a payment of 2 percent
of annual earnings was considered as the equivalent of 1 week's pay.
Data are presented for all health, insurance, and pension
plans (tables B-6 and B-7) for which at least a part of the cost is
borne by the employer, excepting only legal requirements such as

Sickness and accident insurance is limited to that type of
insurance under which predetermined cash payments are made directly
to the insured on a weekly or monthly b asis during illness or accident
disability. Information is presented for all such plans to which the
employer contributes. However, in New York and New Jersey, which
have enacted temporary disability insurance laws which require em­
ployer contributions, * plans are included only if the employer (l) con­
2
tributes more than is legally required, or (2) provides the employee
with benefits which exceed the requirements of the law. Tabulations
of paid sick leave plans are limited to formal plan s3 which provide
full pay or a proportion of the worker's pay during absence from work
because of illness. Separate tabulations are presented according to
(l) plans which provide full pay and no waiting period, and (2) plans
which provide either partial pay or a waiting period. In addition
to the presentation of the proportions of workers who are provided
sickness and accident insurance or paid sick leave, an unduplicated
total is shown of workers who receive either or both types of benefits.
Catastrophe insurance, sometimes referred to as extended
medical insurance, includes those plans which are designed to protect
employees in case of sickness and injury involving expenses beyond
the normal coverage of hospitalization, medical, and surgical plans.
Medical insurance refers to plans providing for complete or partial
payment of doctors' fees. Such plans may be underwritten by com­
m ercial insurance companies or nonprofit organizations or they may
be self-insured. Tabulations of retirement pension plans are limited
to those plans that provide monthly payments for the remainder of
the w orker's life.
Profit-sharing plans (table B-8) are limited to formal plans
with definite formulas for computing profit shares to be distributed
among employees and whose formulas were communicated to em­
ployees in advance of the determination of profits. Data are presented
according to provisions for distributing profit shares to employees;
(l) Current or cash distribution of profit shares within a short period
after determination of profits; (2) deferred distribution of profit shares
after a specified number of years or at retirement; (3) combination
current and deferred plans; and (4) elective distribution plans, under
which each participant is required to select whether to take his share
of the current y ear's profit in cash, have it deferred, or part in cash
and part deferred.

* An establishment was considered as having a policy if it m et either of the following
conditions: (1) Operated late shifts at the time of the survey, or (2) had formal provisions covering
late shifts. An establishment was considered as having formal provisions if it (1) had operated late
shifts during the 12 months prior to the survey, or (2) had provisions in written form for operating
late shifts.

2 The temporary disability laws in California and Rhode Island do not require employer
contributions.
3 An establishment was considered as having a formal plan if it established at least the
minimum number of days of sick leave available to each employee. Such a plan need not be
written, but informal sick leave allowances, determined on an individual basis, were excluded.




3

T a b le

E sta b lis h m e n ts and w o rk e r s w ithin sc o p e of su r v e y and n u m ber stu d ied in New H aven , C onn ., 1 by m a jo r in d u stry d iv isio n ,

W o rk ers in e sta b lis h m e n ts

N u m b er o f e sta b lish m e n ts
M inim um
em ploy m en t
in e s t a b lis h ­
m e n ts in sc o p e
o f stu dy

In d u stry d iv isio n

A ll d iv is io n s _____________________

_______ ___

M an u factu rin g--------------------------------------------N o n m an u factu rin g---------------------------------------T r a n sp o rta tio n , co m m u n icatio n , and
oth er pu blic u t ilit ie s 5 --------------------------W h olesale t r a d e . ___________________________
R e t a il tr a d e __ ----- ---- -----------------------F in a n c e , in su ra n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e --------S e r v i c e s 8____________________ _____ _____ _

Ja n u a r y 1966

W ithin sc o p e o f stu d y
Within sc o p e
o f stu dy *

Studied

T o t a l4

Stu d ied

P lan t

O ffice

N u m b er

.

266

50
-

152
114

50
50
50
50
50

17
24
38

2
0
15

P ercen t

11
0

6 4 ,5 0 0

10
0

4 2 ,2 0 0

12,100

4 5 ,5 0 0

45
56

4 0 ,2 0 0
2 4 ,3 0 0

62
38

3 0 ,1 0 0

4, 800
7, 300

26, 330
1 9 ,1 7 0

14
9
13

10,600

17
4

4 ,8 0 0
(!)
(!)

3, 400
(‘ )
(*)
(*)
(6)

1 0 ,4 1 0
1, 070
3, 350
3, 050
1, 290

1
2
8

2 ,5 0 0
5 ,4 0 0
3 ,9 0 0
1 ,9 0 0

8
6
3

T o t a l4

12,100

h

(6)

1 The New H aven S tan d ard M etro p olitan S t a t is t ic a l A r e a , a s defin ed b y the B u re a u of the B u d get through M arc h 1965, c o n s is t s of the c ity of New H aven; and the tow ns of Bethany, B r a n fo r d ,
E a s t H aven, G u ilfo rd , H am den, N orth B ra n fo rd , N orth H aven , O ran g e , W est H aven , and W oodbridge in New H aven C ounty. The " w o r k e r s w ithin sc o p e of stu d y " e s t im a te s shown in th is tab le
p ro vid e a re a so n a b ly a c c u r a te d e sc rip tio n of the s iz e and c o m p o sitio n of the la b o r fo r c e in clu ded in the su r v e y . The e s t im a te s a r e not in ten ded, h o w ev er, to s e r v e a s a b a s is o f c o m p a r iso n with
o ther em ploym en t in d e x e s fo r the a r e a to m e a s u r e em ploy m en t tre n d s o r le v e ls sin c e (1) planning of w age s u r v e y s r e q u ir e s the u se o f e sta b lish m e n t d a ta co m p iled c o n sid e r a b ly in adv an ce of the
p a y r o ll p erio d stu d ied , and (2) s m a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts a r e exclu d ed fr o m the sc o p e o f the su rv e y .
2 The 1957 r e v is e d edition of the S tan d ard In d u stria l C la s s if ic a t io n M an u al and the 1963 Su pp lem en t w ere u se d in c la s s ify in g e sta b lis h m e n ts by in d u stry d iv isio n .
3 In clu d es a ll e sta b lish m e n ts with to ta l em ploy m en t at o r above the m in im u m lim itatio n . A ll o u tle ts (w ithin the a re a ) of co m p an ie s in su ch in d u str ie s a s tr a d e , fin an c e , auto r e p a ir s e r v ic e ,
and m otion p ic tu re t h e a te r s a r e c o n sid e re d a s 1 e sta b lish m e n t.
4 In clu d es e x e cu tiv e , p r o fe s s io n a l, and oth er w o rk e rs exclu d ed fr o m the se p a r a t e p lan t and o ffic e c a te g o r ie s .
5 T a x ic a b s and s e r v ic e s in c id en tal to w ate r t ra n sp o rta tio n w e re exclu d ed.
6 T h is in d u stry d iv isio n i s re p re se n te d in e s t im a te s fo r " a l l in d u s t r ie s " and "n o n m an u fac tu rin g " in the S e r i e s A t a b le s , and fo r " a l l in d u s t r ie s " in the S e r ie s B ta b le s . S e p a r a te p r e se n ta tio n
of d a ta fo r th is d iv isio n i s not m ad e fo r one o r m o re of the follow in g r e a s o n s : (1) Em ploy m en t in the d iv isio n i s too s m a ll to p ro v id e enough d a ta to m e r it s e p a r a t e stu dy, (2) the sa m p le w as
not d esig n ed in itia lly to p e rm it s e p a r a t e p re se n ta tio n , (3) r e sp o n se w as in su fficie n t o r in ad eq u ate to p e r m it s e p a r a t e p r e se n ta tio n , and (4) th e r e i s p o s s ib ility of d i s c lo s u r e of in d iv id u al
e sta b lish m e n t d ata.
7 W o rk ers fro m th is e n tire in d u stry d iv isio n a r e r e p r e se n te d in e s t im a te s fo r " a l l in d u s t r ie s " and "n o n m an u fac tu rin g " in the S e r ie s A t a b le s , but fr o m the r e a l e sta te p o rtio n only in e s t im a te s
fo r " a l l in d u s t r ie s " in the S e r ie s B t a b le s . S e p a r a te p re se n ta tio n of d ata fo r th is d iv isio n i s not m a d e fo r one o r m o r e of the r e a s o n s giv en in fo otn ote 6 above.
8 H o te ls; p e r so n a l s e r v ic e s ; b u s in e s s s e r v ic e s ; au tom ob ile r e p a ir sh o p s; m otion p ic tu r e s; n on profit m e m b e r sh ip o r g a n iz a tio n s (ex clu din g r e lig io u s and c h a r ita b le o rg a n iz a tio n s); and en gin eerin g
and a r c h ite c tu r a l s e r v ic e s .




S ix ty p e rc e n t of the em p lo y ees w ithin sc o p e of the su r v e y in the New H aven a re a ,
w e re em ploy ed in m an u factu rin g f ir m s . The follow in g ta b le p r e s e n ts the m a jo r in d u stry
g ro u p s and s p e c ific in d u str ie s a s a p e rce n t of a ll m an u factu rin g:
In d u stry gro u p
T r a n sp o r ta tio n e q u ip m e n t------O rdn an ce and a c c e s s o r i e s ------P r im a r y m e t a l s -------------------A p p a r e l________________________
F a b r ic a t e d m e ta l p r o d u c t s ____
R u b b er and m isc e lla n e o u s
p l a s t i c s _______________________
E le c t r ic a l m a c h in e r y __________
P rin tin g and p u b lish in g--------F o o d p r o d u c t s .---------------------

S p e c ific in d u str ie s
17
13

1
0
9
7
7

A ir c r a ft and p a r t s _____________ 16
S m a ll a r m s ___ _______________ 13
C u tle r y , h an d too ls, and
g e n e r a l h a r d w a r e ___ _ _____ 5
T i r e s and in n er tu b e s__________ 4
W o m en 's, m i s s e s ', and
ju n io r s' o u te rw e a r ___________ 4

6
6
5

T h is in fo rm atio n is b a se d on e s t im a te s of to tal em ploy m en t d e riv e d fr o m u n iv e r se
m a t e r ia ls co m p iled p r io r to a c tu a l su r v e y . P r o p o r tio n s in v a r io u s in d u stry d iv isio n s m ay
d iffe r fro m p ro p o rtio n s b a se d on the r e s u lt s of the su r v e y a s shown in ta b le 1 ab o v e.

4

Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups
Presented in table 2 are indexes and percentages of change in
average salaries of office clerical workers and industrial nurses, and
in average earnings of selected plant worker groups.
For office clerical workers and industrial nurses, the p er­
centages of change relate to average weekly salaries for normal hours
of work, that is, the standard work schedule for which straight-time
salaries are paid. For plant worker groups, they measure changes
in average straight-time hourly earnings, excluding premium pay for
overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. The
percentages are based on data for selected key occupations and in­
clude most of the numerically important jobs within each group.
Office clerical (men and women):
Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B
Clerks, accounting, classes A and B
Cleiks, file, classes A, B, and C
Clerks, order
Clerks, payroll
Comptometer operators
Keypunch operators, classes A and B
Office boys and girls
Stenographers, general
Stenographers, senior
Switchboard operators, classes A and B
Tabulating-machine operators, class B
Typists, classes A and B

Industrial nurses (men and women):
Nurses, industrial (registered)
Skilled maintenance (men):
Carpenters
Electricians
Machinists
Mechanics
Mechanics (automotive)
Painters
Pipefitters
Tool and die makers
Unskilled plant (men):
Janitors, porters, and cleaners
Laborers, m aterial handling

NOTE: Secretaries, included in the list of jobs in all previous years, are
excluded because of a change in the description this year.

Average weekly salaries or average hourly earnings were
computed for each of the selected occupations. The average salaries
or hourly earnings were then multiplied by employment in each of

the jobs during the period surveyed in 1961. These weighted earnings
for individual occupations were then totaled to obtain an aggregate for
each occupational group. Finally, the ratio (expressed as a percentage)
of the group aggregate for the one year to the aggregate for the other
year was computed and the difference between the result and 100 is
the percentage of change from the one period to the other. The
indexes were computed by multiplying the ratios for each group
aggregate for each period after the base year (1961).
The indexes and percentages of change m easure, principally,
the effects of (1) general salary and wage changes; (2) merit or other
increases in pay received by individual workers while in the same job;
and (3) changes in average wages due to changes in the labor force r e ­
sulting from labor turnover, force expansions, force reductions, and
changes in the proportions of workers employed by establishments with
different pay levels. Changes in the labor force can cause increases
or decreases in the occupational averages without actual wage changes.
For example, a force expansion might increase the proportion of lower
paid workers in a specific occupation and lower the average, whereas
a reduction in the proportion of lower paid workers would have the
opposite effect. Sim ilarly, the movement of a high-paying establish­
ment out of an area could cause the average earnings to drop, even
though no change in rates occurred in other establishments in the area.
Data are adjusted where n ecessary to remove from the indexes and
percentages of change any significant effect caused by changes in
scope of the survey.
The use of constant employment weights eliminates the effect
of changes in the proportion of workers represented in each job in­
cluded in the data. The percentages of change reflect only changes in
average pay for straight-tim e hours. They are not influenced by
changes in standard work schedules, as such, or by premium pay
for overtime.

Table 2. Indexes of standard weekly salaries and straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupational groups in New Haven, C onn.,
January 1966 and January 1965, and percents of increase for selected periods
Indexes
(February 1961=100)
Industry and occupational group
January 1966

January 1965

Percents Qf increase
January 1965
to
January 1966

January 1964
to
Tanuarv 1965

January 1963
to
January 1964

January 1962
to
January 1963

February 1961 February 1960
to
to
January 1962 February 1961

A ll industries:
Office clerical (men and w om en)-----Industrial nurses (m en and w om en)----Skilled maintenance (men)--------------Unskilled plant (m e n )---------------------

113.2
118.8
114.5
113.5

109.2
113.1
110.3
111.6

3 .7
5.1
3.8
1.7

2 .5
4 .3
1.9
2 .0

3 .3
1 .0
3 .2
4 .6

2 .4
3 .5
2 .4
3.8

0 .7
3 .7
2 .5
.8

3 .4
3 .8
4 .4
.8

Manufacturing:
Office clerical (men and w om en)-----Industrial nurses (m en and w om en)----Skilled maintenance (men)--------------Unskilled plant (m e n )---------------------

112.7
117.6
113.0
115.6

111.3
112.8
109.0
114.5

1.3
4 .3
3 .7
1.0

2.3
5 .5
1.1
1.6

5 .3
1 .5
3 .4
7 .4

1.3
1 .5
2 .2
2.3

2 .0
3 .7
1.9
2 .6

3 .4
3 .3
4. 1
2 .2




5
A. Occupational Earnings
Table A-l. Office Occupations—Men and Women
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, New Haven, Conn., January 1966)
W eekly earnings1
(standard)

Number of w ork ers receivin g straigh t-tim e w eekly earn in gs of—

*

Average
weekly
hours1
(standard)

Sex, occupation, and industry division

*
45

$

*

$

$

(

$

$

$

$

*

$

$

$

$

$

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

105

110

115

120

S

55

60

65

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

105

110

115

120

125

MEN
CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS A --------------MANUFACTUR I N G -----------------------------------------

103

25

$
$
$
4 0 .0 120.50 122.50 1 1 8 .5 0 -1 2 6 .0 0
147.00
4 0 . C 1 2 2 .0 0 1 31.50 1 0 6 .0 0 1 0 8 .0 0 -

CLERKS, O R D ER -----------------------------------------------3 9 .0
3 9 .0

O FFICE BOYS ----------------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTUR I N G ----------------------------------

7 2 .0 0
7 7 .5 0

7 0 . UO
7 7 .5 0

TABULATING-MACH1NE OPERATORS,
CLASS B ------------------------------------------------------------

46

1

137.00

5 8 .0 0 - 8 3 .5 0
5 9 .5 0 - 9 7 .0 0

12
4

10

10
3

6

8 .5 0 -1 1 3 .5 0

WOMEN
B ILLE R S , MACHINE (B IL L IN G
MACHINE! ---------------------------------------------------------

7 2 .5 0

6 1 .0 0 - 9 7 .5 0

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATORS,
CLASS A ------------------------------------------------------------

8 8 .5 0

7 5 .0 C -1 0 0 .0 0

7 1 .0 0
7 2 .0 0

6 4 . 0 0 - 8 0 .0 0
6 4 . 0 0 - 8 6 .5 0

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATORS,
CLASS B ----------------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING-----------------------------------------

51
38

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS A -------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING----------------------------------

228
85
143

3 9 .0 101.00 101.50
3 9.5 9 2 .0 0
9 3 .0 0
3 9 .0 106 .50 113.00

8 9 .0 0 8 2 .0 0 9 4 .0 0 -

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS B -------------MANUFACTURING---------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------

201
85
116

3 9 .0
3 9.5
38.5

7 7 .0 0
8 0 .5 0
7 4 .0 0

7 6 .0 0
79.5 0
7 3 .0 0

6 7 . 5 0 - 8 3 .0 0
7 2 . 5 0 - 8 4 .5 0
6 4 . 5 0 - 8 0 .5 0

CLERKS, F I L E , CLASS B ----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING---------------------------------

51
32

3 8.5
3 7 .5

6 7 .5 0
6 8 .0 0

6 7 .0 0
6 7 .0 0

6 1 . 5 0 - 7 6 .5 0
6 1 . 0 0 - 7 9 .5 0

CLERKS, F IL E , CLASS C ----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING----------------------------------

117
96

3 8.5
3 8 .0

6 2 .5 0
6 1 .0 0

6 0 .0 0
5 9 .5 0

5 6 . 0 0 - 7 1 .5 0
5 5 . 5 0 - 6 9 .0 0

CLERKS, ORDER ----------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING-----------------------------------------

79
47

39.5
3 9.5

83 .CO
9 7 .0 0

8 2 .0 0
9 9 .0 0

5 5 . C C - 1 0 3 .0 0
8 1 .0 0 1 1 4 .0 0

6
6

CLERKS, P A Y R O LL------------------------------------------M ANUFACTURING---------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING---------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S 3-----------------------------

167
112
55
30

3 9 .(
39.5
3 8 .0
3 8 .0

86.5C
8 5 .0 0
8 9 .5 0
9 4 . 5C

8 5 .0 0
8 4 .0 0
9 1.5 0
9 6 .5 0

8 0 .0 0 7 9 .0 0 8 1 .5 0 8 9 .0 0 -

5
4

COMPTOMETER OPERATORS----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

91
69

3 9 .5
3 9.5

8 5 .0 0
8 7 .5 0

7 7 .0 0
7 5.0 0

7 0 .5 0 7 0 .0 0 -

1 C 8 .0 0
1 1 0 .0 0

8

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS A -------------MANUFACTURING----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING----------------------------------

126
38

3 9 .0
3 9.5
3 8 .5

8 8 .5 0
8 3 .5 0
9 0 .5 0

86.00

8 3 .0 0
90 .00

8 J . 0 0 - 1 0 5 .0 0
7 9 . 5 0 - 8 8 .0 0
8 0 .0 0 1 0 6 .5 0

2

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS B -------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------

178
58
120

3 8 .5
4 0 .0
3 8 .0

7 6.0 0
7 7 .5 0
7 5 .0 0

7 4.0 0
7 5 .0 0
7 4 .0 0

7 0 . 0 0 - 8 3 .0 0
7 1 . 0 0 - 8 3 .0 0
6 9 . 0 0 - 8 3 .0 0

See footnotes at end of table.




39.5
4 0 .0

125

7 1 .0 0
7 2 .0 0

7
7

13
10

14

1
0

15
13
2

1 1 7 .0 0
1 0 1 .5 0
1 1 9 .5 0

9 5 .0 0
9 2 .0 0
9 8 .5 0
9 9 . 5U

$

$

$

32

7
4
3

19
7
12

4
4

17
8
9

27
14
13

10

37
29

6

7
3

6
6

15
8

42
32

2

7

10

16
4

1

4

12

1
1

18
16

28

6

1

13
7
22

16
5
11

2

15
7

4
3

37
13
24

32
22

11

21

22

22

11
6

4
2

9
9

16
16

1

16
12

1

2

13

1

12

20
18
2
2
55
20
35

1
14
3
27
10
17
19
8
11

3

21
16
5
5

22
15
7
3

18
5
13
13
2

2

1

1
28
15
13

14
5
9

27
10
17

10
5
5

16
5

11
13

1

12

11

1
0
1
1

12
12

1

31

1

-

14
14

31

1

1

36
3
33

28

1

27
2
2

130

13C

140

150

—

50

and
under

—

—

160

and

140

150

16C

over

6
Table A-l. Office Occupations—Men and Women— Continued
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, New Haven, Conn., January 1966)
W e e k ly earnings1
(standard)

N u m ber

$

t

$

$

of w o rk e rs

«ft

$

,4t
f

um
ber

A verag e
w eek ly

$

r e c e iv in g

$

s t r a ig h t -t im e

$

$

f

w e e k ly

$

e a rn in g s

$

%

o f—

$

%

oikers

hours1

$

$

$

$

[standard)

55

6C

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

ICC

195

110

115

120

125

130

140

15C

160

59

Sex, occupation, arid industry division

50

55

6C

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

1C5

no

115

120

125

130

140

150

160

over

—

3

12
1C

2
2

4
2

—

2

6
4

4
4

—
“

5
5

—

-

1
1

—
-

-

~

-

—
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2
-

7
2
5

7
2
5
2

30
16
14
*

62
36
26
7

81
58
23
2

69
52
17
1

61
53
8
3

59
37
22
5

48
23
25
10

49
32
17
2

38
19
19
18

23
14
9
3

22
12
1C
4

20
4
16
16

9
2
7
5

12
11

-

2
“

4
2

6
4

12
2

2
1

3
1

4
3

2
2

5
5

11
11

-

13
11
2

16
4
12

2
2
-

-

45
M ean2

M e d ian 2

M id d le range 2

an d
an d

under

WOMEN -

CONTINUED

O FFICE GIRLS --------------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING-----------------------------------

39
28

39,5
3 9.5

$
7 2 .5C
7 5 .5 0

$
69.09
75.09

$
$
5 8 .C O - 8 6.C0
5 8 .5 0 - 8 9 .5 0

SECRETARIES4 5 ----------------------MANUFACTURING---------------NONMANUFACTURING--------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S 3—

60C
363
237
89

8 7 .5 0 -1 1 2 .5 0
3 9 .0 lO u .5 0
98.5 0
8 8 .0 9 -1 0 8 .5 0
9 7 .5C 96.5 0
4 0 .0
8 6 .5 9 —119.00
3 8 .0 104.50 1C 4 .50
3 9 .0 12t‘.cC 118.50 1 0 6 .0 0 -1 3 3 .5 0

SECRETARIES. CLASS A 5NONMANUFACTURING ---------

55
35

3 8 .5 1 2 3 .5t 115.00 1 0 8 .5 0 -1 4 8 .0 0
3 8.0 131.CC 135.00 1 0 9 .0 9 -1 5 6 .5 0

SECRETARIES, CLASS B 5MAN UF ACTUR I N G ---------------NONMANUFACTURING---------

134
81
53

9 8 .0 0 -1 2 5 .0 0
3 9 .0 110.50 112.50
4 0 .0 110.0C 1 1 2 .o;» 9 7 .5 0 -1 2 4 .CO
37.5 1 11.50 114.C0 1 0 9 .5 0 -1 3 0 .0 0

SECRETARIES. CLASS C 5---------------------------MANUFACTURING-----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S 3------------------------------

226
149
77
29

8 9 .5 0 -1 0 8 .5 0
98.0 0
3 9 .0 9 8 .5 0
8 9 .5 3 -1 0 4 .5 0
96.5 0
96.50
4 0 .0
8 9 .0 0 -1 1 3 .5 0
3 8.0 102.53 104.50
3 9.0 1 09.56 109.03 1 3 4 .0 3 -1 1 9 .0 0

SECRETARIES, CLASS D 5--------------------------MANUFACTURING-----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------------------

185
113
72

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 8 .5

8 8 .5 0
8 8 .0 0
89. DC

8 7 .5 0
8 8 .5 0
84.5 0

8 2 .0 0 - 9 6 .5 0
8 4 .0 3 — 9 4 .5 9
7 8 .0 0 -1 0 4 .CO

STENOGRAPHERS, G EN ER AL--------------------------MANUFACTURING-----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S 3------------------------------

264
113
151
93

39.0
3 9.5
38.5
3 9 .9

8 7 . CC
8 6.5 0
8 7 .5 0
9 2 . 5C

8 5 .5 0
8 4 .5 0
8 8 .5 0
9 3 .5 3

STENOGRAPHERS, S E N IO R -----------------------------MANUFACTURING-----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING-----------------------------------

1 ('6
65
41

3 9.0
3 9 .5
3 8 .9

8 8 .5 9
8 5 .0 0
9 4 .5 0

SWITCHBOARD OPERATORS, CLASS A5---------

25

3 8.5

SWITCHBOARC OPERATORS, CLASS B5--------NONMANUFACTURING-----------------------------------

51
44

SWITCHBOARO OPER ATO R -R ECEP TIO N ISTSMANUFACTUR I N G -----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING-----------------------------------

-

~

“
4
1
3

4
1
3

13
9
4

13
11
2

12
5
7

11
7
4

11
7
4

17
10
7

11
8
3

3
2
1

6
6
-

18
9
9
1

34
22
12
_

30
25
5
1

37
32
5
2

27
19
8
3

21
8
13
9

22
14
8
1

14
8
6
6

8
4
4
3

40
26
14

43
35
8

22
18
4

9
8
1

16
11
5

10
6
4

4
1
3

5
5

1
1

7
1
6
6

15
2
13
13

17
17
14

4
4

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

*

~

~

3

6

4

3

6

4

-

1

_

_

_

-

-

-

“

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

_

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

7 6 .5 0 - 9 6 .0 0
8 0 .0 0 - 9 3 .CO
7 3 .0 0 - 9 9 .5 0
7 6 .0 3 -1 1 1 .5 0

_

_

_

in

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

10
5

8 7.0 0
8 6 .0 0
9 0.0 0

8 0 .0 0 - 9 6 .CO
7 9 .3 0 - 9 3 .0 0
8 2 .0 0 -1 1 5 .5 0

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

8 4 .5 0

8 4 .0 0

7 9 .O J - 9 4 .0 0

-

-

-

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

8 0 .0 0
7 8.5 0

80 . uO
7 1 .9 0

6 4 . ? G -iu 5 .5 0
6 3 .5 0 -1 0 6 .5 0

1
1

”

117
75
42

3 9 .0
39.5
39.0

81.UC
8 2 .5 0
7 8 .0 0

8 2 .5 0
8 6 .OC
7 8.0 0

7 3 .5 0 - 9 U .0 0
7 6 .0 0 - 9 2 .CO
7 2 .0 0 - 87.5 0

_
-

“

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATORS,
GEN ER AL------------------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING-----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------------------

81
31
5u

3 9 .0
4 9 .C
3 8 .0

7 6 .5 0
7 7 .5 0
7 6 .CC

76.5 0
7 8 . 5C
7 3.0 0

6 9 .5 0 - 8 3.0 0
7 5 .5 0 - 8 5 .CO
6 4 .5 3 - 8 2 .5 0

_

_

_

-

-

-

T Y P IS T S , CLASS A -----------------------------------------MANUFACTURING-----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING-----------------------------------

256
123
133

3 8 .5
3 9 .0
3 8 .0

79.5C
8 1 .0 0
7 7 .5 0

7 7 .5 0
8 0 .0 0
7 5 .0 0

7 2 .u J — 8 6 .CO
7 3 .5 U - 9u.(»0
7 0 .5 0 - 8 3.5 o

-

_

-

~

-

T Y P IS T S , CLASS B -----------------------------------------MANUFACTURING-----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING----------------------------------- 1
5
4
3
2

410
173
237

3 8.5
3 9.5
3 8 .0

6 9 .5 0
7 3 .0 0
67.50

69.50
7 3.0 0
6 6 .0 0

6 3 .0 3 - 7 6.0 0
6 7 .0 0 - 8 0 .OC
6 2 .C l - 7 3 .5 0

6
2
4

1
4
4

19
6
13

24
7
17
11

22
4
18
6

32
18
14
7

43
30
13
5

26
20
6
5

38
11
27
11

23
13
10
10

3
3

"

4
1
3

4
2
2

18
16
2

20
12
8

18
12
6

15
10
5

6
5
1

5
5
-

3
2
1

-

4

l

2

8

2

3

2

2

3
3

11
11

7
7

2
2

2
-

6
5

1
1

1

2

1
-

6
4

17
12
5

9
9

22
12
1C

10
7
3

24
18
6

16
11
5

6
5
1

4
4

2
2

7

14
14

7
7

14
6
8

20
15
5

11
3
8

11
7
4

-

_

_

28
12
16

65
25
4C

47

-

13
1
12

24
10
14

9
6

24

35
22
13

4o
11
29

94
21
73

75
23
52

82
54
28

50
19
31

24
20
4

29
16
13

7
5

1
1

1

3

1

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

3
1

1
1

2

-

-

-

-

-

2

1
1

2

-

_

-

-

-

-

14
14

_
-

1

1

2

“

“

-

5
4
1

“

-

_

1
1

~

-

_

-

4
4

-

-

12

—
-

7
2
5

-

23

-

1
_

4

2

_

.

_

_

_

-

-

~

~

_

-

_

-

_

_

-

_

_

_

-

-

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

19
19

2
2
“

4

6

4

_

_

_

_

_

_

6

4

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

1

3

2

3

1

l

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for w hich employees receive their regular stra ig h t-tim e salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
2 The mean is computed for each job by totaling the earnings of all w orkers and dividing by the number of w orke rs. The median designates position— half of the employees surveyed receive m ore
than the rate shown; half receive less than the rate shown. The m iddle range is defined by 2 rates of pay; a fourth of the w orkers earn less than the lower of these rates and a fourth earn m ore than the
higher rate.
3 Transportation, com m unication, and other public utilities.
4 May include w orke rs other than those presented separately.
5 D escription for this occupation has been revised since the last survey in this area. See appendix A .




7
Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations—Men and Women
(Average stra ig h t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, New Haven, Conn. , January 1966)
W eekly earnings1
(standard)
Number

Num ber of w orkers receiving stra ig ht-tim e w eekly earnings of—
$

s

$

s

s

workers

weekly
hours1
(standard)

M ean23

Median 2

Middle range 2

*

$

$
1
105 110

$

$

75

80

85

90

95

ICO

$
$
125 130

80

85

90

95

ICO

105

110

115

—

-

5
2

3
2

4

14
14

6
5

10
8

115

120

123

125

130

6

7C
and
under
75

Sex, occupation, and industry division

4

6
5

7
5

2
2

1
1

$

$

$
$
145 150

135

140

135

140

145

150

4

17

33

9

6
4

•

1

_

3
3

8
2

$

*

*

155

160

155

160

170

23

1

18

5

8

_

2
2

-

_

-

170
-

1

i

180|
1

_

180

190 j

MEN
DRAFTSMEN* CLASS A3-------------------------------------

129

$
$
$
$
4 0 .0 1 43 .50 1 40.50 1 3 5 .0 0 -1 5 5 .0 0

DRAFTSMEN* CLASS C3------------------------------------MANUFACTURING------------------------------------------

43
25

3 9 .5 1 09.00 116 .00
9 0 .0 0 -1 2 4 .5 0
4 u.G 113.9C 119.00 1 0 9 .0 0 —125. 50

3
3

-

4

4

—

-

2
2

51
38

3 9 .5 1 1 3 .00 110.50 1 0 3 .0 0 -1 2 6 .5 0
4 0 .0 109.CL 107.50 1 0 2 .5 0 -1 1 4 .5 0

-

-

-

-

1

WOMEN
NURSES* INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED! -----MANUFACTURING------------------------------------------

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for w hich employees receive their reg ular stra igh t-tim e salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
2 F o r definition of te rm s , see footnote 2, table A - l .
3 Description for this occupation has been revised since the last survey in this area. See appendix A .




1

1

1

8

Table A-3. Office, Professional, and Technical Occupations—Men and Women Combined
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, New Haven, Conn. , January 1966)
Average
Number
of
woikeis

Occupation and ind ustry division

W eekly
W eekly
hours 1 earnings 1
(standard) (standard)

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS

Average
Number
of
workers

Occupation and ind ustry d ivision

O FFICE OCCUPATIONS -

W eekly
hours 1
(standard)

W eekly
earnings 1
(standard)

O FFICE OCCUPATIONS -

CONTINUED

3 9 .5

$
7 7 .5 0

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS B --------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

181
6c
i2 1

3 8 .5
4 '’.0
3 8 .0

*
P
7 6 .5 0
7 8 .5 0
7 5 .5 0

27

4 0 .5

7 0 .5 0

— —

26

3 8 .5

8 8 .5 0

O FFICE BOYS AND GIRLS -------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------P UBLIC U T I L I T I E S 2------------------------------

104
35
69
34

39.5
4 0 .0
3 9 .0
3 9.5

7 2 .0 0
6 3 .5 0
7 6 .5 0
8 4. 5G

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATORS*
CLASS B -----------------------------------------------------------MANUFACTUR I N G -----------------------------------------

51
38

3 9.5
4 C .0

7 1 .0 0
72.00

SECRETARIES34---------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S 2------------------------------

605
364
241
93

3 9 .0 IO C . 50
4C.0' 9 7 .5 0
3 8 .0 1 0 5 .CC
3 9 .0 1 2 0 .5C

SECRETARIES, CLASS A4--------------------------NCNMANUFACTORING ----------------------------------

55
35

3 8 .5 1 23.50
3 8.9 1 3 1 .0 0

SECR ETAR IES, CLASS B 4--------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

135
81
54

3 9 .0 l l l . O o
4 0 . y 110.0k
3 7.5 112. uO

228
15f
78
30

3 9 .0
9 8 .5 0
4 0 .0
9 6 .5 0
3 8 .0 1 0 2 .50
3 9 .0 110 .06

BILLERS* MACHINE (B IL L IN G
M A C H IN E ) ---------------------------------------------------------

34

BILLERS* MACHINE (BOOKKEEPING
MACHINE) --------------------------------------------------------BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATORS*
CLASS A — —— — — — — — — — — —

Average

Occupation and ind ustry d ivision

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING* CLASS A ---------------MANUFACTURING-------------------------------------------

110

331

39.5 1 0 7 .0 0
4 0 .G 9 8 .5 0

CLERKS* ACCOUNTING* CLASS B ---------------M ANUFACTURING------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING------------------------------------

281
109
172

3 9 .0
3 9.5
3 9 .0

88.00
88.00
88.00

CLERKS, F I L E , CLASS B ------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------------------

52
33

3 8 .5
3 7 .5

68 . CC
6 8 .5 0

CLERKS, F I L E , CLASS C -----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------------------

118
97

3 8.5
3 8.0

6 3 .0 0
61.5«>

SECRETARIES, CLASS C 4--------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S 2-----------------------------

CLERKS, O R O E R -----------------------------------------------M ANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

128
92
36

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
39.5

9 8 .0 0
110.U 6 7 .5 0

SECR ETAR IES, CLASS D 4--------------------------M ANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

187
113
74

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 8 .5

8 9 .0 0
88. OC
9 0 .0 0

CLERKS, PAYROLL -------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S 1------------------------------*
2

175
118
57
32

39.1*
3 9.5
38.0
3 8 .0

8 7 . Ot
8 5 .5 0
9 0.0 0
95.00

STENOGRAPHERS, G EN ER AL---------------------------M ANUFACTURING------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING----------------------------------PUB LIC U T I L I T I E S 2-------------------------------

266
115
151
93

3 9 .0
39.5
3 8 .5
3 9 .0

8 7 .5 0
8 7 .0 0
8 7 .5C
9 2 .5 0

COMPTOMETER OPERATORS -----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------------

91
69

3 9.5
3 9.5

85.Uo>
8 7 .5 0

1C 9
67
42

39.0
3 9 .5
3 8.0

86.00
94. c l

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS A ---------------M ANUFACTURING------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING-----------------------------------

132
38
94

3 9 .0
3 9 .5
3 8 .5

88.00'

STENOGRAPHERS, SENIOR ------------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------SWITCH60ARC OPERATORS, CLASS A4---------

25

3 8 .5

8 4 .5 0

Number
of
workers

W eekly
hours 1
(standard)

W eekly
earnings 1
(standard)

CONTINUED
$

SWITCHBOARO OPERATORS, CLASS B4--------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

51
44

40. U
4 0 .0

80.01
7 8 .5 0

SWITCHBOARC O P ER ATO R -R ECEP TIO N IS TS MANUFACTUR I N G ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

117
75
42

3 9 .0
3 9 .5
3 9 .0

8 1 .0 0
8 2 .5 0
7 8 .0 0

TABULATIN G-M ACFINE OPERATORS*
CLASS A --------------------------------------------------------------

28

3 9 .5 1 1 3 .00

TABULATING-M ACHINE OPERATORS*
CLASS B ------ --------------------------— -------------- -- -----NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

52
36

3 9 .5 1 03 .50
3 9 .0 1 06.50

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATORS,
GEN ER A L -----------------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

81
31
50

3 9 .0
4 0 .0
3 8 .0

7 6 .5 0
7 7 .5 0
7 6 .0 0

T Y P IS T S , CLASS A ----------------------------------------M ANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S 2------------------------------

262
123
139
34

3 8 .5
3 9 .0
3 8 .C
3 8 .5

8 0 .0 0
81.0 U
7 9.0 0
9 1 .5 0

T Y P IS T S , CLASS B ----------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

41C
173
237

3 8 .5
3 9 .5
3 8 .0

6 9 .5 0
7 3 .0 0
6 7 .5 0

PROFESSIONAL ANO TECHNICAL
OCCUPATIONS

DRAFTSMEN, CLASS A4-------------------------------------

8 3 .5 0
8 9 .5 0

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their reg ular s tra ig h t-tim e
2 Transportation, com m unication, and other public utilitie s.

M ay include w orkers other than those presented separately.
4 D escription for this occupation has been revised since the last survey in this area.

4 0 .0 1 43 .50

45
27

3 9.5 107 .50
4 0 .C 1 If .0 0
1

NURSES, INDUSTRIAL (R E G IS T E R E D )-----M ANUFACTURING------------------------------------------

53
u

3 9 .5 1 13 .50
40 • 0 110.00

salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.

’




129

ORAFTSMEN, CLASS C 4------------------------------------M ANUFACTURING -----------------------------------------

8 9 .0 0

See appendix A .

9

Table A-4. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, New Haven, Conn. , January 1966)
Hourly earnings 1

O ccupation and in du stry division

Number
of
workers

Mean2 Median 2

Nu m b er of w o rk e rs receiving stra ig h t-tim e h o u rly earnings of—

Middle range2

1
S
S
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
(
$
$
1 .8 0 1 .9 0 2 .0 0 2 .1 0 2 .2 C 2 .3 0 2 .4 u 2 .5 0 2 .6 0 2 .7 0 2 .8 0 2 .9 0 3 .0 0 3. 10 3 .2 0 3 .3 0 3 .4 0 3 .5 0 3 .6 0 3 .7 0 3 .8 0
and
under
1 .9 0 2 .0 0

CARPENTERS. MAINTENANCE ---------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------

85
67

$
2 .7 9
2 .7 5

$
2 .8 7
2 .8 9

$
$
2 . 4 3 - 3 .1 1
2 . 2 9 - 3 .1 1

E L E C TR IC IA N S . MAINTENANCE —
MANUFACTURING ---------------------------

154
150

3 .0 4
3 .0 4

3 .0 8
3 .0 7

2 . 7 3 - 3 .3 4
2 . 7 3 - 3 .3 4

ENGINEERS. STATIONARY --------------M A NU FACTUR IN G---------------------------

98
81

2 .8 8
2 .8 6

2 .8 0
2 .7 8

2 . 7 4 - 3 .0 0
2 . 7 3 - 2 .9 5

-

FIREM EN. STATIONARY BOILER M A NU FACTUR IN G ---------------------------

79
70

2 .4 8
2 .4 8

2 .4 4
2 .4 4

2 . 1 8 - 2 .7 7
2 . 1 8 - 2 .4 9

3
-

-

HELPERS. MAINTENANCE TRADES
NONMANUFACTURING --------------------

112
30

2 .5 2
2 .6 8

2 .5 8
2 .8 6

2 . 3 7 - 2 .7 6
2 . 7 4 - 2 .9 5

2
2

M A C H IN IS TS , MAINTENANCE ---------MANUFACTURING --------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------P UB LIC U T I L I T I E S 3---------------

2C5
163
42
42

2 .9 7
2 .9 2
3 .1 9
3 .1 9

3 .0 3
2 .8 8
3 .0 7
3 .0 7

2 .7 0 2 .6 5 3 .0 3 3 .0 3 -

MECHANICS, AUTOMOTIVE
(M AIN TEN AN CE! -------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------PUB LIC U T I L I T I E S 3---------------

156
146
102

3 .1 5
3 .1 6
3 .1 9

3 .1 6
3 .1 6
3 .1 8

3 . 0 2 - 3 .3 2
3 . 0 2 - 3 .3 3
3 . 0 5 - 3 .3 6

MECHANICS, MAINTENANCE -----------M A NU FACTUR IN G---------------------------

2 83
256

3 .0 6
3 .0 4

3 .0 4
2 .9 6

2 . 8 4 - 3 .2 7
2 . 8 3 - 3 .2 6

MILLWRIGHTS --------------------------------------MANUFACTUR I N G ---------------------------

66
66

2 .8 9
2 .8 9

2 .8 3
2 .8 3

2 . 5 8 - 3 .1 9
2 . 5 8 - 3 .1 9

_

OILERS --------------------------------------------------M A NU FACTUR IN G---------------------------

63
63

2 .4 0
2 .4 0

2 .4 5
2 .4 5

2 . 1 9 - 2 .5 6
2 . 1 9 - 2 .5 6

1
1

4
4

3 .2 2
3 .2 2
3 .3 4
3 .3 4

2 .1 0 2 .2 0

2 .3 0 2 .4 0 2 .5 C 2 .6 0 2 .7 0 2 .8 0 2 .9 0 3 .0 0 3 .1 0 3 . 20 3 .3 0 3 .4 0 3 .5 0

“

-

~

~

18
18

_

_

_

-

~
-

-

3
3

2
2

5
5

1
1

3
3

15
2

11
11

6
5

9
8

4
3

5
4

_

-

~

-

14
14

18
18

15
15

7
7

8
8

18
16

3
3

19
18

32
31

_

-

2
2

-

-

-

1
1

1

7
7

42
42

1
-

22
22

18
5

2
-

_

_

-

3
-

3
-

_

6
6

9
9

_

-

17
4

10
10

7
7

2
1

2
2

-

12
12
-

23
23

1
1

63
32
31
31

1
1

16
16

-

-

•

33
32
28

21
21
15

27
21
16

10
9

~

8
8

12
12

2
2

3
3

30
3C

12
4

6
-

4

1
-

5
~

7

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

12
12
~

1
1
-

10
10
~

-

-

-

~

25
-

12

7
7
-

21
21
~

11
11

9
9

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

2
2

-

-

4
1
1

4

_

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

36
36

8
8

2
2

65
65

24
24

14

-

2
2

_

_

_
-

3
3

-

18
18

2
2

9
9

6
6

2
2

3
3

4
4

2
2

20
20

9
9

6
6

_

_

2
2

-

18
18

•

_

2
2

-

over

_

2
2

_

_

_

_

_

-

~

-

-

~

_

-

_

_

_

-

~

1

_

6

-

-

1
1

27
26
1
1

-

6
6

22
22
10

18
18
18

3
3
3

77

12

4

77

-

4

12
12

14
14

_

_

_

-

-

-

“

_

4
1
3
3

-

-

~

-

5
5

-

_

12
12

P AIN TER S , MAINTENANCE ---------------

26

2.8 8

2 .9 6

2 . 8 2 - 3 .0 8

-

-

-

-

1

2

-

2

-

P IP E F IT T E R S , MAINTENANCE -------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------

85
85

3 .0 3
3 .0 3

3 .0 8
3 .0 8

2 . 9 1 - 3 .2 7
2 . 9 1 - 3 .2 7

_

-

-

_

-

1
1

_

3
3

6

TOOL ANO D IE MAKERS -------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------

2 f.'4
2C4

3 .1 1
3 .1 1

3 .1 3
3 .1 3

2 . 9 1 - 3 .2 5
2 . 9 1 - 3 .2 5

_

_

1
1

2
2

-

-

_

E x clu d es p rem iu m pay for o v ertim e and fo r w ork on w eeken d s, h olid ay s, and late sh ifts,
F o r definition of t e r m s , se e footnote 2, tab le A - l.
T ran sp o rtatio n , com m unication, and other public u tilitie s.




-

~

-

-

_

-

—

1
~

3 .6 0 3 .7 C 3 .8 0

-

6
6

-

~

1

6

10
10

9
9

20
20

5

7

-

8
8

1
1

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

_

17
17

4

7

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

5

14
14

14
14

2
2

_

_

5

11
11

_

-

19
19

-

-

-

17
17

19
19

24
24

39
39

42
42

2
2

2
2

_

14
14

11
11

-

2
2

10
Table A-5. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, New Haven, Conn., January 1966)

Number of w orkers receivin g straigh t-tim e hourly earn in gs of—

Hourly earnings

O ccupation1 and industry division

Number
of
workers

1

$

1 .2 0

Mean3

Median3

Middle range3

$

$

$

$

1 .5 0

1 .3 0 1 .4 0

1 .6 0

1 . 7 0 1 . 8C

I

$

I

1 .9 0

2 .0 0 2 .1 0

1

I

$

I

t

$

2 .2 0

2 .3 0

2 .4 0

2 .5 0

2 .6 0 2 .7 0

$

I

$

i

$

$

i

S

2 .8 0

2 .9 0

3 .0 0

3 .1 0

3 .2 0

3 .3 0

3 .4 0

and
under

and

1 .30 1 .4 0 1 .5 0 1 .6 0 1 .7 0 1 .8 0 1 .9 0 2 .0 0 2 .1 0 2 .2 0 2 .3 0 2 .4 0 2 .5 0 2 .6 C 2 .7 0 2 .8 0 2 .9 0 3 .0 0 3 .1 0 3 .2 0 3 .3 0 3 .4 0 a ver

GUAR OS AND WATCHMEN----------------------------------MANUFACTURING-----------------------------------------GUARDS:
MANUFACTUR ING

$
1 .76
2 .2 7

$
1 .3 9
2 .1 7

$
$
1 .3 1 - 2 .1 6
2 .0 4 - 2 .5 6

2 .3 2

298
118

2 .1 7

2 .1 1

2 .6 6

2 .2 7

WATCHMEN:
MANUFACTUR ING

69

6
-

23
23

4
2

18
2

2 .0 9

2.01

1 .7 7
2.11
1 .62

1 .59
2 .0 9
1.55

1.51- 2 .0 8
1 . 88 - 2 .3 7
1.48* 1 .6 5

-

81
67

1 .62
1 .5 4

1 .4 7
1 .4 3

LABORERS, MATERIAL H A N D LIN G ---------------MANUFACTURING-----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S 4------------------------------

797
499
298
169

2 .2 7
2 .2 3
2 .3 3
2 .8 5

ORCER F IL L E R S ----------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING-----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------------------

80
36
44

PACKERS, S H IP P IN G ---------------------------------------M ANUFACTURING------------------------------------------

155
141

JANITORS* PORTERS* AND CLEANERS
(WOMENI ----------------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING---------------------------

1
-

855
263
592

JANITORS* PORTERS* ANC C LE A N E R S -----M ANUFACTURING-----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING-----------------------------------

87

2

37
34

10
10

34

5

9

21
19
2

53
45
8

10
7

4

18
14
4

65
65
-

77
70
7

70
68
2

72
67
5

11
10
1

8
8

3
3

6
4
2

11
11
~

3
1
2

10
10

3
2

-

38
38

40
40

20
18

2

117
8
109

265
10
255

1 .3 6 - 1 .8 7
1 .3 5 - 1 .5 8

5
5

24
24

17
15

9
9

2 .1 5
2 .1 1
2 .5 9
2 .7 0

1 .8 7 1 .9 3 1 .6 3 2 .6 3 -

2 .6 7
2 .6 2
3 .0 4
3 .1 4

-

3
3

12
12

48
48

71
28
43

2 .3 9
2 .21
2 .5 3

2 .3 3
2 .2 6
2 .7 7

2 .0 3 - 2 .8 8
2 .0 5 - 2 .3 5
1 .9 1 - 3 .0 5

_
-

~

-

_
-

_
-

2 .0 8
2 .1 2

2 .0 5
2 .0 5

1 .9 4 - 2 .1 9
1 .9 6 - 2 .1 9

_

l

8
_

_

40
1C
30

32
8
24

5
5
1

5C
30
2C

70
6
64

2

11
11

7
7

9
8

6
6

12
12

-

7

8

6

12

-

8

-

10

4

40
19
21

20
19
1

71
34
37

20
14
6

15
6
9

35
35

4

_

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

5

5

2

2

2

21
18
3

17
16
1
1

27
4
23
22

130
65
65
65

11
7
4
4

2
2
-

50
49
1
1

6
6
6

70
70
7C

16
16
-

—
-

“

5
4
1

16
16
“

1

2

_

5

1

_

19

_

_

_

1

2

5

1

•

19

-

-

-

-

2
2

8
6

7
7

10
10

-

1
1

_

7
7

_

_

_

_

_

~

-

-

-

-

PACKERS* SHIPPING (W O M EN )---------------------

58

1 .6 0

1 .6 3

1 .5 7 - 1 .6 7

-

3

2

15

34

-

-

-

2

-

2

~

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

R ECEIVING CLERKS -----------------------------------------M ANUFACTURING------------------------------------------

71
56

2 .3 7
2.42

2 .4 3
2 .4 5

2 .1 9 - 2 .4 9
2 .3 7 - 2 .5 0

_

-

“

-

6

4
2

2
2

~

7
7

“

8
5

27
27

8
7

-

_

_

_

1
-

_

_

-

7
6

1

~

~

SHIPPING CLERKS --------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING------------------------------------------

90
66

2 .5 3
2 .4 8

2 .4 4
2 .4 0

2 . 2 5 - 2 .8 5
2 . 2 6 - 2 .71

-

_

_

8

4
4

~

-

4
4

14
14

12
12

8
8

7
4

4
4

3
2

8
8

_

“

-

-

4
4

12
~

SHIPPING ANC RECEIVING C L E R K S ----------MANUFACTURING------------------------------------------

65
52

2 .41
2 .3 8

2 .4 9
2 .4 9

2 .1 9 - 2 .5 8
2 . 1 8 - 2 .5 7

_

-

-

6
6

-

1

1

9
9

8
4

3
3

5

21
19

2
-

_
“

2
2

4
4

-

1
-

_

5

TRUCKDRIVERS5 ------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING-----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S 4------------------------------

865
224
641
4C3

2 .8 8
2 .5 5
2 .9 9

2 .5 7 2 .3 6 2 .7 0 2 .7 9 -

—
-

9
9
-

12
9

42
36

72

15

48
42

3 .1 1

2 .9 5
2 .6 2
3 .1 3
3 .1 4

TRUCKDRIVERS, LIG H T (UN0ER
1 -1 /2 TONS I ------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------

147
123

2 .2 9
2 .2 9

2 .2 9
2 .5 0

1 .9 4 - 2 .5 6
1 .9 0 - 2 .5 7

TRUCKDRIVERS* HEAVY (OVER 4 TONS
TRAILER T Y P E ! ----------------------------------------M ANUFACTURING----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING----------------------------------

289
57
232

3 .11
2 .7 7

3 .1 5
2 .8 7
3 .1 7

3 .1 1 - 3 .1 9
2 .6 3 - 2 .9 4
3 .1 3 - 3 .2 3

See footnotes at end of table.




3 .2 0

3 .1 7
2.81
3 .1 9
3 .1 7

“
_

-

“

-

-

-

4
-

1
—

7
-

26

4

1

7

-

-

-

20
-

4
4

1
1

7
7

20
20

6

16
8
8
4

14
8

25
4

21
-

3

6

-

-

22
19

9

3
3

63
60

88
64
24
24

57
5C

-

20
20

12
12

-

1

14
1

6

7

1C

-

-

1

1
1
9
9

71
4

67

2
13
12
1

7

-

~

280
280
277

2
2

1
-

21

75

-

-

21

75

24

-

-

24

18

45
—
45

-

24

12
12
24
24
-

1
-

1

167
—

—

167

18

—

-

11
Table A-5. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations— Continued
(Average stra ig h t-tim e h ou rly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, New Haven, Conn., January 1966)
N um ber of w orkers receiving stra ig h t-tim e hou rly earnings of—

Hourly earnings2

Occupation1 and .industry division

TRUCK DRIVERS 5

-

Number
of
workers

$

1.20
Mean3

Median3

Middle range3

$

2.20

$
$
2 .3 0 2 .4 0

$
2 .5 0

%
2 .6 0

$
$
$
$
2 .7 0 2 .8 0 2 .9 0 3 . 0 o

$
$
$
$
3.1C 3 .2 0 3.3C 3 .40

an<j
and
under
1 .30 1 .4 0 1.50 1 .60 1.7C 1 .80 1.9C 2 .c C 2 . 1 0 2 . 2 0 2 .3 0 2 .4 0 2 .5 0 2 . 6 C 2 .7 C 2 . 8 C 2 .9 0 3.U0 3 .10 3 .2 0 3 .3 0 3 .4 C over

CONTINUE!)

TRUCKDRIVERS* HEAVY COVER A TONS.
OTHER THAN TRAILER T Y P E ) ---------------MANUFACTOR I N G -----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTUR ING — — — —— ——
PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S ------------------------------

2A6
113
133
29

$
2 .7 5
2 .54
2 .9 4
2 .6 9

$
2 .71
2 .6 2
2 .78
2 .6 2

$
2 .6 0 2 .3 6 2 .7 2 —
2 .5 5 -

TRUCKERS. POWER C FO R K LIFT) -----------------M ANUFACTURING------------------------------------------

2C1
172

2.41
2 .3 7

2 .4 1
2 .3 6

2 . 2 4 - 2 .6 4
2 .2 2 - 2 .5 1

TRUCKERS. POWER (OTHER THAN
F O R K L I F T )--------------------------------------------------------M ANUFACTURING------------------------------------------

88

2 .4 8
2 .4 8

2 .4 1
2 .3 9

2 .3 2 - 2 .8 3
2 .3 2 - 2 .8 3

1
2
3
4
5

$
t
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
1 .30 1.40 1.5C 1.6C 1 .7 0 1 .8 C 1 .9 0 2.00 2 . 1 0

85

$
2 .9 5
2 .6 8
3 .2 2
2 .7 5

-

-

-

“

-

_

_

“

4
4

~

35
35

6

3

10

3

“

57
48

58

1

-

-

_

15
15

-

-

-

-

-

—

_

-

1
1
1
1

24
18

57

3
_

Data lim ited to men w orkers except where otherwise indicated.
Excludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for w ork on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
F o r definition of term s , see footnote 2, table A - l .
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes all d riv e rs regardless of size and type of truck operated.




4
4

~

1
0

9

1

4
4

39
39

25
22

33
33

1
1

24
17

20

1
0

6

10

1
1

5
5

-

26
26

1
2
12

-

30
30

9

“

~

~

16
16

6

6

1

2

6

3

30

-

-

“
“

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

1

-

-

-

-

1

12

B. Establishm ent P ractices and Supplem entary Wage Provisions
Table B-l. Minimum Entrance Salaries for Women Office Workers
(D is tr ib u tio n of estab lish m e nts studied in a ll in d u s trie s and in in d u s try d iv is io n s b y m in im u m entran ce s a la r y fo r selected cate g o rie s
of ine x pe rie nce d w om e n office w o r k e r s , N e w H a v e n , C o n n ., J a n u a ry 1966)
In exp erien ced typ is ts
M a n ufa cturin g
M in im u m w ee kly s tra ig h t-tim e s a la r y 1

O th e r in e x p e rie n c e d c le r ic a l w o rk e rs 2

N onm an ufa ctu rin g

M a n ufa cturin g

B ased on standard w ee kly hou rs 3 of—

N o nm an ufa ctu rin g

B ased on standard w e e k ly ho u rs 3 of—
in a u sir ie s

A ll
sc h e d u le s

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s s t u d ie d

_

A ll
sc h e d u le s

40

37 y2

56

XXX

XXX

101

45

XXX

56

XXX

XXX

46

21

18

25

8

6

49

21

17

28

9

8

_

_

1
2
2
1
2
-

1
1
1
1
-

_

5
1
3
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1

5
1
1
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
1

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v in g no s p e c i f i e d m i n i m u m -------------------

15

6

XXX

9

XXX

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s w h ic h d id n o t e m p lo y w o r k e r s
in t h is c a t e g o r y ___________ — -------- ---— —

40

18

XXX

22

XXX

$ 5 0 .0 0 __
__
- —
. —
$ 5 2 .5 0 -----------------------------------------------$ 5 5 .0 0 -----------------------------------------------$ 5 7 .5 0 __ - ---- ------- — _ - — —
$ 6 0 .0 0 ____________________________________
$ 6 2 .5 0 __________
______________ —
_
$ 6 5 .0 0 ---------------— -----------------------------$ 6 7 .5 0 — _ - _
. --------$ 7 0 .0 0
- —
— —
— $ 7 2 .5 0 —
- — —
------ _ ----$ 7 5 .0 0 ________________________________ ——
$77.50—
.................
............— ____
_ ------ ---- —
_ —
------- _ _

- —

2
2
2
4
5
4
1
2
-

1
-

_

_

2

2

1
12
4
9
3
7
2
4
1
2
1
3

6
2
3
1
3
1
2
1
1
1

5
1
3
1
1
1
2
_
1
1
1

XXX

24

9

XXX

XXX

28

15

XXX

T h e s e s a la rie s re la te to f o r m a lly e stablished m in im u m s ta rtin g (h irin g ) re g u la r s t r a ig h t -t im e s a la rie s that a re paid fo r standard w o rk w e e k s.
E x clu d e s w o rk e rs in s u b c le ric a l jobs such as m e sse n g e r o r office g ir l .
D ata a re presented fo r a ll standard w o rkw ee ks c om b in ed , and fo r the m o s t co m m o n standard w orkw ee ks re p o rte d .




4
0

XXX

_

un der
un der
un der
un der
un der
under
under
un der
under
under
un der
under
o v er.

37 Vz

45

2
7
3
7
6
6
3
4
1
1
2
1
3

an d
and
and
and
an d
an d
and
an d
an d
an d
and
an d
and

A ll
schedules

40

101

—

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v in g a s p e c i f i e d m in im u m ---------------------$ 4 7 .5 0
$ 5 0 .0 0
$ 5 2 .5 0
$ 5 5 .0 0
$ 5 7 .5 0
$ 6 0 .0 0
$ 6 2 .5 0
$ 6 5 .0 0
$ 6 7 .5 0
$ 7 0 .0 0
$ 7 2 .5 0
$75.00
$ 7 7 .5 0

A ll
schedules

40

1
6
2
6
2
4
1
2
1
1
-

_
1
-

1
1
2
1
2
1
-

_
1
1
1
1
1
_
_
_
_
1
_

"

2

15

XXX

XXX

13

XXX

XXX

2

13

Table B-2. Shift Differentials
(S h ift d iffe r e n t ia ls o f m a n u fa c tu rin g p lan t w o r k e r s b y ty p e an d am o u n t o f d iffe r e n tia l,
New H av en , C o n n ., J a n u a r y 1966)
P e rc e n t of m a n u fa c tu rin g p lan t w o r k e r s —
In e s ta b lish m e n ts h a vin g f o r m a l
p ro v is io n s 1 fo r—

S hift d iffe re n tia l

A c t u a lly w o rk in g on—

Second shift
w o rk

T h i r d o r oth e r
sh ift w o r k

---------------------------------------

7 9 .7

7 5 .5

1 5 .8

8. 5

W ith sh ift p a y d if f e r e n t ia l-------------------------------------------

7 9 .7

75. 5

1 5 .8

8. 5

U n if o r m cents (p e r h o u r ) --------------------------------

6 0 .7

4 3 .0

12. 1

2 .7

3 c e n t s ------------------------------------------------------------------ _
5 c e n t s ---------------------------------------- ---------------------- 6 c e n t s _______________________________________
7 c e n t s ----------------------------------------------------------------------8 cents
________________ _______________
10 c e n ts______________________________________
12 c e n ts ______________________________________
1 3 V3 c e n ts----------------------------------------------------------------14 cents ------------------------------------------ ---------------------15 cents _____________________________________

2 .7
3 .4
1 .4
6 .4
2 .3
2 3 .9
1 .4

_
4 .3

_
-

1 9.2

1 1 .5
5. 0
1 .4
8 .9
1 1 .9

.9
.8
.3
.8
.6
2. 5
.2

U n if o r m p e rc e n ta g e --------------------------------------------------

1 7 .9

5 p e r c e n t ____________________________________
772 p e r c e n t ----------------------------------- ----------------- 8 p e r c e n t ---------------------------------------------------------- —
10 p e rc e n t----------------------------------------------------------------12 p e rc e n t___________________________________
15 p e rc e n t--------------------------------------- ----------------------

6 .3
1 .3
10. 3

To ta l

—

----------------------

---------

_

-

Second sh ift

T h i r d o r o th e r
sh ift

-

.8
-

6. 1

. 5
.8
. 1
. 5
( 2)

1 4 .8

3 .6

1. 5

1 .7
. 3
1 .6

-

2 .4
2 .3
8 .2
1. 3
.6

.2
.4
.7
. 3
-

F u l l d a y 's p a y fo r re d u c e d h o u rs plus
cents d iff e r e n t ia l-----------------------------------------------------

-

1 7.7

O t h e r f o r m a l p a y d if f e r e n t i a l-----------------------------

1. 1

-

“

~

W ith no sh ift p a y d if f e r e n t ia l-------------------------------------

-

-

-

-

. 1

4 .3
-

1 In c lu d e s e s t a b lis h m e n t s c u r r e n t ly o p e r a tin g la t e s h if t s , an d e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith f o r m a l p r o v is io n s c o v e r in g la te sh ift s
ev en though th ey w e r e not c u r r e n t ly o p e ra tin g la te s h if t s .
2 L e s s th an 0 .0 5 p e r c e n t .




14
Table B-3. Scheduled Weekly Hours
(Percen t distribution of plant and office w orkers in all industries and in industry divisions by scheduled weekly hours
of first-s h ift w orkers, New Haven, Conn., January 1966)
P la n t w o rk e rs

O ffice w o rk e rs

W ee kly hours
All industries

A l l w o r k e r s -------------- -------------------------------------------------------

U n d e r 35 hours
3 5 hou r s _________ __ _____ ___ ___ ______ _________
O v e r 35 and un d er 37V2 h o u rs ----------------------------------37V2 h o u r s ------------------------------------------------------------------ —
O v e r 37V2 and un d er 40 h o u rs ----------- -------------------40 h o u r s ___________________________________________
O v e r 40 and un d er 45 h o u rs --------------------------------------45 h o u r s ________ _________ __ _____ ___ ____ _____ _
O v e r 45 and under 50 h o u rs --------------------------------------50 hou rs ______ _____ __ ____ _____ ______ ____ __

1

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

100

100

100

3
6
4
69
3
7
3
3
2

3
8
72
2
8
1
3
3

85
10
5

All industries 3

100

(4)
2
9
29
8
51
(4)

1 I n c lu d e s d a t a f o r w h o l e s a le t r a d e , r e t a i l t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , an d s e r v i c e s , in a d d it io n to t h o s e i n d u s t r y d iv i s i o n s sh o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
2 T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , a n d o th e r p u b lic u t i l i t i e s .
3 I n c lu d e s d a t a f o r w h o l e s a le t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; f in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e ; a n d s e r v i c e s , in a d d it io n to t h o s e i n d u s t r y d iv i s i o n s
4 L e s s than 0. 5 p e rce n t.




Manufacturing

100

(4)
1
( 4)
7
6
85
-

sh o w n s e p a r a t e l y .

Public utilities 2

100

(4)
57
_
42
-

15
Table B-4.

Paid Holidays

(Percen t distribution of plant and office w orkers in a ll industries and in industry divisions by number of paid holidays
provided annually, New Haven, Conn. , January 1966)
P la n t w o rk e rs

O ffice w o rk e rs

Item
All industries1

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

A l l w o r k e r s ________________________________________

100

100

100

100

100

100

W o rk e rs in estab lishm e nts p ro v id in g
p aid h o lid a y s _____________________________________
W o rk e rs in e stab lishm e nts p ro v id in g
no paid h o lid a y s _________________________________

99

100

98

99

100

99

1

-

2

( 4)

-

( 4)

-

( 4)
2
( 4)

.
4
(4)

_
_
3
1

N u m b e r of days
Le s s than 6 h o lid a y s ______________________________
6 h o lid a y s __________________________________________
6 holid a ys p lu s 1 half day_________________________
6 h olid a ys p lus 2 half days _
„
________
6 holid a ys plus 3 half d a y s _______________________
7 holid a ys ________________________________________
7 holid a ys plus 1 half day __
7 holid a ys p lus 2 half d a y s ________ ____________
8 holid a ys
_
8 holid a ys plus 1 half day________________________
8 holidays p lus 2 ha lf d a y s _______________________
9 h o lid a y s _____________
________________________
9 holidays plus 1 half day_________________________
9 holid a ys p lus 2 h a lf d a y s ____________________ _
9 holid a ys plus 3 h a lf d a y s ______________________ _
10 h o lid a ys_________________________________________
10 holid a ys plus 2 half d a y s _ _ _____ __ ______
11 holid a ys _______________________________________
12 holidays
12 holidays p lus 1 half d a y _______________________

1
2
2
( 4)
2
20
4
3
28
1
2
26
1
2
2
( 4)
1
1

_
1
3
13
6
3
34
1
3
30
-

-

15
30
-

36
7

3

-

-

-

2
-

1
4

1

-

-

5

■

0

( 4)
10
2
1
9
( 4)
2
38
2
1
1
17
1
11
( 4)
( 4)

10

4
1
10
1
6
57
-

1
-

4
-

-

53
6
-

4
29
2

( 4)

-

-

1
( 4)

-

T o t a l h o lid a y t i m e 5
I 2 V2 d a y s ___________________________________________
12 days o r m o r e __________________________________
11 days o r m o r e ___________________________________
10V2 days o r m o r e ________________________________
10 days o r m o r e ___________________________________
9 V2 days o r m o re _ _____ _______________________
9 days o r m o r e ____________________ ________ _____
8 V2 days o r m o r e __________________________________
8 days o r m o r e ____________________________________
7 V2 days o r m o r e __________________________________
7 days o r m o r e ____________________________________
6 V2 days o r m o r e __________________________________
6 days o r m o r e ____________________________________
5 days o r m o r e ____________________________________

1
2
3
4
5
no h a lf

_
1
2
2
7
7
36
36
67
73
94
96
98
99

_
-

1
1
6
6
39
40
77
83
95
99
100
100

5
9
9
10
17
53
53
84
84
98
98
98
98

( 4)
( 4)
13
14
32
34
75
75
85
87
97
97
99
99

_
-

( 4)
6
6
69
70
81
86
96
96
100
100

( 4)
2
4
8
37
43
96
96
97
97
99
99
99
99

In clu d es d ata fo r w h o le sa le tr a d e , r e t a il t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , and s e r v i c e s , in ad d itio n to th o se in d u stry d iv isio n s shown se p a r a te ly .
T r a n sp o r ta tio n , co m m u n icatio n , and o th er p u b lic u t ilit ie s .
In clu d es d ata fo r w h o le sa le tr a d e ; r e t a il t r a d e ; fin an c e , in su r a n c e , and r e a l e sta te ; and s e r v ic e s , in add itio n to th o se in d u stry d iv isio n s shown se p a r a te ly .
L e s s than 0 .5 p e rc e n t.
A ll co m b in atio n s o f fu ll and h a lf d ay s that add to the sa m e am ount a r e com b in ed; fo r e x am p le , the p ro p o rtio n o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g a to tal o f 7 d ay s in c lu d es th o se w ith 7 fu ll d ay s and
d a y s , 6 fu ll d ay s and 2 h a lf d a y s , 5 fu ll d ay s and 4 h a lf d a y s , and so on. P r o p o r tio n s w ere then cu m u lated .




16
Table B-5. Paid Vacations'
(P ercen t distribution of plant and office w orkers in a ll industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, New Haven, Conn., January 1966)
P la n t w o rk e rs

O ffice w o rk e rs

V a ca tio n p o lic y
All industries2

A l l w o r k e r s ____________

__ ________

_____ ___

Manufacturing

Public utilities

2

All industries 4

Manufacturing

Public utilities 3

100

100

100

100

100

100

100
68
29
1
1

100
56
41
2
1

100
99
1
-

100
98
2
_

100
96
4
_

100
100
_
_

Method of p aym e n t
W o rk e rs in e stab lishm e nts p ro v id in g
paid v a c a tio n s __________________ ________ __
L e n g t h -o f -t im e p a y m e n t____________________
Pe rcentage p a y m e n t _________________________
F l a t -s u m p a ym e n t___________________________
O t h e r _______________________ _____ _____ ___
W o rk e rs in e stab lishm e nts p ro v id in g
no paid va c a tio n s_______________________________

-

-

34
19
4
-

41
17
3
-

_
41
4
-

2
56
16
1

1
61
22
1

62
2
-

71
3
25
1

77
4
18
1

55
45
-

14
86
(6 )

4
95
( 6)

31
_
69
-

49
5
44
1
1

55
7
36
1

3
8
88
(‘ )
(6 )

4
96
-

(6)
29
71
_

1

46
54
-

( 6)

-

17
8
71
4
1

18
12
64
5
1

10
90
-

2
98
(6 )
(6 )

3
97
-

99
-

( 6)

-

14
8
73
4
1

17
12
65
5
1

95

2
1
85
4
7

2
2
85
6
5

A m o u n t of v a c a tio n pay 5
A ft e r 6 m onths of s e rv ic e
U n d e r 1 w e e k ____________________________________
1 w e e k ____________________________________________
O v e r 1 and u n d er 2 w e e k s ____________________
2 w e e k s ___________________________________________

_

A ft e r 1 y e a r of s e rv ic e
1 w e e k ____________________________________________
O v e r 1 and u n d er 2 w e e k s ____________________
2 w e e k s ___________________________________________
3 w e e k s ------------------------------------------------------------------------------A f t e r 2 y e a rs of s e rv ic e
1 w e e k _________________________ _________________
O v e r 1 and u n d er 2 w e e k s ______________________
2 w e e k s ___________________________________________
O v e r 2 and u n d er 3 w e e k s ______________________
3 w e e k s _________________________________________
A f t e r 3 y e a rs of s e rv ic e
1 w e e k ____________________________________________
O v e r 1 and un d e r 2 w e e k s ______________________
2 w e e k s ___________________________________________
O v e r 2 and un d er 3 w e e k s ______________________
3 w e e k s ___________________________________________

(6)

A fte r 4 y e a rs of s e rv ic e
1 w e e k ____________________________________________
O v e r 1 and un d er 2 w e e k s ______________________
2 w e e k s ___________________________________________
O v e r 2 and u n d er 3 w e e k s ______________________
3 w e e k s ___________________________________________

4
-

1

2
-

3

(6 )

-

97
(6 )
1

97
-

-

(6)

-

(6 )
95
2
3

( 6)
98
2

_

99

A f t e r 5 y e a rs of s e rv ic e
1 w eek___________________________________________
O v e r 1 and u n d er 2 w e e k s ____________________
2 w e e k s _________________________________________
O v e r 2 and un d e r 3 w e e k s ______________________
3 w e e k s ___________________________________________

See footnotes at end of table.




.
-

98
2

-

98
2

17
Table B-5. Paid Vacations'— Continued
(P ercen t distribution of plant and office w orkers in a ll industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, New Haven, Conn., January 1966)
P la n t w o rk e rs
V a ca tio n p o lic y

All industries 1
2

O ffice w o rk e rs
Public utilities 3

All industries 4

Manufacturing

Puttie utilities 3

A m o u n t of v a c a tio n p a y 5— Continued
A f t e r 10 y e a rs of s e rv ic e
1 w e e k ___________________ _____ ____________ _
2 w e e k s ___________________ _____________________
O v e r 2 and u n d e r 3 w e e k s ______________________
3 w e e k s _____________________________ ________ __
O v e r 3 and u n d e r 4 w e e k s __________________
_
4 w e e k s _________________________ _______________

2
58
3
35
3
( 6)

2
63
4
28
4
-

47
52
1

( 6)
44
2
53
1

(6)
39
3
58
-

_
35
65
-

-

-

2
40
5
50
3
(6)

2
40
7
47
4
-

_
36
63
1

(6 )
39
6
54
1

( 6)
38
3
59
-

_
31
69
-

2
13
81
3
2

2
9
82
4
3

2
97
1

(6 )
6
89
( 6)
5

(6)
4
85
11

_
1
99
-

2
13
55
1
27
2

2
9
59
1
26
2

_
2
39
59
-

(6 )
6
55
39
1

(6)
4
43
53
-

_
1
61
38
“

2
11
37
1
45
4

2
9
42
1
40
6

2
5

( 6)
5
21
69
5

(6)
4
16
69
11

2
11
37
1
44
5

2
9
42
1
39
7

(6 )
5
12
77

( 6)
4
16
67
13

A fte r 12 y e a rs of s e rv ic e
1 w eek______________________________________ __ __
2 w e e k s ______________________ __ ________ __ __
O v e r 2 and un d e r 3 w e e k s ______________________
3 w e e k s ___________________________________________
O v e r 3 and un d e r 4 w e e k s ______________________
4 w e e k s ___________________________________________

-

A fte r 15 y e a rs of s e rv ic e
1 w e e k ______________________________ _____ __
2 w e e k s _______________________________________ __
3 w e e k s ___________________________________________
O v e r 3 and u n d e r 4 w e e k s ______________________
4 w e e k s ------------------------------------------------------------------------------A f t e r 20 y e a rs of s e rvic e
1 week_________________ _________________________
2 w e e k s ___________________________________________
3 w e e k s ___________________________________________
O v e r 3 and u n d e r 4 w e e k s ______________________
4 w e e k s ___________________________________________
O v e r 4 w e e k s ---------------------------- ---------------------------------A ft e r 25 y e a rs of s e rv ic e
1 w e e k _______________________________________
2 w e e k s ___________________________________________
3 w e e k s ___________________________________________
O v e r 3 and u n d er 4 w e e k s ______________________
4 weeks.___________________________________________
O v e r 4 w eeks_____________________________________

-

93
-

-

1
6
-

93
-

A ft e r 30 y e a rs of s e rv ic e
1 week__________________________________________ _
2 w e e k s _____ ________________________________
_
3 w e e k s _______________ _________________________
O v e r 3 and u n d er 4 w e e k s ___________________ _
4 w e e k s ___________________________________________
O v e r 4 w e e k s ____________________________________

-

2
5
-

93

6

-

1
6
93

'

1 In clud es b a s ic plans o n ly . Ex clu d e s plans such as v a c a tio n -s a v in g s and those plans w h ich o ffer "e xtended" o r "s a b b a tic a l" benefits beyond b a sic p lans to w o rk e rs w ith q u a lifyin g lengths
of s e r v ic e . T y p ic a l of such exclu sion s a re p lans in the steel, a lu m in u m , and can in d u s trie s .
2 In clud es data fo r w holesale tra d e , r e t a il tra d e , r e a l estate, and s e rv ic e s , in a ddition to those in d u s try d iv is io n s shown se p a ra te ly.
3 T ra n s p o rta tio n , co m m u n ica tio n , and oth e r p u b lic u t ilitie s .
4 Includes data fo r w h ole sa le tra d e ; r e t a il tra d e ; finance, in s u ra n c e , and re a l estate; and s e rv ic e s , in a ddition to those in d u s try d iv is io n s shown se p a ra te ly.
5 Includes p aym e n ts oth e r than "len g th of t i m e ," such as p ercentage of annual e arn in g s o r f la t -s u m p aym ents, co n ve rted to an equ iva len t tim e b a s is ; f o r e xa m ple, a p aym e n t of 2 p e rce n t
of annual e arn in g s was co n sid e red as 1 w ee k's p ay. P e rio d s of s e rv ic e w e re a r b i t r a r i ly chosen and do not n e c e s s a rily re fle c t the in d ivid u a l p ro v is io n s f o r p ro g re s s io n s . F o r e xam ple, the changes
in p ro p o rtio n s ind ica ted at 10 y e a rs ' s e rv ic e inclu de changes in p ro v is io n s o c c u r r in g between 5 and 10 y e a r s . E s tim a te s a re c u m u la tiv e . T h u s , the p ro p o rtio n re c e iv in g 3 w eeks' pay o r m o re
a fter 5 y e a rs inclu de s those who re c e iv e 3 w eeks' p ay o r m o re after fe w e r y e a rs of s e rv ic e .
6
FRASER L e s s than 0. 5 p e rc e n t.

Digitized for


18

Table B-6.

Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans

(P ercen t of plant and office w orkers in all industries and in industry divisions employed in establishments providing
health, insurance, or pension benefits, 1 New Haven, Conn. , January 1966)
2
Plant w orkers
Type of benefit
A l l in du stries

A ll w orkers_______________________________________

2

M a n u fa c tu rin g

100

100

94

95

67

72

Office w orkers
P u b lic u t ilitie s 3

A l l in du stries 4

M a n u fa c tu rin g

P u b lic u tilitie s 3

100

100

10 0

94

97

99

99

45

63

83

57
97

1 00

W orkers in establishments providing:
Life insurance________________________________
Accidental death and dism em berm ent
insurance_____________________________________
Sickness and accident insurance or
sick leave or both5__________________________

86

90

64

83

88

Sickness and accident insurance_________
Sick leave (fu ll pay and no
waiting period)--------------------------------------Sick leave (partial pay or
waiting period)___________________________

72

89

19

43

84

5

15

3

45

73

72

96

5

4

-

Hospitalization insurance____________________
Surgical insurance____________________________
Medical insurance____________________________
Catastrophe insurance________________________
Retirement pension
No health, insurance, or pension plan______

93

97

98

(6)
96

98

95

68

70

86

77

72

51
76

49
86

78
57

75
85

61
95

2

3

2

91

97

(6)
96

(6)

98

(6)

99
99
93
92
69

(6)

1 Includes those plans for which at least a part of the cost is borne by the employer, except those legally required, such as workm en's compensation, social security, and railroad retirement.
2 Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, rea l estate, and services, in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
3 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
4 Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services, in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
5 Unduplicated total of w orkers receiving sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately below. Sick leave plans are limited to those which definitely establish at least
the minimum number of days' pay that can be expected by each employee. Inform al sick leave allowances determined on an individual basis are excluded.
6 L e ss than 0. 5 percent.




19

T ab le B-7.

H ealth Insurance B en efits P rovided Em ployees and T h eir D ependents

(Percent of plant and office w orkers in all industries and in industry divisions employed in establishments providing health insurance benefits
covering employees and their dependents, New Haven, Conn., January 1966)
Office workers

Plant w orkers
Type of benefit, coverage, and financing 1
A l l in du stries 2

A ll w o r k e r s ______________________________________
W orkers in establishments providing;
Hospitalization in s u ra n c e __________________
Covering employees on ly________________
Em ployer financed____________________
Jointly fin a n c ed _______________________
Covering employees and their
dependents_______________________________
Employer financed____________________
Jointly financed________________________
Employer financed for employees;
jointly financed for dependents_____

Surgical in su ra n c e __________________________
Covering employees only________________
Em ployer fin an ced___________________
Jointly fin an ced_______________________
Covering employees and their
dependents______________________________
Em ployer fin an ced___________________
Jointly fin an ced _________________________________
Em ployer financed for employees;
jointly financed for dependents_____

Medical insurance -------------------------------------------------------Covering employees only________________
Em ployer fin a n c ed ___________________
Jointly financed________________________
Covering employees and their
dependents_______________________________
Employer financed ________________________________
Jointly fin a n c ed ____________________________________
Em ployer financed for employees;
jointly financed for dependents_____________

Catastrophe insurance ____________________________________
Covering employees on ly________________
Em ployer financed ________________________________
Jointly financed _____________________________________
Covering employees and their
dependents_______________________________
Em ployer fin a n c ed ___________________
Jointly financed________________________
Em ployer financed for employees;
jointly financed for dependents_____

M a n u fa c tu rin g

P u b lic u t ilitie s 3

A l l in du stries 4

M a n u fa c tu rin g

P u b lic u t ilit ie s 3

100

100

100

100

100

100

93
12
12
-

97
9
9
-

98
1
1
-

96
12
10
1

96
6
6
-

99
2
2
-

82
57
23

89
62
25

97
69
28

84
45
29

90
62
24

98
44
54

2

2

10

4

“

91
12
12
-

97
11
11
-

98
1
1
-

95
15
14
1

98
9
9
-

99
2
2

79
54
22

86
58
23

97
69
28

79
44
29

89
61
22

98
44
54

4

5

■

7

7

■

68
11
11
-

70
11
11

86
-

77
10
9
1

72
2
2

93
-

57
47
7

59
50
3

67
41
20

70
58
5

4

5

5

7

51
3
3

49
2
2

61
6
6
-

92

-

75
14
12
1

78
78
-

62
40
16

55
26
24

92
92
(5)

6

4

-

-

-

48
24
22

47
18
27

2

2

-

86
58
28
“

78
-

-

-

-

93
40
54

-

-

Includes plans for which at least a part of the cost is borne by the employer. See footnote 1, table B -6 .
An establishment was considered as providing benefits to employees for their
dependents if such coverage was available to at least a m ajority of those employees one would usually expect to have dependents, e.g., m a rried men, even though they w ere less than a
m ajority of all plant or office w orkers. The employer b ears the entire cost of "em ployer financed" plans. The em ployer and employee share the cost of "jointly financed" plans.
2 Includes data fo r wholesale trade, retail trade, rea l estate, and services, in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
3 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
4 Includes data fo r wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services, in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
5 L e ss than 0. 5 percent.




20

T able B-8. Profit-Sharing Plans
(Percent of plant and office w orkers in a ll industries and in industry divisions employed in establishments providing profit-sh arin g plans, 1
by type of plan, New Haven, Conn., January 1966)
Office w orkers

Plant w orkers
Type of plan
A l l in du stries 1
2

A ll w orkers

_

W orkers in establishments providing
profit-sh arin g plans____________________________

M a n u fa c tu rin g

100

100

10

P u b lic u t ilitie s 3

10

100

Plans providing for both current
and deferred distribution___________________

1
advance
plant or
2
3
4
5

100

100

P u b lic u t ilitie s 3

24

100

4
10

9

16

23

1

1

1

2

Plans providing for em ployee's choice
of method of d istribu tion ___________________
W orkers in establishments providing no
profit-sh arin g p la n s ___________________________

M a n u fa c tu rin g

21

Plans providing for current
distribution__________________________________
Plans providing for deferred
distribution__________________________________

A l l in d u stries 4

(5)
90

90

100

79

76

100

The study was limited to form al plans (1) having established form ulas for the allocation of profit shares among em ployees; (2) whose form ulas w ere communicated to the employees in
of the determination of p ro fits; (3) that represent a commitment by the company to make periodic contributions based on profits; and (4) in which eligibility extends to a m ajority of the
office w orkers.
Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, rea l estate, and services, in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes data for w holesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and rea l estate; and services, in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Le ss than 0. 5 percent.




Appendix A. Changes in Occupational Descriptions

Since the Bureau's last survey, occupational descriptions for drafts­
man, secretary, and switchboard operator were revised in order to obtain
salary information for more specific categories.
Secretary.
The revised descriptions for secretary (classes A , B,
C, and D ) classify these workers according to levels o f responsibility. The
size of the organization and the scope of the supervisor's position are con­
sidered in distinguishing these levels. Data published under the composite
title of secretary are not comparable to data previously published.
Switchboard operator.
The revised description for switchboard
operator arranges these workers into two defined classes (A and B) instead




21

of a single category, clarifying the criteria of types of calls handled and
types o f information provided.
The combination of class A and class B
data, where both are published, is comparable to the single designation,
if previously published.
Draftsman.
The revised descriptions for draftsman (classes A , B,
and C; and draftsman-tracer) replace the previous designations for drafts­
man (leader, senior, and junior; and tracer) and emphasize the distinction
between drafting and design skills. Therefore, data presented for any of
these occupations are not comparable to data previously published.
The revised occupational descriptions are included in appendix B.

Appendix B. Occupational Descriptions

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau's wage surveys is to assist its field
staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll titles
and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area.
This permits
the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on
interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bureau’s job descriptions may
differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those prepared for other purposes.
In
applying these job descriptions, the Bureau's field economists are instructed to exclude working supervisors,
apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped, part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.

OFFICE

BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other than
an ordinary or electromatic typewriter.
M ay also keep records as to
billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental
to billing operations.
For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
classified by type of machine, as follows:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott Fisher,
Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without a type­
writer keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.
Class A . Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of and
experience in basic bookkeeping principles, and familiarity with the
structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines proper
records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used in each
phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance sheets,
and other records by hand.

Biller, machine (billin g machine). Uses a special billing m a­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, e t c ., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and invoices
from customers' purchase orders, internally prepared orders, shipping
memorandums, etc.
Usually involves application of predetermined
discounts and shiDDinsr charges 7 and entrv of necessarv extensions
j. x
w
^
which may or may not be computed on the billing machine, and
totals which are automatically accumulated by machine. The oper­
ation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of the bill
being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.

Class B.
Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll, cus­
tomers' accounts (not including a simple type of billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc.
May check or assist in preparation of trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.

Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine).
Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, e t c ., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers' bills
as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally involves the
simultaneous entry of figures on customers' ledger record. The m a­
chine automatically accumulates figures on a number of vertical
columns and computes, and usually prints automatically the debit or
credit balances.
Does not involve a knowledge of bookkeeping.
Works from uniform and standard types of sales and credit slips.




CLERK, A C C O U N TIN G
Class A . Under general direction of a bookkeeper or accountant,
has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a complete set
of books or records relating to one phase of an establishment's busi­
ness transactions.
Work involves posting and balancing subsidiary

22

23
C LER K , A C C O U N T IN G — C on tinued
ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts payable;
examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper accounting
distribution; and requires judgment and experience in making proper
assignations and allocations.
May assist in preparing, adjusting, and
closing journal entries; and may direct class B accounting clerks.
Class B. Under supervision, performs one or more routine ac­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or accounts
payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers; reconciling
bank accounts; and posting subsidiary ledgers controlled by general
ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data.
This job does not
require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping principles but
is found in offices in which the more routine accounting work is
subdivided on a functional basis among several workers.
CLERK, FILE
Class A .
In an established filing system containing a number
of varied subject matter files, classifies and indexes file material
such as correspondence, reports, technical documents, etc.
May
also file this material.
May keep records of various types in con­
junction with the files.
May lead a small group of lower level file
clerks.
Class B.
Sorts, codes, and files unclassified material by simple
(subject matter) headings or partly classified material by finer sub­
headings.
Prepares simple related index and cross-reference aids.
As requested, locates clearly identified material in files and forwards
material.
M ay perform related clerical tasks required to maintain
and service files.
Class C . Performs routine filing of material that has already
been classified or which is easily classified in a simple serial classi­
fication system ( e . g . , alphabetical, chronological, or numerical).
As requested, locates readily available material in files and forwards
material; and may fill out withdrawal charge.
Performs simple
clerical and manual tasks required to maintain and service files.

C L E R K , ORDER— C ontinue d
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; and distributing order sheets to respective departments to be filled.
M ay check with credit department to determine credit rating of customer,
acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders to see
that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check shipping
invoices with original orders.

CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the necessary
data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers' earnings
based on time or production records; and posting calculated data on payroll
sheet, showing information such as worker's name, woiking days, time,
rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. M ay make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and distributing pay envelopes.
M ay use a calculating machine.
COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathe­
matical computations.
This job is not to be confused with that of statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

DUPLICATING-M ACH INE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR D IT T O )
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsibilities,
reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten matter, using a
Mimeograph or Ditto machine.
Makes necessary adjustment such as for
ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed.
Is not required to prepare
stencil or Ditto master.
May keep file of used stencils or Ditto masters.
May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
CLERK, ORDER
Receives customers' orders for material or merchandise by m ail,
phone, or personally.
Duties involve any combination of the following:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items




Class A . Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or combina­
tion keypunch machine to transcribe data from various source docu­
ments to keypunch tabulating cards.
Performs same tasks as lower
level keypunch operator but, in addition, work requires application

24
KEYPUNCH OPERATOR— Continued
of coding skills and the making of some determinations, for example,
locates on the source document the items to be punched; extracts
information from several documents; and searches for and interprets
information on the document to determine information to be punched.
May train inexperienced operators.
Class B.
Under close supervision or following specific procedures
or instructions, transcribes data from source documents to punched
cards.
Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or combination
keypunch machine to keypunch tabulating cards.
May verify cards.
Working from various standardized source documents, follows specified
sequences which have been coded or prescribed in detail and require
little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting of data to be punched.
Problems arising from erroneous items or codes, missing information,
etc. , are referred to supervisor.

OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands, operating
minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and distributing
m ail, and other minor clerical work.

SECRETARY
Assigned as personal secretary, normally to one individual. Main­
tains a close and highly responsive relationship to the day-to-day work
activities of the supeiyisor. Works fairly independently receiving a mini­
mum of detailed supervision and guidance. Performs varied clerical and
secretarial duties, usually including most o f the following: (a ) Receives
telephone calls, personal callers, and incoming m ail, answers routine
inquiries, and routes the technical inquiries to the proper persons; (b)
establishes, maintains, and revises the supervisor’s files; (c ) maintains the
supervisor's calendar and makes appointments as instructed; (d ) relays
messages from supervisor to subordinates; (e ) reviews correspondence, mem­
oranda, and reports prepared by others for the supervisor’s signature to
assure procedural and typographic accuracy; and (f) performs stenographic
and typing work.
May also perform other clerical and secretarial tasks o f comparable
nature and difficulty.
The work typically requires knowledge of office
routine and understanding o f the organization, programs, and procedures
related to the work of the supervisor.




SE C R E T A R Y — Continued
Exclusions
Not all positions that are titled "secretary” possess the above
characteristics. Examples of positions which are excluded from the def­
inition are as follows: (a ) Positions which do not meet the "personal”
secretary concept described above; (b ) stenographers not fully trained in
secretarial type duties; (c ) stenographers serving as office assistants to a
group of professional, technical, or managerial persons; (d) secretary posi­
tions in which the duties are either substantially more routine or substan­
tially more complex and responsible than those characterized in the def­
inition; a n d (e) assistant type positions which involve more difficult or more
responsible technical, administrative, supervisory, or specialized clerical
duties which are not typical of secretarial work.
NOTE: The term "corporate officer," used in the level definitions
following, refers to those officials who have a significant corporate-wide
policymaking role with regard to major company activities.
The title
"vice president, " though normally indicative o f this role, does not in all
cases identify such positions. Vice presidents whose primary responsibility
is to act personally on individual cases or transactions (e. g. , approve or
deny individual loan or credit actions; administer individual trust accounts;
directly supervise a clerical staff) are not considered to be "corporate
officers" for purposes of applying the following level definitions.
Class A
a.
Secretary to the chairman of the board or president of a
company that employes, in all, over 100 but fewer than 5,000 persons; or
b.
Secretary to a corporate officer (other than the chairman of
the board or president) of a company that employs, in all, over 5, 000 but
fewer than 25, 000 persons; or
c.
Secretary to the head (immediately below the corporate
officer level) of a major segment or subsidiary of a company that employs,
in all, over 25,000 persons.
Class B
a.
Secretary to the chairman of the board or president of a
company that employs, in all, fewer than 100 persons; or
b.
Secretary to a corporate officer (other than chairman of the
board or president) of a company that employs, in all, over 100 but fewer
than 5,000 persons; or

25

SE C R E T A R Y — C ontinued

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL— C ontinued

c.
Secretary to the head (immediately below the officer level)
over either a major corporate-wide functional activity (e. g . , marketing,
research, operations, industrial relations, e tc .) or a major geographic or
organizational segment (e. g . , a regional headquarters; a major division)
of a company that employs, in all, over 5,000 but fewer than 25,000
employees; or

May maintain files, keep simple records, or perform other relatively routine
clerical tasks. May operate from a stenographic pool. Does not include
transcribing-machine work. (See transcribing-machine operator. )
STENOGRAPHER, SENIOR

Primary duty is to take dictation involving a varied technical or
specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on scientific re­
search from one or more persons either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
similar machine; and transcribe dictation.
May also type from written
copy. May also set up and maintain files, keep records, etc.
e.
Secretary to the head of a large and important organizational
segment (e. g . , a middle management supervisor o f an organizational seg­
OR
ment often involving as many as several hundred persons) of a company
Performs stenographic duties requiring significantly greater inde­
that employs, in all, over 25,000 persons.
pendence and responsibility than stenographers, general as evidenced by the
following: Work requires high degree of stenographic speed and accuracy;
Class C
and a thorough working knowledge of general business and office procedures
and
a.
Secretary to an executive or managerial person whose respon­ of the specific business operations, organization, policies, procedures,
files, workflow, etc. Uses this knowledge in performing stenographic duties
sibility is not equivalent to one of the specific level situations in the def­
and responsible clerical tasks such as, maintaining followup files; assembling
inition for class B, but whose subordinate staff normally numbers at least
material for reports, memorandums, letters, e tc .; composing simple letters
several dozen employees and is usually divided into organizational segments
from general instructions; reading and routing incoming mail; and answering
which are often, in turn, further subdivided. In some companies, this level
routine questions, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work.
includes a wide range of organizational echelons; in others, only one or
d.
Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc.
(or other equivalent level of official) that employs, in all, over 5,000
persons; or

two; or

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR

b.
Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc.
Class A. Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switch­
(or other equivalent level of official) that employs, in all, fewer than
board handling incoming, outgoing, intraplant or office calls. Performs full
5,000 persons.
telephone information service or handles complex calls, such as conference,
collect, overseas, or similar calls, either in addition to doing routine work
Class D
as described for switchboard operator, class B, or as a full-tim e assignment.
("Full" telephone information service occurs when the establishment has
a.
Secretary to the supervisor or head of a small organizational
varied functions that are not readily understandable for telephone informa­
unit (e. g . , fewer than about 25 or 30 persons); or
tion purposes, e. g . , because of overlapping or interrelated functions, and
consequently present frequent problems as to which extensions are appro­
b.
Secretary to a nonsupervisory staff specialist, professional
priate for calls. )
employee, administrative officer, or assistant, skilled technician or expert.
Class B. Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switch­
(NOTE: Many companies assign stenographers, rather than secretaries as
described above, to this level of supervisory or nonsupervisory w orker.)
board handling incoming, outgoing, intraplant or office calls. May handle
routine long distance calls and record tolls. May perform limited telephone
information service. ("Lim ited” telephone information service occurs i f the
STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
functions o f the establishment serviced are readily understandable for tele­
Primary duty is to take dictation involving a normal routine vo­
phone information purposes, or if the requests are routine, e. g . , giving
cabulary from one or more persons either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
eaftension numbers when specific names are furnished, or if complex calls
similar machine; and transcribe dictation. May also type from written copy.
are referred to another operator.)




26
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST

In addition to performing duties of operator on a single position
or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also type or
perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties*
This typing or
clerical work may take the major part of this woiker's time while at
switchboard.

TABULATING -M ACH INE OPERATOR— Continued

specific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams and
some filing woik.
The work typically involves portions of a work
unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs or repetitive
operations.

TRANSCRIBING-M ACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
TABULATING-M ACH INE OPERATOR

Class A ,
>perates a variety of tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines, typically including such machines as the tabulator,
calculator, interpreter, collator, and others.
Performs complete
reporting assignments without close supervision, and performs difficult
wiring as required.
The complete reporting and tabulating assign­
ments typically involve a variety of long and complex reports which
often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring some planning
and sequencing of steps to be taken.
As a more experienced oper­
ator, is typically involved in training new operators in machine
operations, or partially trained operators in wiring from diagrams
and operating sequences of long and complex reports.
Does not
include working supervisors performing tabulating-machine operations
and day-to-day supervision of the work and production of a group of
tabulating-machine operators.

Class B. Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition to the
sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under specific
instructions and may include the performance of some wiring from
diagrams.
The woik typically involves, for example, tabulations
involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but small
tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report. Such
reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where the pro­
cedures are w ell established.
May also include the training of new
employees in the basic operation of the machine.

Class C .
Operates simple tabulating or electrical accounting
machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, e t c ., with




Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. M ay also type from written
copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation involving
a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal briefs or reports
on scientific research are not included. A wodcer who takes dictation in
shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is classified as a stenographer,
general.

TYPIST
Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to make
out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May in­
clude typing of stencils, mats, or similar materials for use in duplicating
processes.
May do clerical work involving little special training, such
as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting and dis­
tributing incoming m ail.

Class A . Performs one or more of the following: Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punctu­
ation, e t c ., of technical or unusual words or foreign language m a­
terial; and planning layout and typing of complicated statistical tables
to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. M ay type routine
form letters varying details to suit circumstances.

Class B. Performs one or more of the following: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance policies,
e t c .; and setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying more
complex tables already setup and spaced properly.

27

PROFESSIONAL
DRAFTSM AN

AND

TECHNICAL

D RAFTSMAN

Class A , Plans the graphic presentation of complex items having
distinctive design features that differ significantly from established
drafting precedents. Works in close support with the design originator,
and may recommend minor design changes.
Analyzes the effect of
each change on the details of form, function, and positional relation­
ships of components and parts. Works with a minimum of supervisory
assistance. Completed work is reviewed by design originator for con­
sistency with prior engineering determinations.
May either prepare
drawings, or direct their preparation by lower level draftsmen.
Class B.
Performs nonroutine and complex drafting assignments
that require the application of most of the standardized drawing tech­
niques regularly used. Duties typically involve such work as: Prepares
working drawings of subassemblies with irregular shapes, multiple
functions, and precise positional relationships between components;
prepares architectural drawings for construction of a building including
detail drawings of foundations, w all sections, floor plans, and roof.
Uses accepted formulas and manuals in making necessary computations
to determine quantities of materials to be used,, load capacities,
strengths, stresses, etc.
Receives initial instructions, requirements,
and advice from supervisor.
Completed work is checked for technical
adequacy.
Class C.
Prepares detail drawings of single units or parts for
engineering, construction, manufacturing, or repair purposes. Types
of drawings prepared include isometric projections (depicting three
dimensions in accurate scale) and sectional views to clarify positioning
of components and convey needed information.
Consolidates details
from a number of sources and adjusts or transposes scale as required.

MAINTENANCE

Continue d

Suggested methods of approach, applicable precedents, and advice on
source materials are given with initial assignments.
Instructions are
less complete when assignments recur.
Work may be spot-checked
during progress.
D RAFTSM AN- TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others by placing tracing
cloth or paper over drawings and tracing with pen or pencil.
(Does not
include tracing limited to plans primarily consisting of straight lines and
a large scale not requiring close delineation.)
and/or
Prepares simple or repetitive drawings of easily visualized items.
is closely supervised during progress.

Work

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
A registered nurse who gives nursing service under general medical
direction to ill or injured employees or other persons who become ill or
suffer an accident on the premises of a factory or other establishment.
Duties involve a combination of the following: Giving first aid to the ill
or injured; attending to subsequent dressing of employees' injuries; keeping
records of patients treated; preparing accident reports for compensation
or other purposes; assisting in physical examinations and health evaluations
of applicants and employees; and planning and carrying out programs
involving health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant en­
vironment, or other activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety
of all personnel.

AND

POWERPLANT

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE— Continued

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and maintain
in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim made
of wood in an establishment. Work involves most of the following; Plan­
ning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or verbal
instructions; using a variety of carpenter's handtools, portable power tools,

and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop computations
relating to dimensions of work; and selecting materials necessary for the
work.
In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter requires
rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal ap­
prenticeship or equivalent training and experience.




28

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE

HELPER, MAINTENANCE TRADES— Continued

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the in­
stallation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generation, dis­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment.
Work
involves most of the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety of
electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards, con­
trollers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems, or other
transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, layouts, or
other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the electrical
system or equipment; working standard computations relating to load
requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; and using a variety of
electrician's handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In general,
the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.

a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, m a­
chine, and equipment; assisting journeyman by holding materials or tools;
and performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind
of work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding m a­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is permitted
to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade that are
also performed by workers on a full-tim e basis.

ENGINEER, STATIO N AR Y
Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation of
stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to supply the
establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigeration, or
air-conditioning.
Work involves: Operating and maintaining equipment
such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors, turbines,
ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and boiler-fed
water pumps;, making equipment repairs; and keeping a record of operation
of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption.
May also supervise
these operations.
Head or chief engineers in establishments employing
more than one engineer are excluded.

M ACH INE-TO O L OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or m illing machines, in the construction of machine-shop tools, gages,
jigs, fixtures, or dies.
Work involves most of the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling, and oper­
ation sequence; and making necessary adjustments during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions.
M ay be required to recognize
when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper coolants
and cutting and lubricating oils.
For cross-industry wage study purposes,
machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops are ex­
cluded from this classification.

M ACHINIST, M AINTENANCE
FIREMAN, STA TIO N A R Y BOILER
Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam.
Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, or gas or oil burner; and checks water
and safety valves.
M ay clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom
equipment.

HELPER, M AINTENANCE TRADES
Assists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping




Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most of the following: Interpreting written instructions and speci­
fications; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of machinist's
handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and operating
standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to close tolerances; making
standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work, tooling, feeds,
and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working properties of the
common metals; selecting standard materials, parts, and equipment re­
quired for his work; and fitting and assembling parts into mechanical
equipment. In general, the machinist's work normally requires a rounded
training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a formal ap­
prenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

29

M ECHANIC, AUTO M O TIVE (M AINTENANCE)

OILER

Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an es­
tablishment. Work involves most of the followings Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gages, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assemblies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; and alining wheels, adjusting brakes
and lights, or tightening body bolts# In general, the work of the auto­
motive mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.

MECHANIC, M AINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves most of the following: Examining machines and mechanical
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly dismantling
machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of handtools
in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts with items
obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replacement part by a
machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop for major
repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs or for the pro­
duction of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling machines; and
making all necessary adjustments for operation.
In general, the woric of
a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience.
Excluded from this classification are workers whose primary
duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.
M ILLWRIGHT
Installs new machines or heavy equipment, and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout
are required. Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment, and
parts to be used; and installing and maintaining in good order power
transmission equipment such as drives and speed reducers.
In general,
the millwright's work normally requires a rounded training and experience
in the trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent train­
ing and experience.




PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment.
Work involves the following; Knowledge of surface peculi­
arities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler
in nail holes and interstices; and applying paint with spray gun or brush.
May mix colors, oils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain
proper color or consistency.
In general, the work of the maintenance
painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment.
Work involves most of the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to correct
lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting
machine; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to pressures,
flow, and size of pipe required; and making standard tests to determine
whether finished pipes meet specifications.
In general, the work of the
maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building
sanitation or heating systems are excluded.

PLUMBER, M AINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of vents
and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and fixtures;
and opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber's snake. In general,
the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprentice drip or equivalent
training and experience.

30

TOOL A N D DIE MAKER— Continued

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheet-metal
equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans, shelves,
lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an establish­
ment. Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying out all
types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, models, or other
specifications; setting up and operating all available types of sheet-metalworking machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting, bending, form­
ing, shaping, fitting, and assembling; and installing sheet-metal articles
as required. In general, the work of the maintenance sheet-metal worker
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal
apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
TOOL AND DIE MAKER

volves most of the following: Planning and laying out of work from models,
blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifications; using a
variety of tool and die maker’s handtools and precision measuring instru­
ments, understanding of the working properties of common metals and
alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related equipment;
making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions of work, speeds,
feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal parts during fabri­
cation as w ell as of finished tools and dies to achieve required qualities;
working to close tolerances; fitting and assembling of parts to prescribed
tolerances and allowances; and selecting appropriate materials, tools, and
processes.
In general, the tool and die maker's work requires a rounded
training in machine-shop and toolroom practice usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gage maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gages, jigs, fixtures
or dies for forgings, punching, and other metal-forming work. Work in-

CUSTODIAL

AND

For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers in
tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

MATERIAL

MOVE ME NT

ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued

Transports passengers between floors of an office building, apart­
ment house, department store, hotel, or similar establishment. Workers
who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as those of
starters and janitors are excluded.

or other establishment.
Duties involve a combination of the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polishing
metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor maintenance
services; and cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms.
Workers who
specialize in window washing are excluded.

GUARD
Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary.
Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity of employees and
other persons entering.

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial




LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman
or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more of the following;
Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or from freight
cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelving, or placing
materials or merchandise in proper storage location; and transporting ma­
terials or merchandise by handtruck, car, or wheelbarrow. Longshoremen,
who load and unload ships are excluded.

31

ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
Fills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, customers’
orders, or other instructions.
May, in addition to filling orders and in­
dicating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders, requi­
sition additional stock or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.

PACKER, SHIPPING
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing them
in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being dependent
upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the type of con­
tainer employed, and method of shipment.
Work requires the placing of
items in shipping containers and may involve one or more of the following:
Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify content; selection
of appropriate type and size of container; inserting enclosures in container;
using excelsior or other material to prevent breakage or damage; closing
and sealing container; and applying labels or entering identifying data on
container.
Packers who also make wooden boxes or crates are excluded.

TRUCKD RIVER
Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport m a­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of es­
tablishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments and
customers’ houses or places of business.
May also load or unload truck
with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep truck
in good working order.
Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers are
excluded.

For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size and
type of equipment, as follows: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on the
basis of trailer capacity.)

Truckdriver (combination of sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under 1V 2 tons)
Truckdriver, medium (IV 2 to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Tmckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)

SHIPPING A N D RECEIVING CLERK

TRUCKER, POWER

Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is responsible
for incoming shipments
merchandise or other materials. Shipping work
involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes, available
means of transportation, and rates; and preparing records of the goods
shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping charges,
and keeping a file of shipping records.
May direct or assist in preparing
the merchandise for shipment.
Receiving work involves: Verifying or
directing others in verifying the correctness of shipments against bills of
lading, invoices, or other records; checking for shortages and rejecting
damaged goods; routing merchandise or materials to proper departments;
and maintaining necessary records and files.

Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.

For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of truck,
as follows:
Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)

For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:
W ATC H M AN
Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk




Makes rounds of premises periodically in
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.

protecting

property,




Available On Request—
The sixth annual report on salaries for accountants, auditors, attorneys, chemists,
engineers, engineering technicians, draftsmen, tracers, job analysts, directors of
personnel, managers of office services, and clerical employees.
Order a s BLS Bulletin 1469, National Survey of Professional, Administrative, Tech­
nical, and Clerical Pay, February—
March 1965. 45 cents a copy.

Area Wage Surveys*
A lis t of the la te s t a v a ila b le bulletins is p resen ted b elow . A d ir e c to r y in dicatin g dates o f e a r lie r studies, and the p ric e s o f the bulletins is
a va ila b le on requ est. B u lletin s m ay be purchased fro m the Superintendent o f D ocum ents, U. S. G overnm en t P rin tin g O ffic e , Washington, D . C . , 20402,
or fro m any o f the B LS re g io n a l s a le s o ffic e s shown on the in sid e fro n t c o v e r.

A rea

B u lletin number
and p ric e

A rea

Akron, Ohio, June 1965_____________________________________ 1430-78, 25 cents
Albany—
Schenectady—Troy, N. Y . , Apr . 1965____________ 1430-52, 25 cents
Albuquerque, N. Mex. , Apr. 1965_______________________ 1430-62, 20 cents
Allentown—
Bethlehem—
Easton, P a . — . J . , Feb. 1965___ 1430-48, 20 cents
N
Atlanta, Ga. , May 1965--------------------------------------------------- 1430-74, 25 cents
Baltimore, Md. , Nov. 1965________________________________ 1465-29, 25 cents
Beaumont—Port Arthur, T ex., May 1965________________ 1430-66, 20 cents
Birmingham, A l a . , Apr. 1965 1___________________________ 1430-60, 25 cents
Boise City, Idaho, July 1965----------------------------------------- 1465-1,
20 cents
Boston, M a s s . , Oct. 19651 _______________________________ 1465-12, 30 cents

M ilw aukee, W is ., A p r . 1965 1____________________________
M in n ea p o lis—
St. Paul, M in n ., Jan. 1965 1 _____________
M uskegon— uskegon Heights, M ic h ., M ay 1965_________
M
N ew ark and J e r s e y C ity, N . J . , F eb . 1965______________
N ew Haven, C onn ., Jan. 19661 --------------------------------N ew O rlea n s, L a . , F eb . 1965 1 __________________________
N ew Y o rk , N . Y . , A p r. 1965 1 ----------------------------------N o r fo lk — ortsm o u th and N ew p o rt N ew s—
P
Hampton, Va. , June 1965 1 -------------------------------------Oklahom a C ity, O kla. , Aug. 1965_________________ _______

Buffalo, N. Y . , Dec. 1965__________________________________
Burlington, Vt. , M ar. 1965 1 ______________________________
Canton, Ohio, Apr. 1965___________________________________
Charleston, W. Va. , Apr. 1965___________________________
Charlotte, N. C ., Apr. 1965_______________________________
Chattanooga, T en n .-G a. , Sept. 1965____________________
Chicago, 111., A pr. 1965 1 _________________________________
Cincinnati, Ohio—
Ky. , M ar. 1965_________________________
Cleveland, Ohio, Sept. 1965------------------------------------------Columbus, Ohio, Oct. 1965________________________________
Dallas, Tex. , Nov. 1965___________________________________

1465-36,
1430-51,
1430-59,
1430-65,
1430-61,
1465-7,
1430-72,
1430-55,
1465-8,
1465-15,
1465-24,

1430-77,
1465-5,

25 cents
20 cents

Omaha, N e b r .—
Iowa, Oct. 19651 ------------------------------- 1465-13,
P a te rso n — lifto n —P a s s a ic , N. J. , M ay 1965____________ 1430-71,
C
P h ilad elp h ia, Pa. — J. , N ov. 1965 1____________________ 1465-35,
N.
Phoen ix, A r iz . , M a r. 1965_______________________________ 1430-56,
Pittsb u rgh , P a ., Jan. 1965 * _____________________________ 1430-41,
P ortlan d , M aine, N ov. 19651_____________________________ 1465-23,
P ortlan d , O r e g . —Wash. , M ay 1965______________________ 1430-70,
P ro v id e n c e —Pawtucket, R. I . — a s s ., M ay 1965 1 _______ 1430-67,
M
R a leigh , N. C . , Sept. 1965 1--------------------------------------- 1465-10,
Richm ond, Va. , N ov. 1965 1------------------------------------- 1465-28,
R ock ford , 111., M ay 1965------------- ------ ----------------------- 1430-63,

25 cents
25 cents
35 cents
20 cents
30 cents
25 cents
25 cents
30 cents
25 cents
30 cents
20 cents

25
30
20
30
20
20
20
25
30

St. Lou is, M o . —
111., Oct. 1965___________________________
Salt
1465-16, Lake cents Utah, D ec. 1965_________________________
20 C ity,
cents
San Antonio, T e x ., June 1965 1___________________________
cents
San B ern a rd in o — iv e r s id e — ntario, C a lif. ,
R
O
cents
Sept. 1965 1------------------ -----------------------------------------cents
San D iego , C a lif. , N ov. 1965-------------------------------------cents
San F ra n c is c o —
Oakland, C a lif., Jan. 1965 1_____________
San Jose, C a lif., Sept. 1965 1_____________________________
cents
Savannah, G a ., M ay 1965-----------------------------------------cents
Scranton, P a ., Aug. 19651---------------------------------------cents
cents
S eattle—E v e r e tt, W ash., Oct. 1965 1_____________________

1465-22,
1465-32,
1430-81,

25 cents
20 cents
25 cents

1465-20,
1465-21,
1430-37,
1465-19,
1430-64,
1465-3,
1465-9,

30 cents
20 cents
25 cents
25 cents
20 cents
25 cents
30 cents

Sioux F a lls , S. D a k ., Oct. 1965 1________________________
South Bend, In d ., M a r. 1965_____________________________
Spokane, W a sh ., June 1965 1_____________________________
T oled o, Ohio, F eb . 1965 1 ----------------------------------------Tren ton , N. J . , D e c . 1965________________________________
Washington, D. C. —
Md. — a . , O ct. 1965_________________
V
W aterb u ry, C onn ., M a r. 1965____________________________
W a te rlo o, Iowa, N ov. 1965_______________________________
W ich ita, K a n s ., Oct. 1965----------------------------------------W o rc e s te r, M a s s ., June 1965----------------------------------Y o rk , P a ., F e b . 1965-----------------------------------------------Youngstow n— a rren , Ohio, N ov. 1965 1_________________
W

1465-17,
1430-54,
1430-79,
1430-50,
1465-34,
1465-14,
1430-49,
1465-18,
1465-11,
1430-76,
1430-46,
1465-25,

25 cents
20 cents
25 cents
25 cents
20 cents
25 cents
20 cents
20 cents
20 cents
25 cents
20 cents
25 cents

Jackson, M i s s . , Feb. 1965-------------------------------------------Jacksonville, F l a . , Jan. 1965 1 __________________________
Kansas City, M o . - K a n s . , Nov. 1965*---------------------------Lawren ce—
Haverhill, M a s s . — H . , June 1965_________
N.
Little Rock—
North Little Rock, A r k . , Aug. 1965_______
Los Angeles—
Long Beach, Calif. , M ar. 1965 1 ________
Louisville, K y . —
Ind., Feb. 1965 1_______________________
Lubbock, T ex., June 1965________________________________
Manchester, N. H. , Aug. 1965____________________________
Memphis, T enn ., Jan. 1965______________________________
Miami, Fla. , Dec. 1965 1_________________________________
Midland and Odessa, T e x ----------------------------------------------

1430-44, 20 cents
1430-38, 25 cents
1465-27, 30 cents
1430-75, 20 cents
1465-6,
20 cents
1430-57, 30 cents
1430-42, 25 cents
1430-73, 20 cents
1465-2,
20 cents
1430-40, 25 cents
1465-30, 25 cents
(Not previously surveyed)




25 cents
30 cents
20 cents
25 cents
25 cents
30 cents
40 cents

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

1430-31,
1465-33,
1430-47,
1430-43,
1465-26,
1465-4,
1430-69,
1430-82,
1465-31,

1 Data on establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions are also presented.
Bulletins dated before July 1965 were entitled "Occupational Wage Surveys."

1430-58,
1430-39,
1430-68,
1430-45,
1465-37,
1430-53,
1430-80,

25
25
20
20
25
20
30
25
25
25
25

Davenport—
Rock Island—
Moline, Io w aIll. , Oct. 1965----------------------------------Dayton, Ohio, Jan. 1965___________________________________
Denver, Colo., Dec. 19651--------------------------------------------Des Moines, Iowa, Feb. 1965_____________________________
Detroit, M ich., Jan. 1965 1 ______________________________
Fort Worth, Tex. , Nov. 1965______________________________
Green Bay, W is ., Aug. 1965-----------------------------------------Greenville, S. C . , May 1965______________________________
Houston, Te x., June 1965_________________________________
Indianapolis, Ind. , Dec. 19651___________________________

*

B u lletin number
and p ric e


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102