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L a. s : £ 2.0 ? National Survey of Professional, Administrative, Technical, and Clerical Pay, March 1984 ^ U.S. Department of Labor jreau of Labor Statistics >ptember 1984 illetin 2208 National Survey of Professional, Administrative, Technical, and Clerical Pay, March 1984 U.S. Department of Labor Raymond J. Donovan, Secretary Bureau of Labor Statistics Janet L. Norwood, Commissioner September 1984 Bulletin 2208 F or sa le b.v th e S u p erin ten d en t o f D ocum ents, U .S. G overnm ent P r in tin g Office W ashington, D.C. 20402 Preface translatable to specific General Schedule (GS) grades ap plying to Federal employees. Thus, the definitions of some occupations and work levels were limited to specific elements that could be classified uniformly among establishments. The Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Office of Personnel Management worked joint ly to prepare the definitions. The survey could not have been conducted without the cooperation of the many firms whose salary data provide the basis for the statistical information in this bulletin. The Bureau, on its own behalf and on behalf of the other Federal agencies that contributed to survey planning, wishes to express appreciation for the cooperation it has received. This survey was conducted in the Bureau’s Office of Wages and Industrial Relations by the Division of Oc cupational Pay and Employee Benefit Levels. Mark S. Sieling prepared the analysis in this bulletin. Computer programming and tabulation of data were developed by Richard S. Schlidt under the direction of Richard W. Maylott, Office of Statistical Operations. Terry Burdette and Glenn Springer, of the Division of Wage Statistical Methods, were responsible for the sampl ing design and other statistical procedures. Field work and data collection for the survey were directed by the Bureau’s Assistant Regional Commissioners for Operations. Although only nationwide salary data are presented in this bulletin, salary data for clerical occupations and for drafters and some computer occupations are available for each metropolitan area in which the Bureau conducts area wage surveys. These area reports also include information on the incidence of employee benefits such as paid vacations, holidays, and health, in surance, and pension plans for nonsupervisory office workers. In 1983, a survey of employee benefits in private in dustry covered the same scope as the nationwide survey of professional, administrative, technical, and clerical pay. The findings of the survey appear in Employee Benefits in Medium and Large Firms, 1983, Bulletin 2213 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1984). Copies are for sale from the Government Printing Office or the Bureau’s regional offices listed on the inside back cover of this bulletin. Material in this publication is in the public domain and, with appropriate credit, may be reproduced without permission. This bulletin summarizes the results of the Bureau’s annual salary survey of selected professional, ad ministrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry. The nationwide salary information, relating to March 1984, is representative of establishments in a broad spectrum of industries throughout the United States, except Alaska and Hawaii. The results of the national white-collar salary survey are used for a number of purposes, including general economic analysis and wage and salary administration by private and public employers. One important use is to provide the basis for setting Federal white-collar salaries under the provisions of the Federal Pay Com parability Act of 1970. Under this act, the President has designated the Secretary of Labor, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, and the Director of the Office of Personnel Management to serve jointly as his agent to establish pay for Federal white-collar employees. The President’s agent specifies the geographic scope of the Bureau’s salary survey, the industries to be studied, the minimum establishment size to be included, and the survey occupations. The agent also formulates comparability procedures, uses the survey results to develop statistical paylines, and recommends com parability pay adjustments to the President. The Bureau of Labor Statistics, under the Federal Pay Comparabili ty Act of 1970, is responsible for conducting the survey and advising on the feasibility of proposed survey changes. The Bureau prepares a list of establishments covered by the survey, draws a probability-based sample from this list, collects, tabulates, and reports the data. As mentioned above, however, the survey design is the responsibility of the President’s Pay Agent. It should also be emphasized that this survey, like other salary surveys, does not provide mechanical answers to pay policy questions. The occupations studied span a wide range of duties and responsibilities. The occupations selected were judged to be (a) surveyable in industry within the framework of a broad survey design, (b) representative of occupational groups which generally are numerically important in industry as well as in the Federal service, and (c) essentially of the same nature in both the Federal and private sectors. Occupational definitions used to collect salary data (appendix C) reflect duties and responsibilities in private industry; however, they are also designed to be iii Contents Page Summary....................................................................................................................................... Characteristics of the survey......................................................................................................... Employment .................................................................................................................................. Changes in salary levels ................................................................................................................. Average salaries, March 1984 ....................................................................................................... Salary levels in metropolitan a re a s ............................................................................................... Salary levels in large establishments.............................................................................................. Salary distributions........................................................................................................................ Pay differences by industry........................................................................................................... Average standard weekly hours..................................................................................................... 1 1 1 1 2 5 5 5 5 6 Text tables: 1. Percent increases in average salaries by occupation, 1974-84 ....................................... 2. Percent increases in average salaries by work level category, 1974-84 ......................... 3. Distribution of work levels by degree of salary dispersion, March 1984 ..................... 2 3 6 Reference tables: Average salaries: 1. United States ................................................................................................................ 11 2. Metropolitan areas......................................................................................................... 14 3. Establishments employing 2,500 workers or more....................................................... 17 Employment distribution by salary: 4. Professional and administrativeoccupations................................................................ 20 5. Technical support occupations...................................................................................... 30 6. Clerical occupations ..................................................................................................... 32 Selected industry characteristics: 7. Occupational employment distribution......................................................................... 35 8. Relative salary levels..................................................................................................... 36 9. Average weekly h o u rs................................................................................................... 37 Charts: 1. 2. 3. 4. Salaries in professional and technical occupations, March 1984 ................................ 7 Salaries in administrative occupations, March 1984 ............................................. 8 Salaries in clerical occupations, March 1984................................................................. 9 Relative employment in selected occupational groups by industry division, March 1984 ............................................................................................................. 10 Appendixes: A. Scope and method of survey............................................................................................... B. Survey changes in 1984 ......................................................................................................... C. Occupational definitions..................................................................................................... D. Comparison of salaries in private industry with salaries of Federal employees under the General Schedule.......................................................................... v 38 43 44 88 Professional, Administrative, Technical, and Clerical Pay, March 1984 The number of levels in each occupation ranges from one for messengers to eight for engineers. These work levels, however, are not intended to represent all the workers in a specific occupation. Thus, the survey does not present comparisons of overall occupational salary levels, such as between accountants as a group and engineers. The approximately 44,500 establishments within the scope of the survey employed about 22,700,000 workers; just over 45 percent were professional, ad ministrative, technical, and clerical employees. Of these white-collar workers, 19 percent were in occupations for which salary data were developed. The survey presents separate occupational data for metropolitan areas—where over nine-tenths of the white-collar workers were employed—and for establishments employing 2,500 workers or more. Summary Average salaries for selected white-collar occupations in medium- and large-size establishments increased at a lower rate in the year ended March 1984 than in the previous 10 years. For most of the 25 occupations in cluded in the survey, increases ranged from 3 to 6 per cent. In contrast, increases averaged about 7 percent an nually during the 1970’s; 9 to 11 percent in 1981 and 1982; and 6 to 8.5 percent in 1983.1 Average monthly salaries for the 105 occupational levels published ranged from $822 for clerks performing routine filing to $7,297 for the highest level of attorneys studied. For most occupations, salary levels in metropolitan areas ana in large establishments were higher than the average for all establishments within the scope of the survey. Among the industry divisions represented in the survey, public utilities usually reported the highest salaries while finance, insurance, and real estate industries generally reported the lowest salaries and the shortest standard weekly hours. Employment Occupational employment varied widely, reflecting both actual differences among occupations and dif ferences in the range of duties and responsibilities covered by the definitions. For example, there were 542,700 incumbents in the eight levels of engineers, ac counting for about seven-tenths of the 750,700 profes sional employees within the scope of the study; cor porate attorneys, in contrast, numbered under 13,800—a figure that does not include those in legal firms. The five levels of programmers/programmer analysts and of systems analysts which were surveyed had 113,600 and 91,700 employees, respectively, and together accounted for about four-fifths of the employees in all administrative jobs studied, which also included buyers, job analysts, and directors of person nel. Engineering technicians comprised over two-fifths of the 265,800 technical workers, followed by drafters and computer operators (each about one-fourth of the employment). Secretaries constituted the largest clerical occupation, over two-fifths of the 673,200 clerical work force. The next largest clerical occupation was account ing clerk with about one-fourth of the total. Characteristics of the survey This survey—25th in an annual series—provides na tionwide salary data for 25 occupations spanning 105 work level categories. This information was collected from establishments in all areas of the United States, ex cept Alaska and Hawaii. The following major industry groups were surveyed: Mining; construction; manufac turing; transportation, communications, electric, gas, and sanitary services; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and selected ser vices. The minimum size of the establishments studied was either 50, 100, or 250 employees, depending on the industry.1 2 Occupations are divided into appropriate work levels based on duties and responsibilities (see appendix C). The number of work levels—designated by roman numerals, with “ I” the lowest—varies from occupation to occupa tion, as do degrees of difficulty and responsibility.3 1 For results o f the 1983 survey, see bls Bulletin 2181. 2 See appendix A for a full description of the scope o f the survey. 3 The roman numerals do not necessarily identify equal levels of work among occupations. For example, public accountant levels 1 to IV equate to accountant levels II to V while attorney I equates to ac countant III and public accountant II. For more information, see ap pendix D. Changes in salary levels After increases at the rate of about 7 percent a year during the 1970’s, salary levels for most of the survey 1 $1,654 for beginning professional accountants (level I) to $4,635 for specialists in complex accounting systems (level VI). Salaries of the most populated group (level III) averaged $2,393 a month. Nearly three-fifths of the accountants surveyed were in manufacturing industries; Finance, insurance, and real estate accounted for just over one-eighth; while public utilities employed onetenth. Chief accountants who adapt accounting systems with only a few relatively stable functions and work processes (level I) averaged $2,933 a month. At level IV, those who have authority to establish and maintain the accounting program, subject to general policy guidelines, for a company with numerous and varied ac counting functions and work processes averaged $5,820 a month.5 Work levels for chief accountants are determined by the degree of authority and responsibility, the technical complexity of the accounting system, and, to a lesser jobs rose by 9 to 11 percent a year in 1981 and 1982 before declining in 1983 to a 6.0- to 8.5-percent range. (See text table 1.) In 1984, increases moderated further, and ranged from 2.0 percent for typists to 8.0 percent for auditors; with two exceptions—auditors and chief accountants—increases were below those recorded since 1973-74. Increases also varied by occupational work level, with average salaries increasing faster for both the middle group of levels and for the journeyman and senior levels of professional and administrative occupations than for the lower levels of technical and clerical occupations. Text table 2 shows average salary increases since 1974 for these different groups which equate to various grades of the Federal Government’s General Salary Schedule—GS 1-4; GS 5-9; and GS 11-15. Cumulative increases over the past 10 years have been largest for the journeyman and senior levels, about 8-9 percentage points greater than for lower and middle groups of work levels. Average salaries, March 1984 4 Despite this wide difference, salary averages for professional jobs of equivalent levels of work often fell within a relatively narrow band. For example, monthly averages for the following work level equivalents (Federal grade level 13) fell within a $256 or 6 percent range: Accountant VI ($4,635); chief accountant III ($4,735); attorney IV ($4,622); chemist VI ($4,514); and engineer VI ($4,479). 5 Data for chief accountants V; directors o f personnel V; chemists VIII; job analysts I; systems analysts VI; computer operators VI; photographers V; and personnel clerks/assistants V did not meet publication criteria for this survey. Reflecting the wide range of duties and respon sibilities covered by the occupations studied, average monthly salaries ranged from $822 for file clerks I to $7,297 for the top level of attorneys (table l).4 The following paragraphs summarize the various occupa tions studied. Accountants' average monthly salaries ranged from Text table 1. Percent increases in average salaries by occupation, 1974-84' O ccupation P rofessional, adm inistrative, and tech nical support: A ccoun tants ....................................... C hief a c c o u n ta n ts ............................ A u d ito rs ............................................... Public accountants .......................... Job a n a ly s ts ....................................... D irectors o f p e rs o n n e l..................... A tto rn e y s ............................................. B u y e rs ................................................. C h e m is ts ............................................. Engineers ........................................... Engineering te c h n ic ia n s ................. D ra fte rs ............................................... C om puter o p e ra to rs .......................... P h o to g ra p h e rs .................................. Program m ers/program m er a n a ly s ts ............................................. S ystem s a n a ly s ts .............................. C lerical: A ccoun ting clerks ............................ File c le r k s ........................................... Key entry o p e ra to rs .......................... Messengers ...................................... Personnel c le rk s /a s s is ta n ts ........... P urchasing a s s is ta n ts ..................... S e c re ta rie s ........................................ Stenographers .................................. T y p is ts ................................................. 1974 to 1975 1975 to 1976 1976 to 1977 1977 to 1978 1978 to 1979 1979 to 1980 1980 to 1981 1981 to 1982 1982 to 1983 1983 to 1984 9.8 8.6 6.8 (1 2) 7.5 6.1 7.6 9.2 10.1 8.4 9.0 8.0 (2 ) (2 ) 6.4 6.6 5.5 (2) 6.0 7.8 6.1 6.7 6.6 6.8 8.1 7.4 (3) (2) 7.8 10.5 6.8 (2 ) 6.5 9.1 5.4 7.0 7.0 6.4 7.2 6.0 5.4 (2) 8.3 8.0 8.2 (2) 7.2 10.0 9.1 7.8 9.0 9.0 7.1 7.1 8.5 (2 ) 8.0 7.7 6.5 (3 ) 8.6 7.5 8.9 7.0 7.6 8.4 7.6 (3) 7.2 (2) 9.2 11.3 8.8 4.2 8.1 11.2 9.3 8.1 9.8 9.8 11.0 11.8 8.3 (2) 10.0 9.5 10.3 7.9 7.6 11.4 9.8 9.8 9.4 10.9 10.2 10.9 (3 ) (3) 9.6 11.4 9.4 6.6 9.2 9.6 11.4 9.4 10.4 10.2 9.4 8.4 8.9 9.7 6.9 4.2 6.1 7.1 6.7 8.3 7.6 6.2 5.8 7.1 5.9 7.6 6.8 8.1 4.7 5.7 8.0 2.3 5.3 5.3 4.8 5.3 5.3 5.2 4.9 3.6 (3 ) 6.9 (2 ) (2 ) (2) (2) (2) (2) <) 2 (2 ) (2) (2) (2) (2) (2 ) <) 2 (3 ) (2) 6.5 (2) (3) (3) 7.7 9.6 9.9 10.1 (2 ) (2 ) (3 ) 11.6 9.9 7.2 6.4 7.6 7.4 (2 ) (2) (3) 8.0 7.1 6.9 5.5 5.9 7.5 (2) (2) 6.4 7.9 6.2 6.2 9.7 7.1 6.0 (2 ) (2 ) 6.5 8.2 8.0 < 3) 5.5 6.8 6.8 (3) (2) 7.3 12.1 8.5 8.9 9.3 9.1 9.6 8.0 8.2 9.7 (3 ) (2) (3) 12.1 10.2 8.9 7.2 9.4 6.4 10.2 (3) 9.2 13.8 10.1 8.1 6.4 7.3 9.2 9.7 9.3 7.1 8.6 6.8 3.8 2.1 3.4 2.9 5.4 6.8 1 For data on survey periods from 1960 to 1970, see the 1979 e d itio n o f th is p u blication , B ulletin 2045; fo r 1970-74, see the 1982 edition, B ulletin 2145. 2 N ot surveyed. 5.5 8.6 (2) 9.6 10.1 8.9 ______ ______ 3 C om parable data fo r both years not available, NOTE: For m ethod of com puta tion, see appendix A. 2 5.0 5.5 2.0 averaged $1,685 a month. Buyers IV, who purchase highly complex and technical items, materials, or serv ices that are custom designed and manufactured, averaged $3,154. Approximately four-fifths of the buyers studied were employed by manufacturing in dustries. Programmers/programmer analysts at the trainee level who are developing basic programming skills (level I) averaged $1,650 a month. Those at level V, who are either team leaders, staff specialists, or consultants responsible for complex programming, averaged $3,239 a month. Manufacturing industries employed almost two-fifths of all programmers/programmer analysts surveyed; finance, insurance, and real estate accounted for one-fourth; selected services, about one-seventh; and public utilities, one-tenth. Computer systems analysts were surveyed for the first time this year. Systems analysts I averaged $2,257 a month. This level includes workers who are familar with systems analysis procedures and are working in dependently on routine problems. Systems analysts V, the highest level for which data could be developed, averaged $4,493 a month. At this level, analysts work as top technical specialists on extremely complex systems or are senior managers responsible for the development and maintenance of large and complex systems.7 Personnel management occupations are represented by four levels of job analysts and five levels of direc tors o f personnel. Job analysts II averaged $1,904 a month compared with $2,907 for level IV.8 Under general supervision, job analysts IV analyze and evaluate a variety of the more difficult jobs and may participate in the development and installation of job evaluation and compensation systems. Directors of per sonnel are limited by definition to those who, at a minimum, are responsible for administering a job evaluation system, employment and placement func tions, and employee relations and services. Those with significant responsibility for actual contract negotia tions with labor unions as the principal company representative are excluded. Various combinations of duties and responsibilities determine the work level. Among personnel directors, average monthly salaries ranged from $2,954 for level I to $5,489 for level IV.9 Manufacturing industries employed one-half of the job analysts and just over two-thirds of the directors of per sonnel included in the survey; the finance, insurance, and real estate industries ranked next with about onefourth of the job analysts and one-seventh of the direc tors of personnel. Text table 2. Percent increases in average salaries by work level category,1 1974-84 Period2 1974-84 .......... Group A (GS grades 1-4) Group B (GS grades 5-9) Group C (GS grades 11-15) 111.1 112.1 120.1 1974-75................. 1975-76................. 1976-77................. 1977-78................. 1978-79 ................. 9.1 7.6 6.9 7.5 7.2 8.6 6.4 6.3 8.0 7.5 8.8 6.5 7.7 8.8 8.0 1979-80................. 1980-81 ................. 1981-82................. 1982-83................. 1983-84................. 9.1 9.8 9.5 7.4 3.6 10.1 9.6 9.4 7.3 5.0 9.3 10.2 10.4 7.2 5.3 — ’ Group A contains survey classifications equating to GS grades 1-4 of the Federal Government's General Salary Schedule. Group B covers GS grades 5-9; and Group C, GS grades 11-15 See appendix D, table D-1, for a listing of survey levels that equate to each GS grade. 2 For data on survey periods from 1960 to 1970. see the 1979 edition of this publication, Bulletin 2045; for 1970-74, see the 1982 edition, Bulletin 2145. degree, the size of the professional staff (usually 1-2 ac countants at the first levels to as many as 40 accountants at level IV). Of the chief accountants surveyed, about two-thirds were employed in manufacturing industries and one-tenth each in the wholesale trade and the finance, insurance, and real estate sectors. Auditors at the trainee level (level I) averaged $1,639 a month and auditors IV, who conduct complex finan cial audits, averaged $3,115. Manufacturing industries employed just over three-tenths of the auditors, while the finance, insurance, and real estate sector employed over one-third and public utilities over one-eighth. Public accountants at the entry level, who receive practical experience in applying the principles, theories, and concepts of accounting and auditing (level I), averaged $1,595 a month. The highest level of public ac countants (level IV), who direct the field work for large or complex audits, averaged $2,472 a month. This oc cupation was only found in public accounting firms, which are a part of the selected services industry group. Attorneys are classified based upon the difficulty of their assignments and responsibilities. Attorneys I, who include new law school graduates with bar membership and whose work is relatively uncomplicated due to clearly applicable precedents and well-established facts, averaged $2,410 a month. Attorneys in the top level surveyed (VI) averaged $7,297. These attorneys deal with legal matters of major importance to the organiza tion (or corporation), and usually report only to general counsels or, in very large firms, to their immediate deputies. Finance, insurance, and real estate industries employed just over two-fifths of the attorneys and manufacturing industries employed just over onefourth.6 Buyers who purchase “ off-the-shelf” and readily available items and services from local sources (level I) 7 See footnote 5. As noted in appendix B, information was col lected separately for five levels of nonsupervisory systems analysts and four levels o f systems analyst supervisors/managers. The data were consolidated for publication, using the approach shown in appendix B. 8 See footnote 5. 9 See footnote 5. 6 The survey excludes establishments primarily offering legal ad vice or services. 3 Chemists and engineers each are surveyed in eight levels1 1starting with a professional trainee level typical 0 ly requiring a B.S. degree. The highest level surveyed in volves either full responsibility over a broad, complex, and diversified chemical or engineering program, with several subordinates each directing large and important segments of the program, or individual research and consultation in problem areas where the chemist or engineer is a recognized authority and where solutions represent a major scientific or technological advance.1 1 Average monthly salaries ranged from $1,801 for Obemists I to $5,256 for chemists VII, the highest level for which data could be published, and from $2,180 for engineers I to $5,899 for engineers VIII. Level IV chemists and engineers, the largest groups in each profession and representing fully experienced employees, averaged $3,137 and $3,250 a month, respectively. Employment of chemists and engineers was highly concentrated in manufacturing industries (90 percent of the chemists and 74 percent of the engineers). Most of the remaining chemists were associated with research and development laboratories. Engineers were also found in significant numbers in establishments engaged in research and development, project design, and public utilities. Engineering technician is a five-level series limited to employees providing semiprofessional technical support to engineers. These technicians work with engineers in such areas as research, design, development, testing, or manufacturing process improvement, and utilize elec trical, electronic, or mechanical components or equip ment. Technicians involved in production or maintenance work are excluded. Engineering techni cians I, who perform simple routine tasks under close supervision or from detailed procedures, averaged $1,347 a month. Engineering technicians V, who work on more complex projects under general guidelines sup plied by a supervisor or professional engineer, averaged $2,507. Salaries for intermediate levels III and IV, con taining a majority of the technicians surveyed, averaged $1,863 and $2,197, respectively. Almost four-fifths of the engineering technicians were employed in manufacturing and one-eighth in selected services. The ratio of technicians to engineers was about 1 to 4 in all manufacturing industries combin ed. In public utilities, the ratio was 1 to 5; in mechanical and electrical equipment manufacturing, it was 1 to 4; and in research, development, and testing laboratories, 1 to 3. Drafter salary levels ranged from $1,050 a month for level I, who trace or copy finished drawings, to $2,421 for level V, who work closely with design originators in preparing unusual, complex, or original designs. About seven-tenths of the drafters were in manufacturing firms and approximately one-fifth in selected services. Computer operators are classified on the basis of responsibility for problem solving, variability of assignments, and scope of authority for corrective ac tion needed by their equipment. Computer operators I, whose work consists of on-the-job training, averaged $1,089 a month. The largest group surveyed, level II, averaged $1,361 and the highest published level (V) averaged $2,269.1 About two-fifths of all computer 2 operators were located in manufacturing industries; one-fourth in finance, insurance, and real estate; and one-eighth in selected services. Photographers studied in the survey range from those taking routine pictures where several shots can be taken or opportunities for retakes exist (level I) to those using special-purpose cameras under technically demanding conditions (level IV).1 Photographers working for 3 media establishments, such as newspapers or advertising agencies, were excluded. The average monthly salary for level I photographers was $1,446 compared with $2,396 for level IV’s. Manufacturing industries employed ap proximately two-thirds of the photographers studied while most of the remainder were in selected services. Among the survey’s nine clerical jobs, secretary was the most heavily populated. Average monthly salaries ranged from $1,275 for level I secretaries to $2,058 for level V. Average salaries of $1,437 and $1,698 were reported for stenographers I and II. Typists I averaged $983 and those at level II, $1,262. Accounting clerks performing simple and routine clerical accounting operations (level I) averaged $975 a month. Level IV clerks who maintain journals or sub sidiary ledgers averaged $1,687. Three-fourths of all ac counting clerks were classified in levels II and III, which averaged $1,172 and $1,377 a month, respectively. Personnel clerks/assistants who perform routine tasks requiring a knowledge of personnel rules and pro cedures (level I) averaged $1,115 a month. Level IV assistants, who provide paraprofessional support such as interviewing and recommending placement for welldefined occupations, averaged $1,819.1 4 Level I purchasing assistants examine and review routine purchasing agreements. Their monthly average of $1,302 compares with $2,243 for top level III assistants, who prepare complicated purchase documents, expedite the purchase of highly specialized items, or provide detailed technical support to buyers. Clerical workers generally were highest paid in manufacturing, mining, and public utilities and lowest paid in finance, insurance, real estate, and retail trade. About two-fifths of the clerical employees were 10 See footnote 5. 1 The definition recognizes that top positions in some companies 1 with unusually extensive and complex chemical or engineering pro grams exceed this level. 1 See footnote 5. 2 13 See footnote 5. 1 See footnote 5. 4 4 heavily to total employment and, consequently, to the all-establishment average. employed in manufacturing industries. The finance, in surance, and real estate industries and public utilities also employed large numbers of clerical workers, ac counting for about one-fourth and one-tenth of the total, respectively. Salary distributions Employee distributions of monthly salaries for pro fessional and administrative occupations are presented in table 4, for technical support occupations in table 5, and for clerical occupations in table 6. Within most work levels, the highest salary rates were more than twice as large as the lowest rates. As illustrated in charts 1-3, these differences tended to increase with each rise in the work level. Salary ranges of specific work levels in an occupation also tended to overlap each other. This reflects both salary differences among establishments and the frequent overlapping of salary ranges within in dividual firms. Median monthly salaries for most work levels were slightly lower than the mean average salaries.1 Hence, 5 salaries in the upper halves of the arrays affected the means more than salaries in the lower halves. The relative difference between the mean and the median was less than 2 percent for 64 of the 105 work levels surveyed, from 2 to 4 percent in 30 levels, and from over 4.0 to 7.8 percent in the other 11 levels. The degree of salary dispersion tended to be larger for clerical occupations than for professional, ad ministrative, or technical occupations. These disper sions, shown in text table 3, reflect the salary range of the middle 50 percent of employees in each work level expressed as a percent of the median salary. This eliminates the extremely low and high salaries for each comparison. In about nine-tenths of the 105 publishable work levels, the degree of dispersion ranged between 15 and 30 percent. Salary differences within work levels reflect a variety of factors other than duties and responsibilities. These include salary structures within establishments which provide for a range of rates for each grade level; varia tions in occupational employment among industries (table 7 and chart 4); and geographic salary differences, especially for clerical occupations.1 Clerical employees 6 usually are recruited locally, while professional and ad ministrative positions tend to be recruited on a broader regional or national basis. Salary levels in metropolitan areas For most occupational levels, average salaries in metropolitan areas (table 2) were slightly higher than national averages (table 1). In only 13 instances, however, did these differences exceed 1 percent. Approximately nine-tenths of the employees surveyed were located in metropolitan areas. The proportion, however, varied among occupations and work levels. More than 95 percent of auditors, systems analysts, job analysts, attorneys, and messengers were in metropolitan areas. In 78 of the 105 work levels pro viding publishable data, at least 90 percent of the workers were in metropolitan areas. Salary levels in large establishments Large establishments—those employing 2,500 workers or more—accounted for about 38 percent of all employees in the 96 occupational work levels for which comparisons were possible (table 3). The proportion of workers in large establishments ranged from less than one-tenth of drafters I and file clerks I to 95 percent of purchasing assistants III. Large establishments com monly employed a majority of the workers at the highest levels of professional, administrative, and technical support occupations. Among clerical occupa tions, however, they employed a majority of only pur chasing assistants III and both levels of stenographers. Salary levels in large establishments expressed as percents of levels in all establishments combined ranged from 97 to 129. Salary levels in large establishments were higher than the all-establishment average by 5 per cent or more in all but three of the clerical levels (both levels of stenographers and purchasing assistants III), but for about two-fifths of the 70 nonclerical levels, as shown in the following tabulation (the all-establishment average for each occupational level = 100): Professional, administrative, and technical Clerical Total number o f levels 70 26 95-99 percent........................ 100-104 percent................... 105-109 percent................... 110-114 percent ................... 115 percent and o v e r ........... 4 39 17 8 2 1 2 11 6 6 Pay differences by industry Relative occupational salary levels in major industry divisions were compared to each other and to the all industry average (table 8). Salary levels for professional, administrative, and technical occupations in manufac15 Median monthly salaries are the amounts below and above which 50 percent o f the employees are found. The mean salary is the weighted average o f all salaries. 1 For analyses o f interarea pay differentials in clerical salaries, see 8 Wage Differences Among Metropolitan Areas, 1983, bls Summary 84-5; and Mark Sieling, “ Clerical Pay Differences in Metropolitan Areas, 1961-80,” Monthly Labor Review, July 1982, pp. 10-14. As expected, pay relatives were close to 100 for those work levels where large establishments contributed 5 Text table 3. Distribution of work levels by degree of salary dispersion, March 1984 Number of levels having degree of dispersion1 of— Occupation All occupations Accountants Chief accountants Auditors Public accountants Job analysts Directors of personnel Attorneys Buyers C h e m is ts ............... Engineers Engineering technicians Drafters Computer operators Photographers Programmers/programmer analysts System s analysts Clerical workers Number of work levels 105 6 4 4 4 3 4 6 4 7 8 5 5 5 4 5 5 26 Under 15 percent 15 and under 20 percent 20 and under 25 percent 25 and under 30 percent 30 percent and over 5 29 49 17 5 2 2 2 2 3 6 2 1 4 1 1 1 - 1 - - 2 2 - 2 2 1 - 5 - 3 3 2 5 4 4 3 1 4 1 1 13 - 3 1 1 1 - - - 9 4 ’ Degree of dispersion equals the salary range of the middle 50 percent of employees in a work level expressed as a percent of the median salary for that level. turing industries tended to be closest to the all-industry average. Manufacturing however, accounted for more employment than any other sector, except in the case of attorneys and public accountants. Relative salary levels were generally highest in mining and public utilities. For most occupations studied, relative salary levels were lowest in retail trade and finance, insurance, and real estate industries. Where these industries employed a substantial proportion of workers in an occupation, the all-industry average was dampened; consequently, relative pay levels in such industries as manufacturing and public utilities tended to be elevated above the all industry average. For example, relative pay levels of messengers in manufacturing (112 percent of the all industry average) and public utilities (135 percent) reflect the influence of lower salaries for 46 percent of these workers employed in finance, insurance, and real estate industries on the all-industry average. These industries, however, also reported slightly shorter average standard workweeks than other industries. Average standard weekly hours The distribution of average weekly hours (rounded to the nearest half hour) is shown in table 9 for each oc cupation by major industry division. Average weekly hours were lower in finance, insurance, and real estate (about 38 hours for most occupations) than in other in dustries (39 to 40 hours). Average weekly hours have been fairly stable over the past decade.1 Standard week 7 ly hours, the base for regular straight-time salary, were obtained for individual employees in the occupations studied. When individual hours were not available, par ticularly for some higher level professional and ad ministrative positions, the predominant workweek of the office work force was used as the standard workweek. 1 For information on scheduled weekly hours o f office workers 7 employed in metropolitan areas, see Area Wage Surveys, Selected Metropolitan Areas, 1983, Bulletin 3025—72 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1984). 6 Chart 1. Salaries in professional and technical occupations, March 1984 (Mean monthly salaries and ranges within which fell 80 percent of employees) O ccupation and level A cco untants Chief accountants Auditors Public accountants Attorneys Chem ists Engineers Engineering te ch n ician s D rafters Com puter operators Photographers 7 Chart 2. Salaries in administrative occupations, March 1984 (Mean monthly salaries and ranges within which fell 80 percent of employees) O ccup ation and level Jo b analysts o || lii IV D irectors of personnel j II III IV Buyers I II III IV Program m ers/ program m er analysts | II III IV V System s analysts I II III IV V $1,000 $2,000 $3,000 $4,000 $5,000 $6,000 $7,000 Chart 3. Salaries in clerical occupations, March 1984 (Mean monthly salaries and ranges within which fell 80 percent of employees) O ccupation and level 0 A ccounting clerks File clerks Key entry operators j $500 $1 ,000 $ 1 ,500 - II III IV III III |- II M esseng ers Personnel clerks/ assistants |^_ _ III IV Purchasing assistants J- II ill S e cre ta rie s |- II III • IV VStenographers I- II Typists |- II - 9 $ 2 ,0 0 0 $ 2 ,500 $ 3 ,000 Chart 4. Relative employment in selected occupational groups by industry division, March 1984 Percent O ccup ational group A cco u n ta n ts and chief acco u n ta n ts’ Auditors Attorneys Buyers Program m ers/ program m er analysts System s analysts Directors of pe1 sonnet Chem ists Engineers Engineering technicians and drafters Com puter operators Photographers C le rical em ployees 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 milium wnmim Wilmmwmrnmr wmmmiimTm Miniumi i ■777777771wmm, mummum * Mmmmmmuh vuniiitnmim uuumuuu / / / / / / / gzzzzzzzzzzzz mum Mining and construction M anufacturing Public utilities Finance, insurance, and real estate Trade and selected se rvice s 1 Public accountants are not included. This occupation is found only in accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping services in the selected services industry group. 10 Table 1. Average salaries: United States (Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry,’ United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1984) MONTHLY SALARIES4 NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES3 OCCUPATION AND LEVEL2 ACCOUNTANTS AND AUDITORS ACCOUNTANTS I ...... ACCOUNTANTS II ..... ACCOUNTANTS III .... ACCOUNTANTS IV ..... ACCOUNTANTS V ...... ACCOUNTANTS VI ..... AUDITORS I ......... AUDITORS II ........ AUDITORS III ....... AUDITORS IV ........ PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS I . PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS II PURLTC ACCOUNTANTS III PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS IV CHIEF ACCOUNTANTS I . . CHIEF ACCOUNTANTS II . CHIEF ACCOUNTANTS III CHIEF ACCOUNTANTS IV . ATTORNEYS ATTORNEYS I ................ ATTORNEYS II ....... ATTORNEYS III ...... ATTORNEYS IV ....... ATTORNEYS V ........ ATTORNEYS VI ....... BUYERS BUYERS I ........... BUYERS II .......... BUYERS III ......... BUYERS IV .......... PROGRAMMERS/ANALYSTS PROGRAMMERS/PROGRAMMER ANALYSTS PROGRAMMERS/PROGRAMMER ANALYSTS PROGRAMMERS/PROGRAMMER ANALYSTS PROGRAMMERS/PROGRAMMER ANALYSTS PROGRAMMERS/PROGRAMMER ANALYSTS SYSTEMS SYSTEMS SYSTEMS SYSTEMS SYSTEMS ANALYSTS ANALYSTS ANALYSTS ANALYSTS ANALYSTS I ____ II... III.. I V . .. V.... PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT JOB ANALYSTS II ............ JOB ANALYSTS III ... JOB ANALYSTS IV .... DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL I .... DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL II ... DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL Ill .... DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL IV ... MEAN 13,183 23,559 38,763 22,717 8,114 1,836 1,362 3,625 4,607 2,421 9,264 9,335 7,067 4,345 650 1,383 899 176 MIDDLE RANGEa FIRST THIRD QUARTILE QUARTILE MEAN MEDIAN MIDDLE RANGE5 FIRST THIRD QUARTILE QUARTILE $1,473 1,777 2,100 2,666 3,333 4,135 1,383 1,871 2,200 2,751 1,524 1,649 1,850 2,232 2,563 3,332 4,167 5,242 $1,820 2,241 2,649 3,258 4,035 5,035 1,863 2,332 2,779 3,415 1,666 1,858 2,207 2,666 3,323 4,003 5,165 6,148 $19,843 24,325 28,721 35,715 44,466 55,618 19,671 25,391 30,209 37,378 19,142 21,164 24,702 29,663 35,199 44,128 56,816 69,838 $19,680 23,990 28,320 35,196 44,340 54,978 19,192 25,080 30,000 36,685 18,992 20,692 23.990 29,188 35,986 43,683 57,036 70,212 $17,679 21,318 25,200 31,987 39,996 49,620 16,596 22,452 26,400 33,017 2,933 3,677 4,735 5,820 $1,640 1,999 2,360 2,933 3,695 4,582 1,599 2,090 2,500 3,057 1,583 1,724 1,999 2,432 2,999 3,640 4,753 5,851 18,293 19,792 22 .?Q 0 26,789 30,750 39,984 50,004 62,904 $21,840 26,889 31,787 39,092 43,420 60,420 22,356 27,989 33,348 40.984 19,992 22,291 9A ^aq 31,987 39,876 48,036 61,975 73,770 1,186 2,965 3,938 3,340 1,827 541 2,410 2,937 3,729 4,622 5,873 7,297 2,332 2,916 3,666 4,567 5,759 7,164 2,083 2,582 3,332 4,067 5,229 6,414 2,666 3,290 4,116 5,023 6,414 8,033 28,918 35,238 44,743 55,462 70,478 87,568 27,989 34,987 43,992 54,804 69,102 85,966 24,990 30,987 39,984 48,804 62,748 76,969 31,987 39,484 49,396 60,276 76,969 96,396 6,234 17,840 18,285 5,941 I ... II — III ... IV V ... $1,654 2,027 2,393 2,976 3,706 4,635 1,639 2,116 2,517 3,115 1,595 1,764 2,058 2,472 MEDIAN ANNUAL SALARIES4 1,685 2,056 2,551 3,154 1,639 2,015 2,520 3,087 1,498 1,833 2,259 2,750 1,863 2,244 2,800 3,485 20,225 24,675 30,610 37,843 19,668 24,178 30,240 37,044 17,976 21,991 27,108 33,000 22,358 26,934 33,600 41,820 13,339 33,626 42,777 16,546 7,296 16,127 34,702 28,321 10,375 2,140 1,650 1,901 2,263 2,661 3,239 2,257 2,694 3,171 3,729 4,493 1,605 1,895 2,249 2,666 3,270 2,246 2.674 3,149 3,690 4,458 1,416 1,699 2,049 2,466 3,035 2,050 2,444 2,889 3,373 4,045 1,850 2,083 2,457 2,875 3,479 2,435 2,920 3,425 4,023 4,917 19,801 22,815 27,158 31,929 38,868 27,084 32,324 38,057 44,748 53,917 19,260 22,740 26,989 31,987 39,240 26,952 32,087 37,786 44,282 53,496 16,993 20,392 24,590 29,588 36,420 24,605 29,328 34,666 40,476 48,540 22,200 24,990 29,488 34,500 41,748 29,220 35,040 41,100 48,282 59,004 474 832 610 1,674 2,288 1,231 452 1,904 2,332 2,907 2,954 3,552 4,643 5,489 1,853 2,275 2,900 2,914 3,570 4,498 5,498 1,657 2,083 2,542 2,599 3,160 4,165 4,998 2,083 2,601 3,158 3,212 3,982 4,998 6,050 22,845 27,987 34,880 35,444 42,620 55,717 65,874 22,230 27,300 34,800 34,967 42,840 53,978 65,974 19,880 24,990 30,504 31,188 37,915 49,980 59,976 24,990 31,213 37,896 38,540 47,784 59,976 72,600 See footnotes at end of table. 11 Table 1. Continued—Average salaries: United States (Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry,' United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1984) MONTHLY SALARIES4 OCCUPATION AND LEVEL2 CHEMISTS AND ENGINEERS CHEMISTS I ........................ CHEMISTS II ....................... CHEMISTS III ...................... CHEMISTS IV ....................... CHEMISTS V ........................ CHEMISTS VI ....................... CHEMISTS VII ...................... ENGINEERS I ....................... ENGINEERS II ...................... ENGINEERS III ..................... ENGINEERS IV ...................... ENGINEERS V ....................... ENGINEERS VI ...................... ENGINEERS VII ..................... ENGINEERS VIII ..................... TECHNICAL SUPPORT ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS I ........... ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS II .......... ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS III ......... ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS IV .......... ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS V ........... DRAFTERS I ........................ DRAFTERS II ....................... DRAFTERS III ...................... DRAFTERS IV ....................... DRAFTERS V ........................ COMPUTER OPERATORS I ............... COMPUTER OPERATORS II .............. COMPUTER OPERATORS III ............. COMPUTER OPERATORS IV .............. COMPUTER OPERATORS V ............... PHOTOGRAPHERS I .................... PHOTOGRAPHERS II ................... PHOTOGRAPHERS III .................. PHOTOGRAPHERS IV ................... CLERICAL ACCOUNTING CLERKS I ................ ACCOUNTING CLERKS II ............... ACCOUNTING CLERKS III .............. ACCOUNTING CLERKS IV ............... FILE CLERKS I ..................... FILE CLERKS II .................... FILE CLERKS III .................... KEY ENTRY OPERATORS I .............. KEY ENTRY OPERATORS II ............. MESSENGERS ........................ PERSONNEL CLERKS/ASSISTANTS I ....... PERSONNEL CLERKS/ASSISTANTS II ...... PERSONNEL CLERKS/ASSISTANTS III ..... PERSONNEL CLERKS/ASSISTANTS IV ...... NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES MEAN MEDIAN ANNUAL SALARIES4 MIDDLE RANCE5 FIRST THIRD QUARTILE QUARTILE MEAN MEDIAN MIDDLE RANGE6 FIRST THIRD QUARTILE QUARTILE 2,395 5,891 9,777 9,996 7,815 3,290 1,122 27,872 67,872 135,792 145,728 100,411 49,013 13,435 2,590 1,801 2,123 2,537 3,137 3,801 4,514 5,256 2,180 2,408 2,730 3,250 3.862 4,479 5,097 5,899 1,780 2,114 2,476 3,100 3,791 4,511 5,331 2,188 2,396 2,707 3,239 3,832 4,420 5,041 5,815 1,558 1,874 2,253 2,835 3,426 4,098 4,693 2,070 2,244 2,488 2,974 3,520 4,030 4,600 5,335 1,949 2,345 2,824 3,390 4,137 4,856 5,831 2,314 2,563 2.960 3,519 4,169 4,840 5,490 6,310 21,609 25,481 30,441 37,643 45,614 54,163 63,072 26,163 28,899 32,761 39,005 46,349 53,749 61,166 70,788 21,360 25,370 29,712 37,200 45,492 54,132 63,974 26,259 28,754 32,481 38,868 45,982 53,040 60,492 69,780 18,693 22,491 27,038 34,020 41,113 49,176 56,312 24,840 26,934 29,856 35,686 42,240 48,356 55,200 64,020 23,391 28,140 33,886 40,676 49,638 58,277 69,972 27,768 30,756 35,520 42,227 50,034 58,077 65,880 75,720 4,626 19,229 31,920 39,016 22,702 1,961 10,126 19,886 22,584 17,358 8,955 30,855 24,370 8,816 1,479 144 720 724 364 1 ,347 1,561 1,863 2,197 2,507 1, 050 1,343 1,591 1,922 2,421 1,089 1,361 1,645 1,926 2,269 1,446 1,812 2,165 2,396 1,333 1,535 1,827 2,172 2,491 1,040 1,300 1,550 1,902 2,378 1,061 1,317 1>58 3 1,889 2,255 1,385 1,790 2,177 2,341 1,200 1,395 1,651 1,967 2,296 936 1,163 1,408 1,712 2,123 932 1,168 1,425 1,667 2,008 1,216 1,659 1,901 2,167 1,488 1,711 2,045 2,391 2,695 1,173 1,521 1,738 2,107 2,686 1,200 1,525 1,833 2,116 2,433 1,588 1,987 2,397 2,632 16,169 18,733 22,351 26,362 30,084 12,596 16,120 19,098 23,067 29,057 13,068 16,337 19,743 23,107 27,223 17,348 21,738 25,974 28,749 15,994 18,420 21,924 26,070 29,888 12,479 15,599 18,600 22,824 28,540 12,729 15,804 18,998 22,670 27,060 16,620 21,474 26,124 28,089 14,400 16,743 19,810 23,606 27,547 11,232 13,956 16,893 20,538 25,478 11,184 14,018 17,100 20,009 24,095 14,594 19,907 22,815 25,998 17,856 20,528 24,540 28,689 32,340 14,081 18,252 20,859 25,289 32,238 14,394 18,303 21,991 25,390 29,196 19,056 23,844 28,764 31,588 27,873 79,368 58,863 17,286 16,026 9,102 2,746 975 1,172 1,377 1,687 822 944 1,131 1,068 1,325 936 1,115 1,347 1,522 1,819 932 1,127 1,324 1,640 780 880 1,044 1,025 1,239 883 1,056 1,272 1,489 1,771 832 997 1,170 1,432 708 800 966 888 1,116 766 953 1,166 1,341 1,558 1,064 1,293 1,533 1,931 897 1,011 1,218 1,173 1,452 1,025 1,215 1,475 1,674 2,062 11,704 14,060 16,527 20,244 9,869 11,331 13,576 12,811 15,898 11,230 13,379 16,160 18,268 21,830 11,179 13,519 15,888 19,680 9,359 10,555 12,531 12,295 14,871 10,596 12,667 15,261 17,866 21,251 9,983 11,959 14,039 17,184 8,497 9,600 11,595 10,656 13,392 9,188 11,439 13,994 16,094 18,693 12,770 15,516 18,393 23,172 10,763 12,137 14,617 14,076 17,419 12,295 14,580 17,700 20,091 24,744 50,685 32,473 10,647 2,024 3,388 2,896 1,222 See footnotes at end of table. 12 Table 1. Continued—Average salaries: United States (Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry,' United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1984) MONTHLY SALARIES* NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES OCCUPATION AND LEVEL2 4,426 <*,162 1,080 58,242 55,132 114,459 47,241 18,627 10,012 6,831 24,405 13,951 PURCHASING ASSISTANTS I ............ PURCHASING ASSISTANTS II ............ PURCHASING ASSISTANTS III ........... SECRETARIES I ..................... SECRETARIES II ..................... SECRETARIES III ................ ___ SECRETARIES IV ..................... SECRETARIES V ..................... STENOGRAPHERS I .................... STENOGRAPHERS II ................... TYPISTS I ......................... TYPISTS II ........................ - ----- - - ------- MEAN MEDIAN 1,302 1,667 2,243 1,275 1,410 1,588 1,794 2,058 1,437 1,6 98 983 1,262 1,257 1,638 2,212 1,231 1,370 1,544 1,768 2,037 1,420 1,690 932 1,195 ANNUAL SALARIES* MIDDLE RANGE5 FIRST THIRD QUARTILE QUARTILE 1,114 1,413 2,014 1,090 1,225 1,366 1,566 1,785 1,174 1,523 823 1,022 1,390 1,910 2,474 1,390 1,548 1,759 1,993 2,309 1,655 1,931 1,066 1,439 MEAN 15,629 20,001 26,916 15,296 16,920 19,053 21,525 24,700 17,241 20,376 11,793 15,150 MEDIAN 15,084 19,654 26,544 14,767 16,440 18,523 21,214 24,438 17,040 20,278 11,179 14,340 MIDDLE RANGE5 FIRST THIRD QUARTILE QUARTILE 13,368 16,956 24,170 13,080 14,700 16,393 18,792 21,420 14,091 18,271 9,879 12,267 16,680 22,921 29,688 16,680 18,576 21,110 23,920 27,709 19,862 23,169 12,795 17,268 fa. — 1 For the scope of the study, see table A-1 in appendix A. 2 Occupational definitions appear in appendix C. 3 O ccup ation al em ploym ent estim ates relate to the to ta l in all establishments w ithin the scope of the survey and not to the number actually surveyed. For further explanation, see appendix A. 4 Salaries reported are standard salaries paid for standard work schedules; 13 i.e., the straight-time salary corresponding to the employee's normal work schedule excluding overtime hours. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded, but cost-of-living payments and incentive earnings are included. 5 The middle range (interquartile) is the central part of the array excluding the upper and lower fourths of the employee distribution. Table 2. Average salaries: Metropolitan areas (Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry, metropolitan areas,1 United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1984) MONTHLY SALARIES* NUMBER 0 F EMPLOYEES OCCUPATION AND LEVEL2 ACCOUNTANTS AND AUDITORS ACCOUNTANTS I ..................... ACCOUNTANTS II .................... ACCOUNTANTS III .................... ACCOUNTANTS IV .................... ACCOUNTANTS V ..................... ACCOUNTANTS VI .................... AUDITORS I ........................ AUDITORS II ....................... AUDITORS III ...................... AUDITORS IV ....................... MEAN MEDIAN ANNUAL SALARIES* MIDDLE RANGE5 FIRST THIRD QUARTILE QUARTILE 12,401 21,554 35,280 20,792 7,609 1,780 1,328 3,486 4,343 2,328 8,557 8,724 6,755 4,265 429 1,223 824 176 $1,660 2,044 2,401 2,978 3,707 4,621 1,643 2,124 2,527 3,120 1,598 1,758 2,050 2,474 3,000 3,645 4,732 5,820 $1,650 2,008 2,366 2,940 3,699 4,565 1,600 2,124 2,500 3,072 1,583 1,716 1,991 2,425 3,000 3,620 4,748 5,851 $1,485 1,794 2,114 2,666 3,332 4,105 1,383 1,875 2,207 2,751 1,525 1,632 1,861 2,232 2,658 3,306 4,202 5,242 $1,822 2,250 2,662 3,270 4,040 5,023 1,863 2,341 2,791 3,425 1,650 1,841 2,182 1,134 2,883 3,8 C8 3,248 1,767 524 2,406 2,931 3,727 4,633 5,859 7,308 2,332 2,916 3,666 4,582 5,750 7,164 5,451 14,971 16,475 5,701 1,706 2,083 2,566 3,154 I .......................................................... I I ........................................................ I I I ..................................................... I V ........................................................ V .......................................................... 12,509 30,841 40,617 16,024 7,187 14,762 32,794 27,430 10,051 2,067 1,652 1,912 2,267 2,662 3,237 2,266 2,700 3,173 3,722 4,478 3,270 2,250 2,683 3,150 3,683 4,450 PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT JOB ANALYSTS II .................... JOB ANALYSTS III ................... JOB ANALYSTS IV ................... DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL I ........... DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL II ........... DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL III .......... DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL IV ........... 465 797 601 1,104 1,962 1,138 432 1,907 2,341 2,917 2,941 3,559 4,659 5,483 1,853 2,290 2,900 2,913 3,582 4,498 5,491 PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS I ............... PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS II .............. PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS III ............. PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS IV .............. CHIEF ACCOUNTANTS I ................ CHIEF ACCOUNTANTS II ............... CHIEF ACCOUNTANTS III .............. CHIEF ACCOUNTANTS IV ............... ATTORNEYS ATTORNEYS I ....................... ATTORNEYS II ...................... ATTORNEYS III ..................... ATTORNEYS IV ...................... ATTORNEYS V ....................... ATTORNEYS VI ...................... BUYERS BUYERS BUYERS BUYERS BUYERS I .......................... II ......................... III ........................ IV ......................... PROGRAMMERS/ANALYSTS PROGRAMMERS/PROGRAMMER ANALYSTS PROGRAMMERS/PROGRAMMER ANALYSTS PROGRAMMERS/PROGRAMMER ANALYSTS PROGRAMMERS/PROGRAMMER ANALYSTS PROGRAMMERS/PROGRAMMER ANALYSTS SYSTEMS SYSTEMS SYSTEMS SYSTEMS SYSTEMS ANALYSTS ANALYSTS ANALYSTS ANALYSTS ANALYSTS I ... II .... III ... IV _ _ V ... MEAN MEDIAN MIDDLE RANGE5 FIRST THIRD QUARTILE QUARTILE 3,325 3,973 5,135 6,148 $19,915 24,526 28,818 35,735 44,488 55,452 19,716 25,489 30,329 37,437 19,180 21,097 24,604 29,686 36,003 43,744 56,789 69,838 $19,800 24,096 28,392 35,280 44,383 54,782 19,200 25,490 30,000 36,870 18,992 20,592 23,890 29,106 36,003 43,439 56,977 70,212 $17,820 21,531 25,366 31,987 39,985 49,260 16,596 22,501 26,489 33,017 18,300 19,583 22,329 26,789 31,897 39,667 50,424 62,904 $21,864 27,000 31,944 39,234 48,480 60,276 22,356 28,089 33,487 41,100 19,801 22,091 26,190 31,987 39,900 47,676 61,620 73,770 2,083 2,574 3,332 4,067 5,223 6,414 2,650 3,290 4,107 5,040 6,343 8,085 28,877 35,173 44,726 55,596 70,312 87,698 27,989 34,986 43,992 54,978 69,000 85,966 24,990 30,891 39,984 48,804 62,675 76,969 31,800 39,484 49,280 60,476 76,120 97,020 1,660 2,049 2,534 3,094 1,499 1,842 2,280 2,750 1,884 2,266 2,816 3,497 20,468 24,996 30,795 37,852 19,914 24,590 30,406 37,125 17,993 22,098 27,360 33,000 22,611 27,189 33,787 41,966 1,608 1,910 2,249 1,417 1,707 2,050 2,466 3,035 2,065 2,450 2,895 3,370 4,033 1,850 2,087 2,465 2,877 3,479 2,443 2,925 3,426 4,015 4,912 19,825 22,944 27,204 31,942 38,845 27,193 32,403 38,072 44,669 53,740 19,292 22,920 26,992 31,987 39,240 27,000 32,196 37,800 44,196 53,400 17,007 20,486 24,594 29,592 36,420 24,780 29,398 34,737 40,437 48,396 25,044 29,580 34,524 41,748 29,318 35,100 41,116 48,180 58,944 1,657 2,083 2,556 2,099 2,605 3,166 3,196 3,990 4,998 6,050 22,879 28,086 35,000 35,295 42,708 55,913 65,798 22,230 27,480 34,800 34,954 42,987 53,978 65,888 19,880 24,990 30,672 31,987 38,035 49,980 59,976 25,190 31,260 37,992 38,356 47,881 59,976 72,600 2,666 See footnotes at end of table. 14 2,666 3,170 4,165 4,998 2,666 22,200 Table 2. Continued—Average salaries: Metropolitan areas (Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry, metropolitan areas,' United States,except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1984) MONTHLY SALARIES4 OCCUPATION AND LEVEL2 NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES MEAN MEDIAN ANNUAL SALARIES4 MIDDLE RANGE 5 FIRST THIRD QUARTILE QUARTILE MEAN MEDIAN MIDDLE RANGE5 FIRST THIRD QUARTILE QUARTILE CHEMISTS AND ENGINEERS CHEMISTS I ........................ CHEMISTS II ....................... CHEMISTS III ...................... CHEMISTS IV ....................... CHEMISTS V ........................ CHEMISTS VI ....................... CHEMISTS VII ...................... ENGINEERS I ....................... ENGINEERS II ...................... ENGINEERS III ..................... ENGINEERS IV ...................... ENGINEERS V ....................... ENGINEERS VI ...................... ENGINEERS VII ..................... ENGINEERS VIII .................... TECHNICAL SUPPORT ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS I ........... ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS II .......... ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS III ......... ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS IV .......... ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS V ........... DRAFTERS I ........................ DRAFTERS II ....................... DRAFTERS III ...................... DRAFTERS IV ....................... DRAFTERS V ........................ COMPUTER OPERATORS I ............... COMPUTER OPERATORS II .............. COMPUTER OPERATORS III ............. COMPUTER OPERATORS IV .............. COMPUTER OPERATORS V ............... PHOTOGRAPHERS I .................... PHOTOGRAPHERS II ................... PHOTOGRAPHERS III .................. PHOTOGRAPHERS IV ................... CLERICAL ACCOUNTING CLERKS I ................ ACCOUNTING CLERKS II ............... ACCOUNTING CLERKS III .............. ACCOUNTING CLERKS IV ............... FILE CLERKS I ..................... FILE CLERKS II .................... FILE CLERKS III ................... KEY ENTRY OPERATORS I .............. KEY ENTRY OPERATORS II ............. MESSENGERS ........................ PERSONNEL CLERKS/ASSISTANTS I ....... PERSONNEL CLERKS/ASSISTANTS II ...... PERSONNEL CLERKS/ASSISTANTS III ..... PERSONNEL CLERKS/ASSISTANTS IV ...... 2,275 5,205 8,615 8,594 6,388 2,804 973 24,163 60,187 119,089 131,233 94,641 47,165 13,122 2,458 1,795 2,119 2,537 3,133 3,812 4,516 5,274 2,192 2,413 2,749 3,267 3,868 4,481 5,093 5,897 1,783 2,114 2,476 3,102 3,830 4,548 5,425 4,134 17,170 28,677 35,700 21,706 1,749 8,644 16,735 19,938 16,508 8,226 27,460 22,703 8,427 1,447 139 677 655 342 1,351 1,570 1,872 2,206 2,512 1,052 1,354 1,615 1,930 2,428 1,105 1,384 1,652 1,935 2,268 1,451 1,804 2,204 2,423 1,326 1,548 1,834 2,182 2,496 1,040 1,300 1,583 1,912 2,374 1,070 1,335 1,591 1,898 2,255 1,385 1,790 2,220 2,373 1,664 1,958 2,213 26,446 71,564 52,359 15,696 15,472 8,606 2,683 45,687 30,061 10,193 1,714 2,947 2,359 1,105 976 1,184 1,383 1,700 824 946 1,129 1 075 , 1,335 938 932 1,132 1,329 1,660 780 880 1,044 1,034 1,250 887 1,080 1,286 1,489 1,733 833 1,005 1,180 1,441 709 806 966 900 1,118 767 971 1,184 1,352 1,553 2,200 2,400 2,722 3,250 3,835 4,425 5,039 5,816 1,120 1,369 1,528 1,802 See footnotes at end of table. 15 1,550 1,861 2,243 2,849 3,474 4,075 4,623 2,083 2,249 2,499 2,983 3,530 4,030 4,595 5,331 1,947 2,349 2,832 3,387 4,137 4,862 5,850 2,332 2,570 2,979 3,535 4,172 4,840 5,498 6,310 21,535 25,426 30,440 37,601 45,740 54,188 63,282 26,306 28,957 32,985 39,199 46,417 53,772 61,122 70,762 21,399 25,363 29,712 37,229 45,960 54,579 65,100 26,400 28,800 32,670 39,000 46,020 53,096 60,471 69,795 18,602 22,332 26,913 34,187 41,683 48,900 55,478 24,990 26,987 29,988 35,796 42,360 48,360 55,140 63,974 23,367 28,189 33,986 40,640 49,638 58,344 70,200 27,989 30,840 35,750 42,426 50,066 58,080 65,974 75,720 1,198 1,395 1,652 1,978 2,300 936 1,163 1,421 1,726 2,123 953 1,190 1,433 1,673 2,008 1,499 1,726 2,055 2,400 2,700 1,187 1,556 1,775 2,108 2,700 1,206 1,551 1,833 2,124 2,433 1,690 1,977 2,399 2,673 16,210 18,835 22,462 26,466 30,145 12,620 16,249 19,384 23,164 29,132 13,264 16,605 19,826 23,224 27,221 17,418 21,648 26,448 29,081 15,911 18,573 22,003 26,184 29,952 12,479 15,600 18,992 22,944 28,489 12,839 16,015 19,093 22,774 27,060 16,620 21,474 26,643 28,476 14,372 16,743 19,824 23,736 27,600 11,233 13,957 17,049 20,709 25,478 11,439 14,280 17,193 20,076 24,095 14,530 19,966 23,491 26,550 17,991 20,712 24,660 28,797 32,400 14,250 18,667 21,300 25,291 32,400 14,476 18,612 21,996 25,490 29,196 20,278 23,722 28,788 32,082 1,066 1,299 1,541 1,936 898 1,013 11,710 14,214 16,591 20,396 9,885 11,351 13,552 12,900 16,024 11,255 13,440 16,428 18,339 21,624 11,179 13,584 15,952 19,925 9,359 10,556 12,527 12,408 15,000 10,646 12,955 15,438 17,866 20,798 9,996 12,063 14,160 17,293 8,504 9,671 11,592 10,796 13,415 9,203 11,647 14,205 16,223 18,636 12,791 • 15,594 18,493 23,232 10,774 12,152 14,549 14,152 17,554 12,295 14,580 18,011 20,116 24,696 1,211 1,212 1,179 1,463 1,025 1,215 1,501 1,676 2,058 Table 2. Continued—Average salaries: Metropolitan areas (Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry, metropolitan areas,' United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1984) MONTHLY SALARIES4 OCCUPATION AND LEVEL3 PURCHASING ASSISTANTS I ............ PURCHASING ASSISTANTS II ............ PURCHASING ASSISTANTS III ........... SECRETARIES I ..................... SECRETARIES II .................... SECRETARIES III .................... SECRETARIES IV .................... SECRETARIES V ..................... STENOGRAPHERS I .................... STENOGRAPHERS II ................... TYPISTS I ......................... TYPISTS II ........................ NUMBER OF , EMPLOYEES 3,814 3,854 1,069 53,688 51,059 106,232 44,143 17,787 9,070 6,754 22,293 13,402 MEAN MEDIAN 1,327 1,687 2,247 1,284 1,415 1,599 1,803 2,061 1,450 1,700 983 1,264 1,279 1,664 2,215 1,235 1,380 1,556 1,778 2,041 1,465 1,694 930 1,200 1 For the scope of the study, see table A-1 in appendix A. 2 Occupational definitions appear in appendix C. 3 O ccupational em ploym ent estim ates relate to the to ta l in all establishments within the scope of the survey and not to the number actually surveyed. For further explanation, see appendix A. 4 Salaries reported are standard salaries paid for standard work schedules; 16 ANNUAL SALARIES* MIDDLE RANGE6 FIRST THIRD QUARTILE QUARTILE 1.131 1,441 2,020 1,091 1,228 1,378 1,574 1,790 1,187 1,527 823 1,020 1,417 1,925 2,484 1,400 1,560 1,774 2,000 2,315 1,671 1,927 1,064 1,440 MEAN 15,929 20,249 26,968 15,407 16,982 19,184 21,640 24,734 17,403 20,404 11,796 15,169 MEDIAN 15,350 19,966 26,580 14,819 16,560 18,677 21,336 24,490 17,575 20,328 11,160 14,400 MIDDLE RANGE6 FIRST THIRD QUARTILE QUARTILE 13,567 17,289 24,240 13,095 14,731 16,535 18,892 21,480 14,247 18,320 9,879 12,244 17,003 23,100 29,808 16,795 18,719 21,292 24,000 27,781 20,050 23,130 12,771 17,280 i.e., the straight-time salary corresponding to the employee’s normal work schedule excluding overtime hours. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded, but cost-of-living payments and incentive earnings are included. 5 The middle range (interquartile) is the central part of the array excluding the upper and lower fourths of the employee-distribution. Table 3. Average salaries: Establishments employing 2,500 workers or more (Employment and average monthly salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry,’ in establishments employing 2,500 workers or more,2 United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1984) OCCUPATION AND LEVEL3 ACCOUNTANTS AND AUDITORS ACCOUNTANTS I ...................... ACCOUNTANTS II ..................... ACCOUNTANTS III .................... ACCOUNTANTS IV ..................... ACCOUNTANTS V ...................... ACCOUNTANTS VI ..................... AUDITORS I ......................... AUDITORS II ........................ AUDITORS III ....................... AUDITORS IV ........................ CHIEF ACCOUNTANTS III ............... CHIEF ACCOUNTANTS IV ................ ATTORNEYS ATTORNEYS I ........................ ATTORNEYS II ....................... ATTORNEYS III ...................... ATTORNEYS IV ....................... ATTORNEYS V ........................ ATTORNEYS VI ....................... BUYERS BUYERS I ........................... BUYERS II ........... .............. BUYERS III ......................... BUYERS IV .......................... PROGRAMMERS/ANALYSTS PROGRAMMERS/PROGRAMMER ANALYSTS I .... PROGRAMMERS/PROGRAMMER ANALYSTS II ... PROGRAMMERS/PROGRAMMER ANALYSTS III ___ PROGRAMMERS/PROGRAMMER ANALYSTS IV ... PROGRAMMERS/PROGRAMMER ANALYSTS V .... NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES4 MONTHLY SALARIES5 MIDDLE RANGE® MEDIAN FIRST THIRD QUARTILE QUARTILE MEAN LEVELS IN ESTABLISHMENTS EMPLOYING 2,500 WORKERS OR MORE EXPRESSED AS PERCENT OF THOSE IN ALL ESTABLISHMENTS COMBINED EMPLOYMENT MEAN SALARIES $1,583 1,925 2,224 2,710 3,348 4,076 1,417 1,816 2,220 2,791 4,372 5,041 $1,891 2,480 2,832 3,357 4,080 5,048 1,800 2,392 2,916 3,522 5,135 6,032 24 34 25 30 34 49 32 35 44 40 14 44 3,160 3,768 4,650 5,719 7,254 2,500 2,832 3,401 4,112 5,077 6,363 3,161 3,524 4,248 5,240 6,499 8,268 29 28 33 39 53 51 115 109 104 1,851 2,619 3,102 1,811 2,166 2,560 3,015 1,655 1,956 2,299 21 27 37 60 110 2,666 1,993 2,460 2,898 3,429 1,792 2,019 2,360 2,729 3,291 2,270 2,760 3,221 3,789 4,621 1,820 2,331 2,720 3,304 2,236 2,748 3,206 3,740 4,576 1,601 1,833 2,174 2,552 3,100 2,066 2,500 2,957 3,449 4,212 1,965 2,167 2,535 2,909 3,500 2,448 2,990 3,458 4,070 4,985 32 33 39 45 60 47 47 53 58 71 109 106 104 103 I ............................................................. I I ........................................................... I I I ........................................................ I V .......................................................... V .............................................................. 4,301 11,172 16,512 7,460 4,386 7,538 16,264 15,068 5,975 1,510 PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT JOB ANALYSTS II ..................... JOB ANALYSTS III .................... JOB ANALYSTS IV ..................... 180 381 378 2,031 2,454 2,971 2,017 2,400 2,991 1,833 2,083 2,683 2,249 2,750 3,247 38 46 62 SYSTEMS SYSTEMS SYSTEMS SYSTEMS SYSTEMS ANALYSTS ANALYSTS ANALYSTS ANALYSTS ANALYSTS 3,152 7,919 9,656 6,889 2,788 900 491 1,281 2,016 967 123 78 $1,746 2,203 2,530 3,057 3,758 4,633 1,658 2,136 2,588 3,189 4,735 5,623 347 827 1,306 1,309 964 274 2,775 3,200 3,872 4,732 5,864 7,357 2,666 1,288 4,854 6,855 3,581 2,200 See footnotes at end of table. 17 $1,716 2,177 2,513 3,024 3,691 4,481 1,574 2,044 2,554 3,070 4,697 5,367 2,000 106 109 106 103 101 100 101 101 103 102 100 97 102 100 101 107 103 98 102 101 102 102 102 103 107 105 102 Table 3. Continued— Average salaries: Establishments employing 2,500 workers or more (Employment and average monthly salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry,' in establishments employing 2,500 workers or more,2United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1984) OCCUPATION AND LEVEL 2 DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL III ........... DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL IV ........... CHEMISTS AND ENGINEERS CHEMISTS I ......................... CHEMISTS II ........................ CHEMISTS III ....................... CHEMISTS IV ........................ CHEMISTS V ......................... CHEMISTS VI ........................ CHEMISTS VII ....................... ENGINEERS I ........................ ENGINEERS II ....................... ENGINEERS III ...................... ENGINEERS IV ....................... ENGINEERS V ........................ ENGINEERS VI ....................... ENGINEERS VII ...................... ENGINEERS VIII ..................... TECHNICAL SUPPORT ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS I ............ ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS II ........... ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS III .......... ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS IV ........... ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS V ........... DRAFTERS I ......................... DRAFTERS II ........................ DRAFTERS III ....................... DRAFTERS IV ........................ DRAFTERS V ......................... COMPUTER OPERATORS I ................ COMPUTER OPERATORS II ............... COMPUTER OPERATORS III .............. COMPUTER OPERATORS IV ............... COMPUTER OPERATORS V ................ PHOTOGRAPHERS II .................... PHOTOGRAPHERS III ................... PHOTOGRAPHERS IV .................... CLERICAL ACCOUNTING CLERKS I ................. ACCOUNTING CLERKS II ................ ACCOUNTING CLERKS III ............... ACCOUNTING CLERKS IV ................ FILE CLERKS I ...................... FILE CLERKS II ..................... FILE CLERKS III .................... KEY ENTRY OPERATORS I ............... KEY ENTRY OPERATORS II .............. MESSENGERS ......................... NUMBER OF 4 EMPLOYEES MONTHLY SALARIES5 MIDDLE RANGE* FIRST THIRD QUARTILE QUARTILE LEVELS IN ESTABLISHMENTS EMPLOYING 2,500 WORKERS OR MORE EXPRESSED AS PERCENT OF THOSE IN ALL ESTABLISHMENTS COMBINED EMPLOYMENT MEAN SALARIES MEAN MEDIAN 171 156 5,145 5,743 4,920 5,582 4,665 5,310 5,650 6,164 14 35 594 1,765 2,619 2,956 2,544 1,355 579 12,848 30,370 60,623 75,348 54,072 27,884 7,551 1,614 2.046 2,371 2,813 3,322 3,909 4,591 5,392 2,233 2,459 2,757 3,283 3,878 4,524 5,107 5,980 2,023 2,374 2,825 3,350 3,926 4,575 5,419 1,849 2,149 2,500 3,007 3,485 4,070 4,718 2,125 2,312 2,520 3,024 3,570 4,113 4,665 5,406 2,300 2,624 3,133 3,585 4,222 4,942 5,905 2,343 2,585 2,977 3,535 4,170 4,866 5,464 6,331 25 30 27 30 33 41 52 46 45 45 52 54 57 56 62 1,184 6,198 14,027 21,669 14,855 1,410 1,636 1,876 2,207 2,491 1,253 1,469 1,707 2,023 2,302 1,088 1,224 1,486 1,794 2,191 1,035 1,322 1,560 1,790 2,008 1,677 1,858 2,115 1,600 1,833 2,109 2,431 2,704 1,371 1,720 1,948 2,220 2,756 1,334 1,742 2,043 2,273 2,433 2,170 2,338 2,664 26 32 44 56 65 2,459 5,063 8,271 8,516 2,663 8,183 7,665 4,256 980 233 431 297 1,445 1,663 1,917 2,236 2,512 1,243 1,470 1,721 2,006 2,486 1,204 1,546 1,825 2,056 2,269 1,914 2,105 2,377 3,672 12,871 13,714 7,539 1,551 1,790 751 10,135 9,577 3,356 1,255 1,383 1,537 1,822 898 1,073 1,204 1,282 1,507 1,028 1,192 1,355 1,490 1,797 841 957 1,096 1,235 1,419 916 971 1,294 1,516 750 845 935 1,049 1,598 1,652 1,765 200 2,221 2,449 2,749 3,285 3,865 4,466 5,048 5,840 1,222 1,466 1,678 1,990 2,446 1,154 1,547 1,768 2,002 2,296 1,891 2,150 2,353 See footnotes at end of table. 18 1.102 1,200 789 2,100 961 1,433 1,467 1,782 1,213 1,210 10 24 25 37 49 30 27 31 48 111 105 114 112 111 106 103 102 103 102 102 101 101 100 101 100 101 107 107 103 102 100 118 109 108 104 103 111 114 107 111 66 100 32 60 82 106 97 99 13 16 23 44 129 118 112 108 109 114 106 10 20 27 20 29 32 120 114 110 Table 3. Continued—Average salaries: Establishments employing 2,500 workers or more (Employment and average monthly salaries tor selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private Industry,1 in establishments employing 2,500 workers or more,8 United States, . except Alaska iT Hawaii, March 1984) T and A- --- -.J z± OCCUPATION AND LEVEL3 PERSONNEL CLERKS/ASSISTANTS I ........ PERSONNEL CLERKS/ASSISTANTS II ....... PERSONNEL CLERKS/ASSISTANTS III ...... PERSONNEL CLERKS/ASSISTANTS IV ....... PURCHASING ASSISTANTS I ............. PURCHASING ASSISTANTS II ............ PURCHASING ASSISTANTS III ........... SECRETARIES I ...................... SECRETARIES II ..................... SECRETARIES III ..................... SECRETARIES IV ..................... SECRETARIES V ...................... STENOGRAPHERS I .................... STENOGRAPHERS II .................... TYPISTS I .......................... TYPISTS II ......................... NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES4 243 632 732 566 1,096 1,759 1,027 16,404 18,541 40,792 18,590 7,260 6,264 5,058 6,014 5,733 MONTHLY SALARIES* MIDDLE RANGE* MEDIAN FIRST THIRD QUARTILE QUARTILE MEAN 1,191 1,517 1,632 1,931 1,506 1,813 2,262 1,467 1,526 1.740 1,911 2,238 1,446 1,687 1,126 1.367 1,201 1,452 1,601 2,000 1,430 1,837 2,222 1,377 1,475 1,701 1,908 2,241 1,491 1,690 1,039 1,310 1 For the scope of the study, see table A-1 In appendix A. 1 Includes data from some large companies that provide companywide data not identified by size of establishment. 5 Occupational definitions appear in appendix C. * O ccupational em ploym ent estim ates relate to the total in all establishments w ithin the scope of the survey and not to the number actually surveyed. For further explanation, see appendix A. 19 997 1,246 1,404 1.650 1.222 1,556 2,036 1,210 1,303 1,491 1,677 1,956 1,182 1,533 916 1,079 1,238 1,772 1,841 2,145 1,738 2,066 2,537 1,629 1,703 1,965 2,123 2,506 1,662 1,897 1,265 1,589 LEVELS IN ESTABLISHMENTS EMPLOYING 2,500 WORKERS OR MORE EXPRESSED AS PERCENT OF THOSE IN ALL ESTABLISHMENTS COMBINED EMPLOYMENT MEAN SALARIES 12 19 25 46 25 42 95 28 34 36 39 39 63 74 25 41 107 113 107 106 116 109 101 115 108 110 107 109 101 99 115 108 * Salaries reported are standard salaries paid for standard work schedules; i.e., the straight-time salary corresponding to the employee’s normal work schedule excluding overtime hours. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded, but cost-of-living payments and incentive earnings are included. ' The middle range (interquartile) is the central part of the array excluding the upper and lower fourths of the employee distribution. Table 4. Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations (Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by monthly salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1984) Accountants MONTHLY SALARY I $1,100 $1,150 $1,200 $1,250 $1,300 $1,350 $1,400 $1,450 $1,500 $1,550 $1,600 $1,650 $1,700 $1,750 $1,800 $1,850 $1,900 $1,950 $2,000 $2,050 $2,100 $2,150 $2,200 $2,250 $2,300 $2,350 $2,400 $2,450 $2,500 $2,600 $2,700 $2,800 $2,900 $3,000 $3,100 $3,200 $3,300 $3,400 $3,500 $3,600 $3,700 $3,800 $3,900 $4,000 $4,100 $4,200 $4,300 $4,400 $4,500 $4,600 $4,700 $4,800 $4,900 $5,000 $5,100 $5,200 $5,300 $5,400 $5,500 $5,600 $5,700 $5,800 $5,900 and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under $1,150....... $1,200 ....... $1,250....... $1,300 ....... $1,350 ....... $1,400....... $1,450 ....... $1,500 ....... $1,550....... $1,600 ....... $1,650 ....... $1,700 ....... $1,750 ....... $1,800 ....... $1,850....... $1,900 ....... $1,950 ....... $2,000 ....... $2,050 ....... $2,100....... $2,150....... $2,200....... $2,250....... $2,300....... $2,350 ....... $2,400 ....... $2,450 ....... $2,500 ....... $2,600 ....... $2,700 ....... $2,800 ....... $2,900 ....... $3,000 ....... $3,100....... $3,200....... $3,300 ....... $3,400 ....... $3,500 ....... $3,600....... $3,700 ....... $3,800....... $3,900 ....... $4,000 ....... $4,100....... $4,200 ....... $4,300 ....... $4,400 ....... $4,500 ....... $4,600 ....... $4,700 ....... $4,800 ....... $4,900 ....... $5,000 ....... $5,100....... $5,200 ....... $5,300 ....... $5,400 ....... $5,500 ....... $5,600 ....... $5,700 ....... $5,800 ....... $5,900..,.... $6,000 ....... $6,000 and under $6,100....... $6,100 and under $6,200 ....... $6,200 and under $6,300 ....... $6,300 and under $6,400 ....... $6,400 and under $6,500 ....... $6,500 and under $6,600 ....... $6,600 and under $6,700 ....... $6,700 and under $6,800 ....... $6,900 and under $7,000 ....... $7,000 and under $7,100....... $7,100 and under $7,200 ....... ............... Total Number of Employees........... Average Monthly Salary........ II (1 .0 ) 1.4 3.1 2.3 5.1 3.4 4.4 . _ (0 .6 ) 1.2 1.4 8.1 7.9 6.8 7 .1 8.8 7.4 5.6 7.1 4.5 4.4 2.0 1.5 2.8 2.5 4.5 5.7 5.1 5.8 5.2 6.5 2.8 6.0 2.3 1.4 .9 1.5 (2.7) _ _ - 7.3 4.7 4.4 5.0 3.9 3.3 3.4 2.4 - 2.0 2.0 3.6 3.8 1.4 (2.3) _ - “ - - - ~ - “ " ~ ~ - Chief Accountants III IV V VI I II III IV _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (1 .6 ) 1.2 1.3 _ _ _ _ _ - _ - - _ - - - - - - - - - _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ - - - - _ _ 3.5 5. 4 - - _ (2 .2 ) 1.2 1.1 2.0 2.4 2.8 3.7 4.1 5.1 4 .1 4.6 5.2 5.3 4.8 5.3 4.6 4.5 1.1 2.0 1.2 2.1 3.1 6.5 7.8 9.4 9.3 9.0 9.1 7.4 4.7 6.2 4.2 4.0 2.9 1.4 8.8 6.8 6.0 4.6 3.7 2.5 1.3 1.4 (1.9) * _ - 1.1 (3.4) - _ w _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (1.3) 1.2 .9 1 .9 3.9 3.5 4.7 5.8 6.3 6.4 7.0 7.8 7.3 8.4 7.0 _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (1 .2 ) 3.5 1.3 1.6 1.6 4.0 4.8 _ _ - 1.7 5.5 5 .2 13.1 8 .5 1.7 4.2 10.5 7.7 5.5 16.2 1.1 1.1 6.0 2.0 - “ ~ “ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - _ - _ - - 100.0 13,183 $1,654 - “ - _ - 100.0 38,763 $2,393 - - - - - _ ~ 100.0 22,717 $2,976 See footnotes at end of table. 20 5.5 2.7 2.5 2.9 1.9 1.3 (3.6) ~ _ - 6.0 5.8 5.5 4.1 5.8 6.2 7.8 6.2 5.7 3.3 2.0 3.5 3.8 1.7 2.7 .9 2.4 1.4 2.6 (4.8) - - - 100.0 23,559 $2,027 6.1 100.0 8,114 $3,706 100.0 1,836 $4,635 _ - _ 1.2 _ _ _ - - _ 100.0 650 $2,933 _ _ 4 .0 6.8 1.4 4.4 5 .8 12.7 6.1 - - - _ 2.6 .4 - 3.3 6.1 6.0 7.7 9.5 2.5 2.6 9.3 6.1 3.8 (1.8) _ _ _ - 2.3 6.1 2.7 4.7 _ 100.0 1,383 $3,677 6.6 6.0 1.4 8.3 2.1 4.0 4.7 3.2 11.5 6.6 5.0 2.0 4.1 4.1 4.8 . 7 . 1 .2 . 1 .3 1.8 1.9 . 1 _ - 100.0 899 $4,735 _ 1.1 1.1 .6 2.8 10.8 2.3 7.4 5.7 1.1 1.7 5.7 9.1 1.1 9.1 9.1 11.9 1.1 2.3 3.4 _ 3.4 3.4 3.4 (1.2) 100.0 176 $5,820 ( Table 4. Continued—Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations (Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by monthly salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,' March 1984) Public Accountants Auditors MONTHLY SALARY 1 $1,050 and under $1,100....... $1,100 and under $1,150....... $1,150 and under $1,200 ....... $1,200 and under $1,250....... $1,250 and under $1,300 ....... $1,300 and under $1,350 ....... $1,350 and under $1,400 ....... $1,400 and under $1,450 ....... $1,450 and under $1,500 ....... $1,500 and under $1,550....... $1,550 and under $1,600 ....... $1,600 and under $1,650 ....... $1,650 and under $1,700....... $1,700 and under $1,750 ....... $1,750 and under $1,800 ....... $1,800 and under $1,850....... $1,850 and under $1,900 ....... $1,900 and under $1,950....... $1,950 and under $2,000 ....... $2,000 and under $2,050....... $2,050 and under $2,100....... $2,100 and under $2,150....... $2,150 and under $2,200 ....... $2,200 and under $2,250....... $2,250 and under $2,300 ....... $2,300 and under $2,350....... $2,350 and under $2,400 ....... $2,400 and under $2,450....... $2,450 and under $2,500....... $2,500 and under $2,600 ....... $2,600 and under $2,700 ....... $2,700 and under $2,800....... $2,800 and under $2,900 ....... $2,900 and under $3,000 ....... $3,000 and under $3,100....... $3,100 and under $3,200 ....... $3,200 and under $3,300 ....... $3,300 and under $3,400 ....... $3,400 and under $3,500....... $3,500 and under $3,600 ....... $3,600 and under $3,700 ....... $3,700 and under $3,800 ....... $3,800 and under $3,900 ....... $3,900 and under $4,000 ....... $4,000 and under $4,100....... $4,100 and under $4,200 ....... $4,200 and under $4,300 ....... $4,300 and under $4,400 ....... Total Number of Employees........... Average Monthly Salary........ II III 1.5 5.4 3.4 2.6 2.3 4.6 6.9 4.8 3.5 3.3 11.9 3.1 9.4 3.7 2.7 4.0 5.5 5.2 3.5 1.5 3.6 1.1 .5 1.0 2.6 (2.2) ~ ~ - “ _ ~ “ (0.8) 1.8 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.0 2.7 2.9 4.5 3.3 3.7 5.2 6.1 ~ - “ _ “ 100.0 1,362 $1,639 4.9 6.8 3.3 5.4 6.6 6.2 3.6 3.3 3.4 2.9 5.3 4.1 1.4 1.1 .4 1.1 (1.1) _ 100.0 3,625 $2,116 - ” (1.7) 1.2 .6 1.5 1.0 3.2 2.5 1.9 3.1 4.7 3.6 4.8 3.2 4.1 3.4 3.5 6.3 10.2 7.8 8.4 4.4 7.1 3.8 2.5 1.1 1.6 .8 1.0 (1 .1 ) - - 100.0 4,607 $2,517 See footnotes at end of table. 21 IV _ 1 _ II _ - - - “ - (1.4) 2.2 3.1 5.5 7.9 18.3 20.0 15.0 7.2 7.8 4.4 2.0 1.6 1.2 (2.6) “ “ - - “ (2.3) 2.1 .6 1.4 1.0 3.0 4.6 6.2 7.6 7.9 8.0 8.8 6.2 5.6 8.3 5.9 3.9 2.8 3.0 3.5 2.1 .5 2.3 1.0 (1.4) 100.0 2,421 $3,115 III 1.3 1.7 5.0 5.6 12.0 17.8 13.6 10.1 7.5 6.1 5.5 4.0 2.6 1.9 1.3 1.2 (3.0) “ - _ “ _ ~ “ (1.8) 3.4 3.3 8.9 6.9 8.8 8.5 9.1 - “ - 9.6 4.9 4.7 4.3 5.7 3.1 3.7 1.7 2.6 1.0 1.8 1.3 2.2 .1 1.0 (1.7) “ - - - - - _ 100.0 9,264 $1,595 _ 100.0 9,335 $1,764 IV 100.0 7,067 $2,058 “ “ (1.5) 1.2 1.5 2.0 4.1 3.5 4.3 10.4 7.1 5.3 3.9 8.6 4.4 10.4 9.6 5.9 4.2 4.8 1.9 2.2 1.9 (1.3) “ - _ - 100.0 4,345 $2,472 Table 4. Continued—Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations (Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by monthly salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,' March 1984) Job Analysts MONTHLY SALARY Directors of Personnel II $1,350 $1,400 $1,450 $1,500 $1,550 $1,6 00 $1,650 $1,700 $1,750 $1,800 $1,850 $1,900 $1,950 $2,000 $2,050 $2,100 $2,150 $2,200 $2,250 $2,300 $2,350 $2,400 $2,450 $2,500 $2,600 $2,700 $2,800 $2,900 $3,000 $3,100 $3,200 $3,300 $3,400 $3,500 $3,600 $3,700 $3,800 $3,900 $4,000 $‘ >,100 $4,200 $4,300 $4,400 $4,500 $4,600 $4,700 $4,800 $4,900 $5,000 $5,100 $5,200 $5,300 $5,400 $5,500 $5,600 $5,800 $5,900 $6,000 $6,100 $6,200 $6,300 $6,400 and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and $6,500 and $6,600 and $6,700 and $6,800 and $6,900 and $7,000 and Total under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under $1,400....... $1,450 ....... $1,500 ....... $1,550 ....... $1,600 ....... $1,650 ....... $1,700 ....... $1,750 ....... $1,800 ....... $1,850 ....... $1,900 ....... $1,950 ....... $2,000 ....... $2,050....... $2,100....... $2,150....... $2,200 ....... $2,250 ....... $2,300 ....... $2,350 ....... $2,400 ....... $2,450 ....... $2,500 ....... $2,600 ....... $2,700 ....... $2,800 ....... $2,900....... $3,000 ....... $3,100....... $3,200 ....... $3,300 ....... $3,400 ....... $3,500....... $3,600....... $3,700 ....... $3,800 ....... $3,900 ....... $4,000 ....... $4,100....... $4,200....... $4,300 ....... $4,400 ....... $4,500....... $4,600 ....... $4,700 ....... $4,800....... $4,900 ....... $5,000 ....... $5,100....... $5,200 ....... $5,300 ....... $5,400 ....... $5,500 ....... $5,600....... $5,700 ....... $5,900 ....... $6,000 ....... $6,100....... $6,200 ....... $6,300 ....... $6,400 ....... $6,500 ....... under $6,600 ....... under $6,700 ....... under $6,800 ....... under $6,900 ....... under $7,000 ....... under $7,100....... ............... Number of Employees........... Average Monthly Salary........ III IV Cl. 4) 7.2 .8 3.4 9.9 1.9 8.6 5.9 1.1 8.6 6.5 6 .1 5.7 6.1 2.1 1.5 1.9 5.5 3.0 . 6 1.1 . 6 3.4 1.1 2.7 2.3 CO.8) ” _ ~ - _ _ 1.1 1.1 ~ 1 .9 1.1 1.7 1.6 2.9 1.0 3.1 1.3 7.0 11.9 4.4 5.8 3.0 3.8 2.3 4.1 5.4 4.1 5.8 7.7 4.9 2.6 2.4 2.0 2.9 1.1 1.3 (0.6) - “ - ” - “ ~ “ - _ - 100.0 474 $1,904 ” “ “ “ (2.7) 1.0 . 7 .3 1.8 . 7 .8 3.0 . 7 4.9 13.1 8.7 4.1 6.6 8.7 9.2 9.5 5.2 6.6 1.5 1.6 1.0 2.8 1.3 3.3 (0.5) ~ - - _ _ _ _ - - “ _ - _ - - 100.0 100.0 610 $2,907 832 $2,332 See footnotes at end of table. 22 I ~ " 1.1 1.0 . 7 . 6 1.2 .8 4.8 1.6 9.1 5.1 10.2 9.1 1.4 8.7 5.8 10.3 8.5 6.8 .6 4.3 1.6 .5 1.6 3.0 1.6 (0.2) _ _ _ _ _ _ - II III _ _ ~ _ “ 2.3 1.3 .7 3.6 3.7 3.9 .4 3.9 3.5 3.1 4.7 6.3 7.7 7 .1 3.2 12.5 3.0 6.3 3.9 6.0 4.1 2.1 1.8 2.8 (2.1) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - “ ” “ _ - “ “ - (1.3) 2.3 7.9 2.6 1.6 5.8 7.1 5.2 6.7 9.7 7.7 2.6 5.4 5.5 5.1 1.4 5.0 2.4 4.2 .5 1.1 . 6 1 .0 .7 1.7 1.1 .3 .3 _ _ _ .3 1.1 (0.8) IV ~ _ _ “ 1.5 5.5 .2 1.8 .4 1.1 2.4 3.8 .7 4.6 3.5 6.6 2.0 2.9 4.0 11.3 10.8 .2 1•0 5.3 1.1 6.9 5.3 .7 2.4 .2 3.3 5.5 (4.2) - 100.0 1,674 100.0 2,288 100.0 1,231 100.0 452 $2,954 $3,552 $4,643 $5,489 Table 4. Continued—Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations (Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by monthly salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,' March 1984) Attorneys MONTHLY SALARY I $1,500 $1,550 $1,600 $1,650 $1,700 $1,750 $1,800 $1,850 $1,900 $1,950 $2,000 $2,050 $2,100 $2,150 $2,200 $2,250 $2,300 $2,350 $2,400 $2,450 $2,500 $2,600 $2,700 $2,800 $2,900 $3,000 $3,100 $3,200 $3,300 $3,400 $3,500 $3,600 $3,700 $3,800 $3,900 $4,000 $4,100 $4,200 $4,300 $4,400 and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and $4,500 $4,600 $4,700 $4,800 $4,900 $5,000 $5,100 $5,200 $5,300 $5,400 $5,500 $5,600 $5,700 $5,800 $5,900 $6,000 $6,100 $6,200 $6,300 $6,400 $6,500 $6,600 $6,700 $6,800 $6,900 $7,000 $7,100 $7,200 $7,300 $7,400 $7,500 and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under $1,550 ....... $1,600 ....... $1,650 ....... $1,700 ....... $1,750 ....... $1,800 ....... $1,850 ....... $1 ,90 0....... $1,950 ....... $2,000 ....... $2,050 ....... $2,100....... $2,150....... $2,200 ....... $2,250 ....... under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under $2,300 ....... $2,350....... $2,400 ....... $2,450 ....... $2,500 ....... $2,600 ....... $2,700 ....... $2,800....... $2,900 ....... 3,000 ....... $3,100....... $3,200 ....... $3,300 ....... $3,400 ....... $3,500 ....... $3,600....... $3,700 ....... $3,800 ....... $3,900 ....... $4,000 ....... $4,100....... $4,200 ....... $4,300 ....... $4,400 ....... $4,500....... $4,600 ....... $4,700....... $4,800 ....... $4,900 ....... $5,000 ....... $5,100....... $5,200 ....... $5,300 ....... $5,400 ....... $5,500 ....... $5,600 ....... $5,700 ....... $5,800 ....... $5,900 ....... $6,000 ....... $6,100....... $6,200 ....... $6,300 ....... $6,400 ....... $6,500 ....... $6,600 ....... $6,700 ....... $6,800 ....... $6,900 ....... $7,000 ....... $7,100....... $7,200 ....... $7,300....... $7,400 ....... $7,500 ....... $7,600 ....... 1.5 .3 1.0 4.1 1.4 1.4 2.8 1.2 4.4 3.2 6.7 1.9 4.8 4.0 9.9 2.4 3.6 1.0 2.0 14.2 4.4 4.5 5.3 2.7 1.7 2.1 1.9 1.3 2.6 (1.8) - II Ill - - “ - - ~ (2.8) 1.1 3.4 2.1 ~ ~ 2.9 1.8 1.9 1.2 2.6 6.8 5.7 8.2 7.0 8.8 9.3 5.8 3.9 5.4 6.4 3.8 1.5 2.2 1.5 1.5 (2.3) - ~ ~ ” (1.1) 1.0 2.3 2.2 3.7 3.0 2.9 6 .0 7.9 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.0 5.3 4.5 5.6 6.0 3.5 3.2 3.6 “ - - _ - - 1.5 2.0 1.2 . 7 1.1 (2.5) - - - _ - - - - - - _ - - - - - _ - - - IV “ “ ~ (0.2) 1.0 . 7 .6 .7 .7 1.9 1.9 2.6 5.7 5.4 5.1 6.2 4.6 4.7 5.5 5.1 2.3 7.4 3.7 7.3 3.8 3.6 2.2 2.0 2.4 1.9 1.4 1.3 2.2 .9 1.4 (3.5) _ - - See footnotes at end of table. 23 - - - - V “ ” - “ ” “ (1.9) 1 .1 2.3 1.0 1.8 .8 3.0 5.5 3.4 3.1 3.1 3.1 6.8 2.9 4.7 8.2 4.6 5.2 2.4 4.4 3.1 2.4 2.7 3.3 1.5 2.1 1.5 1.3 1.4 3.2 .8 . 7 1.3 1.2 VI ~ “ “ " ~ “ “ ~ _ _ _ (1.4) 7.2 .4 1.7 4.8 . 6 1.3 2.2 4.8 3.3 3.1 3.0 2.8 4.3 3.7 . 6 6.1 3.3 4.6 3.3 2.0 Table 4. Continued—Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations (Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by monthly salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,' March 1984) Attorneys — C ntinued o MONTHLY SALARY I $7,600 $7,700 $7,800 $7,900 $8,000 $8,100 $8,200 $8,300 $8,400 $8,500 $8,600 $8,700 $8,800 $8,900 $9,000 $9,100 and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under $7,700 ....... $7,800 ....... $7,900 ....... $8,000 ....... $8,100....... $8,200....... $8,300....... $8,400....... $8,500 ....... $8,600 ....... $8,700 ....... $8,800 ....... $8,900 ....... $9,000 ....... $9,100....... $9,200 ....... Total ............... Number of Employees........... Average Monthly Salary........ IX III IV _ - _ _ _ - - - “ ” 0.8 1.4 (2.1) - - - “ “ - - ~ - - - - 100.0 1,186 $2,410 - “ “ - - V ~ ~ - 100.0 2,965 $2,937 100.0 3,938 $3,729 See footnotes at end of table. 24 100.0 3,340 $4,622 100.0 1,827 $5,873 VI 3.9 1.3 2.0 3.3 .7 .4 1.3 5.7 2.0 .7 1.5 .9 .2 2.2 3.0 (6.4) 100.0 541 $7,297 Table 4. Continued—Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations (Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by monthly salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,’ March 1984) Buyers MONTHLY SALARY II $1,100 and under $1,150....... $1,150 and under $1,200 ....... $1,200 and under $1,250 ....... $1,250 and under $1 ,300 ....... $1,300 and under $1,350 ....... $1,350 and under $1,400 ....... $1,400 and under $1,450 ....... $1,450 and under $1,500 ....... $1 ,500 and under $1,550 ....... $1,550 and under $1,600 ....... $1,600 and under $1,650....... $1,650 and under $1,7 00....... $1 ,700 and under $1,750 ....... $1,750 and under $1,800 ....... $1,800 and under $1,850 ....... $1,850 and under $1,900 ....... $1 ,900 and under $1 ,950 ....... $1,950 and under $2,000 ....... $2,000 and under $2,050 ....... $2,050 and under $2,100....... $2,100 and under $2,150....... $2,150 and under $2,200 ....... $2,200 and under $2,250 ....... $2,250 and under $2,300 ....... $2,300 and under $2,350 ....... $2,350 and under $2,400 ....... $2,400 and under $2,450 ....... $2,450 and under $2,500 ....... $2,500 and under $2,600....... $2,600 and under $2,700 ....... $2,700 and under $2,800 ....... $2,800 and under $2,900 ....... $2,900 and under $3,000 ....... $3,000 and under $3,100....... $3,100 and under $3,200 ....... $3,200 and under $3,300....... $3,300 and under $3,400 ....... $3,400 and under $3,500 ....... $3,500 and under $3,600 ....... $3,600 and under $3,700 ....... $3,700 and under $3,800 ....... $3,800 and under $3,900 ....... $3, 900 and under $4,000 ....... $4,000 and under $4,100....... $4,100 and under $4,200 ....... $4,200 and under $4,300 ....... $4,300 and under $4,400 ....... Total ............... Number of Employees........... Average Monthly Salary........ IV _ _ - (2.1) 1.0 1.8 2.9 2.6 3.3 7 .1 8.2 III _ I - - “ (0.6) 1.1 .3 1.0 1.2 2.3 2.1 4.4 4.2 4.0 6 .3 6.2 7.4 7.4 5.4 6.8 5.1 5.5 5.0 3.5 3.2 3.1 2.4 1.9 3.1 1.7 2.0 (2.9) “ 6.6 7 .9 8.3 7.4 6.0 4.0 4.8 3.4 3.9 3.1 3.0 2.9 3.0 1.6 (5.3) ” _ - - - - - - - “ _ - _ - 100.0 6,234 $1,685 100.0 17,840 $2,056 See footnotes at end of table. 25 ~ (1.1) 1.0 . 7 . 8 1.9 2.1 3.2 2.6 2.8 3.5 4.5 4.2 4.7 4.4 5.0 5.2 10.8 9.1 7.3 6.4 5.0 4.0 2.6 2.0 1.5 .9 1.0 (1.6) - ~ 100.0 18,285 $2,551 ” ~ ~ - (2.2) 1.1 1.1 2.2 1.7 2.4 4.8 6.6 5.0 6 .1 8.6 9.1 7 .1 7.5 4.5 5.6 5.5 2.9 4.4 1.8 2.1 1.4 1.3 1.1 (3.9) 100.0 5,941 $3,154 Table 4. Continued—Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations (Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by monthly salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1984) Computer Programmers/Programmer Analysts MONTHLY SALARY I SI, 100 and under $1,150....... $1,150 and under $1,200 ....... $1,200 and under $1,250....... $1,250 and under $1,300 ....... $1,300 and under $1,350 ....... $1,350 and under $1,400 ....... $1,400 and under $1,450....... $1,450 and under $1,500 ....... $1,500 and under $1,550....... $1,550 and under $1,600 ....... $1,600 and under $1,650 ....... $1,650 and under $1,700 ....... $1,700 and under $1,750 ....... $1,750 and under $1,800 ....... $1,800 and under $1,850....... $1,350 and under $1 ,900 ....... $1,900 and under $1,950 ....... $1,950 and under $2,000 ....... $2,000 and under $2,050....... $2,050 and under $2,100....... $2,100 and under $2,150....... $2,150 and under $2,200 ....... $2,200 and under $2,250....... $2,250 and under $2,300....... $2,300 and under $2,350 ....... $2,350 and under $2,400 ....... $2,400 and under $2,450 ....... $2,450 and under $2,500 ....... $2,500 and under $2,600 ....... $2,600 and under $2,700 ....... $2,700 and under $2,800 ....... $2,800 and under $2,900 ....... $2,900 and under $3,000 ....... $3,000 and under $3,100....... $3,100 and under $3,200 ....... $3,200 and under $3,300 ....... $3,300 and under $3,400 ....... $3,400 and under $3,500 ....... $3,500 and under $3,600 ....... $3,600 and under $3,700 ....... $3,700 and under $3,800 ....... $3,800 and under $3,900 ....... $3,900 and under $4,000 ....... $4,000 and under $4,100....... Total Number of imployees........... Average Monthly Salary........ (1.3) 1.0 2.7 4.4 6.0 5.4 7.7 6.5 5.9 7.0 5.5 6.0 5.6 5.2 4.7 4.4 4.2 4.4 3.5 1.6 1.4 3.4 (2.3) - II (2.9) 1.6 2.5 3.4 4.3 4.1 6.6 6.2 6.4 6.5 6.1 7.0 7.2 6.2 6.3 4.7 3.9 3.1 2.1 2.5 1.1 1.8 .9 1.1 (1.6) “ - _ - - - - III IV V _ _ - - _ _ - - ” “ (1.1) 1.4 1.9 1.9 2.7 2.5 4.1 5.1 4.7 5.4 4.9 6.7 8.2 6.9 6.0 5.7 4.9 5.2 8.1 4.5 3.1 1.8 1.3 (2.0) - - _ - - - - - - _ - - - (2.6) 1.2 1.0 1.0 2.4 2.7 2.0 3.4 3.3 4.3 4.8 12.5 13.8 12.5 9.7 8.4 6.4 4.2 1.8 1.1 (1.1) 100.0 33,626 $1,901 See footnotes at end of table. 26 _ “ 100.0 42,777 $2,263 _ - - * - 100.0 13,339 $1,650 - - 100.0 16,546 $2,661 - - - ~ (2.4) 1.5 2.0 3.8 3.4 3.6 5.8 8.6 10.6 11.5 12.7 10.5 8.3 7.1 3.7 2.4 1.0 (1.1) 100.0 7,296 $3,239 Table 4. Continued—Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations (Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by monthly salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1984) Systems Analysts MONTHLY SALARY I $1,600 and $1,650 and $1,700 and $1,750 and $1,800 and $1,850 and $1,900 and $1,950 and $2,000 and $2,050 and $2,100 and $2,150 and $2,200 and $2,250 and $2,300 and $2,350 and $2,400 and $2,450 and $2,500 and $2,600 and $2,700 and $2,800 and $2,900 and $3,000 and $3,100 and $3,200 and $3,300 and $3,400 and $3,500 and $3,600 and $3,700 and $3,800 and $3,900 and $4,000 and $4,100 and $4,200 and $4,300 and $4,400 and $4,500 and $4,600 and $4,700 and $4,800 and $4,900 and $5,000 and $5,100 and $5,200 and $5,300 and $5,400 and $5,500 and $5,600 and $5,700 and Total under $1>650....... under $1,700 ....... under $1,750....... under $1,800 ....... under $1,850 ....... under $1,900 ....... under $1,950 ....... under $2,000....... under $2,050 ....... under $2,100....... under $2,150....... under $2,200....... under $2,250....... under $2,300....... under $2,350....... under $2,400....... under $2,450....... under $2,500....... under $2,600 ....... under $2,700 ....... under $2,800....... under $2,900 ....... under $3,000....... under $3,100....... under $3,200 ....... under $3,300 ....... under $3,400....... under $3,500....... under $3,600 ....... under $3,700 ....... under $3,800....... under $3,900 ....... under $4,000 ....... under $4,100....... under $4,200....... under $4,300....... under $4,400....... under $4,500 ....... under $4,600 ....... under $4,700 ....... under $4,800....... under $4,900 ....... under $5,000....... under $5,100....... under $5,200....... under $5,300....... under $5,400 ....... under $5,500....... under $5,600 ....... under $5,700 ....... under $5,800....... ............... Number of Employees........... Average Monthly Salary........ (2.0) 1.0 1.4 1.5 2.4 2.2 4.5 4.5 5.3 6.2 5.7 6.8 7.5 6.4 6.9 6.8 5.5 4.5 6.7 4.3 3.2 1.8 1.1 (1.8) “ _ - II III IV _ _ _ “ “ - - (2.5) 1.3 1.4 1.7 2.8 2.9 4.2 4.1 4.7 5.1 10.7 11.1 11.1 9.3 8.0 5.6 4.4 4.1 1.9 1.6 (1.5) “ - - ” - “ (2.7) 1.1 2.6 4.9 6.4 8.0 9.3 10.2 10.3 9.1 8.0 7.7 5.4 4.0 3.6 2.4 1.5 (2.8) ~ - " - - - - - - - - - 100.0 16,127 $2,257 ” - 100.0 34,702 $2,694 See footnotes at end of table. 27 ” - 100.0 28,321 $3,171 ~ - V - - - “ - ” - - “ “ (2.0) 1.7 2.2 2.9 4.5 5.6 8.7 7.3 7.8 7.7 9.2 7.3 6.4 6.0 3.6 3.8 2.7 2.6 2.3 1.5 1.1 (3.0) - 100.0 10,375 $3,729 “ _ " ” (3.9) 2.0 1.7 2.1 1.4 3.7 3.4 4.8 3.7 6.3 6.6 6.1 6.1 6.2 3.9 7. 1 4.7 5.2 2.7 3.4 2.7 2.4 2.2 1.7 1.9 (3.8) 100.0 2,140 $4,493 Table 4. Continued—Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations (Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by monthly salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1984) Chemi sts MONTHLY SALARY I $1,050 and under $1,100....... $1,100 and under $1,150....... $1,150 and under $1,200 ....... $1,200 and under $1,250 ....... $1,250 and under $1,300 ....... $1,300 and under $1,350 ....... $1,350 and under $1,400....... $1,400 and under $1,450 ....... $1,450 and under $1,500 ....... $1,500 and under $1,550 ....... $1,550 and under $1,600 ....... $1,6 00 and under $1,650 ....... $1,650 and under $1 ,700 ....... $1,7 00 and under $1,750 ....... $1,750 and under $1,800 ....... $1,800 and under $1,850 ....... $1,850 and under $1 ,900 ....... $1 ,900 and under $1,950 ....... $1,950 and under $2,000 ....... $2,000 and under $2,050 ....... $2,050 and under $2,100....... $2,100 and under $2,150....... $2,150 and under $2,200 ....... $2,200 and under $2,250....... $2,250 and under $2,300 ....... $2,300 and under $2,350 ....... $2,350 and under $2,400 ....... $2,400 and under $2,450 ....... $2,450 and under $2,500 ....... $2,500 and under $2,600 ....... $2,600 and under $2,700 ....... $2,700 and under $2,800....... $2,800 and under $2,900 ....... $2,900 and under $3,000 ....... $3,000 and under $3,100....... $3,100 and under $3,200 ....... $3,200 and under $3,300 ............... $3,300 and under $3,400 ............... $3,400 and under $3,500 ............... $3,500 and under $3,600 ............... $3,600 and under $3,700 ............... $3,700 and under $3,800 ............... $3,800 and under $3,900 ............... $3,900 and under $4,000 ............... $4,000 and under $4,100.............. $4,100 and under $4,200 .............. $4,200 and under $4,300 ....... $4,300 and under $4,400 ............... $4,400 and under $4,500 .............. $4,500 and under $4,600 ............... $4,600 and under $4,700 ............... $4,700 and under $4,800 ............... $4,800 and under $4,900 ............... $4,900 and under $5,000 ............... $5,000 and under $5,100.............. $5,100 and under $5,200 .............. $5,200 and under $5,300 ............... $5,300 and under $5,400 ....... $5,400 and under $5,500 ....... $5,500 and under $5,600 ....... $5,600 and under $5,700 ....... $5,700 and under $5,800 ....... $5,800 and under $5,900 ....... $5,900 and under $6,000 ....... $6,000 and under $6,100....... $6,100 and under $6,200 ....... $6,200 and under $6,300 ....... $6,300 and under $6,400 ....... $6,400 and under $6,500 ....... $6,500 and under $6,600 .............. Total ............................... Number of Employees...................... Average Monthly Salary................ 0.2 1.8 .7 .2 - 1.8 4.6 4.5 9.9 7.2 3.9 4.3 8.1 4.6 3.0 7.2 13.1 2.8 3.2 2.8 1.6 2.0 1.4 5.8 2.5 (2.9) - “ _ - - II III - - _ - _ - (1.0) 1.2 1.2 . 6 . 6 2.5 2.1 5.4 4.5 3.9 4.6 6.0 5.7 5.4 3.4 4.3 6.6 7.8 4.1 4.8 2.8 3.5 3.6 4.7 4.5 1.8 1.4 1.2 (0.9) (1.8) 1 .0 1.6 1.3 1.8 1.7 3.5 3.1 4.5 4.5 5.7 7.0 5.3 4.8 4.1 8.0 7.3 6.6 6.3 5.8 4.1 2.7 3.7 1.4 1.4 (1.1) - - _ - “ “ - - _ - - - - - IV V VI VII _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ - - _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - - _ _ - _ _ _ - - _ _ _ _ (2.6) 1.0 1.4 3.2 5.9 6.7 8.7 11.3 9.1 9.0 7.4 9.2 6.1 5.4 4.5 2.4 1.7 1.2 1.2 (2.0) - - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ w _ _ (2.1) 2.5 1.8 2.1 4.0 5.6 5.2 7.3 6. 9 7.2 5.5 6.7 9.0 5.3 7.8 3.6 3.0 4.1 2.6 2.5 .8 1.6 (2.6) _ - - - - - _ - - - - - - - - - - _ _ - - - “ - - - - _ _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (1.0) 1.3 1. 1 . 6 .1 _ _ _ - . 8 1.3 1.6 1.6 2.4 2.0 2.6 8.5 4.6 5.1 6.4 8.0 7.1 6.2 4.8 9.8 2.9 4.1 2.5 1.7 3.1 3.2 (5.5) - 100.0 2,395 $1,801 - _ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 100.0 100.0 9,777 $2,537 100.0 5,891 $2,123 - 9,996 $3,137 ________ See footnotes at end of table. 28 - 100.0 7,815 $3,801 - - _ - 100.0 3,290 $4,514 - _ - 1.6 . 4 .4 1.8 .2 3.3 .2 3.4 .4 2.8 .3 2.4 6.1 2.3 3.7 2.4 6.2 6.2 2.1 2.4 3.1 10.3 2.3 2.5 7.0 2.1 5.2 1.5 4.3 3.8 3.3 1.1 (4.9) 100.0 1,122 $5,256 Table 4. Continued—Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations (Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by monthly salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,’ March 1984) Engi neers MONTHLY SALARY I $1,650 $1,700 $1,750 $1,800 $1,850 $1 ,900 $1,950 $2,000 $2,050 $2,100 $2,150 $2,200 $2,250 $2,300 $2,350 $2,400 $2,450 $2,500 $2,600 $2,700 $2,800 $2,900 $3,000 $3,100 $3,200 $3,300 $3,400 $3,500 $3,600 $3,700 $3,800 $3,900 $4,000 $4,100 $4,200 $4,300 $4,400 $4,500 $4,600 $4,700 $4,800 $4,900 $5,000 $5,100 $5,200 $5,300 $5,400 $5,500 $5,600 $5,700 $5,800 $5,900 $6,000 $6>100 $6,200 $6,300 $6,400 $6,500 $6,600 $6,700 $6,800 $6,900 $7,000 $7,100 $7,200 $7,300 $7,400 and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under under $1,700 ....... $1,750....... $1,800 ....... $1,850 ....... $1,900 ....... $1,950 ....... $2,000 ....... $2,050 ....... $2,100....... $2,150....... $2,200 ....... $2,250....... $2,300 ....... $2,350 ....... $2,400....... $2,450....... $2,500 ....... $2,600 ....... $2,700 ....... $2,800 ....... $2,900 ....... $3,000 ....... $3,100....... $3,200 ....... $3,300....... $3,400 ....... $3,500 ....... $3,600 ....... $3,700 ....... $3,800 ....... $3,900 ....... $4,000 ....... $4,100....... $4,200 ....... $4,300 ....... $4,400 ....... $4,500 ....... $4,600 ....... $4,700 ....... $4,800 ....... $4,900 ....... $5,000 ....... $5,100....... $5,200 ....... $5,300 ....... $5,400....... $5,500 ....... $5,600 ....... $5,700 ....... $5,800 ....... $5,900 ....... $6,000 ....... $6,100....... $6,200....... 56,300....... $6,400 ....... $6,500 ....... $6,600 ....... $6,700 ....... $6,800 ....... $6 ,900 ....... $7,000 ....... $7,100....... $7,200 ....... $7,300 ....... $7,400 ....... $7,500 ....... ............... Total Number of Employees........... Average Monthly Salary........ II _ (2.0) 1.8 1.2 1.7 2.4 3.1 4.8 5.8 7.1 9.9 11.6 12.7 8.5 7.6 6.0 4.5 3.9 3.3 1. 3 (0.6) - III _ (2.7) 1.0 1.7 1.4 3.6 3.4 4.5 8.1 8.0 8.2 7.8 7.9 8.5 11.9 8.4 5.7 3.1 2.0 1.4 (0.7) - “ _ - “ - - - “ - - “ (1.5) 1.1 1.2 1.6 2.3 2.6 3.0 3.8 4.8 5.1 10.7 11.6 11.0 9.5 8.3 6.9 5.2 4.4 2.1 1.4 (2.1) “ _ - “ - - ~ ~ - " - - “ ~ - ~ - - 100.0 67,872 $2,408 - - 100.0 135,792 $2,730 1 For the scope of the study, see table A-1 in appendix A. NOTE: To avoid showing small proportions of employees scattered at or near the extremes of the distributions for some occupations, the percentages of 29 - - - ~ - . “ _ " (1.5) 1.2 2.6 2.9 4.1 4.8 6.2 8.2 7.3 8.4 8.0 8.3 6.8 6.4 4.9 4.1 4.6 2.7 2.0 1.3 1 0 . (2.7) - - - VI _ ~ (2.8) 2.2 3.2 4.9 5.9 9.0 9.0 9.2 9.9 9.2 8.1 7.6 6.6 4.1 2.6 1.8 1.2 (2.6) _ “ - “ - $2,180 ~ V _ - ~ ~ - 100.0 27,872 IV 100.0 145,728 $3,250 “ ” 100.0 100,411 $3,862 _ _ - _ (3.1) 1.7 2.0 2.8 3.8 4.7 5.1 5.9 6.4 6.1 6.8 6.6 6.7 5.5 5.5 4.6 4.2 3.3 2.7 2.1 1.5 2.3 1.3 (5.3) ~ - VII VIII _ - _ _ - (2.2) 1.4 1.8 1.7 3.0 2.5 3.8 4.1 4.2 5.9 5.5 5.0 6.4 6.0 5.9 5.7 6.0 4.4 4.1 2.4 3.1 1.5 2.7 1.3 1.2 1.4 1. 0 (5.8) - - _ - - - - “ “ 100.0 49,013 $4,479 100.0 13,435 $5,097 _ _ - _ - _ - _ - (3.4) 1.6 3.1 3.4 2.9 3.9 4.1 4.4 7.5 5.3 3.9 5.7 6.1 6.3 4.6 4.6 3.6 4.2 2.5 2.1 3.7 1.2 .7 2.2 . 4 .7 1.0 1.0 (5.9) 100.0 2,590 $5,899 employees in these intervals have been accumulated and are shown in the inter val above or below the extreme interval containing at least 1 percent. The percentages representing these employees are shown in parentheses. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal 100. Table 5. Employment distribution by salary: Technical support occupations (Percent distribution of employees in selected technical support occupations by monthly salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,' March 1984) Engineering Technicians MONTHLY SALARY I 5650 $675 $700 $725 $750 $775 $800 $825 $850 and and and and and and and and and under under under under under under under under under $675 ........... $7 00 ........... $725 ........... $750 ........... $775........... $800 ........... $825........... $850 ........... $875........... $900 and under $925........... $925 and under $950 ........... $950 and under $975........... $975 and under $1 ,00 0 ......... $1,000 and under $1,050 ....... $1,050 and under $1,100....... $1,100 and under $1,150....... $1,150 and under $1,200 ....... $1,200 and under $1,250 ....... $1,250 and under $1,300 ....... $1,300 and under $1,350 ....... $1,350 and under $1,400....... $1,400 and under $1,450 ....... $1,450 and under $1,500 ....... $1,500 and under $1,550 ....... $1,550 and under $1,600 ....... $1,600 and under $1,650 ....... $1,650 and under $1,700 ....... $1,70 0 and under $1,750 ....... $1,750 and under $1,800 ....... $1,800 and under $1,850 ....... $1,850 and under $1 ,900 ....... $1 ,900 and under $1 ,950 ....... $1,950 and under $2,000 ....... $2,000 and under $2,050 ....... $2,050 and under $2,100....... $2,100 and under $2,150....... $2,150 and under $2,200 ....... $2,200 and under $2,250 ....... $2,250 and under $2,300 ....... $2,300 and under $2,350....... $2,350 and under $2,400 ....... $2,400 and under $2,450....... $2,450 and under $2,500 ....... $2,500 and under $2,600 ....... $2,600 and under $2,700 ....... $2,700 and under $2,800 ....... $2,800 and under $2,900 ....... $2,900 and under $3,000 ....... $3,000 and under $3,100....... $3,100 and under $3,200....... $3,200 and under $3,300 ....... $3,300 and under $3,400 ....... $3,400 and under $3,500 ....... Total ............... Number of Employees.......... Average Monthly Salary........ II Drafters III IV V - _ _ - _ _ - " - _ - _ - - _ - _ - - _ - (1.6) 1.5 1.8 5.5 4.1 3.9 6. 1 9.8 10.0 9.0 8.5 8.6 7.2 4.6 5.3 4.6 2.4 1.2 1.0 .3 . 7 .3 1.0 CO .9) - 100.0 4,626 $1,347 (1.8) 2.0 1.7 3.3 4.7 5.0 7.5 8.8 8.6 8.8 8.5 7 .0 6.1 5.0 4.0 3.9 3.5 2.5 2.5 1.3 1.2 (2.3) _ ~ - (2.3) 1.7 2.5 3.6 4.3 4.8 5.4 6.7 6.4 7.2 8.0 6.5 5.8 5.1 5.1 4.7 4.1 2.8 2.6 2.1 2.1 1.4 1.2 1.0 1.0 (1.6) - - - “ - 100.0 19,229 $1,561 (1.6) 1.4 1.4 2.4 2.6 4.4 3.8 4.9 5.9 5.3 6.2 6.3 7.6 6.6 6.5 4.5 4.2 4.8 3.4 5.4 3.9 2.5 .9 1.4 (2.0) - 100.0 31,920 $1,863 100.0 39,016 $2,197 See footnotes at end of table. 30 _ - " (2.0) 1.0 1.2 1.7 2.7 4.2 3.1 4.3 5.4 7.4 6.0 6.1 8.0 12.3 10 .1 8.0 5.7 4.2 2.6 1.2 (2.7) 100.0 22,702 $2,507 I (0.8) 1.5 _ II III IV - _ _ - _ _ _ _ - _ .7 1.5 3.8 1.3 2.6 3.8 _ (1.1) 1.0 5.9 3.7 7.5 8.0 9.8 12.0 9.3 5.2 6.6 8.9 .3 2.9 (2.5) - . 4 .5 1.6 1.3 4.3 4.6 8.1 5.9 9.9 12.1 7.2 7.4 4.1 4.0 2.4 3.7 4.2 3.4 8.3 1.1 1.1 (2.0) _ _ _ - - 100.0 1,961 $1,050 - _ - _ - 100.0 10,126 $1,343 _ - _ _ _ (2.0) 2.3 3.9 3.9 5.1 6.4 8.3 10 . 1 7.8 7 .9 7.3 5.3 5.5 5.1 3.9 2.0 2.4 1.9 1.6 2.1 .8 1.0 .9 1.0 (1.6) - _ - _ - - 100.0 19,886 $1,591 V - _ _ - _ _ - _ _ _ _ - _ _ - (1.7) 1.6 1.1 2.2 2.7 3.3 5.1 6.2 7.0 4.6 7.8 6.1 7.8 6.5 5.3 5.4 4.6 3.1 3.9 2.7 3.4 1.6 1. 1 .9 2.3 (2.0) - _ _ - _ _ - 100.0 22,584 $1,922 _ _ _ _ - _ _ _ (1.7) 1.0 1.7 1.7 2.5 2.6 2.9 3.0 4.4 6.4 5.4 4.6 4.7 5.1 4.4 4.1 4.8 9.9 5.1 4.8 4.7 4.7 3.2 2.1 2.4 2.0 (0.1) 100.0 17,358 $2,421 Table 5. Continued—Employment distribution by salary: Technical support occupations (Percent distribution of employees in selected technical support occupations by monthly salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,' March 1984) II III IV _ _ _ - “ - - I $750 end under $775........... $775 and under $800 .... >..... $800 and under $825........... $825 and under $850.......... $350 and under $875 .......... $875 and under $900 ........... $900 and under $925 ........... $925 and under $950 .......... $950 and under $975 ........... $975 and under $1 ,000......... $1 ,000 and under $1,050 ....... $1,050 and under $1,100....... $1,100 and under $1,150....... $1,150 and under $1,200 ....... $1,200 and under $1,250 ....... $1,250 and under $1,300 ....... $1 ,300 and under $1,350 ....... $1,350 and under $1,400 ....... $1,4 00 and under $1 ,450 ....... $1,450 and under $1,500 ....... $1,500 and under $1,550 ....... $1,550 and under $1,600 ....... $1 ,600 and under $1,650 ....... $1,650 and under $1,7 00 ....... $1,700 and under $1,750 ....... $1,750 and under $1,800 ....... $1,800 and under $1,850 ....... $1,850 and under $1 ,900 ....... $1 ,900 and under $1,950 ....... $1,950 and under $2,000....... $2,000 and under $2,050 ....... $2,050 and under $2,100....... $2,100 and under $2,150....... $2,150 and under $2,200 ....... $2,200 and under $2,250....... $2,250 and under $2,300 ....... $2,300 and under $2,350 ....... $2,350 and under $2,400 ....... $2,400 and under $2,450 ....... $2,450 and under $2,500 ....... $2,500 and under $2,600 ....... $2,600 and under $2,700 ....... $2,700 and under $2,800 ....... $2,800 and under $2,900 ....... $2,900 and under $3,000 ....... $3 ,000 and under $3,100....... $3,100 and under $3,200 ....... $3,200 and under $3,300 ....... $3,300 and under $3,400 ....... $3,400 and under $3,500 ....... $3,500 and under $3,600 ....... Total ............... Number of Employees.......... Average Monthly Salary........ Photographers Computer Operators MONTHLY SALARY (2.6) 2.0 1.2 1.7 7.2 3.7 5.2 3.3 5.7 4.3 10.6 10.4 9.7 7.2 6.1 4.1 3.3 3.2 2.0 1.7 1.5 .7 1 .0 (1.5) _ “ - (1.9) 1.0 . 7 1.2 1.6 3.9 5.3 5.9 8.4 9.3 8.1 7.9 6.5 5.6 5.6 4.0 3.8 2.5 3.0 4.9 2.3 1.6 1.8 (3.3) - ~ “ - ~ - “ “ - “ 100.0 8,955 $1,089 - ~ “ “ - - - “ - ” - (1.1) 1. 1 1.6 3.5 4.7 4.4 5.1 7.6 9.2 6.8 6.8 5.1 5.8 5.3 3.6 4.6 4.3 2.9 2.7 2.7 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.0 .7 . 7 1.1 (2.7) (0.7) 1.1 . 7 . 7 2.0 2.4 2.4 8.6 4.3 6.6 5.7 4.6 6.4 5.3 6.5 4.8 5.6 5.4 4.8 2.8 2.3 2.1 1.6 1.7 1.6 2.2 - 1.8 1.5 1.8 (2.1) “ - - - - - - 100.0 100.0 24,370 $1,645 30,855 $1,361 1 For the scope of the study, see table A-1 in appendix A. Note: To avoid showing small proportions of employees scattered at or near the extremes of the distributions for some occupations, the percentages of employees in these intervals|have been accumulated 100.0 8,816 $1,926 V _ “ - ~ “ “ “ ~ (1.7) 1.2 . 7 3.8 3.0 4.9 7.2 7.2 3.9 3.5 7.6 3.9 6.4 5.9 5.2 9.9 4.6 6.4 3.4 3.1 2.1 1.1 1.5 (1.7) 100.0 1,479 $2,269 I II _ _ - " “ - - “ ~ 2.1 2.1 2.8 4.2 4.2 3.5 9.7 5.6 13.9 7.6 6.3 .7 6.9 5.6 4.2 10.4 ~ . 7 8.3 ~ 1.4 ~ - ~ “ ” 100.0 144 $1,446 III “ “ - “ “ ” - ” (1.2) 1.8 2.9 5.6 2.6 1.7 2.6 2.4 1.5 1 9 . 7.1 12.4 7.4 7.5 5.3 6.9 5.8 1.5 1.1 5.4 4.9 1.5 1.2 1.7 .1 . 1 2.8 1.5 (1.4) “ - “ 100.0 720 $1,812 (1.0) 1.4 1.0 . 6 1.2 1.1 5.2 3.6 4.3 4.3 5.1 6.9 5.4 1.9 5.4 5.0 7.9 2.2 7.5 8.6 3.3 4.8 4.0 1.7 1.5 1.5 .1 3.6 100.0 724 $2,165 IV _ ” - ” “ - (2.1) 2.5 4.4 1.6 1.4 2.5 3.8 2.2 4.1 2.7 6.0 7.7 9.6 4.4 2.5 5.8 6.9 7.1 7.7 3.0 6.3 3.6 .8 " 1.1 100.0 364 $2,396 and are shown in the interval above or below the extreme interval con taining at least 1 percent. The percentages representing these employees are shown in parentheses. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal 100. f 31 Table 6. Employment distribution by salary: Clerical occupations (Percent distribution of employees in selected clerical occupations by monthly salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,' March 1984) Account ing Clerks MONTHLY SALARY I $575 and under $600........... $600 and under $625........... $625 and under $650 ........... $650 and under $675........... $675 and under $700 ........... $700 and under $725........... $725 and under $750 ........... $750 and under $775........... $775 and under $800 ........... $800 and under $825........... $825 and under $850 ........... $850 and under $875........... $875 and under $900 ........... $900 and under $925........... $925 and under $950 ........... $950 and under $975........... $975 and under $1,000 ......... $1,000 and under $1,050 ....... $1,050 and under $1,100....... $1,100 and under $1,150....... $1,150 and under $1,200 ....... $1,200 and under $1,250 ....... $1,250 and under $1,300 ....... $1,300 and under $1,350....... $1,350 and under $1,400....... $1,400 and under $1,450 ....... $1,450 and under $1,500 ....... $1,500 and under $1,550 ....... $1,550 and under $1,600....... $1,600 and under $1,650 ....... $1,650 and under $1,700 ....... $1,700 and under $1,750 ....... $1,750 and under $1,800 ....... $1,800 and under $1,850....... $1,850 and under $1,900 ....... $1,900 and under $1,950 ....... $1,950 and under $2,000 ....... $2,000 and under $2,050 ....... $2,050 and under $2,100....... $2,100 and under $2,150....... $2,150 and under $2,200 ....... $2,200 and under $2,250....... $2,250 and under $2,300 ....... $2,300 and under $2,350....... $2,350 and under $2,400 ....... $2,400 and under $2,450 ....... $2,450 and under $2,500 ....... $2,500 and under $2,600 ....... $2,600 and under $2,700....... Total ............... Number of Employees........... Average Monthly Salary........ II (2.1) 1.8 2.2 3.7 3.1 6.8 3.7 4.7 9.4 3.8 6.7 5.1 6.3 6.0 6.8 8.3 5.3 2.9 1.8 1.7 1.0 1.6 .3 .3 .3 .4 . 1 1.1 2.0 (0.4) “ - _ _ (1.9) 1.4 2.0 1.9 2.1 2.5 2.2 3.0 4.6 4.0 9.7 9.1 10.2 8.3 7.6 6.2 4.2 3.6 3.1 2.0 1.3 1.0 1.6 1.3 .7 1.4 (3.1) - _ 100.0 27,873 $975 “ 100.0 79,368 $1,172 III _ _ (1.8) 1.7 1.6 1.8 2.9 5.0 7.0 7.0 6.8 9.8 8.7 6.3 7.0 4.8 3.8 3.3 3.2 2.1 3.4 2.8 1.7 1.1 1.2 .8 .7 1.7 (1.9) _ “ _ 100.0 58,863 $1,377 See footnotes at end of table. 32 File Clerks IV _ _ “ (0.8) 1.1 2.0 1.4 4.0 4.3 3.3 4.6 5.5 8.9 6.3 4.2 4.5 5.1 3.6 7.9 3.1 3.0 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.3 4.0 2.7 2.1 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.0 . 6 1.1 (0.6) 100.0 17,286 $1,687 I 2.5 3.6 5.7 6.1 4.5 9.2 8.2 8.3 6.9 7.0 5.8 4.2 3.7 2.8 2.8 4.6 2.0 3.5 2.7 1.1 1.0 (3.5) _ _ _ “ 100.0 16,026 $822 Key Entry Operators II III I II _ (0.2) 2.1 2.3 2.9 4.6 4.4 8.4 9.4 7.6 6.4 6.8 6.0 4.5 4.6 3.6 6.2 4.5 2.5 2.7 1.4 1.3 .7 1.3 1.0 (4.6) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - - _ _ (0.6) 1.8 .9 1.3 2.1 2.5 5.6 3.2 4.8 3.8 5.2 4.4 4.9 4.3 12.2 7.5 6.7 6.0 3.8 2.9 3.6 1.7 1.5 1.5 .8 1.2 . 4 1.0 .5 1.1 (2.0) _ _ _ _ _ - 100.0 9,102 $944 _ _ (1.9) 1.0 1.9 2.2 3.0 5.7 4.8 10.1 5.3 14.9 9.9 6.6 5.6 3.6 4.0 5.7 1.2 1.1 2.4 1.1 1.0 .7 .8 .7 .3 1.1 (3.2) _ _ _ ~ 100.0 2,746 $1,131 100.0 50,685 $1,068 _ _ _ _ (2.3) 1.3 . 7 1.8 2.1 1.6 7.5 6.2 7.9 9.3 11.2 6.7 5.8 6.6 3.8 4.0 3.1 1.8 3.0 1.5 1.1 . 7 .5 . 6 .5 1.7 .8 1.6 1.9 (2.6) _ _ 100.0 32,473 $1,325 Table 6. Continued—Employment distribution by salary: Clerical occupations (Percent distribution of employees in selected clerical occupations by monthly salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1984) MONTHLY SALARY Personnel Clerks/Assi stants Messengers I $525 and under $550 ........... $550 and under $575.......... $575 and under $600 .......... $600 and under $625.......... $625 and under $650 .......... $650 and under $675 .......... $675 and under $700 .......... $700 and under $725........... $725 and under $750 ........... $750 and under $775 ........... $775 and under $800 ........... $800 and under $825........... $825 and under $850 ........... $850 and under $875........... $875 and under $900 ........... $900 and under $925........... $925 and under $950 .......... $950 and under $975 ........... $975 and under $1,000 ......... $1,000 and under $1,050 ....... $1,050 and under $1,100....... $1,100 and under $1,150....... $1,150 and under $1,200 ....... $1,200 and under $1,250 ....... $1,250 and under $1,300 ....... $1,300 and under $1,350 ....... $1 ,350 and under $1,400....... $1,400 and under $1,450....... $1,450 and under $1,500 ....... $1,500 and under $1,550 ....... $1,550 and under $1,600 ....... $1,6 00 and under $1,650 ....... $1,650 and under $1,700 ....... $1,700 and under $1,750 ....... $1,750 and under $1,800 ....... $1,800 and under $1,850 ....... $1,850 and under $1 ,900 ....... $1,900 and under $1,950 ....... $1,950 and under $2,000 ....... $2,000 and under $2,050 ....... $2,050 and under $2,100....... $2,100 and under $2,150....... $2,150 and under $2,200 ....... $2,200 and under $2,250 ....... $2,250 and under $2,300 ....... $2,300 and under $2,350 ....... $2,350 and under $2,400 ....... $2,400 and under $2,450 ....... $2,450 and under $2,500 ....... $2,500 and under $2,600 ....... $2,600 and under $2,700 ....... $2,700 and under $2,800 ....... $2,800 and under $2,900 ....... $2,900 and under $3,000 ....... $3,000 and under $3,100....... $3,100 and under $3,200 ....... Total ............... Number of Employees........... Average Monthly Salary........ 1.1 .6 1.1 2.8 2.6 4.0 5.0 4.2 5.0 4.2 6.3 5.5 6.4 4.5 7.0 3.9 4.0 3.4 5.9 4.3 2.7 3.0 2.4 1.2 .9 .6 1.5 1.2 1.3 (3.3) - _ - _ - - _ _ - - ~ - - “ - 100.0 10,647 $936 _ - ~ “ “ - - I - - “ - IV (0.9) 5.7 .5 3.1 2.0 7.2 2.9 7.4 8.2 10.2 8.3 10.3 6.1 8.7 2.7 4.1 .4 2.5 1.0 1.8 .8 1.2 .2 .2 1.8 (1.6) - ~ - III - _ - - - IX _ - - ~ - - (3.1) 1.6 .7 4.1 6.4 3.4 11.7 15.0 11.1 6.5 3.6 5.5 2.8 3.8 2.7 2.8 2.2 1.8 3.3 1.3 .9 .1 1.9 . 6 .3 .9 ” 1.2 (0.3) - - ” 100.0 2,024 $1,115 Purchasing Assistants _ “ 100.0 3,388 $1,347 See footnotes at end of table. 33 (0.4) 1.4 3.1 .1 1.6 3.2 4.4 6.2 6.7 6.8 10.1 7.6 7.2 7.4 7.3 4.5 2.6 2.1 3.3 2.2 3.5 1.3 2.0 1.7 .3 . 6 1.6 (0.6) “ “ 100.0 2,896 $1,522 - - - (1.5) 1.9 .2 1.0 4.8 2.2 2.1 6.1 3.6 8.7 4.2 7.2 5.4 3.4 3.8 3.4 3.4 4.1 6.4 3.4 3.4 5.7 .9 3.0 . 7 2.3 1.6 .6 3.8 1.2 (0.1) ~ 100.0 1,222 $1,819 - (2.4) 1.4 1.5 1.8 2.2 5.5 8.4 10.4 5.9 9.5 12.2 7.5 7.0 4.2 2.8 2.3 2.2 1.9 2.1 1.3 .9 .5 1.0 .2 .7 .9 .2 1.2 (2.1) - II _ _ - - “ (0.5) 1.4 .5 1.3 2.4 4.1 5.0 5.3 3.9 4.7 6.4 6.2 4.7 5.9 3.9 6.1 3.8 3.4 3.8 5.5 4.4 2.1 2.7 2.2 3.4 .7 1.3 (4.0) “ ~ ” 100.0 4,426 $1,302 100.0 4,162 $1,667 III - - - _ “ _ (2.9) 3.0 1.6 .8 1.7 1.9 2.8 2.9 . 8 2.6 6.8 7.0 9.4 4.8 5.0 6.9 8.1 2.4 2.0 1.9 7.3 2.7 3.2 3.1 3.8 4.0 .4 100.0 1,080 $2,243 Table 6. Continued—Employment distribution by salary: Clerical occupations (Percent distribution of employees in selected clerical occupations by monthly salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1984) Secretarias MONTHLY SALARY Stenographers Typi sts I $600 and under $625........... $625 and under $650 ........... $650 and under $675........... $675 and under $700 ........... $700 and under $725........... $725 and under $750 .......... $750 and under $775 .......... $775 and under $800 ........... $800 and under $825........... $825 and under $850........... $850 and under $875........... $875 and under $900 ........... $900 and under $925........... $925 and under $950 ........... $950 and under $975........... $975 and under $1,0 00 ......... $1 ,000 and under $1,050 ....... $1,050 and under $1,100....... $1,100 and under $1,150....... $1,150 and under $1,200 ....... $1,200 and under $1,250... . $1,250 and under $1,300....... $1,300 and under $1,350 ....... $1,350 and under $1,400....... $1,400 and under $1,450 ....... $1,450 and under $1,500 ....... $1,500 and under $1,550....... $1,550 and under $1,600 ....... $1,600 and under $1,650 ....... $1,650 and under $1,700 ....... $1,700 and under $1,750 ....... $1,750 and under $1,800 ....... $1,800 and under $1,850....... $1,850 and under $1,900 ....... $1,900 and under $1,950 ....... $1,950 and under $2,000 ....... $2,000 and under $2,050 ....... $2,050 and under $2,100....... $2,100 and under $2,150....... $2,150 and under $2,200 ....... $2,200 and under $2,250....... $2,250 and under $2,300....... $2,300 and under $2,350 ....... $2,350 and under $2,400 ....... $2,400 and under $2,450....... $2,450 and under $2,500 ....... $2,500 and under $2,600 ....... $2,600 and under $2,700 ....... $2,700 and under $2,800....... $2,800 and under $2,900 ....... $2,900 and under $3,000 ....... $3,000 and under $3,100....... $3,100 and under $3,200....... Total ............... Number of Employees........... Average Monthly Salary........ II III IV V I II I “ - - “ _ _ - _ _ _ (0.3) 1.2 1.1 1.6 2.1 3.8 3.5 4.0 5.3 6.1 5.6 5.9 6.7 6.9 4.8 5.6 5.2 5.8 4.8 3.3 2.7 3.1 2.0 1.6 1.2 2.2 1.0 (2.2) _ - _ _ _ _ _ - _ - 0.2 1 .0 .5 1.6 2.4 3.1 4.3 5.7 (3.2) 1.0 1.3 1.7 1.5 3.8 3.8 6.4 4.1 6.4 3.4 3.7 6.5 5.1 4.0 4.8 4.5 7.9 4.8 4.6 7.8 1.4 . 6 .9 2.9 .2 .4 2.1 (1.2) - _ _ _ (1.2) 1.0 1.4 1.8 1.4 1.5 1.9 2.6 3.2 3.0 3.7 4.6 7.6 9.3 6.3 11.2 7.7 2.8 1.5 2.6 5.3 5.2 .9 5.2 2.7 1.3 (3.2) _ - 6.7 5.8 6.4 5.0 5.7 6.5 6.8 3.6 8.2 6.1 4.1 3.7 1.9 _ _ _ (3.1) 2.5 3.8 4.7 6.5 8.3 9.5 8.1 8.2 7.1 6.7 6.6 4.6 4.5 2.9 2.4 1.7 1.3 1.4 .8 .9 . 6 .4 2.4 (0.8) “ - (2.1) 1.3 1.7 1.7 1.4 3.3 2.9 5.6 6.9 8.0 8.3 10.4 9.2 7.5 5.5 4.8 3.3 3.2 1.7 2.2 1.2 (7.5) - “ ~ 100.0 58,242 $1,275 ~ 100.0 55,132 $1,410 _ (1.3) 1.2 2.1 2.6 4.1 5.2 6.2 6.9 7.3 7.1 6.9 6.6 6.3 4.9 5.3 4.4 3.9 2.7 2.4 1.8 1.4 2.1 1.3 1.3 .9 1.8 (2.0) _ 100.0 114,459 $1,588 1 For the scope of the study, see table A-1 in appendix A. Note: To avoid showing small proportions of employees scattered at or near the extremes of the distribution for some occupations, the percentages of 34 100.0 47,241 $1,794 - - - _ (4.0) 2.4 1.9 2.3 2.1 4.7 4.6 4.7 5.2 3.5 5.3 5.4 5.8 5.9 3.7 4.1 4.7 3.6 4.4 3.6 2.9 2.0 5.1 2.4 2.0 1.0 .8 1.1 (0.7) 100.0 18,627 $2,058 “ 100.0 10,012 $1,437 100.0 6,831 $1,698 1.5 2.5 .5 . 6 1.2 .6 .4 .3 1.0 (2.1) _ _ _ _ _ ~ 100.0 24,405 $983 II _ - _ _ _ (2.0) 2.4 2.3 2.0 2.7 1.9 4.8 2.7 8.3 8.4 7 .0 5.9 7.2 5.0 6.0 3.4 3.6 2.7 2.1 3.6 1.5 3.3 2.6 1.4 1.5 . 6 1.4 1.0 1.2 (1.5) _ _ _ 100.0 13,951 $1,262 employees in these intervals have been accumulated and are shown in the inter val above or below the extreme interval containing at least 1 percent. The percentages representing these employees are shown in parentheses. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal 100. Table 7. Occupational employment distribution: By industry division (Percent distribution of employees in selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations,' by industry division,2 United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1984) Qccupat ion Professional and Administrative Accountants Audi tors Public Accountants Chief Accountants Attorneys Buyers Programmers/Programmer Analysts Systems Analysts Job Analysts Directors of Personnel Chemi sts Engi neers Technical Support Engineering Technicians Drafters Computer Operators Photographers Clerical Accounting Clerks File Clerks Key Entry Operators Messengers Personnel Clerks/Assislants Purchasing Assistants Secretar ies Stenographers Typists Mini ng Constructi on Manu facturing Wholesale Public uti lities3 trade Retai1 trade Fi nance, insurance, Selected and real servi ces 4 estate 8 6 (5) 5 (5) (5) (5) (5) (5) (5) (5) (5) (5) (5) (5) (5) (5) — (5) ~ 4 57 31 65 27 82 37 40 49 67 90 74 10 13 4 14 4 10 13 10 (5) (5) 6 5 7 10 5 (5) 6 4 (5) 5 <5) (5) (5) 4 (5) 4 (5) (5) (5) (5) “ 13 35 10 41 (5) 25 27 29 14 - 4 (5) 100 (5) (5) 4 15 9 6 5 6 13 (5) (5) (5) (5) 4 C5) “ 79 69 39 63 5 8 9 5 (5) 7 5 (5) 25 (5) 12 18 12 23 (5) (5) (5) (5) 4 (5) (5) (5) (5) (5) (5) (5) (5) (5) 40 14 33 26 58 83 49 44 27 11 6 8 8 6 6 8 42 12 10 4 9 5 (5) (5) 5 (5) 11 (5) 11 6 6 (5) (5) (5) 20 68 28 46 17 (51 24 5 48 5 4 9 7 7 (5) 8 5 6 ’ Each occupation includes the work levels shown in table 1. 2 For the scope of the study, see table A-1 in appendix A. 3Transportation (except U.S. Postal Service), communications, electric, gas, and sanitary services. 4 Limited to engineering, architectural, and surveying services; commercially operated research, development, and testing laboratories; credit reporting and collection agencies; computer and data processing services; management, 35 consulting, and public relations services; noncommercial educational, scien tific, and research organizations; and accounting, auditing and bookkeeping services. 5 Less than 4 percent. Note: A dash indicates that no workers in the occupation were found in the industry. Table 8. Relative salary levels: Occupation by industry division (Relative salary levels for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations,' by industry division,2 United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1984) (Average salary for each occupation in all industries =100) Occupati on Professional and Administrative Accountants Audi tors Public Accountants Chief Accountants Attorneys Buyers Proctrammers/Programmer Analysts Systems Analysts Job Analysts Directors of Personnel Chemi sts Engi neers Technical Support Engineering Technicians Drafters Computer Operators Photographers Cleri cal Accounting Clerks File Clarks Key Entry Operators Messengers Personnel Clerks/Assistants Purchasing Assistants Secretar ies Stenographers Typi sts Mining Cons truct ion Manu Publi c Wholesale facture ng uti l ti es3 trade i Retai1 trade Fi nance> insurance, Selected and real servi ces4 estate 110 109 (5) 121 120 108 114 “ (5) 111 123 97 (5) (5) 105 (5) 100 108 (5) “ 97 100 102 99 103 99 103 102 107 100 100 100 106 108 (5) 102 109 106 104 (5) (5) (5) 105 97 (5) (5) (5) 102 107 99 (5) (5) (5) 100 (5) (5) (5) (5) 93 98 (5) (5) - 126 (5) 111 (5) - 99 98 103 102 115 110 116 (5) (5) 98 ~ - _ - 100 (5) - 93 (5) 97 102 92 90 103 114 106 112 102 100 104 101 111 125 151 132 135 112 106 114 105 120 95 102 94 111 (5) (5) 97 96 93 (5) 91 91 90 86 84 105 88 92 °0 87 88 (5) 89 67 88 96 102 92 101 96 (5) 101 86 102 120 129 120 108 (5) (5) 112 (5) 94 (5) 99 96 - (5) 101 (5) 99 ' Each occupation includes the work levels shown in table 1. In computing relative salary levels for each occupation by industry division, the total employment in each work level in all industries surveyed was used as a constant employment weight to eliminate the effect of differences in the proportion of employment in various work levels within each occupation. 2 For the scope of the study, see table A-1 in appendix A. 3 Transportation (except U.S. Postal Service), communications, electric, pas, and sanitary services. 4 Limited to engineering, architectural, and surveying services; commercially operated research, development, and testing laboratories; credit reporting and 36 93 93 (5) 94 (5) 94 95 87 96 — - (5) (5) 100 (5) (5) 98 97 96 (5) (5) 89 97 collection agencies; computer and data processing services; management, consulting, and public relations services; noncommercial educational, scientific, and research organizations; and accounting, auditing and bookkeeping services. 5 Insufficient employment in 1 work level or more to warrant separate presen tation of data. Note: A dash indicates that no workers in the occupation were found in the industry. Table 9. Average weekly hours: Occupation by industry division (Average standard weekly hours' for employees in selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations,2 by industry division,3 United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1984) Occupat ion Professional and Administrative Accountants Audi tors Public Accountants Chief Accountants Attorneys Buyers Programmers/Programmer Analysts Systems Analysts Job Analysts Directors of Personnel Chemi sts Engi neers Technical Support Engineering Technicians Drafters Computer Operators Photographers Clerical Accounting Clerks File Clerks Key Entry Operators Messengers Personnel Clerks/Assistants Purchasing Assistants Secretari es Stenographers Typi sts Mining Cons truct ion 4 0 .0 40.0 39.5 (6 ) 39.5 39.0 39.5 40.0 39.5 40.0 40.0 (6 ) 4 0 .0 39.5 4 0 .0 39.5 (6 ) (6 ) 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 (6 ) 39.0 40.0 (6) ~ (6) 40.0 (6) ManuFubli c Wholesale facturi ng uti li ti es4 trade - ~ 40.0 40.0 40.0 39.5 39.0 40.0 39.5 39.5 39.5 39.5 39.5 40.0 40.0 C6 > 40.0 (6 ) 40.0 (6 ) - 40.0 40.0 39.5 40.0 40.0 39.5 39.5 (6 ) 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 (6 ) 39.5 40.0 40.0 C6 ) 40.0 39.5 39.5 39.5 39.0 39.5 39.5 39.5 40.0 40.0 39.5 40.0 39.5 39.5 39.5 39.0 39.5 39.5 39.5 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 (6) (6) (6) - (6) ~ - 39.5 (6) ' Based on the standard workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salary. If standard hours were not available, the standard hours applicable for a majority of the office work force in the establishment were us ed. The average for each job category was rounded to the nearest half hour. 2 Each occupation includes the work levels shown in table 1. 3 For the scope of the study, see table A-1 in appendix A. 4Transportation (except U.S. Postal Service), communications, electric, gas, and sanitary services. 5 Limited to engineering, architectural, and surveying services; commercially operated research, development, and testing laboratories; credit reporting and 37 (6) (6) (6) (6) (6) (6) (6) 39.5 40.0 39.5 39.5 (6) C6 ) 39.5 - 39.0 Retai1 trade (6 ) (6) (6) (6 ) - 39.5 39.5 (6) - (6 ) Finance, insurance > Selected and real serv ices 5 estate 38.0 39.0 (6) 38.0 (6 ) 38.0 38.0 38.5 38.5 - - (6) (6 ) 39.5 (6) (6 ) 39.5 39.5 40.0 (6 ) (6 ) 40.0 40.0 39.5 38.5 (6) 40.0 40.0 39.5 39.5 40.0 38.5 38.0 38.5 38.0 38.5 (6 ) 38.5 36.5 37.5 39.0 39.0 39.5 39.0 39.0 (6 ) 39.0 39.5 39.0 - (6) (6) 39.5 39.5 40.0 - 39.5 40.0 39 .5 - collection agencies; computer and data processing services; management, consulting, and public relations services; noncommercial educational, scien tific, and research organizations; and accounting, auditing and bookkeeping services. 8 Insufficient employment in 1 work level or more to warrant separate presen tation of data. N ote. A dash indicates that no workers in the occupation were found in the industry. Appendix A. Scope and Method of Survey removed; and for some, address, employment, type of industry, or other information was changed. Scope The survey relates to establishments1 in the United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, employing at least a specified minimum number of workers, and engaged in the following industries: Mining; construction; manufacturing; transportation, communications, elec tric, gas, and sanitary services (except the U.S. Postal Service and government agencies, such as the Tennessee Valley Authority); wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and selected services (table A-l). Establishments which employed fewer than the minimum number of employees specified for each in dustry division were excluded. Establishments which met the minimum size criteria during the reference period of the information used in compiling the survey universe were included even if they employed fewer than the specified minimum number of workers at the time of the survey. Establishments found to be outside of the in dustrial scope of the survey at the time of data collection were excluded. Table A-l shows the estimated number of establishments and employees within the scope of the survey (the universe) and the number within the sample actually studied for each major industry division. Separate estimates are presented for establishments employing 2,500 workers or more and for those located in Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas ( s m s a ’s) . 1 2 Similar estimates of the number of full-time white-collar employees are also provided. Survey design The design for a survey of this nature includes methods of classifying individual establishments into homogeneous groups or strata, determining the size of the sample for each stratum, and selecting the sample of establishments for each stratum.3 Establishments within the scope of the 1984 survey were stratified by industry group and by total employ ment. The sample size in a stratum was a function of the ex pected number of employees (based on previous surveys) in all professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in the stratum. That is, the larger the expected number of employees in all surveyed occupations, the larger the sample in the stratum. Also, an upward adjustment was made to the sample size in those strata expected to have specified occupations which had relatively high sampling errors in previous surveys. (See “ Reliability of estimates” section for a discussion of sampling errors.) Data co lle c tio n The list of establishments (the sampling frame) from which the sample was selected was developed by up dating the 1983 survey sampling frame using data from the most recently available (usually March 1982) unemployment insurance reports for the 48 contiguous States and the District of Columbia. During the update process, some establishments were added; some were Data for the survey were obtained primarily by per sonal visits of the Bureau’s field representatives to a na tionwide sample of establishments. Collection was scheduled from January through mid-May to reflect an average reference period of March 1984.4 Employees were classified by occupation and work level using job descriptions (appendix C) prepared joint ly by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Office of Personnel Management. Descriptions are designed to reflect duties and responsibilities of employees in private industry and to be translatable to specific General Schedule grades applying to Federal employees (appendix D). Thus, definitions of some occupations 1 For this survey, an establishment is an economic unit which pro duces goods or services, a central administrative office, or an aux iliary unit providing support services to a company. In manufacturing industries, the establishment is usually a single physical location. In nonmanufacturing industries, all locations o f an individual company within a Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area ( s m s a ) or within a nonmetropolitan county are usually considered an establishment. 2 Metropolitan data relate to all 276 s m s a ’ s within the 48 con tiguous States as defined by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget through June 1977. 3 In 1984, a random sample was selected systematically to maximize the probability of retaining establishments which were selected for the 1983 survey. This method was a modification of the method introduc ed by Nathan Keyfitz in 1951 in his paper titled “ Sampling with Pro babilities Proportional to Size: Adjusting for Changes in the Pro babilities,” Journal o f the American Statistical Association, No. 46, pp. 105-09. 4 The March payroll period has been used since the 1972 survey. The 1970 and 1971 surveys had a June reference period. Sampling frame 38 Factors which reflect the normal work schedules for the month were used to convert hourly rates to a mon thly basis. and work levels were limited to specific elements which could be classified uniformly among establishments. In comparing the actual duties and responsibilities of employees with those enumerated in job descriptions, the Bureau’s field representatives, with the assistance of company officals, made extensive use of company posi tion descriptions, organization charts, and other per sonnel records. Salaries reported for survey occupations were those paid to full-time employees for standard work schedules, i.e., the straight-time salary corresponding to the employee’s normal work schedule excluding over time hours. Nonproduction bonuses were excluded, but cost-of-living payments and incentive earnings were included. Employment. Occupational employment counts generated by the survey are estimates of the total for all establishments within the scope of the survey and are not limited to establishments actually studied. An oc cupational employment estimate was derived by multiplying the full-time employment in the occupation in each sample establishment by the establishment weight and then summing these results. Salary averages. The mean salary (average wage rate) for a specific occupational level was obtained by dividing total wages for that level by the corresponding total employment. Median and quartile values were derived from distributions of employees by salary using 10-cent-an-hour class intervals. All salary averages in the tables were rounded to the nearest dollar. For all an nual salary calculations, individual monthly salaries (to the nearest one-tenth cent) were multipled by 12 before performing the necessary data aggregation. Survey nonresponse In the March 1984 survey, salary data were not available from about 14 percent of the sample establishments (representing 3,124,000 employees in the total universe covered by the survey). An additional 3 percent of the sample establishments (representing 621,400 employees) were either out of business or out side the scope of the survey. If data were not provided by the sample member, the weights of responding sample establishments from the same stratum were increased to adjust for the missing data. No adjustment was made for establishments which were out of business or outside the scope of the survey. Some sampled companies had a policy of not disclos ing salary data for certain employees. No adjustments were made to salary estimates for the survey as a result of these missing data. In all but seven of the profes sional, administrative, technical, and clerical work levels published, the proportion of employees for whom salary data were not available was less than 5 percent.5 * Salary trends. Percent increases for each occupation in text table 1 were obtained by adding the aggregate mon thly salaries for each level in each of 2 successive years and dividing the later sum by the earlier sum. To eliminate the effects of year-to-year employment shifts in this computation, average salaries in each year were multipled by employment in the most recent year. Year-to-year percent increases for each group specified in text table 2 were determined by adding average monthly salaries for all occupational levels in the group for 2 consecutive years, and dividing the later sum by the earlier sum. The trends in text table 2 were obtained by linking changes for the individual periods. Changes in the scope of the survey and in occupa tional definitions were incorporated into the various trend series as soon as two consecutive periods with comparable data were available. Survey estimation methods Data conversion. Salary data were collected from com pany records in the most readily available form, i.e., weekly, biweekly, semimonthly, monthly, or annually. Before initial tabulations, all salary data were converted to a monthly basis. The factors used to convert the salary data are as follows: Payroll basis Limitations Survey occupations were limited to employees meeting the specific criteria in each job definition and were not intended to include all employees in each field of work.8 Employees whose salary data were not available, as well as those for whom there was no satisfactory basis for classification by work level, were not taken into account in the estimates. For these Conversion factor W eek ly............................................... Biweekly............................................. Sem im onthly..................................... M on th ly ............................................. Annually...................................................... 4.3333 2.1665 2.0000 1.0000 .0833 6 Engineers, for example, include employees engaged in engineering work within a band o f eight levels, starting with inexperienced engineering graduates and excluding only those within certain fields of specialization or in positions above those covered by level VIII. In contrast, occupations such as chief accountants and directors o f per sonnel include only those with responsibility for a specific program and with duties and responsibilities as indicated for each o f the more limited number o f work levels selected for study. 5 Those with 5 percent or more were: Chief accountants IV, 6 per cent; systems analysts V, 5 percent; directors o f personnel 1-5 percent, level II— percent, level III-11 percent, and level IV-14 percent; and 8 key entry operators I, 12 percent. 39 reasons, and because of differences in occupational structure among establishments, estimates of occupa tional employment obtained from the sample of establishments studied indicate only the relative impor tance of occupations and levels as defined for the survey. These qualifications of employment estimates should not materially affect the accuracy of the earnings data. Data on year-to-year changes in average salaries are subject to limitations which reflect the nature of the data collected. Changes in average salaries reflect not only general salary increases and merit or other in creases in the same work level category, but also other factors such as employee turnover, expansions or con tractions in the work force, and changes in staffing pat terns within establishments with different salary levels. For example, an expansion in force may increase the proportion of employees at the minimum salary of a rate range for a work level, which would tend to lower the average of a job; a reduction or a low turnover in the work force may have the opposite effect. Similarly, promotions of employees to higher work levels of pro fessional and administrative occupations may affect the average of each level. Established salary ranges for such occupations are relatively wide, and employees who may have been paid the maximum of the salary scale for the lower level are likely to be replaced by less experienc ed employees who may be paid the minimum. Occupa tions most likely to reflect such changes are the higher levels of professional and administrative occupations and single-incumbent positions such as chief accountant and director of personnel. survey vary among the occupational work levels depen ding on such factors as the frequency with which the job occurs, the dispersion of salaries for the job, and the survey design. For the 105 publishable work levels, estimated relative standard errors (RSE) for average salary estimates were distributed as follows: Relative standard error Nmnher of, occupational work levels Less than 1 p ercen t.......................... 1- 2 percent..................................... 2 - 3 percent...................................... 3 percent or m ore.............................. 46 49 9 ] The Bureau evaluates the reliability of its estimates based in part on the value of two relative standard er rors for an occupational level. For example, a 95-percent confidence interval8 for accountants I (survey estimate = $1,654 monthly) is from $1,612 to $1,696. Nonsampling errors can come from many sources, such as inability to obtain information from some establishments; definitional difficulties; inability to pro vide correct information by respondents; mistakes in recording or coding the data obtained; and other errors of collection, response, coverage, and estimation for missing data. Although not specifically measured, the survey’s nonsampling errors are expected to be minimal due to the high response rate and the extensive and continous training of field representatives, careful screening of data at several levels of review, annual maintenance and evaluation of the suitability of job definitions, and thorough field testing of new or revised job definitions. To measure and better control nonsampling errors that occur during data collection, a quality control pro cedure was added to the p a t c survey in 1983 and repeated in 1984.® The procedure, job match validation ( j m v ), was designed to identify the frequency, reasons for, and sources of incorrect decisions made by Bureau field representatives in matching company jobs to survey job categories. Once identified, the problems were discussed promptly with the field representatives while data were still being collected. Subsequently, the j m v results were tallied, reported to b l s staff, and will become the basis for remedial action at annual training conferences. Tabulations of the 1984 j m v process showed that about 10 percent of the nearly 1,845 job match decisions checked with respondents were subsequently changed by Reliability of estimates The statistics in the report are estimates derived from a sample survey. There are two types of errors possible in an estimate based on a sample survey—sampling and nonsampling. Sampling errors occur because observations come only from a sample, not the entire population. The par ticular sample used in this survey is one of a large number of all possible samples of the same size that could have been selected using the same sample design. Estimates derived from the different samples would dif fer from each other. A measure of the variation among these differing estimates is called the standard error or sampling error.7 It indicates the precision with which an estimate from a particular sample approximates the average result of all possible samples. The relative standard error ( r s e ) is the standard error divided by the value being estimated. The smaller the r s e , the greater the reliability of the estimate. Estimates of relative standard errors for the 1984 8 A 95-percent confidence interval means that, if all possible samples were selected and an estimate of the salary and its sampling error were computed for each, then for approximately 95 percent of the samples the interval from 2 standard errors below the estimate to 2 standard errors above the estimate would include the average salary of all possible samples. For accountants I, the 2 relative standard errors were 2.5 percent in 1984. 9 For a more detailed description of the process, see National Survey o f Professional, Administrative, Technical, and Clerical Pay, March 1983, Bulletin 2181 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1983), p. 35. 7 A replication technique with 15 random groups was used to obtain estimates of relative standard errors for the 1984 survey. 40 occupational work levels. Most of the remaining errors were matching one work level too high or too low within the appropriate occupation, e.g., accountant IV instead of accountant III. survey reviewers. Of those revised (177), just over twofifths were either original job matches that should have been excluded or company jobs excluded by the field representative that should have been matches for BLS 41 Table A-1. Number of establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied, by Industry division, United States, March 1984 Industry division1 Minimum employment in establishments within scope of survey Studied Within scope of survey Workers in establishments Workers in establishments Number of establishments Total Professional ‘and administrative Clerical and technical support Number of establishments Total Professional and administrative Clerical and technical support United States - 44,512 22,701,568 5,255,318 5,046,118 3,178 5,691,682 1,614,664 1,348,064 3100-250 19,538 11,483,550 2,543,161 1,598,955 1,440 3,108,823 889,979 480,522 250 250 738 749 383,730 360,060 102,771 71,875 59,469 43,187 73 57 80,509 87,929 30,064 25,343 18,984 15,670 4100-250 100 250 100 *50-1 00 4,328 5,151 3,972 7,027 3,009 2,689,937 1,048,632 3,294,314 2,585,861 855,484 581,139 316,154 353,986 847,114 439,118 637,764 305,659 703,771 1,428,225 269,088 323 234 233 474 344 967,475 81,832 553,367 597,584 214,163 241,231 29,185 81,364 201,541 115,957 259,693 29,923 140,218 337,332 65,722 All in d u s trie s ................................................ - 37,197 19,694,444 4,836,404 4,703,371 2,775 5,375,435 1,554,452 1,305,351 M a nufa cturing........................................................... 3 100-250 14,821 9,214,981 2,267,829 1,402,200 1,17b 2,878,106 849,444 453,747 250 250 402 621 220,873 285,223 72,607 65,042 44,113 35,613 44 44 54,431 63,038 21,893 22,414 14,262 12,772 4 100-250 100 250 100 *50-1 00 3,467 4,676 3,826 6,515 2,869 2,435,495 981,175 3,242,808 2,485,420 828,473 534,471 299,055 349,281 820,368 427,751 592,407 296,734 693,884 1,381,592 256,828 286 221 227 447 331 947,726 80,114 550,568 590,977 210,475 237,315 28,761 80,935 199,491 114,199 256,523 29,688 139,657 334,321 64,381 All industries1 3 24 ................................................ Manufacturing N onm anu factu ring: M in in g ............................................................... Construction Transportation, communications, electric, gas, and sanitary services Wholesale tra d e ................................................ Retail trade Finance, insurance, and real estate ............. Selected services5 M etropolitan areas7 Nonmanufacturing: M in in g ............................................................... Construction .................................................... Transportation, communications, e le c tric , gas, and sanitary services Wholesale tra d e ................................................ Retail trade Finance, insurance, and real estate ............. Selected services5 ............................................ Establishm ents em ploying 2,500 workers or more 1,056 All industries ................................................ M a nufa cturing........................................................... - 6,548,742 1,803,924 1,568,116 610 4,330,676 1,247,957 1,004,874 473 3,491,504 1,018,224 565,186 327 2,498,901 742,844 389,129 1 As defined in the 1972 e d itio n of the S t a n a a r d I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a n u a l , U.S. O ffice ot M anagem ent and Budget. 2 E stablishm ents w ith to ta l e m ploym e nt at or above the m inim um lim ita tio n indicated in the firs t colum n; exclud es A laska and H aw aii. 3 M inim um em ploym ent size w as 100 fo r c he m ical and a llie d products; petroleum re fining and related indu stries; m achinery, except e le c tric a l; e le c tric a l machinery, equipm ent, and supplies; tra n sp o rta tio n equipm ent; and in stru m e n ts and related products. M inim um size was 250 in all other m a nufa cturing industries. 4 M inim um em ploym ent size w as 100 fo r railroad tra nspo rtatio n; local and suburban tra n sit; deep sea foreign and dom estic tra n sp o rta tio n ; air tra n sp o rta tio n ; com m unications, electric, gas, and san itary services; ana pipe lines; ana 250 fo r all oth er tra n sp o rta tio n indu stries. U.S. Postal Service is excluded from the survey. ‘ Lim ite d to engineering, a rch ite ctu ra l, and surveying services; co m m ercia lly operated research, developm ent, and te stin g labo rato ries; cre d it re portin g and co lle c tio n agencies; com pute r and data processing services; m anagem ent, c o n su ltin g , and p u b lic re la tio n s services; noncom m ercial educa tio n a l, s c ie n tific , and research organiza tions; and a cco unting , au d itin g and bookkeeping services. 6 M inim um em ploym ent size was 50 fo r acco unting , au diting, ano bookkeeping services; and 100 fo r all other selected services. 7 S tandard M e trop olitan S ta tis tic a l Areas in the United S tates, except A laska and H aw aii, as revis ed through June 1977 by the U.S. O ffice o f M anagem ent and Budget. Appendix B. Survey Changes in 1984 A five-level series for nonsupervisory systems analysts and a separate four-level series for systems analyst supervisors/managers were added to the 1984 survey. (See appendix C.) For publication purposes, however, data from these series were combined into six levels (the first five publishable), as shown at the right. The definitions for two other occupations—computer operator and programmer/programmer analyst—were revised substantially to improve alignment with Federal personnel classification standards. 43 Level I I .............................. ............... I l l ............................ ............... I V ............................ ............... V ..................... VI ............................ Systems analyst Supervisory/ managerial Nonsupervisory I II Ill IV _ I II III IV Appendix C. Occupational Definitions The primary purpose of preparing job definitions for the Bureau’s wage surveys is to assist its field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations, or levels within occupations, workers who are employed under a variety of payroll titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This permits the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content. To secure comparability of job content, some occupations and work levels are defined to include only those workers meeting specific criteria as to training, job functions, and responsibilities. Because of this emphasis on in terestablishment and interarea comparability of occupa tional content, the Bureau’s occupational definitions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those prepared for other purposes. Accountants and Auditors ACCOUNTANT Advising operating officials on accounting matters; and Performs professional operating or cost accounting work requiring knowledge of the theory and practice of recording, classifying, examining, and analyzing the data and records of financial transactions. The work generally requires a bachelor’s degree in accounting or, in rare instances, equivalent experience and education combined. Positions covered by this definition are characterized by the inclusion of work that is analytical, creative, evaluative, and advisory in nature. The work draws upon and requires a thorough knowledge of the fundamental doctrines, theories, principles, and ter minology of accounting, and often entails some understanding of such related fields as business law, statistics, and general management. (See also chief ac countant.) Professional responsibilities in accountant positions above the entry and developmental levels include such duties as: Recommending improvements, adaptations, or revisions in the accounting system and procedures. Entry and developmental level positions provide op portunity to develop ability to perform professional duties such as those enumerated above. In addition, most accountants are also responsible for assuring the proper recording and documentation of transactions in the accounts. They, therefore, frequent ly direct nonprofessional personnel in the actual day-today maintenance of books of accounts, the accumula tion of cost or other comparable data, the preparation of standard reports and statements, and similar work. (Positions involving such supervisory work, but not in cluding professional duties as described above, are not included in this description.) Excluded are accountants whose principal or sole duties consist of designing or improving accounting systems or other nonoperating staff work, e.g., budget analysis, financial analysis, financial forecasting, tax advising, etc. (The criteria that follow for distinguishing among the several levels of work are inappropriate for such jobs.) Note, however, that professional accountant positions with responsibility for recording or reporting accounting data relative to taxes are included, as are other operating or cost accountants whose work in cludes, but is not limited to, improvement of the ac counting system. Some accountants use electronic data processing equipment to process, record, and report accounting data. In some such cases, the machine unit is a subor dinate segment of the accounting system; in others, it is Analyzing the effects of transactions upon account relationships; Evaluating alternative means of treating transactions; Planning the manner in which account structures should be developed or modified; Assuring the adequacy of the accounting system as the basis for reporting to management; Considering the need for new or changed controls; Projecting accounting data to show the effects of pro posed plans on capital investments, income, cash position, and overall financial condition; Interpreting the meaning of accounting records, reports, and statements; 44 counting techniques to simple problems. Is expected to be competent in the application of standard procedures and requirements to routine transactions, to raise ques tions about unusual or questionable items, and to sug gest solutions. (Terminal positions are excluded.) a separate entity or is attached to some other organiza tion. In either instance, provided that the primary responsibility of the position is professional accounting work of the type otherwise included, the use of data processing equipment of any type does not of itself ex clude a position from the accountant description nor does it change its level. Direction received. Work is reviewed closely to verify its general accuracy and coverage of unusual problems, to insure conformance with required procedures and special instructions, and to assure professional growth. Progress is evaluated in terms of ability to apply profes sional knowledge to basic accounting problems in the day-to-day operations of an established accounting system. Accountant I General characteristics. At this beginning professional level, the accountant learns to apply the principles, theories, and concepts of accounting to a specific system. The position is distinguishable from nonprofes sional positions by the variety of assignments; rate and scope of development expected; and the existence, im plicit or explicit, of a planned training program design ed to give the entering accountant practical experience. (Terminal positions are excluded.) Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs a variety of accounting tasks, e.g., prepares routine working papers, schedules, exhibits, and summaries indicating the extent of the examination and presenting and sup porting findings and recommendations. Examines a variety of accounting documents to verify accuracy of computations and to ascertain that all transactions are properly supported, are in accordance with pertinent policies and procedures, and are classified and recorded according to acceptable accounting standards. Direction received. Works under close supervision of an experienced accountant whose guidance is directed primarily to the development of the trainee’s profes sional ability and to the evaluation of advancement potential. Limits of assignments are clearly defined, methods of procedure are specified, and kinds of items to be noted and referred to supervisor are identified. Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Usually none, although sometimes responsible for supervision of a few clerks. Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs a variety of accounting tasks such as: Examining a variety of financial statements for completeness, internal ac curacy, and conformance with uniform accounting classifications or other specific accounting re quirements; reconciling reports and financial data with financial statements already on file, and pointing out apparent inconsistencies or errors; carrying out assigned steps in an accounting analysis, such as computing standard ratios; assembling and summarizing account ing literature on a given subject; preparing relatively simple financial statements not involving problems of analysis or presentation; and preparing charts, tables, and other exhibits to be used in reports. In addition, may also perform some nonprofessional tasks for train ing purposes. Accountant III General characteristics. The accountant at this level ap plies well-established accounting principles, theories, concepts, and practices to moderately difficult prob lems. Receives detailed instructions concerning the overall accounting system and its objectives, the policies and procedures under which it is operated, and the nature of changes in the system or its operation. Characteristically, the accounting system or assigned segment is stable and well established (i.e., the basic chart of accounts, classifications, the nature of the cost accounting system, the report requirements, and the procedures are changed infrequently). Depending upon the workload involved, the account ant may have such assignments as supervision of the day-to-day operation of: (a) The entire system of a relatively small establishment; or (b) a major segment (e.g., general accounting, cost accounting, or financial statements and reports) of a somewhat larger system; or (c) in a complex system, may be assigned to a relatively narrow and specialized segment dealing with some prob lem, function, or portion of work which is appropriate for this level. Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Usually none. Accountant II General characteristics. At this level, the accountant makes practical application of technical accounting practices and concepts beyond the mere application of detailed rules and instructions, as a phase in developing greater professional competence. Initial assignments are designed to expand practical experience and to develop professional judgment in the application of basic ac Direction received. A higher level professional account 45 segments; or (b) a major segment (e.g., general ac counting, cost accounting, or financial statements and reports) of an accounting system serving a larger and more complex establishment; or (c) in a complex system, may be assigned to a relatively narrow and specialized segment dealing with some problem, func tion, or portion of work which is itself of the level of difficulty characteristic of this level. ant normally is available to furnish advice and as sistance as needed. Work is reviewed for technical ac curacy, adequacy of professional judgment, and com pliance with instructions through spot checks, appraisal of results, subsequent processing, analysis of reports and statements, and other appropriate means. Typical duties and responsibilities. The primary re sponsibility of most positions at this level is to assure that the assigned day-to-day operations are carried out in accordance with established accounting principles, policies, and objectives. The accountant performs such professional work as: Developing nonstandard reports and statements (e.g., those containing cash forecasts reflecting the interrelations of accounting, cost budgeting, or comparable information); interpreting and pointing out trends or deviations from standards; projecting data into the future; predicting the effects of changes in operating programs; or identifying manage ment informational needs, and refining account struc tures or reports accordingly. Within the limits of delegated responsibility, makes day-to-day decisions concerning the accounting treat ment of financial transactions. Is expected to recom mend solutions to moderately difficult problems and propose changes in the accounting system for approval at higher levels. Such recommendations are derived from personal knowledge of the application of wellestablished principles and practices. Direction received. A higher level accountant normally is available to furnish advice and assistance as needed. Work is reviewed by spot checks and appraisal of results for adequacy of professional judgment, compliance with instructions, and overall accuracy and quality. Typical duties and responsibilities. As in level III, a primary characteristic of most positions at this level is the responsibility of operating an accounting system or major segment of a system in the intended manner. The accountant IV exercises professional judgment in making frequent, appropriate recommendations for: New accounts; revisions in the account structure; new types of ledgers; revisions in reporting system or sub sidiary records; and changes in instructions regarding the use of accounts, new or refined account classifica tions or definitions; etc. Also makes day-to-day deci sions concerning the accounting treatment of financial transactions and is expected to recommend solutions to complex problems beyond incumbent’s scope of respon sibility. Responsibility fo r direction o f others. In most in stances, is responsible for supervision of a subordinate nonprofessional staff; may coordinate the work of lower level professional accountants. Responsibility for direction o f others. Accounting staff supervised, if any, may include professional ac countants. Accountant IV Accountant V General characteristics. At this level, the accountant ap plies well-established accounting principles, theories, concepts, and practices to a wide variety of difficult problems. Receives instructions concerning the objec tives and operation of the overall accounting system. Compared with level III, the accounting system or assigned segment is more complex, i.e., (a) is relatively unstable, (b) must adjust to new or changing company operations, (c) is substantially larger, or (d) is com plicated by the need to provide and coordinate separate or specialized accounting treatment and reporting (e.g., cost accounting using standard cost, process cost, and job order techniques) for different operations or divi sions of company. Depending upon the workload and degree of coor dination involved, the accountant IV may have such assignments as the supervision of the day-to-day opera tion of: (a) The entire accounting system of an establishment having a few relatively stable accounting General characteristics. The accountant V applies ac counting principles, theories, concepts, and practices to the solution of problems for which no clear precedent exists or performs work which is of greater than average responsibility due to the nature or magnitude of the assigned work. Responsibilities at this level, in contrast to accountants at level IV, extend beyond accounting system maintenance to the solution of more complex technical and managerial problems. Work of account ants V is more directly concerned with what the ac counting system (or segment) should be, what operating policies and procedures should be established or revised, and what is the managerial as well as the accounting meaning of the data included in the reports and statements for which they are responsible. Typically, this level of work approaches chief accountant positions in terms of the nature of the concern for the accounting system and its operation, but not in terms of the breadth or scope of responsibility. 46 Examples of assignments characteristic of this level are supervision of the day-to-day operation of: (a) The entire accounting system of an establishment having a few relatively complex accounting segments; or (b) a major segment of a larger and more complex accounting system; or (c) the entire accounting system (or major segment) of a company that has a relatively stable and conventional accounting system when the work includes significant responsibility for accounting systems design and development; or (d) in a complex system, may be assigned to a relatively narrow and specialized segment dealing with some problem, function, or portion of work which is of a difficulty characteristic of this level. Direction received. An accountant of higher level nor mally is available to furnish advice and assistance as needed. Work is reviewed for adequacy of professional judgment, compliance with instructions, and overall quality. Typical duties and responsibilities. The accountant V performs such professional work as: Participating in the development and coordinating the implementation of new or revised accounting systems, and initiating necessary instructions and procedures; assuring accounting reporting systems and procedures are in compliance with established company policies, regula tions, and acceptable accounting practices; providing technical advice and services to operating managers, in terpreting accounting reports and statements, and iden tifying problem areas; and evaluating completed as signments for conformance with applicable policies, regulations, and tax laws. complex corporate accounting system, or (b) a major segment (e.g., general accounting, property accounting, etc.) of an unusually complex accounting system requir ing technical expertise in a particular accounting field (e.g., cost accounting, tax accounting, etc.). Direction received. A higher level professional account ant is normally available to furnish advice as needed. Work is reviewed for adequacy of professional judg ment, compliance with instructions and policies, and overall quality. Typical duties and responsibilities. Accountants at this level are delegated complete responsibility from higher authority to establish and implement new or revised ac counting policies and procedures. Typically, account ants VI participate in decisionmaking sessions with operating managers who have policymaking authority for their subordinate organizations or establishments; recommend management actions or alternatives which can be taken when accounting data disclose unfavorable trends, situations, or deviations; and assist management officials in applying financial data and information to the solution of administrative and operating problems. Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Accounting staff supervised generally includes professional account ants. x o t e : Excluded are accountants above level VI whose principal function is to direct, manage, or ad minister an accounting program in that they are p r im a r ily concerned with the administrative, budgetary, and policy matters of the program rather than the actual supervision of the d a y - to - d a y o p e r a tio n s of an account ing program. This type of work requires extensive managerial ability as well as superior professional com petence in order to cope with the technical accounting and management problems encountered. Typically, the level of work involves responsibility for more than one accounting activity (e.g., cost accounting, sales account ing, etc.) Responsibility for direction o f others. Accounting staff supervised generally includes professional accountants. Accountant VI G e n e r a l c h a r a c te ristic s. At this level, the accountant ap plies accounting principles, theories, concepts, and practices to specialized, unique, or nonrecurring com plex problems (e.g., implementation of specialized CHIEF ACCOUNTANT As the top technical expert in accounting, is responsi automated accounting systems). The work is substan tially more difficult and of greater responsibility than ble for directing the accounting program for a company level V because of the unusual nature, magnitude, im or for an establishment of a company. The minimum portance, or overall impact of the work on the account accounting program includes: (1) General accounting ing program. (assets, liabilities, income, expense, and capital ac At this level, the accounting system or segment is counts, including responsibility for profit and loss and usually complex, i.e., (a) is generally unstable, (b) must balance sheet statements); and (2) at least one other ma adjust to the frequent changing needs of company jor accounting activity, typically tax accounting, cost operations, or (c) is complicated by the need to provide accounting, property accounting, or sales accounting. It may also include such other activities as payroll and specialized or individualized reports. Examples of assignments at this level are the supervi timekeeping, and mechanical or electronic data process sion of the day-to-day operation of: (a) A large and ing operations which are an adjunct of the accounting 47 Providing special or interim reports and statements needed by the manager responsible for the d ay-to-day operations of the organization served. system. (Responsibility for an internal audit program is typically not included.) The responsibilities of the chief accountant include all of the following: 1. This degree of authority is typically found at a plant or similar subordinate establishment. On own responsibility, developing, adapting, or revising an accounting system to meet the needs of the organization; 2. Supervising, either directly or through subordinate supervisors, the operation of the system with full management responsibility for the quality and quan tity of work performed, training and development of subordinates, work scheduling and review, coordina tion with other parts of the organization served, etc.; 3. AR-2. The basic accounting system is prescribed in broad outline rather than in specific detail. While cer tain major financial reports, overall accounts, and general policies are required by the basic system, the chief accountant has broad latitude and authority to decide the specific methods, procedures, accounts, reports, etc., to be used within the organizational seg ment served. Approval must be secured from higher levels only for those changes which would basically af fect the broad requirements prescribed by such higher levels. Typical responsibilities include: Providing directly, or through an official such as a comptroller, advisory services to the top manage ment officials of the organization served as to: a. b. The status of financial resources and the finan cial trends or results of operations as revealed by accounting data, and selecting a manner of presentation that is meaningful to manage ment; Evaluating and taking final action on recommendations proposed by subordinate establishments for changes in aspects of the accounting system or activities not prescribed by higher authority; Methods for improving operations as sug gested by an expert knowledge of accounting, e.g., proposals for improving cost control, property management, credit and collection, tax reduction, or similar programs. Extending cost accounting operations to areas not previously covered; Instituting new cost accounting procedures; Expanding the utilization of computers within the ac counting process; and Excluded are positions with responsibility for the ac counting program if they also include (as a major part of the job) responsibility for budgeting; work measure ment; organization, methods, and procedures studies; or similar nonaccounting functions. (Positions of such breadth are sometimes titled comptroller, budget and accounting manager, financial manager, etc.) Some positions responsible for supervising general ac counting and one or more other major accounting ac tivities but which do not fully meet all of the respon sibilities of a chief accountant specified above may be covered by the descriptions for accountant. Chief accountant jobs which meet the characteristics described are classified by level of work according to (a) authority and responsibility, and (b) technical complexi ty, using table C-1. Preparing accounting reports and statements reflecting the events and progress of the entire organization for which incumbent is responsible, often consolidating data sub mitted by subordinate segments. This degree of authority is most typically found at in termediate organizational levels such as regional offices, or division or subsidiary headquarters. It is also found in some company-level situations where the authority of the chief accountant is less extensive than is described in AR-3. More rarely, it is found in plant-level chief ac countants who have been delegated more authority than usual for such positions as described in AR-1. AR-3. Has complete responsibility for establishing and maintaining the framework for the basic accounting system used in the company, subject only to general policy guidance and control from a higher level com pany official responsible for general financial manage ment. Typical responsibilities include: Authority and Responsibility AR-1. The accounting system (i.e., accounts, pro cedures, and reports to be used) has been prescribed in considerable detail by higher levels in the company or organization. The chief accountant has final, unreview ed authority, within the prescribed system, to expand it to fit the particular needs of the organization served, e.g., in the following or comparable ways: Determining the basic characteristics of the company’s accounting system and the specific accounts to be used; , Devising and preparing accounting reports and statements required to meet management’s needs for data: Establishing basic accounting policies, interpretations, and procedures; Reviewing and taking action on proposed revisions to the company’s accounting system suggested by subordinate units; and Taking final action on all technical accounting matters. Providing greater detail in accounts and reports or financial statements; Establishing additional accounting controls, accounts, subaccounts, and subsidiary records; and 48 Characteristically, participates extensively in broad company management processes by providing account ing advice, interpretations, or recommendations based on data accumulated in the accounting system and on professional judgment and experience. ducts, work processes, etc., which require substantial and frequent adaptations of the basic system to meet management needs (e.g., adoption of new accounts, subaccounts, and subsidiary records; revision of in structions for the use of accounts; improvement or ex pansion of methods for accumulating and reporting cost data in connection with new or changed work processes). Technical Complexity TC-1. The organization which the accounting program serves has relatively few functions, products, work processes, etc., and these tend to be stable and unchang ing. The accounting system operates in accordance with well-established principles and practices or those of equivalent difficulty which are typical of that industry. TC-3. The organization which the accounting program serves puts a heavy demand on the accounting organiza tion fo r specialized and extensive adaptations of the basic system to meet management needs. Such demands arise because the functions, products, work processes, etc., of the organization are very numerous, diverse, unique, or specialized, or there are other comparable complexities. Consequently, the accounting system, to a TC-2. The organization which the accounting program serves has a relatively large number of functions, pro Table C-1. Criteria for matching chief accountants by level — Level A u th o rity and re s p o n s ib ility 1 Technical c o m p le x ity 1 S u bo rdina te profession al acco u n tin g s ta ff 1 AR 1 TC-1 O n ly one o r tw o professional accountants w ho do n o t exceed the a cco unta nt I I I jo b d e fin itio n . II A R -l T C -2 A b o u t 5 to 10 profession al a cco unta nts, w ith at least one o r tw o m a tc h in g the acco unta nt IV jo b d e fin itio n . A R -2 TC-1 A b o u t 5 to 10 profession al accountants. M o st o f these m atch the acco unta nt I I I jo b d e fin itio n , bu t one o r tw o m ay m atch the acco u n ta n t IV jo b d e fin itio n . A R -3 TC-1 O n ly one o r tw o professional accountants w ho do n o t exceed the acco unta nt IV jo b d e fin itio n . A R -l T C -3 A b o u t 15 to 20 profession al accountants. A t least one o r tw o m atch the acco unta nt V jo b d e fin itio n . A R -2 T C -2 A b o u t 15 to 20 profession al acco unta nts. M a n y o f these m atch the acco unta nt IV jo b d e fin itio n , but some m ay m atch the acco unta nt V jo b d e fin itio n . A R -3 TC-1 A b o u t 5 to 10 profession al acco unta nts. M o st o f these m atch the acco unta nt ( I I jo b d e fin itio n , but one or tw o m ay m atch as high as acco unta nt V. A R -2 T C -3 A b o u t 25 to 40 profession al acco unta nts. M a n y o f these m atch the acco unta nt V jo b d e fin itio n , but several m ay exceed that level. A R -3 T C -2 A b o u t 15 to 20 profession al accountants. M o st o f these m atch the a cco unta nt IV jo b d e fin itio n , bu t several m ay m atch the acco unta nt V and one o r tw o m ay exceed that level. A R -3 TC -3 A b o u t 25 to 40 profession al acco unta nts. M a n y o f these m atch the acco u n ta n t V jo b d e fin itio n , bu t several m ay exceed tha t level. or or 111 or or IV or V A R - l, -2, -3, and T C -1 , -2, and -3 are explained in the text. 49 offices which do not have complete accounting systems. This does not preclude positions responsible for performing a segment of an audit (i.e., examining individual items on a balance sheet, rather than the entire balance sheet), as long as the work directly considerable degree, is developed well beyond establish ed principles and accounting practices in order to: Provide for the solution of problems for which no clear precedents exist; or Provide for the development or extension of accounting theories and practices to deal with problems to which these theories and practices have not previously been applied. relates to the financial audit program; and c. EDP auditors. These positions require an extensive knowledge of computer systems, programming, etc. Auditor I Subordinate Staff In table C-l, the number of professional accountants supervised is recognized to be a relatively crude criterion for distinguishing between various levels. It is to be considered less important in the matching process than the other criteria. In addition to the staff of professional accountants in the system for which the chief account ant is responsible, there are clerical, machine operation, bookkeeping, and related personnel. General characteristics. As a trainee auditor at the entering professional level, performs a variety of routine assignments. Typically, the trainee is rotated through a variety of tasks under a planned training pro gram designed to provide practical experience in apply ing the principles, theories, and concepts of accounting and auditing to specific situations. (Terminal positions are excluded.) Direction received. Works under close supervision of an experienced auditor whose guidance is directed primari ly to the development of the trainee’s professional abili ty and to the evaluation of advancement potential. Limits of assignments are clearly defined, methods of procedure are specified, and kinds of items to be noted and referred to supervisor are identified. AUDITOR Performs professional auditing work requiring a bachelor’s degree in accounting or, in rare instances, equivalent experience and education combined. Audits the financial records and practices of a company, or of divisions or components of the company, to appraise systematically and verify the accounting accuracy of records and reports and to assure the consistent applica tion of accepted accounting principles. Evaluates the adequacy of the accounting system and internal finan cial controls. Makes appropriate recommendations for improvement as necessary. To the extent determined necessary, examines the transactions entering into the balance sheet, and the transactions entering into in come, expense, and cost accounts. Determines: 1. The existence of recorded assets (including the obser vation of the taking of physical inventories) and the all-inclusiveness of recorded liabilities. Typical duties and responsibilities. Assists in making audits by performing such tasks as: Verifying the ac curacy of the balances in various records; examining a variety of types of documents and vouchers for ac curacy of computations; checking transactions to assure they are properly documented and have been recorded in accordance with correct accounting classifications; verifying the count of inventories; preparing detailed statements, schedules, and standard audit working papers; counting cash and other assets; and preparing simple reconciliations and similar functions. 2. The accuracy of financial statements or reports and the fairness of presentation of facts therein. Auditor II 3. The propriety or legality of transactions. General characteristics. At this level, the professional auditor serves as a junior member of an audit team, in dependently performing selected portions of the audit which are limited in scope and complexity, as a phase in developing greater professional competence. Auditors at this level typically have acquired knowledge of com pany operations, policies, and procedures. (Terminal positions are excluded.) 4. The degree of compliance with established policies and procedures concerning financial transactions. Excluded from this definition are: a. Auditors primarily examining or reporting on the financial management of company operations. These auditors evaluate such matters as: (1) The operation’s degree of compliance with the principles of sound financial management; and (2) the effectiveness of management and operating controls. Direction received. Detailed instructions are furnished and the work is reviewed to the extent necessary to verify its general accuracy and coverage of unusual problems, to insure conformance with required pro cedures and special instructions, and to assure the auditor’s professional growth. Any technical problems b. Auditors assigned to audit programs which are con fined on a relatively permanent basis to repetitive ex amination of a limited area of company operations and accounting processes, e.g., accounts payable and receivable; payroll; physical inventory; and branch 50 vestigated, and deciding the depth of the analyses re quired to support reported findings and conclusions. Examples of assignments involving work at this level: 1. As a team leader or working alone, independently conducts audits of the complete accounts and related operations of smaller or less complex companies (e.g., involving a centralized accounting system with few or no subordinate, subsidiary, or branch accounting records) or of comparable segments of larger companies. not covered by instructions are brought to the attention of a superior. Progress is evaluated in terms of ability to apply professional knowledge to basic auditing situa tions. Typical duties and responsibilities. Applies knowledge of accounting theory and audit practices to a variety of relatively simple professional problems in audit assignments, including such tasks as: The verification of reports against source accounts and records to deter mine their reliability; reconciliation of bank and other accounts and verifying the detail of recorded transac tions; detailed examinations of cash receipts and disbursement vouchers, payroll records, requisitions, work orders, receiving reports, and other accounting documents to ascertain that transactions are properly supported and are recorded correctly from an account 2. As a member of an audit team, independently ac complishes varied audit assignments of the above described characteristics, typically major segments of complete audits, or assignments otherwise limited in scope, of larger and more complex companies (e.g., complex in that the accounting system entails cost, inventory, and comparable specialized system s in tegrated with the general accounting system). Illustrative of such assignments are the audit and initial review of the accounting treatment and validity of reporting of overhead expenses in a large manufacturing or maintenance organization (e.g., major repair yard of a railroad); or the checking, verification, and balancing of all accounts receivable and accounts payable; or the analysis and verification of assets and reserves; or the inspection and evaluation of account controls and pro cedures. ing or regulatory standpoint; or preparation of working papers, schedules, and summaries. Auditor III General characteristics. Work at this level consists of the audit of operations and accounting processes that are relatively stable, well established, and typical of the industry. The audits primarily involve the collection and analysis of readily available findings; there is previous audit experience that is directly applicable; the audit reports are normally prepared in a prescribed format us ing a standard method of presentation; and few, if any, major problems are anticipated. The work performed requires the application of substantial knowledge of ac counting principles and practices, e.g., bases for distinguishing among capital maintenance and operating expenses; accruing reserves for taxes; and other accounting considerations of an equivalent nature. Auditor IV General characteristics. Auditors at this level are ex perienced professionals who apply thorough knowledge of accounting principles and theory in connection with a variety of audits. Work at this level is characterized by the audit of organizations and accounting processes which are complex and difficult because of such factors as: Presence of new or changed programs and account ing systems; existence of major specialized accounting functions (e.g., cost accounting, inventory accounting, sales accounting), in addition to general accounting; need to consider extensive and complicated regulatory requirements; lack of or difficulty in obtaining informa tion; and other similar factors. Typically, a variety of different assignments are encountered over a period of Direction received. Work is normally within an established audit program and supervision is provided by a higher level auditor who outlines and discusses assignments. Work is spot checked in progress. Com pleted assignments are reviewed for adequacy of coverage, soundness of judgment, compliance with pro fessional standards, and adherence to policies. time, e.g., 1 year. The audit reports prepared are com prehensive, explain irregularities, cite rules and regula tions violated, recommend remedial actions, and con tain analyses of items of special importance or interest to company management. Typical duties and responsibilities. The auditor ex amines transactions and verifies accounts; observes and evaluates accounting procedures and internal controls; and prepares audit working papers and submits an audit report in the required pattern containing recommenda Direction received. Within an established audit pro gram, has responsibility for independently planning and executing audits. Unusually difficult problems are discussed with the supervisor who also reviews com pleted assignments for adherence to principles and standards and the soundness of conclusions. tions for needed changes or improvements. Usually is responsible for selecting the detailed audit methods to follow, choosing the audit sample and its size, determin ing the extent to which discrepancies need to be in 51 Typical duties and responsibilities. Auditors at this level have full responsibility for planning the audit, including determination of the aspects to emphasize, methods to be used, development of nonstandard or specialized audit aids, such as questionnaires, etc., where previous audit experience and plans are o f limited applicability. Included in the scope of work that characterizes this level are such functions as: Evaluation of methods used for determining depreciation rates of equipment; evaluation of assets where original costs are unknown; evaluation of the reliability of accounting and reporting systems; analysis of cost accounting systems and cost reports to evaluate the basis for cost and price setting; evaluation of accounting procurement and supply management records, controls, and procedures; and many others. Examples of assignments involving work at this level: system(s) as needed to render the accounting firm’s final written opinion. Excluded are positions which do not require full pro fessional accounting training. Also excluded are specialist positions in tax or management advisory services. Public Accountant I General characteristics. As an entry level public accountant, serves as a junior member of an audit team. Receives classroom and on-the-job training to provide practical experience in applying the principles, theories, and concepts of accounting and auditing to specific situations. (Positions held by trainee public accountants with advanced degrees, such as MBA’s, are excluded at this level.) 1. As a team leader or working alone, independently plans and conducts audits of the complete accounts and related operations of relatively large complex companies (e.g., complex in that the accounting system entails cost, inventory, and comparable specialized accounting system s integrated with the general accounting system) or of company branch, subsidiary, or affiliated organizations which are in dividually of comparable size and complexity. Direction received. Complete instructions are furnished and work is reviewed to verify its accuracy, conform ance with required procedures and instructions, and usefulness in facilitating the accountant’s professional growth. Any technical problems not covered by instruc tions are brought to the attention of a superior. Typical duties and responsibilities. Carries out basic audit tests and procedures, such as: Verifying reports against source accounts and records; reconciling bank and other accounts; and examining cash receipts and disbursements, payroll records, requisitions, receiving reports, and other accounting documents in detail to ascertain that transactions are properly supported and recorded. Prepares selected portions of audit working papers. 2. As a member of an audit team, independently plans and accomplishes audit assignments that constitute major segments of audits of very large and complex organizations, for example, those with financial responsibilities so great as to involve specialized subordinate, subsidiary, or affiliate accounting systems that are complete in themselves. NOTE: Excluded from level IV are auditors who, as team leaders or working alone, conduct complete audits of very large and complex organizations, for example, those with financial responsibilities so great as to in volve specialized subordinate, subsidiary, or affiliate ac counting systems that are complete in themselves; or are team members assigned to major segments of audits of even larger or more complex organizations. Also ex cluded are positions primarily responsible for oversee ing multiple concurrent audits. Public Accountant II General characteristics. At this level, the public ac countant carries out routine audit functions and detail work with relative independence. Serves as a member of an audit team on assignments planned to provide ex posure to a variety of client organizations and audit situations. Specific assignments depend upon the dif ficulty and complexity of the audit and whether the client has been previously audited by the firm. On moderately complex audits where there is previous audit experience by the firm, accomplishes complete segments of the audit (i.e., functional work areas such as cash, receivables, etc.). When assigned to more complicated audits, carries out activities similar to public accountant PUBLIC ACCOUNTANT Performs professional auditing work in a public ac counting firm. Work requires at least a bachelor’s degree in accounting. Participates in or conducts audits to ascertain the fairness of financial representations made by client companies. May also assist the client in improving accounting procedures and operations. Examines financial reports, accounting records, and related documents and practices of clients. Determines whether all important matters have been disclosed and whether procedures are consistent and conform to ac ceptable practices. Samples and tests transactions, inter nal controls, and other elements of the accounting I. Direction received. Works under the supervision of a higher level public accountant who provides instructions and continuing direction as necessary. Work is spot checked in progress and reviewed upon completion to 52 determine the adequacy of procedures, soundness of judgment, compliance with professional standards, and adherence to clearly established methods and techni ques. All interpretations are subject to close profes sional review. team members, and personally performing the most dif ficult work. Carries out field work in accordance with the general format prescribed in the audit program, but selects specific methods and types and sizes of samples and tests. Assigns work to team members, furnishes guidance, and adjusts workloads to accommodate daily priorities. Thoroughly reviews work performed for technical accuracy and adequacy. Resolves anticipated problems within established guidelines and priorities but refers problems of unusual difficulty to superiors for discussion and advice. Drafts financial statements, final reports, management letters, and other closing memoranda. Discusses significant recommendations with superiors and may serve as technical resource at “ closing” meetings with clients. Personal contacts are usually with chief accountants and assistant controllers of medium-size companies and divisions of large cor porations to explain and interpret policies and pro cedures governing the audit process. Typical duties and responsibilities. Carries out a variety of sampling and testing procedures in accordance with the prescribed audit program, including the examina tion of transactions and verification of accounts, the analysis and evaluation of accounting practices and in ternal controls, and other detail work. Prepares a share of the audit working papers and participates in drafting reports. In moderately complex audits, may assist in selecting appropriate tests, samples, and methods com monly applied by the firm and may serve as primary assistant to the accountant in charge. In more com plicated audits, concentrates on detail work. Occa sionally, may be in charge of small, uncomplicated audits which require only one or two other subordinate accountants. Personal contacts usually involve only the exchange of factual technical information and are usually limited to the client’s operating accounting staff and department heads. Public Accountant IV General characteristics. At this level, the public ac countant directs field work including difficult audits—e.g., those involving initial audits of new clients, acquisitions, or stock registrations—and may oversee a large audit team split between several loca tions. The audit team usually includes one or more level III public accountants who handle major components of the audit. The audits are complex and clients typical ly include those engaged in projects which span account ing periods; highly regulated industries which have various external reporting requirements; publicly held corporations; or businesses with very high dollar or transaction volume. Clients are frequently large with a variety of operations which may have different account ing systems. Guidelines may be general or lacking and audit programs are intricate, often requiring extensive tailoring to meet atypical or novel situations. Public Accountant III General characteristics. At this level, the public ac countant is in charge of a complete audit and may lead a team of several subordinates. Audits are usually ac complished one at a time and are typically carried out at a single location. The firms audited are typically moderately complex, and there is usually previous audit experience by the firm. The audit conforms to standard procedural guidelines, but is often tailored to fit the client’s business activities. Routine procedures and techniques are sometimes inadequate and require adap tation. Necessary data are not always readily available. When assigned to more difficult and complex audits (see level IV), the accountant may run the audit of a major component or serve as the primary assistant to the ac countant in charge. Direction received. Works under general supervision. The supervisor sets0jpverall objectives and resource limits but relies on the accountant to fully plan and direct all technical phases of the audit. Issues not covered by guidelines or known precedents are discussed with the supervisor, but the accountant’s recommended approaches and courses of action are normally approv ed. Work is reviewed for soundness of approach, com pleteness, and conformance with established policies of the firm. Direction received. Works under the general supervision of a higher level public accountant who oversees the operation of the audit. Work is performed independent ly, applying generally accepted accounting principles and auditing standards, but assistance on difficult technical matters is available. Work may be checked oc casionally during progress for appropriateness and adherence to time requirements, but routine analyses, methods, techniques, and procedures applied at the worksite are expected to be correct. Typical duties and responsibilities. Is responsible for carrying out the operational and technical features of the audit, directing the work of team members, and per sonally performing the most difficult work. Often par ticipates in the development of the audit scope, and Typical duties and responsibilities. Is responsible for carrying out the technical features of the audit, leading 53 coordinating and advising on work efforts and resolving operating problems. n o t e : Excluded from this level are public account ants who direct field work associated with the complete range of audits undertaken by the firm, lead the largest and most difficult audits, and who frequently oversee teams performing concurrent audits. This type of work requires extensive knowledge of one or more industries to make subjective determinations on questions of tax, law, accounting, and business practices. Audits may be complicated by such factors as: The size and diversity of the client organizations (e.g., multinational corpora tions and conglomerates with a large number of separate and distinct subsidiaries); accounting issues where precedents are lacking or in conflict; and, in some cases, clients who are encountering substantial financial difficulties. They perform most work without technical supervision, and completed audits are reviewed mainly for propriety of recommendations and conformance with general policies of the firm. Also excluded are public accountants whose principal function is to manage, rather than perform accounting work, and the equity owners of the firm who have final approval authority. drafts complicated audit programs with a large number of concurrently executed phases. Independently develops audit steps and detailed procedures, deviating from traditional methods to the extent required. Makes program adjustments as necessary once an audit has begun; and selects specific methods, types, and sizes of samples, the extent to which discrepancies need to be in vestigated, and the depth of required analyses. Resolves most operational difficulties and unanticipated prob lems. Assigns work to team members; reviews work for ap propriateness, conformance to time requirements, and adherence to generally accepted accounting principles and auditing standards. Consolidates working papers, draft reports, and findings; and prepares financial statements, management letters, and other closing memoranda for management approval. Participates in “ closing” meetings as a technical resource and may be called upon to sell or defend controversial and critical observations and recommendations. Personal contacts are extensive and typically include top executives of smaller clients and mid- to upper-level financial and management officers of large corporations, e.g., assis tant controllers or controllers. Such contacts involve Personnel JOB ANALYST Job Analyst I Performs work involved in collecting, analyzing, and developing occupational data relative to jobs, job qualifications, and worker characteristics as a basis for compensating employees in a fair, equitable, and uniform manner. Performs such duties as studying and analyzing jobs and preparing descriptions of duties and responsibilities and of the physical and mental re quirements needed by workers; evaluating jobs and determining appropriate wage or salary levels in accord ance with their difficulty and responsibility; in dependently conducting or participating with represent atives of other companies in conducting compensation surveys within a locality or labor market area; assisting in administering merit rating programs; reviewing changes in wages and salaries indicated by surveys and recommending changes in pay scales; and auditing in dividual jobs to check the propriety of evaluations and to apply current job classifications. Excluded are: a. Positions also responsible for supplying management with a high technical level of advice regarding solu tion of broad personnel management problems; b. Positions not requiring: (1) Three years of ad ministrative, technical, or substantive clerical ex perience; (2) a bachelor’s degree in any field; or (3) any equivalent combination of experience and educa tion yielding basic skills in problem analysis and com munication. As a trainee, performs work in designated areas and of limited occupational scope. Receives immediate supervision in assignments designed to provide training in the application of established methods and techni ques of job analysis. Studies the least difficult jobs and prepares reports for review by a job analyst of higher level. 54 Job Analyst II Studies, describes, and evaluates jobs in accordance with established procedures. Is usually assigned to the simpler kinds of both wage and salaried jobs in the establishm ent. Works independently on such assignments but is limited by defined areas of assign ment and instructions of superior. Job Analyst III Analyzes and evaluates a variety of wage and salaried jobs in accordance with established evaluation systems and procedures. May conduct wage surveys within the locality or participate in conducting surveys of broad compensation areas. May assist in developing survey methods and plans. Receives general supervision but responsibility for final action is limited. Job Analyst IV Analyzes and evaluates a variety of jobs in accord necessarily cover all jobs in the organization, but does cover a substantial portion of the organization. ance with established evaluation systems and pro cedures, and is given assignments which regularly in clude responsibility for the more difficult kinds of jobs. 2. E m p lo y m e n t a n d p la c em en t fu n c tio n : i.e., recruiting actively for at least some kinds of workers through a variety of sources (e.g., schools or colleges, employ ment agencies, professional societies, etc.); evaluating applicants against demands of particular jobs by use of such techniques as job analysis to determine requirements, interviews, written tests of aptitude, knowledge, or skill, reference checks, ex perience evaluations, etc.; recommending selections and job placements to management, etc. 3. E m p lo yee relations a n d services fu n c tio n : i.e., func tions designed to maintain employees’ morale and productivity at a high level (e.g., administering a (“ More difficult” means jobs which consist ol hard to understand work processes; e.g., professional, scien tific, administrative, or technical; o r jobs in new or emerging occupational fields: o r jobs which are being established as part of the creation of new organizations; o r where other special considerations of these types ap ply.) Receives general supervision, but responsibility for final action is limited. Mav participate in the develop ment and installation of evaluation or compensation systems, which may include those for merit rating pro grams. May plan survey methods and conduct or direct wage surveys within a broad compensation area. formal or informal grievance procedure; identifying and recommending solutions for personnel problems such as absenteeism, high turnover, low productivity, etc.; administration of beneficial suggestions system, retirement, pension, or insurance plans, merit rating system, etc.; overseeing cafeteria operations, recrea tional programs, industrial health and safety pro grams, etc.). DIRECTOR OF PERSONNEL Directs a personnel management program for a com pany or a segment of a company. Serves top manage ment officials of the organization as the source of ad vice and assistance on personnel management matters and problems generally; is typically consulted on the personnel implications of planned changes in manage ment policy or program, the effects on the organization of economic or market trends, product or production method changes, etc.; and represents management in contacts with other companies, trade associations, government agencies, etc., dealing primarily with per sonnel management matters. Typically, the director of personnel for a company reports to a company officer in charge of industrial rela tions and personnel management activities or an officer of similar level. Below the company level, the director of personnel typically reports to a company officer or a high management offical who has responsibility for the operation of a plant, establishment, or other segment of the company. For a job to be covered by this definition, the person nel management program m u s t in c lu d e responsibility for a ll th r e e of the following functions:1 1 . In addition, positions covered by this definition may, but do not necessarily, include responsibilities in the following areas; a. b. L a b o r relations activities which are confined mainly to the administration, interpretation, and application of those aspects of labor union contracts that are essentially of the type described under (3) above. May also par ticipate in bargaining of a subordinate nature, e.g., to negotiate detailed settlement of such matters as specific rates, job classifications, work rules, hiring or layoff procedures, etc., within the broad terms of a general agreement reached at higher levels, or to supply advice and information on technical points to the company’s principal representative; c. E q u a l E m p lo y m e n t O p p o rtu n ity (EEO ); d. a j o b evaluation system : i.e., a system in which there are established procedures by which jobs are analyzed and evaluated on the basis of their duties, responsibilities, and qualification re quirements in order to provide a foundation for equitable compensation. Typically, such a system in cludes the use of one or more sets of job evaluation factors and the preparation of formal job descrip tions. It m a y also include such related functions as wage and salary surveys or merit rating system ad ministration. The job evaluation system(s) does not E m p lo ye e training a n d d evelo p m en t; R ep o rtin g under the H ealth A c t ( O S H A ) O ccupational S a fe ty and A d m in isterin g E x c lu d e d are positions in which responsibility for ac tual contract negotiation with labor unions as the prin cipal company representative is a significant aspect of the job, i.e., a responsibility which serves as a primary basis for qualification requirements and compensation. Director of personnel jobs which meet the above definition are classified by level of work in accordance with the criteria shown in table C-2. Attorneys ATTORNEY privileges, and obligations of the company. The work performed requires completion of law school with an 11 B degree (or the equivalent) and admission to the . Performs consultation and advisory work and carries out the legal processes necessary to effect the rights, 55 Table C-2. Criteria for matching directors of personnel by level "Development level" personnel program2 ' Operations level" personnel program’ Number of employees m work force serviced 250-750 1,000-5,000 6,000-12,000 15.000-25.000 _____ ,Tvoe A c-qai-'Z.V'O'-' 'p -.c -'-d ’ i' !! iv il III IV V J " Type B" organization serviced4 1 1 | 1 ’ " Operations level" personnel program---quecicv of personnel servicing an organizational segment (e g . 2 plant) o' a company where the basic per sonnel program policies, plans objectives etc am established at company headquarters or at some other higher ievei between the piant and the com pany headquarters level The personnel director's responsibility is to put these into operation at the loca ievei. in such a ">anner as to most effectively serve the local management needs 7"Development level" personnel proq'am - - e.mei (a) Director of personnel servicing an entire company 'with or without subordinate establishments) where the personnel director plays an im portant role in establishment of basic personnel policies plans, objectives, etc., for the company subject to policy direction and control from cgmpanv officers or (b) director of personnel servicing an intermediate organization below the company leve . e g a division or a subsidiary to which a relatively complete delegation of personnel program planning and development responsibility is made In this situation, only basic policy direction is given by the parent company ana iocai officers The director of personnel has essentially the same degree of latitude and responsibility for basic personnel polices pans ob'em ves efc as described above in (a) 5 '.‘Type A " organization serviced most ;obs serviced do not present par ticularly difficult or unusual recruitment job evaluation, or training problems 250-750 1,000-5,000 6.000-12.000 15,000-25,000 _________ “ Type A" orgamzatipn serviced3 "Type B" prgamzation serviced4 II III IV V III IV V because the jobs consist of relatively easy-to-understand work processes, and an adequate labor supply is available These conditions are most likely to be found in organizations in which the work force and organizational struc ture are relatively stable 4 "Type B" organization serviced— a substantial proportion of the jobs pre sent difficult recruitment, job evaluation, or training problems because the jobs Consist ot hard-to-understand work processes (e g . professional, scien tific, administrative, or technical); have hard-to-match skill requirements, are in new or emerging occupations, or are extremely hard to fill These condi tions are most likely to be found in organizations in which the work force, organizational structure, work processes or functions, etc , are com plicated or unstable Note There are gaps between different degrees of all three elements used to determine job level matches. These gaps have been provided pur posely to allow room for judgment in getting the best overall job level match for each job Thus, a job which services a work force of 850 employees should be matched with level II if it is a personnel program operations level job where the nature of the organization serviced seems to fall slightly below the definition for type B However, the same job should be matched with level I if the nature of the organization serviced clearly fa lls well w ith in the d e fin itio n for type A ulation of policy for the company in addition to directing its legal work. (The duties and responsibilities of such positions exceed level VI as described below.) bar. Responsibilities or functions include one or more o f the following or comparable duties: Preparing and reviewing various legal instruments and documents, such as contracts, leases, licenses, purchases, sales, real estate, etc.; Attorney j o b s which meet the above definition are to be classified in accordance with table C-3 and the defini tions which follow. Acting as agent of the company in its transactions; Examining material (e.g., advertisements, publications, etc.) for legal implications; advising officials of proposed legislation which might affect the company; Difficulty D - l . Legal questions are characterized by: Facts that are well established; clearly applicable legal precedent; a n d matters not of substantial importance to the organization. (Usually relatively limited sums of money, e.g., a few thousand dollars, are involved.) Applying for patents, copyrights, or registration of company’s products, processes, devices, and trade marks; Advising whether to initiate or defend lawsuits; Conducting pretrial preparations; defending the comp any in lawsuits; and E xa m p les o f D -l W ork: Legal investigation, negotiation, and research pre paratory to defending the organization in potential or actual lawsuits involving alleged negligence where the facts can be firmly established and there are precedent cases directly applicable to the situation. Advising officials on tax matters, government regula tions, and/or corporate rights. E x c lu d e d Number of employees in work force serviced from this definition are: Patent work which requires professional training in ad dition to legal training (typically a degree in engineering or in a science); Searching case reports, legal documents, periodicals, text books, and other legal references, and preparing draft opinions on employee compensation or benefit questions when there is a substantial amount of clearly applicable statutory, regulatory, and case material. Claims examining, claims investigating, or similar w ork f o r which p ro fe ssio n a l legal training a n d bar m em bership is n o t essential; Drawing up contracts and other legal documents in con nection with real property transactions requiring the development of detailed information but n o t involving serious questions regarding titles to property or other ma jor factual or legal issues. Attorneys, frequently titled “general counsel’’ (and their immediate full associates or deputies), who serve as company officers or the equivalent and are responsible for participating in the overall management and form 56 Table C-3. Criteria for matching attorneys by level Difficulty o f legal work1 Level I Responsibility of job1 This is the entry level. The duties and re sponsibilities after initial orientation and training are those described in D -l and R -l. D-l R-2 D-2 R-2 D-3 D-2 R-3 D-3 Sufficient professional experience (at least 1 level to assure competence as an attorney. D-l R-l R-2 or III Completion o f law school with an LL.B. or J.D. degree plus admission to the bar. R-l D-2 II Experience required A t least 1 year, year, usu ally m ore) at th e u s u a l l y m o r e , o f p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e a t t h e D - 2 le ve l. or IV E x t e n s i v e p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e a t t h e D - 2 o r h i g h e r l e v e l. or V VI D-3 R-3 E x t e n s i v e p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e a t t h e D - 3 le v e l. D-3 R-4 E x t e n s i v e p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e a t t h e D - 3 a n d R - 3 le v e ls . 1 D -l, -2, -3, and R -l, -2, -3, and -4 are explained in the text. area; and the legal matter is of critical importance to the organization and is being vigorously pressed or con tested (e.g., sums such as $1 million or more are general ly directly or indirectly involved). D-2. Legal work is regularly difficult by reason of one or more of the following: The absence of clear and directly applicable legal precedents; the different possi ble interpretations that can be placed on the facts, the laws, or the precedents involved; the substantial impor tance of the legal matters to the organization (e.g., sums as large as $100,000 are generally directly or indirectly involved); and the matter is being strongly pressed or contested in formal proceedings or in negotiations by the individuals, corporations, or government agencies involved. Examples of D-3 work: Advising on the legal aspects and implications of Federal antitrust laws to projected greatly expanded marketing operations involving joint ventures with several other organizations. Planning legal strategy and representing a utility company in rate or government franchise cases involving a geographic area including parts or all of several States. Examples of D-2 work: Advising on the legal implications of advertising re presentations when the facts supporting the representa tions and the applicable precedent cases are subject to dif ferent interpretations. Preparing and presenting a case before an appellate court where the case is highly important to the future operation of the organization and is vigorously contested by very distinguished (e.g., having a broad regional or national reputation) legal talent. Reviewing and advising on the implications of new or revised laws affecting the organization. Serving as the principal counsel to the officers and staff of an insurance company on the legal problems in the sale, underwriting, and administration of group contracts in volving nationwide or multistate coverages and laws. Presenting the organization’s defense in court in a negligence lawsuit which is strongly pressed by counsel for an organized group. Performing the principal legal work in a nonroutine, Providing legal counsel on tax questions complicated by the absence of precedent decisions that are directly ap plicable to the organization’s situation. major revision of the company’s charter or in effectuating new major financing steps. D-3. Legal work is typically complex and difficult because of one or more of the following: The questions are unique and require a high order of original and creative legal endeavor for their solution; the questions require extensive research and analysis and the obtain ing and evaluation of expert testimony regarding con troversial issues in a scientific, financial, corporate organization, engineering, or other highly technical Responsibility R-1. Responsibility for final action is usually limited to matters covered by legal precedents and in which little deviation from standard practice is involved. Any deci sions or actions having a significant bearing on the organization’s business are reviewed. Is given guidance 57 in the initial stages of assignment, e.g., in planning and organizing legal research and studies. Assignments are then carried out with moderate independence although minimum o f technical legal supervision. May assign and review work o f a few attorneys, but this is not a primary responsibility. guidance is generally available and is sought from time to time on problem points. R-4. Carries out assignments which entail independently planning investigations and negotiations on legal prob lems o f the highest importance to the organization and developing completed briefs, opinions, contracts, or other legal products. To carry out assignments, represents the organization at conferences, hearings, or trials and personally confers and negotiates with top at torneys and top-ranking officials in private companies or in government agencies. On various aspects o f assign R-2. Usually works independently in investigating the facts, searching legal precedents, defining the legal and factual issues, drafting the necessary legal documents, and developing conclusions and recommendations. Decisions having an important bearing on the organiza tions’s business are reviewed. Receives information from supervisor regarding unusual circumstances or im portant policy considerations pertaining to a legal prob lem. If trials are involved, may receive guidance from a supervisor regarding presentation, line of approach, possible line of opposition to be encountered, etc. In the case of nonroutine written presentations, the final product is reviewed carefully, but primarily for overall soundness of legal reasoning and consistency with organization policy. Some, but not all, attorneys make assignments to one or more lower level attorneys, aides, or clerks. ed work, may give advice directly and personally to cor poration officers and top-level managers, or may work through the general counsel of the company in advising officers. Generally receives no preliminary instruction on legal problems. On matters requiring the concen trated efforts of several attorneys or other specialists, is responsible for directing, coordinating, and reviewing the work of the attorneys involved. OR R-3. Carries out assignments independently and makes final legal determinations in matters of substantial im As a primary responsibility, directs the work o f a staff of attorneys, one, but usually more, o f whom regularly performs D-3 legal work. With respect to the work directed, gives advice directly to corporation o f portance to the organization. Such determinations are subject to review only for consistency with company policy, possible precedent effect, and overall effec tiveness. To carry out assignments, deals regularly with ficers and top managerial officers, or may give such ad vice through the general counsel. Receives guidance as company officers and top-level management officials to organization policy but no technical supervision or assistance except when requesting advice from, or brief ing by, the general counsel on the overall approach to the most difficult, novel, or important legal questions. Usually reports to the general counsel or deputy. and confers or negotiates regularly with senior attorneys and officials in other companies or in government agen cies on various aspects of assigned work. Receives little or no preliminary instruction on legal problems and a Computer Programmers/Programmer Analysts grams to increase operating efficiency or to respond to changes in work processes; maintains records to docu ment program development and revisions. At levels I, II, and III, some computer programm ers (typically called computer programmer analysts) may also perform some analysis such as: Gathering facts from users to define their business or scientific problems and to investigate the feasibility of solving problems through new or modified computer pro grams; developing specifications for data inputs, flow, actions, decisions, and outputs; and participating on a continuing basis in the overall program planning along with other EDP personnel and users. In contrast, at levels IV and V, some analysis must be performed as part of the programming assignment. The analysis duties are identified in a separate paragraph This definition includes both programmers and pro grammer analysts. Performs programming services for establishments or for outside organizations who may contract for services. Converts specifications (precise descriptions) about business or scientific problems into a sequence of detail ed instructions to solve problems by electronic data processing ( e d p ) equipment, i.e., digital computers. Draws program flow charts to describe the processing of data and develops the precise steps and processing logic which, when entered into the computer in coded language ( c o b o l , f o r t r a n , or other programming language), cause the manipulation of data to achieve desired results. Tests and corrects programs and prepares instructions for operators who control the computer during production runs. Modifies pro 58 programming assignments (as described in level II) under close supervision. In addition, as training and to assist a higher level analyst, computer programmer analysts m a y p e r fo r m elementary factfinding concerning a specified work process, e.g., a file of clerical records which is treated as a unit (invoices, requisitions, or purchase orders, etc.); reports findings to higher level analyst. Receives classroom and/or on-the-job training in computer programming concepts, methods, and tech niques and in the basic requirements of the subjectmatter area. May receive training in elementary fact finding. Detailed, step-by-step instructions are given for each task and any deviation must be authorized by a supervisor. Work is closely monitored in progress and reviewed in detail upon completion. at levels I, II, III, and IV and are part of each alter native described at level V. However, the overall systems requirements are defined by systems analysts or scientists. E x c lu d e d are: a. Positions which require a bachelor’s degree in a specific scientific field (other than computer science), such as an engineering, mathematics, physics, or chemistry degree; however, positions are potential matches where the required degree may be from any of several possible scientific fields; b. Computer systems analysts responsible for develop ing and modifying computer systems; c. Computer programmers who perform level IV or V programming duties but who perform no analysis', d. Workers who primarily analyze and evaluate prob lems concerning computer equipment or its selection or utilization; e. Computer Programmer/Programmer Analyst II At this level, initial assignments are designed to develop competence in applying established programm ing procedures to routine problems. Performs routine programming assignments that do not require skilled background experience but do require knowledge of established programming procedures and data process ing requirements. Works according to clear-cut and complete specifications. The data are refined and the format of the final products is very similar to that of the input or is well-defined when significantly different, i.e., there are few, if any, problems with interrelating varied records and outputs. Maintains and modifies routine programs. Makes ap proved changes by amending program flow charts, developing detailed processing logic, and coding changes. Tests and documents modifications and writes operator instructions. May write routine new programs using prescribed specifications; may confer with e d p personnel to clarify procedures, processing logic, etc. In addition and as continued training, computer pro grammer analysts may evaluate simple interrelation ships in the immediate programming area, e.g., whether a contemplated change in one part of a simple program would cause unwanted results in a related part; confers with user representatives to gain an understanding of the situation sufficient to formulate the needed change; implements the change upon approval of the supervisor or higher level analyst. A higher level analyst provides the incumbent w'ith charts, narrative description of the functions performed, an approved statement of the product desired (e.g., a change in a local establishment report), and the inputs, outputs, and record formats. Reviews objectives and assignment details with highei level staff to insure thorough understanding; uses judg ment in selecting among authorized procedures and seeks assistance when guidelines are inadequate, signifi cant deviations are proposed, or when unanticipated problems arise. Work is usually monitored in progress; Computer systems programmers or analysts who primarily write programs or analyze problems concerning the system software, e.g., operating systems, compilers, assemblers, system utility routines, etc., which provide basic services for the use of all programs and provide for the scheduling of the execution of programs; however, positions matching this definition may develop a ‘'total package” which includes not only writing programs to process data but also selecting the computer equip ment and system software required; f. Employees who have significant responsibility for the management or supervision of workers (e.g., systems analysts) whose positions are not covered in this definition; or employees with significant responsibili ty for other functions such as computer operations data entry, system software, etc.; and g. Postions not requiring; (1) Three years of ad ministrative, technical, or substantive clerical ex perience; (2) a bachelor’s degree in any field; or (3) any equivalent combination of experience and educa tion yielding basic skills in problem analysis and com munication. Positions are classified into levels based on the following definitions. Computer Programmer/Programmer Analyst I At this trainee level, assignments are usually planned to develop basic programming skills because in cumbents are typically inexperienced in applying such skills on the job. Assists higher level staff by performing elementary programming tasks which concern limited and simple data items and steps and which closely follow patterns of previous work done in the organiza tion, e.g., drawing flow charts, writing operator instruc tions, or coding and testing routines to accumulate counts, tallies, or summaries. May perform routine 59 ment, and programming language have already been decided. May analyze present performance of the pro gram and take action to correct deficiencies based on discussion with the user and consultation with and ap proval of the supervisor or higher level analyst. May assist in the review and analysis of detailed program specifications and in program design to meet changes in work processes. Works independently under specified objectives; ap plies judgment in devising program logic and in select ing and adapting standard programming procedures; resolves problems and deviations acccording to estab lished practices; and obtains advice where precedents are unclear or not available. Completed work is review ed for conformance to standards, timeliness, and effi ciency. May guide or instruct lower level programmers and/or programmer analysts; may supervise technicians and others who assist in specific assignments. all work is reviewed upon completion for accuracy and compliance with standards. Computer Programmer/Programmer Analyst III As a fully qualified computer programmer, applies standard programming procedures and detailed knowl edge of pertinent subject matter (e.g., work processes, governing rules, clerical procedures, etc.) in a program ming area such as: A recordkeeping operation (supply, personnel and payroll, inventory, purchasing, insurance payments, depositor accounts, etc.); a well-defined statistical or scientific problem; or other standardized operation or problem. Works according to approved statements of requirements and detailed specifications. While the data are clear cut, related, and equally available, there may be substantial interrelationships of a variety of records, and several varied sequences or for mats are usually produced. The programs developed or modified typically are linked to several other programs in that the output of one becomes the input for another. Recognizes probable interactions of other related pro grams with the assigned program(s) and is familar with related system software and computer equipment. Solves conventional programming problems. (In small organizations, may maintain programs which concern or combine several operations, i.e., users, or develop programs where there is one primary user and the others give input.) Performs such duties as: Develops, modifies, and maintains assigned programs; designs and implements modifications to the interrelation of files and records within programs in consultation with a higher level analyst; monitors the operation of assigned programs and responds to problems by diagnosing and correcting errors in logic and coding; and implements and/or maintains assigned portions of a scientific programming project, applying established scientific programming techniques to well-defined mathematical, statistical, engineering, or other scientific problems usually re quiring the translation of mathematical notation into processing logic and code. (Scientific programming in cludes assignments such as: Using predetermined physical laws expressed in mathematical terms to relate one set of data to another; the routine storage and retrieval of field test data; and using procedures for real-time command and control, scientific data reduc tion, signal processing, or similar areas.) Tests and documents work and writes and maintains operator in structions for assigned programs. Confers with other e d p personnel to obtain or provide factual data. In addition, computer programmer analysts may carry out factfinding and analysis of a single activity or routine problem, applying established procedures where the nature of the program, feasibility, computer equip OR Works on complex programs (as described in level IV) under close direction of higher level staff or supervisor. May assist higher level staff by independently perform ing less difficult tasks assigned, and performing more difficult tasks under close supervision. Computer Programmer/Programmer Analyst IV Applies expertise in programming procedures to com plex programs; recommends the redesign of programs, investigates and analyzes feasibility and program re quirements, and develops programming specifications. Assigned programs typically affect a broad multiuser computer system which meets the data processing needs of a broad area (e.g., manufacturing, logistics planning, finance management, human resources, material management, etc.) or a computer system for a project in engineering, research, accounting, statistics, etc. Plans the full range of programming actions to produce several interrelated but different products from numerous and diverse data elements which are usually from different sources; solves difficult programming problems. Uses analysis techniques relevant to the assignment and knowledge of pertinent system soft ware, computer equipment, work processes, regula tions, and management practices. Performs such duties as: Develops, modifies, and maintains complex programs; designs and implements the interrelation of files and records within programs which will effectively fit into the overall design of the project; working with problems or concepts, develops programs for the solution to major scientific computa tional problems requiring the analysis and develop ment of logical or mathematical descriptions of func 60 tions to be programmed; and develops occasional special programs, e.g., a critical path analysis program to assist in managing a special project. Tests, documents, and writes operating instructions for all work. Confers with other e d p personnel to secure infor mation, investigate and resolve problems, and coor dinate work efforts. In addition, the computer programmer analyst per forms such duties as: Recommends the redesign of pro grams and investigates the feasibility of alternative design approaches to determine the best balanced solu tion, e.g., one that will best satisfy immediate user needs, facilitate subsequent modification, and conserve resources; on typical maintenance projects and smaller scale, limited new projects, assists user personnel in defining problems or needs and determines how the work should be organized, the necessary files and records, and their interrelation within the program; and on larger or more complicated projects, usually par ticipates as a team member along with other e d p person nel and users and is typically assigned a portion of the project. Works independently under overall objectives and direction, apprising the supervisor about progress and unusual complications. Modifies and adapts precedent solutions and proven approaches. Guidelines include constraints imposed by the related programs with which the incumbent’s programs must be meshed. Completed work is reviewed for timeliness, compatibility with other work, and effectiveness in meeting requirements. May function as team leader or supervise a few lower level programmers and/or programmer analysts or techni cians on assigned work. 1. dinates, and directs a large and important pro gramming project (finance, manufacturing, sales/marketing, human resources, or other broad area) or a number of small programming projects with complex features. A substantial portion of the work supervised (usually two to three workers) is comparable to that described for level IV. Super vises, coordinates, and reviews the work of a small staff, normally not more than 15 programmers, pro grammer analysts, and technicians; estimates person nel needs and schedules, assigns, and reviews work to meet completion date. These day-to-day supervisors evaluate performance, resolve complaints, and make recommendations on hiring and firing. They do not make final decisions on curtailing projects, reorganizing, or reallocating resources. 2. As team leader, staff specialist, or consultant, defines complex scientific problems (e.g., computa tional) or other highly complex programming prob lems (e.g., generating overall forecasts, projections, or other new data fields widely different from the source data or untried at the scale proposed) and directs the development of computer programs for their solution: or, designs improvements in complex programs where existing precedents provide little guidance, such as an interrelated group of mathematical/statistical programs which support health insurance, natural resources, marketing trends, or other research activities. In conjunction with users (scientists or specialists), defines major problems in the subject-matter area. Contacts co workers and user personnel at various locations to plan and coordinate project and gather data; devises ways to obtain data not previously available; and ar bitrates differences between various program users when conflicting requirements arise. May perform simulation studies to determine effects of changes in computer equipment or system software or may assess the feasibility and soundness of proposed pro gramming projects which are novel and complex. Typically, develops programming techniques and procedures where few precedents exist. May be assisted on projects by other program analysts, pro grammers, or technicians. Computer Programmer/Programmer Analyst V At level V, workers are typically either supervisors, team leaders, staff specialists, or consultants. Some analysis is included as a part of the programming assign ment. Supervision and review are similar to level IV. T y p ic a l d u tie s a n d r e s p o n s ib ilitie s . In a supervisory capacity, plans, develops, coor One or more of the following: Computer Systems Analysts Analyzes business or scientific problems for resolu tion through electronic data processing. Gathers infor mation from users, defines work problems, and, if feasible, designs a system of computer programs and procedures to resolve the problems. Develops complete specifications to enable computer programmers to prepare required programs: Analyzes subject-matter operations to be automated; specifies number and types of records, files, and documents to be used and outputs to be produced; prepares work diagrams and data flow charts; coordinates tests of the system and participates in trial runs of new and revised systems; and recom mends computer equipment changes to obtain more ef fective operations. May also write the computer pro grams. E x c lu d e d are: (a) Trainees who receive detailed directives and work plans, select authorized procedures for use in specific situations, and seek assistance for deviations and problems; (b) Positions which require a bachelor’s degree in a specific scientific field (other than computer science), such as an engineering, mathematics, physics, or chemistry degree; however, positions are potential 61 system of several varied sequences or formats is usually developed, e.g., develops systems for maintaining depositor accounts in a bank, maintaining accounts receivable in a retail establishment, maintaining inven tory accounts in a manufacturing or wholesale establish ment, or processing a limited problem in a scientific project. Requires competence in most phases of system analysis and knowledge of pertinent system software and computer equipment and of the work processes, ap plicable regulations, workload, and practices of the assigned subject-matter area. Recognizes probable in teractions of related computer systems and predicts im pact of a change in assigned system. Reviews proposals which consist of objectives, scope, and user expectations; gathers facts, analyzes data, and prepares a project synopsis which compares alternatives in terms of cost, time, availability of equipment and personnel, and recommends a course of action; and upon approval of synopsis, prepares specifications for development of computer programs. Determines and resolves data processing problems and coordinates the work with programmers, users, etc.; orients user per sonnel on new or changed procedures. May conduct special projects such as data element and code standard ization throughout a broad system, working under specific objectives and bringing to the attention of the supervisor any unusual problems or controversies. Works independently under overall project objectives and requirements; apprises supervisor about progress and unusual complications. Guidelines usually include existing systems and the constraints imposed by related systems with which the incumbent’s work must be mesh ed. Adapts design approaches successfully used in precedent systems. Completed work is reviewed for timeliness, compatibility with other work, and effec tiveness in meeting requirements. May provide func tional direction to lower level assistants on assigned work. matches where the required degree may be from any of several possible scientific fields; (c) Computer programers and programmer analysts who write computer programs and solve user problems not requiring systems modification; (d) Workers who primarily analyze and evaluate prob lems concerning computer equipment or its selection or utilization; and (e) Computer systems programmers or analysts who primarily write programs or analyze problems con cerning the system software, e.g., operating systems, compilers, assemblers, system utility routines, etc., which provide basic services for the use of all pro grams and provide for the scheduling of the execu tion of programs; however, positions matching this definition may develop a “ total package” which in cludes not only analyzing work problems to be pro cessed but also selecting the computer equipment and system software required. Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following definitions. Computer Systems Analyst I At this level, in itia l a s s ig n m e n ts are designed to e x practical experience in applying systems analysis techniques and procedures. Provides s e v e r a l p h a s e s of the required systems analysis where the nature of the system is predetermined. Uses established factfinding approaches, knowledge of pertinent work processes and procedures, and familiarity with related computer pro gramming practices, system software, and computer equipment. Carries out factfinding and analysis as assigned, usually of a single activity or a routine problem; applies established procedures where the nature of the system, feasibility, computer equipment, and programming language have already been decided; may assist a higher level systems analyst by preparing the detailed specifica tions required by computer programmers from informa tion developed by the higher level analyst; may research routine user problems and solve them by modifying the existing system when the solutions follow clear precedents. When cost and deadline estimates are re quired, results receive close review. The supervisor defines objectives, priorities, and deadlines. Incumbents work independently; adapt guides to specific situations; resolve problems and deviations according to established practices; and ob tain advice where precedents are unclear or not available. Complete work is reviewed for conformance to requirements, timeliness, and efficiency. May super vise technicians and others who assist in specific assignments. pand OR W'orks on a segment of a complex data processing scheme or broad system, as described for computer systems analyst, level III. Works independently on routine assignments and receives instruction and guidance on complex assignments. Work is reviewed for accuracy of judgment, compliance with instructions, and to insure proper alignment with the overall system. Computer Systems Analyst III Applies systems analysis and design techniques to complex computer systems in a b r o a d area such as manufacturing; finance management; engineering, ac counting, or statistics; logistics planning; material management; etc. Usually, there are multiple users of the system; however, there may be complex single-user Computer Systems Analyst II Applies systems analysis and design skills in an area such as a recordkeeping or scientific operation. A 62 systems, e.g., for engineering or research projects. Re quires competence in all phases of available systems analysis techniques, concepts, and methods and knowledge of available systems software, computer equipment, and the regulations, structure, techniques, and management practices of one or more subjectmatter areas. Since input data usually come from diverse sources, is responsible for recognizing probable conflicts and integrating diverse data elements and sources. Produces innovative solutions for a variety of complex problems. Maintains and modifies complex systems or develops new subsystems such as an integrated production scheduling, inventory control, cost analysis, and sales analysis record in which every item of each type is automatically processed through the full system of records. Guides users in formulating requirements; ad vises on alternatives and on the implications of new or revised data processing systems; analyzes resulting user project proposals, identifies omissions and errors in re quirements, and conducts feasibility studies; recom mends optimum approach and develops system design for approved projects. Interprets information and in formally arbitrates between system users when conflicts exist. May serve as lead analyst in a design subgroup, directing and integrating the work of one or two lower level analysts, each responsible for several programs. Supervision and nature of review are similar to level II; existing systems provide precedents for the operation of new subsystems. 2. two team members perform work at level III; one or two team members may also perform work as a level IV staff specialist or consultant as described below. As staff specialist or consultant, with expertise in a specialty area (e.g., data security, telecommunica tions, systems analysis techniques, edp standards development, etc.), plans and conducts analyses of unique or unyielding problems in a broad system. Identifies problems and specific issues in assigned area and prepares overall project recommendations from an edp standpoint including feasible ad vancements in edp technology; upon acceptance, determines a design strategy that anticipates direc tions of change; designs and monitors necessary testing and implementation plans. Performs work such as: Studies broad areas of projected work pro cesses which cut across established organization edp systems; conducts continuing review of computer technological developments applicable to systems design and prepares long-range forecasts; develops edp standards where new and improved approaches are needed; or develops recommendations for a management information system where new concepts are required. Computer Systems Analyst V As a top technical expert, develops broad un precedented computer systems and/or conducts critical studies central to the success o f large organizations hav ing extensive technical or highly diversified computer re quirements. Considers such requirements as broad com pany policy, and the diverse user needs of several organization levels and locations. Works under general administrative direction. Computer Systems Analyst IV Typical duties and responsibilities. One or more of the following: Applies expert systems analysis and design techniques to complex systems development in a specialized design area and/or resolves unique or unyielding problems in existing complex systems by applying new technology. Work requires a broad knowledge of data sources and flow, interactions of existing complex systems in the organization, and the capabilities and limitations of the systems software and computer equipment. Objectives and overall requirements are defined in organization EDP policies and standards; the primary constraints typically are those imposed by the need for compatibili ty with existing systems or processes. Supervision and nature of review are similar to levels II and III. 1. As team or project leader, guides the development of broad unprecedented computer systems. The infor mation requirements are complex and voluminous. Devises completely new ways to locate and develop data sources; establishes new factors and criteria for making subject-matter decisions. Coordinates fact finding, analysis, and design of the system and ap plies the most recent developments in data processing technology and computer equipment. Guidelines consist of state-of-the-art technology and general organization policy. A t least o n e team m em b er p er fo r m s w ork at level IV . 2. Typical duties and responsibilities. One or more of the following: 1. As team or project leader, provides systems design in a specialized a n d highly co m p lex design area, e.g., in terrelated business statistics and/or projections, scientific systems, mathematical models, or similar unprecedented computer systems. E stablishes the fra m e w o rk o f new c o m p u te r system s from feasibility studies to postimplementation evaluation. Devises new sources of data and develops new approaches and techniques for use by others. May serve as technical authority for a design area. At least one or As staff specialist or consultant, is a recognized leader and authority in a large organization (as defin ed above). Performs at least tw o of the following: (a) Has overall responsibility for evaluating the sig nificance of technological advancement and develop ing edp standards where new and improved ap proaches are needed, e.g., programming techniques; (b) conceives and plans exploratory investigations critical to the overall organization where useful precedents do not exist and new concepts are re quired, e.g., develops recommendations regarding a comprehensive management information system; or (c) evaluates existing edp organizational policy for ef fectiveness, devising and formulating changes in 63 programmer analysts, systems analysts, and techni cians; estimates personnel needs and schedules, assigns and reviews work to meet completion date; interviews candidates for own unit and recommends hires, promo tions, or reassignments; resolves complaints and refers group grievances and more serious unresolved com plaints to higher level supervisors; and may reprimand employees. the organization’s position on broad policy issues. May be assisted on individual projects by other . analysts. COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYST SUPERVISOR/MANAGER Supervises three or more employees, two of whom perform systems analysis. Work requires substantial and recurring use of systems analysis skills in directing staff. May also supervise programmer/programmer analysts and related clerical and technical support per sonnel. Excluded are: LS-2. Directs a sizable staff (normally 15-30 em ployees), typically divided into subunits controlled by subordinate supervisors; advises higher level manage ment on work problems of own unit and the impact on broader programs; collaborates with heads of other units to negotiate and/or coordinate work changes; makes decisions on work or training problems presented by subordinate supervisors; evaluates subordinate supervisors and reviews their evaluations of other employees; selects nonsupervisors (higher level approval is virtually assured) and recommends supervisory selec tions; and hears group grievances and serious or unresolved complaints. May shift resources among pro jects and perform long-range budget planning. (a) Positions also having significant responsibility for the management or supervision of functional areas (e.g., system software development, data entry, or computer operations) not related to the Computer Systems Analyst and Computer Programmer/Programmer Analyst definitions. (b) Supervisory positions having base levels below Com puter Systems Analyst II or Computer Programmer Analyst IV. (c) Managers who supervise two or more subordinates performing at Computer Systems Analyst Supervisor/Manager level IV. In rare instances, supervisory positions respon sible for directing a sizable staff (e.g., 20-30 employees) may not have subordinate supervisors, but have all other LS-2 responsibilities. Such position are matched to LS-2. note: Supervisory jobs are matched at 1 of 4 levels ac cording to two factors: (a) Base level of work supervis ed, and (b) level of supervision. Table C-4 indicates the level of the supervisor for each combination of factors. L.S-3. Directs two subordinate supervisory levels, and the work force managed typically includes substan tially more than 30 employees. Makes major decisions and recommendations (listed below) which have a direct, important, and substantial effect on own organization and work. Performs at least three of the following: Base Level of Work The base level of work is that level of nonsupcrvisory work under the direct or indirect supervision of the supervisor/manager which (when added to the nonsupervisory levels above it) represents at least 25 percent of the total nonsupervisory, nonclerical staff and at least two of the full-time positions supervised. To determine the base level of nonsupervisory, nonclerical work: 1) Positions are arrayed by level of difficulty; 2) the number of workers in each position is determined; and 3) the highest level is determined that has at least 25 percent of the total nonsupervisory, nonclerical staff accumulated from itself and levels above itself. Decides what programs and projects should be initiated, dropped, expanded, or curtailed; Determines long-range plans in response to program changes, evaluates program goals, and redefines objectives; Determines changes to be made in organizational struc ture, delegation of authority, coordination of units, etc.; Level of Supervision Decides what compromises to make in operations in view of public relations implications and need for support from various groups; Supervisors and managers are matched at 1 of the 3 LS levels below best describing their supervisory re sponsibility. Decides on the means to substantially reduce operating costs without impairing overall operations; justifies major equipment expenditures; and LS-1. Plans, coordinates, and evaluates the work of a small staff, normally not more than 15 programmers, Resolves differences between key subordinate officials; decides, or significantly affects final decisions, on personnel actions for supervisors and other key officials. 64 Table C-4. Criteria for matching computer systems analyst supervisors/managers Supervisor/manager level Base level of nonsupervisory job(s) Level of supervision Matched in the Computer Programmer Analyst definition Matched in the Computer Systems Analyst definition LS-1 LS-2 LS-3 IV V II III IV V I II III IV II III IV Exclude III IV Exclude Exclude _ - Buyers BUYER Purchases materials, supplies, equipment, and serv ices (e.g., utilities, maintenance, and repair). In some instances, items are of types that must be specially designed, produced, or modified by the vendor in accor dance with drawings or engineering specifications. Solicits bids, analyzes quotations received, and selects or recommends supplier. May interview' prospective vendors. Purchases items and services at the most favorable price consistent with quality, quantity, specification requirements, and other factors. Prepares or supervises preparation o f purchase orders from req uisitions. May expedite delivery and visit vendors’ of fices and plants. Normally, purchases are unreviewed when they are consistent with past experience and are in conformance with established rules and policies. Proposed purchase transactions that deviate from the usual or from past ex perience in terms of prices, quality of items, quantities, etc., or that may set precedents for future purchases are reviewed by higher authority prior to final action. In addition to the work described above, some (but not all) buyers direct the work of one or a few clerks who perform routine aspects of the work. As a second ary and subsidiary duty, some buyers may also sell or dispose of surplus, salvage, or used materials, equip ment, or supplies. e. related items of highly variable quality such as raw cotton or wool, tobacco, cattle, or leather for shoe uppers, etc. Expert personal knowledge of the item is required to judge the relative value of the goods of fered, and to decide the quantity, quality, and price of each purchase in terms of its probable effect on the organization’s profit and competitive status. Buyers whose principal responsibility is the supervi sion of a purchasing program; f. Persons predominantly concerned with contract or subcontract administration; g. Persons whose major duties consist of ordering, reordering, or requisitioning items under existing contracts; h. Positions restricted to clerical functions or to pur chase expediting work; and i. Positions not requiring: (1) Three years of ad ministrative, technical, or substantive clerical ex perience; (2) a bachelor’s degree in any field; or (3) any equivalent combination of experience and educa tion yielding basic skills in problem analysis and com munication. Buyer I a. Buyers of items for direct sale, either wholesale or retail; Purchases “ off-the-shelf” types of readily available, commonly used materials, supplies, tools, furniture, services, etc. Transactions usually involve local retailers, wholesalers, jobbers, and m anufacturers’ sales representatives. Quantities purchased are generally small amounts, e.g., those available from local sources. Examples of items purchased include: Common sta tionery and office supplies; standard types o f office fur niture and fixtures; standard nuts, bolts, and screws; janitorial and common building maintenance supplies; or common utility services or office machine repair serv ices. b. Brokers and dealers buying for clients or for invest ment purposes; Buyer II c. Positions that specifically require professional educa tion and qualifications in a physical science or in engineering (e.g., chemist, mechanical engineer); d. Buyers who specialize in purchasing a single or a few NOTE: Some buyers are responsible for the purchasing of a variety of items and materials. When the variety in cludes items and work described at more than one o f the following levels, the position should be considered to equal the highest level that characterizes at least a substantial portion of the buyer’s time. Excluded are: Purchases “ off-the-shelf” types o f standard, general ly available technical items, materials, and services. Transactions may involve occasional modification of standard and common usage items, materials, and serv65 ices, and include a few stipulations about unusual pack ing, marking, shipping, etc. Transactions usually involve dealing directly with manufacturers, distributors, jobbers, etc. Quantities of items and materials purchased may be relatively large, particularly in the case of contracts for continuing supply over a period of time. May be responsible for locating or promoting possi ble new sources of supply. Usually is expected to keep abreast of market trends, changes in business practices in the assigned markets, new or altered types of materials entering the market, etc. Examples of items purchased include: Standard in dustrial types of handtools; gloves and safety equip ment; standard electronic parts, components, and com ponent test instruments; electric motors; gasoline ser vice station equipment; pbx or other specialized telephone services; special-purpose printing services; and routine purchases of common raw materials such as standard grades and sizes of steel bars, rods, and angles. Also included at this level are buyers of materials of the types described for buyer 1 when the quantities pur chased are so large that local sources of supply are generally inadequate anc the buyer must deal directly with manufacturer^ on a broader-than-local scale. special formula paints; electric motors of special shape or speeds; production equipment; special packaging of items; and raw materials in substantial quantities or with special characteristics. Buyer IV Purchases highly complex and technical items, materials, or services, usually those specially designed and manufactured exclusively for the purchaser. Transactions require dealing with manufacturers and often involve persuading potential vendors to undertake the manufacturing of custom-designed items according to complex and rigid specifications. Quantities of items and materials purchased are often large in order to satisfy the requirements for an entire large organization for an extended period of time. Com plex schedules of delivery are often involved. Buyer determines appropriate quantities to be contracted for at any given period of time. Transactions are often complicated by the presence of one or more such matters as inclusion of: Requirements for spare parts, preproduction samples and testing, or technical literature; or patent and royalty provisions. Keeps abreast of market and product developments. Develops new sources of supply. In addition to the work described above, a few posi tions may also require supervision over a few lower level buyers or clerks. (No position is included in this level solely because supervisory duties are performed.) Examples of items purchased include: Specialpurpose high-cost machine tools and production facilities; specialized condensers, boilers, and turbines; raw materials of critically important characteristics or quality; and parts, subassemblies, components, etc., specially designed and made to order (e.g., communica tions equipment for installation in aircraft being manufactured; component assemblies for missiles and rockets; and motor vehicle frames). Buyer III Purchases items, materials, or services of a technical and specialized nature. The items, while of a common general type, are usually made, altered, or customized to meet the user’s specific needs and specifications. Transactions usually require dealing with manufac turers. The number of potential vendors is likely to be small and price differentials often reflect important fac tors (quality, delivery dates and places, etc.) that are dif ficult to evaluate. The quantities purchased of any item or service may be large. Many of the purchases involve one or more of such complications as: Specifications that detail, in technical terms, the required physical, chemical, electrical, or other comparable properties; special testing prior to ac ceptance; grouping of items for lot bidding and awards; specialized processing, packing, or packaging re quirements; export packs; overseas port differentials; etc. Is expected to keep abreast of market and product developments. May be required to locate new sources of supply. Some positions may involve assisting in the training or supervising of lower level buyers or clerks. Examples of items purchased include: Castings; special extruded shapes of normal size and material; NOTE: Excluded are buying positions above level IV. Some buyers above level IV make purchases in such unusually large quantities that they can affect the market price of a commodity or produce other signifi cant effects on the industry or trade concerned. Others may purchase items of either (1) extraordinary technical complexity, e.g., involving the outermost limits of science or engineering, or (2) unusually high individual or unit value. Such buyers often persuade suppliers to expand their plants or convert facilities to the produc tion of new items or services. These types of buying functions are often performed by program managers or company officials who have primary responsibilities other than buying. 66 Chemists and Engineers CHEMIST Performs professional work in research, develop ment, interpretation, and analysis to determine the com position, molecular structure, and properties of substances; to develop or investigate new materials and processes; and to investigate the transformations which substances undergo. Work typically requires a B.S. degree in chemistry or the equivalent in appropriate and substantial college level study of chemistry plus ex perience. purposes, assignments may include some work that is typical o f a higher level. (Terminal positions are ex cluded.) Direction received. Supervisor establishes the nature and extent of analysis required, specifies methods and criteria on new types o f assignments, and reviews work for thoroughness o f application o f methods and ac curacy of results. Typical duties and responsibilities. Carries out a wide variety of standardized methods, tests, and procedures. In accordance with specific instructions, may carry out proposed and less common ones. Is expected to detect problems in using standardized procedures because of the condition of the sample, difficulties with the equip ment, etc. Recommends modifications of procedures, e.g., extending or curtailing the analysis or using alter nate procedures, based on knowledge of the problem and pertinent available literature. Conducts specified phases o f research projects as an assistant to an ex perienced chemist. Chemist I General characteristics. This is the entry level o f profes sional work requiring a bachelor’s degree in chemistry and no experience, or the equivalent of a degree in ap propriate education and experience. Performs assignm ents designed to develop professional capabilities and to provide experience in the application o f training in chemistry as it relates to the company’s programs. May also receive formal classroom or seminar-type training. (Terminal positions are excluded.) Responsibility fo r direction o f others. May be assisted Direction received. Works under close supervision. by a few aides or technicians. Receives specific and detailed instruction as to required tasks and results expected. Work is checked during progress, and is reviewed for accuracy upon comple tion. Chemist III Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs a variety o f routine tasks that are planned to provide experience and familiarization with the chemistry staff, methods, practices, and programs o f the company. The work in cludes a variety of routine qualitative and quantitative analyses; physical tests to determine properties such as viscosity, tensile strength, and melting point; and assisting more experienced chemists to gain additional knowledge through personal observation and discus sion. General characteristics. Performs a broad range of chemical tests and procedures utilized in the laboratory, using judgment in the independent evaluation, selec tion, and adaptation of standard methods and tech niques. May carry through a complete series of tests on a product in its different process stages. Some assignments require a specialized knowledge o f one or two common categories o f related substances. Perform ance at this level requires developmental experience in a professional position, or equivalent graduate level education. Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Usually none. Direction received. On routine work, supervision is very Chemist II general. Assistance is furnished on unusual problems and work is reviewed for application o f sound profes sional judgment. General characteristics. At this continuing developmen tal level, performs routine chemical work requiring selection and application of general and specialized methods, techniques, and instruments commonly used in the laboratory, and the ability to carry out instruc tions when less common or proposed methods or pro cedures are necessary. Requires work experience ac quired in an entry level position, or appropriate graduate level study. For training and developmental Typical duties and responsibilities. In accordance with instructions as to the nature o f the problem, selects standard methods, tests, or procedures; when necessary, develops or works out alternative or modified methods with supervisor’s concurrence. Assists in research by analyzing samples or testing new procedures that re quire specialized training because (a) standard methods are inapplicable, (b) analytical findings must be inter 67 Direction received. Supervision and guidance relate preted in terms of compliance or noncompliance with standards, or (c) specialized and advanced equipment and techniques must be adapted. largely to overall objectives, critical issues, new con cepts, and policy matters. Consults with supervisor con cerning unusual problems and developments. Responsibility for direction o f others. May supervise or coordinate the work of a few technicians or aides, and be assisted by lower level chemists. Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the following: (1) In a supervisory capacity, plans, organizes, and directs assigned laboratory programs. Independently defines scope and critical elements of the projects and selects approaches to be taken. A substan tial portion of the work supervised is comparable to that described for chemist IV. (2) As individual researcher or worker, carries out project requiring development of new or highly modified scientific techniques and pro cedures, extensive knowledge of specialty, and knowledge of related scientific fields. Chemist IV General characteristics. As a fully competent chemist in all conventional aspects of the subject matter or the functional area of the assignments, plans and conducts work requiring (a) mastery of specialized techniques or ingenuity in selecting and evaluating approaches to un foreseen or novel problems, and (b) ability to apply a research approach to the solution of a wide variety of problems and to assimilate the details and significance of chemical and physical analyses, procedures, and tests. Requires sufficient professional experience to assure competence as a fully trained worker; or, for positions primarily of a research nature, completion of all requirements for a doctoral degree may be substituted for experience. Responsibility for direction o f others. Supervises, coor dinates, and reviews the work of a small staff of chemists and technicians engaged in varied research and development projects, or a larger group performing routine analytical work. Estimates personnel needs and schedules and assigns work to meet completion date Or, as individual researcher or worker, may be assisted on projects by other chemists or technicians. Direction received. Independently performs most assignments with instructions as to the general results expected. Receives technical guidance on unusual or complex problems and supervisory approval on propos ed plans for projects. Chemist VI General characteristics. Performs work requiring leadership and expert knowledge in a specialized field, product, or process. Formulates and conducts a systematic attack on a problem area of considerable scope and complexity which must be approached through a series of complete and conceptually related studies, or a number of projects of lesser scope. The problems are complex because they are difficult to define and require unconventional or novel approaches or have other difficult features. Maintains liaison with individuals and units within and outside the organiza tion, with responsibility for acting independently on technical matters pertaining to the field. Work at this level usually requires extensive progressive experience including work comparable to chemist V. Typical duties and responsibilities. Conducts laboratory assignments requiring the determination and evaluation o f alternative procedures and the sequence of perform ing them. Performs complex, exacting, unusual analytical assignments requiring specialized knowledge of techniques or products. Interprets results, prepares reports, and may provide technical advice in specialized area. Responsibility fo r direction o f others. May supervise a small staff of chemists and technicians. Chemist V Direction received. Supervision received is essentially administrative, with assignments given in terms of broad, general objectives and limits. General characteristics. Participates in planning laboratory programs on the basis of specialized knowledge of problems and methods and probable value of results. May serve as an expert in a narrow specialty (e.g., class of chemical compounds, or a class o f products), making recommendations and conclusions which serve as the basis for undertaking or rejecting im portant projects. Development of the knowledge and expertise required for this level of work usually reflects progressive experience through chemist IV. Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the following: (1) In a supervisory capacity, (a) plans, develops, coordinates, and directs a number o f large and important projects or a project of major scope and importance; or (b) is responsible for the entire chemical program of a company, when the program is o f limited complexity and scope. Activities supervised are of such 68 a scope that they require a few (three to five) subor dinate supervisors or team leaders with at least one in a position comparable to level V. (2) As individual researcher or worker, determines, conceives, plans, and conducts projects of major importance to the company. Applies a high degree of originality and ingenuity in adapting techniques into original combinations and configurations. May serve as a consultant to other chemists in specialty. understood, and where few or contradictory scientific precedents or results are available for reference. Out standing creativity and mature judgment are required to devise hypotheses and techniques of experimentation and to interpret results. As a leader and authority in the company, in a broad area of specialization, or in a nar row but intensely specialized one, advises the head of a large laboratory or company officials on complex aspects of extremely broad and important programs. Has responsibility for exploring, evaluating, and justi fying proposed and current programs and projects and furnishing advice on unusually complex and novel prob lems in the specialty field. Typically will have con tributed innovations (e.g., techniques, products, pro cedures) which are regarded as significant advances in the field. Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Plans, organizes, and supervises the work of a staff of chemists and technicians. Evaluates progress of the staff and results obtained, and recommends major changes to achieve overall objectives. Or, as individual worker or re searcher, may be assisted on individual projects by other chemists or technicians. Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Directs several subordinate supervisors or team leaders, some of whom are in positions comparable to chemist VI; or, as in dividual researcher and consultant, may be assisted on individual projects by other chemists and technicians. Chemist VII General characteristics. Makes decisions and recom mendations that are recognized as authoritative and have an important impact on extensive chemical ac tivities. Initiates and maintains extensive contacts with key chemists and officials of other organizations and companies. Requires skill in persuasion and negotiation o f critical issues. At this level, individuals will have demonstrated creativity, foresight, and mature judg ment in anticipating and solving unprecedented chem ical problems, determining program objectives and re quirements, organizing programs and projects, and developing standards and guides for diverse chemical activities. Chemist VIII General characteristics. Makes decisions and recom mendations that are authoritative and have a farreaching impact on extensive chemical and related ac tivities of the company. Negotiates critical and con troversial issues with top level chemists and officers of other organizations and companies. Individuals at this level have demonstrated a high degree of creativity, foresight, and mature judgment in planning, organiz ing, and guiding extensive chemical programs and ac tivities of outstanding novelty and importance. Direction received. Receives general administrative Direction received. Receives general administrative direction. direction. Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the following: (1) In a supervisory capacity, is re sponsible for (a) an important segment of a very extensive and highly deversified chemical program of a company; or (b) the entire chemical program of a company when the program is of moderate scope. The programs are of such complexity and scope that they are of critical importance to overall objectives, in clude problems of extraordinary difficulty that often have resisted solution, and consist of several segments requiring subordinate supervisors. Is responsible for deciding the kind and extent of chemical and related programs needed to accomplish the objectives of the company, for choosing the scientific approaches, for planning and organizing facilities and programs, and for interpreting results. (2) As individual researcher and consultant, formulates and guides the attack on pro blems of exceptional difficulty and marked importance to the company and/or industry. Problems are characterised by the lack of scientific precedents and Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the following: (1) In a supervisory capacity, is responsible for (a) an important segment o f a chemical program of a company with extensive and diversified scientific re quirements, or (b) the entire chemical program of a company where the program is more limited in scope. The overall chemical program contains critical problems the solution of which requires major technological ad vances and opens the way for extensive related develop ment. Makes authoritative technical recommendations concerning the scientific objectives and levels of work which will be most profitable in light of company re quirements and scientific and industrial trends and developments. Recommends facilities, personnel, and funds required. (2) As individual researcher and consul tant, selects problems for research to further the comp any’s objectives. Conceives and plans investigations in which the phenomena and principles are not adequately 69 and no experience, or the equivalent of a degree in ap propriate education and experience. Perform s assignments designed to develop professional work knowledge and abilities. May also receive formal classroom or seminar-type training. (Terminal positions are excluded.) source materials, or the lack o f success o f prior research and analysis so that their solution would represent an advance o f great significance and importance. Performs advisory and consulting work for the company as a recognized authority for broad program areas o f con siderable novelty and importance. Has made contribu tions such as new products or techniques, development o f processes, etc., which are regarded as major advances in the field. Direction received. Works under close supervision. Receives specific and detailed instructions as to required tasks and results expected. Work is checked during progress and is reviewed for accuracy upon completion. Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Supervises several subordinate supervisors or team leaders, some of whose positions are comparable to chemist VII, or individual researchers, some of whose positions are comparable to Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs a variety of routine tasks that are planned to provide experience and familiarization with the engineering staff, methods, practices, and programs of the company. chemist VII and sometimes chemist VIII. As an in dividual researcher and consultant, may be assisted on individual projects by other chemists or technicians. Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Usually none. NOTE: Individuals in charge of a company’s chemical program may match any of several of the survey job levels, depending on the size and complexity o f chemical programs. Excluded from the definition are: (1) Chemists in charge o f programs so extensive and com plex (e.g., consisting of highly diversified or unusually novel products and procedures) that one or more subor dinate supervisory chemists are performing at level VIII; (2) individuals whose decisions have direct and substantial effect on setting policy for the organization (included, however, are supervisors deciding the “ kind and extent of chemical program” within broad Engineer II General characteristics. At this continuing developmen tal level, performs routine engineering work requiring application of standard techniques, procedures, and criteria in carrying out a sequence of related engineering tasks. Limited exercise of judgment is required on details of work and in making preliminary selections and adaptations of engineering alternatives. Requires work experience acquired in an entry level position, or appropriate graduate level study. For training and developmental purposes, assignments may include some work that is typical of a higher level. (Terminal posi tions are excluded.) guidelines set at higher levels); and (3) individual re searchers and consultants who are recognized as na tional and/or international authorities and scientific leaders in very broad areas of scientific interest and in vestigation. Direction received. Supervisor screens assignments for unusual or difficult problems and selects techniques and procedures to be applied on nonroutine work. Receives close supervision on new aspects o f assignments. ENGINEER Performs professional work in research, develop ment, design, testing, analysis, production, construc tion, maintenance, operation, planning, survey, estimating, application, or standardization of engineer ing facilities, systems, structures, processes, equipment, devices, or materials, requiring knowledge o f the science and art by which materials, natural resources, and power are made useful. Work typically requires a B.S. degree in engineering or the equivalent in combined education and experience. (Excluded are: Safety engineers, industrial engineers, quality control engineers, sales engineers, and engineers whose primary responsibility is to be in charge of nonprofessional maintenance work.) Typical duties and responsibilities. Using prescribed methods, performs specific and limited portions of a broader assignment of an experienced engineer. Applies standard practices and techniques in specific situations, adjusts and correlates data, recognizes discrepancies in results, and follows operations through a series of related detailed steps or processes. Responsibility fo r direction o f others. May be assisted by a few aides or technicians. Engineer III General characteristics. Independently evaluates, selects, and applies standard engineering techniques, procedures, and criteria, using judgment in making minor adaptations and modifications. Assignments Engineer I General characteristics. This is the entry level o f profes sional work requiring a bachelor’s degree in engineering 70 have clear and specified objectives and require the in vestigation of a limited number of variables. Perform ance at this level requires developmental experience in a professional position, or equivalent graduate level education. materials, and difficult coordination requirements. Work requires a broad knowledge o f precedents in the specialty area and a good knowledge of principles and practices o f related specialties. Responsibility fo r direction o f others. May supervise a Direction received. Receives instructions on specific few engineers or technicians on assigned work. assignment objectives, complex features, and possible solutions. Assistance is furnished on unusual problems and work is reviewed for application of sound profes sional judgment. Engineer V Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs work which involves conventional types of plans, investiga tions, surveys, structures, or equipment with relatively few complex features for which there are precedents. Assignments usually include one or more o f the follow ing: Equipment design and development, test of materials, preparation of specifications, process study, research investigations, report preparation, and other activities o f limited scope requiring knowledge o f prin ciples and techniques commonly employed in the specific narrow area of assignments. General characteristics. Applies intensive and diver sified knowledge of engineering principles and practices in broad areas o f assignments and related fields. Makes decisions independently on engineering problems and methods, and represents the organization in conferences to resolve important questions and to plan and coor dinate work. Requires the use o f advanced techniques and the modification and extension o f theories, precepts, and practices of the field and related sciences and disciplines. The knowledge and expertise required for this level o f work usually result from progressive ex perience, including work comparable to engineer IV. Direction received. Supervision and guidance relate Responsibility for direction o f others. May supervise or largely to overall objectives, critical issues, new con coordinate the work o f drafters, technicians, and others who assist in specific assignments. cepts, and policy matters. Consults with supervisor con Engineer IV Typical duties and responsibilities. One or more o f the following: (1) In a supervisory capacity, plans, deve lops, coordinates, and directs a large and important engineering project or a number of small projects with many complex features. A substantial portion of the work supervised is comparable to that described for engineer IV. (2) As individual researcher or worker, carries out complex or novel assignments requiring the development of new or improved techniques and pro cedures. Work is expected to result in the development of new or refined equipment, materials, processes, products, and/or scientific methods. (3) As staff specialist, develops and evaluates plans and criteria for a variety of projects and activities to be carried out by others. Assesses the feasibility and soundness of propos ed engineering evaluation tests, products, or equipment cerning unusual problems and developments. General characteristics. As a fully competent engineer in all conventional aspects of the subject matter of the functional area of the assignments, plans and conducts work requiring judgment in the independent evaluation, selection, and substantial adaptation and modification o f standard techniques, procedures, and criteria. Devises new approaches to problems encountered. Re quires sufficient professional experience to assure com petence as a fully trained worker; or, for positions primarily o f a research nature, completion o f all re quirements for a doctoral degree may be substituted for experience. Direction received. Independently performs most assignments with instructions as to the general results expected. Receives technical guidance on unusual or complex problems and supervisory approval on pro posed plans for projects. when necessary data are insufficient or confirmation by testing is advisable. Usually performs as a staff advisor and consultant as to a technical specialty, a type of facility or equipment, or a program function. Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Supervises, coor Typical duties and responsibilities. Plans, schedules, conducts, or coordinates detailed phases o f the engineering work in a part o f a major project or in a total project o f moderate scope. Performs work which dinates, and reviews the work o f a small staff of engineers and technicians; estimates personnel needs and schedules and assigns work to meet completion date. Or, as individual researcher or staff specialist, may be assisted on projects by other engineers or techni cians. involves conventional engineering practices but may in clude a variety of complex features such as conflicting design requirements, unsuitability o f standard 71 obtained, and recommends major changes to achieve overall objectives. Or, as individual researcher or staff specialist, may be assisted on individual projects by other engineers or technicians. Engineer VI General characteristics. Has full technical responsibility for interpreting, organizing, executing, and coor dinating assignments. Plans and develops engineering projects concerned with unique or controversial prob lems which have an important effect on major company programs. This involves exploration of subject area, definition of scope and selection of problems for in vestigation, and development of novel concepts and ap proaches. Maintains liaison with individuals and units within or outside the organization with responsibility for acting independently on technical matters pertaining to the field. Work at this level usually requires extensive progressive experience including work comparable to engineer V. Engineer Vil General characteristics. Makes decisions and recom mendations that are recognized as authoritative and have an important impact on extensive engineering ac tivities. Initiates and maintains extensive contacts with key engineers and officials of other organizations and companies, requiring skill in persuasion and negotiation of critical issues. At this level, individuals will have demonstrated creativity, foresight, and mature engineering judgment in anticipating and solving un precedented engineering problems, determining pro gram objectives and requirements, organizing programs and projects, and developing standards and guides for diverse engineering activities. Direction received. Supervision received is essentially administrative, with assignments given in terms of broad, general objectives and limits. Typical duties and responsibilities. One or more of the following: (1) In a supervisory capacity, (a) plans, Direction received. Receives general administrative direction. develops, coordinates, and directs a number of large and important projects or a project of major scope and importance; or (b) is responsible for the entire engineer Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the following: (1) In a supervisory capacity, is responsible for (a) an important segment of the engineering pro gram of a company with extensive and diversified engineering requirements, or (b) the entire engineering program of a company when it is more limited in scope. The overall engineering program contains critical prob ing program o f a company when the program is of limited complexity and scope. Extent of responsibilities generally requires a few (three to five) subordinate supervisors or team leaders with at least one in a posi tion comparable to level V. (2) As individual researcher or worker, conceives, plans, and conducts research in problem areas of considerable scope and complexity. The problems must be approached through a series of complete and conceptually related studies, be difficult to define, require unconventional or novel approaches, lems, the solution of which requires major technological advances and opens the way for extensive related development. Extent of responsibilities generally re quires several subordinate organizational segments or teams. Recommends facilities, personnel, and funds re quired to carry out programs which are directly related to and directed toward fulfillment of overall company objectives. (2) As individual researcher and consultant, is a recognized leader and authority in the company in a broad area of specialization or in a narrow but intensely specialized field. Selects research problems to further the company’s objectives. Conceives and plans in vestigations of broad areas of considerable novelty and importance for which engineering precedents are lack ing in areas critical to the overall engineering program. Is consulted extensively by associates and others, with a high degree of reliance placed on the incumbent’s scien tific interpretations and advice. Typically, will have contributed inventions, new designs, or techniques which are regarded as major advances in the field. and require sophisticated research techniques. Available guides and precedents contain critical gaps, are only partially related to the problem, or may be largely lack ing due to the novel character of the project. At this level, the individual researcher generally will have con tributed inventions, new designs, or techniques which are o f material significance in the solution of important problems. (3) As a staff specialist, serves as the technical specialist for the organization (division or company) in the application of advanced theories, concepts, prin ciples, and processes for an assigned area of respon sibility (i.e., subject matter, function, type of facility or equipment, or product). Keeps abreast of new scientific methods and developments affecting the organization for the purpose of recommending changes in emphasis of programs or new programs warranted by such developments. Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Directs several subordinate supervisors or team leaders, some o f whom are in positions comparable to engineer VI; or, as in dividual researcher and consultant, may be assisted on individual projects by other engineers and technicians. Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Plans, organizes, and supervises the work of a staff of engineers and technicians. Evaluates progress of the staff and results 72 dustry. Problems are characterized by their lack of scientific precedents and source material, or lack of suc cess of prior research and analysis so that their solution would represent an advance of great significance and importance. Performs advisory and consulting work for the company as a recognized authority for broad pro gram areas or in an intensely specialized area of con siderable novelty and importance. E n g in e e r VIII General characteristics. Makes decisions and recom mendations that are recognized as authoritative and have a far-reaching impact on extensive engineering and related activities o f the company. Negotiates critical and controversial issues with top level engineers and officers of other organizations and companies. Individuals at this level demonstrate a high degree of creativity, foresight, and mature judgment in planning, organiz ing, and guiding extensive engineering programs and ac tivities of outstanding novelty and importance. R e s p o n s ib ility fo r d ir e c tio n o f o th e r s . Supervises several subordinate supervisors or team leaders some of whose positions are comparable to engineer VII, or individual researchers some of whose positions are comparable to engineer VII and sometimes engineer VIII. As an in dividual researcher and consultant, may be assisted on Direction received. Receives general administrative direction. individual projects by other engineers or technicians. Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the following: ( 1) In a supervisory capacity, is responsible \O T P : Individuals in charge of a company’s engineer ing program may match any of several of the survey job levels, depending on the size and complexity of engineering programs. Excluded from the definition are: (1) Engineers in charge of programs so extensive and complex (e.g., consisting of research and develop ment on a variety of complex products or systems with numerous novel components) that one or more subor dinate supervisory engineers are performing at level VIII; (2) individuals whose decisions have direct and substantial effect on setting policy for the organization (included, however, are supervisors deciding the “ kind and extent of engineering and related programs’’ within broad guidelines set a higher level): and (3) individual researchers and consultants who are recognized as na tional and/or international authorities and scientific leaders in very broad areas of scientific interest and in vestigation. for (a) an important segment of a very extensive and highly diversified engineering program of a company, or (b) the entire engineering program of a company when the program is of moderate scope. The programs are of such complexity and scope that they are of critical importance to overall objectives, include problems of extraordinary difficulty that often have resisted solu tion, and consist of several segments requiring subor dinate supervisors. Is responsible for deciding the kind and extent of engineering and related programs needed to accomplish the objectives of the company, for choos ing the scientific approaches, for planning and organiz ing facilities and programs, and for interpreting results. (2) As individual researcher and consultant, formulates and guides the attack on problems of exceptional dif ficulty and marked importance to the company or in Technical Support Occupations ENGINEERING TECHNICIAN knowledge of engineering theory and principles to their duties, unlike higher level engineering technicians who may perform the same duties using only practical skills and knowledge). Also excludes engineering technicians: To be covered by these definitions, employees must meet all of the following criteria: 1. 2. 3. Provides semiprofessional technical support for engineers working in such areas as research, design, development, testing, or manufacturing process improvement. a. Work pertains to electrical, electronic, or mechanical components or equipment. Below level I who are limited to simple tasks such as: Measuring items of regular shape with a caliper and computing cross-sectional areas; identify ing, weighing, and marking easy-to-identify items; or recording simple instrument readings at specified in tervals; and Required to have some practical knowledge of science or engineering; some positions may also require a practical knowledge of mathematics or computer science. b. Excludes production or maintenance workers, quality control technicians or testers, modelmakers or other Above level V who perform work of broad scope and complexity either by planning and accomplishing a complete project or study or by serving as an expert in a narrow aspect of a particular field of engineer ing. Engineering Technician I craftworkers, chemical or other nonengineering techni cians, civil engineering technicians, drafters, designers, and engineers (who are required to apply a professional Performs simple routine tasks under close supervision or from detailed procedures. Work is checked in process 73 or on completion. Performs, at this level, one or a com bination of such typical duties as: variety and complexity, using precedents which are not fully applicable. May also plan such assignments. Receives technical advice from supervisor or engineer (as needed, performs recurring work independently); work is reviewed for technical adequacy (or conformity with instructions). May be assisted by lower level techni cians and have frequent contact with professionals and others within the establishment. Performs at this level one or a combination o f such typical duties as: Assembles or installs equipment or parts requiring simple wiring, soldering, or connecting. Performs simple or routine tasks or tests such as tensile or hardness tests; operates and adjusts simple test equipment; records test data. Gathers and maintains specified records of engineering data such as tests, drawings, etc.; performs computations by substituting numbers in specified formulas; and plots data Works on limited segment of development project; con structs experimental or prototype models to meet engineer ing requirements; conducts tests or experiments and re designs as necessary; and records and evaluates data and and draws simple curves and graphs. Engineering Technician II Performs standardized or prescribed assignments in volving a sequence of related operations. Follows stand ard work methods on recurring assignments but receives explicit instructions on unfamiliar assignments; technical adequacy of routine work is reviewed on com pletion; nonroutine work is reviewed in process. Per forms, at this level, one or a combination of such typical duties as: reports findings. Conducts tests or experiments requiring selection and adaptation or modification of a wide variety of critical test equipment and test procedures; sets up and operates equipment; records data, measures and records problems of sufficient complexity to sometimes require resolution at higher level; and analyzes data and prepares test reports. Extracts and analyzes a variety of engineering data; ap plies conventional engineering practices to develop or prepare schematics, designs, specifications, parts lists, or makes recommendations regarding these items. May review designs or specifications for adequacy. Assembles or constructs simple or standard equipment or parts; may service or repair simple instruments or equip ment. Conducts a variety of standardized tests; may prepare test specimens; sets up and operates standard test equipment; records test data, pointing out deviations resulting from equipment malfunction or observational errors. Engineering Technician V Performs nonroutine and complex assignments in volving responsibility for planning and conducting a complete project of relatively limited scope or a portion of a larger and more diverse project. Selects and adapts plans, techniques, designs, or layouts. Contacts person nel in related activities to resolve mutual problems and coordinate the work; reviews, analyzes, and integrates the technical work of others. Supervisor or professional engineer outlines objectives, requirements, and design approaches; completed work is reviewed for technical adequacy and satisfaction of requirements. May train and be assisted by lower level technicians. Performs at this level one or a combination o f such typical duties as; Extracts engineering data from various prescribed but nonstandardized sources; processes the data following welldefined methods including elementary algebra and geometry; presents the data in prescribed form. Engineering Technician III Performs assignments that are not completely stan dardized or prescribed. Selects or adapts standard pro cedures or equipment, using fully applicable precedents. Receives initial instructions, equipment requirements, and advice from supervisor or engineer as needed; per forms recurring work independently; and work is reviewed for technical adequacy or conformity with in structions. Performs, at this level, one or a combination of such typical duties as: Designs, develops, and constructs major units, devices, or equipment; conducts tests or experiments; analyzes results and redesigns or modifies equipment to improve perform ance; and reports results. Constructs components, subunits, or simple models or adapts standard equipment. May troubleshoot and correct malfunctions. Plans or assists in planning tests to evaluate equipment performance. Determines test requirements, equipment modification, and test procedures; conducts tests, analyzes and evaluates data, and prepares reports on findings and recommendations. Conducts various tests or experiments which may require minor modifications in test setups or procedures as well as subjective judgments in measurement; selects, sets up, and operates standard test equipment and records test data. Reviews and analyzes a variety of engineering data to determine requirements to meet engineering objectives; may Extracts and compiles a variety of engineering data from calculate design data; and prepares layouts, detailed specifications, parts lists, estimates, procedures, etc. May check and analyze drawings or equipment to determine ad equacy of drawings and designs. field notes, manuals, lab reports, etc.; processes data, identifying errors or inconsistencies; and selects methods of data presentation. Engineering Technician IV DRAFTER Performs nonroutine assignments of substantial Performs drafting work requiring knowledge and 74 including sectional profiles, irregular or reverse curves, hidden lines, and small or intricate details. Work re quires use of most of the conventional drafting techni ques and a working knowledge of the terms and pro cedures of the industry. Familiar or recurring work is assigned in general terms; unfamiliar assignments in clude information on methods, procedures, sources of skill in drafting methods, procedures, and techniques. Prepares drawings of structures, mechanical and elec trical equipment, piping and duct systems, and similar equipment, systems, and assemblies. Drawings are used to communicate engineering ideas, designs, and infor mation in support of engineering fuctions. Uses recognized systems of symbols, legends, shadings, and information, and precedents to be followed. Simple revisions to existing drawings may be assigned with a verbal explanation of the desired results; more complex revisions are produced from sketches which clearly depict the desired product. lines having specific meanings in drawings. The following are excluded when they constitute the primary purpose of the job: Design work requiring the technical knowledge, skill, and ability to conceive or originate designs; Illustrating work requiring artistic ability; Work involving the preparation of charts, diagrams, room arrangements, floor plans, etc.; Cartographic work involving the preparation of maps or plats and related materials and drawings of geological structures; and Supervisory work involving the management of a draft ing program or the supervision of drafters when either constitutes the primary purpose of the job. Drafter IV Prepares complete sets of complex drawings which in clude multiple views, detail drawings, and assembly drawings. Drawings include complex design features that require considerable drafting skill to visualize and portray. Assignments regularly require the use of mathematical formulas to compute weights, load capacities, dimensions, quantities of material, etc. Working from sketches and verbal information supplied b\ an engineer or designer, determines the most appro priate views, detail drawings, and supplementary infor mation needed to complete assignments. Selects re quired information from precedents, manufacturers’ catalogs, and technical guides. Independently resolves most of the problems encountered. Supervisor or designer may suggest methods of approach or provide advice on unusually difficult problems. Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following definitions. Drafter I Working under close supervision, traces or copies finished drawings, making clearly indicated revisions. Uses appropriate templates to draw curved lines. Assignments are designed to develop increasing skill in various drafting techniques. Work is spot checked dur ing progress and reviewed upon completion. vo77 . Excludes drafters performing work of similar difficulty to that described at this level but who provide support for a variety of organizations which have widely differing functions or requirements. x o r t : Excludes drafters performing elementary tasks while receiving training in the most basic drafting methods. Drafter V Works closely with design originators, preparing drawings of unusual, complex, or original designs which require a high degree of precision. Performs unusually difficult assignments requiring considerable initiative, resourcefulness, and drafting expertise. Assures that an ticipated problems in manufacture, assembly, installa tion, and operation are resolved by the drawings pro duced. Exercises independent judgment in selecting and interpreting data based on a knowledge of the design in tent. Although working primarily as a drafter, may oc casionally perform engineering design work in inter preting general designs prepared by others or in com pleting missing design details. May provide advice and guidance to lower level drafters or serve as coordinator and planner for large and complex drafting projects. Drafter II Prepares drawings of simple, easily visualized parts or equipment from sketches or marked-up prints. Selects appropriate templates and other equipment needed to complete assignments. Drawings fit familiar patterns and present few technical problems. Supervisor pro vides detailed instructions on new assignments, gives guidance when questions arise, and reviews completed work for accuracy. Drafter III Prepares various drawings of parts and assemblies, COM PU TER O P ER A TO R process data. Work is characterized by the following: Monitors and operates the control console of either a mainframe digital computer or a group of minicom puters, in accordance with operating instructions, to Studies operating instructions to determine equipment setup needed; 75 Loads equipment with required items (tapes, cards, paper, etc); to operating the system and resolving common error conditions, diagnoses and acts on machine stoppage and error conditions not fully covered by existing pro cedures and guidelines (e.g., resetting switches and other controls or making mechancial adjustments to maintain or restore equipment operations). In response to computer output instructions or error conditions, may deviate from standard procedures if standard pro cedures do not provide a solution. Refers problems which do not respond to corrective procedures. Switches necessary auxiliary equipment into system; Starts and operates control console; Reviews error messages and makes corrections during operation or refers problems; and Maintains operating record. May test run new' or modified programs and assist in modifying systems or programs. Included within the scope of this definition are fully qualified computer operators, trainees working to become fully qualified operators, and lead operators providing technical assistance to lower level positions. Excluded are: a. Peripheral equipment operators and remote terminal or computer operators who do not run the co n tro l console of either a mainframe digital com puter or a group of minicomputers; and c. Adapts to a variety of nonstandard problems which require extensive operator intervention (e.g., frequent introduction of new programs, applications, or pro cedures). In response to computer output instructions or error conditions, chooses or devises a course o f action from among several alternatives and alters or deviates from standard procedures if standard procedures do not provide a solution (e.g., reassigning equipment in order to work around faulty equipment or to transfer chan nels); then refers problems. Typically, completed work is submitted to users without supervisory review. Workers operating small computer systems where there is little or no opportunity for operator interven tion in program processing and few requirements to correct equipment malfunctions; b. Computer Operator IV Workers using the computer for scientific, technical or mathematical work when a knowledge of the sub ject matter is required. Computer Operator V Resolves a variety of difficult operating problems (e.g., making unusual equipment connections and rarely used equipment and channel configurations to direct processing through or around problems in equipment, circuits or channels or reviewing test run requirements and developing unusual system configurations that will allow test programs to process without interferring with on-going job requirements). In response to computer output instructions and error conditions or to avoid loss of information or to conserve computer time, operator deviates from standard procedures. Such actions may materially alter the computer unit’s production plans. May spend considerable time away from the control sta tion providing technical assistance to lower level operators and assisting programmers, systems analysts, and subject matter specialists in resolving problems. Computer Operator I Receives on-the-job training in operating the control console (sometimes augmented by classroom training). Works under close personal supervision and is provided detailed written or oral guidance before and during as signments. As instructed, resolves common operating problems. May serve as an assistant operator working under close supervision or performing a portion of a more senior operator’s work. Computer Operator II Processes scheduled routines which present few dif ficult operating problems (e.g., infrequent or easily resolved error conditions). In response to computer out put instructions or error conditions, applies standard operating or corrective procedure. Refers problems which do not respond to preplanned procedure. May serve as an assistant operator, working under general supervision. Computer Operator VI In addition to level V responsibilities, uses a knowledge of program language, computer features, and software systems to assist in: (1) Maintaining, modifying, and developing operating systems or pro grams; (2) developing operating instructions and techni ques to cover problem situations; and (3) switching to emergency backup procedures. Computer Operator III Processes a range o f scheduled routines. In addition Photographer Takes pictures requiring a knowledge of photo- graphic techniques, equipment, and processes. Typical- 76 ly, some familiarity with the company’s activities (e.g., scientific, engineering, industrial, technical, retail, com mercial, etc.) and some artistic ability are needed at the higher levels. Depending on the objectives of the assign ment, photographers use standard equipment (including simple still, graphic, and motion picture cameras, video and television hand cameras, and similar commonly us ed equipment) and/or use special-purpose equipment (including specialized still and graphic cameras, motion picture production, television studio, and high-speed cameras and equipment). At the higher levels, a com plex accessory system of equipment m a y be used, as needed, with sound or lighting systems, generators, tim ing or measurement control mechanisms, or improvised stages or environments, etc. Work of photographers at all levels is reviewed for quality and acceptability. Photographers may also develop, process, and edit film or tape, may serve as a lead photographer to lower level workers, or may do work described at lower levels as needed. E x c lu d e d are: a. Workers who have no training or experience in photography techniques, equipment, and processes; b. Workers who primarily operate reproduction, offset, or copying machines, motion picture projectors, or machines to match, cut. or splice negatives; c. Workers who primarily develop, process, print, or edit photographic film or tape; or develop, maintain, or repair photographic equipment; d. Workers who primarily direct the sequences, actions, photography, sound, and editing of motion pictures tor television writer'- and editors; and e. Photographers taking pictures for commercial newspaper or magazine publishers, television sta tions, or movie producers. an uncomplicated photograph. Typical subjects are employees who are photographed for identification or publicity of award ceremonies, in terviews, banquets, or meetings; or external views of machinery, supplies, equipment, buildings, damaged shipments, or other routine subjects photographed to record the condition at a specified time. Assignments are usually performed without direct guidance due to the clear and simple nature of the desired photograph. Photographer II Uses standard still cameras, commonly available lighting equipment, and related techniques to take photographs which involve limited problems of speed, motion, color contrast, or lighting. Typically, the sub jects photographed are similar to those at level I, but the technical aspects require more skill. Based on clear-cut objectives, determines shutter speeds, lens settings and filters, camera angles, exposure times, and type of film. Requires familiarity with the situation gained from similar past experience to arrange for specific emphasis, balanced lighting, and correction for distortion, etc., as needed. May use 16mm. or 35mm. motion picture cameras for simple shots such as moving equipment, in dividuals at work or meetings, and the like, where available or simple artificial lighting is used. Ordinarily, there is opportunity for repeated shots or for retakes if the original exposure is unsatisfactory. Consults with supervisor or more experienced photo graphers when problems are anticipated. Photographer III Selects from a range of standard photographic equip ment for assignments demanding exact renditions, nor mally without opportunity for later retakes, when there are specific problems or uncertainties concerning lighting, exposure time, color, artistry, etc. Discusses technical requirements with operating officials or super visor and customizes treatment for each situation accor ding to a detailed request. Varies camera processes and techniques and uses the setting and background to pro duce esthetic, as well as accurate and informative, pic tures. Typically, standard equipment is used at this level although “ specialized” photography work is usually performed; may use some special-purpose equipment under closer supervision. In typical assignments, photographs: Drawings, charts, maps, textiles, etc., requiring accurate computa tion of reduction ratios and exposure times and precise equipment adjustments; tissue specimens in fine detail and exact color when color and condition of the tissue may deteriorate rapidly; medical or surgical procedures or conditions which normally cannot be recaptured; machine or motor parts to show wear or corrosion in minute wires or gears; specialized real estate or retail goods for company catalogs or listings where saleability Positions are matched to the appropriate level based on the difficulty of, and responsibility for, the photography performed, including the subject-matter knowledge and artistry required to fulfill the assign ment. While the equipment may be an indication of the level of difficulty, photographers at the higher levels may use standard equipment, as needed. Photographer I Takes routine pictures in situations where several shots can be taken. Uses standard still cameras for pic tures where complications, such as speed, motion, color contrast, or lighting are not present or where there is not particular need to overcome them. Photographs are taken for identification, employee publications, infor mation, or publicity purposes. Workers must be able to focus, center, and provide simple Hash type lighting for 77 is enhanced by the photography; company products, work, construction sites, or patrons in prescribed detail to substantiate legal claims, contracts, etc.; artistic or technical design layouts requiring precise equipment set tings; fixed objects on the ground or air-to-air objects which must be captured quickly and require directing the pilot to get the correct angle o f approach. Works independently; solves most problems through consultations with more experienced photographers, if available, or through reference sources. Works under the guidelines and requirements of the subject-matter area to be photographed. Consults with supervisors only when dealing with highly unusual prob lems or altering existing equipment. Photographer V As a top technical expert, exercises imagination and creative ability in response to photography situations re quiring novel and unprecedented treatment. Typically performs one or m o r e of the following assignments: (1) Develops and adapts photographic equipment or proc esses to meet new and unprecedented situations, e.g., works with engineers and physicists to develop and Photographer IV Uses special-purpose cameras and related equipment for assignments in which the photographer usually makes all the technical decisions, although the objective of the pictures is determined by operating officials. Conceives and plans the technical photographic effects desired by operating officials and discusses modifica tions and improvements to their original ideas in light of the potential and limits of the equipment. Improvises photographic methods and techniques or selects and alters secondary photographic features (e.g., scenes, backgrounds, color, lighting) to carry out the desired primary objectives. Many assignments afford only one opportunity to photograph the subject. Typical ex amples o f equipment used at this level include ultra-high speed, motion picture production, studio television, animation cameras, specialized still and graphic cameras, electronic timing and triggering devices, etc. Some assignments are characterized by extremes in light values and the use of complicated equipment. Sets up precise photographic measurement and controls equipment; uses high-speed color photography, syn chronized stroboscopic (interval) light sources, and/or timed electronic triggering; operates equipment from a remote point; or arranges and uses cameras operating at several thousand frames per second. In other assignments, selects and sets up motion picture or televi sion cameras and accessories and shoots a part of a pro duction or a sequence of scenes, or takes special scenes to be used for background or special effects in the pro duction. modify equipment for use in extreme conditions such as excessive heat or cold, radiation, high altitude, under water, wind and pressure tunnels, or explosions; (2) plans and organizes the overall technical photographic coverage for a variety of events and developments in phases of a scientific, industrial, medical, or commer cial research project or similar program; or (3) creates the desired illusion or emotional effect through develop ing trick or special effects photography for novel situa tions requiring a high degree of ingenuity and im aginative camera work to heighten, simulate, or alter reality. Independently develops, plans, and organizes the overall technical photographic aspects of the assignment in collaboration with operating officials who are responsible for the substance of the project. Uses im agination and creative ability to implement objectives within the capabilities and limitations of cameras and equipment. May exercise limited control over the substance of the event to be photographed by staging the action, suggesting behavior of the principals, and rehearsing the activity before photographs are taken. \OT£: Excluded are photographers above level V who independently plan the objectives, scope, and substance of the photography for the project in addition to plan ning the overall technical photographic coverage. Clerical ACCOUNTING CLERK clerical methods and office practices and procedures as they relate to the clerical processing and recording of transactions and accounting information. Levels III and IV require a knowledge and understanding of the established and standardized bookkeeping and account ing procedures and techniques used in an accounting system, or a segment of an accounting system, where there are few variations in the types of transactions Performs one or more accounting tasks, such as posting to registers and ledgers; balancing and reconcil ing accounts; verifying the internal consistency, com pleteness, and mathematical accuracy of accounting documents; assigning prescribed accounting distribu tion codes; examining and verifying the clerical ac curacy of various types of reports, lists, calculations, postings, etc.; preparing journal vouchers; or making entries or adjustment to accounts. Levels I and II require a basic knowledge of routine handled. In addition, some jobs at each level may require a basic knowledge and understanding of the terminology, codes, and processes used in an 78 automated accounting system. tion in the accounting system); and/or analyzes and reconciles computer printouts with operating unit reports (contacting units and researching causes of discrepancies, and taking action to ensure that accounts balance). Employee resolves problems in recurring assignments in accordance with previous training and experience. Supervisor provides suggestions for handl ing unusual or nonrecurring transactions. Conformance Accounting Clerk I Performs very simple and routine accounting clerical operations, for example, recognizing and comparing easily identified numbers and codes on similar and repetitive accounting documents, verifying ma thematical accuracy, and identifying discrepancies and bringing them to the supervisor’s attention. Supervisor gives clear and detailed instructions for specific assignments. Employee refers to supervisor all matters not covered by instructions. Work is closely controlled and reviewed in detail for accuracy, adequacy, and adherence to instructions. with requirements and technical soundness of com pleted work are reviewed by the supervisor or are con trolled by mechanisms built into the accounting system. NOTE. Excluded from level IV are positions responsi ble for maintaining either a general ledger or a general ledger in combination with subsidiary accounts. Accounting Clerk II FILE CLERK Performs one or more routine accounting clerical operations, such as: Examining, verifying, and correct ing accounting transactions to ensure completeness and accuracy of data and proper identification of accounts, Files, classifies, and retrieves material in an establish ed filing system. May perform clerical and manual tasks required to maintain files. Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following definitions. and checking that expenditures will not exceed obliga tions in specified accounts; totaling, balancing, and reconciling collection vouchers; posting data to transac tion sheets where employee identifies proper accounts and items to be posted; and coding documents in accor dance with a chart (listing) of accounts. Employee follows specific and detailed accounting procedures. Completed work is reviewed for accuracy and com pliance with procedures. File Clerk I Performs routine filing of material that has already been classified or which is easily classified in a simple serial cla ssifica tio n system (e .g ., alph ab etical, chronological, or numerical). As requested, locates readily available material in files and forwards material; may fill out withdrawal charge. May perform simple clerical and manual tasks required to maintain and serv ice files. Accounting Clerk III Uses a knowledge of double entry bookkeeping in performing one or more o f the following: Posts actions to journals, identifying subsidiary accounts affected and debit and credit entries to be made and assigning proper codes; reviews computer printouts against manually maintained journals, detecting and correcting erroneous postings, and preparing documents to adjust accounting classifications and other data; or reviews lists o f transactions rejected by an automated system, determining reasons for rejections, and preparing necessary correcting material. On routine assignments, employee selects and applies established procedures and techniques. Detailed instructions are provided for dif ficult or unusual assignments. Completed work and methods used are reviewed for technical accuracy. File Clerk II Sorts, codes, and files unclassified material by simple (subject-matter) headings or partly classified material by finer subheadings. Prepares simple related index and cross-reference aids. As requested, locates clearly iden tified material in files and forwards material. May per form related clerical tasks required to maintain and service files. File Clerk III Classifies and indexes file material such as cor respondence, reports, technical documents, etc., in an established filing system containing a number of varied subject matter files. May also file this material. May keep records o f various types in conjunction with the files. May lead a small group of lower level file clerks. Accounting Clerk IV KEY ENTRY OPERATOR Maintains journals or subsidiary ledgers o f an ac counting system and balances and reconciles accounts. Typical duties include one or both of the following: Reviews invoices and statements (verifying information, ensuring sufficient funds have been obligated, and, if questionable, resolving with the submitting unit, deter mining accounts involved, coding transactions, and processing material through data processing for applica Operates keyboard-controlled data entry device such as keypunch machine or key-operated magnetic tape or disc encoder to transcribe data into a form suitable for computer processing. Work requires skill in operating an alphanumeric keyboard and an understanding of transcribing procedures and relevant data entry equip ment. 79 Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following definitions. current and prospective employees, maintain personnel records and information listings, and prepare and proc ess papers on personnel actions (hires, transfers, changes in pay, etc.). At the higher levels, clerks/assistants (often titled personnel assistants or specialists) may perform limited aspects o f a personnel professional’s work, e.g., interviewing candidates, recommending placements, and preparing personnel reports. Final decisions on personnel actions are made by personnel professionals or managers. Some clerks/assistants may perform a limited amount of work in other specialties, such as benefits, compensation, or employee relations. Typing may be required at any level. Excluded are: Key Entry Operator I Work is routine and repetitive. Under close supervi sion or following specific procedures or detailed in structions, works from various standardized source documents which have been coded and require little or no selecting, coding, or intepreting of data to be entered. Refers to supervisor problems arising from er roneous items, codes, or missing information. Key Entry Operator II Work requires the application o f experience and judg ment in selecting procedures to be followed and in searching for, interpreting, selecting, or coding items to be entered from a variety of source documents. On oc casion, may also perform some routine work as describ ed for level I. a. b. a. Delivering valuables or security-classified mail when the work requires a continuing knowledge of special procedures for handling such items; c. Weighing mail, determining postage, or recording and controlling registered, insured, and certified mail in the mail room; d. Making deliveries to unfamiliar or widely separated buildings or points which are not part of an estab lished route; or e. Workers who are primarily compensated for duties outside the employment specialty, such as benefits, compensation, or employee relations. Positions are classified into levels on the basis o f the following definitions. The work described is essentially at a responsible clerical level at the low levels and prog resses to a staff assistant or technician level. At level III, which is transitional, both types of work are described. Jobs which match either type o f work described at level III, or which are combinations o f the two, can be matched. Operating motor vehicles; b. Workers in positions requiring a bachelor’s degree; and e. Performs various routine duties such as run ning errands, operating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening mail, distributing mail on a regularly scheduled route or in a familiar area, and other minor clerical work. May deliver mail that re quires some special handling, e.g., mail that is insured, registered, or marked for special delivery. Excluded are positions which include any of the following as significant duties: Workers whose duties do not require a knowledge of the company’s personnel rules and procedures, such as receptionists, messengers, typists, or steno graphers; d. MESSENGER Workers who receive additional pay primarily for maintaining and safeguarding personnel record files for a company; c. n o t e . Excluded are operators above level II using the key entry controls to access, read, and evaluate the substance of specific records to take substantive ac tions, or to make entries requiring a similar level of knowledge. Workers who primarily compute and process pay rolls or compute and/or respond to questions on company benefits or retirement claims; Directing other workers. P e rso n n e l C lerk7 A ssistant (E m p lo ym e n t) I Performs routine tasks which require a knowledge of company personnel procedures and rules, such as: Pro viding simple employment information and appropriate lists and forms to applicants or employees on types of jobs being filled, procedures to follow, and where to ob tain additional information; ensuring that the proper company forms are completed for name changes, locator information, applications, etc., and reviewing completed forms for signatures and proper entries; or maintaining assigned segments of company personnel records, contacting appropriate sources to secure any missing items, and posting the items, such as, dates of promotion, transfer, and hire, or rates of pay or per sonal data. (If this information is computerized, skill in coding or entering information may be needed as a minor duty.) May answer outside inquiries for simple PERSONNEL CLERK/ASSISTANT (EMPLOYMENT) Personnel clerks/assistants (employment) provide clerical and technical support to personnel professionals or managers in matters relating to recruiting, hiring, transfer, change in pay status, and termination of co m p a n y e m p lo y e e s. At the low er le v e ls, clerks/assistants primarily provide basic information to 80 factual information, such as verification of dates of employment in response to telephone credit checks on employees. Some receptionist or other clerical duties may be performed. May be assigned work to provide training for a higher level position. Detailed company rules and procedures are available for all aspects of the assignment. Guidance and assistance on unusual questions are available at all times. Work is spot checked, often on a daily basis. Personnel Clerk/Assistant (Employment) II Examines an d/or processes personnel action documents using experience in applying company per sonnel procedures and policies. Ensures that all infor mation is complete and consistent and determines whether further discussion with applicants or employees is needed or whether personnel information must be checked against additional files or listings. Must select the most appropriate precedent, rule, or procedure as a basis for the personnel action from a number o f alter natives. Responds to varied questions from applicants, employees, or managers for readily available informa tion which can be obtained from file material or manuals; responses require skill to secure cooperation in correcting improperly completed personnel action documents or to explain regulations and procedures. May provide information to managers on availability of applicants and status of hiring actions; may verify employment dates and places supplied on job applica tions; may maintain assigned personnel records, and may administer typing and stenography tests. Completes routine assignments independently. Detailed guidance is available for situations which deviate from established precedents. Clerks/assistants are relied upon to alert higher level clerks/assistants or supervisor to such situations. Work may be spot check ed periodically. AND/OR Type B Performs routine personnel assignments beyond the clerical level, such as: Orienting new employees to com pany programs, facilities, rules on time and attendance, and leave policies; computing basic statistical informa tion for reports on manpower profiles, E E O progress and accomplishments, hiring activities, attendance and leave profiles, turnover, etc.; and screening applicants for well-defined positions, rejecting those who do not qualify for available openings for clear-cut reasons, referring others to appropriate employment interviewer. Guidance is provided on possible sources of informa tion, methods of work, and types of reports needed. Completed written work receives close technical review from higher level personnel office employees; other work may be checked occasionally. Personnel Clerk/Assistant (Employment) IV Performs work in support of personnel professionals which requires a good working knowledge o f personnel procedures, guides, and precedents. In representative assignments: Interviews applicants, obtains references and recommends placement of applicants in a few welldefined occupations (trades or clerical) within a stable organization or unit; conducts postplacement or exit interviews to identify job adjustment problems or reasons for leaving the company; performs routine statistical analyses related to manpower, e e o , hiring, or other employment concerns, e.g., compares one set of data to another set as instructed; and requisitions ap plicants through employment agencies for clerical or similar level jobs. At this level, assistants typically have a range o f personal contacts within and outside the com pany and with applicants, and must be tactful and ar ticulate. May perform some clerical work in addition to the above duties. Supervisor reviews completed work against stated objectives. Personnel Clerk/Assistant (Employment) III Type A Personnel Clerk/Assistant (Employment) V Serves as a clerical expert in independently processing the most complicated types o f personnel actions, e.g., temporary employment, rehires, and dismissals, and in providing information when it is necessary to con solidate data from a number o f sources, often with short deadlines. Screens applications for obvious rejec tions. Resolves conflicts in computer listings or other sources o f employee information. Locates lost documents or reconstructs information using a number of sources. May check references of applicants when in formation in addition to dates and places o f past work is needed, and judgment is required to ask appropriate routine follow-up questions. May provide guidance to lower level clerks. Supervisory review is similar to level II. Workers at this level perform duties similar to level IV, but are responsible for more complicated cases and work with greater independence. Performs limited aspects of professional personnel work dealing with a variety of occupations common to the company which are clear cut and stable in employment requirements. Typical duties include: Researching recruitment sources, such as employment agencies or State man power offices, and advising managers on the availability o f candidates in common occupations; screening and selecting employees for a few routine, nonpermanent jobs, such as summer employment; or answering in quiries on a controversial issue, such as a hiring or pro motion freeze. These duties often require considerable skill and diplomacy in communications. Other typical 81 of purchases already made and who do not analyze the facts at hand and do not make recommendations for either extension of delivery dates or for other similar modifications to the purchase agreement, as described at level II, b; duties may include: Surveying managers for future hir ing requirements; developing newspaper vacancy an nouncements or explaining job requirements to employ ment agencies for administrative or professional posi tions; or reviewing the effect o f corporate personnel procedural changes on local employment programs (e.g., automation o f records, new affirmative action goals). May incidentally perform some clerical duties. Supervisory review is similar to level IV. f. g. Purchasing Assistant I According to detailed procedures or company regula tions, examines documents such as requisitions, pur chase orders, invitations to bid, contracts, and support ing papers. Reviews the purchase requisition to deter mine whether the correct item description, price, quanti ty, discount terms, shipping instructions, and/or delivery terms have been included and selects the ap propriate purchase phrases and forms from prescribed company lists or files. Obtains any missing or corrected information, prepares the purchase order, and gives it to the buyer for approval when satisfied that the infor mation is complete and the computations are accurate. Contacts are usually within the establishment to verify or correct factual information. May contact vendors for information about purchases already made and may reorder items under routine and existing purchase ar rangements where few, if any, questions arise. Receives detailed instructions on new assignments. Refers ques tions to supervisor who may spot check work on a daily basis. Assistants at this level examine documents for order of standard goods, supplies, equipment, or services, and/or for order o f specialized items when the complex ity of the item does not affect the assistant’s work, i.e., the assistant is not required to use considerable judg ment to find a previous transaction to use as a guideline, as described at level II, a. Purchasing clerks or assistants, typists, file clerks, secretaries, receptionists, and trainees, who do not examine purchase requisitions or other documents to assure accuracy, completeness, and correct process ing; workers in these excluded positions may prepare and type the final purchase order, entering such pre scribed items as quantities, model numbers, ad dresses, or prices, after a higher level employee screens the requisition and assures the purchase order data are complete and accurate. b. Workers who process or expedite the purchase of items for direct sale, either wholesale or retail; c. Purchasing Assistant II Assistants at this level perform assignments described in paragraphs a or b, or a combination of the two. Workers who as a primary duty: Maintain a filing system or listing to monitor inventory levels; reorder items by phone under ongoing contracts; or receive and disburse supplies and materials for use in the company; d. a. Production expediters or controllers who primarily ensure the timely arrival and coordination of purchased materials with assembly line or production schedules and requirements; e. Buyers. Positions are classified into levels based on the following definitions according to the complexity o f the work, the conditions o f the purchase, and the amount o f supervision. Provides clerical or technical support to buyers or contract specialists who deal with suppliers, vendors, contractors, etc., outside the company to purchase goods, materials, equipment, services, etc. Assistants at level I examine requisitions and purchase documents, such as purchase orders, invitations to bid, contracts, and supporting papers; they review, verify, prepare, or control the documents to assure accuracy, com pleteness, and correct processing. Assistants at levels II and III may also expedite purchases already made, by contacting vendors and analyzing and reporting on sup plier problems related to delivery, availability of goods, or any other part of the purchase agreement. Assistants at level III may also develop technical information for buyers, e.g., comparative information on materials sought. All assignments require a practical knowledge of company purchasing procedures and operations and experience in applying company regulations, guidelines, or manuals to specific transactions. Assistants may type the purchasing documents they prepare or may perform work described at lower levels, as needed. Final deci sions on purchasing transactions are made by buyers or contract specialists. Excluded are: a. Positions requiring a bachelor’s degree; and h. PURCHASING ASSISTANT Positions which require a technical knowledge of equipment characteristics and parts, production control, or manufacturing methods and procedures; Purchasing expediters who only check on the status 82 Reviews and prepares purchase documents for spe cialized items, such as items with optional features or technical equipment requiring precise specifications. Since the transactions usually require special pur chasing conditions, e.g., multiple deliveries, provi sion of spare parts, or renegotiation of terms, con siderable judgment is needed to find a previous trans action to use as a guideline; as required, adapts the phrases or clauses in the guideline transaction that apply to the purchase at hand. In some cases, the contract specifications with specialists, buyers, suppliers, and users. Recommends revisions to the contract or purchase agreement, if needed, based upon company requirements. May reorder technical and specialized items within existing purchase con tracts which contain special purchasing conditions. Questions which arise are handled similarly to those in level II, b. reviews purchasing documents prepared by lower level clerks or prepared by personnel in other com pany units to detect processing discrepancies or to clarify the purchase papers; corrects clerical errors. May advise company employees on how to prepare requisitions for items to be ordered. b. Expedites purchases by making a recommendation for action based on simple analysis of the facts at hand, company guidelines, and the background of the purchase: Contacts suppliers to obtain informa tion on deliveries or on contracts; based on clearcut guidelines for each type of purchase and previous performance of supplier, availability of item, or impact of delay, recommends extension of delivery date or other similar modifications. In some cases, decides to refer problems to production, packaging, or other company specialists. May reorder standard items under a variety of existing purchase agreements where judgment is needed to ask further questions and follow up and coordinate transactions. Assist ants at this level expedite purchases of standard goods, supplies, equipment, or services, and/or pur chases of specialized items when the complexity of the item does not affect the assistant’s work, i.e., the assistant does not coordinate requests for minor deviations from contract specifications, etc., as described at level III, b. Purchasing assistants at this level receive instructions about new procurement policies. Assistants seek guidance on highly unusual problems but are expected to propose solutions for supervisory approval. Super visory review is similar to level II; drafts o f special clauses, etc., are reviewed in detail. Assistants at this level coordinate information with company buyers and with suppliers outside the com pany and keep others informed of the progress of tran sactions. Major changes in company regulations and procedures are explained by supervisor. Refers unusual situations to supervisor, who also spot checks all com pleted work for adequacy. n o t e : Excluded are higher level workers who: Ne gotiate agreements with contractors on minor changes in the terms of an established contract; or analyze and make recommendations about proposals of specialized equipment, about the solvency and performance of firms, or about clerical processing methods needed to fit new purchasing policies. Purchasing Assistant III SECRETARY Assistants at this level have a good understanding o f purchase circumstances for specialized items—what to buy, where to buy, and under what terms buyers negotiate and make purchases. They perform assignments described in paragraphs a, b, or c, or a combination o f any o f these. a. c. Furnishes technical support to buyers or contract specialists, using a detailed knowledge of company purchasing transactions and procedures, e.g., ana lyzes bids for contracts to determine the possible number and interest of bidders for standard com modities and services; assembles contracts and drafts special clauses, terms, or requirements for unprece dented purchases, e.g., for specially designed equip ment or for complex one-time transactions; gathers and summarizes information on the availability of special equipment and the ability of suppliers to meet company needs. Provides principal secretarial support in an office, usually to one individual, and, in some cases, also to the subordinate staff o f that individual. Maintains a close and highly responsive relationship to the day-to-day ac tivities o f the supervisor and staff. Works fairly in dependently receiving a minimum o f detailed supervi sion and guidance. Performs varied clerical and secretarial duties requiring a knowledge o f office routine and an understanding of the organization, pro grams, and procedures related to the work o f the office. Exclusions. Not all positions titled “ secretary” possess the above characteristics. Examples o f positions which are excluded from the definition are as follows. Reviews and prepares purchase documents for highly specialized items where few precedent transactions exist that can be used as guidelines and where provi sions such as fixed-price contracts with provisions for escalation, price redetermination, or cost incentives are needed. Complicated provisions for progress payments, for testing and evaluating the ordered item, or for meeting company production schedules may also exist. As necessary, drafts special clauses, terms, or requirements for unusual purchases. Pro vides authoritative information to others on com pany purchase procedures and assures that documents and transactions agree with basic pro curement policies. a. b. Clerks or secretaries working under the direction of secretaries or administrative assistants as described in e; Stenographers not fully performing secretarial duties; c. 83 Stenographers or secretaries assigned to two or more professional, technical, or managerial persons of equivalent rank; d. b. Expedites purchases of specialized items when the complexity of the items does affect the assistant’s work. (See level II, b.) Investigates supplier problems and coordinates requests for minor deviations from Assistants or secretaries performing any kind of e. f. technical work, e.g., personnel, accounting, or legal work; Administrative assistants or supervisors performing duties which are more difficult or more responsible than the secretarial work described in LR-1 through LR-4; Secretaries receiving additional pay primarily for maintaining confidentiality of payroll records or other sensitive information; g. Secretaries performing routine receptionist, typing, and filing duties following detailed instructions and guidelines; these duties are less responsible than those described in LR-1 below; and h. each level. Executive’s program(s) are usually interlock ed on a direct and continuing basis with other major organizational segments, requiring constant attention to extensive formal coordination, clearances, and pro cedural controls. Executive typically has: Financial deci sionmaking authority for assigned program(s); con siderable impact on the entire organization’s financial position or image; and responsibility for, or has staff specialists in, such areas as personnel and administra tion for assigned organization. Executive plays an im portant role in determining the policies and major pro grams o f the entire organization, and spends con siderable time dealing with outside parties actively in terested in assigned program(s) and current or con troversial issues. Trainees. Classification by Level Secretary jobs which meet the required characteristics are matched at one of five levels according to two fac tors: (a) Level of the secretary's supervisor within the overall organizational structure, and (b) level of the secretary’s responsibility. Table C-5 indicates the level of the secretary for each combination of factors. Level of secretary’s responsibility (LR) LS-1. Organizational structure is not complex and in This factor evaluates the nature o f the work relation ship between the secretary and the supervisor or staff, and the extent to which the secretary is expected to exer cise initiative and judgment. Secretaries should bematched at the level best describing their level of responsibility. When a position’s duties span more than one LR level, the introductory paragraph at the beginning o f each LR level should be used to deter mine which of the levels best matches the position. (Typically, secretaries performing at the higher levels o f responsibility also perform duties described at the lower levels.) ternal procedures and administrative controls are simple and informal; supervisor directs staff through face-toface meetings. LR-1. Carries out recurring office procedures in Level of secretary’s supervisors (LS) Secretaries should be matched at one of the three LS levels below best describing the organization o f the secretary’s supervisor. dependently. Selects the guideline or reference which fits the specific case. Supervisor provides specific in structions on new assignments and checks completed work for accuracy. Performs varied duties including or comparable to the following: LS-2. Organizational structure is complex and is divid ed into subordinate groups that usually differ from each other as to subject matter, function, etc.; and supervisor usually directs staff through intermediate supervisors; internal procedures and administrative controls are for mal. An entire organization (e.g., division, subsidiary, or parent organization) may contain a variety of subor dinate groups which meet the LS-2 definition. Therefore, it is not unusual for one LS-2 supervisor to report to another LS-2 supervisor. The presence of subordinate supervisors does not by itself mean LS-2 applies, e.g., a clerical processing organization divided into several units, each performing very similar work, is placed in LS-1. In smaller organizations or industries such as retail trade, with relatively few organizational levels, the supervisor may have an impact on the policies and may deal with important outside contacts, as described in LS-3. a. Responds to routine telephone requests which have standard answers; refers calls and visitors to ap propriate staff. Controls mail and assures timely staff response; may send form letters. b. As instructed, maintains supervisor’s calendar, makes appointments, and arranges for meeting rooms. c. Reviews materials prepared for supervisor’s approval for typographical accuracy and proper format. d. Maintains recurring internal reports, such as: Time and leave records, office equipment listings, cor respondence controls, training plans, etc. e. Requisitions supplies, printing, maintenance, or other services. Types, takes and transcribes dictation, and establishes and maintains office files. LR-2. Handles differing situations, problems, and LS-3. Organizational structure is divided into two or more subordinate supervisory levels (of which at least one is a managerial level) with several subdivisions at 84 subordinate office(s) for periodic or special con ferences, reports, inquiries, etc. Shifts clerical staff to accommodate workload needs. deviations in the work o f the office according to the supervisor’s general instructions, priorities, duties, policies, and program goals. Supervisor may assist secretary with special assignments. Duties include or are comparable to the following: a. LS-4. Handles a wide variety of situations and con flicts involving the clerical or administrative functions of the office which often cannot be brought to the atten tion o f the executive. The executive sets the overall ob jectives of the work. Secretary may participate in developing the work deadlines. Duties include or are comparable to the following: Screens telephone calls, visitors, and incoming cor respondence; personally responds to requests for in formation concerning office procedures; determines which requests should be handled by the supervisor, appropriate staff members, or other offices. May prepare and sign routine, nontechnical cor respondence in own or supervisor’s name. a. Composes correspondence requiring some under standing of technical matters; may sign for executive when technical or policy content has been authoriz ed. b. b. Schedules tentative appointments without prior clearance. Makes arrangements for conferences and meetings and assembles established background materials, as directed. May attend meetings and record and report on the proceedings. Notes commitments made by executive during meetings and arranges for staff implementation. On own initiative, arranges for staff member to repre sent organization at conferences and meetings, establishes appointment priorities, or reschedules or refuses appointments or invitations. c. Reviews outgoing materials and correspondence for internal consistency and conformance with super visor’s procedures; assures that proper clearances have been obtained, when needed. d. Collects information from the files or staff for routine inquiries on office program(s) or periodic reports. Refers nonroutine requests to supervisor or staff. c. Reads outgoing correspondence for executive’s ap proval and alerts writers to any conflict with the file or departure from policies or executive’s viewpoints; gives advice to resolve the problems. e. Explains to subordinate staff supervisor’s re quirements concerning office procedures. Coor dinates personnel and administrative forms for the office and forwards for processing. d. Summarizes the content of incoming materials, specially gathered information, or meetings to assist executive; coordinates the new information with background office sources; and draws attention to important parts or conflicts. Uses greater judgment and initiative to deter mine the approach or action to take in nonroutine situa tions. Interprets and adapts guidelines, including un written policies, precedents, and practices, which are not always completely applicable to changing situations. Duties include or are comparable to the following: e. In the executive’s absence, ensures that requests for action or information are relayed to the appropriate staff member; as needed, interprets request and helps implement action; makes sure that information is furnished in timely manner; decides whether ex ecutive should be notified of important or emergency matters. LR-3. a. Excludes secretaries performing any o f the following Based on a knowledge of the supervisor’s views, composes correspondence on own initiative about administrative and general office policies for super visor’s approval. b. a. b. Prepares agenda for conferences; explains discussion topics to participants; drafts introductions and develops background information and prepares outlines for executive or staff member(s) to use in writing speeches. c. Reads publications, regulations, and directives and takes action or refers those that are important to the supervisor and staff. Acts as office manager for the executive’s organiza tion, e.g., determines when new procedures are need ed for changing situations and devises and im plements alternatives; revises or clarifies procedures to eliminate conflict or duplication; identifies and resolves various problems that affect the orderly flow of work in transactions with parties outside the organization. Advises individuals outside the organization on the executive’s views on major policies or current issues facing the organization; contacts or responds to con tacts from high-ranking outside officials (e.g., city or State officials, Members of Congress, presidents of Anticipates and prepares materials needed by the supervisor for conferences, correspondence, ap pointments, meetings, telephone calls, etc., and in forms supervisor on matters to be considered. c. duties: d. e. Prepares special or one-time reports, summaries, or replies to inquiries, selecting relevant information from a variety of sources such as reports, documents, correspondence, other offices, etc., under general direction. Advises secretaries in subordinate offices on new procedures; requests information needed from the 85 national unions or large national or international firms, etc.) in unique situations. These officials may be relatively inaccessible, and each contact typically must be handled differently, using judgment and discretion. memoranda, and letters; composing simple letters from general instructions; reading and routing incoming mail; answering routine questions; etc. TYPIST Uses a manual, electric, or automatic typewriter to type various materials. Included are automatic typewriters that are used only to record text and update and reproduce previously typed items from magnetic cards or tape. May include typing of stencils, mats, or similar materials for use in duplicating processes. May do clerical work involving little special training, such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting and distributing incoming mail. T a b le C -5. C rite ria fo r m a tc h in g s e c re ta rie s by level Level of secretary’s supervisor LS-1 LS-2 LS-3 Level of secretary’s responsibility LR-1 LR-2 LR-3 LR-4 I II I III IV III IV V IV V V I STENOGRAPHER Excluded from this definition is work that involves: Primary duty is to take dictation using shorthand and to transcribe the dictation. May also type from written copy. May operate from a stenographic pool. May occa sionally transcribe from voice recordings. Excluded from this definition are: a. c. Stenographers, such as shorthand reporters, who record material verbatim at hearings, conferences, or similar proceedings. The use of varitype machines, composing equipment, or automatic equipment in preparing material for printing; and c. Stenographers who take dictation involving the fre quent use of a wide variety of technical or specialized vocabulary. Typically this kind of vocabulary cannot be learned in a relatively short period of time, e.g., a month or two. d. b. Secretaries providing the principal secretarial support in an office and performing more responsible and discretionary tasks, as described in LR-1 thru LR-4 in the secretary definition. Typing directly from spoken material that has been recorded on discs, cylinders, belts, tapes, or other similar media; Familiarity with specialized terminology in various keyboard commands to manipulate or edit the recorded text to accomplish revisions, or to perform tasks such as extracting and listing items from the text, or transmitting text to other terminals, or using sort commands to have the machine reorder material. Typically requires the use of automatic equipment which may be either computer linked or have a pro grammable memory so that material can be organiz ed in regularly used formats or preformed para graphs which can then be coded and stored for future use in letters or documents. Trainee positions not requiring a fully qualified stenographer. b. a. Typist I Performs one o f more o f the following: Copy typing from rough or clear drafts; or routine typing of forms, insurance policies, etc; or setting up simple standard Stenographer I Takes and transcribes dictation, receiving specific assignments along with detailed instructions on such re quirements as forms and presentation. The transcribed material is typically reviewed in rough draft and the final transcription is reviewed for conformance with the rough drafts. May maintain files, keep simple records, or perform other relatively routine clerical tasks. tabulations; or copying more complex tables already set up and spaced properly. N o t e : The occupational titles1 and definitions for ac counting clerks, drafters, file clerks, key entry operators, stenographers, and typists are the same as those used in the Bureau’s program of occupational wage surveys in metropolitan areas. Revised definitions for stenographer and typist were in troduced into the area surveys in calendar year 1981; the 4-level accounting clerks, in 1980; and the 5-level drafter, in 1979. Three years are required to bring a new job definition into all areas covered by the program. Stenographer II Takes and transcribes dictation, determining the most appropriate format. Performs stenographic duties re quiring significantly greater independence and respon sibility than stenographer I. Supervisor typically pro vides general instruction. Work requires a thorough working knowledge of general business and office pro cedures and o f the specific business operations, organizations, policies, procedures, files, workflow, etc. Uses this knowledge in performing stenographic duties and responsible clerical tasks such as maintaining followup files; assembling material for reports, ' Before 1981, level designations differed between the area and national surveys. See National Survey o f Professional, Administrative,Technical, and Clerical Pay, March 1980, Bulletin 2081 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1980), p . 68, fo r d etails. 86 technical or unusual words or foreign language materials; or planning layout and typing of complicated statistical tables to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine form letters, varying details to suit circumstances. Typist II Performs one or more o f the following: Typing material in final form when it involves combining material from several sources; or responsibility for cor rect spelling; syllabification, punctuation, etc., of Classification by Standard Occupational Codes found in the soc manual. For example, the p a t c oc cupations Accountant, Chief Accountant, Auditor, and The titles and the 3- or 4-digit codes to the right o f the b ls (P A T C ) occupations in table C-6 are taken from the 1980 edition o f the Standard Occupational Classifica Public Accountant are all classified in the soc manual tion Manual as accountants and auditors. The soc occupation (code 1412) includes a variety o f accounting occupations (e.g., budget accountants, credit analysts, accounting methods analysts) that are excluded from the p a t c description. (S O C ), issued by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Office o f Federal Statistical Policy and Standards. In general, the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ occupa tional descriptions are much more specific than those T a b le C-6. C o m p a ris o n o f o c c u p a tio n s in th e p ro fe s s io n a l, a d m in is tra tiv e , te c h n ic a l, a n d c le ric a l (PATC) su rvey w ith th e S ta n d a rd O c c u p a tio n a l C la s s ific a tio n M a n u a l patc occupation Standard Occupational Classification Manual (SOC) SOC code A cco u n ta n ts ........ Chief accountants Auditors Public accountants Job analysts Directors of personnel A tto rn e y s ............... 1412 1412 1412 1412 143 143 211 Accountants Accountants Accountants Accountants and and and and auditors auditors auditors auditors Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists Lawyers Buyers............................................... Programmers/programmer analysts Systems analysts ................... 1449 397 1712 Purchasing agents and buyers, not elsewhere classified Programmers Computer systems analysts Chemists Engineers 1845 162-3 Chemists, except biochemists Engineers Engineering technicians Drafters Computer operators Photographers 371 312 4612 326 Electrical and electronic engineering technologists and technicians Drafting occupations Computer operators Photographers Accounting clerks File clerks Key entry operators Messengers Personnel clerks/assistants Purchasing assistants Secretaries Stenographers Typists 4712 4696 4793 4745 4692 4664 4622 4623 4624 Bookkeepers and accounting and auditing clerks File clerks Data entry operators Messengers Personnel clerks, except payroll and timekeeping Order clerks Secretaries Stenographers Typists 87 Appendix D. Comparison of Salaries in Private Industry with Salaries of Federal Employees Under the General Schedule The survey was designed to provide a basis for com paring salaries under the General Schedule classification and pay system with salaries in private enterprise. To assure collection of pay data for work levels equivalent to the General Schedule grade levels, the Office of Per sonnel Management ( O P M ) , in cooperation with the 88 Bureau of Labor Statistics, prepared the occupational work level definitions used in the survey. Definitions were graded by O P M according to standards established for each grade level. Table D-l shows the surveyed jobs grouped by work levels equivalent to General Schedule grade levels. Table D-1. Comparison of average annual salaries in private industry with salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule — Occupation and level surveyed by BLS' O' tC c * X c\ cr> — ^ - Salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule, March 19843 Step* Average,5 March 1984 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 GS 1 $ 9 208 69 023 $9,324 $9,624 $9 924 $10,224 $10 400 $10 697 $10 995 $11 008 $11,283 Grade4 c i_______ File clerks I ................... M e s s e n g e rs ............. Average annual salary in private indu stry.2 March 1984 A cc o u n tin g c le rks I D rafters I File clerks II Kev entry operators I T yp ists I 11 704 I ? 596 I I 981 1P.81 1 11793 GS 2 10.477 10.146 '0 386 10 722 11.008 I ' 129 11 466 11.783 12.110 12.437 12.764 A c coun ting clerks II D rafters II E ngineering te c h n ic ia n s I File clerks III Key entry operators II Personnel c le rk s /a s s is ta n ts I S tenographers I T yp ists II 14 060 16 1?0 16.169 13 676 16.898 13 379 17 241 16 160 GS 3 11 8 8 1 11.070 11 439 1 1 808 12 177 13.546 12.915 13.284 13 653 14.022 14 394 A ccoun ting clerks III ................. C om puter op erators I ............... D rafters III ................. E ngineering te c h n ic ia n s II Personnel c le rk s /a s s is ta n ts II P hotographers I P urchasing a s s is ta n ts I S ecretaries I S tenographers II 16.627 19 068 19.098 18.733 16.160 17,348 16.629 16 296 20.376 GS 4 13.821 12 427 12 841 13.255 1.3.669 14 083 14 497 M 911 1 5 325 1 5 739 16.153 A c c o u n tin g c le rk s IV A c c o u n ta n ts I A udito rs I .......................... Buyers I C hem ists I C om puter op erators II D rafters I V .................... Engineers I ............... E ngineering te c h n ic ia n s III Personnel c le rk s /a s s is ta n ts III P hotoaraphers I I ........................ P rogram m ers/program m er an a ly s ts I P urchasing a s s is ta n ts II S ecretaries II 20.244 19,843 19.671 20 226 21 609 16 337 23.067 26.163 22.361 18 268 21.738 19.801 20.001 16.920 GS 5 15.759 '3.903 M 366 14.829 15 755 16 218 16 6 8 1 17.144 17.607 '8.070 C om puter op erators III Personnel c le rk s /a s s is ta n ts IV P urchasing a s s is ta n ts III S ecretaries III 19.743 21.830 26 916 19.053 GS 6 17.849 15.497 16.014 16.531 17 048 17.565 18.082 18.699 19 116 19.633 20.150 A cco u n ta n ts II A udito rs I I ......................................... Buyers II C hem ists II C om puter op erators IV D rafters V .............................................. Engineers I I ............................................ E ngineering te c h n ic ia n s IV Job an a ly s ts II ............. Photographers I I I ................................... P rogram m ers/program m er an a ly s ts II 24.326 25.391 24 676 25.481 2.3 107 29.067 28.899 26 362 22 845 26 974 22.815 GS 7 19.551 17 221 '7.796 18.369 18.943 19.517 20.091 20 665 21 239 21.813 22.387 See footnotes at end of table Table D-1. Continued—Comparison of average annual salaries in private industry with salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule Occupation a n d le v e l s u rv e y e d b y BLS’ Average annual salary in private in d u s try ,2 March 1984 Salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule, March 19843 Average,5 March 1984 Grade* Step6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Public a cco u n ta n ts I ............................ $19 142 S ecretaries I V .......................................... 21 525 C om puter operators V ........................ S ecretaries V A cc o u n ta n ts I I I ..................................... A tto rn e ys I A u d ito rs I I I ...................... Buyers III C hem ists III . Enqineers III E ngineerinq te c h n ic ia n s V Job a n alysts III ............... P hotographers IV . . Program m ers/program m er analysts III Public acc o u n ta n ts II S ystem s an a ly s ts I vC o 28 72^ 28.918 20.209 30.610 30.441 32.761 30.084 27.987 28 749 27 188 21.164 27.084 A cc o u n ta n ts IV A ttorneys II . A udito rs I V ........... Buyers I V ...................... C hem ists IV . . . . . . . C hief a c c o u n ta n ts I ............................... D irecto rs of personnel I Engineers IV Job a n alysts IV Program m ers/program m er analysts IV P ublic a c c o u n ta n ts III S ystem s an a ly s ts II 35.716 35.238 37 378 37 843 37.643 .35 199 35 444 39.005 34 880 .31.929 24.702 32 .324 A c c o u n ta n ts V ................... A ttorneys III C hem ists V C hief a c c o u n ta n ts II D irecto rs of personnel II Engineers V ............................... Proqram m ers/program m er analysts V Public a c c o u n ta n ts IV System s a n alysts III 44,466 44 743 48.6M 44.128 42 620 46 349 38.868 29.663 38 057 A cc o u n ta n ts VI ........................ A ttorneys IV . . C hem ists VI ........................ C hief a c c o u n ta n ts III . D irecto rs of personnel III . Enqineers V I .......................... S ystem s a n alysts IV . 66.618 55.462 84.163 56 816 58.717 53.749 44.748 A ttorneys V ......................................... C h e m is ts V Il .......................... C hief a cco u n ta n ts IV .......................... D irecto rs of personnel IV Enqineers VII ........................ S ystem s an a ly s ts V .................... 70 478 63.072 69,838 65 874 61 166 53.917 A ttorneys V I ......................................... Engineers VIII ..................................... 87.568 70.788 See footnotes at end of table $22,140 $ 19.073 $19,709 $20,348 $20 981 $21 617 $22,253 $22,889 $23,525 $24 161 $24,797 23.666 21.066 21.768 22.4 70 23.172 23.874 24 576 25.278 25.980 26.682 27.384 28.760 25 489 26.339 27 189 28.039 28.889 29 739 30.589 31 4.39 32.289 33.139 1 34.868 30.549 31 567 32.886 33.60.3 34 621 35.639 36,657 37 675 38.693 39.711 41.957 36.327 37.538 38 7 49 39.960 41.171 42 382 43.593 44.804 46015 47.226 GS 14 27.223 24.700 49.777 42.928 44 359 45.790 47 221 48.652 50.083 51.514 52.945 54.376 55.807 GS 15 59.045 50.495 52 178 53.861 55.544 57,227 58.910 60.593 62.276 63.959 65 642 GS 8 GS 9 l i I i ; i j GS 11 | i | i | ' I I GS 12 j 1 1 GS 13 | [ Footnotes to table D-1 ’ For d e fin itio n s , see appendix C. 2 Survey fin d in g s as sum m arized in table 1 of th is bulletin. For scope of survey, see appendix A. 3 General Schedule rates in e ffe c t in March 1984, the reference date of the patc survey. Rates re fle c t 0.5-percent increase e ffe c tiv e in May 1984, retroactive to January 1984. 4 C orresponding grades in the General Schedule were supplied by the O ffice of Personnel M anagem ent. 5 Mean salary of all G eneral S chedule em ployees in each grade as of March 31,1984. Not lim ited to Federal em ployees in o c c u p a tio n s surveyed by bls . • S ection 5335 of title 5 of the U.S. Code provides for w ithin-grade increases on c o n d itio n that the em ployee’s w ork is of an acce ptab le level of com petence as defined by the head o f the agency. For em ployees w ho m eet th is c o n d itio n , the service requirem ents are 52 calendar weeks for each ad vancem ent to salary rates 2, 3, and 4; 104 weeks for each advancem ent to salary rates 5, 6, 7; and 156 w eeks fo r each advancem ent to salary rates 8, 9, and 10. Section 5336 provides th a t an a d di tional within-grade increase may be granted w ithin any 52-week period in recognition of high quality perform ance above tha t o rd in a rily found in the type of p o sitio n concerned. N o t e : Under Section 5303 of title 5 of the U.S. Code, higher m inim um rates (but not exceeding the m axim um salary rate prescribed in the General S chedule for the grade or level) and a correspon ding new salary range may be esta blished fo r p o sitio n s or occu p a tio n s under certain conditions. The c o n d itio n s include a find in g th a t the G overnm ent's re cruitm e nt or retention of w ell-qualified persons is s ig n ific a n tly handicapped because the salary rates in private industry are sub stantia lly above the salary rates of the s ta tu to ry pay schedules. As of M arch 1984, special higher salary rates were authorized for professional engineers at the entry grades (GS-5 and GS-7), and at GS-9 and GS-11. In ad dition, special rates were authorized for m ining engineers at GS-5 through GS-14. Infor m ation on special salary rates, in clud ing the occu p a tio n s and the areas to w hich they apply, may be obtained from the O ffice of Personnel M anagem ent, W ashington, D.C. 20415, or its regional offices. Now available from the Bureau of Labor Statistics Wage Surveys for the following industries: Bituminous Coal Computer and Data Processing Services Oil and Gas Extraction Women’s and Misses’ Dresses Surveys include: •Results from the latest BLS survey of wages and supplemental benefits. •Detailed occupational data for the Nation, regions, and selected areas (where available). • Data useful for wage and salary administration, union contract negotiation, arbitration, and Government policy considerations. The BLS regional ofV.e neams: you will expertise your '.•raer P.0 Box 13309 Philadelphia. Pa. 19101 You may s e nd your orderdirectly to: 1603 John F. Kennedy Building Boston. Mass. 02203 1371 Peachtree Street, NE. Atlanta. Ga. 30367 2nd Floor 555 Griffin Sguare Building Dallas. Tex 75202 Suite 3400 1515 Broadway New York. N Y 10036 9th Floor Federal Office Building 230 South Dearborn Street Chicago, III. 60604 Where to send order: 911 Walnut Street Kansas City, Mo. 64106 450 Golden Gate Avenue Box 36017 San Francisco, Calif. 94102 Superintendent of Docum ents U.S. Gov ernment Printing Office Washington, D C. 20402 Note: G P O prices are subject to chang e without notice. □ Industry Wage Survey: Bituminous Coal, July 1982, Bulletin 2185, G P O Stock No. 029-001-02799-1, price $2.50. r i Industry Wage Survey: Computer and Data Processing Services, October 1982, Bulletin 2184. G P O Stock No. 029-001-02791-5, price $2.00. : 1 Industry Wage Survey: Oil and Gas Extraction, June 1982, Bulletin 2193. G P O Stock No. 029-001-02810-5, price $3.00. I Industry Wage Survey: Women’s and Misses’ Dresses, August 1982, Bulletin 2187. 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