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£ 2.0 ?

National Survey of
Professional, Administrative,
Technical, and Clerical Pay,
March 1984
^

U.S. Department of Labor
jreau of Labor Statistics
>ptember 1984
illetin 2208

National Survey of
Professional, Administrative,
Technical, and Clerical Pay,
March 1984
U.S. Department of Labor
Raymond J. Donovan, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Janet L. Norwood, Commissioner
September 1984
Bulletin 2208

F or sa le b.v th e S u p erin ten d en t o f D ocum ents, U .S. G overnm ent P r in tin g Office W ashington, D.C. 20402

Preface

translatable to specific General Schedule (GS) grades ap­
plying to Federal employees. Thus, the definitions of
some occupations and work levels were limited to
specific elements that could be classified uniformly
among establishments. The Bureau of Labor Statistics
and the Office of Personnel Management worked joint­
ly to prepare the definitions.
The survey could not have been conducted without
the cooperation of the many firms whose salary data
provide the basis for the statistical information in this
bulletin. The Bureau, on its own behalf and on behalf of
the other Federal agencies that contributed to survey
planning, wishes to express appreciation for the
cooperation it has received.
This survey was conducted in the Bureau’s Office of
Wages and Industrial Relations by the Division of Oc­
cupational Pay and Employee Benefit Levels. Mark S.
Sieling prepared the analysis in this bulletin. Computer
programming and tabulation of data were developed by
Richard S. Schlidt under the direction of Richard W.
Maylott, Office of Statistical Operations. Terry
Burdette and Glenn Springer, of the Division of Wage
Statistical Methods, were responsible for the sampl­
ing design and other statistical procedures. Field
work and data collection for the survey were directed
by the Bureau’s Assistant Regional Commissioners for
Operations.
Although only nationwide salary data are presented
in this bulletin, salary data for clerical occupations and
for drafters and some computer occupations are
available for each metropolitan area in which the
Bureau conducts area wage surveys. These area reports
also include information on the incidence of employee
benefits such as paid vacations, holidays, and health, in­
surance, and pension plans for nonsupervisory office
workers.
In 1983, a survey of employee benefits in private in­
dustry covered the same scope as the nationwide survey
of professional, administrative, technical, and clerical
pay. The findings of the survey appear in Employee
Benefits in Medium and Large Firms, 1983, Bulletin
2213 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1984). Copies are for
sale from the Government Printing Office or the
Bureau’s regional offices listed on the inside back cover
of this bulletin.
Material in this publication is in the public domain
and, with appropriate credit, may be reproduced
without permission.

This bulletin summarizes the results of the Bureau’s
annual salary survey of selected professional, ad­
ministrative, technical, and clerical occupations in
private industry. The nationwide salary information,
relating to March 1984, is representative of
establishments in a broad spectrum of industries
throughout the United States, except Alaska and Hawaii.
The results of the national white-collar salary survey
are used for a number of purposes, including general
economic analysis and wage and salary administration
by private and public employers. One important use is
to provide the basis for setting Federal white-collar
salaries under the provisions of the Federal Pay Com­
parability Act of 1970. Under this act, the President has
designated the Secretary of Labor, the Director of the
Office of Management and Budget, and the Director of
the Office of Personnel Management to serve jointly as
his agent to establish pay for Federal white-collar
employees.
The President’s agent specifies the geographic scope
of the Bureau’s salary survey, the industries to be
studied, the minimum establishment size to be included,
and the survey occupations. The agent also formulates
comparability procedures, uses the survey results to
develop statistical paylines, and recommends com­
parability pay adjustments to the President. The Bureau
of Labor Statistics, under the Federal Pay Comparabili­
ty Act of 1970, is responsible for conducting the survey
and advising on the feasibility of proposed survey
changes. The Bureau prepares a list of establishments
covered by the survey, draws a probability-based sample
from this list, collects, tabulates, and reports the data.
As mentioned above, however, the survey design is the
responsibility of the President’s Pay Agent. It should
also be emphasized that this survey, like other salary
surveys, does not provide mechanical answers to pay
policy questions.
The occupations studied span a wide range of duties
and responsibilities. The occupations selected were
judged to be (a) surveyable in industry within the
framework of a broad survey design, (b) representative
of occupational groups which generally are numerically
important in industry as well as in the Federal service,
and (c) essentially of the same nature in both the Federal
and private sectors.
Occupational definitions used to collect salary data
(appendix C) reflect duties and responsibilities in private
industry; however, they are also designed to be
iii

Contents

Page

Summary.......................................................................................................................................
Characteristics of the survey.........................................................................................................
Employment ..................................................................................................................................
Changes in salary levels .................................................................................................................
Average salaries, March 1984 .......................................................................................................
Salary levels in metropolitan a re a s ...............................................................................................
Salary levels in large establishments..............................................................................................
Salary distributions........................................................................................................................
Pay differences by industry...........................................................................................................
Average standard weekly hours.....................................................................................................

1
1
1
1
2
5
5
5
5
6

Text tables:
1. Percent increases in average salaries by occupation, 1974-84 .......................................
2. Percent increases in average salaries by work level category, 1974-84 .........................
3. Distribution of work levels by degree of salary dispersion, March 1984 .....................

2
3
6

Reference tables:
Average salaries:
1. United States ................................................................................................................ 11
2. Metropolitan areas......................................................................................................... 14
3. Establishments employing 2,500 workers or more....................................................... 17
Employment distribution by salary:
4. Professional and administrativeoccupations................................................................ 20
5. Technical support occupations...................................................................................... 30
6. Clerical occupations ..................................................................................................... 32
Selected industry characteristics:
7. Occupational employment distribution......................................................................... 35
8. Relative salary levels..................................................................................................... 36
9. Average weekly h o u rs................................................................................................... 37
Charts:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Salaries in professional and technical occupations, March 1984 ................................ 7
Salaries in administrative occupations, March 1984
............................................. 8
Salaries in clerical occupations, March 1984................................................................. 9
Relative employment in selected occupational groups by industry division,
March 1984 ............................................................................................................. 10

Appendixes:
A. Scope and method of survey...............................................................................................
B. Survey changes in 1984 .........................................................................................................
C. Occupational definitions.....................................................................................................
D. Comparison of salaries in private industry with salaries of Federal
employees under the General Schedule..........................................................................

v

38
43
44
88

Professional, Administrative,
Technical, and Clerical Pay,
March 1984

The number of levels in each occupation ranges from
one for messengers to eight for engineers. These work
levels, however, are not intended to represent all the
workers in a specific occupation. Thus, the survey does
not present comparisons of overall occupational salary
levels, such as between accountants as a group and
engineers.
The approximately 44,500 establishments within the
scope of the survey employed about 22,700,000
workers; just over 45 percent were professional, ad­
ministrative, technical, and clerical employees. Of these
white-collar workers, 19 percent were in occupations for
which salary data were developed. The survey presents
separate occupational data for metropolitan
areas—where over nine-tenths of the white-collar
workers were employed—and for establishments
employing 2,500 workers or more.

Summary

Average salaries for selected white-collar occupations
in medium- and large-size establishments increased at a
lower rate in the year ended March 1984 than in the
previous 10 years. For most of the 25 occupations in­
cluded in the survey, increases ranged from 3 to 6 per­
cent. In contrast, increases averaged about 7 percent an­
nually during the 1970’s; 9 to 11 percent in 1981 and
1982; and 6 to 8.5 percent in 1983.1
Average monthly salaries for the 105 occupational
levels published ranged from $822 for clerks performing
routine filing to $7,297 for the highest level of attorneys
studied. For most occupations, salary levels in
metropolitan areas ana in large establishments were
higher than the average for all establishments within the
scope of the survey. Among the industry divisions
represented in the survey, public utilities usually
reported the highest salaries while finance, insurance,
and real estate industries generally reported the lowest
salaries and the shortest standard weekly hours.

Employment

Occupational employment varied widely, reflecting
both actual differences among occupations and dif­
ferences in the range of duties and responsibilities
covered by the definitions. For example, there were
542,700 incumbents in the eight levels of engineers, ac­
counting for about seven-tenths of the 750,700 profes­
sional employees within the scope of the study; cor­
porate attorneys, in contrast, numbered under
13,800—a figure that does not include those in legal
firms. The five levels of programmers/programmer
analysts and of systems analysts which were surveyed
had 113,600 and 91,700 employees, respectively, and
together accounted for about four-fifths of the
employees in all administrative jobs studied, which also
included buyers, job analysts, and directors of person­
nel. Engineering technicians comprised over two-fifths
of the 265,800 technical workers, followed by drafters
and computer operators (each about one-fourth of the
employment). Secretaries constituted the largest clerical
occupation, over two-fifths of the 673,200 clerical work
force. The next largest clerical occupation was account­
ing clerk with about one-fourth of the total.

Characteristics of the survey

This survey—25th in an annual series—provides na­
tionwide salary data for 25 occupations spanning 105
work level categories. This information was collected
from establishments in all areas of the United States, ex­
cept Alaska and Hawaii. The following major industry
groups were surveyed: Mining; construction; manufac­
turing; transportation, communications, electric, gas,
and sanitary services; wholesale trade; retail trade;
finance, insurance, and real estate; and selected ser­
vices. The minimum size of the establishments studied
was either 50, 100, or 250 employees, depending on the
industry.1
2
Occupations are divided into appropriate work levels
based on duties and responsibilities (see appendix C). The
number of work levels—designated by roman numerals,
with “ I” the lowest—varies from occupation to occupa­
tion, as do degrees of difficulty and responsibility.3
1 For results o f the 1983 survey, see bls Bulletin 2181.
2 See appendix A for a full description of the scope o f the survey.
3 The roman numerals do not necessarily identify equal levels of
work among occupations. For example, public accountant levels 1 to
IV equate to accountant levels II to V while attorney I equates to ac­
countant III and public accountant II. For more information, see ap­
pendix D.

Changes in salary levels

After increases at the rate of about 7 percent a year
during the 1970’s, salary levels for most of the survey
1

$1,654 for beginning professional accountants (level I)
to $4,635 for specialists in complex accounting systems
(level VI). Salaries of the most populated group (level
III) averaged $2,393 a month. Nearly three-fifths of the
accountants surveyed were in manufacturing industries;
Finance, insurance, and real estate accounted for just
over one-eighth; while public utilities employed onetenth.
Chief accountants who adapt accounting systems
with only a few relatively stable functions and work
processes (level I) averaged $2,933 a month. At level IV,
those who have authority to establish and maintain the
accounting program, subject to general policy
guidelines, for a company with numerous and varied ac­
counting functions and work processes averaged $5,820
a month.5
Work levels for chief accountants are determined by
the degree of authority and responsibility, the technical
complexity of the accounting system, and, to a lesser

jobs rose by 9 to 11 percent a year in 1981 and 1982
before declining in 1983 to a 6.0- to 8.5-percent range.
(See text table 1.) In 1984, increases moderated further,
and ranged from 2.0 percent for typists to 8.0 percent
for auditors; with two exceptions—auditors and chief
accountants—increases were below those recorded since
1973-74.
Increases also varied by occupational work level, with
average salaries increasing faster for both the middle
group of levels and for the journeyman and senior levels
of professional and administrative occupations than for
the lower levels of technical and clerical occupations.
Text table 2 shows average salary increases since 1974
for these different groups which equate to various
grades of the Federal Government’s General Salary
Schedule—GS 1-4; GS 5-9; and GS 11-15. Cumulative
increases over the past 10 years have been largest for the
journeyman and senior levels, about 8-9 percentage points
greater than for lower and middle groups of work levels.
Average salaries, March 1984

4 Despite this wide difference, salary averages for professional
jobs of equivalent levels of work often fell within a relatively narrow
band. For example, monthly averages for the following work level
equivalents (Federal grade level 13) fell within a $256 or 6 percent
range: Accountant VI ($4,635); chief accountant III ($4,735); attorney
IV ($4,622); chemist VI ($4,514); and engineer VI ($4,479).
5 Data for chief accountants V; directors o f personnel V; chemists
VIII; job analysts I; systems analysts VI; computer operators VI;
photographers V; and personnel clerks/assistants V did not meet
publication criteria for this survey.

Reflecting the wide range of duties and respon­
sibilities covered by the occupations studied, average
monthly salaries ranged from $822 for file clerks I to
$7,297 for the top level of attorneys (table l).4 The
following paragraphs summarize the various occupa­
tions studied.
Accountants' average monthly salaries ranged from
Text table 1. Percent increases in average salaries by occupation, 1974-84'

O ccupation

P rofessional, adm inistrative, and
tech nical support:
A ccoun tants .......................................
C hief a c c o u n ta n ts ............................
A u d ito rs ...............................................
Public accountants ..........................
Job a n a ly s ts .......................................
D irectors o f p e rs o n n e l.....................
A tto rn e y s .............................................
B u y e rs .................................................
C h e m is ts .............................................
Engineers ...........................................
Engineering te c h n ic ia n s .................
D ra fte rs ...............................................
C om puter o p e ra to rs ..........................
P h o to g ra p h e rs ..................................
Program m ers/program m er
a n a ly s ts .............................................
S ystem s a n a ly s ts ..............................
C lerical:
A ccoun ting clerks ............................
File c le r k s ...........................................
Key entry o p e ra to rs ..........................
Messengers ......................................
Personnel c le rk s /a s s is ta n ts ...........
P urchasing a s s is ta n ts .....................
S e c re ta rie s ........................................
Stenographers ..................................
T y p is ts .................................................

1974
to
1975

1975
to
1976

1976
to
1977

1977
to
1978

1978
to
1979

1979
to
1980

1980
to
1981

1981
to
1982

1982
to
1983

1983
to
1984

9.8
8.6
6.8
(1
2)
7.5
6.1
7.6
9.2
10.1
8.4
9.0
8.0
(2
)
(2
)

6.4
6.6
5.5
(2)
6.0
7.8
6.1
6.7
6.6
6.8
8.1
7.4
(3)
(2)

7.8
10.5
6.8
(2
)
6.5
9.1
5.4
7.0
7.0
6.4
7.2
6.0
5.4
(2)

8.3
8.0
8.2
(2)
7.2
10.0
9.1
7.8
9.0
9.0
7.1
7.1
8.5
(2
)

8.0
7.7
6.5
(3
)
8.6
7.5
8.9
7.0
7.6
8.4
7.6
(3)
7.2
(2)

9.2
11.3
8.8
4.2
8.1
11.2
9.3
8.1
9.8
9.8
11.0
11.8
8.3
(2)

10.0
9.5
10.3
7.9
7.6
11.4
9.8
9.8
9.4
10.9
10.2
10.9
(3
)
(3)

9.6
11.4
9.4
6.6
9.2
9.6
11.4
9.4
10.4
10.2
9.4
8.4
8.9
9.7

6.9
4.2
6.1
7.1
6.7
8.3
7.6
6.2
5.8
7.1
5.9
7.6
6.8
8.1

4.7
5.7
8.0
2.3
5.3
5.3
4.8
5.3
5.3
5.2
4.9
3.6
(3
)
6.9

(2
)
(2
)

(2)
(2)

(2)
(2)

<)
2
(2
)

(2)
(2)

(2)
(2)

(2
)
<)
2

(3
)
(2)

6.5
(2)

(3)
(3)

7.7
9.6
9.9
10.1
(2
)
(2
)
(3
)
11.6
9.9

7.2
6.4
7.6
7.4
(2
)
(2)
(3)
8.0
7.1

6.9
5.5
5.9
7.5
(2)
(2)
6.4
7.9
6.2

6.2
9.7
7.1
6.0
(2
)
(2
)
6.5
8.2
8.0

<
3)
5.5
6.8
6.8
(3)
(2)
7.3
12.1
8.5

8.9
9.3
9.1

9.6
8.0
8.2
9.7
(3
)
(2)
(3)
12.1
10.2

8.9
7.2
9.4
6.4
10.2
(3)
9.2
13.8
10.1

8.1
6.4
7.3
9.2
9.7
9.3
7.1
8.6
6.8

3.8
2.1
3.4
2.9
5.4
6.8

1 For data on survey periods from 1960 to 1970, see the 1979 e d itio n o f
th is p u blication , B ulletin 2045; fo r 1970-74, see the 1982 edition,
B ulletin 2145.
2 N ot surveyed.

5.5
8.6
(2)
9.6
10.1
8.9

______

______

3 C om parable data fo r both years not available,
NOTE: For m ethod of com puta tion, see appendix A.

2

5.0
5.5
2.0

averaged $1,685 a month. Buyers IV, who purchase
highly complex and technical items, materials, or serv­
ices that are custom designed and manufactured,
averaged $3,154. Approximately four-fifths of the
buyers studied were employed by manufacturing in­
dustries.
Programmers/programmer analysts at the trainee
level who are developing basic programming skills (level
I) averaged $1,650 a month. Those at level V, who are
either team leaders, staff specialists, or consultants
responsible for complex programming, averaged $3,239
a month. Manufacturing industries employed almost
two-fifths of all programmers/programmer analysts
surveyed; finance, insurance, and real estate accounted
for one-fourth; selected services, about one-seventh;
and public utilities, one-tenth.
Computer systems analysts were surveyed for the first
time this year. Systems analysts I averaged $2,257 a
month. This level includes workers who are familar with
systems analysis procedures and are working in­
dependently on routine problems. Systems analysts V,
the highest level for which data could be developed,
averaged $4,493 a month. At this level, analysts work as
top technical specialists on extremely complex systems
or are senior managers responsible for the development
and maintenance of large and complex systems.7
Personnel management occupations are represented
by four levels of job analysts and five levels of direc­
tors o f personnel. Job analysts II averaged $1,904 a
month compared with $2,907 for level IV.8 Under
general supervision, job analysts IV analyze and
evaluate a variety of the more difficult jobs and may
participate in the development and installation of job
evaluation and compensation systems. Directors of per­
sonnel are limited by definition to those who, at a
minimum, are responsible for administering a job
evaluation system, employment and placement func­
tions, and employee relations and services. Those with
significant responsibility for actual contract negotia­
tions with labor unions as the principal company
representative are excluded. Various combinations of
duties and responsibilities determine the work level.
Among personnel directors, average monthly salaries
ranged from $2,954 for level I to $5,489 for level IV.9
Manufacturing industries employed one-half of the job
analysts and just over two-thirds of the directors of per­
sonnel included in the survey; the finance, insurance,
and real estate industries ranked next with about onefourth of the job analysts and one-seventh of the direc­
tors of personnel.

Text table 2. Percent increases in average salaries by work
level category,1 1974-84
Period2

1974-84 ..........

Group A
(GS grades 1-4)

Group B
(GS grades 5-9)

Group C
(GS grades 11-15)

111.1

112.1

120.1

1974-75.................
1975-76.................
1976-77.................
1977-78.................
1978-79 .................

9.1
7.6
6.9
7.5
7.2

8.6
6.4
6.3
8.0
7.5

8.8
6.5
7.7
8.8
8.0

1979-80.................
1980-81 .................
1981-82.................
1982-83.................
1983-84.................

9.1
9.8
9.5
7.4
3.6

10.1
9.6
9.4
7.3
5.0

9.3
10.2
10.4
7.2
5.3

—

’ Group A contains survey classifications equating to GS grades 1-4 of the
Federal Government's General Salary Schedule. Group B covers GS grades
5-9; and Group C, GS grades 11-15 See appendix D, table D-1, for a listing of
survey levels that equate to each GS grade.
2 For data on survey periods from 1960 to 1970. see the 1979 edition of this
publication, Bulletin 2045; for 1970-74, see the 1982 edition, Bulletin 2145.

degree, the size of the professional staff (usually 1-2 ac­
countants at the first levels to as many as 40 accountants
at level IV). Of the chief accountants surveyed, about
two-thirds were employed in manufacturing industries
and one-tenth each in the wholesale trade and the
finance, insurance, and real estate sectors.
Auditors at the trainee level (level I) averaged $1,639
a month and auditors IV, who conduct complex finan­
cial audits, averaged $3,115. Manufacturing industries
employed just over three-tenths of the auditors, while
the finance, insurance, and real estate sector employed
over one-third and public utilities over one-eighth.
Public accountants at the entry level, who receive
practical experience in applying the principles, theories,
and concepts of accounting and auditing (level I),
averaged $1,595 a month. The highest level of public ac­
countants (level IV), who direct the field work for large
or complex audits, averaged $2,472 a month. This oc­
cupation was only found in public accounting firms,
which are a part of the selected services industry group.
Attorneys are classified based upon the difficulty of
their assignments and responsibilities. Attorneys I, who
include new law school graduates with bar membership
and whose work is relatively uncomplicated due to
clearly applicable precedents and well-established facts,
averaged $2,410 a month. Attorneys in the top level
surveyed (VI) averaged $7,297. These attorneys deal
with legal matters of major importance to the organiza­
tion (or corporation), and usually report only to general
counsels or, in very large firms, to their immediate
deputies. Finance, insurance, and real estate industries
employed just over two-fifths of the attorneys and
manufacturing industries employed just over onefourth.6
Buyers who purchase “ off-the-shelf” and readily
available items and services from local sources (level I)

7 See footnote 5. As noted in appendix B, information was col­
lected separately for five levels of nonsupervisory systems analysts and
four levels o f systems analyst supervisors/managers. The data were
consolidated for publication, using the approach shown in appendix
B.
8 See footnote 5.
9 See footnote 5.

6 The survey excludes establishments primarily offering legal ad­
vice or services.
3

Chemists and engineers each are surveyed in eight
levels1 1starting with a professional trainee level typical­
0
ly requiring a B.S. degree. The highest level surveyed in­
volves either full responsibility over a broad, complex,
and diversified chemical or engineering program, with
several subordinates each directing large and important
segments of the program, or individual research and
consultation in problem areas where the chemist or
engineer is a recognized authority and where solutions
represent a major scientific or technological advance.1
1
Average monthly salaries ranged from $1,801 for
Obemists I to $5,256 for chemists VII, the highest level
for which data could be published, and from $2,180 for
engineers I to $5,899 for engineers VIII.
Level IV chemists and engineers, the largest groups in
each profession and representing fully experienced
employees, averaged $3,137 and $3,250 a month,
respectively. Employment of chemists and engineers
was highly concentrated in manufacturing industries (90
percent of the chemists and 74 percent of the engineers).
Most of the remaining chemists were associated with
research and development laboratories. Engineers were
also found in significant numbers in establishments
engaged in research and development, project design,
and public utilities.
Engineering technician is a five-level series limited to
employees providing semiprofessional technical support
to engineers. These technicians work with engineers in
such areas as research, design, development, testing, or
manufacturing process improvement, and utilize elec­
trical, electronic, or mechanical components or equip­
ment. Technicians involved in production or
maintenance work are excluded. Engineering techni­
cians I, who perform simple routine tasks under close
supervision or from detailed procedures, averaged
$1,347 a month. Engineering technicians V, who work
on more complex projects under general guidelines sup­
plied by a supervisor or professional engineer, averaged
$2,507. Salaries for intermediate levels III and IV, con­
taining a majority of the technicians surveyed, averaged
$1,863 and $2,197, respectively.
Almost four-fifths of the engineering technicians
were employed in manufacturing and one-eighth in
selected services. The ratio of technicians to engineers
was about 1 to 4 in all manufacturing industries combin­
ed. In public utilities, the ratio was 1 to 5; in mechanical
and electrical equipment manufacturing, it was 1 to 4;
and in research, development, and testing laboratories,
1 to 3.
Drafter salary levels ranged from $1,050 a month for
level I, who trace or copy finished drawings, to $2,421
for level V, who work closely with design originators in

preparing unusual, complex, or original designs. About
seven-tenths of the drafters were in manufacturing firms
and approximately one-fifth in selected services.
Computer operators are classified on the basis of
responsibility for problem solving, variability of
assignments, and scope of authority for corrective ac­
tion needed by their equipment. Computer operators I,
whose work consists of on-the-job training, averaged
$1,089 a month. The largest group surveyed, level II,
averaged $1,361 and the highest published level (V)
averaged $2,269.1 About two-fifths of all computer
2
operators were located in manufacturing industries;
one-fourth in finance, insurance, and real estate; and
one-eighth in selected services.
Photographers studied in the survey range from those
taking routine pictures where several shots can be taken
or opportunities for retakes exist (level I) to those using
special-purpose cameras under technically demanding
conditions (level IV).1 Photographers working for
3
media establishments, such as newspapers or advertising
agencies, were excluded. The average monthly salary for
level I photographers was $1,446 compared with $2,396
for level IV’s. Manufacturing industries employed ap­
proximately two-thirds of the photographers studied
while most of the remainder were in selected services.
Among the survey’s nine clerical jobs, secretary was
the most heavily populated. Average monthly salaries
ranged from $1,275 for level I secretaries to $2,058 for
level V. Average salaries of $1,437 and $1,698 were
reported for stenographers I and II. Typists I averaged
$983 and those at level II, $1,262.
Accounting clerks performing simple and routine
clerical accounting operations (level I) averaged $975 a
month. Level IV clerks who maintain journals or sub­
sidiary ledgers averaged $1,687. Three-fourths of all ac­
counting clerks were classified in levels II and III, which
averaged $1,172 and $1,377 a month, respectively.
Personnel clerks/assistants who perform routine
tasks requiring a knowledge of personnel rules and pro­
cedures (level I) averaged $1,115 a month. Level IV
assistants, who provide paraprofessional support such
as interviewing and recommending placement for welldefined occupations, averaged $1,819.1
4
Level I purchasing assistants examine and review
routine purchasing agreements. Their monthly average
of $1,302 compares with $2,243 for top level III
assistants, who prepare complicated purchase
documents, expedite the purchase of highly specialized
items, or provide detailed technical support to buyers.
Clerical workers generally were highest paid in
manufacturing, mining, and public utilities and lowest
paid in finance, insurance, real estate, and retail trade.
About two-fifths of the clerical employees were

10 See footnote 5.
1 The definition recognizes that top positions in some companies
1
with unusually extensive and complex chemical or engineering pro­
grams exceed this level.

1 See footnote 5.
2
13 See footnote 5.
1 See footnote 5.
4
4

heavily to total employment and, consequently, to the
all-establishment average.

employed in manufacturing industries. The finance, in­
surance, and real estate industries and public utilities
also employed large numbers of clerical workers, ac­
counting for about one-fourth and one-tenth of the
total, respectively.

Salary distributions

Employee distributions of monthly salaries for pro­
fessional and administrative occupations are presented
in table 4, for technical support occupations in table 5,
and for clerical occupations in table 6. Within most
work levels, the highest salary rates were more than
twice as large as the lowest rates. As illustrated in charts
1-3, these differences tended to increase with each rise in
the work level. Salary ranges of specific work levels in
an occupation also tended to overlap each other. This
reflects both salary differences among establishments
and the frequent overlapping of salary ranges within in­
dividual firms.
Median monthly salaries for most work levels were
slightly lower than the mean average salaries.1 Hence,
5
salaries in the upper halves of the arrays affected the
means more than salaries in the lower halves. The
relative difference between the mean and the median
was less than 2 percent for 64 of the 105 work levels
surveyed, from 2 to 4 percent in 30 levels, and from over
4.0 to 7.8 percent in the other 11 levels.
The degree of salary dispersion tended to be larger for
clerical occupations than for professional, ad­
ministrative, or technical occupations. These disper­
sions, shown in text table 3, reflect the salary range of
the middle 50 percent of employees in each work level
expressed as a percent of the median salary. This
eliminates the extremely low and high salaries for each
comparison. In about nine-tenths of the 105 publishable
work levels, the degree of dispersion ranged between 15
and 30 percent.
Salary differences within work levels reflect a variety
of factors other than duties and responsibilities. These
include salary structures within establishments which
provide for a range of rates for each grade level; varia­
tions in occupational employment among industries
(table 7 and chart 4); and geographic salary differences,
especially for clerical occupations.1 Clerical employees
6
usually are recruited locally, while professional and ad­
ministrative positions tend to be recruited on a broader
regional or national basis.

Salary levels in metropolitan areas

For most occupational levels, average salaries in
metropolitan areas (table 2) were slightly higher than
national averages (table 1). In only 13 instances,
however, did these differences exceed 1 percent.
Approximately nine-tenths of the employees surveyed
were located in metropolitan areas. The proportion,
however, varied among occupations and work levels.
More than 95 percent of auditors, systems analysts, job
analysts, attorneys, and messengers were in
metropolitan areas. In 78 of the 105 work levels pro­
viding publishable data, at least 90 percent of the
workers were in metropolitan areas.
Salary levels in large establishments

Large establishments—those employing 2,500
workers or more—accounted for about 38 percent of all
employees in the 96 occupational work levels for which
comparisons were possible (table 3). The proportion of
workers in large establishments ranged from less than
one-tenth of drafters I and file clerks I to 95 percent of
purchasing assistants III. Large establishments com­
monly employed a majority of the workers at the
highest levels of professional, administrative, and
technical support occupations. Among clerical occupa­
tions, however, they employed a majority of only pur­
chasing assistants III and both levels of stenographers.
Salary levels in large establishments expressed as
percents of levels in all establishments combined ranged
from 97 to 129. Salary levels in large establishments
were higher than the all-establishment average by 5 per­
cent or more in all but three of the clerical levels (both
levels of stenographers and purchasing assistants III),
but for about two-fifths of the 70 nonclerical levels, as shown
in the following tabulation (the all-establishment average for
each occupational level = 100):
Professional,
administrative, and
technical

Clerical

Total number o f levels

70

26

95-99 percent........................
100-104 percent...................
105-109 percent...................
110-114 percent ...................
115 percent and o v e r ...........

4
39
17
8
2

1
2
11
6
6

Pay differences by industry

Relative occupational salary levels in major industry
divisions were compared to each other and to the all­
industry average (table 8). Salary levels for professional,
administrative, and technical occupations in manufac15
Median monthly salaries are the amounts below and above which
50 percent o f the employees are found. The mean salary is the
weighted average o f all salaries.
1 For analyses o f interarea pay differentials in clerical salaries, see
8
Wage Differences Among Metropolitan Areas, 1983, bls Summary
84-5; and Mark Sieling, “ Clerical Pay Differences in Metropolitan
Areas, 1961-80,” Monthly Labor Review, July 1982, pp. 10-14.

As expected, pay relatives were close to 100 for those
work levels where large establishments contributed
5

Text table 3. Distribution of work levels by degree of salary dispersion, March 1984
Number of levels having degree of dispersion1 of—
Occupation

All occupations
Accountants
Chief accountants
Auditors
Public accountants
Job analysts
Directors of personnel
Attorneys
Buyers
C h e m is ts ...............
Engineers
Engineering technicians
Drafters
Computer operators
Photographers
Programmers/programmer analysts
System s analysts
Clerical workers

Number of
work levels

105
6
4
4
4
3
4
6
4
7
8
5
5
5
4
5
5
26

Under 15
percent

15 and under
20 percent

20 and under
25 percent

25 and under
30 percent

30 percent
and over

5

29

49

17

5

2
2
2
2
3
6
2
1

4
1

1
1
-

1
-

-

2
2
-

2
2

1
-

5

-

3
3
2
5
4

4
3
1
4
1
1
13

-

3
1
1
1

-

-

-

9

4

’ Degree of dispersion equals the salary range of the middle 50 percent of
employees in a work level expressed as a percent of the median salary for
that level.

turing industries tended to be closest to the all-industry
average. Manufacturing however, accounted for more
employment than any other sector, except in the case of
attorneys and public accountants. Relative salary levels
were generally highest in mining and public utilities.
For most occupations studied, relative salary levels
were lowest in retail trade and finance, insurance, and
real estate industries. Where these industries employed a
substantial proportion of workers in an occupation, the
all-industry average was dampened; consequently,
relative pay levels in such industries as manufacturing
and public utilities tended to be elevated above the all­
industry average. For example, relative pay levels of
messengers in manufacturing (112 percent of the all­
industry average) and public utilities (135 percent) reflect
the influence of lower salaries for 46 percent of these
workers employed in finance, insurance, and real estate
industries on the all-industry average. These industries,
however, also reported slightly shorter average standard
workweeks than other industries.

Average standard weekly hours

The distribution of average weekly hours (rounded to
the nearest half hour) is shown in table 9 for each oc­
cupation by major industry division. Average weekly
hours were lower in finance, insurance, and real estate
(about 38 hours for most occupations) than in other in­
dustries (39 to 40 hours). Average weekly hours have
been fairly stable over the past decade.1 Standard week­
7
ly hours, the base for regular straight-time salary, were
obtained for individual employees in the occupations
studied. When individual hours were not available, par­
ticularly for some higher level professional and ad­
ministrative positions, the predominant workweek of
the office work force was used as the standard
workweek.
1 For information on scheduled weekly hours o f office workers
7
employed in metropolitan areas, see Area Wage Surveys, Selected
Metropolitan Areas, 1983, Bulletin 3025—72 (Bureau of Labor
Statistics, 1984).

6

Chart 1. Salaries in professional and technical occupations, March 1984
(Mean monthly salaries and ranges within which fell 80 percent of employees)

O ccupation and level

A cco untants

Chief accountants

Auditors

Public accountants

Attorneys

Chem ists

Engineers

Engineering
te ch n ician s

D rafters

Com puter operators

Photographers

7

Chart 2. Salaries in administrative occupations, March 1984
(Mean monthly salaries and ranges within which fell 80 percent of employees)

O ccup ation and level

Jo b analysts

o

||

lii

IV
D irectors of
personnel

j

II
III
IV
Buyers

I

II
III
IV
Program m ers/
program m er
analysts

|

II
III
IV
V
System s analysts

I

II
III
IV
V

$1,000

$2,000

$3,000

$4,000

$5,000

$6,000

$7,000

Chart 3. Salaries in clerical occupations, March 1984
(Mean monthly salaries and ranges within which fell 80 percent of employees)
O ccupation and level

0
A ccounting clerks

File clerks

Key entry operators

j

$500

$1 ,000

$ 1 ,500

-

II III IV III III |-

II M esseng ers
Personnel clerks/
assistants

|^_
_

III IV Purchasing assistants

J-

II ill S e cre ta rie s

|-

II III •
IV VStenographers

I-

II Typists

|-

II -

9

$ 2 ,0 0 0

$ 2 ,500

$ 3 ,000

Chart 4. Relative employment in selected occupational groups by industry division, March 1984
Percent
O ccup ational group
A cco u n ta n ts and
chief acco u n ta n ts’

Auditors

Attorneys

Buyers

Program m ers/
program m er analysts

System s analysts

Directors of pe1
sonnet

Chem ists

Engineers

Engineering technicians
and drafters

Com puter operators

Photographers

C le rical em ployees

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

milium
wnmim
Wilmmwmrnmr
wmmmiimTm
Miniumi i
■777777771wmm,
mummum *
Mmmmmmuh
vuniiitnmim
uuumuuu
/ / / / / / /

gzzzzzzzzzzzz

mum

Mining
and
construction

M anufacturing

Public
utilities

Finance,
insurance,
and real estate

Trade and
selected
se rvice s

1 Public accountants are not included. This occupation is found only in accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping services in the selected
services industry group.

10

Table 1. Average salaries: United States
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry,’
United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1984)

MONTHLY SALARIES4
NUMBER
OF
EMPLOYEES3

OCCUPATION AND LEVEL2

ACCOUNTANTS AND AUDITORS
ACCOUNTANTS I ......
ACCOUNTANTS II .....
ACCOUNTANTS III ....
ACCOUNTANTS IV .....
ACCOUNTANTS V ......
ACCOUNTANTS VI .....
AUDITORS I .........
AUDITORS II ........
AUDITORS III .......
AUDITORS IV ........
PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS I .
PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS II
PURLTC ACCOUNTANTS III
PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS IV
CHIEF ACCOUNTANTS I .
.
CHIEF ACCOUNTANTS II .
CHIEF ACCOUNTANTS III
CHIEF ACCOUNTANTS IV .
ATTORNEYS
ATTORNEYS I ................
ATTORNEYS II .......
ATTORNEYS III ......
ATTORNEYS IV .......
ATTORNEYS V ........
ATTORNEYS VI .......
BUYERS
BUYERS I ...........
BUYERS II ..........
BUYERS III .........
BUYERS IV ..........
PROGRAMMERS/ANALYSTS
PROGRAMMERS/PROGRAMMER ANALYSTS
PROGRAMMERS/PROGRAMMER ANALYSTS
PROGRAMMERS/PROGRAMMER ANALYSTS
PROGRAMMERS/PROGRAMMER ANALYSTS
PROGRAMMERS/PROGRAMMER ANALYSTS
SYSTEMS
SYSTEMS
SYSTEMS
SYSTEMS
SYSTEMS

ANALYSTS
ANALYSTS
ANALYSTS
ANALYSTS
ANALYSTS

I ____
II...
III..
I V . ..

V....

PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT
JOB ANALYSTS II ............
JOB ANALYSTS III ...
JOB ANALYSTS IV ....
DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL I ....
DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL II ...
DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL Ill ....
DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL IV ...

MEAN

13,183
23,559
38,763
22,717
8,114
1,836
1,362
3,625
4,607
2,421
9,264
9,335
7,067
4,345
650
1,383
899
176

MIDDLE RANGEa
FIRST
THIRD
QUARTILE QUARTILE

MEAN

MEDIAN

MIDDLE RANGE5
FIRST
THIRD
QUARTILE QUARTILE

$1,473
1,777
2,100
2,666
3,333
4,135
1,383
1,871
2,200
2,751
1,524
1,649
1,850
2,232
2,563
3,332
4,167
5,242

$1,820
2,241
2,649
3,258
4,035
5,035
1,863
2,332
2,779
3,415
1,666
1,858
2,207
2,666
3,323
4,003
5,165
6,148

$19,843
24,325
28,721
35,715
44,466
55,618
19,671
25,391
30,209
37,378
19,142
21,164
24,702
29,663
35,199
44,128
56,816
69,838

$19,680
23,990
28,320
35,196
44,340
54,978
19,192
25,080
30,000
36,685
18,992
20,692
23.990
29,188
35,986
43,683
57,036
70,212

$17,679
21,318
25,200
31,987
39,996
49,620
16,596
22,452
26,400
33,017

2,933
3,677
4,735
5,820

$1,640
1,999
2,360
2,933
3,695
4,582
1,599
2,090
2,500
3,057
1,583
1,724
1,999
2,432
2,999
3,640
4,753
5,851

18,293
19,792
22 .?Q 0
26,789
30,750
39,984
50,004
62,904

$21,840
26,889
31,787
39,092
43,420
60,420
22,356
27,989
33,348
40.984
19,992
22,291
9A ^aq
31,987
39,876
48,036
61,975
73,770

1,186
2,965
3,938
3,340
1,827
541

2,410
2,937
3,729
4,622
5,873
7,297

2,332
2,916
3,666
4,567
5,759
7,164

2,083
2,582
3,332
4,067
5,229
6,414

2,666
3,290
4,116
5,023
6,414
8,033

28,918
35,238
44,743
55,462
70,478
87,568

27,989
34,987
43,992
54,804
69,102
85,966

24,990
30,987
39,984
48,804
62,748
76,969

31,987
39,484
49,396
60,276
76,969
96,396

6,234
17,840
18,285
5,941
I ...
II —
III ...
IV V ...

$1,654
2,027
2,393
2,976
3,706
4,635
1,639
2,116
2,517
3,115
1,595
1,764
2,058
2,472

MEDIAN

ANNUAL SALARIES4

1,685
2,056
2,551
3,154

1,639
2,015
2,520
3,087

1,498
1,833
2,259
2,750

1,863
2,244
2,800
3,485

20,225
24,675
30,610
37,843

19,668
24,178
30,240
37,044

17,976
21,991
27,108
33,000

22,358
26,934
33,600
41,820

13,339
33,626
42,777
16,546
7,296
16,127
34,702
28,321
10,375
2,140

1,650
1,901
2,263
2,661
3,239
2,257
2,694
3,171
3,729
4,493

1,605
1,895
2,249
2,666
3,270
2,246
2.674
3,149
3,690
4,458

1,416
1,699
2,049
2,466
3,035
2,050
2,444
2,889
3,373
4,045

1,850
2,083
2,457
2,875
3,479
2,435
2,920
3,425
4,023
4,917

19,801
22,815
27,158
31,929
38,868
27,084
32,324
38,057
44,748
53,917

19,260
22,740
26,989
31,987
39,240
26,952
32,087
37,786
44,282
53,496

16,993
20,392
24,590
29,588
36,420
24,605
29,328
34,666
40,476
48,540

22,200
24,990
29,488
34,500
41,748
29,220
35,040
41,100
48,282
59,004

474
832
610
1,674
2,288
1,231
452

1,904
2,332
2,907
2,954
3,552
4,643
5,489

1,853
2,275
2,900
2,914
3,570
4,498
5,498

1,657
2,083
2,542
2,599
3,160
4,165
4,998

2,083
2,601
3,158
3,212
3,982
4,998
6,050

22,845
27,987
34,880
35,444
42,620
55,717
65,874

22,230
27,300
34,800
34,967
42,840
53,978
65,974

19,880
24,990
30,504
31,188
37,915
49,980
59,976

24,990
31,213
37,896
38,540
47,784
59,976
72,600

See footnotes at end of table.

11

Table 1. Continued—Average salaries: United States
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry,'
United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1984)

MONTHLY SALARIES4
OCCUPATION AND LEVEL2

CHEMISTS AND ENGINEERS
CHEMISTS I ........................
CHEMISTS II .......................
CHEMISTS III ......................
CHEMISTS IV .......................
CHEMISTS V ........................
CHEMISTS VI .......................
CHEMISTS VII ......................
ENGINEERS I .......................
ENGINEERS II ......................
ENGINEERS III .....................
ENGINEERS IV ......................
ENGINEERS V .......................
ENGINEERS VI ......................
ENGINEERS VII .....................
ENGINEERS VIII .....................
TECHNICAL SUPPORT
ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS I ...........
ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS II ..........
ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS III .........
ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS IV ..........
ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS V ...........
DRAFTERS I ........................
DRAFTERS II .......................
DRAFTERS III ......................
DRAFTERS IV .......................
DRAFTERS V ........................
COMPUTER OPERATORS I ...............
COMPUTER OPERATORS II ..............
COMPUTER OPERATORS III .............
COMPUTER OPERATORS IV ..............
COMPUTER OPERATORS V ...............
PHOTOGRAPHERS I ....................
PHOTOGRAPHERS II ...................
PHOTOGRAPHERS III ..................
PHOTOGRAPHERS IV ...................
CLERICAL
ACCOUNTING CLERKS I ................
ACCOUNTING CLERKS II ...............
ACCOUNTING CLERKS III ..............
ACCOUNTING CLERKS IV ...............
FILE CLERKS I .....................
FILE CLERKS II ....................
FILE CLERKS III ....................
KEY ENTRY OPERATORS I ..............
KEY ENTRY OPERATORS II .............
MESSENGERS ........................
PERSONNEL CLERKS/ASSISTANTS I .......
PERSONNEL CLERKS/ASSISTANTS II ......
PERSONNEL CLERKS/ASSISTANTS III .....
PERSONNEL CLERKS/ASSISTANTS IV ......

NUMBER
OF
EMPLOYEES

MEAN

MEDIAN

ANNUAL SALARIES4

MIDDLE RANCE5
FIRST
THIRD
QUARTILE QUARTILE

MEAN

MEDIAN

MIDDLE RANGE6
FIRST
THIRD
QUARTILE QUARTILE

2,395
5,891
9,777
9,996
7,815
3,290
1,122
27,872
67,872
135,792
145,728
100,411
49,013
13,435
2,590

1,801
2,123
2,537
3,137
3,801
4,514
5,256
2,180
2,408
2,730
3,250
3.862
4,479
5,097
5,899

1,780
2,114
2,476
3,100
3,791
4,511
5,331
2,188
2,396
2,707
3,239
3,832
4,420
5,041
5,815

1,558
1,874
2,253
2,835
3,426
4,098
4,693
2,070
2,244
2,488
2,974
3,520
4,030
4,600
5,335

1,949
2,345
2,824
3,390
4,137
4,856
5,831
2,314
2,563
2.960
3,519
4,169
4,840
5,490
6,310

21,609
25,481
30,441
37,643
45,614
54,163
63,072
26,163
28,899
32,761
39,005
46,349
53,749
61,166
70,788

21,360
25,370
29,712
37,200
45,492
54,132
63,974
26,259
28,754
32,481
38,868
45,982
53,040
60,492
69,780

18,693
22,491
27,038
34,020
41,113
49,176
56,312
24,840
26,934
29,856
35,686
42,240
48,356
55,200
64,020

23,391
28,140
33,886
40,676
49,638
58,277
69,972
27,768
30,756
35,520
42,227
50,034
58,077
65,880
75,720

4,626
19,229
31,920
39,016
22,702
1,961
10,126
19,886
22,584
17,358
8,955
30,855
24,370
8,816
1,479
144
720
724
364

1 ,347
1,561
1,863
2,197
2,507
1, 050
1,343
1,591
1,922
2,421
1,089
1,361
1,645
1,926
2,269
1,446
1,812
2,165
2,396

1,333
1,535
1,827
2,172
2,491
1,040
1,300
1,550
1,902
2,378
1,061
1,317
1>58 3
1,889
2,255
1,385
1,790
2,177
2,341

1,200
1,395
1,651
1,967
2,296
936
1,163
1,408
1,712
2,123
932
1,168
1,425
1,667
2,008
1,216
1,659
1,901
2,167

1,488
1,711
2,045
2,391
2,695
1,173
1,521
1,738
2,107
2,686
1,200
1,525
1,833
2,116
2,433
1,588
1,987
2,397
2,632

16,169
18,733
22,351
26,362
30,084
12,596
16,120
19,098
23,067
29,057
13,068
16,337
19,743
23,107
27,223
17,348
21,738
25,974
28,749

15,994
18,420
21,924
26,070
29,888
12,479
15,599
18,600
22,824
28,540
12,729
15,804
18,998
22,670
27,060
16,620
21,474
26,124
28,089

14,400
16,743
19,810
23,606
27,547
11,232
13,956
16,893
20,538
25,478
11,184
14,018
17,100
20,009
24,095
14,594
19,907
22,815
25,998

17,856
20,528
24,540
28,689
32,340
14,081
18,252
20,859
25,289
32,238
14,394
18,303
21,991
25,390
29,196
19,056
23,844
28,764
31,588

27,873
79,368
58,863
17,286
16,026
9,102
2,746

975
1,172
1,377
1,687
822
944
1,131
1,068
1,325
936
1,115
1,347
1,522
1,819

932
1,127
1,324
1,640
780
880
1,044
1,025
1,239
883
1,056
1,272
1,489
1,771

832
997
1,170
1,432
708
800
966
888
1,116
766
953
1,166
1,341
1,558

1,064
1,293
1,533
1,931
897
1,011
1,218
1,173
1,452
1,025
1,215
1,475
1,674
2,062

11,704
14,060
16,527
20,244
9,869
11,331
13,576
12,811
15,898
11,230
13,379
16,160
18,268
21,830

11,179
13,519
15,888
19,680
9,359
10,555
12,531
12,295
14,871
10,596
12,667
15,261
17,866
21,251

9,983
11,959
14,039
17,184
8,497
9,600
11,595
10,656
13,392
9,188
11,439
13,994
16,094
18,693

12,770
15,516
18,393
23,172
10,763
12,137
14,617
14,076
17,419
12,295
14,580
17,700
20,091
24,744

50,685
32,473
10,647
2,024
3,388
2,896
1,222

See footnotes at end of table.

12

Table 1. Continued—Average salaries: United States
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry,'
United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1984)

MONTHLY SALARIES*
NUMBER
OF
EMPLOYEES

OCCUPATION AND LEVEL2

4,426
<*,162
1,080
58,242
55,132
114,459
47,241
18,627
10,012
6,831
24,405
13,951

PURCHASING ASSISTANTS I ............
PURCHASING ASSISTANTS II ............
PURCHASING ASSISTANTS III ...........
SECRETARIES I .....................
SECRETARIES II .....................
SECRETARIES III ................ ___
SECRETARIES IV .....................
SECRETARIES V .....................
STENOGRAPHERS I ....................
STENOGRAPHERS II ...................
TYPISTS I .........................
TYPISTS II ........................
- ----- -

-

-------

MEAN

MEDIAN

1,302
1,667
2,243
1,275
1,410
1,588
1,794
2,058
1,437
1,6 98
983
1,262

1,257
1,638
2,212
1,231
1,370
1,544
1,768
2,037
1,420
1,690
932
1,195

ANNUAL SALARIES*

MIDDLE RANGE5
FIRST
THIRD
QUARTILE QUARTILE
1,114
1,413
2,014
1,090
1,225
1,366
1,566
1,785
1,174
1,523
823
1,022

1,390
1,910
2,474
1,390
1,548
1,759
1,993
2,309
1,655
1,931
1,066
1,439

MEAN

15,629
20,001
26,916
15,296
16,920
19,053
21,525
24,700
17,241
20,376
11,793
15,150

MEDIAN

15,084
19,654
26,544
14,767
16,440
18,523
21,214
24,438
17,040
20,278
11,179
14,340

MIDDLE RANGE5
FIRST
THIRD
QUARTILE QUARTILE
13,368
16,956
24,170
13,080
14,700
16,393
18,792
21,420
14,091
18,271
9,879
12,267

16,680
22,921
29,688
16,680
18,576
21,110
23,920
27,709
19,862
23,169
12,795
17,268

fa. —

1 For the scope of the study, see table A-1 in appendix A.
2 Occupational definitions appear in appendix C.
3 O ccup ation al em ploym ent estim ates relate to the to ta l in all
establishments w ithin the scope of the survey and not to the number actually
surveyed. For further explanation, see appendix A.
4 Salaries reported are standard salaries paid for standard work schedules;

13

i.e., the straight-time salary corresponding to the employee's normal work
schedule excluding overtime hours. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded, but
cost-of-living payments and incentive earnings are included.
5
The middle range (interquartile) is the central part of the array excluding the
upper and lower fourths of the employee distribution.

Table 2. Average salaries: Metropolitan areas
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry, metropolitan areas,1
United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1984)

MONTHLY SALARIES*
NUMBER
0
F
EMPLOYEES

OCCUPATION AND LEVEL2

ACCOUNTANTS AND AUDITORS
ACCOUNTANTS I .....................
ACCOUNTANTS II ....................
ACCOUNTANTS III ....................
ACCOUNTANTS IV ....................
ACCOUNTANTS V .....................
ACCOUNTANTS VI ....................
AUDITORS I ........................
AUDITORS II .......................
AUDITORS III ......................
AUDITORS IV .......................

MEAN

MEDIAN

ANNUAL SALARIES*

MIDDLE RANGE5
FIRST
THIRD
QUARTILE QUARTILE

12,401
21,554
35,280
20,792
7,609
1,780
1,328
3,486
4,343
2,328
8,557
8,724
6,755
4,265
429
1,223
824
176

$1,660
2,044
2,401
2,978
3,707
4,621
1,643
2,124
2,527
3,120
1,598
1,758
2,050
2,474
3,000
3,645
4,732
5,820

$1,650
2,008
2,366
2,940
3,699
4,565
1,600
2,124
2,500
3,072
1,583
1,716
1,991
2,425
3,000
3,620
4,748
5,851

$1,485
1,794
2,114
2,666
3,332
4,105
1,383
1,875
2,207
2,751
1,525
1,632
1,861
2,232
2,658
3,306
4,202
5,242

$1,822
2,250
2,662
3,270
4,040
5,023
1,863
2,341
2,791
3,425
1,650
1,841
2,182

1,134
2,883
3,8 C8
3,248
1,767
524

2,406
2,931
3,727
4,633
5,859
7,308

2,332
2,916
3,666
4,582
5,750
7,164

5,451
14,971
16,475
5,701

1,706
2,083
2,566
3,154

I ..........................................................
I I ........................................................
I I I .....................................................
I V ........................................................
V ..........................................................

12,509
30,841
40,617
16,024
7,187
14,762
32,794
27,430
10,051
2,067

1,652
1,912
2,267
2,662
3,237
2,266
2,700
3,173
3,722
4,478

3,270
2,250
2,683
3,150
3,683
4,450

PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT
JOB ANALYSTS II ....................
JOB ANALYSTS III ...................
JOB ANALYSTS IV ...................
DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL I ...........
DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL II ...........
DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL III ..........
DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL IV ...........

465
797
601
1,104
1,962
1,138
432

1,907
2,341
2,917
2,941
3,559
4,659
5,483

1,853
2,290
2,900
2,913
3,582
4,498
5,491

PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS I ...............
PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS II ..............
PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS III .............
PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS IV ..............
CHIEF ACCOUNTANTS I ................
CHIEF ACCOUNTANTS II ...............
CHIEF ACCOUNTANTS III ..............
CHIEF ACCOUNTANTS IV ...............
ATTORNEYS
ATTORNEYS I .......................
ATTORNEYS II ......................
ATTORNEYS III .....................
ATTORNEYS IV ......................
ATTORNEYS V .......................
ATTORNEYS VI ......................
BUYERS
BUYERS
BUYERS
BUYERS

BUYERS
I ..........................
II .........................
III ........................
IV .........................

PROGRAMMERS/ANALYSTS
PROGRAMMERS/PROGRAMMER ANALYSTS
PROGRAMMERS/PROGRAMMER ANALYSTS
PROGRAMMERS/PROGRAMMER ANALYSTS
PROGRAMMERS/PROGRAMMER ANALYSTS
PROGRAMMERS/PROGRAMMER ANALYSTS
SYSTEMS
SYSTEMS
SYSTEMS
SYSTEMS
SYSTEMS

ANALYSTS
ANALYSTS
ANALYSTS
ANALYSTS
ANALYSTS

I ...
II ....
III ...
IV _
_
V ...

MEAN

MEDIAN

MIDDLE RANGE5
FIRST
THIRD
QUARTILE QUARTILE

3,325
3,973
5,135
6,148

$19,915
24,526
28,818
35,735
44,488
55,452
19,716
25,489
30,329
37,437
19,180
21,097
24,604
29,686
36,003
43,744
56,789
69,838

$19,800
24,096
28,392
35,280
44,383
54,782
19,200
25,490
30,000
36,870
18,992
20,592
23,890
29,106
36,003
43,439
56,977
70,212

$17,820
21,531
25,366
31,987
39,985
49,260
16,596
22,501
26,489
33,017
18,300
19,583
22,329
26,789
31,897
39,667
50,424
62,904

$21,864
27,000
31,944
39,234
48,480
60,276
22,356
28,089
33,487
41,100
19,801
22,091
26,190
31,987
39,900
47,676
61,620
73,770

2,083
2,574
3,332
4,067
5,223
6,414

2,650
3,290
4,107
5,040
6,343
8,085

28,877
35,173
44,726
55,596
70,312
87,698

27,989
34,986
43,992
54,978
69,000
85,966

24,990
30,891
39,984
48,804
62,675
76,969

31,800
39,484
49,280
60,476
76,120
97,020

1,660
2,049
2,534
3,094

1,499
1,842
2,280
2,750

1,884
2,266
2,816
3,497

20,468
24,996
30,795
37,852

19,914
24,590
30,406
37,125

17,993
22,098
27,360
33,000

22,611
27,189
33,787
41,966

1,608
1,910
2,249

1,417
1,707
2,050
2,466
3,035
2,065
2,450
2,895
3,370
4,033

1,850
2,087
2,465
2,877
3,479
2,443
2,925
3,426
4,015
4,912

19,825
22,944
27,204
31,942
38,845
27,193
32,403
38,072
44,669
53,740

19,292
22,920
26,992
31,987
39,240
27,000
32,196
37,800
44,196
53,400

17,007
20,486
24,594
29,592
36,420
24,780
29,398
34,737
40,437
48,396

25,044
29,580
34,524
41,748
29,318
35,100
41,116
48,180
58,944

1,657
2,083
2,556

2,099
2,605
3,166
3,196
3,990
4,998
6,050

22,879
28,086
35,000
35,295
42,708
55,913
65,798

22,230
27,480
34,800
34,954
42,987
53,978
65,888

19,880
24,990
30,672
31,987
38,035
49,980
59,976

25,190
31,260
37,992
38,356
47,881
59,976
72,600

2,666

See footnotes at end of table.

14

2,666

3,170
4,165
4,998

2,666

22,200

Table 2. Continued—Average salaries: Metropolitan areas
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry, metropolitan areas,'
United States,except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1984)

MONTHLY SALARIES4
OCCUPATION AND LEVEL2

NUMBER
OF
EMPLOYEES

MEAN

MEDIAN

ANNUAL SALARIES4

MIDDLE RANGE 5
FIRST
THIRD
QUARTILE QUARTILE

MEAN

MEDIAN

MIDDLE RANGE5
FIRST
THIRD
QUARTILE QUARTILE

CHEMISTS AND ENGINEERS
CHEMISTS I ........................
CHEMISTS II .......................
CHEMISTS III ......................
CHEMISTS IV .......................
CHEMISTS V ........................
CHEMISTS VI .......................
CHEMISTS VII ......................
ENGINEERS I .......................
ENGINEERS II ......................
ENGINEERS III .....................
ENGINEERS IV ......................
ENGINEERS V .......................
ENGINEERS VI ......................
ENGINEERS VII .....................
ENGINEERS VIII ....................
TECHNICAL SUPPORT
ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS I ...........
ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS II ..........
ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS III .........
ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS IV ..........
ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS V ...........
DRAFTERS I ........................
DRAFTERS II .......................
DRAFTERS III ......................
DRAFTERS IV .......................
DRAFTERS V ........................
COMPUTER OPERATORS I ...............
COMPUTER OPERATORS II ..............
COMPUTER OPERATORS III .............
COMPUTER OPERATORS IV ..............
COMPUTER OPERATORS V ...............
PHOTOGRAPHERS I ....................
PHOTOGRAPHERS II ...................
PHOTOGRAPHERS III ..................
PHOTOGRAPHERS IV ...................
CLERICAL
ACCOUNTING CLERKS I ................
ACCOUNTING CLERKS II ...............
ACCOUNTING CLERKS III ..............
ACCOUNTING CLERKS IV ...............
FILE CLERKS I .....................
FILE CLERKS II ....................
FILE CLERKS III ...................
KEY ENTRY OPERATORS I ..............
KEY ENTRY OPERATORS II .............
MESSENGERS ........................
PERSONNEL CLERKS/ASSISTANTS I .......
PERSONNEL CLERKS/ASSISTANTS II ......
PERSONNEL CLERKS/ASSISTANTS III .....
PERSONNEL CLERKS/ASSISTANTS IV ......

2,275
5,205
8,615
8,594
6,388
2,804
973
24,163
60,187
119,089
131,233
94,641
47,165
13,122
2,458

1,795
2,119
2,537
3,133
3,812
4,516
5,274
2,192
2,413
2,749
3,267
3,868
4,481
5,093
5,897

1,783
2,114
2,476
3,102
3,830
4,548
5,425

4,134
17,170
28,677
35,700
21,706
1,749
8,644
16,735
19,938
16,508
8,226
27,460
22,703
8,427
1,447
139
677
655
342

1,351
1,570
1,872
2,206
2,512
1,052
1,354
1,615
1,930
2,428
1,105
1,384
1,652
1,935
2,268
1,451
1,804
2,204
2,423

1,326
1,548
1,834
2,182
2,496
1,040
1,300
1,583
1,912
2,374
1,070
1,335
1,591
1,898
2,255
1,385
1,790
2,220
2,373

1,664
1,958
2,213

26,446
71,564
52,359
15,696
15,472
8,606
2,683
45,687
30,061
10,193
1,714
2,947
2,359
1,105

976
1,184
1,383
1,700
824
946
1,129
1 075
,
1,335
938

932
1,132
1,329
1,660
780
880
1,044
1,034
1,250
887
1,080
1,286
1,489
1,733

833
1,005
1,180
1,441
709
806
966
900
1,118
767
971
1,184
1,352
1,553

2,200

2,400
2,722
3,250
3,835
4,425
5,039
5,816

1,120

1,369
1,528
1,802

See footnotes at end of table.

15

1,550
1,861
2,243
2,849
3,474
4,075
4,623
2,083
2,249
2,499
2,983
3,530
4,030
4,595
5,331

1,947
2,349
2,832
3,387
4,137
4,862
5,850
2,332
2,570
2,979
3,535
4,172
4,840
5,498
6,310

21,535
25,426
30,440
37,601
45,740
54,188
63,282
26,306
28,957
32,985
39,199
46,417
53,772
61,122
70,762

21,399
25,363
29,712
37,229
45,960
54,579
65,100
26,400
28,800
32,670
39,000
46,020
53,096
60,471
69,795

18,602
22,332
26,913
34,187
41,683
48,900
55,478
24,990
26,987
29,988
35,796
42,360
48,360
55,140
63,974

23,367
28,189
33,986
40,640
49,638
58,344
70,200
27,989
30,840
35,750
42,426
50,066
58,080
65,974
75,720

1,198
1,395
1,652
1,978
2,300
936
1,163
1,421
1,726
2,123
953
1,190
1,433
1,673
2,008

1,499
1,726
2,055
2,400
2,700
1,187
1,556
1,775
2,108
2,700
1,206
1,551
1,833
2,124
2,433
1,690
1,977
2,399
2,673

16,210
18,835
22,462
26,466
30,145
12,620
16,249
19,384
23,164
29,132
13,264
16,605
19,826
23,224
27,221
17,418
21,648
26,448
29,081

15,911
18,573
22,003
26,184
29,952
12,479
15,600
18,992
22,944
28,489
12,839
16,015
19,093
22,774
27,060
16,620
21,474
26,643
28,476

14,372
16,743
19,824
23,736
27,600
11,233
13,957
17,049
20,709
25,478
11,439
14,280
17,193
20,076
24,095
14,530
19,966
23,491
26,550

17,991
20,712
24,660
28,797
32,400
14,250
18,667
21,300
25,291
32,400
14,476
18,612
21,996
25,490
29,196
20,278
23,722
28,788
32,082

1,066
1,299
1,541
1,936
898
1,013

11,710
14,214
16,591
20,396
9,885
11,351
13,552
12,900
16,024
11,255
13,440
16,428
18,339
21,624

11,179
13,584
15,952
19,925
9,359
10,556
12,527
12,408
15,000
10,646
12,955
15,438
17,866
20,798

9,996
12,063
14,160
17,293
8,504
9,671
11,592
10,796
13,415
9,203
11,647
14,205
16,223
18,636

12,791
• 15,594
18,493
23,232
10,774
12,152
14,549
14,152
17,554
12,295
14,580
18,011
20,116
24,696

1,211

1,212

1,179
1,463
1,025
1,215
1,501
1,676
2,058

Table 2. Continued—Average salaries: Metropolitan areas
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry, metropolitan areas,'
United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1984)

MONTHLY SALARIES4
OCCUPATION AND LEVEL3

PURCHASING ASSISTANTS I ............
PURCHASING ASSISTANTS II ............
PURCHASING ASSISTANTS III ...........
SECRETARIES I .....................
SECRETARIES II ....................
SECRETARIES III ....................
SECRETARIES IV ....................
SECRETARIES V .....................
STENOGRAPHERS I ....................
STENOGRAPHERS II ...................
TYPISTS I .........................
TYPISTS II ........................

NUMBER
OF
,
EMPLOYEES

3,814
3,854
1,069
53,688
51,059
106,232
44,143
17,787
9,070
6,754
22,293
13,402

MEAN

MEDIAN

1,327
1,687
2,247
1,284
1,415
1,599
1,803
2,061
1,450
1,700
983
1,264

1,279
1,664
2,215
1,235
1,380
1,556
1,778
2,041
1,465
1,694
930
1,200

1 For the scope of the study, see table A-1 in appendix A.
2 Occupational definitions appear in appendix C.
3 O ccupational em ploym ent estim ates relate to the to ta l in all
establishments within the scope of the survey and not to the number actually
surveyed. For further explanation, see appendix A.
4 Salaries reported are standard salaries paid for standard work schedules;

16

ANNUAL SALARIES*

MIDDLE RANGE6
FIRST
THIRD
QUARTILE QUARTILE
1.131
1,441

2,020

1,091
1,228
1,378
1,574
1,790
1,187
1,527
823
1,020

1,417
1,925
2,484
1,400
1,560
1,774
2,000
2,315
1,671
1,927
1,064
1,440

MEAN

15,929
20,249
26,968
15,407
16,982
19,184
21,640
24,734
17,403
20,404
11,796
15,169

MEDIAN

15,350
19,966
26,580
14,819
16,560
18,677
21,336
24,490
17,575
20,328
11,160
14,400

MIDDLE RANGE6
FIRST
THIRD
QUARTILE QUARTILE
13,567
17,289
24,240
13,095
14,731
16,535
18,892
21,480
14,247
18,320
9,879
12,244

17,003
23,100
29,808
16,795
18,719
21,292
24,000
27,781
20,050
23,130
12,771
17,280

i.e., the straight-time salary corresponding to the employee’s normal work
schedule excluding overtime hours. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded, but
cost-of-living payments and incentive earnings are included.
5
The middle range (interquartile) is the central part of the array excluding the
upper and lower fourths of the employee-distribution.

Table 3. Average salaries: Establishments employing 2,500 workers or more
(Employment and average monthly salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry,’
in establishments employing 2,500 workers or more,2 United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1984)

OCCUPATION AND LEVEL3

ACCOUNTANTS AND AUDITORS
ACCOUNTANTS I ......................
ACCOUNTANTS II .....................
ACCOUNTANTS III ....................
ACCOUNTANTS IV .....................
ACCOUNTANTS V ......................
ACCOUNTANTS VI .....................
AUDITORS I .........................
AUDITORS II ........................
AUDITORS III .......................
AUDITORS IV ........................
CHIEF ACCOUNTANTS III ...............
CHIEF ACCOUNTANTS IV ................
ATTORNEYS
ATTORNEYS I ........................
ATTORNEYS II .......................
ATTORNEYS III ......................
ATTORNEYS IV .......................
ATTORNEYS V ........................
ATTORNEYS VI .......................
BUYERS
BUYERS I ...........................
BUYERS II ........... ..............
BUYERS III .........................
BUYERS IV ..........................
PROGRAMMERS/ANALYSTS
PROGRAMMERS/PROGRAMMER ANALYSTS I ....
PROGRAMMERS/PROGRAMMER ANALYSTS II ...
PROGRAMMERS/PROGRAMMER ANALYSTS III ___
PROGRAMMERS/PROGRAMMER ANALYSTS IV ...
PROGRAMMERS/PROGRAMMER ANALYSTS V ....

NUMBER
OF
EMPLOYEES4

MONTHLY SALARIES5
MIDDLE RANGE®
MEDIAN
FIRST
THIRD
QUARTILE
QUARTILE

MEAN

LEVELS IN ESTABLISHMENTS
EMPLOYING 2,500 WORKERS
OR MORE EXPRESSED AS
PERCENT OF THOSE IN ALL
ESTABLISHMENTS COMBINED
EMPLOYMENT
MEAN
SALARIES

$1,583
1,925
2,224
2,710
3,348
4,076
1,417
1,816
2,220
2,791
4,372
5,041

$1,891
2,480
2,832
3,357
4,080
5,048
1,800
2,392
2,916
3,522
5,135
6,032

24
34
25
30
34
49
32
35
44
40
14
44

3,160
3,768
4,650
5,719
7,254

2,500
2,832
3,401
4,112
5,077
6,363

3,161
3,524
4,248
5,240
6,499
8,268

29
28
33
39
53
51

115
109
104

1,851
2,619
3,102

1,811
2,166
2,560
3,015

1,655
1,956
2,299

21

27
37
60

110

2,666

1,993
2,460
2,898
3,429

1,792
2,019
2,360
2,729
3,291
2,270
2,760
3,221
3,789
4,621

1,820
2,331
2,720
3,304
2,236
2,748
3,206
3,740
4,576

1,601
1,833
2,174
2,552
3,100
2,066
2,500
2,957
3,449
4,212

1,965
2,167
2,535
2,909
3,500
2,448
2,990
3,458
4,070
4,985

32
33
39
45
60
47
47
53
58
71

109
106
104
103

I .............................................................
I I ...........................................................
I I I ........................................................
I V ..........................................................
V ..............................................................

4,301
11,172
16,512
7,460
4,386
7,538
16,264
15,068
5,975
1,510

PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT
JOB ANALYSTS II .....................
JOB ANALYSTS III ....................
JOB ANALYSTS IV .....................

180
381
378

2,031
2,454
2,971

2,017
2,400
2,991

1,833
2,083
2,683

2,249
2,750
3,247

38
46
62

SYSTEMS
SYSTEMS
SYSTEMS
SYSTEMS
SYSTEMS

ANALYSTS
ANALYSTS
ANALYSTS
ANALYSTS
ANALYSTS

3,152
7,919
9,656
6,889
2,788
900
491
1,281
2,016
967
123
78

$1,746
2,203
2,530
3,057
3,758
4,633
1,658
2,136
2,588
3,189
4,735
5,623

347
827
1,306
1,309
964
274

2,775
3,200
3,872
4,732
5,864
7,357

2,666

1,288
4,854
6,855
3,581

2,200

See footnotes at end of table.

17

$1,716
2,177
2,513
3,024
3,691
4,481
1,574
2,044
2,554
3,070
4,697
5,367

2,000

106
109
106
103

101
100
101
101

103

102
100

97

102
100
101

107
103
98

102

101
102
102
102

103

107
105
102

Table 3. Continued— Average salaries: Establishments employing 2,500 workers or more
(Employment and average monthly salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry,'
in establishments employing 2,500 workers or more,2United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1984)

OCCUPATION AND LEVEL 2

DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL III ...........
DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL IV ...........
CHEMISTS AND ENGINEERS
CHEMISTS I .........................
CHEMISTS II ........................
CHEMISTS III .......................
CHEMISTS IV ........................
CHEMISTS V .........................
CHEMISTS VI ........................
CHEMISTS VII .......................
ENGINEERS I ........................
ENGINEERS II .......................
ENGINEERS III ......................
ENGINEERS IV .......................
ENGINEERS V ........................
ENGINEERS VI .......................
ENGINEERS VII ......................
ENGINEERS VIII .....................
TECHNICAL SUPPORT
ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS I ............
ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS II ...........
ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS III ..........
ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS IV ...........
ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS V ...........
DRAFTERS I .........................
DRAFTERS II ........................
DRAFTERS III .......................
DRAFTERS IV ........................
DRAFTERS V .........................
COMPUTER OPERATORS I ................
COMPUTER OPERATORS II ...............
COMPUTER OPERATORS III ..............
COMPUTER OPERATORS IV ...............
COMPUTER OPERATORS V ................
PHOTOGRAPHERS II ....................
PHOTOGRAPHERS III ...................
PHOTOGRAPHERS IV ....................
CLERICAL
ACCOUNTING CLERKS I .................
ACCOUNTING CLERKS II ................
ACCOUNTING CLERKS III ...............
ACCOUNTING CLERKS IV ................
FILE CLERKS I ......................
FILE CLERKS II .....................
FILE CLERKS III ....................
KEY ENTRY OPERATORS I ...............
KEY ENTRY OPERATORS II ..............
MESSENGERS .........................

NUMBER
OF
4
EMPLOYEES

MONTHLY SALARIES5
MIDDLE RANGE*
FIRST
THIRD
QUARTILE
QUARTILE

LEVELS IN ESTABLISHMENTS
EMPLOYING 2,500 WORKERS
OR MORE EXPRESSED AS
PERCENT OF THOSE IN ALL
ESTABLISHMENTS COMBINED
EMPLOYMENT
MEAN
SALARIES

MEAN

MEDIAN

171
156

5,145
5,743

4,920
5,582

4,665
5,310

5,650
6,164

14
35

594
1,765
2,619
2,956
2,544
1,355
579
12,848
30,370
60,623
75,348
54,072
27,884
7,551
1,614

2.046
2,371
2,813
3,322
3,909
4,591
5,392
2,233
2,459
2,757
3,283
3,878
4,524
5,107
5,980

2,023
2,374
2,825
3,350
3,926
4,575
5,419

1,849
2,149
2,500
3,007
3,485
4,070
4,718
2,125
2,312
2,520
3,024
3,570
4,113
4,665
5,406

2,300
2,624
3,133
3,585
4,222
4,942
5,905
2,343
2,585
2,977
3,535
4,170
4,866
5,464
6,331

25
30
27
30
33
41
52
46
45
45
52
54
57
56
62

1,184
6,198
14,027
21,669
14,855

1,410
1,636
1,876
2,207
2,491

1,253
1,469
1,707
2,023
2,302
1,088
1,224
1,486
1,794
2,191
1,035
1,322
1,560
1,790
2,008
1,677
1,858
2,115

1,600
1,833
2,109
2,431
2,704
1,371
1,720
1,948
2,220
2,756
1,334
1,742
2,043
2,273
2,433
2,170
2,338
2,664

26
32
44
56
65

2,459
5,063
8,271
8,516
2,663
8,183
7,665
4,256
980
233
431
297

1,445
1,663
1,917
2,236
2,512
1,243
1,470
1,721
2,006
2,486
1,204
1,546
1,825
2,056
2,269
1,914
2,105
2,377

3,672
12,871
13,714
7,539
1,551
1,790
751
10,135
9,577
3,356

1,255
1,383
1,537
1,822
898
1,073
1,204
1,282
1,507
1,028

1,192
1,355
1,490
1,797
841
957
1,096
1,235
1,419
916

971
1,294
1,516
750
845
935
1,049

1,598
1,652
1,765

200

2,221

2,449
2,749
3,285
3,865
4,466
5,048
5,840

1,222

1,466
1,678
1,990
2,446
1,154
1,547
1,768
2,002
2,296
1,891
2,150
2,353

See footnotes at end of table.

18

1.102

1,200

789

2,100

961
1,433
1,467
1,782
1,213

1,210

10

24
25
37
49
30
27
31
48

111

105

114
112
111

106
103
102
103
102
102
101
101
100
101
100
101

107
107
103

102
100

118
109
108
104
103
111

114
107

111

66

100

32
60
82

106
97
99

13
16
23
44

129
118
112
108
109
114
106

10
20

27
20

29
32

120

114
110

Table 3. Continued—Average salaries: Establishments employing 2,500 workers or more
(Employment and average monthly salaries tor selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private Industry,1
in establishments employing 2,500 workers or more,8 United States, . except Alaska iT Hawaii, March 1984)
T and
A- --- -.J
z±

OCCUPATION AND LEVEL3

PERSONNEL CLERKS/ASSISTANTS I ........
PERSONNEL CLERKS/ASSISTANTS II .......
PERSONNEL CLERKS/ASSISTANTS III ......
PERSONNEL CLERKS/ASSISTANTS IV .......
PURCHASING ASSISTANTS I .............
PURCHASING ASSISTANTS II ............
PURCHASING ASSISTANTS III ...........
SECRETARIES I ......................
SECRETARIES II .....................
SECRETARIES III .....................
SECRETARIES IV .....................
SECRETARIES V ......................
STENOGRAPHERS I ....................
STENOGRAPHERS II ....................
TYPISTS I ..........................
TYPISTS II .........................

NUMBER
OF
EMPLOYEES4

243
632
732
566
1,096
1,759
1,027
16,404
18,541
40,792
18,590
7,260
6,264
5,058
6,014
5,733

MONTHLY SALARIES*
MIDDLE RANGE*
MEDIAN
FIRST
THIRD
QUARTILE
QUARTILE

MEAN

1,191
1,517
1,632
1,931
1,506
1,813
2,262
1,467
1,526
1.740
1,911
2,238
1,446
1,687
1,126
1.367

1,201

1,452
1,601
2,000

1,430
1,837
2,222

1,377
1,475
1,701
1,908
2,241
1,491
1,690
1,039
1,310

1 For the scope of the study, see table A-1 In appendix A.

1 Includes data from some large companies that provide companywide data
not identified by size of establishment.
5 Occupational definitions appear in appendix C.
* O ccupational
em ploym ent estim ates relate to the total in all
establishments w ithin the scope of the survey and not to the number actually
surveyed. For further explanation, see appendix A.

19

997
1,246
1,404
1.650
1.222

1,556
2,036
1,210

1,303
1,491
1,677
1,956
1,182
1,533
916
1,079

1,238
1,772
1,841
2,145
1,738
2,066
2,537
1,629
1,703
1,965
2,123
2,506
1,662
1,897
1,265
1,589

LEVELS IN ESTABLISHMENTS
EMPLOYING 2,500 WORKERS
OR MORE EXPRESSED AS
PERCENT OF THOSE IN ALL
ESTABLISHMENTS COMBINED
EMPLOYMENT
MEAN
SALARIES
12

19
25
46
25
42
95
28
34
36
39
39
63
74
25
41

107
113
107
106
116
109
101

115
108
110
107
109
101

99
115
108

* Salaries reported are standard salaries paid for standard work schedules; i.e., the
straight-time salary corresponding to the employee’s normal work schedule excluding
overtime hours. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded, but cost-of-living payments and
incentive earnings are included.
' The middle range (interquartile) is the central part of the array excluding the
upper and lower fourths of the employee distribution.

Table 4. Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by monthly salary,
United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1984)

Accountants

MONTHLY SALARY
I
$1,100
$1,150
$1,200
$1,250
$1,300
$1,350
$1,400
$1,450
$1,500
$1,550
$1,600
$1,650
$1,700
$1,750
$1,800
$1,850
$1,900
$1,950
$2,000
$2,050
$2,100
$2,150
$2,200
$2,250
$2,300
$2,350
$2,400
$2,450
$2,500
$2,600
$2,700
$2,800
$2,900
$3,000
$3,100
$3,200
$3,300
$3,400
$3,500
$3,600
$3,700
$3,800
$3,900
$4,000
$4,100
$4,200
$4,300
$4,400
$4,500
$4,600
$4,700
$4,800
$4,900
$5,000
$5,100
$5,200
$5,300
$5,400
$5,500
$5,600
$5,700
$5,800
$5,900

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$1,150.......
$1,200 .......
$1,250.......
$1,300 .......
$1,350 .......
$1,400.......
$1,450 .......
$1,500 .......
$1,550.......
$1,600 .......
$1,650 .......
$1,700 .......
$1,750 .......
$1,800 .......
$1,850.......
$1,900 .......
$1,950 .......
$2,000 .......
$2,050 .......
$2,100.......
$2,150.......
$2,200.......
$2,250.......
$2,300.......
$2,350 .......
$2,400 .......
$2,450 .......
$2,500 .......
$2,600 .......
$2,700 .......
$2,800 .......
$2,900 .......
$3,000 .......
$3,100.......
$3,200.......
$3,300 .......
$3,400 .......
$3,500 .......
$3,600.......
$3,700 .......
$3,800.......
$3,900 .......
$4,000 .......
$4,100.......
$4,200 .......
$4,300 .......
$4,400 .......
$4,500 .......
$4,600 .......
$4,700 .......
$4,800 .......
$4,900 .......
$5,000 .......
$5,100.......
$5,200 .......
$5,300 .......
$5,400 .......
$5,500 .......
$5,600 .......
$5,700 .......
$5,800 .......
$5,900..,....
$6,000 .......

$6,000 and under $6,100.......
$6,100 and under $6,200 .......
$6,200 and under $6,300 .......
$6,300 and under $6,400 .......
$6,400 and under $6,500 .......
$6,500 and under $6,600 .......
$6,600 and under $6,700 .......
$6,700 and under $6,800 .......
$6,900 and under $7,000 .......
$7,000 and under $7,100.......
$7,100 and under $7,200 .......
...............
Total
Number of Employees...........
Average Monthly Salary........

II

(1 .0 )
1.4
3.1
2.3
5.1
3.4
4.4

.
_
(0 .6 )
1.2
1.4

8.1

7.9
6.8
7 .1
8.8
7.4
5.6
7.1
4.5
4.4

2.0

1.5
2.8
2.5
4.5
5.7
5.1
5.8
5.2
6.5

2.8

6.0

2.3
1.4
.9
1.5
(2.7)
_
_
-

7.3
4.7
4.4
5.0
3.9
3.3
3.4
2.4

-

2.0
2.0

3.6
3.8
1.4
(2.3)
_
-

“
-

-

-

~
-

“
"
~
~

-

Chief Accountants

III

IV

V

VI

I

II

III

IV

_
-

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
(1 .6 )
1.2
1.3

_
_
_
_

_
-

_
-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
-

-

-

-

_

_
3.5
5. 4

-

-

_
(2 .2 )
1.2
1.1
2.0

2.4
2.8

3.7
4.1
5.1
4 .1
4.6
5.2
5.3
4.8
5.3
4.6
4.5

1.1
2.0
1.2
2.1

3.1
6.5
7.8
9.4
9.3
9.0
9.1
7.4
4.7
6.2
4.2
4.0
2.9
1.4

8.8
6.8
6.0

4.6
3.7
2.5
1.3
1.4
(1.9)
*
_
-

1.1

(3.4)
-

_
w
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
(1.3)
1.2
.9
1 .9
3.9
3.5
4.7
5.8
6.3
6.4
7.0
7.8
7.3
8.4
7.0

_
_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
(1 .2 )
3.5
1.3
1.6
1.6

4.0
4.8

_
_
-

1.7
5.5
5 .2
13.1
8 .5
1.7
4.2
10.5
7.7
5.5
16.2
1.1
1.1
6.0
2.0

-

“
~
“
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

-

100.0
13,183
$1,654

-

“
-

_
-

100.0
38,763
$2,393

-

-

-

-

-

_
~

100.0
22,717
$2,976

See footnotes at end of table.

20

5.5
2.7
2.5
2.9
1.9
1.3
(3.6)
~
_
-

6.0

5.8
5.5
4.1
5.8
6.2
7.8
6.2
5.7
3.3
2.0
3.5
3.8
1.7
2.7
.9
2.4
1.4
2.6
(4.8)
-

-

-

100.0
23,559
$2,027

6.1

100.0
8,114
$3,706

100.0
1,836
$4,635

_
-

_

1.2

_
_
_
-

-

_

100.0
650
$2,933

_
_
4 .0
6.8

1.4
4.4
5 .8
12.7
6.1

-

-

-

_

2.6

.4

-

3.3
6.1
6.0

7.7
9.5
2.5
2.6
9.3
6.1
3.8
(1.8)
_
_
_
-

2.3
6.1
2.7
4.7

_
100.0
1,383
$3,677

6.6
6.0

1.4
8.3
2.1
4.0
4.7
3.2
11.5
6.6
5.0
2.0
4.1
4.1
4.8
.
7
.
1
.2
.
1
.3
1.8
1.9
.
1
_
-

100.0
899
$4,735

_
1.1
1.1
.6
2.8
10.8
2.3
7.4
5.7
1.1
1.7
5.7
9.1
1.1
9.1
9.1
11.9
1.1
2.3
3.4
_
3.4
3.4
3.4
(1.2)
100.0
176
$5,820

(
Table 4. Continued—Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by monthly salary,
United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,' March 1984)

Public Accountants

Auditors

MONTHLY SALARY
1
$1,050 and under $1,100.......
$1,100 and under $1,150.......
$1,150 and under $1,200 .......
$1,200 and under $1,250.......
$1,250 and under $1,300 .......
$1,300 and under $1,350 .......
$1,350 and under $1,400 .......
$1,400 and under $1,450 .......
$1,450 and under $1,500 .......
$1,500 and under $1,550.......
$1,550 and under $1,600 .......
$1,600 and under $1,650 .......
$1,650 and under $1,700.......
$1,700 and under $1,750 .......
$1,750 and under $1,800 .......
$1,800 and under $1,850.......
$1,850 and under $1,900 .......
$1,900 and under $1,950.......
$1,950 and under $2,000 .......
$2,000 and under $2,050.......
$2,050 and under $2,100.......
$2,100 and under $2,150.......
$2,150 and under $2,200 .......
$2,200 and under $2,250.......
$2,250 and under $2,300 .......
$2,300 and under $2,350.......
$2,350 and under $2,400 .......
$2,400 and under $2,450.......
$2,450 and under $2,500.......
$2,500 and under $2,600 .......
$2,600 and under $2,700 .......
$2,700 and under $2,800.......
$2,800 and under $2,900 .......
$2,900 and under $3,000 .......
$3,000 and under $3,100.......
$3,100 and under $3,200 .......
$3,200 and under $3,300 .......
$3,300 and under $3,400 .......
$3,400 and under $3,500.......
$3,500 and under $3,600 .......
$3,600 and under $3,700 .......
$3,700 and under $3,800 .......
$3,800 and under $3,900 .......
$3,900 and under $4,000 .......
$4,000 and under $4,100.......
$4,100 and under $4,200 .......
$4,200 and under $4,300 .......
$4,300 and under $4,400 .......
Total
Number of Employees...........
Average Monthly Salary........

II

III

1.5
5.4
3.4
2.6
2.3
4.6
6.9
4.8
3.5
3.3
11.9
3.1
9.4
3.7
2.7
4.0
5.5
5.2
3.5
1.5
3.6
1.1
.5
1.0
2.6
(2.2)
~
~
-

“

_

~
“
(0.8)
1.8
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.0
2.7
2.9
4.5
3.3
3.7
5.2
6.1

~
-

“
_

“
100.0
1,362
$1,639

4.9
6.8
3.3
5.4
6.6
6.2
3.6
3.3
3.4
2.9
5.3
4.1
1.4
1.1
.4
1.1
(1.1)
_

100.0
3,625
$2,116

-

”
(1.7)
1.2
.6
1.5
1.0
3.2
2.5
1.9
3.1
4.7
3.6
4.8
3.2
4.1
3.4
3.5
6.3
10.2
7.8
8.4
4.4
7.1
3.8
2.5
1.1

1.6
.8
1.0
(1 .1 )
-

-

100.0
4,607
$2,517

See footnotes at end of table.

21

IV

_

1

_

II

_

-

-

-

“
-

(1.4)
2.2
3.1
5.5
7.9
18.3
20.0
15.0
7.2
7.8
4.4
2.0
1.6
1.2
(2.6)
“
“
-

-

“
(2.3)
2.1
.6
1.4
1.0
3.0
4.6
6.2
7.6
7.9
8.0
8.8
6.2
5.6
8.3
5.9
3.9
2.8
3.0
3.5
2.1
.5

2.3
1.0
(1.4)
100.0
2,421
$3,115

III

1.3
1.7
5.0
5.6
12.0
17.8
13.6
10.1
7.5
6.1
5.5
4.0
2.6
1.9
1.3
1.2
(3.0)
“
-

_
“
_
~
“
(1.8)
3.4
3.3
8.9
6.9
8.8
8.5
9.1

-

“
-

9.6
4.9
4.7
4.3
5.7
3.1
3.7
1.7
2.6
1.0
1.8
1.3
2.2
.1
1.0
(1.7)
“
-

-

-

-

-

_

100.0
9,264
$1,595

_
100.0

9,335
$1,764

IV

100.0
7,067
$2,058

“
“
(1.5)
1.2
1.5
2.0
4.1
3.5
4.3
10.4
7.1
5.3
3.9
8.6
4.4
10.4
9.6
5.9
4.2
4.8
1.9
2.2
1.9
(1.3)
“
-

_
-

100.0
4,345
$2,472

Table 4. Continued—Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by monthly salary,
United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,' March 1984)

Job Analysts

MONTHLY SALARY

Directors of Personnel

II
$1,350
$1,400
$1,450
$1,500
$1,550
$1,6 00
$1,650
$1,700
$1,750
$1,800
$1,850
$1,900
$1,950
$2,000
$2,050
$2,100
$2,150
$2,200
$2,250
$2,300
$2,350
$2,400
$2,450
$2,500
$2,600
$2,700
$2,800
$2,900
$3,000
$3,100
$3,200
$3,300
$3,400
$3,500
$3,600
$3,700
$3,800
$3,900
$4,000
$‘
>,100
$4,200
$4,300
$4,400
$4,500
$4,600
$4,700
$4,800
$4,900
$5,000
$5,100
$5,200
$5,300
$5,400
$5,500
$5,600
$5,800
$5,900
$6,000
$6,100
$6,200
$6,300
$6,400

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

$6,500 and
$6,600 and
$6,700 and
$6,800 and
$6,900 and
$7,000 and
Total

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$1,400.......
$1,450 .......
$1,500 .......
$1,550 .......
$1,600 .......
$1,650 .......
$1,700 .......
$1,750 .......
$1,800 .......
$1,850 .......
$1,900 .......
$1,950 .......
$2,000 .......
$2,050.......
$2,100.......
$2,150.......
$2,200 .......
$2,250 .......
$2,300 .......
$2,350 .......
$2,400 .......
$2,450 .......
$2,500 .......
$2,600 .......
$2,700 .......
$2,800 .......
$2,900.......
$3,000 .......
$3,100.......
$3,200 .......
$3,300 .......
$3,400 .......
$3,500.......
$3,600.......
$3,700 .......
$3,800 .......
$3,900 .......
$4,000 .......
$4,100.......
$4,200.......
$4,300 .......
$4,400 .......
$4,500.......
$4,600 .......
$4,700 .......
$4,800.......
$4,900 .......
$5,000 .......
$5,100.......
$5,200 .......
$5,300 .......
$5,400 .......
$5,500 .......
$5,600.......
$5,700 .......
$5,900 .......
$6,000 .......
$6,100.......
$6,200 .......
$6,300 .......
$6,400 .......
$6,500 .......

under $6,600 .......
under $6,700 .......
under $6,800 .......
under $6,900 .......
under $7,000 .......
under $7,100.......
...............

Number of Employees...........
Average Monthly Salary........

III

IV

Cl. 4)
7.2
.8
3.4
9.9
1.9
8.6
5.9
1.1
8.6
6.5
6 .1
5.7
6.1
2.1
1.5
1.9
5.5
3.0
.
6
1.1
.
6
3.4
1.1
2.7
2.3
CO.8)
”
_
~
-

_

_

1.1
1.1
~
1 .9
1.1
1.7
1.6
2.9
1.0
3.1
1.3
7.0
11.9
4.4
5.8
3.0
3.8
2.3
4.1
5.4
4.1
5.8
7.7
4.9
2.6
2.4
2.0
2.9
1.1
1.3
(0.6)
-

“
-

”
-

“
~
“
-

_
-

100.0
474
$1,904

”
“
“
“
(2.7)
1.0
.
7
.3
1.8
.
7
.8
3.0
.
7
4.9
13.1
8.7
4.1
6.6
8.7
9.2
9.5
5.2
6.6
1.5
1.6
1.0
2.8
1.3
3.3
(0.5)
~
-

-

_
_
_
_
-

-

“
_
-

_
-

-

100.0

100.0
610
$2,907

832
$2,332

See footnotes at end of table.

22

I
~
"
1.1
1.0
.
7
.
6
1.2
.8
4.8
1.6
9.1
5.1
10.2
9.1
1.4
8.7
5.8
10.3
8.5
6.8
.6
4.3
1.6
.5
1.6
3.0
1.6
(0.2)
_
_
_
_
_
_
-

II

III

_

_

~
_
“
2.3
1.3
.7
3.6
3.7
3.9
.4
3.9
3.5
3.1
4.7
6.3
7.7
7 .1
3.2
12.5
3.0
6.3
3.9
6.0
4.1
2.1
1.8
2.8
(2.1)
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
-

“
”
“
_
-

“
“
-

(1.3)
2.3
7.9
2.6
1.6
5.8
7.1
5.2
6.7
9.7
7.7
2.6
5.4
5.5
5.1
1.4
5.0
2.4
4.2
.5
1.1
.
6
1 .0
.7
1.7
1.1
.3
.3
_
_
_
.3
1.1
(0.8)

IV
~
_
_
“
1.5
5.5
.2
1.8
.4
1.1
2.4
3.8
.7
4.6
3.5
6.6
2.0
2.9
4.0
11.3
10.8
.2
1•0
5.3
1.1
6.9
5.3
.7
2.4
.2
3.3
5.5
(4.2)
-

100.0
1,674

100.0
2,288

100.0
1,231

100.0
452

$2,954

$3,552

$4,643

$5,489

Table 4. Continued—Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by monthly salary,
United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,' March 1984)

Attorneys

MONTHLY SALARY
I
$1,500
$1,550
$1,600
$1,650
$1,700
$1,750
$1,800
$1,850
$1,900
$1,950
$2,000
$2,050
$2,100
$2,150
$2,200
$2,250
$2,300
$2,350
$2,400
$2,450
$2,500
$2,600
$2,700
$2,800
$2,900
$3,000
$3,100
$3,200
$3,300
$3,400
$3,500
$3,600
$3,700
$3,800
$3,900
$4,000
$4,100
$4,200
$4,300
$4,400

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

$4,500
$4,600
$4,700
$4,800
$4,900
$5,000
$5,100
$5,200
$5,300
$5,400
$5,500
$5,600
$5,700
$5,800
$5,900
$6,000
$6,100
$6,200
$6,300
$6,400
$6,500
$6,600
$6,700
$6,800
$6,900
$7,000
$7,100
$7,200
$7,300
$7,400
$7,500

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$1,550 .......
$1,600 .......
$1,650 .......
$1,700 .......
$1,750 .......
$1,800 .......
$1,850 .......
$1 ,90 0.......
$1,950 .......
$2,000 .......
$2,050 .......
$2,100.......
$2,150.......
$2,200 .......
$2,250 .......

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$2,300 .......
$2,350.......
$2,400 .......
$2,450 .......
$2,500 .......
$2,600 .......
$2,700 .......
$2,800.......
$2,900 .......
3,000 .......
$3,100.......
$3,200 .......
$3,300 .......
$3,400 .......
$3,500 .......
$3,600.......
$3,700 .......
$3,800 .......
$3,900 .......
$4,000 .......
$4,100.......
$4,200 .......
$4,300 .......
$4,400 .......
$4,500.......
$4,600 .......
$4,700.......
$4,800 .......
$4,900 .......
$5,000 .......
$5,100.......
$5,200 .......
$5,300 .......
$5,400 .......
$5,500 .......
$5,600 .......
$5,700 .......
$5,800 .......
$5,900 .......
$6,000 .......
$6,100.......
$6,200 .......
$6,300 .......
$6,400 .......
$6,500 .......
$6,600 .......
$6,700 .......
$6,800 .......
$6,900 .......
$7,000 .......
$7,100.......
$7,200 .......
$7,300.......
$7,400 .......
$7,500 .......
$7,600 .......

1.5
.3
1.0
4.1
1.4
1.4
2.8
1.2
4.4
3.2
6.7
1.9
4.8
4.0
9.9
2.4
3.6
1.0
2.0
14.2
4.4
4.5
5.3
2.7
1.7
2.1
1.9
1.3
2.6
(1.8)
-

II

Ill
-

-

“
-

-

~
(2.8)
1.1
3.4
2.1

~
~

2.9
1.8
1.9
1.2
2.6
6.8
5.7
8.2
7.0
8.8
9.3
5.8
3.9
5.4
6.4
3.8
1.5
2.2
1.5
1.5
(2.3)
-

~
~
”
(1.1)
1.0
2.3
2.2
3.7
3.0
2.9
6 .0
7.9
7.4
7.4
7.4
7.0
5.3
4.5
5.6
6.0
3.5
3.2
3.6

“
-

-

_
-

-

1.5
2.0
1.2
.
7
1.1
(2.5)
-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

-

IV

“
“
~
(0.2)
1.0
.
7
.6
.7
.7
1.9
1.9
2.6
5.7
5.4
5.1
6.2
4.6
4.7
5.5
5.1
2.3
7.4
3.7
7.3
3.8
3.6
2.2
2.0
2.4
1.9
1.4
1.3
2.2
.9
1.4
(3.5)
_
-

-

See footnotes at end of table.

23

-

-

-

-

V

“
”
-

“
”
“

(1.9)
1 .1
2.3
1.0
1.8
.8
3.0
5.5
3.4
3.1
3.1
3.1
6.8
2.9
4.7
8.2
4.6
5.2
2.4
4.4
3.1
2.4
2.7
3.3
1.5
2.1
1.5
1.3
1.4
3.2
.8
.
7
1.3
1.2

VI

~
“
“
"
~
“
“
~
_
_

_

(1.4)
7.2
.4
1.7
4.8
.
6
1.3
2.2
4.8
3.3
3.1
3.0
2.8
4.3
3.7
.
6
6.1
3.3
4.6
3.3
2.0

Table 4. Continued—Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by monthly salary,
United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,' March 1984)

Attorneys — C ntinued
o

MONTHLY SALARY
I
$7,600
$7,700
$7,800
$7,900
$8,000
$8,100
$8,200
$8,300
$8,400
$8,500
$8,600
$8,700
$8,800
$8,900
$9,000
$9,100

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$7,700 .......
$7,800 .......
$7,900 .......
$8,000 .......
$8,100.......
$8,200.......
$8,300.......
$8,400.......
$8,500 .......
$8,600 .......
$8,700 .......
$8,800 .......
$8,900 .......
$9,000 .......
$9,100.......
$9,200 .......

Total
...............
Number of Employees...........
Average Monthly Salary........

IX

III

IV

_
-

_

_

_

-

-

-

“
”

0.8
1.4
(2.1)

-

-

-

“
“

-

-

~

-

-

-

-

100.0
1,186
$2,410

-

“

“

-

-

V

~
~
-

100.0
2,965
$2,937

100.0
3,938
$3,729

See footnotes at end of table.

24

100.0
3,340
$4,622

100.0
1,827
$5,873

VI
3.9
1.3
2.0
3.3
.7
.4
1.3
5.7
2.0
.7
1.5
.9
.2
2.2
3.0
(6.4)
100.0
541
$7,297

Table 4. Continued—Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by monthly salary,
United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,’ March 1984)

Buyers

MONTHLY SALARY
II

$1,100 and under $1,150.......
$1,150 and under $1,200 .......
$1,200 and under $1,250 .......
$1,250 and under $1 ,300 .......
$1,300 and under $1,350 .......
$1,350 and under $1,400 .......
$1,400 and under $1,450 .......
$1,450 and under $1,500 .......
$1 ,500 and under $1,550 .......
$1,550 and under $1,600 .......
$1,600 and under $1,650.......
$1,650 and under $1,7 00.......
$1 ,700 and under $1,750 .......
$1,750 and under $1,800 .......
$1,800 and under $1,850 .......
$1,850 and under $1,900 .......
$1 ,900 and under $1 ,950 .......
$1,950 and under $2,000 .......
$2,000 and under $2,050 .......
$2,050 and under $2,100.......
$2,100 and under $2,150.......
$2,150 and under $2,200 .......
$2,200 and under $2,250 .......
$2,250 and under $2,300 .......
$2,300 and under $2,350 .......
$2,350 and under $2,400 .......
$2,400 and under $2,450 .......
$2,450 and under $2,500 .......
$2,500 and under $2,600.......
$2,600 and under $2,700 .......
$2,700 and under $2,800 .......
$2,800 and under $2,900 .......
$2,900 and under $3,000 .......
$3,000 and under $3,100.......
$3,100 and under $3,200 .......
$3,200 and under $3,300.......
$3,300 and under $3,400 .......
$3,400 and under $3,500 .......
$3,500 and under $3,600 .......
$3,600 and under $3,700 .......
$3,700 and under $3,800 .......
$3,800 and under $3,900 .......
$3, 900 and under $4,000 .......
$4,000 and under $4,100.......
$4,100 and under $4,200 .......
$4,200 and under $4,300 .......
$4,300 and under $4,400 .......
Total
...............
Number of Employees...........
Average Monthly Salary........

IV

_

_

-

(2.1)
1.0
1.8
2.9
2.6
3.3
7 .1
8.2

III

_

I

-

-

“

(0.6)
1.1
.3
1.0
1.2
2.3
2.1
4.4
4.2
4.0
6 .3
6.2
7.4
7.4
5.4
6.8
5.1
5.5
5.0
3.5
3.2
3.1
2.4
1.9
3.1
1.7
2.0
(2.9)
“

6.6
7 .9
8.3
7.4
6.0
4.0
4.8
3.4
3.9
3.1
3.0
2.9
3.0
1.6
(5.3)
”
_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

_
-

_
-

100.0
6,234
$1,685

100.0
17,840
$2,056

See footnotes at end of table.

25

~
(1.1)
1.0
.
7
.
8
1.9
2.1
3.2
2.6
2.8
3.5
4.5
4.2
4.7
4.4
5.0
5.2
10.8
9.1
7.3
6.4
5.0
4.0
2.6
2.0
1.5
.9
1.0
(1.6)
-

~
100.0
18,285
$2,551

”
~
~
-

(2.2)
1.1
1.1
2.2
1.7
2.4
4.8
6.6
5.0
6 .1
8.6
9.1
7 .1
7.5
4.5
5.6
5.5
2.9
4.4
1.8
2.1
1.4
1.3
1.1
(3.9)
100.0
5,941
$3,154

Table 4. Continued—Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by monthly salary,
United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1984)

Computer Programmers/Programmer Analysts

MONTHLY SALARY
I
SI, 100 and under $1,150.......
$1,150 and under $1,200 .......
$1,200 and under $1,250.......
$1,250 and under $1,300 .......
$1,300 and under $1,350 .......
$1,350 and under $1,400 .......
$1,400 and under $1,450.......
$1,450 and under $1,500 .......
$1,500 and under $1,550.......
$1,550 and under $1,600 .......
$1,600 and under $1,650 .......
$1,650 and under $1,700 .......
$1,700 and under $1,750 .......
$1,750 and under $1,800 .......
$1,800 and under $1,850.......
$1,350 and under $1 ,900 .......
$1,900 and under $1,950 .......
$1,950 and under $2,000 .......
$2,000 and under $2,050.......
$2,050 and under $2,100.......
$2,100 and under $2,150.......
$2,150 and under $2,200 .......
$2,200 and under $2,250.......
$2,250 and under $2,300.......
$2,300 and under $2,350 .......
$2,350 and under $2,400 .......
$2,400 and under $2,450 .......
$2,450 and under $2,500 .......
$2,500 and under $2,600 .......
$2,600 and under $2,700 .......
$2,700 and under $2,800 .......
$2,800 and under $2,900 .......
$2,900 and under $3,000 .......
$3,000 and under $3,100.......
$3,100 and under $3,200 .......
$3,200 and under $3,300 .......
$3,300 and under $3,400 .......
$3,400 and under $3,500 .......
$3,500 and under $3,600 .......
$3,600 and under $3,700 .......
$3,700 and under $3,800 .......
$3,800 and under $3,900 .......
$3,900 and under $4,000 .......
$4,000 and under $4,100.......
Total
Number of imployees...........
Average Monthly Salary........

(1.3)
1.0
2.7
4.4
6.0
5.4
7.7
6.5
5.9
7.0
5.5
6.0
5.6
5.2
4.7
4.4
4.2
4.4
3.5
1.6
1.4
3.4
(2.3)
-

II
(2.9)
1.6
2.5
3.4
4.3
4.1
6.6
6.2
6.4
6.5
6.1
7.0
7.2
6.2
6.3
4.7
3.9
3.1
2.1
2.5
1.1
1.8
.9
1.1
(1.6)
“
-

_

-

-

-

-

III

IV

V

_

_

-

-

_
_

-

-

”

“
(1.1)
1.4
1.9
1.9
2.7
2.5
4.1
5.1
4.7
5.4
4.9
6.7
8.2
6.9
6.0
5.7
4.9
5.2
8.1
4.5
3.1
1.8
1.3
(2.0)
-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

(2.6)
1.2
1.0
1.0
2.4
2.7
2.0
3.4
3.3
4.3
4.8
12.5
13.8
12.5
9.7
8.4
6.4
4.2
1.8
1.1
(1.1)

100.0
33,626
$1,901

See footnotes at end of table.

26

_

“
100.0
42,777
$2,263

_
-

-

*
-

100.0
13,339
$1,650

-

-

100.0
16,546
$2,661

-

-

-

~
(2.4)
1.5
2.0
3.8
3.4
3.6
5.8
8.6
10.6
11.5
12.7
10.5
8.3
7.1
3.7
2.4
1.0
(1.1)
100.0
7,296
$3,239

Table 4. Continued—Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by monthly salary,
United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1984)

Systems Analysts

MONTHLY SALARY
I
$1,600 and
$1,650 and
$1,700 and
$1,750 and
$1,800 and
$1,850 and
$1,900 and
$1,950 and
$2,000 and
$2,050 and
$2,100 and
$2,150 and
$2,200 and
$2,250 and
$2,300 and
$2,350 and
$2,400 and
$2,450 and
$2,500 and
$2,600 and
$2,700 and
$2,800 and
$2,900 and
$3,000 and
$3,100 and
$3,200 and
$3,300 and
$3,400 and
$3,500 and
$3,600 and
$3,700 and
$3,800 and
$3,900 and
$4,000 and
$4,100 and
$4,200 and
$4,300 and
$4,400 and
$4,500 and
$4,600 and
$4,700 and
$4,800 and
$4,900 and
$5,000 and
$5,100 and
$5,200 and
$5,300 and
$5,400 and
$5,500 and
$5,600 and
$5,700 and
Total

under $1>650.......
under $1,700 .......
under $1,750.......
under $1,800 .......
under $1,850 .......
under $1,900 .......
under $1,950 .......
under $2,000.......
under $2,050 .......
under $2,100.......
under $2,150.......
under $2,200.......
under $2,250.......
under $2,300.......
under $2,350.......
under $2,400.......
under $2,450.......
under $2,500.......
under $2,600 .......
under $2,700 .......
under $2,800.......
under $2,900 .......
under $3,000.......
under $3,100.......
under $3,200 .......
under $3,300 .......
under $3,400.......
under $3,500.......
under $3,600 .......
under $3,700 .......
under $3,800.......
under $3,900 .......
under $4,000 .......
under $4,100.......
under $4,200.......
under $4,300.......
under $4,400.......
under $4,500 .......
under $4,600 .......
under $4,700 .......
under $4,800.......
under $4,900 .......
under $5,000.......
under $5,100.......
under $5,200.......
under $5,300.......
under $5,400 .......
under $5,500.......
under $5,600 .......
under $5,700 .......
under $5,800.......
...............

Number of Employees...........
Average Monthly Salary........

(2.0)
1.0
1.4
1.5
2.4
2.2
4.5
4.5
5.3
6.2
5.7
6.8
7.5
6.4
6.9
6.8
5.5
4.5
6.7
4.3
3.2
1.8
1.1
(1.8)
“
_
-

II

III

IV

_

_

_

“

“

-

-

(2.5)
1.3
1.4
1.7
2.8
2.9
4.2
4.1
4.7
5.1
10.7
11.1
11.1
9.3
8.0
5.6
4.4
4.1
1.9
1.6
(1.5)
“
-

-

”
-

“
(2.7)
1.1
2.6
4.9
6.4
8.0
9.3
10.2
10.3
9.1
8.0
7.7
5.4
4.0
3.6
2.4
1.5
(2.8)
~
-

"
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

100.0
16,127
$2,257

”
-

100.0
34,702
$2,694

See footnotes at end of table.

27

”
-

100.0
28,321
$3,171

~
-

V
-

-

-

“
-

”
-

-

“
“
(2.0)
1.7
2.2
2.9
4.5
5.6
8.7
7.3
7.8
7.7
9.2
7.3
6.4
6.0
3.6
3.8
2.7
2.6
2.3
1.5
1.1
(3.0)
-

100.0
10,375
$3,729

“
_
"
”
(3.9)
2.0
1.7
2.1
1.4
3.7
3.4
4.8
3.7
6.3
6.6
6.1
6.1
6.2
3.9
7.
1
4.7
5.2
2.7
3.4
2.7
2.4
2.2
1.7
1.9
(3.8)
100.0
2,140
$4,493

Table 4. Continued—Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by monthly salary,
United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1984)

Chemi sts

MONTHLY SALARY
I
$1,050 and under $1,100.......
$1,100 and under $1,150.......
$1,150 and under $1,200 .......
$1,200 and under $1,250 .......
$1,250 and under $1,300 .......
$1,300 and under $1,350 .......
$1,350 and under $1,400.......
$1,400 and under $1,450 .......
$1,450 and under $1,500 .......
$1,500 and under $1,550 .......
$1,550 and under $1,600 .......
$1,6 00 and under $1,650 .......
$1,650 and under $1 ,700 .......
$1,7 00 and under $1,750 .......
$1,750 and under $1,800 .......
$1,800 and under $1,850 .......
$1,850 and under $1 ,900 .......
$1 ,900 and under $1,950 .......
$1,950 and under $2,000 .......
$2,000 and under $2,050 .......
$2,050 and under $2,100.......
$2,100 and under $2,150.......
$2,150 and under $2,200 .......
$2,200 and under $2,250.......
$2,250 and under $2,300 .......
$2,300 and under $2,350 .......
$2,350 and under $2,400 .......
$2,400 and under $2,450 .......
$2,450 and under $2,500 .......
$2,500 and under $2,600 .......
$2,600 and under $2,700 .......
$2,700 and under $2,800.......
$2,800 and under $2,900 .......
$2,900 and under $3,000 .......
$3,000 and under $3,100.......
$3,100 and under $3,200 .......
$3,200 and under $3,300 ...............
$3,300 and under $3,400 ...............
$3,400 and under $3,500 ...............
$3,500 and under $3,600 ...............
$3,600 and under $3,700 ...............
$3,700 and under $3,800 ...............
$3,800 and under $3,900 ...............
$3,900 and under $4,000 ...............
$4,000 and under $4,100..............
$4,100 and under $4,200 ..............
$4,200 and under $4,300 .......
$4,300 and under $4,400 ...............
$4,400 and under $4,500 ..............
$4,500 and under $4,600 ...............
$4,600 and under $4,700 ...............
$4,700 and under $4,800 ...............
$4,800 and under $4,900 ...............
$4,900 and under $5,000 ...............
$5,000 and under $5,100..............
$5,100 and under $5,200 ..............
$5,200 and under $5,300 ...............
$5,300 and under $5,400 .......
$5,400 and under $5,500 .......
$5,500 and under $5,600 .......
$5,600 and under $5,700 .......
$5,700 and under $5,800 .......
$5,800 and under $5,900 .......
$5,900 and under $6,000 .......
$6,000 and under $6,100.......
$6,100 and under $6,200 .......
$6,200 and under $6,300 .......
$6,300 and under $6,400 .......
$6,400 and under $6,500 .......
$6,500 and under $6,600 ..............
Total
...............................
Number of Employees......................
Average Monthly Salary................

0.2
1.8
.7
.2
-

1.8
4.6
4.5
9.9
7.2
3.9
4.3
8.1
4.6
3.0
7.2
13.1
2.8
3.2
2.8
1.6
2.0
1.4
5.8
2.5
(2.9)
-

“
_
-

-

II

III

-

-

_
-

_
-

(1.0)
1.2
1.2
.
6
.
6
2.5
2.1
5.4
4.5
3.9
4.6
6.0
5.7
5.4
3.4
4.3
6.6
7.8
4.1
4.8
2.8
3.5
3.6
4.7
4.5
1.8
1.4
1.2
(0.9)

(1.8)
1 .0
1.6
1.3
1.8
1.7
3.5
3.1
4.5
4.5
5.7
7.0
5.3
4.8
4.1
8.0
7.3
6.6
6.3
5.8
4.1
2.7
3.7
1.4
1.4
(1.1)

-

-

_

-

“

“

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

IV

V

VI

VII

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

_
_
-

_
_
-

-

_
_

_
_
-

_

_
_
_

_
_
_

-

-

_
_
-

_
_
_
-

-

_
_
_
_
(2.6)
1.0
1.4
3.2
5.9
6.7
8.7
11.3
9.1
9.0
7.4
9.2
6.1
5.4
4.5
2.4
1.7
1.2
1.2
(2.0)
-

-

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
w
_
_
(2.1)
2.5
1.8
2.1
4.0
5.6
5.2
7.3
6. 9
7.2
5.5
6.7
9.0
5.3
7.8
3.6
3.0
4.1
2.6
2.5
.8
1.6
(2.6)

_

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

“
-

-

-

-

_

_

_
_
_
-

_
_

_
_
_
_
_
(1.0)
1.3
1. 1
.
6
.1

_
_
_
-

. 8

1.3
1.6
1.6
2.4
2.0
2.6
8.5
4.6
5.1
6.4
8.0
7.1
6.2
4.8
9.8
2.9
4.1
2.5
1.7
3.1
3.2
(5.5)

-

100.0
2,395
$1,801

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

100.0

100.0

9,777
$2,537

100.0
5,891
$2,123

-

9,996
$3,137

________

See footnotes at end of table.

28

-

100.0
7,815
$3,801

-

-

_
-

100.0
3,290
$4,514

-

_
-

1.6
.

4

.4
1.8
.2
3.3
.2
3.4
.4
2.8
.3
2.4
6.1
2.3
3.7
2.4
6.2
6.2
2.1
2.4
3.1
10.3
2.3
2.5
7.0
2.1
5.2
1.5
4.3
3.8
3.3
1.1
(4.9)
100.0
1,122
$5,256

Table 4. Continued—Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by monthly salary,
United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,’ March 1984)

Engi neers

MONTHLY SALARY
I
$1,650
$1,700
$1,750
$1,800
$1,850
$1 ,900
$1,950
$2,000
$2,050
$2,100
$2,150
$2,200
$2,250
$2,300
$2,350
$2,400
$2,450
$2,500
$2,600
$2,700
$2,800
$2,900
$3,000
$3,100
$3,200
$3,300
$3,400
$3,500
$3,600
$3,700
$3,800
$3,900
$4,000
$4,100
$4,200
$4,300
$4,400
$4,500
$4,600
$4,700
$4,800
$4,900
$5,000
$5,100
$5,200
$5,300
$5,400
$5,500
$5,600
$5,700
$5,800
$5,900
$6,000
$6>100
$6,200
$6,300
$6,400
$6,500
$6,600
$6,700
$6,800
$6,900
$7,000
$7,100
$7,200
$7,300
$7,400

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$1,700 .......
$1,750.......
$1,800 .......
$1,850 .......
$1,900 .......
$1,950 .......
$2,000 .......
$2,050 .......
$2,100.......
$2,150.......
$2,200 .......
$2,250.......
$2,300 .......
$2,350 .......
$2,400.......
$2,450.......
$2,500 .......
$2,600 .......
$2,700 .......
$2,800 .......
$2,900 .......
$3,000 .......
$3,100.......
$3,200 .......
$3,300.......
$3,400 .......
$3,500 .......
$3,600 .......
$3,700 .......
$3,800 .......
$3,900 .......
$4,000 .......
$4,100.......
$4,200 .......
$4,300 .......
$4,400 .......
$4,500 .......
$4,600 .......
$4,700 .......
$4,800 .......
$4,900 .......
$5,000 .......
$5,100.......
$5,200 .......
$5,300 .......
$5,400.......
$5,500 .......
$5,600 .......
$5,700 .......
$5,800 .......
$5,900 .......
$6,000 .......
$6,100.......
$6,200.......
56,300.......
$6,400 .......
$6,500 .......
$6,600 .......
$6,700 .......
$6,800 .......
$6 ,900 .......
$7,000 .......
$7,100.......
$7,200 .......
$7,300 .......
$7,400 .......
$7,500 .......

...............
Total
Number of Employees...........
Average Monthly Salary........

II

_

(2.0)
1.8
1.2
1.7
2.4
3.1
4.8
5.8
7.1
9.9
11.6
12.7
8.5
7.6
6.0
4.5
3.9
3.3
1. 3
(0.6)
-

III

_

(2.7)
1.0
1.7
1.4
3.6
3.4
4.5
8.1
8.0
8.2
7.8
7.9
8.5
11.9
8.4
5.7
3.1
2.0
1.4
(0.7)
-

“
_
-

“
-

-

-

“
-

-

“
(1.5)
1.1
1.2
1.6
2.3
2.6
3.0
3.8
4.8
5.1
10.7
11.6
11.0
9.5
8.3
6.9
5.2
4.4
2.1
1.4
(2.1)
“
_
-

“
-

-

~

~
-

"
-

-

“
~
-

~

-

-

100.0
67,872
$2,408

-

-

100.0
135,792
$2,730

1 For the scope of the study, see table A-1 in appendix A.
NOTE: To avoid showing small proportions of employees scattered at or near
the extremes of the distributions for some occupations, the percentages of

29

-

-

-

~
-

.

“
_
"
(1.5)
1.2
2.6
2.9
4.1
4.8
6.2
8.2
7.3
8.4
8.0
8.3
6.8
6.4
4.9
4.1
4.6
2.7
2.0
1.3
1 0
.
(2.7)
-

-

-

VI

_
~
(2.8)
2.2
3.2
4.9
5.9
9.0
9.0
9.2
9.9
9.2
8.1
7.6
6.6
4.1
2.6
1.8
1.2
(2.6)
_
“
-

“

-

$2,180

~

V

_

-

~
~
-

100.0
27,872

IV

100.0
145,728
$3,250

“
”
100.0
100,411
$3,862

_
_
-

_
(3.1)
1.7
2.0
2.8
3.8
4.7
5.1
5.9
6.4
6.1
6.8
6.6
6.7
5.5
5.5
4.6
4.2
3.3
2.7
2.1
1.5
2.3
1.3
(5.3)

~
-

VII

VIII

_
-

_
_
-

(2.2)
1.4
1.8
1.7
3.0
2.5
3.8
4.1
4.2
5.9
5.5
5.0
6.4
6.0
5.9
5.7
6.0
4.4
4.1
2.4
3.1
1.5
2.7
1.3
1.2
1.4
1. 0
(5.8)
-

-

_

-

-

-

-

“
“

100.0
49,013
$4,479

100.0
13,435
$5,097

_

_
-

_

-

_

-

_
-

(3.4)
1.6
3.1
3.4
2.9
3.9
4.1
4.4
7.5
5.3
3.9
5.7
6.1
6.3
4.6
4.6
3.6
4.2
2.5
2.1
3.7
1.2
.7
2.2
.
4
.7
1.0
1.0
(5.9)
100.0
2,590
$5,899

employees in these intervals have been accumulated and are shown in the inter­
val above or below the extreme interval containing at least 1 percent. The
percentages representing these employees are shown in parentheses. Because
of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal 100.

Table 5. Employment distribution by salary: Technical support occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected technical support occupations by monthly salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,' March 1984)

Engineering Technicians

MONTHLY SALARY
I
5650
$675
$700
$725
$750
$775
$800
$825
$850

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$675 ...........
$7 00 ...........
$725 ...........
$750 ...........
$775...........
$800 ...........
$825...........
$850 ...........
$875...........

$900 and under $925...........
$925 and under $950 ...........
$950 and under $975...........
$975 and under $1 ,00 0 .........
$1,000 and under $1,050 .......
$1,050 and under $1,100.......
$1,100 and under $1,150.......
$1,150 and under $1,200 .......
$1,200 and under $1,250 .......
$1,250 and under $1,300 .......
$1,300 and under $1,350 .......
$1,350 and under $1,400.......
$1,400 and under $1,450 .......
$1,450 and under $1,500 .......
$1,500 and under $1,550 .......
$1,550 and under $1,600 .......
$1,600 and under $1,650 .......
$1,650 and under $1,700 .......
$1,70 0 and under $1,750 .......
$1,750 and under $1,800 .......
$1,800 and under $1,850 .......
$1,850 and under $1 ,900 .......
$1 ,900 and under $1 ,950 .......
$1,950 and under $2,000 .......
$2,000 and under $2,050 .......
$2,050 and under $2,100.......
$2,100 and under $2,150.......
$2,150 and under $2,200 .......
$2,200 and under $2,250 .......
$2,250 and under $2,300 .......
$2,300 and under $2,350.......
$2,350 and under $2,400 .......
$2,400 and under $2,450.......
$2,450 and under $2,500 .......
$2,500 and under $2,600 .......
$2,600 and under $2,700 .......
$2,700 and under $2,800 .......
$2,800 and under $2,900 .......
$2,900 and under $3,000 .......
$3,000 and under $3,100.......
$3,100 and under $3,200.......
$3,200 and under $3,300 .......
$3,300 and under $3,400 .......
$3,400 and under $3,500 .......
Total
...............
Number of Employees..........
Average Monthly Salary........

II

Drafters

III

IV

V

-

_
_
-

_

_

-

"
-

_
-

_
-

-

_
-

_
-

-

_

-

(1.6)
1.5
1.8
5.5
4.1
3.9
6.
1
9.8
10.0
9.0
8.5
8.6
7.2
4.6
5.3
4.6
2.4
1.2
1.0
.3
.
7
.3
1.0
CO .9)
-

100.0
4,626
$1,347

(1.8)
2.0
1.7
3.3
4.7
5.0
7.5
8.8
8.6
8.8
8.5
7 .0
6.1
5.0
4.0
3.9
3.5
2.5
2.5
1.3
1.2
(2.3)

_
~
-

(2.3)
1.7
2.5
3.6
4.3
4.8
5.4
6.7
6.4
7.2
8.0
6.5
5.8
5.1
5.1
4.7
4.1
2.8
2.6
2.1
2.1
1.4
1.2
1.0
1.0
(1.6)
-

-

-

“
-

100.0
19,229
$1,561

(1.6)
1.4
1.4
2.4
2.6
4.4
3.8
4.9
5.9
5.3
6.2
6.3
7.6
6.6
6.5
4.5
4.2
4.8
3.4
5.4
3.9
2.5
.9
1.4
(2.0)
-

100.0
31,920
$1,863

100.0
39,016
$2,197

See footnotes at end of table.

30

_
-

"
(2.0)
1.0
1.2
1.7
2.7
4.2
3.1
4.3
5.4
7.4
6.0
6.1
8.0
12.3
10 .1
8.0
5.7
4.2
2.6
1.2
(2.7)
100.0
22,702
$2,507

I
(0.8)
1.5

_

II

III

IV

-

_
_
-

_
_
_
_
-

_

.7
1.5
3.8
1.3
2.6
3.8

_
(1.1)
1.0

5.9
3.7
7.5
8.0
9.8
12.0
9.3
5.2
6.6
8.9
.3
2.9
(2.5)
-

.
4
.5
1.6
1.3
4.3
4.6
8.1
5.9
9.9
12.1
7.2
7.4
4.1
4.0
2.4
3.7
4.2
3.4
8.3
1.1
1.1
(2.0)

_
_
_
-

-

100.0
1,961
$1,050

-

_
-

_
-

100.0
10,126
$1,343

_

-

_
_
_
(2.0)
2.3
3.9
3.9
5.1
6.4
8.3
10 .
1
7.8
7 .9
7.3
5.3
5.5
5.1
3.9
2.0
2.4
1.9
1.6
2.1
.8
1.0
.9
1.0
(1.6)
-

_
-

_
-

-

100.0
19,886
$1,591

V
-

_

_

-

_

_
-

_
_
_
_
-

_
_
-

(1.7)
1.6
1.1
2.2
2.7
3.3
5.1
6.2
7.0
4.6
7.8
6.1
7.8
6.5
5.3
5.4
4.6
3.1
3.9
2.7
3.4
1.6
1.
1
.9
2.3
(2.0)
-

_
_
-

_

_

-

100.0
22,584
$1,922

_

_
_
_
-

_

_

_
(1.7)
1.0
1.7
1.7
2.5
2.6
2.9
3.0
4.4
6.4
5.4
4.6
4.7
5.1
4.4
4.1
4.8
9.9
5.1
4.8
4.7
4.7
3.2
2.1
2.4
2.0
(0.1)
100.0
17,358
$2,421

Table 5. Continued—Employment distribution by salary: Technical support occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected technical support occupations by monthly salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,' March 1984)

II

III

IV

_

_

_

-

“
-

-

I
$750 end under $775...........
$775 and under $800 .... >.....
$800 and under $825...........
$825 and under $850..........
$350 and under $875 ..........
$875 and under $900 ...........
$900 and under $925 ...........
$925 and under $950 ..........
$950 and under $975 ...........
$975 and under $1 ,000.........
$1 ,000 and under $1,050 .......
$1,050 and under $1,100.......
$1,100 and under $1,150.......
$1,150 and under $1,200 .......
$1,200 and under $1,250 .......
$1,250 and under $1,300 .......
$1 ,300 and under $1,350 .......
$1,350 and under $1,400 .......
$1,4 00 and under $1 ,450 .......
$1,450 and under $1,500 .......
$1,500 and under $1,550 .......
$1,550 and under $1,600 .......
$1 ,600 and under $1,650 .......
$1,650 and under $1,7 00 .......
$1,700 and under $1,750 .......
$1,750 and under $1,800 .......
$1,800 and under $1,850 .......
$1,850 and under $1 ,900 .......
$1 ,900 and under $1,950 .......
$1,950 and under $2,000.......
$2,000 and under $2,050 .......
$2,050 and under $2,100.......
$2,100 and under $2,150.......
$2,150 and under $2,200 .......
$2,200 and under $2,250.......
$2,250 and under $2,300 .......
$2,300 and under $2,350 .......
$2,350 and under $2,400 .......
$2,400 and under $2,450 .......
$2,450 and under $2,500 .......
$2,500 and under $2,600 .......
$2,600 and under $2,700 .......
$2,700 and under $2,800 .......
$2,800 and under $2,900 .......
$2,900 and under $3,000 .......
$3 ,000 and under $3,100.......
$3,100 and under $3,200 .......
$3,200 and under $3,300 .......
$3,300 and under $3,400 .......
$3,400 and under $3,500 .......
$3,500 and under $3,600 .......
Total
...............
Number of Employees..........
Average Monthly Salary........

Photographers

Computer Operators

MONTHLY SALARY

(2.6)
2.0
1.2
1.7
7.2
3.7
5.2
3.3
5.7
4.3
10.6
10.4
9.7
7.2
6.1
4.1
3.3
3.2
2.0
1.7
1.5
.7
1 .0
(1.5)
_
“
-

(1.9)
1.0
.
7
1.2
1.6
3.9
5.3
5.9
8.4
9.3
8.1
7.9
6.5
5.6
5.6
4.0
3.8
2.5
3.0
4.9
2.3
1.6
1.8
(3.3)

-

~

“
-

~

-

“

“
-

“
100.0
8,955
$1,089

-

~

“

“
-

-

-

“
-

”
-

(1.1)
1.
1
1.6
3.5
4.7
4.4
5.1
7.6
9.2
6.8
6.8
5.1
5.8
5.3
3.6
4.6
4.3
2.9
2.7
2.7
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.0
.7
.
7
1.1
(2.7)

(0.7)
1.1
.
7
.
7
2.0
2.4
2.4
8.6
4.3
6.6
5.7
4.6
6.4
5.3
6.5
4.8
5.6
5.4
4.8
2.8
2.3
2.1
1.6
1.7
1.6
2.2

-

1.8
1.5
1.8
(2.1)

“
-

-

-

-

-

-

100.0

100.0
24,370
$1,645

30,855
$1,361

1 For the scope of the study, see table A-1 in appendix A.
Note: To avoid showing small proportions of employees scattered at
or near the extremes of the distributions for some occupations, the
percentages of employees in these intervals|have been accumulated

100.0
8,816
$1,926

V

_

“
-

~
“
“
“
~
(1.7)
1.2
.
7
3.8
3.0
4.9
7.2
7.2
3.9
3.5
7.6
3.9
6.4
5.9
5.2
9.9
4.6
6.4
3.4
3.1
2.1
1.1
1.5
(1.7)
100.0
1,479
$2,269

I

II

_

_

-

"

“

-

-

“
~
2.1
2.1
2.8
4.2
4.2
3.5
9.7
5.6
13.9
7.6
6.3
.7
6.9
5.6
4.2
10.4
~
.
7
8.3
~
1.4
~
-

~
“
”
100.0
144
$1,446

III

“
“
-

“
“

”
-

”
(1.2)
1.8
2.9
5.6
2.6
1.7
2.6
2.4
1.5
1 9
.
7.1
12.4
7.4
7.5
5.3
6.9
5.8
1.5
1.1
5.4
4.9
1.5
1.2
1.7
.1
.
1
2.8
1.5
(1.4)
“
-

“
100.0
720
$1,812

(1.0)
1.4
1.0
.
6
1.2
1.1
5.2
3.6
4.3
4.3
5.1
6.9
5.4
1.9
5.4
5.0
7.9
2.2
7.5
8.6
3.3
4.8
4.0
1.7
1.5
1.5
.1
3.6
100.0
724
$2,165

IV

_
”
-

”
“
-

(2.1)
2.5
4.4
1.6
1.4
2.5
3.8
2.2
4.1
2.7
6.0
7.7
9.6
4.4
2.5
5.8
6.9
7.1
7.7
3.0
6.3
3.6
.8
"
1.1
100.0
364
$2,396

and are shown in the interval above or below the extreme interval con­
taining at least 1 percent. The percentages representing these
employees are shown in parentheses. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal 100.

f

31

Table 6. Employment distribution by salary: Clerical occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected clerical occupations by monthly salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,' March 1984)

Account ing Clerks

MONTHLY SALARY
I
$575 and under $600...........
$600 and under $625...........
$625 and under $650 ...........
$650 and under $675...........
$675 and under $700 ...........
$700 and under $725...........
$725 and under $750 ...........
$750 and under $775...........
$775 and under $800 ...........
$800 and under $825...........
$825 and under $850 ...........
$850 and under $875...........
$875 and under $900 ...........
$900 and under $925...........
$925 and under $950 ...........
$950 and under $975...........
$975 and under $1,000 .........
$1,000 and under $1,050 .......
$1,050 and under $1,100.......
$1,100 and under $1,150.......
$1,150 and under $1,200 .......
$1,200 and under $1,250 .......
$1,250 and under $1,300 .......
$1,300 and under $1,350.......
$1,350 and under $1,400.......
$1,400 and under $1,450 .......
$1,450 and under $1,500 .......
$1,500 and under $1,550 .......
$1,550 and under $1,600.......
$1,600 and under $1,650 .......
$1,650 and under $1,700 .......
$1,700 and under $1,750 .......
$1,750 and under $1,800 .......
$1,800 and under $1,850.......
$1,850 and under $1,900 .......
$1,900 and under $1,950 .......
$1,950 and under $2,000 .......
$2,000 and under $2,050 .......
$2,050 and under $2,100.......
$2,100 and under $2,150.......
$2,150 and under $2,200 .......
$2,200 and under $2,250.......
$2,250 and under $2,300 .......
$2,300 and under $2,350.......
$2,350 and under $2,400 .......
$2,400 and under $2,450 .......
$2,450 and under $2,500 .......
$2,500 and under $2,600 .......
$2,600 and under $2,700.......
Total
...............
Number of Employees...........
Average Monthly Salary........

II

(2.1)
1.8
2.2
3.7
3.1
6.8
3.7
4.7
9.4
3.8
6.7
5.1
6.3
6.0
6.8
8.3
5.3
2.9
1.8
1.7
1.0
1.6
.3
.3
.3
.4
.
1
1.1
2.0
(0.4)
“
-

_
_
(1.9)
1.4
2.0
1.9
2.1
2.5
2.2
3.0
4.6
4.0
9.7
9.1
10.2
8.3
7.6
6.2
4.2
3.6
3.1
2.0
1.3
1.0
1.6
1.3
.7
1.4
(3.1)
-

_
100.0
27,873
$975

“
100.0
79,368
$1,172

III
_
_
(1.8)
1.7
1.6
1.8
2.9
5.0
7.0
7.0
6.8
9.8
8.7
6.3
7.0
4.8
3.8
3.3
3.2
2.1
3.4
2.8
1.7
1.1
1.2
.8
.7
1.7
(1.9)
_
“
_
100.0
58,863
$1,377

See footnotes at end of table.

32

File Clerks
IV
_
_
“
(0.8)
1.1
2.0
1.4
4.0
4.3
3.3
4.6
5.5
8.9
6.3
4.2
4.5
5.1
3.6
7.9
3.1
3.0
2.6
2.6
2.6
2.3
4.0
2.7
2.1
1.4
1.2
1.4
1.0
.
6
1.1
(0.6)
100.0
17,286
$1,687

I
2.5
3.6
5.7
6.1
4.5
9.2
8.2
8.3
6.9
7.0
5.8
4.2
3.7
2.8
2.8
4.6
2.0
3.5
2.7
1.1
1.0
(3.5)
_
_
_
“
100.0
16,026
$822

Key Entry Operators

II

III

I

II

_
(0.2)
2.1
2.3
2.9
4.6
4.4
8.4
9.4
7.6
6.4
6.8
6.0
4.5
4.6
3.6
6.2
4.5
2.5
2.7
1.4
1.3
.7
1.3
1.0
(4.6)
_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
-

-

_

_
(0.6)
1.8
.9
1.3
2.1
2.5
5.6
3.2
4.8
3.8
5.2
4.4
4.9
4.3
12.2
7.5
6.7
6.0
3.8
2.9
3.6
1.7
1.5
1.5
.8
1.2
.
4
1.0
.5
1.1
(2.0)
_
_
_

_
_
-

100.0
9,102
$944

_
_
(1.9)
1.0
1.9
2.2
3.0
5.7
4.8
10.1
5.3
14.9
9.9
6.6
5.6
3.6
4.0
5.7
1.2
1.1
2.4
1.1
1.0
.7
.8
.7
.3
1.1
(3.2)
_
_
_
~
100.0
2,746
$1,131

100.0
50,685
$1,068

_
_
_
_
(2.3)
1.3
.
7
1.8
2.1
1.6
7.5
6.2
7.9
9.3
11.2
6.7
5.8
6.6
3.8
4.0
3.1
1.8
3.0
1.5
1.1
.
7
.5
.
6
.5
1.7
.8
1.6
1.9
(2.6)
_
_
100.0
32,473
$1,325

Table 6. Continued—Employment distribution by salary: Clerical occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected clerical occupations by monthly salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1984)

MONTHLY SALARY

Personnel Clerks/Assi stants

Messengers
I

$525 and under $550 ...........
$550 and under $575..........
$575 and under $600 ..........
$600 and under $625..........
$625 and under $650 ..........
$650 and under $675 ..........
$675 and under $700 ..........
$700 and under $725...........
$725 and under $750 ...........
$750 and under $775 ...........
$775 and under $800 ...........
$800 and under $825...........
$825 and under $850 ...........
$850 and under $875...........
$875 and under $900 ...........
$900 and under $925...........
$925 and under $950 ..........
$950 and under $975 ...........
$975 and under $1,000 .........
$1,000 and under $1,050 .......
$1,050 and under $1,100.......
$1,100 and under $1,150.......
$1,150 and under $1,200 .......
$1,200 and under $1,250 .......
$1,250 and under $1,300 .......
$1,300 and under $1,350 .......
$1 ,350 and under $1,400.......
$1,400 and under $1,450.......
$1,450 and under $1,500 .......
$1,500 and under $1,550 .......
$1,550 and under $1,600 .......
$1,6 00 and under $1,650 .......
$1,650 and under $1,700 .......
$1,700 and under $1,750 .......
$1,750 and under $1,800 .......
$1,800 and under $1,850 .......
$1,850 and under $1 ,900 .......
$1,900 and under $1,950 .......
$1,950 and under $2,000 .......
$2,000 and under $2,050 .......
$2,050 and under $2,100.......
$2,100 and under $2,150.......
$2,150 and under $2,200 .......
$2,200 and under $2,250 .......
$2,250 and under $2,300 .......
$2,300 and under $2,350 .......
$2,350 and under $2,400 .......
$2,400 and under $2,450 .......
$2,450 and under $2,500 .......
$2,500 and under $2,600 .......
$2,600 and under $2,700 .......
$2,700 and under $2,800 .......
$2,800 and under $2,900 .......
$2,900 and under $3,000 .......
$3,000 and under $3,100.......
$3,100 and under $3,200 .......
Total
...............
Number of Employees...........
Average Monthly Salary........

1.1
.6
1.1
2.8
2.6
4.0
5.0
4.2
5.0
4.2
6.3
5.5
6.4
4.5
7.0
3.9
4.0
3.4
5.9
4.3
2.7
3.0
2.4
1.2
.9
.6
1.5
1.2
1.3
(3.3)
-

_

-

_
-

-

_

_

-

-

~

-

-

“
-

100.0
10,647
$936

_

-

~
“
“

-

-

I

-

-

“
-

IV

(0.9)
5.7
.5
3.1
2.0
7.2
2.9
7.4
8.2
10.2
8.3
10.3
6.1
8.7
2.7
4.1
.4
2.5
1.0
1.8
.8
1.2
.2
.2
1.8
(1.6)
-

~
-

III

-

_

-

-

-

IX

_
-

-

~
-

-

(3.1)
1.6
.7
4.1
6.4
3.4
11.7
15.0
11.1
6.5
3.6
5.5
2.8
3.8
2.7
2.8
2.2
1.8
3.3
1.3
.9
.1
1.9
.
6
.3
.9
”
1.2
(0.3)
-

-

”
100.0
2,024
$1,115

Purchasing Assistants

_
“
100.0
3,388
$1,347

See footnotes at end of table.

33

(0.4)
1.4
3.1
.1
1.6
3.2
4.4
6.2
6.7
6.8
10.1
7.6
7.2
7.4
7.3
4.5
2.6
2.1
3.3
2.2
3.5
1.3
2.0
1.7
.3
.
6
1.6
(0.6)
“
“
100.0
2,896
$1,522

-

-

-

(1.5)
1.9
.2
1.0
4.8
2.2
2.1
6.1
3.6
8.7
4.2
7.2
5.4
3.4
3.8
3.4
3.4
4.1
6.4
3.4
3.4
5.7
.9
3.0
.
7
2.3
1.6
.6
3.8
1.2
(0.1)
~
100.0
1,222
$1,819

-

(2.4)
1.4
1.5
1.8
2.2
5.5
8.4
10.4
5.9
9.5
12.2
7.5
7.0
4.2
2.8
2.3
2.2
1.9
2.1
1.3
.9
.5
1.0
.2
.7
.9
.2
1.2
(2.1)
-

II

_

_
-

-

“
(0.5)
1.4
.5
1.3
2.4
4.1
5.0
5.3
3.9
4.7
6.4
6.2
4.7
5.9
3.9
6.1
3.8
3.4
3.8
5.5
4.4
2.1
2.7
2.2
3.4
.7
1.3
(4.0)
“
~

”
100.0
4,426
$1,302

100.0
4,162
$1,667

III
-

-

-

_
“
_
(2.9)
3.0
1.6
.8
1.7
1.9
2.8
2.9
.
8
2.6
6.8
7.0
9.4
4.8
5.0
6.9
8.1
2.4
2.0
1.9
7.3
2.7
3.2
3.1
3.8
4.0
.4
100.0
1,080
$2,243

Table 6. Continued—Employment distribution by salary: Clerical occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected clerical occupations by monthly salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1984)

Secretarias

MONTHLY SALARY

Stenographers

Typi sts

I
$600 and under $625...........
$625 and under $650 ...........
$650 and under $675...........
$675 and under $700 ...........
$700 and under $725...........
$725 and under $750 ..........
$750 and under $775 ..........
$775 and under $800 ...........
$800 and under $825...........
$825 and under $850...........
$850 and under $875...........
$875 and under $900 ...........
$900 and under $925...........
$925 and under $950 ...........
$950 and under $975...........
$975 and under $1,0 00 .........
$1 ,000 and under $1,050 .......
$1,050 and under $1,100.......
$1,100 and under $1,150.......
$1,150 and under $1,200 .......
$1,200 and under $1,250... .
$1,250 and under $1,300.......
$1,300 and under $1,350 .......
$1,350 and under $1,400.......
$1,400 and under $1,450 .......
$1,450 and under $1,500 .......
$1,500 and under $1,550.......
$1,550 and under $1,600 .......
$1,600 and under $1,650 .......
$1,650 and under $1,700 .......
$1,700 and under $1,750 .......
$1,750 and under $1,800 .......
$1,800 and under $1,850.......
$1,850 and under $1,900 .......
$1,900 and under $1,950 .......
$1,950 and under $2,000 .......
$2,000 and under $2,050 .......
$2,050 and under $2,100.......
$2,100 and under $2,150.......
$2,150 and under $2,200 .......
$2,200 and under $2,250.......
$2,250 and under $2,300.......
$2,300 and under $2,350 .......
$2,350 and under $2,400 .......
$2,400 and under $2,450.......
$2,450 and under $2,500 .......
$2,500 and under $2,600 .......
$2,600 and under $2,700 .......
$2,700 and under $2,800.......
$2,800 and under $2,900 .......
$2,900 and under $3,000 .......
$3,000 and under $3,100.......
$3,100 and under $3,200.......
Total
...............
Number of Employees...........
Average Monthly Salary........

II

III

IV

V

I

II

I

“
-

-

“
_
_
-

_
_
_
(0.3)
1.2
1.1
1.6
2.1
3.8
3.5
4.0
5.3
6.1
5.6
5.9
6.7
6.9
4.8
5.6
5.2
5.8
4.8
3.3
2.7
3.1
2.0
1.6
1.2
2.2
1.0
(2.2)
_
-

_
_
_
_

_
-

_
-

0.2
1 .0
.5
1.6
2.4
3.1
4.3
5.7

(3.2)
1.0
1.3
1.7
1.5
3.8
3.8
6.4
4.1
6.4
3.4
3.7
6.5
5.1
4.0
4.8
4.5
7.9
4.8
4.6
7.8
1.4
.
6
.9
2.9
.2
.4
2.1
(1.2)
-

_
_
_
(1.2)
1.0
1.4
1.8
1.4
1.5
1.9
2.6
3.2
3.0
3.7
4.6
7.6
9.3
6.3
11.2
7.7
2.8
1.5
2.6
5.3
5.2
.9
5.2
2.7
1.3
(3.2)
_
-

6.7
5.8
6.4
5.0
5.7
6.5
6.8
3.6
8.2
6.1
4.1
3.7
1.9

_
_
_
(3.1)
2.5
3.8
4.7
6.5
8.3
9.5
8.1
8.2
7.1
6.7
6.6
4.6
4.5
2.9
2.4
1.7
1.3
1.4
.8
.9
.
6
.4
2.4
(0.8)
“
-

(2.1)
1.3
1.7
1.7
1.4
3.3
2.9
5.6
6.9
8.0
8.3
10.4
9.2
7.5
5.5
4.8
3.3
3.2
1.7
2.2
1.2
(7.5)
-

“
~
100.0
58,242
$1,275

~
100.0
55,132
$1,410

_
(1.3)
1.2
2.1
2.6
4.1
5.2
6.2
6.9
7.3
7.1
6.9
6.6
6.3
4.9
5.3
4.4
3.9
2.7
2.4
1.8
1.4
2.1
1.3
1.3
.9
1.8
(2.0)
_
100.0
114,459
$1,588

1 For the scope of the study, see table A-1 in appendix A.
Note: To avoid showing small proportions of employees scattered at or near
the extremes of the distribution for some occupations, the percentages of

34

100.0
47,241
$1,794

-

-

-

_
(4.0)
2.4
1.9
2.3
2.1
4.7
4.6
4.7
5.2
3.5
5.3
5.4
5.8
5.9
3.7
4.1
4.7
3.6
4.4
3.6
2.9
2.0
5.1
2.4
2.0
1.0
.8
1.1
(0.7)
100.0
18,627
$2,058

“
100.0
10,012
$1,437

100.0
6,831
$1,698

1.5
2.5
.5
.
6
1.2
.6
.4
.3
1.0
(2.1)
_
_
_
_
_
~
100.0
24,405
$983

II
_
-

_

_
_
(2.0)
2.4
2.3
2.0
2.7
1.9
4.8
2.7
8.3
8.4
7 .0
5.9
7.2
5.0
6.0
3.4
3.6
2.7
2.1
3.6
1.5
3.3
2.6
1.4
1.5
.
6
1.4
1.0
1.2
(1.5)
_
_
_
100.0
13,951
$1,262

employees in these intervals have been accumulated and are shown in the inter­
val above or below the extreme interval containing at least 1 percent. The percentages representing these employees are shown in parentheses. Because of
rounding, sums of individual items may not equal 100.

Table 7. Occupational employment distribution: By industry division
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations,'
by industry division,2 United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1984)

Qccupat ion
Professional and Administrative
Accountants
Audi tors
Public Accountants
Chief Accountants
Attorneys
Buyers
Programmers/Programmer Analysts
Systems Analysts
Job Analysts
Directors of Personnel
Chemi sts
Engi neers
Technical Support
Engineering Technicians
Drafters
Computer Operators
Photographers
Clerical
Accounting Clerks
File Clerks
Key Entry Operators
Messengers
Personnel Clerks/Assislants
Purchasing Assistants
Secretar ies
Stenographers
Typists

Mini ng

Constructi on

Manu­
facturing

Wholesale
Public
uti lities3 trade

Retai1
trade

Fi nance,
insurance, Selected
and real servi ces 4
estate

8
6
(5)
5
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)

(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
—
(5)
~
4

57
31
65
27
82
37
40
49
67
90
74

10
13
4
14
4
10
13
10
(5)
(5)
6

5
7
10
5
(5)
6
4
(5)
5
<5)
(5)

(5)
4
(5)
4
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
“

13
35
10
41
(5)
25
27
29
14
-

4
(5)
100
(5)
(5)
4
15
9
6
5
6
13

(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)

4
C5)
“

79
69
39
63

5
8
9
5

(5)
7

5
(5)

25
(5)

12
18
12
23

(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
4
(5)
(5)
(5)

(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)

40
14
33
26
58
83
49
44
27

11
6
8
8
6
6
8
42
12

10
4
9
5
(5)
(5)
5
(5)

11
(5)
11
6
6
(5)
(5)
(5)

20
68
28
46
17
(51
24
5
48

5
4
9
7
7
(5)
8
5
6

’ Each occupation includes the work levels shown in table 1.
2 For the scope of the study, see table A-1 in appendix A.
3Transportation (except U.S. Postal Service), communications, electric, gas,
and sanitary services.
4 Limited to engineering, architectural, and surveying services; commercially
operated research, development, and testing laboratories; credit reporting and
collection agencies; computer and data processing services; management,

35

consulting, and public relations services; noncommercial educational, scien­
tific, and research organizations; and accounting, auditing and bookkeeping
services.
5 Less than 4 percent.
Note: A dash indicates that no workers in the occupation were found in the
industry.

Table 8. Relative salary levels: Occupation by industry division
(Relative salary levels for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations,'
by industry division,2 United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1984)
(Average salary for each occupation in all industries =100)

Occupati on
Professional and Administrative
Accountants
Audi tors
Public Accountants
Chief Accountants
Attorneys
Buyers
Proctrammers/Programmer Analysts
Systems Analysts
Job Analysts
Directors of Personnel
Chemi sts
Engi neers
Technical Support
Engineering Technicians
Drafters
Computer Operators
Photographers
Cleri cal
Accounting Clerks
File Clarks
Key Entry Operators
Messengers
Personnel Clerks/Assistants
Purchasing Assistants
Secretar ies
Stenographers
Typi sts

Mining

Cons­
truct ion

Manu­
Publi c
Wholesale
facture ng uti l ti es3 trade
i

Retai1
trade

Fi nance>
insurance, Selected
and real servi ces4
estate

110
109
(5)
121
120
108
114
“
(5)
111
123

97
(5)
(5)
105
(5)
100
108
(5)
“
97

100
102
99
103
99
103
102
107
100
100
100

106
108
(5)
102
109
106
104
(5)
(5)
(5)
105

97
(5)
(5)
(5)
102
107
99
(5)
(5)
(5)
100

(5)
(5)
(5)
(5)
93
98
(5)
(5)
-

126
(5)
111
(5)

-

99
98
103
102

115
110
116
(5)

(5)
98
~

-

_

-

100
(5)

-

93
(5)

97
102
92
90

103
114
106
112
102
100
104
101
111

125
151
132
135
112
106
114
105
120

95
102
94
111
(5)
(5)
97
96

93
(5)
91
91
90
86
84
105

88
92
°0
87
88
(5)
89
67
88

96
102
92
101
96
(5)
101
86
102

120
129
120
108
(5)
(5)
112
(5)

94
(5)
99
96
-

(5)
101
(5)
99

' Each occupation includes the work levels shown in table 1. In computing
relative salary levels for each occupation by industry division, the total employment in each work level in all industries surveyed was used as a constant
employment weight to eliminate the effect of differences in the proportion of
employment in various work levels within each occupation.
2 For the scope of the study, see table A-1 in appendix A.
3 Transportation (except U.S. Postal Service), communications, electric, pas,
and sanitary services.
4 Limited to engineering, architectural, and surveying services; commercially
operated research, development, and testing laboratories; credit reporting and

36

93
93
(5)
94
(5)
94
95
87
96
—

-

(5)
(5)
100
(5)
(5)
98
97
96
(5)
(5)
89
97

collection agencies; computer and data processing services; management,
consulting, and public relations services; noncommercial educational, scientific, and research organizations; and accounting, auditing and bookkeeping
services.
5 Insufficient employment in 1 work level or more to warrant separate presen­
tation of data.
Note: A dash indicates that no workers in the occupation were found in the
industry.

Table 9. Average weekly hours: Occupation by industry division
(Average standard weekly hours' for employees in selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations,2
by industry division,3 United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1984)

Occupat ion
Professional and Administrative
Accountants
Audi tors
Public Accountants
Chief Accountants
Attorneys
Buyers
Programmers/Programmer Analysts
Systems Analysts
Job Analysts
Directors of Personnel
Chemi sts
Engi neers
Technical Support
Engineering Technicians
Drafters
Computer Operators
Photographers
Clerical
Accounting Clerks
File Clerks
Key Entry Operators
Messengers
Personnel Clerks/Assistants
Purchasing Assistants
Secretari es
Stenographers
Typi sts

Mining

Cons­
truct ion

4 0 .0
40.0

39.5
(6 )

39.5
39.0

39.5
40.0

39.5

40.0
40.0

(6 )
4 0 .0
39.5
4 0 .0
39.5
(6 )
(6 )

40.0
40.0
40.0

40.0

(6 )
39.0

40.0

(6)

~
(6)
40.0
(6)

ManuFubli c
Wholesale
facturi ng uti li ti es4 trade

-

~

40.0
40.0

40.0

39.5
39.0
40.0
39.5
39.5
39.5
39.5
39.5
40.0

40.0
C6 >
40.0
(6 )

40.0
(6 )
-

40.0
40.0
39.5
40.0

40.0
39.5
39.5
(6 )

40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
(6 )

39.5

40.0

40.0
C6 )
40.0

39.5
39.5
39.5
39.0
39.5
39.5
39.5
40.0
40.0

39.5
40.0
39.5
39.5
39.5
39.0
39.5
39.5
39.5

40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0

(6)

(6)
(6)
-

(6)
~

-

39.5

(6)

' Based on the standard workweek for which employees receive their regular
straight-time salary. If standard hours were not available, the standard hours
applicable for a majority of the office work force in the establishment were us­
ed. The average for each job category was rounded to the nearest half hour.
2 Each occupation includes the work levels shown in table 1.
3 For the scope of the study, see table A-1 in appendix A.
4Transportation (except U.S. Postal Service), communications, electric, gas,
and sanitary services.
5 Limited to engineering, architectural, and surveying services; commercially
operated research, development, and testing laboratories; credit reporting and

37

(6)

(6)
(6)
(6)

(6)
(6)

(6)

39.5
40.0
39.5
39.5

(6)

C6 )
39.5
-

39.0

Retai1
trade

(6 )

(6)
(6)
(6 )
-

39.5
39.5

(6)
-

(6 )

Finance,
insurance > Selected
and real serv ices 5
estate

38.0
39.0

(6)

38.0
(6 )
38.0
38.0
38.5
38.5
-

-

(6)

(6 )
39.5

(6)

(6 )
39.5
39.5
40.0
(6 )
(6 )
40.0
40.0

39.5

38.5

(6)

40.0
40.0
39.5
39.5

40.0

38.5
38.0
38.5
38.0
38.5
(6 )
38.5
36.5
37.5

39.0
39.0
39.5
39.0
39.0
(6 )
39.0
39.5
39.0

-

(6)

(6)

39.5
39.5
40.0
-

39.5
40.0
39 .5

-

collection agencies; computer and data processing services; management,
consulting, and public relations services; noncommercial educational, scien­
tific, and research organizations; and accounting, auditing and bookkeeping
services.
8 Insufficient employment in 1 work level or more to warrant separate presen­
tation of data.
N ote. A dash indicates that no workers in the occupation were found in the
industry.

Appendix A. Scope and
Method of Survey

removed; and for some, address, employment, type of
industry, or other information was changed.

Scope

The survey relates to establishments1 in the United
States, except Alaska and Hawaii, employing at least a
specified minimum number of workers, and engaged in
the following industries: Mining; construction;
manufacturing; transportation, communications, elec­
tric, gas, and sanitary services (except the U.S. Postal
Service and government agencies, such as the Tennessee
Valley Authority); wholesale trade; retail trade; finance,
insurance, and real estate; and selected services (table
A-l). Establishments which employed fewer than the
minimum number of employees specified for each in­
dustry division were excluded. Establishments which
met the minimum size criteria during the reference
period of the information used in compiling the survey
universe were included even if they employed fewer than
the specified minimum number of workers at the time of
the survey. Establishments found to be outside of the in­
dustrial scope of the survey at the time of data collection
were excluded.
Table A-l shows the estimated number of
establishments and employees within the scope of the
survey (the universe) and the number within the sample
actually studied for each major industry division.
Separate estimates are presented for establishments
employing 2,500 workers or more and for those located
in Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas ( s m s a ’s) . 1
2
Similar estimates of the number of full-time white-collar
employees are also provided.

Survey design

The design for a survey of this nature includes
methods of classifying individual establishments into
homogeneous groups or strata, determining the size of
the sample for each stratum, and selecting the sample of
establishments for each stratum.3
Establishments within the scope of the 1984 survey
were stratified by industry group and by total employ­
ment.
The sample size in a stratum was a function of the ex­
pected number of employees (based on previous
surveys) in all professional, administrative, technical,
and clerical occupations in the stratum. That is, the
larger the expected number of employees in all surveyed
occupations, the larger the sample in the stratum. Also,
an upward adjustment was made to the sample size in
those strata expected to have specified occupations
which had relatively high sampling errors in previous
surveys. (See “ Reliability of estimates” section for a
discussion of sampling errors.)
Data co lle c tio n

The list of establishments (the sampling frame) from
which the sample was selected was developed by up­
dating the 1983 survey sampling frame using data from
the most recently available (usually March 1982)
unemployment insurance reports for the 48 contiguous
States and the District of Columbia. During the update
process, some establishments were added; some were

Data for the survey were obtained primarily by per­
sonal visits of the Bureau’s field representatives to a na­
tionwide sample of establishments. Collection was
scheduled from January through mid-May to reflect an
average reference period of March 1984.4
Employees were classified by occupation and work
level using job descriptions (appendix C) prepared joint­
ly by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Office of
Personnel Management. Descriptions are designed to
reflect duties and responsibilities of employees in
private industry and to be translatable to specific
General Schedule grades applying to Federal employees
(appendix D). Thus, definitions of some occupations

1 For this survey, an establishment is an economic unit which pro­
duces goods or services, a central administrative office, or an aux­
iliary unit providing support services to a company. In manufacturing
industries, the establishment is usually a single physical location. In
nonmanufacturing industries, all locations o f an individual company
within a Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area ( s m s a ) or within a
nonmetropolitan county are usually considered an establishment.
2 Metropolitan data relate to all 276 s m s a ’ s within the 48 con­
tiguous States as defined by the U.S. Office of Management and
Budget through June 1977.

3 In 1984, a random sample was selected systematically to maximize
the probability of retaining establishments which were selected for the
1983 survey. This method was a modification of the method introduc­
ed by Nathan Keyfitz in 1951 in his paper titled “ Sampling with Pro­
babilities Proportional to Size: Adjusting for Changes in the Pro­
babilities,” Journal o f the American Statistical Association, No. 46,
pp. 105-09.
4 The March payroll period has been used since the 1972 survey.
The 1970 and 1971 surveys had a June reference period.

Sampling frame

38

Factors which reflect the normal work schedules for
the month were used to convert hourly rates to a mon­
thly basis.

and work levels were limited to specific elements which
could be classified uniformly among establishments.
In comparing the actual duties and responsibilities of
employees with those enumerated in job descriptions,
the Bureau’s field representatives, with the assistance of
company officals, made extensive use of company posi­
tion descriptions, organization charts, and other per­
sonnel records.
Salaries reported for survey occupations were those
paid to full-time employees for standard work
schedules, i.e., the straight-time salary corresponding to
the employee’s normal work schedule excluding over­
time hours. Nonproduction bonuses were excluded, but
cost-of-living payments and incentive earnings were
included.

Employment. Occupational employment counts
generated by the survey are estimates of the total for all
establishments within the scope of the survey and are
not limited to establishments actually studied. An oc­
cupational employment estimate was derived by
multiplying the full-time employment in the occupation
in each sample establishment by the establishment
weight and then summing these results.
Salary averages. The mean salary (average wage rate)
for a specific occupational level was obtained by
dividing total wages for that level by the corresponding
total employment. Median and quartile values were
derived from distributions of employees by salary using
10-cent-an-hour class intervals. All salary averages in
the tables were rounded to the nearest dollar. For all an­
nual salary calculations, individual monthly salaries (to
the nearest one-tenth cent) were multipled by 12 before
performing the necessary data aggregation.

Survey nonresponse

In the March 1984 survey, salary data were not
available from about 14 percent of the sample
establishments (representing 3,124,000 employees in the
total universe covered by the survey). An additional 3
percent of the sample establishments (representing
621,400 employees) were either out of business or out­
side the scope of the survey.
If data were not provided by the sample member, the
weights of responding sample establishments from the
same stratum were increased to adjust for the missing
data. No adjustment was made for establishments
which were out of business or outside the scope of the
survey.
Some sampled companies had a policy of not disclos­
ing salary data for certain employees. No adjustments
were made to salary estimates for the survey as a result
of these missing data. In all but seven of the profes­
sional, administrative, technical, and clerical work
levels published, the proportion of employees for whom
salary data were not available was less than 5 percent.5
*

Salary trends. Percent increases for each occupation in
text table 1 were obtained by adding the aggregate mon­
thly salaries for each level in each of 2 successive years
and dividing the later sum by the earlier sum. To
eliminate the effects of year-to-year employment shifts
in this computation, average salaries in each year were
multipled by employment in the most recent year.
Year-to-year percent increases for each group
specified in text table 2 were determined by adding
average monthly salaries for all occupational levels in
the group for 2 consecutive years, and dividing the later
sum by the earlier sum. The trends in text table 2 were
obtained by linking changes for the individual periods.
Changes in the scope of the survey and in occupa­
tional definitions were incorporated into the various
trend series as soon as two consecutive periods with
comparable data were available.

Survey estimation methods
Data conversion. Salary data were collected from com­
pany records in the most readily available form, i.e.,
weekly, biweekly, semimonthly, monthly, or annually.
Before initial tabulations, all salary data were converted
to a monthly basis. The factors used to convert the
salary data are as follows:
Payroll basis

Limitations

Survey occupations were limited to employees
meeting the specific criteria in each job definition and
were not intended to include all employees in each field
of work.8 Employees whose salary data were not
available, as well as those for whom there was no
satisfactory basis for classification by work level, were
not taken into account in the estimates. For these

Conversion factor

W eek ly...............................................
Biweekly.............................................
Sem im onthly.....................................
M on th ly .............................................
Annually......................................................

4.3333
2.1665
2.0000
1.0000
.0833

6
Engineers, for example, include employees engaged in engineering
work within a band o f eight levels, starting with inexperienced
engineering graduates and excluding only those within certain fields of
specialization or in positions above those covered by level VIII. In
contrast, occupations such as chief accountants and directors o f per­
sonnel include only those with responsibility for a specific program
and with duties and responsibilities as indicated for each o f the more
limited number o f work levels selected for study.

5 Those with 5 percent or more were: Chief accountants IV, 6 per­
cent; systems analysts V, 5 percent; directors o f personnel 1-5 percent,
level II— percent, level III-11 percent, and level IV-14 percent; and
8
key entry operators I, 12 percent.
39

reasons, and because of differences in occupational
structure among establishments, estimates of occupa­
tional employment obtained from the sample of
establishments studied indicate only the relative impor­
tance of occupations and levels as defined for the
survey. These qualifications of employment estimates
should not materially affect the accuracy of the earnings
data.
Data on year-to-year changes in average salaries are
subject to limitations which reflect the nature of the
data collected. Changes in average salaries reflect not
only general salary increases and merit or other in­
creases in the same work level category, but also other
factors such as employee turnover, expansions or con­
tractions in the work force, and changes in staffing pat­
terns within establishments with different salary levels.
For example, an expansion in force may increase the
proportion of employees at the minimum salary of a
rate range for a work level, which would tend to lower
the average of a job; a reduction or a low turnover in
the work force may have the opposite effect. Similarly,
promotions of employees to higher work levels of pro­
fessional and administrative occupations may affect the
average of each level. Established salary ranges for such
occupations are relatively wide, and employees who
may have been paid the maximum of the salary scale for
the lower level are likely to be replaced by less experienc­
ed employees who may be paid the minimum. Occupa­
tions most likely to reflect such changes are the higher
levels of professional and administrative occupations
and single-incumbent positions such as chief accountant
and director of personnel.

survey vary among the occupational work levels depen­
ding on such factors as the frequency with which the job
occurs, the dispersion of salaries for the job, and the
survey design. For the 105 publishable work levels,
estimated relative standard errors (RSE) for average
salary estimates were distributed as follows:
Relative standard error

Nmnher of, occupational
work levels

Less than 1 p ercen t..........................
1- 2 percent.....................................
2 - 3 percent......................................
3 percent or m ore..............................

46
49
9
]

The Bureau evaluates the reliability of its estimates
based in part on the value of two relative standard er­
rors for an occupational level. For example, a
95-percent confidence interval8 for accountants I
(survey estimate = $1,654 monthly) is from $1,612 to
$1,696.
Nonsampling errors can come from many sources,
such as inability to obtain information from some
establishments; definitional difficulties; inability to pro­
vide correct information by respondents; mistakes in
recording or coding the data obtained; and other errors
of collection, response, coverage, and estimation for
missing data. Although not specifically measured, the
survey’s nonsampling errors are expected to be minimal
due to the high response rate and the extensive and continous training of field representatives, careful screening
of data at several levels of review, annual maintenance
and evaluation of the suitability of job definitions, and
thorough field testing of new or revised job definitions.
To measure and better control nonsampling errors
that occur during data collection, a quality control pro­
cedure was added to the p a t c survey in 1983 and
repeated in 1984.® The procedure, job match validation
( j m v ), was designed to identify the frequency, reasons
for, and sources of incorrect decisions made by Bureau
field representatives in matching company jobs to
survey job categories. Once identified, the problems
were discussed promptly with the field representatives
while data were still being collected. Subsequently, the
j m v results were tallied, reported to b l s staff, and will
become the basis for remedial action at annual training
conferences.
Tabulations of the 1984 j m v process showed that
about 10 percent of the nearly 1,845 job match decisions
checked with respondents were subsequently changed by

Reliability of estimates

The statistics in the report are estimates derived from
a sample survey. There are two types of errors possible
in an estimate based on a sample survey—sampling and
nonsampling.
Sampling errors occur because observations come
only from a sample, not the entire population. The par­
ticular sample used in this survey is one of a large
number of all possible samples of the same size that
could have been selected using the same sample design.
Estimates derived from the different samples would dif­
fer from each other.
A measure of the variation among these differing
estimates is called the standard error or sampling error.7
It indicates the precision with which an estimate from a
particular sample approximates the average result of all
possible samples. The relative standard error ( r s e ) is the
standard error divided by the value being estimated. The
smaller the r s e , the greater the reliability of the
estimate.
Estimates of relative standard errors for the 1984

8 A 95-percent confidence interval means that, if all possible
samples were selected and an estimate of the salary and its sampling
error were computed for each, then for approximately 95 percent of
the samples the interval from 2 standard errors below the estimate to 2
standard errors above the estimate would include the average salary of
all possible samples. For accountants I, the 2 relative standard errors
were 2.5 percent in 1984.
9 For a more detailed description of the process, see National

Survey o f Professional, Administrative, Technical, and Clerical Pay,
March 1983, Bulletin 2181 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1983), p. 35.

7 A replication technique with 15 random groups was used to obtain
estimates of relative standard errors for the 1984 survey.

40

occupational work levels. Most of the remaining errors
were matching one work level too high or too low within
the appropriate occupation, e.g., accountant IV instead
of accountant III.

survey reviewers. Of those revised (177), just over twofifths were either original job matches that should have
been excluded or company jobs excluded by the field
representative that should have been matches for BLS

41

Table A-1. Number of establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied, by Industry division, United States, March 1984

Industry division1

Minimum
employment
in
establishments
within
scope of
survey

Studied

Within scope of survey

Workers in establishments

Workers in establishments
Number of
establishments

Total

Professional
‘and
administrative

Clerical
and technical
support

Number of
establishments

Total

Professional
and
administrative

Clerical
and technical
support

United States
-

44,512

22,701,568

5,255,318

5,046,118

3,178

5,691,682

1,614,664

1,348,064

3100-250

19,538

11,483,550

2,543,161

1,598,955

1,440

3,108,823

889,979

480,522

250
250

738
749

383,730
360,060

102,771
71,875

59,469
43,187

73
57

80,509
87,929

30,064
25,343

18,984
15,670

4100-250
100
250
100
*50-1 00

4,328
5,151
3,972
7,027
3,009

2,689,937
1,048,632
3,294,314
2,585,861
855,484

581,139
316,154
353,986
847,114
439,118

637,764
305,659
703,771
1,428,225
269,088

323
234
233
474
344

967,475
81,832
553,367
597,584
214,163

241,231
29,185
81,364
201,541
115,957

259,693
29,923
140,218
337,332
65,722

All in d u s trie s ................................................

-

37,197

19,694,444

4,836,404

4,703,371

2,775

5,375,435

1,554,452

1,305,351

M a nufa cturing...........................................................

3 100-250

14,821

9,214,981

2,267,829

1,402,200

1,17b

2,878,106

849,444

453,747

250
250

402
621

220,873
285,223

72,607
65,042

44,113
35,613

44
44

54,431
63,038

21,893
22,414

14,262
12,772

4 100-250
100
250
100
*50-1 00

3,467
4,676
3,826
6,515
2,869

2,435,495
981,175
3,242,808
2,485,420
828,473

534,471
299,055
349,281
820,368
427,751

592,407
296,734
693,884
1,381,592
256,828

286
221
227
447
331

947,726
80,114
550,568
590,977
210,475

237,315
28,761
80,935
199,491
114,199

256,523
29,688
139,657
334,321
64,381

All industries1 3
24
................................................
Manufacturing
N onm anu factu ring:
M in in g ...............................................................
Construction
Transportation, communications, electric,
gas, and sanitary services
Wholesale tra d e ................................................
Retail trade
Finance, insurance, and real estate .............
Selected services5
M etropolitan areas7

Nonmanufacturing:
M in in g ...............................................................
Construction ....................................................
Transportation, communications, e le c tric ,
gas, and sanitary services
Wholesale tra d e ................................................
Retail trade
Finance, insurance, and real estate .............
Selected services5 ............................................
Establishm ents em ploying
2,500 workers or more

1,056

All industries ................................................
M a nufa cturing...........................................................

-

6,548,742

1,803,924

1,568,116

610

4,330,676

1,247,957

1,004,874

473

3,491,504

1,018,224

565,186

327

2,498,901

742,844

389,129

1 As defined in the 1972 e d itio n of the S t a n a a r d I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a n u a l , U.S. O ffice ot
M anagem ent and Budget.
2 E stablishm ents w ith to ta l e m ploym e nt at or above the m inim um lim ita tio n indicated in the firs t
colum n; exclud es A laska and H aw aii.
3 M inim um em ploym ent size w as 100 fo r c he m ical and a llie d products; petroleum re fining and
related indu stries; m achinery, except e le c tric a l; e le c tric a l machinery, equipm ent, and supplies;
tra n sp o rta tio n equipm ent; and in stru m e n ts and related products. M inim um size was 250 in all other
m a nufa cturing industries.
4 M inim um em ploym ent size w as 100 fo r railroad tra nspo rtatio n; local and suburban tra n sit; deep
sea foreign and dom estic tra n sp o rta tio n ; air tra n sp o rta tio n ; com m unications, electric, gas, and

san itary services; ana pipe lines; ana 250 fo r all oth er tra n sp o rta tio n indu stries. U.S. Postal Service is
excluded from the survey.
‘ Lim ite d to engineering, a rch ite ctu ra l, and surveying services; co m m ercia lly operated research,
developm ent, and te stin g labo rato ries; cre d it re portin g and co lle c tio n agencies; com pute r and data
processing services; m anagem ent, c o n su ltin g , and p u b lic re la tio n s services; noncom m ercial educa­
tio n a l, s c ie n tific , and research organiza tions; and a cco unting , au d itin g and bookkeeping services.
6 M inim um em ploym ent size was 50 fo r acco unting , au diting, ano bookkeeping services; and 100
fo r all other selected services.
7 S tandard M e trop olitan S ta tis tic a l Areas in the United S tates, except A laska and H aw aii, as revis­
ed through June 1977 by the U.S. O ffice o f M anagem ent and Budget.

Appendix B. Survey
Changes in 1984

A five-level series for nonsupervisory systems analysts
and a separate four-level series for systems analyst
supervisors/managers were added to the 1984 survey.
(See appendix C.) For publication purposes, however,
data from these series were combined into six levels (the
first five publishable), as shown at the right.
The definitions for two other occupations—computer
operator and programmer/programmer analyst—were
revised substantially to improve alignment with Federal
personnel classification standards.

43

Level
I I .............................. ...............
I l l ............................ ...............
I V ............................ ...............
V .....................
VI ............................

Systems analyst
Supervisory/
managerial

Nonsupervisory
I
II
Ill
IV

_
I
II
III
IV

Appendix C. Occupational
Definitions

The primary purpose of preparing job definitions for
the Bureau’s wage surveys is to assist its field staff in
classifying into appropriate occupations, or levels
within occupations, workers who are employed under a
variety of payroll titles and different work arrangements
from establishment to establishment and from area to
area. This permits the grouping of occupational wage
rates representing comparable job content. To secure

comparability of job content, some occupations and
work levels are defined to include only those workers
meeting specific criteria as to training, job functions,
and responsibilities. Because of this emphasis on in­
terestablishment and interarea comparability of occupa­
tional content, the Bureau’s occupational definitions
may differ significantly from those in use in individual
establishments or those prepared for other purposes.

Accountants and Auditors
ACCOUNTANT

Advising operating officials on accounting matters; and

Performs professional operating or cost accounting
work requiring knowledge of the theory and practice of
recording, classifying, examining, and analyzing the
data and records of financial transactions. The work
generally requires a bachelor’s degree in accounting or,
in rare instances, equivalent experience and education
combined. Positions covered by this definition are
characterized by the inclusion of work that is analytical,
creative, evaluative, and advisory in nature. The work
draws upon and requires a thorough knowledge of the
fundamental doctrines, theories, principles, and ter­
minology of accounting, and often entails some
understanding of such related fields as business law,
statistics, and general management. (See also chief ac­
countant.)
Professional responsibilities in accountant positions
above the entry and developmental levels include such
duties as:

Recommending improvements, adaptations, or revisions
in the accounting system and procedures.

Entry and developmental level positions provide op­
portunity to develop ability to perform professional
duties such as those enumerated above.
In addition, most accountants are also responsible for
assuring the proper recording and documentation of
transactions in the accounts. They, therefore, frequent­
ly direct nonprofessional personnel in the actual day-today maintenance of books of accounts, the accumula­
tion of cost or other comparable data, the preparation
of standard reports and statements, and similar work.
(Positions involving such supervisory work, but not in­
cluding professional duties as described above, are not
included in this description.)
Excluded are accountants whose principal or sole
duties consist of designing or improving accounting
systems or other nonoperating staff work, e.g., budget
analysis, financial analysis, financial forecasting, tax
advising, etc. (The criteria that follow for distinguishing
among the several levels of work are inappropriate for
such jobs.) Note, however, that professional accountant
positions with responsibility for recording or reporting
accounting data relative to taxes are included, as are
other operating or cost accountants whose work in­
cludes, but is not limited to, improvement of the ac­
counting system.
Some accountants use electronic data processing
equipment to process, record, and report accounting
data. In some such cases, the machine unit is a subor­
dinate segment of the accounting system; in others, it is

Analyzing the effects of transactions upon account
relationships;
Evaluating alternative means of treating transactions;
Planning the manner in which account structures should
be developed or modified;
Assuring the adequacy of the accounting system as the
basis for reporting to management;
Considering the need for new or changed controls;
Projecting accounting data to show the effects of pro­
posed plans on capital investments, income, cash position,
and overall financial condition;
Interpreting the meaning of accounting records, reports,
and statements;
44

counting techniques to simple problems. Is expected to
be competent in the application of standard procedures
and requirements to routine transactions, to raise ques­
tions about unusual or questionable items, and to sug­
gest solutions. (Terminal positions are excluded.)

a separate entity or is attached to some other organiza­
tion. In either instance, provided that the primary
responsibility of the position is professional accounting
work of the type otherwise included, the use of data
processing equipment of any type does not of itself ex­
clude a position from the accountant description nor
does it change its level.

Direction received. Work is reviewed closely to verify its
general accuracy and coverage of unusual problems, to
insure conformance with required procedures and
special instructions, and to assure professional growth.
Progress is evaluated in terms of ability to apply profes­
sional knowledge to basic accounting problems in the
day-to-day operations of an established accounting
system.

Accountant I

General characteristics. At this beginning professional
level, the accountant learns to apply the principles,
theories, and concepts of accounting to a specific
system. The position is distinguishable from nonprofes­
sional positions by the variety of assignments; rate and
scope of development expected; and the existence, im­
plicit or explicit, of a planned training program design­
ed to give the entering accountant practical experience.
(Terminal positions are excluded.)

Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs a variety
of accounting tasks, e.g., prepares routine working
papers, schedules, exhibits, and summaries indicating
the extent of the examination and presenting and sup­
porting findings and recommendations. Examines a
variety of accounting documents to verify accuracy of
computations and to ascertain that all transactions are
properly supported, are in accordance with pertinent
policies and procedures, and are classified and recorded
according to acceptable accounting standards.

Direction received. Works under close supervision of an
experienced accountant whose guidance is directed
primarily to the development of the trainee’s profes­
sional ability and to the evaluation of advancement
potential. Limits of assignments are clearly defined,
methods of procedure are specified, and kinds of items
to be noted and referred to supervisor are identified.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Usually none,
although sometimes responsible for supervision of a few
clerks.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs a variety
of accounting tasks such as: Examining a variety of
financial statements for completeness, internal ac­
curacy, and conformance with uniform accounting
classifications or other specific accounting re­
quirements; reconciling reports and financial data with
financial statements already on file, and pointing out
apparent inconsistencies or errors; carrying out assigned
steps in an accounting analysis, such as computing
standard ratios; assembling and summarizing account­
ing literature on a given subject; preparing relatively
simple financial statements not involving problems of
analysis or presentation; and preparing charts, tables,
and other exhibits to be used in reports. In addition,
may also perform some nonprofessional tasks for train­
ing purposes.

Accountant III

General characteristics. The accountant at this level ap­
plies well-established accounting principles, theories,
concepts, and practices to moderately difficult prob­
lems. Receives detailed instructions concerning the
overall accounting system and its objectives, the policies
and procedures under which it is operated, and the
nature of changes in the system or its operation.
Characteristically, the accounting system or assigned
segment is stable and well established (i.e., the basic
chart of accounts, classifications, the nature of the cost
accounting system, the report requirements, and the
procedures are changed infrequently).
Depending upon the workload involved, the account­
ant may have such assignments as supervision of the
day-to-day operation of: (a) The entire system of a
relatively small establishment; or (b) a major segment
(e.g., general accounting, cost accounting, or financial
statements and reports) of a somewhat larger system; or
(c) in a complex system, may be assigned to a relatively
narrow and specialized segment dealing with some prob­
lem, function, or portion of work which is appropriate
for this level.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Usually none.
Accountant II

General characteristics. At this level, the accountant
makes practical application of technical accounting
practices and concepts beyond the mere application of
detailed rules and instructions, as a phase in developing
greater professional competence. Initial assignments are
designed to expand practical experience and to develop
professional judgment in the application of basic ac­

Direction received. A higher level professional account­
45

segments; or (b) a major segment (e.g., general ac­
counting, cost accounting, or financial statements and
reports) of an accounting system serving a larger and
more complex establishment; or (c) in a complex
system, may be assigned to a relatively narrow and
specialized segment dealing with some problem, func­
tion, or portion of work which is itself of the level of
difficulty characteristic of this level.

ant normally is available to furnish advice and as­
sistance as needed. Work is reviewed for technical ac­
curacy, adequacy of professional judgment, and com­
pliance with instructions through spot checks, appraisal
of results, subsequent processing, analysis of reports
and statements, and other appropriate means.
Typical duties and responsibilities. The primary re­
sponsibility of most positions at this level is to assure
that the assigned day-to-day operations are carried out
in accordance with established accounting principles,
policies, and objectives. The accountant performs such
professional work as: Developing nonstandard reports
and statements (e.g., those containing cash forecasts
reflecting the interrelations of accounting, cost
budgeting, or comparable information); interpreting
and pointing out trends or deviations from standards;
projecting data into the future; predicting the effects of
changes in operating programs; or identifying manage­
ment informational needs, and refining account struc­
tures or reports accordingly.
Within the limits of delegated responsibility, makes
day-to-day decisions concerning the accounting treat­
ment of financial transactions. Is expected to recom­
mend solutions to moderately difficult problems and
propose changes in the accounting system for approval
at higher levels. Such recommendations are derived
from personal knowledge of the application of wellestablished principles and practices.

Direction received. A higher level accountant normally
is available to furnish advice and assistance as needed.
Work is reviewed by spot checks and appraisal of results
for adequacy of professional judgment, compliance
with instructions, and overall accuracy and quality.
Typical duties and responsibilities. As in level III, a
primary characteristic of most positions at this level is
the responsibility of operating an accounting system or
major segment of a system in the intended manner.
The accountant IV exercises professional judgment in
making frequent, appropriate recommendations for:
New accounts; revisions in the account structure; new
types of ledgers; revisions in reporting system or sub­
sidiary records; and changes in instructions regarding
the use of accounts, new or refined account classifica­
tions or definitions; etc. Also makes day-to-day deci­
sions concerning the accounting treatment of financial
transactions and is expected to recommend solutions to
complex problems beyond incumbent’s scope of respon­
sibility.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. In most in­
stances, is responsible for supervision of a subordinate
nonprofessional staff; may coordinate the work of
lower level professional accountants.

Responsibility for direction o f others. Accounting staff
supervised, if any, may include professional ac­
countants.

Accountant IV

Accountant V

General characteristics. At this level, the accountant ap­
plies well-established accounting principles, theories,
concepts, and practices to a wide variety of difficult
problems. Receives instructions concerning the objec­
tives and operation of the overall accounting system.
Compared with level III, the accounting system or
assigned segment is more complex, i.e., (a) is relatively
unstable, (b) must adjust to new or changing company
operations, (c) is substantially larger, or (d) is com­
plicated by the need to provide and coordinate separate
or specialized accounting treatment and reporting (e.g.,
cost accounting using standard cost, process cost, and
job order techniques) for different operations or divi­
sions of company.
Depending upon the workload and degree of coor­
dination involved, the accountant IV may have such
assignments as the supervision of the day-to-day opera­
tion of: (a) The entire accounting system of an
establishment having a few relatively stable accounting

General characteristics. The accountant V applies ac­
counting principles, theories, concepts, and practices to
the solution of problems for which no clear precedent
exists or performs work which is of greater than average
responsibility due to the nature or magnitude of the
assigned work. Responsibilities at this level, in contrast
to accountants at level IV, extend beyond accounting
system maintenance to the solution of more complex
technical and managerial problems. Work of account­
ants V is more directly concerned with what the ac­
counting system (or segment) should be, what operating
policies and procedures should be established or revised,
and what is the managerial as well as the accounting
meaning of the data included in the reports and
statements for which they are responsible. Typically,
this level of work approaches chief accountant positions
in terms of the nature of the concern for the accounting
system and its operation, but not in terms of the breadth
or scope of responsibility.
46

Examples of assignments characteristic of this level
are supervision of the day-to-day operation of: (a) The
entire accounting system of an establishment having a
few relatively complex accounting segments; or (b) a
major segment of a larger and more complex accounting
system; or (c) the entire accounting system (or major
segment) of a company that has a relatively stable and
conventional accounting system when the work includes
significant responsibility for accounting systems design
and development; or (d) in a complex system, may be
assigned to a relatively narrow and specialized segment
dealing with some problem, function, or portion of
work which is of a difficulty characteristic of this
level.
Direction received. An accountant of higher level nor­
mally is available to furnish advice and assistance as
needed. Work is reviewed for adequacy of professional
judgment, compliance with instructions, and overall
quality.
Typical duties and responsibilities. The accountant V
performs such professional work as: Participating in the
development and coordinating the implementation of
new or revised accounting systems, and initiating
necessary instructions and procedures; assuring
accounting reporting systems and procedures are in
compliance with established company policies, regula­
tions, and acceptable accounting practices; providing
technical advice and services to operating managers, in­
terpreting accounting reports and statements, and iden­
tifying problem areas; and evaluating completed as­
signments for conformance with applicable policies,
regulations, and tax laws.

complex corporate accounting system, or (b) a major
segment (e.g., general accounting, property accounting,
etc.) of an unusually complex accounting system requir­
ing technical expertise in a particular accounting field
(e.g., cost accounting, tax accounting, etc.).
Direction received. A higher level professional account­
ant is normally available to furnish advice as needed.
Work is reviewed for adequacy of professional judg­
ment, compliance with instructions and policies, and
overall quality.
Typical duties and responsibilities. Accountants at this
level are delegated complete responsibility from higher
authority to establish and implement new or revised ac­
counting policies and procedures. Typically, account­
ants VI participate in decisionmaking sessions with
operating managers who have policymaking authority
for their subordinate organizations or establishments;
recommend management actions or alternatives which
can be taken when accounting data disclose unfavorable
trends, situations, or deviations; and assist management
officials in applying financial data and information to
the solution of administrative and operating problems.
Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Accounting staff
supervised generally includes professional account­
ants.
x o t e : Excluded are accountants above level VI
whose principal function is to direct, manage, or ad­
minister an accounting program in that they are
p r im a r ily concerned with the administrative, budgetary,
and policy matters of the program rather than the actual
supervision of the d a y - to - d a y o p e r a tio n s of an account­
ing program. This type of work requires extensive
managerial ability as well as superior professional com­
petence in order to cope with the technical accounting
and management problems encountered. Typically, the
level of work involves responsibility for more than one
accounting activity (e.g., cost accounting, sales account­
ing, etc.)

Responsibility for direction o f others. Accounting staff
supervised generally includes professional accountants.
Accountant VI

G e n e r a l c h a r a c te ristic s. At this level, the accountant ap­
plies accounting principles, theories, concepts, and
practices to specialized, unique, or nonrecurring com­
plex problems (e.g., implementation of specialized CHIEF ACCOUNTANT
As the top technical expert in accounting, is responsi­
automated accounting systems). The work is substan­
tially more difficult and of greater responsibility than ble for directing the accounting program for a company
level V because of the unusual nature, magnitude, im­ or for an establishment of a company. The minimum
portance, or overall impact of the work on the account­ accounting program includes: (1) General accounting
ing program.
(assets, liabilities, income, expense, and capital ac­
At this level, the accounting system or segment is counts, including responsibility for profit and loss and
usually complex, i.e., (a) is generally unstable, (b) must balance sheet statements); and (2) at least one other ma­
adjust to the frequent changing needs of company jor accounting activity, typically tax accounting, cost
operations, or (c) is complicated by the need to provide accounting, property accounting, or sales accounting. It
may also include such other activities as payroll and
specialized or individualized reports.
Examples of assignments at this level are the supervi­ timekeeping, and mechanical or electronic data process­
sion of the day-to-day operation of: (a) A large and ing operations which are an adjunct of the accounting

47

Providing special or interim reports and statements
needed by the manager responsible for the d ay-to-day
operations of the organization served.

system. (Responsibility for an internal audit program is
typically not included.)
The responsibilities of the chief accountant include all
of the following:
1.

This degree of authority is typically found at a plant or
similar subordinate establishment.

On own responsibility, developing, adapting, or
revising an accounting system to meet the needs of
the organization;

2.

Supervising, either directly or through subordinate
supervisors, the operation of the system with full
management responsibility for the quality and quan­
tity of work performed, training and development of
subordinates, work scheduling and review, coordina­
tion with other parts of the organization served, etc.;

3.

AR-2. The basic accounting system is prescribed in
broad outline rather than in specific detail. While cer­
tain major financial reports, overall accounts, and
general policies are required by the basic system, the
chief accountant has broad latitude and authority to
decide the specific methods, procedures, accounts,
reports, etc., to be used within the organizational seg­
ment served. Approval must be secured from higher
levels only for those changes which would basically af­
fect the broad requirements prescribed by such higher
levels. Typical responsibilities include:

Providing directly, or through an official such as a
comptroller, advisory services to the top manage­
ment officials of the organization served as to:
a.

b.

The status of financial resources and the finan­
cial trends or results of operations as revealed
by accounting data, and selecting a manner of
presentation that is meaningful to manage­
ment;

Evaluating and taking final action on recommendations
proposed by subordinate establishments for changes in
aspects of the accounting system or activities not prescribed
by higher authority;

Methods for improving operations as sug­
gested by an expert knowledge of accounting,
e.g., proposals for improving cost control,
property management, credit and collection,
tax reduction, or similar programs.

Extending cost accounting operations to areas not
previously covered;
Instituting new cost accounting procedures;
Expanding the utilization of computers within the ac­
counting process; and

Excluded are positions with responsibility for the ac­
counting program if they also include (as a major part
of the job) responsibility for budgeting; work measure­
ment; organization, methods, and procedures studies;
or similar nonaccounting functions. (Positions of such
breadth are sometimes titled comptroller, budget and
accounting manager, financial manager, etc.)
Some positions responsible for supervising general ac­
counting and one or more other major accounting ac­
tivities but which do not fully meet all of the respon­
sibilities of a chief accountant specified above may be
covered by the descriptions for accountant.
Chief accountant jobs which meet the characteristics
described are classified by level of work according to (a)
authority and responsibility, and (b) technical complexi­
ty, using table C-1.

Preparing accounting reports and statements reflecting
the events and progress of the entire organization for which
incumbent is responsible, often consolidating data sub­
mitted by subordinate segments.
This degree of authority is most typically found at in­
termediate organizational levels such as regional offices,
or division or subsidiary headquarters. It is also found
in some company-level situations where the authority of
the chief accountant is less extensive than is described in
AR-3. More rarely, it is found in plant-level chief ac­
countants who have been delegated more authority than
usual for such positions as described in AR-1.
AR-3. Has complete responsibility for establishing and
maintaining the framework for the basic accounting
system used in the company, subject only to general
policy guidance and control from a higher level com­
pany official responsible for general financial manage­
ment. Typical responsibilities include:

Authority and Responsibility

AR-1. The accounting system (i.e., accounts, pro­
cedures, and reports to be used) has been prescribed in
considerable detail by higher levels in the company or
organization. The chief accountant has final, unreview­
ed authority, within the prescribed system, to expand it
to fit the particular needs of the organization served,
e.g., in the following or comparable ways:

Determining the basic characteristics of the company’s
accounting system and the specific accounts to be used;
,
Devising and preparing accounting reports and statements
required to meet management’s needs for data:
Establishing basic accounting policies, interpretations,
and procedures;
Reviewing and taking action on proposed revisions to the
company’s accounting system suggested by subordinate
units; and
Taking final action on all technical accounting matters.

Providing greater detail in accounts and reports or
financial statements;
Establishing additional accounting controls, accounts,
subaccounts, and subsidiary records; and
48

Characteristically, participates extensively in broad
company management processes by providing account­
ing advice, interpretations, or recommendations based
on data accumulated in the accounting system and on
professional judgment and experience.

ducts, work processes, etc., which require substantial
and frequent adaptations of the basic system to meet
management needs (e.g., adoption of new accounts,
subaccounts, and subsidiary records; revision of in­
structions for the use of accounts; improvement or ex­
pansion of methods for accumulating and reporting cost
data in connection with new or changed work
processes).

Technical Complexity

TC-1. The organization which the accounting program
serves has relatively few functions, products, work
processes, etc., and these tend to be stable and unchang­
ing. The accounting system operates in accordance with
well-established principles and practices or those of
equivalent difficulty which are typical of that industry.

TC-3. The organization which the accounting program
serves puts a heavy demand on the accounting organiza­
tion fo r specialized and extensive adaptations of the
basic system to meet management needs. Such demands
arise because the functions, products, work processes,
etc., of the organization are very numerous, diverse,
unique, or specialized, or there are other comparable
complexities. Consequently, the accounting system, to a

TC-2. The organization which the accounting program
serves has a relatively large number of functions, pro­

Table C-1. Criteria for matching chief accountants by level
—
Level

A u th o rity
and
re s p o n s ib ility 1

Technical
c o m p le x ity 1

S u bo rdina te profession al acco u n tin g s ta ff

1

AR 1

TC-1

O n ly one o r tw o professional accountants w ho do n o t exceed the a cco unta nt
I I I jo b d e fin itio n .

II

A R -l

T C -2

A b o u t 5 to 10 profession al a cco unta nts, w ith at least one o r tw o m a tc h in g the
acco unta nt IV jo b d e fin itio n .

A R -2

TC-1

A b o u t 5 to 10 profession al accountants. M o st o f these m atch the acco unta nt
I I I jo b d e fin itio n , bu t one o r tw o m ay m atch the acco u n ta n t IV jo b d e fin itio n .

A R -3

TC-1

O n ly one o r tw o professional accountants w ho do n o t exceed the acco unta nt
IV jo b d e fin itio n .

A R -l

T C -3

A b o u t 15 to 20 profession al accountants. A t least one o r tw o m atch the
acco unta nt V jo b d e fin itio n .

A R -2

T C -2

A b o u t 15 to 20 profession al acco unta nts. M a n y o f these m atch the acco unta nt
IV jo b d e fin itio n , but some m ay m atch the acco unta nt V jo b d e fin itio n .

A R -3

TC-1

A b o u t 5 to 10 profession al acco unta nts. M o st o f these m atch the acco unta nt
( I I jo b d e fin itio n , but one or tw o m ay m atch as high as acco unta nt V.

A R -2

T C -3

A b o u t 25 to 40 profession al acco unta nts. M a n y o f these m atch the acco unta nt
V jo b d e fin itio n , but several m ay exceed that level.

A R -3

T C -2

A b o u t 15 to 20 profession al accountants. M o st o f these m atch the a cco unta nt
IV jo b d e fin itio n , bu t several m ay m atch the acco unta nt V and one o r tw o m ay
exceed that level.

A R -3

TC -3

A b o u t 25 to 40 profession al acco unta nts. M a n y o f these m atch the acco u n ta n t
V jo b d e fin itio n , bu t several m ay exceed tha t level.

or

or

111

or

or

IV

or

V

A R - l, -2, -3, and T C -1 , -2, and -3 are explained in the text.

49

offices which do not have complete accounting
systems. This does not preclude positions responsible
for performing a segment of an audit (i.e., examining
individual items on a balance sheet, rather than the
entire balance sheet), as long as the work directly

considerable degree, is developed well beyond establish­
ed principles and accounting practices in order to:
Provide for the solution of problems for which no clear
precedents exist; or
Provide for the development or extension of accounting
theories and practices to deal with problems to which these
theories and practices have not previously been applied.

relates to the financial audit program; and
c. EDP auditors. These positions require an extensive
knowledge of computer systems, programming, etc.

Auditor I
Subordinate Staff

In table C-l, the number of professional accountants
supervised is recognized to be a relatively crude criterion
for distinguishing between various levels. It is to be
considered less important in the matching process than
the other criteria. In addition to the staff of professional
accountants in the system for which the chief account­
ant is responsible, there are clerical, machine operation,
bookkeeping, and related personnel.

General characteristics. As a trainee auditor at the
entering professional level, performs a variety of
routine assignments. Typically, the trainee is rotated
through a variety of tasks under a planned training pro­
gram designed to provide practical experience in apply­
ing the principles, theories, and concepts of accounting
and auditing to specific situations. (Terminal positions
are excluded.)
Direction received. Works under close supervision of an
experienced auditor whose guidance is directed primari­
ly to the development of the trainee’s professional abili­
ty and to the evaluation of advancement potential.
Limits of assignments are clearly defined, methods of
procedure are specified, and kinds of items to be noted
and referred to supervisor are identified.

AUDITOR

Performs professional auditing work requiring a
bachelor’s degree in accounting or, in rare instances,
equivalent experience and education combined. Audits
the financial records and practices of a company, or of
divisions or components of the company, to appraise
systematically and verify the accounting accuracy of
records and reports and to assure the consistent applica­
tion of accepted accounting principles. Evaluates the
adequacy of the accounting system and internal finan­
cial controls. Makes appropriate recommendations for
improvement as necessary. To the extent determined
necessary, examines the transactions entering into the
balance sheet, and the transactions entering into in­
come, expense, and cost accounts. Determines:
1. The existence of recorded assets (including the obser­
vation of the taking of physical inventories) and the
all-inclusiveness of recorded liabilities.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Assists in making
audits by performing such tasks as: Verifying the ac­
curacy of the balances in various records; examining a
variety of types of documents and vouchers for ac­
curacy of computations; checking transactions to assure
they are properly documented and have been recorded
in accordance with correct accounting classifications;
verifying the count of inventories; preparing detailed
statements, schedules, and standard audit working
papers; counting cash and other assets; and preparing
simple reconciliations and similar functions.

2. The accuracy of financial statements or reports and
the fairness of presentation of facts therein.

Auditor II

3. The propriety or legality of transactions.

General characteristics. At this level, the professional
auditor serves as a junior member of an audit team, in­
dependently performing selected portions of the audit
which are limited in scope and complexity, as a phase in
developing greater professional competence. Auditors
at this level typically have acquired knowledge of com­
pany operations, policies, and procedures. (Terminal
positions are excluded.)

4. The degree of compliance with established policies
and procedures concerning financial transactions.
Excluded from this definition are:
a. Auditors primarily examining or reporting on the
financial management of company operations. These
auditors evaluate such matters as: (1) The operation’s
degree of compliance with the principles of sound
financial management; and (2) the effectiveness of
management and operating controls.

Direction received. Detailed instructions are furnished
and the work is reviewed to the extent necessary to
verify its general accuracy and coverage of unusual
problems, to insure conformance with required pro­
cedures and special instructions, and to assure the
auditor’s professional growth. Any technical problems

b. Auditors assigned to audit programs which are con­
fined on a relatively permanent basis to repetitive ex­
amination of a limited area of company operations
and accounting processes, e.g., accounts payable and
receivable; payroll; physical inventory; and branch
50

vestigated, and deciding the depth of the analyses re­
quired to support reported findings and conclusions.
Examples of assignments involving work at this level:
1. As a team leader or working alone, independently
conducts audits of the complete accounts and related
operations of smaller or less complex companies
(e.g., involving a centralized accounting system with
few or no subordinate, subsidiary, or branch
accounting records) or of comparable segments of
larger companies.

not covered by instructions are brought to the attention
of a superior. Progress is evaluated in terms of ability to
apply professional knowledge to basic auditing situa­
tions.
Typical duties and responsibilities. Applies knowledge
of accounting theory and audit practices to a variety of
relatively simple professional problems in audit
assignments, including such tasks as: The verification of
reports against source accounts and records to deter­
mine their reliability; reconciliation of bank and other
accounts and verifying the detail of recorded transac­
tions; detailed examinations of cash receipts and
disbursement vouchers, payroll records, requisitions,
work orders, receiving reports, and other accounting
documents to ascertain that transactions are properly
supported and are recorded correctly from an account­

2. As a member of an audit team, independently ac­
complishes varied audit assignments of the above
described characteristics, typically major segments of
complete audits, or assignments otherwise limited in
scope, of larger and more complex companies (e.g.,
complex in that the accounting system entails cost,
inventory, and comparable specialized system s in­
tegrated with the general accounting system).
Illustrative of such assignments are the audit and initial
review of the accounting treatment and validity of
reporting of overhead expenses in a large manufacturing
or maintenance organization (e.g., major repair yard of
a railroad); or the checking, verification, and balancing
of all accounts receivable and accounts payable; or the
analysis and verification of assets and reserves; or the
inspection and evaluation of account controls and pro­
cedures.

ing or regulatory standpoint; or preparation of working
papers, schedules, and summaries.

Auditor III

General characteristics. Work at this level consists of
the audit of operations and accounting processes that
are relatively stable, well established, and typical of the
industry. The audits primarily involve the collection and
analysis of readily available findings; there is previous
audit experience that is directly applicable; the audit
reports are normally prepared in a prescribed format us­
ing a standard method of presentation; and few, if any,
major problems are anticipated. The work performed
requires the application of substantial knowledge of ac­
counting principles and practices, e.g., bases for
distinguishing among capital maintenance and
operating expenses; accruing reserves for taxes; and
other accounting considerations of an equivalent
nature.

Auditor IV

General characteristics. Auditors at this level are ex­
perienced professionals who apply thorough knowledge
of accounting principles and theory in connection with a
variety of audits. Work at this level is characterized by
the audit of organizations and accounting processes
which are complex and difficult because of such factors
as: Presence of new or changed programs and account­
ing systems; existence of major specialized accounting
functions (e.g., cost accounting, inventory accounting,
sales accounting), in addition to general accounting;
need to consider extensive and complicated regulatory
requirements; lack of or difficulty in obtaining informa­
tion; and other similar factors. Typically, a variety of
different assignments are encountered over a period of

Direction received. Work is normally within an
established audit program and supervision is provided
by a higher level auditor who outlines and discusses
assignments. Work is spot checked in progress. Com­

pleted assignments are reviewed for adequacy of
coverage, soundness of judgment, compliance with pro­
fessional standards, and adherence to policies.

time, e.g., 1 year. The audit reports prepared are com­
prehensive, explain irregularities, cite rules and regula­
tions violated, recommend remedial actions, and con­
tain analyses of items of special importance or interest
to company management.

Typical duties and responsibilities. The auditor ex­
amines transactions and verifies accounts; observes and
evaluates accounting procedures and internal controls;
and prepares audit working papers and submits an audit
report in the required pattern containing recommenda­

Direction received. Within an established audit pro­
gram, has responsibility for independently planning and
executing audits. Unusually difficult problems are
discussed with the supervisor who also reviews com­
pleted assignments for adherence to principles and
standards and the soundness of conclusions.

tions for needed changes or improvements. Usually is
responsible for selecting the detailed audit methods to
follow, choosing the audit sample and its size, determin­
ing the extent to which discrepancies need to be in­
51

Typical duties and responsibilities. Auditors at this level
have full responsibility for planning the audit, including
determination of the aspects to emphasize, methods to
be used, development of nonstandard or specialized
audit aids, such as questionnaires, etc., where previous
audit experience and plans are o f limited applicability.
Included in the scope of work that characterizes this
level are such functions as: Evaluation of methods used
for determining depreciation rates of equipment;
evaluation of assets where original costs are unknown;
evaluation of the reliability of accounting and reporting
systems; analysis of cost accounting systems and cost
reports to evaluate the basis for cost and price setting;
evaluation of accounting procurement and supply
management records, controls, and procedures; and
many others.
Examples of assignments involving work at this level:

system(s) as needed to render the accounting firm’s final
written opinion.
Excluded are positions which do not require full pro­
fessional accounting training. Also excluded are
specialist positions in tax or management advisory
services.
Public Accountant I

General characteristics. As an entry level public
accountant, serves as a junior member of an audit team.
Receives classroom and on-the-job training to provide
practical experience in applying the principles, theories,
and concepts of accounting and auditing to specific
situations. (Positions held by trainee public accountants
with advanced degrees, such as MBA’s, are excluded at
this level.)

1. As a team leader or working alone, independently
plans and conducts audits of the complete accounts
and related operations of relatively large complex
companies (e.g., complex in that the accounting
system entails cost, inventory, and comparable
specialized accounting system s integrated with the
general accounting system) or of company branch,
subsidiary, or affiliated organizations which are in­
dividually of comparable size and complexity.

Direction received. Complete instructions are furnished
and work is reviewed to verify its accuracy, conform­
ance with required procedures and instructions, and
usefulness in facilitating the accountant’s professional
growth. Any technical problems not covered by instruc­
tions are brought to the attention of a superior.
Typical duties and responsibilities. Carries out basic
audit tests and procedures, such as: Verifying reports
against source accounts and records; reconciling bank
and other accounts; and examining cash receipts and
disbursements, payroll records, requisitions, receiving
reports, and other accounting documents in detail to
ascertain that transactions are properly supported and
recorded. Prepares selected portions of audit working
papers.

2. As a member of an audit team, independently plans
and accomplishes audit assignments that constitute
major segments of audits of very large and complex
organizations, for example, those with financial
responsibilities so great as to involve specialized
subordinate, subsidiary, or affiliate accounting
systems that are complete in themselves.
NOTE: Excluded from level IV are auditors who, as
team leaders or working alone, conduct complete audits
of very large and complex organizations, for example,
those with financial responsibilities so great as to in­
volve specialized subordinate, subsidiary, or affiliate ac­
counting systems that are complete in themselves; or are
team members assigned to major segments of audits of
even larger or more complex organizations. Also ex­
cluded are positions primarily responsible for oversee­
ing multiple concurrent audits.

Public Accountant II

General characteristics. At this level, the public ac­
countant carries out routine audit functions and detail
work with relative independence. Serves as a member of
an audit team on assignments planned to provide ex­
posure to a variety of client organizations and audit
situations. Specific assignments depend upon the dif­
ficulty and complexity of the audit and whether the
client has been previously audited by the firm. On
moderately complex audits where there is previous audit
experience by the firm, accomplishes complete segments
of the audit (i.e., functional work areas such as cash,
receivables, etc.). When assigned to more complicated
audits, carries out activities similar to public accountant

PUBLIC ACCOUNTANT

Performs professional auditing work in a public ac­
counting firm. Work requires at least a bachelor’s
degree in accounting. Participates in or conducts audits
to ascertain the fairness of financial representations
made by client companies. May also assist the client in
improving accounting procedures and operations.
Examines financial reports, accounting records, and
related documents and practices of clients. Determines
whether all important matters have been disclosed and
whether procedures are consistent and conform to ac­
ceptable practices. Samples and tests transactions, inter­
nal controls, and other elements of the accounting

I.

Direction received. Works under the supervision of a
higher level public accountant who provides instructions
and continuing direction as necessary. Work is spot
checked in progress and reviewed upon completion to
52

determine the adequacy of procedures, soundness of
judgment, compliance with professional standards, and
adherence to clearly established methods and techni­
ques. All interpretations are subject to close profes­
sional review.

team members, and personally performing the most dif­
ficult work. Carries out field work in accordance with
the general format prescribed in the audit program, but
selects specific methods and types and sizes of samples
and tests. Assigns work to team members, furnishes
guidance, and adjusts workloads to accommodate daily
priorities. Thoroughly reviews work performed for
technical accuracy and adequacy. Resolves anticipated
problems within established guidelines and priorities but
refers problems of unusual difficulty to superiors for
discussion and advice. Drafts financial statements, final
reports, management letters, and other closing
memoranda. Discusses significant recommendations
with superiors and may serve as technical resource at
“ closing” meetings with clients. Personal contacts are
usually with chief accountants and assistant controllers
of medium-size companies and divisions of large cor­
porations to explain and interpret policies and pro­
cedures governing the audit process.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Carries out a variety
of sampling and testing procedures in accordance with
the prescribed audit program, including the examina­
tion of transactions and verification of accounts, the
analysis and evaluation of accounting practices and in­
ternal controls, and other detail work. Prepares a share
of the audit working papers and participates in drafting
reports. In moderately complex audits, may assist in
selecting appropriate tests, samples, and methods com­
monly applied by the firm and may serve as primary
assistant to the accountant in charge. In more com­
plicated audits, concentrates on detail work. Occa­
sionally, may be in charge of small, uncomplicated
audits which require only one or two other subordinate
accountants. Personal contacts usually involve only the
exchange of factual technical information and are
usually limited to the client’s operating accounting staff
and department heads.

Public Accountant IV

General characteristics. At this level, the public ac­
countant directs field work including difficult
audits—e.g., those involving initial audits of new
clients, acquisitions, or stock registrations—and may
oversee a large audit team split between several loca­
tions. The audit team usually includes one or more level
III public accountants who handle major components
of the audit. The audits are complex and clients typical­
ly include those engaged in projects which span account­
ing periods; highly regulated industries which have
various external reporting requirements; publicly held
corporations; or businesses with very high dollar or
transaction volume. Clients are frequently large with a
variety of operations which may have different account­
ing systems. Guidelines may be general or lacking and
audit programs are intricate, often requiring extensive
tailoring to meet atypical or novel situations.

Public Accountant III

General characteristics. At this level, the public ac­
countant is in charge of a complete audit and may lead a
team of several subordinates. Audits are usually ac­
complished one at a time and are typically carried out at
a single location. The firms audited are typically
moderately complex, and there is usually previous audit
experience by the firm. The audit conforms to standard
procedural guidelines, but is often tailored to fit the
client’s business activities. Routine procedures and
techniques are sometimes inadequate and require adap­
tation. Necessary data are not always readily available.
When assigned to more difficult and complex audits (see
level IV), the accountant may run the audit of a major
component or serve as the primary assistant to the ac­
countant in charge.

Direction received. Works under general supervision.
The supervisor sets0jpverall objectives and resource
limits but relies on the accountant to fully plan and
direct all technical phases of the audit. Issues not
covered by guidelines or known precedents are discussed
with the supervisor, but the accountant’s recommended
approaches and courses of action are normally approv­
ed. Work is reviewed for soundness of approach, com­
pleteness, and conformance with established policies of
the firm.

Direction received. Works under the general supervision
of a higher level public accountant who oversees the
operation of the audit. Work is performed independent­
ly, applying generally accepted accounting principles
and auditing standards, but assistance on difficult
technical matters is available. Work may be checked oc­
casionally during progress for appropriateness and
adherence to time requirements, but routine analyses,
methods, techniques, and procedures applied at the
worksite are expected to be correct.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Is responsible for
carrying out the operational and technical features of
the audit, directing the work of team members, and per­
sonally performing the most difficult work. Often par­
ticipates in the development of the audit scope, and

Typical duties and responsibilities. Is responsible for
carrying out the technical features of the audit, leading
53

coordinating and advising on work efforts and resolving
operating problems.
n o t e : Excluded from this level are public account­
ants who direct field work associated with the complete
range of audits undertaken by the firm, lead the largest
and most difficult audits, and who frequently oversee
teams performing concurrent audits. This type of work
requires extensive knowledge of one or more industries
to make subjective determinations on questions of tax,
law, accounting, and business practices. Audits may be
complicated by such factors as: The size and diversity of
the client organizations (e.g., multinational corpora­
tions and conglomerates with a large number of
separate and distinct subsidiaries); accounting issues
where precedents are lacking or in conflict; and, in some
cases, clients who are encountering substantial financial
difficulties. They perform most work without technical
supervision, and completed audits are reviewed mainly
for propriety of recommendations and conformance
with general policies of the firm. Also excluded are
public accountants whose principal function is to
manage, rather than perform accounting work, and the
equity owners of the firm who have final approval
authority.

drafts complicated audit programs with a large number
of concurrently executed phases. Independently
develops audit steps and detailed procedures, deviating
from traditional methods to the extent required. Makes
program adjustments as necessary once an audit has
begun; and selects specific methods, types, and sizes of
samples, the extent to which discrepancies need to be in­
vestigated, and the depth of required analyses. Resolves
most operational difficulties and unanticipated prob­
lems.
Assigns work to team members; reviews work for ap­
propriateness, conformance to time requirements, and
adherence to generally accepted accounting principles
and auditing standards. Consolidates working papers,
draft reports, and findings; and prepares financial
statements, management letters, and other closing
memoranda for management approval. Participates in
“ closing” meetings as a technical resource and may be
called upon to sell or defend controversial and critical
observations and recommendations. Personal contacts
are extensive and typically include top executives of
smaller clients and mid- to upper-level financial and
management officers of large corporations, e.g., assis­
tant controllers or controllers. Such contacts involve

Personnel
JOB ANALYST

Job Analyst I

Performs work involved in collecting, analyzing, and
developing occupational data relative to jobs, job
qualifications, and worker characteristics as a basis for
compensating employees in a fair, equitable, and
uniform manner. Performs such duties as studying and
analyzing jobs and preparing descriptions of duties and
responsibilities and of the physical and mental re­
quirements needed by workers; evaluating jobs and
determining appropriate wage or salary levels in accord­
ance with their difficulty and responsibility; in­
dependently conducting or participating with represent­
atives of other companies in conducting compensation
surveys within a locality or labor market area; assisting
in administering merit rating programs; reviewing
changes in wages and salaries indicated by surveys and
recommending changes in pay scales; and auditing in­
dividual jobs to check the propriety of evaluations and
to apply current job classifications.
Excluded are:
a.
Positions also responsible for supplying management
with a high technical level of advice regarding solu­
tion of broad personnel management problems;
b.
Positions not requiring: (1) Three years of ad­
ministrative, technical, or substantive clerical ex­
perience; (2) a bachelor’s degree in any field; or (3)
any equivalent combination of experience and educa­
tion yielding basic skills in problem analysis and com­
munication.

As a trainee, performs work in designated areas and
of limited occupational scope. Receives immediate
supervision in assignments designed to provide training
in the application of established methods and techni­
ques of job analysis. Studies the least difficult jobs and
prepares reports for review by a job analyst of higher
level.

54

Job Analyst II

Studies, describes, and evaluates jobs in accordance
with established procedures. Is usually assigned to the
simpler kinds of both wage and salaried jobs in the
establishm ent. Works independently on such
assignments but is limited by defined areas of assign­
ment and instructions of superior.
Job Analyst III

Analyzes and evaluates a variety of wage and salaried
jobs in accordance with established evaluation systems
and procedures. May conduct wage surveys within the
locality or participate in conducting surveys of broad
compensation areas. May assist in developing survey
methods and plans. Receives general supervision but
responsibility for final action is limited.
Job Analyst IV

Analyzes and evaluates a variety of jobs in accord­

necessarily cover all jobs in the organization, but
does cover a substantial portion of the organization.

ance with established evaluation systems and pro­
cedures, and is given assignments which regularly in­
clude responsibility for the more difficult kinds of jobs.

2.

E m p lo y m e n t a n d p la c em en t fu n c tio n : i.e., recruiting
actively for at least some kinds of workers through a
variety of sources (e.g., schools or colleges, employ­
ment agencies, professional societies, etc.);
evaluating applicants against demands of particular
jobs by use of such techniques as job analysis to
determine requirements, interviews, written tests of
aptitude, knowledge, or skill, reference checks, ex­
perience evaluations, etc.; recommending selections
and job placements to management, etc.

3.

E m p lo yee relations a n d services fu n c tio n : i.e., func­
tions designed to maintain employees’ morale and
productivity at a high level (e.g., administering a

(“ More difficult” means jobs which consist ol hard to
understand work processes; e.g., professional, scien­

tific, administrative, or technical; o r jobs in new or
emerging occupational fields: o r jobs which are being
established as part of the creation of new organizations;
o r where other special considerations of these types ap ­

ply.) Receives general supervision, but responsibility for

final action is limited. Mav participate in the develop­
ment and installation of evaluation or compensation
systems, which may include those for merit rating pro­
grams. May plan survey methods and conduct or direct
wage surveys within a broad compensation area.

formal or informal grievance procedure; identifying

and recommending solutions for personnel problems
such as absenteeism, high turnover, low productivity,
etc.; administration of beneficial suggestions system,
retirement, pension, or insurance plans, merit rating
system, etc.; overseeing cafeteria operations, recrea­
tional programs, industrial health and safety pro­
grams, etc.).

DIRECTOR OF PERSONNEL

Directs a personnel management program for a com­
pany or a segment of a company. Serves top manage­
ment officials of the organization as the source of ad­
vice and assistance on personnel management matters
and problems generally; is typically consulted on the
personnel implications of planned changes in manage­
ment policy or program, the effects on the organization
of economic or market trends, product or production
method changes, etc.; and represents management in
contacts with other companies, trade associations,
government agencies, etc., dealing primarily with per­
sonnel management matters.
Typically, the director of personnel for a company
reports to a company officer in charge of industrial rela­
tions and personnel management activities or an officer
of similar level. Below the company level, the director
of personnel typically reports to a company officer or a
high management offical who has responsibility for the
operation of a plant, establishment, or other segment of
the company.
For a job to be covered by this definition, the person­
nel management program m u s t in c lu d e responsibility
for a ll th r e e of the following functions:1
1
.

In addition, positions covered by this definition may,
but do not necessarily, include responsibilities in the
following areas;
a.
b.

L a b o r relations activities which are confined
mainly to the administration, interpretation,
and application of those aspects of labor union
contracts that are essentially of the type
described under (3) above. May also par­
ticipate in bargaining of a subordinate nature,
e.g., to negotiate detailed settlement of such
matters as specific rates, job classifications,
work rules, hiring or layoff procedures, etc.,
within the broad terms of a general agreement
reached at higher levels, or to supply advice
and information on technical points to the
company’s principal representative;

c.

E q u a l E m p lo y m e n t O p p o rtu n ity (EEO );

d.

a j o b evaluation system : i.e., a
system in which there are established procedures by
which jobs are analyzed and evaluated on the basis of
their duties, responsibilities, and qualification re­
quirements in order to provide a foundation for
equitable compensation. Typically, such a system in­
cludes the use of one or more sets of job evaluation
factors and the preparation of formal job descrip­
tions. It m a y also include such related functions as
wage and salary surveys or merit rating system ad­
ministration. The job evaluation system(s) does not

E m p lo ye e training a n d d evelo p m en t;

R ep o rtin g under the
H ealth A c t ( O S H A )

O ccupational

S a fe ty

and

A d m in isterin g

E x c lu d e d are positions in which responsibility for ac­
tual contract negotiation with labor unions as the prin­
cipal company representative is a significant aspect of
the job, i.e., a responsibility which serves as a primary
basis for qualification requirements and compensation.
Director of personnel jobs which meet the above
definition are classified by level of work in accordance
with the criteria shown in table C-2.

Attorneys
ATTORNEY

privileges, and obligations of the company. The work
performed requires completion of law school with an
11 B degree (or the equivalent) and admission to the
.

Performs consultation and advisory work and carries
out the legal processes necessary to effect the rights,
55

Table C-2. Criteria for matching directors of personnel by level
"Development level"
personnel program2

' Operations level"
personnel program’
Number of employees m
work force serviced

250-750
1,000-5,000
6,000-12,000
15.000-25.000

_____

,Tvoe A
c-qai-'Z.V'O'-'
'p -.c -'-d ’

i'
!!
iv

il
III
IV
V

J

" Type B"
organization
serviced4
1
1
|
1

’ " Operations level" personnel program---quecicv of personnel servicing
an organizational segment (e g . 2 plant) o' a company where the basic per­
sonnel program policies, plans objectives etc am established at company
headquarters or at some other higher ievei between the piant and the com ­
pany headquarters level The personnel director's responsibility is to put
these into operation at the loca ievei. in such a ">anner as to most effectively
serve the local management needs
7"Development level" personnel proq'am - - e.mei
(a) Director of personnel servicing an entire company 'with or without
subordinate establishments) where the personnel director plays an im­
portant role in establishment of basic personnel policies plans, objectives,
etc., for the company subject to policy direction and control from cgmpanv officers or (b) director of personnel servicing an intermediate
organization below the company leve . e g a division or a subsidiary to
which a relatively complete delegation of personnel program planning
and development responsibility is made In this situation, only basic policy
direction is given by the parent company ana iocai officers The director of
personnel has essentially the same degree of latitude and responsibility
for basic personnel polices pans ob'em ves efc as described above in
(a)
5 '.‘Type A " organization serviced most ;obs serviced do not present par­
ticularly difficult or unusual recruitment job evaluation, or training problems

250-750
1,000-5,000
6.000-12.000
15,000-25,000

_________

“ Type A"
orgamzatipn
serviced3

"Type B"
prgamzation
serviced4

II
III
IV
V

III
IV
V

because the jobs consist of relatively easy-to-understand work processes,
and an adequate labor supply is available These conditions are most likely to
be found in organizations in which the work force and organizational struc­
ture are relatively stable
4 "Type B" organization serviced— a substantial proportion of the jobs pre­
sent difficult recruitment, job evaluation, or training problems because the
jobs Consist ot hard-to-understand work processes (e g . professional, scien­
tific, administrative, or technical); have hard-to-match skill requirements, are
in new or emerging occupations, or are extremely hard to fill These condi­
tions are most likely to be found in organizations in which the work force,
organizational structure, work processes or functions, etc , are com plicated
or unstable
Note There are gaps between different degrees of all three elements
used to determine job level matches. These gaps have been provided pur­
posely to allow room for judgment in getting the best overall job level match
for each job Thus, a job which services a work force of 850 employees
should be matched with level II if it is a personnel program operations level
job where the nature of the organization serviced seems to fall slightly below
the definition for type B However, the same job should be matched with level
I if the nature of the organization serviced clearly fa lls well w ith in the
d e fin itio n for type A

ulation of policy for the company in addition to directing
its legal work. (The duties and responsibilities of such
positions exceed level VI as described below.)

bar. Responsibilities or functions include one or more
o f the following or comparable duties:
Preparing and reviewing various legal instruments and
documents, such as contracts, leases, licenses, purchases,
sales, real estate, etc.;

Attorney j o b s which meet the above definition are to
be classified in accordance with table C-3 and the defini­
tions which follow.

Acting as agent of the company in its transactions;
Examining material (e.g., advertisements, publications,
etc.) for legal implications; advising officials of proposed
legislation which might affect the company;

Difficulty
D - l . Legal questions are characterized by: Facts that
are well established; clearly applicable legal precedent;
a n d matters not of substantial importance to the
organization. (Usually relatively limited sums of money,
e.g., a few thousand dollars, are involved.)

Applying for patents, copyrights, or registration of
company’s products, processes, devices, and trade­
marks;
Advising whether to initiate or defend lawsuits;
Conducting pretrial preparations; defending the comp­
any in lawsuits; and

E xa m p les o f D -l W ork:

Legal investigation, negotiation, and research pre­
paratory to defending the organization in potential or actual
lawsuits involving alleged negligence where the facts can be
firmly established and there are precedent cases directly
applicable to the situation.

Advising officials on tax matters, government regula­
tions, and/or corporate rights.
E x c lu d e d

Number of employees in
work force serviced

from this definition are:

Patent work which requires professional training in ad­
dition to legal training (typically a degree in engineering or
in a science);

Searching case reports, legal documents, periodicals, text­
books, and other legal references, and preparing draft
opinions on employee compensation or benefit questions
when there is a substantial amount of clearly applicable
statutory, regulatory, and case material.

Claims examining, claims investigating, or similar w ork
f o r which p ro fe ssio n a l legal training a n d bar m em bership
is n o t essential;

Drawing up contracts and other legal documents in con­
nection with real property transactions requiring the
development of detailed information but n o t involving
serious questions regarding titles to property or other ma­
jor factual or legal issues.

Attorneys, frequently titled “general counsel’’ (and
their immediate full associates or deputies), who serve as
company officers or the equivalent and are responsible
for participating in the overall management and form­
56

Table C-3. Criteria for matching attorneys by level
Difficulty
o f legal work1

Level
I

Responsibility
of job1

This is the entry level. The duties and re­
sponsibilities after initial orientation and
training are those described in D -l and R -l.
D-l

R-2

D-2

R-2

D-3
D-2

R-3

D-3

Sufficient professional experience (at least 1
level to assure competence as an attorney.

D-l

R-l

R-2

or

III

Completion o f law school with an LL.B. or J.D. degree plus admission to the
bar.

R-l

D-2

II

Experience required

A t least

1 year,

year,

usu ally

m ore)

at

th e

u s u a l l y m o r e , o f p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e a t t h e D - 2 le ve l.

or
IV

E x t e n s i v e p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e a t t h e D - 2 o r h i g h e r l e v e l.

or
V
VI

D-3

R-3

E x t e n s i v e p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e a t t h e D - 3 le v e l.

D-3

R-4

E x t e n s i v e p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e a t t h e D - 3 a n d R - 3 le v e ls .

1 D -l, -2, -3, and R -l, -2, -3, and -4 are explained in the text.

area; and the legal matter is of critical importance to the
organization and is being vigorously pressed or con­
tested (e.g., sums such as $1 million or more are general­
ly directly or indirectly involved).

D-2. Legal work is regularly difficult by reason of one
or more of the following: The absence of clear and
directly applicable legal precedents; the different possi­
ble interpretations that can be placed on the facts, the
laws, or the precedents involved; the substantial impor­
tance of the legal matters to the organization (e.g., sums
as large as $100,000 are generally directly or indirectly
involved); and the matter is being strongly pressed or
contested in formal proceedings or in negotiations by
the individuals, corporations, or government agencies
involved.

Examples of D-3 work:
Advising on the legal aspects and implications of Federal
antitrust laws to projected greatly expanded marketing
operations involving joint ventures with several other
organizations.
Planning legal strategy and representing a utility company
in rate or government franchise cases involving a geographic
area including parts or all of several States.

Examples of D-2 work:
Advising on the legal implications of advertising re­
presentations when the facts supporting the representa­
tions and the applicable precedent cases are subject to dif­
ferent interpretations.

Preparing and presenting a case before an appellate court
where the case is highly important to the future operation of
the organization and is vigorously contested by very
distinguished (e.g., having a broad regional or national
reputation) legal talent.

Reviewing and advising on the implications of new or
revised laws affecting the organization.

Serving as the principal counsel to the officers and staff of
an insurance company on the legal problems in the sale,
underwriting, and administration of group contracts in­
volving nationwide or multistate coverages and laws.

Presenting the organization’s defense in court in a
negligence lawsuit which is strongly pressed by counsel for
an organized group.

Performing the principal legal work in a nonroutine,

Providing legal counsel on tax questions complicated by
the absence of precedent decisions that are directly ap­
plicable to the organization’s situation.

major revision of the company’s charter or in effectuating
new major financing steps.

D-3. Legal work is typically complex and difficult
because of one or more of the following: The questions
are unique and require a high order of original and
creative legal endeavor for their solution; the questions
require extensive research and analysis and the obtain­
ing and evaluation of expert testimony regarding con­
troversial issues in a scientific, financial, corporate
organization, engineering, or other highly technical

Responsibility

R-1. Responsibility for final action is usually limited to
matters covered by legal precedents and in which little
deviation from standard practice is involved. Any deci­
sions or actions having a significant bearing on the
organization’s business are reviewed. Is given guidance
57

in the initial stages of assignment, e.g., in planning and
organizing legal research and studies. Assignments are
then carried out with moderate independence although

minimum o f technical legal supervision. May assign and
review work o f a few attorneys, but this is not a primary
responsibility.

guidance is generally available and is sought from time
to time on problem points.

R-4. Carries out assignments which entail independently
planning investigations and negotiations on legal prob­
lems o f the highest importance to the organization and
developing completed briefs, opinions, contracts, or
other legal products. To carry out assignments,
represents the organization at conferences, hearings, or
trials and personally confers and negotiates with top at­
torneys and top-ranking officials in private companies
or in government agencies. On various aspects o f assign­

R-2. Usually works independently in investigating the
facts, searching legal precedents, defining the legal and
factual issues, drafting the necessary legal documents,
and developing conclusions and recommendations.
Decisions having an important bearing on the organiza­

tions’s business are reviewed. Receives information
from supervisor regarding unusual circumstances or im­
portant policy considerations pertaining to a legal prob­
lem. If trials are involved, may receive guidance from a
supervisor regarding presentation, line of approach,
possible line of opposition to be encountered, etc. In
the case of nonroutine written presentations, the final
product is reviewed carefully, but primarily for overall
soundness of legal reasoning and consistency with
organization policy. Some, but not all, attorneys make
assignments to one or more lower level attorneys, aides,
or clerks.

ed work, may give advice directly and personally to cor­
poration officers and top-level managers, or may work
through the general counsel of the company in advising
officers. Generally receives no preliminary instruction
on legal problems. On matters requiring the concen­
trated efforts of several attorneys or other specialists, is
responsible for directing, coordinating, and reviewing
the work of the attorneys involved.
OR

R-3. Carries out assignments independently and makes
final legal determinations in matters of substantial im­

As a primary responsibility, directs the work o f a
staff of attorneys, one, but usually more, o f whom
regularly performs D-3 legal work. With respect to the
work directed, gives advice directly to corporation o f­

portance to the organization. Such determinations are
subject to review only for consistency with company
policy, possible precedent effect, and overall effec­
tiveness. To carry out assignments, deals regularly with

ficers and top managerial officers, or may give such ad­
vice through the general counsel. Receives guidance as

company officers and top-level management officials

to organization policy but no technical supervision or
assistance except when requesting advice from, or brief­
ing by, the general counsel on the overall approach to
the most difficult, novel, or important legal questions.
Usually reports to the general counsel or deputy.

and confers or negotiates regularly with senior attorneys
and officials in other companies or in government agen­

cies on various aspects of assigned work. Receives little
or no preliminary instruction on legal problems and a

Computer Programmers/Programmer Analysts
grams to increase operating efficiency or to respond to
changes in work processes; maintains records to docu­
ment program development and revisions.
At levels I, II, and III, some computer programm­
ers (typically called computer programmer analysts)
may also perform some analysis such as: Gathering
facts from users to define their business or scientific
problems and to investigate the feasibility of solving
problems through new or modified computer pro­
grams; developing specifications for data inputs,
flow, actions, decisions, and outputs; and participating
on a continuing basis in the overall program planning
along with other EDP personnel and users.
In contrast, at levels IV and V, some analysis must be
performed as part of the programming assignment. The
analysis duties are identified in a separate paragraph

This definition includes both programmers and pro­
grammer analysts.
Performs programming services for establishments or
for outside organizations who may contract for services.
Converts specifications (precise descriptions) about
business or scientific problems into a sequence of detail­
ed instructions to solve problems by electronic data
processing ( e d p ) equipment, i.e., digital computers.
Draws program flow charts to describe the processing of
data and develops the precise steps and processing logic
which, when entered into the computer in coded
language ( c o b o l , f o r t r a n , or other programming
language), cause the manipulation of data to achieve
desired results. Tests and corrects programs and
prepares instructions for operators who control the
computer during production runs. Modifies pro­
58

programming assignments (as described in level II)
under close supervision.
In addition, as training and to assist a higher level
analyst, computer programmer analysts m a y p e r fo r m
elementary factfinding concerning a specified work
process, e.g., a file of clerical records which is treated as
a unit (invoices, requisitions, or purchase orders, etc.);
reports findings to higher level analyst.
Receives classroom and/or on-the-job training in
computer programming concepts, methods, and tech­
niques and in the basic requirements of the subjectmatter area. May receive training in elementary fact­
finding. Detailed, step-by-step instructions are given for
each task and any deviation must be authorized by a
supervisor. Work is closely monitored in progress and
reviewed in detail upon completion.

at levels I, II, III, and IV and are part of each alter­
native described at level V. However, the overall
systems requirements are defined by systems analysts or
scientists.
E x c lu d e d are:
a.

Positions which require a bachelor’s degree in a
specific scientific field (other than computer science),
such as an engineering, mathematics, physics, or
chemistry degree; however, positions are potential
matches where the required degree may be from any
of several possible scientific fields;

b.

Computer systems analysts responsible for develop­
ing and modifying computer systems;

c.

Computer programmers who perform level IV or V
programming duties but who perform no analysis',

d.

Workers who primarily analyze and evaluate prob­
lems concerning computer equipment or its selection
or utilization;

e.

Computer Programmer/Programmer Analyst II

At this level, initial assignments are designed to
develop competence in applying established programm­
ing procedures to routine problems. Performs routine
programming assignments that do not require skilled
background experience but do require knowledge of
established programming procedures and data process­
ing requirements. Works according to clear-cut and
complete specifications. The data are refined and the
format of the final products is very similar to that of the
input or is well-defined when significantly different,
i.e., there are few, if any, problems with interrelating
varied records and outputs.
Maintains and modifies routine programs. Makes ap­
proved changes by amending program flow charts,
developing detailed processing logic, and coding
changes. Tests and documents modifications and writes
operator instructions. May write routine new programs
using prescribed specifications; may confer with e d p
personnel to clarify procedures, processing logic, etc.
In addition and as continued training, computer pro­
grammer analysts may evaluate simple interrelation­
ships in the immediate programming area, e.g., whether
a contemplated change in one part of a simple program
would cause unwanted results in a related part; confers
with user representatives to gain an understanding of
the situation sufficient to formulate the needed change;
implements the change upon approval of the supervisor
or higher level analyst. A higher level analyst provides
the incumbent w'ith charts, narrative description of the
functions performed, an approved statement of the
product desired (e.g., a change in a local establishment
report), and the inputs, outputs, and record formats.
Reviews objectives and assignment details with highei
level staff to insure thorough understanding; uses judg­
ment in selecting among authorized procedures and
seeks assistance when guidelines are inadequate, signifi­
cant deviations are proposed, or when unanticipated
problems arise. Work is usually monitored in progress;

Computer systems programmers or analysts who

primarily write programs or analyze problems
concerning the system software, e.g., operating
systems, compilers, assemblers, system utility
routines, etc., which provide basic services for the
use of all programs and provide for the scheduling of
the execution of programs; however, positions

matching this definition may develop a ‘'total
package” which includes not only writing programs
to process data but also selecting the computer equip­
ment and system software required;
f.

Employees who have significant responsibility for the
management or supervision of workers (e.g., systems
analysts) whose positions are not covered in this
definition; or employees with significant responsibili­
ty for other functions such as computer operations
data entry, system software, etc.; and

g.

Postions not requiring; (1) Three years of ad­
ministrative, technical, or substantive clerical ex­
perience; (2) a bachelor’s degree in any field; or (3)
any equivalent combination of experience and educa­
tion yielding basic skills in problem analysis and com­
munication.

Positions are classified into levels based on the
following definitions.
Computer Programmer/Programmer Analyst I

At this trainee level, assignments are usually planned
to develop basic programming skills because in­
cumbents are typically inexperienced in applying such
skills on the job. Assists higher level staff by performing
elementary programming tasks which concern limited
and simple data items and steps and which closely
follow patterns of previous work done in the organiza­
tion, e.g., drawing flow charts, writing operator instruc­
tions, or coding and testing routines to accumulate
counts, tallies, or summaries. May perform routine
59

ment, and programming language have already been
decided. May analyze present performance of the pro­
gram and take action to correct deficiencies based on
discussion with the user and consultation with and ap­
proval of the supervisor or higher level analyst. May
assist in the review and analysis of detailed program
specifications and in program design to meet changes in
work processes.
Works independently under specified objectives; ap­
plies judgment in devising program logic and in select­
ing and adapting standard programming procedures;
resolves problems and deviations acccording to estab­
lished practices; and obtains advice where precedents
are unclear or not available. Completed work is review­
ed for conformance to standards, timeliness, and effi­
ciency. May guide or instruct lower level programmers
and/or programmer analysts; may supervise technicians
and others who assist in specific assignments.

all work is reviewed upon completion for accuracy and
compliance with standards.
Computer Programmer/Programmer Analyst III

As a fully qualified computer programmer, applies
standard programming procedures and detailed knowl­
edge of pertinent subject matter (e.g., work processes,
governing rules, clerical procedures, etc.) in a program­
ming area such as: A recordkeeping operation (supply,
personnel and payroll, inventory, purchasing, insurance
payments, depositor accounts, etc.); a well-defined
statistical or scientific problem; or other standardized
operation or problem. Works according to approved
statements of requirements and detailed specifications.
While the data are clear cut, related, and equally
available, there may be substantial interrelationships of
a variety of records, and several varied sequences or for­
mats are usually produced. The programs developed or
modified typically are linked to several other programs
in that the output of one becomes the input for another.
Recognizes probable interactions of other related pro­
grams with the assigned program(s) and is familar with
related system software and computer equipment.
Solves conventional programming problems. (In small
organizations, may maintain programs which concern
or combine several operations, i.e., users, or develop
programs where there is one primary user and the
others give input.)
Performs such duties as: Develops, modifies, and
maintains assigned programs; designs and implements
modifications to the interrelation of files and records
within programs in consultation with a higher level
analyst; monitors the operation of assigned programs
and responds to problems by diagnosing and correcting
errors in logic and coding; and implements and/or
maintains assigned portions of a scientific programming
project, applying established scientific programming
techniques to well-defined mathematical, statistical,
engineering, or other scientific problems usually re­
quiring the translation of mathematical notation into
processing logic and code. (Scientific programming in­
cludes assignments such as: Using predetermined
physical laws expressed in mathematical terms to relate
one set of data to another; the routine storage and
retrieval of field test data; and using procedures for
real-time command and control, scientific data reduc­
tion, signal processing, or similar areas.) Tests and
documents work and writes and maintains operator in­
structions for assigned programs. Confers with other
e d p personnel to obtain or provide factual data.
In addition, computer programmer analysts may
carry out factfinding and analysis of a single activity or
routine problem, applying established procedures where
the nature of the program, feasibility, computer equip­

OR

Works on complex programs (as described in level IV)
under close direction of higher level staff or supervisor.
May assist higher level staff by independently perform­
ing less difficult tasks assigned, and performing more
difficult tasks under close supervision.
Computer Programmer/Programmer Analyst IV

Applies expertise in programming procedures to com­
plex programs; recommends the redesign of programs,
investigates and analyzes feasibility and program re­
quirements, and develops programming specifications.
Assigned programs typically affect a broad multiuser
computer system which meets the data processing needs
of a broad area (e.g., manufacturing, logistics planning,
finance management, human resources, material
management, etc.) or a computer system for a project in
engineering, research, accounting, statistics, etc. Plans
the full range of programming actions to produce
several interrelated but different products from
numerous and diverse data elements which are usually
from different sources; solves difficult programming
problems. Uses analysis techniques relevant to the
assignment and knowledge of pertinent system soft­
ware, computer equipment, work processes, regula­
tions, and management practices.
Performs such duties as: Develops, modifies, and
maintains complex programs; designs and implements
the interrelation of files and records within programs
which will effectively fit into the overall design of the
project; working with problems or concepts, develops
programs for the solution to major scientific computa­
tional problems requiring the analysis and develop­
ment of logical or mathematical descriptions of func­
60

tions to be programmed; and develops occasional
special programs, e.g., a critical path analysis program
to assist in managing a special project. Tests,
documents, and writes operating instructions for all
work. Confers with other e d p personnel to secure infor­
mation, investigate and resolve problems, and coor­
dinate work efforts.
In addition, the computer programmer analyst per­
forms such duties as: Recommends the redesign of pro­
grams and investigates the feasibility of alternative
design approaches to determine the best balanced solu­
tion, e.g., one that will best satisfy immediate user
needs, facilitate subsequent modification, and conserve
resources; on typical maintenance projects and smaller
scale, limited new projects, assists user personnel in
defining problems or needs and determines how the
work should be organized, the necessary files and
records, and their interrelation within the program; and
on larger or more complicated projects, usually par­
ticipates as a team member along with other e d p person­
nel and users and is typically assigned a portion of the
project.
Works independently under overall objectives and
direction, apprising the supervisor about progress and
unusual complications. Modifies and adapts precedent
solutions and proven approaches. Guidelines include
constraints imposed by the related programs with which
the incumbent’s programs must be meshed. Completed
work is reviewed for timeliness, compatibility with other
work, and effectiveness in meeting requirements. May
function as team leader or supervise a few lower level
programmers and/or programmer analysts or techni­
cians on assigned work.

1.

dinates, and directs a large and important pro­
gramming project (finance, manufacturing,
sales/marketing, human resources, or other broad
area) or a number of small programming projects
with complex features. A substantial portion of the
work supervised (usually two to three workers) is
comparable to that described for level IV. Super­
vises, coordinates, and reviews the work of a small
staff, normally not more than 15 programmers, pro­
grammer analysts, and technicians; estimates person­
nel needs and schedules, assigns, and reviews work to
meet completion date. These day-to-day supervisors
evaluate performance, resolve complaints, and make
recommendations on hiring and firing. They do not
make final decisions on curtailing projects,
reorganizing, or reallocating resources.
2.

As team leader, staff specialist, or consultant,
defines complex scientific problems (e.g., computa­
tional) or other highly complex programming prob­
lems (e.g., generating overall forecasts, projections,
or other new data fields widely different from the
source data or untried at the scale proposed) and
directs the development of computer programs for
their solution: or, designs improvements in complex
programs where existing precedents provide little
guidance, such as an interrelated group of
mathematical/statistical programs which support
health insurance, natural resources, marketing
trends, or other research activities. In conjunction
with users (scientists or specialists), defines major
problems in the subject-matter area. Contacts co­
workers and user personnel at various locations to
plan and coordinate project and gather data; devises
ways to obtain data not previously available; and ar­
bitrates differences between various program users
when conflicting requirements arise. May perform
simulation studies to determine effects of changes in
computer equipment or system software or may
assess the feasibility and soundness of proposed pro­
gramming projects which are novel and complex.
Typically, develops programming techniques and
procedures where few precedents exist. May be
assisted on projects by other program analysts, pro­
grammers, or technicians.

Computer Programmer/Programmer Analyst V

At level V, workers are typically either supervisors,
team leaders, staff specialists, or consultants. Some
analysis is included as a part of the programming assign­
ment. Supervision and review are similar to level IV.
T y p ic a l d u tie s a n d r e s p o n s ib ilitie s .

In a supervisory capacity, plans, develops, coor­

One or more of the

following:

Computer Systems Analysts
Analyzes business or scientific problems for resolu­
tion through electronic data processing. Gathers infor­
mation from users, defines work problems, and, if
feasible, designs a system of computer programs and
procedures to resolve the problems. Develops complete
specifications to enable computer programmers to
prepare required programs: Analyzes subject-matter
operations to be automated; specifies number and types
of records, files, and documents to be used and outputs
to be produced; prepares work diagrams and data flow
charts; coordinates tests of the system and participates
in trial runs of new and revised systems; and recom­

mends computer equipment changes to obtain more ef­
fective operations. May also write the computer pro­
grams.
E x c lu d e d are:
(a) Trainees who receive detailed directives and work
plans, select authorized procedures for use in specific
situations, and seek assistance for deviations and
problems;
(b) Positions which require a bachelor’s degree in a
specific scientific field (other than computer science),
such as an engineering, mathematics, physics, or
chemistry degree; however, positions are potential
61

system of several varied sequences or formats is usually
developed, e.g., develops systems for maintaining
depositor accounts in a bank, maintaining accounts
receivable in a retail establishment, maintaining inven­
tory accounts in a manufacturing or wholesale establish­
ment, or processing a limited problem in a scientific
project. Requires competence in most phases of system
analysis and knowledge of pertinent system software
and computer equipment and of the work processes, ap­
plicable regulations, workload, and practices of the
assigned subject-matter area. Recognizes probable in­
teractions of related computer systems and predicts im­
pact of a change in assigned system.
Reviews proposals which consist of objectives, scope,
and user expectations; gathers facts, analyzes data, and
prepares a project synopsis which compares alternatives
in terms of cost, time, availability of equipment and
personnel, and recommends a course of action; and
upon approval of synopsis, prepares specifications for
development of computer programs. Determines and
resolves data processing problems and coordinates the
work with programmers, users, etc.; orients user per­
sonnel on new or changed procedures. May conduct
special projects such as data element and code standard­
ization throughout a broad system, working under
specific objectives and bringing to the attention of the
supervisor any unusual problems or controversies.
Works independently under overall project objectives
and requirements; apprises supervisor about progress
and unusual complications. Guidelines usually include
existing systems and the constraints imposed by related
systems with which the incumbent’s work must be mesh­
ed. Adapts design approaches successfully used in
precedent systems. Completed work is reviewed for
timeliness, compatibility with other work, and effec­
tiveness in meeting requirements. May provide func­
tional direction to lower level assistants on assigned
work.

matches where the required degree may be from any
of several possible scientific fields;
(c) Computer programers and programmer analysts who
write computer programs and solve user problems
not requiring systems modification;
(d) Workers who primarily analyze and evaluate prob­
lems concerning computer equipment or its selection
or utilization; and

(e) Computer systems programmers or analysts who
primarily write programs or analyze problems con­
cerning the system software, e.g., operating systems,
compilers, assemblers, system utility routines, etc.,
which provide basic services for the use of all pro­
grams and provide for the scheduling of the execu­
tion of programs; however, positions matching this
definition may develop a “ total package” which in­
cludes not only analyzing work problems to be pro­
cessed but also selecting the computer equipment and
system software required.

Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the
following definitions.
Computer Systems Analyst I

At this level, in itia l a s s ig n m e n ts are designed to e x ­
practical experience in applying systems analysis
techniques and procedures. Provides s e v e r a l p h a s e s of
the required systems analysis where the nature of the
system is predetermined. Uses established factfinding
approaches, knowledge of pertinent work processes and
procedures, and familiarity with related computer pro­
gramming practices, system software, and computer
equipment.
Carries out factfinding and analysis as assigned,
usually of a single activity or a routine problem; applies
established procedures where the nature of the system,
feasibility, computer equipment, and programming
language have already been decided; may assist a higher
level systems analyst by preparing the detailed specifica­
tions required by computer programmers from informa­
tion developed by the higher level analyst; may research
routine user problems and solve them by modifying the
existing system when the solutions follow clear
precedents. When cost and deadline estimates are re­
quired, results receive close review.
The supervisor defines objectives, priorities, and
deadlines. Incumbents work independently; adapt
guides to specific situations; resolve problems and
deviations according to established practices; and ob­
tain advice where precedents are unclear or not
available. Complete work is reviewed for conformance
to requirements, timeliness, and efficiency. May super­
vise technicians and others who assist in specific
assignments.

pand

OR

W'orks on a segment of a complex data processing
scheme or broad system, as described for computer
systems analyst, level III. Works independently on
routine assignments and receives instruction and
guidance on complex assignments. Work is reviewed for
accuracy of judgment, compliance with instructions,
and to insure proper alignment with the overall system.
Computer Systems Analyst III

Applies systems analysis and design techniques to
complex computer systems in a b r o a d area such as
manufacturing; finance management; engineering, ac­
counting, or statistics; logistics planning; material
management; etc. Usually, there are multiple users of
the system; however, there may be complex single-user

Computer Systems Analyst II

Applies systems analysis and design skills in an area
such as a recordkeeping or scientific operation. A
62

systems, e.g., for engineering or research projects. Re­
quires competence in all phases of available systems
analysis techniques, concepts, and methods and
knowledge of available systems software, computer
equipment, and the regulations, structure, techniques,
and management practices of one or more subjectmatter areas. Since input data usually come from
diverse sources, is responsible for recognizing probable
conflicts and integrating diverse data elements and
sources. Produces innovative solutions for a variety of
complex problems.
Maintains and modifies complex systems or develops
new subsystems such as an integrated production
scheduling, inventory control, cost analysis, and sales
analysis record in which every item of each type is
automatically processed through the full system of
records. Guides users in formulating requirements; ad­
vises on alternatives and on the implications of new or
revised data processing systems; analyzes resulting user
project proposals, identifies omissions and errors in re­
quirements, and conducts feasibility studies; recom­
mends optimum approach and develops system design
for approved projects. Interprets information and in­
formally arbitrates between system users when conflicts
exist. May serve as lead analyst in a design subgroup,
directing and integrating the work of one or two lower
level analysts, each responsible for several programs.
Supervision and nature of review are similar to level
II; existing systems provide precedents for the operation
of new subsystems.

2.

two team members perform work at level III; one or
two team members may also perform work as a level
IV staff specialist or consultant as described below.
As staff specialist or consultant, with expertise in a
specialty area (e.g., data security, telecommunica­
tions, systems analysis techniques, edp standards
development, etc.), plans and conducts analyses of
unique or unyielding problems in a broad system.
Identifies problems and specific issues in assigned
area and prepares overall project recommendations
from an edp standpoint including feasible ad­
vancements in edp technology; upon acceptance,
determines a design strategy that anticipates direc­
tions of change; designs and monitors necessary
testing and implementation plans. Performs work
such as: Studies broad areas of projected work pro­
cesses which cut across established organization edp
systems; conducts continuing review of computer
technological developments applicable to systems
design and prepares long-range forecasts; develops
edp standards where new and improved approaches
are needed; or develops recommendations for a
management information system where new concepts
are required.

Computer Systems Analyst V

As a top technical expert, develops broad un­
precedented computer systems and/or conducts critical
studies central to the success o f large organizations hav­
ing extensive technical or highly diversified computer re­
quirements. Considers such requirements as broad com­
pany policy, and the diverse user needs of several
organization levels and locations. Works under general
administrative direction.

Computer Systems Analyst IV

Typical duties and responsibilities. One or more of the
following:

Applies expert systems analysis and design techniques
to complex systems development in a specialized design
area and/or resolves unique or unyielding problems in
existing complex systems by applying new technology.
Work requires a broad knowledge of data sources and
flow, interactions of existing complex systems in the
organization, and the capabilities and limitations of the
systems software and computer equipment. Objectives
and overall requirements are defined in organization
EDP policies and standards; the primary constraints
typically are those imposed by the need for compatibili­
ty with existing systems or processes. Supervision and
nature of review are similar to levels II and III.

1.

As team or project leader, guides the development of
broad unprecedented computer systems. The infor­
mation requirements are complex and voluminous.
Devises completely new ways to locate and develop
data sources; establishes new factors and criteria for
making subject-matter decisions. Coordinates fact­
finding, analysis, and design of the system and ap­
plies the most recent developments in data processing
technology and computer equipment. Guidelines
consist of state-of-the-art technology and general
organization policy. A t least o n e team m em b er p er­
fo r m s w ork at level IV .

2.

Typical duties and responsibilities. One or more of the
following:
1. As team or project leader, provides systems design in
a specialized a n d highly co m p lex design area, e.g., in­
terrelated business statistics and/or projections,
scientific systems, mathematical models, or similar
unprecedented computer systems. E stablishes the
fra m e w o rk o f new c o m p u te r system s from feasibility
studies to postimplementation evaluation. Devises
new sources of data and develops new approaches
and techniques for use by others. May serve as
technical authority for a design area. At least one or

As staff specialist or consultant, is a recognized
leader and authority in a large organization (as defin­
ed above). Performs at least tw o of the following: (a)
Has overall responsibility for evaluating the sig­
nificance of technological advancement and develop­
ing edp standards where new and improved ap­
proaches are needed, e.g., programming techniques;
(b) conceives and plans exploratory investigations
critical to the overall organization where useful
precedents do not exist and new concepts are re­
quired, e.g., develops recommendations regarding a
comprehensive management information system; or
(c) evaluates existing edp organizational policy for ef­
fectiveness, devising and formulating changes in

63

programmer analysts, systems analysts, and techni­
cians; estimates personnel needs and schedules, assigns
and reviews work to meet completion date; interviews
candidates for own unit and recommends hires, promo­
tions, or reassignments; resolves complaints and refers
group grievances and more serious unresolved com­
plaints to higher level supervisors; and may reprimand
employees.

the organization’s position on broad policy issues.
May be assisted on individual projects by other
. analysts.

COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYST
SUPERVISOR/MANAGER

Supervises three or more employees, two of whom
perform systems analysis. Work requires substantial
and recurring use of systems analysis skills in directing
staff. May also supervise programmer/programmer
analysts and related clerical and technical support per­
sonnel.
Excluded are:

LS-2. Directs a sizable staff (normally 15-30 em­
ployees), typically divided into subunits controlled by
subordinate supervisors; advises higher level manage­
ment on work problems of own unit and the impact on
broader programs; collaborates with heads of other
units to negotiate and/or coordinate work changes;
makes decisions on work or training problems presented
by subordinate supervisors; evaluates subordinate
supervisors and reviews their evaluations of other
employees; selects nonsupervisors (higher level approval
is virtually assured) and recommends supervisory selec­
tions; and hears group grievances and serious or
unresolved complaints. May shift resources among pro­
jects and perform long-range budget planning.

(a) Positions also having significant responsibility for
the management or supervision of functional areas
(e.g., system software development, data entry, or
computer operations) not related to the Computer
Systems Analyst and Computer Programmer/Programmer Analyst definitions.
(b) Supervisory positions having base levels below Com­
puter Systems Analyst II or Computer Programmer
Analyst IV.
(c) Managers who supervise two or more subordinates
performing at Computer Systems Analyst Supervisor/Manager level IV.

In rare instances, supervisory positions respon­
sible for directing a sizable staff (e.g., 20-30 employees)
may not have subordinate supervisors, but have all
other LS-2 responsibilities. Such position are matched
to LS-2.
note:

Supervisory jobs are matched at 1 of 4 levels ac­
cording to two factors: (a) Base level of work supervis­
ed, and (b) level of supervision. Table C-4 indicates the
level of the supervisor for each combination of factors.

L.S-3. Directs two subordinate supervisory levels, and
the work force managed typically includes substan­
tially more than 30 employees. Makes major decisions
and recommendations (listed below) which have a
direct, important, and substantial effect on own
organization and work. Performs at least three of the
following:

Base Level of Work

The base level of work is that level of nonsupcrvisory
work under the direct or indirect supervision of the
supervisor/manager which (when added to the nonsupervisory levels above it) represents at least 25 percent
of the total nonsupervisory, nonclerical staff and at
least two of the full-time positions supervised.
To determine the base level of nonsupervisory,
nonclerical work: 1) Positions are arrayed by level of
difficulty; 2) the number of workers in each position is
determined; and 3) the highest level is determined that
has at least 25 percent of the total nonsupervisory,
nonclerical staff accumulated from itself and levels
above itself.

Decides what programs and projects should be initiated,
dropped, expanded, or curtailed;
Determines long-range plans in response to program
changes, evaluates program goals, and redefines objectives;
Determines changes to be made in organizational struc­
ture, delegation of authority, coordination of units, etc.;

Level of Supervision

Decides what compromises to make in operations in view
of public relations implications and need for support from
various groups;

Supervisors and managers are matched at 1 of the 3
LS levels below best describing their supervisory re­
sponsibility.

Decides on the means to substantially reduce operating
costs without impairing overall operations; justifies major
equipment expenditures; and

LS-1. Plans, coordinates, and evaluates the work of a
small staff, normally not more than 15 programmers,

Resolves differences between key subordinate officials;
decides, or significantly affects final decisions, on personnel
actions for supervisors and other key officials.
64

Table C-4. Criteria for matching computer systems analyst supervisors/managers
Supervisor/manager level
Base level of nonsupervisory job(s)
Level of supervision
Matched in the
Computer Programmer
Analyst definition

Matched in the
Computer Systems
Analyst definition

LS-1

LS-2

LS-3

IV
V

II
III
IV
V

I
II
III
IV

II
III
IV
Exclude

III
IV
Exclude
Exclude

_
-

Buyers
BUYER

Purchases materials, supplies, equipment, and serv­
ices (e.g., utilities, maintenance, and repair). In some
instances, items are of types that must be specially
designed, produced, or modified by the vendor in accor­
dance with drawings or engineering specifications.
Solicits bids, analyzes quotations received, and selects
or recommends supplier. May interview' prospective
vendors. Purchases items and services at the most
favorable price consistent with quality, quantity,
specification requirements, and other factors. Prepares
or supervises preparation o f purchase orders from req­
uisitions. May expedite delivery and visit vendors’ of­
fices and plants.
Normally, purchases are unreviewed when they are
consistent with past experience and are in conformance
with established rules and policies. Proposed purchase
transactions that deviate from the usual or from past ex­
perience in terms of prices, quality of items, quantities,
etc., or that may set precedents for future purchases are
reviewed by higher authority prior to final action.
In addition to the work described above, some (but
not all) buyers direct the work of one or a few clerks
who perform routine aspects of the work. As a second­
ary and subsidiary duty, some buyers may also sell or
dispose of surplus, salvage, or used materials, equip­
ment, or supplies.

e.

related items of highly variable quality such as raw
cotton or wool, tobacco, cattle, or leather for shoe
uppers, etc. Expert personal knowledge of the item is
required to judge the relative value of the goods of­
fered, and to decide the quantity, quality, and price
of each purchase in terms of its probable effect on
the organization’s profit and competitive status.
Buyers whose principal responsibility is the supervi­
sion of a purchasing program;

f.

Persons predominantly concerned with contract or
subcontract administration;

g.

Persons whose major duties consist of ordering,
reordering, or requisitioning items under existing
contracts;

h.

Positions restricted to clerical functions or to pur­
chase expediting work; and

i.

Positions not requiring: (1) Three years of ad­
ministrative, technical, or substantive clerical ex­
perience; (2) a bachelor’s degree in any field; or (3)
any equivalent combination of experience and educa­
tion yielding basic skills in problem analysis and com­
munication.

Buyer I

a.

Buyers of items for direct sale, either wholesale or
retail;

Purchases “ off-the-shelf” types of readily available,
commonly used materials, supplies, tools, furniture,
services, etc.
Transactions usually involve local retailers,
wholesalers, jobbers, and m anufacturers’ sales
representatives.
Quantities purchased are generally small amounts,
e.g., those available from local sources.
Examples of items purchased include: Common sta­
tionery and office supplies; standard types o f office fur­
niture and fixtures; standard nuts, bolts, and screws;
janitorial and common building maintenance supplies;
or common utility services or office machine repair serv­
ices.

b.

Brokers and dealers buying for clients or for invest­
ment purposes;

Buyer II

c.

Positions that specifically require professional educa­
tion and qualifications in a physical science or in
engineering (e.g., chemist, mechanical engineer);

d.

Buyers who specialize in purchasing a single or a few

NOTE: Some buyers are responsible for the purchasing
of a variety of items and materials. When the variety in­
cludes items and work described at more than one o f the
following levels, the position should be considered to
equal the highest level that characterizes at least a
substantial portion of the buyer’s time.

Excluded are:

Purchases “ off-the-shelf” types o f standard, general­
ly available technical items, materials, and services.
Transactions may involve occasional modification of
standard and common usage items, materials, and serv65

ices, and include a few stipulations about unusual pack­
ing, marking, shipping, etc.
Transactions usually involve dealing directly with
manufacturers, distributors, jobbers, etc.
Quantities of items and materials purchased may be
relatively large, particularly in the case of contracts for
continuing supply over a period of time.
May be responsible for locating or promoting possi­
ble new sources of supply. Usually is expected to keep
abreast of market trends, changes in business practices
in the assigned markets, new or altered types of
materials entering the market, etc.
Examples of items purchased include: Standard in­
dustrial types of handtools; gloves and safety equip­
ment; standard electronic parts, components, and com­
ponent test instruments; electric motors; gasoline ser­
vice station equipment; pbx or other specialized
telephone services; special-purpose printing services;
and routine purchases of common raw materials such as
standard grades and sizes of steel bars, rods, and angles.
Also included at this level are buyers of materials of
the types described for buyer 1 when the quantities pur­
chased are so large that local sources of supply are
generally inadequate anc the buyer must deal directly
with manufacturer^ on a broader-than-local scale.

special formula paints; electric motors of special shape
or speeds; production equipment; special packaging of
items; and raw materials in substantial quantities or
with special characteristics.
Buyer IV

Purchases highly complex and technical items,
materials, or services, usually those specially designed
and manufactured exclusively for the purchaser.
Transactions require dealing with manufacturers and
often involve persuading potential vendors to undertake
the manufacturing of custom-designed items according
to complex and rigid specifications.
Quantities of items and materials purchased are often
large in order to satisfy the requirements for an entire
large organization for an extended period of time. Com­
plex schedules of delivery are often involved. Buyer
determines appropriate quantities to be contracted for
at any given period of time.
Transactions are often complicated by the presence of
one or more such matters as inclusion of: Requirements
for spare parts, preproduction samples and testing, or
technical literature; or patent and royalty provisions.
Keeps abreast of market and product developments.
Develops new sources of supply.
In addition to the work described above, a few posi­
tions may also require supervision over a few lower level
buyers or clerks. (No position is included in this level
solely because supervisory duties are performed.)
Examples of items purchased include: Specialpurpose high-cost machine tools and production
facilities; specialized condensers, boilers, and turbines;
raw materials of critically important characteristics or
quality; and parts, subassemblies, components, etc.,
specially designed and made to order (e.g., communica­
tions equipment for installation in aircraft being
manufactured; component assemblies for missiles and
rockets; and motor vehicle frames).

Buyer III

Purchases items, materials, or services of a technical
and specialized nature. The items, while of a common
general type, are usually made, altered, or customized
to meet the user’s specific needs and specifications.
Transactions usually require dealing with manufac­
turers. The number of potential vendors is likely to be
small and price differentials often reflect important fac­
tors (quality, delivery dates and places, etc.) that are dif­
ficult to evaluate.
The quantities purchased of any item or service may
be large.
Many of the purchases involve one or more of such
complications as: Specifications that detail, in technical
terms, the required physical, chemical, electrical, or
other comparable properties; special testing prior to ac­
ceptance; grouping of items for lot bidding and awards;
specialized processing, packing, or packaging re­
quirements; export packs; overseas port differentials;
etc.
Is expected to keep abreast of market and product
developments. May be required to locate new sources of
supply.
Some positions may involve assisting in the training
or supervising of lower level buyers or clerks.
Examples of items purchased include: Castings;
special extruded shapes of normal size and material;

NOTE: Excluded are buying positions above level IV.
Some buyers above level IV make purchases in such
unusually large quantities that they can affect the
market price of a commodity or produce other signifi­
cant effects on the industry or trade concerned. Others
may purchase items of either (1) extraordinary technical
complexity, e.g., involving the outermost limits of
science or engineering, or (2) unusually high individual
or unit value. Such buyers often persuade suppliers to
expand their plants or convert facilities to the produc­
tion of new items or services. These types of buying
functions are often performed by program managers or
company officials who have primary responsibilities
other than buying.
66

Chemists and Engineers
CHEMIST
Performs professional work in research, develop­
ment, interpretation, and analysis to determine the com­
position, molecular structure, and properties of
substances; to develop or investigate new materials and
processes; and to investigate the transformations which

substances undergo. Work typically requires a B.S.
degree in chemistry or the equivalent in appropriate and
substantial college level study of chemistry plus ex­
perience.

purposes, assignments may include some work that
is typical o f a higher level. (Terminal positions are ex­
cluded.)

Direction received. Supervisor establishes the nature
and extent of analysis required, specifies methods and
criteria on new types o f assignments, and reviews work
for thoroughness o f application o f methods and ac­
curacy of results.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Carries out a wide
variety of standardized methods, tests, and procedures.
In accordance with specific instructions, may carry out
proposed and less common ones. Is expected to detect
problems in using standardized procedures because of
the condition of the sample, difficulties with the equip­
ment, etc. Recommends modifications of procedures,
e.g., extending or curtailing the analysis or using alter­
nate procedures, based on knowledge of the problem
and pertinent available literature. Conducts specified
phases o f research projects as an assistant to an ex­
perienced chemist.

Chemist I

General characteristics. This is the entry level o f profes­
sional work requiring a bachelor’s degree in chemistry
and no experience, or the equivalent of a degree in ap­
propriate education and experience. Performs
assignm ents designed to develop professional
capabilities and to provide experience in the application
o f training in chemistry as it relates to the company’s
programs. May also receive formal classroom or
seminar-type training. (Terminal positions are
excluded.)

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. May be assisted
Direction received. Works under close supervision.

by a few aides or technicians.

Receives specific and detailed instruction as to required
tasks and results expected. Work is checked during
progress, and is reviewed for accuracy upon comple­
tion.

Chemist III

Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs a variety
o f routine tasks that are planned to provide experience
and familiarization with the chemistry staff, methods,
practices, and programs o f the company. The work in­
cludes a variety of routine qualitative and quantitative
analyses; physical tests to determine properties such as
viscosity, tensile strength, and melting point; and
assisting more experienced chemists to gain additional
knowledge through personal observation and discus­
sion.

General characteristics. Performs a broad range of
chemical tests and procedures utilized in the laboratory,
using judgment in the independent evaluation, selec­
tion, and adaptation of standard methods and tech­
niques. May carry through a complete series of tests on
a product in its different process stages. Some
assignments require a specialized knowledge o f one or
two common categories o f related substances. Perform­
ance at this level requires developmental experience in a
professional position, or equivalent graduate level
education.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Usually none.

Direction received. On routine work, supervision is very

Chemist II

general. Assistance is furnished on unusual problems
and work is reviewed for application o f sound profes­
sional judgment.

General characteristics. At this continuing developmen­
tal level, performs routine chemical work requiring
selection and application of general and specialized
methods, techniques, and instruments commonly used
in the laboratory, and the ability to carry out instruc­
tions when less common or proposed methods or pro­
cedures are necessary. Requires work experience ac­
quired in an entry level position, or appropriate
graduate level study. For training and developmental

Typical duties and responsibilities. In accordance with
instructions as to the nature o f the problem, selects
standard methods, tests, or procedures; when necessary,
develops or works out alternative or modified methods
with supervisor’s concurrence. Assists in research by
analyzing samples or testing new procedures that re­
quire specialized training because (a) standard methods
are inapplicable, (b) analytical findings must be inter­
67

Direction received. Supervision and guidance relate

preted in terms of compliance or noncompliance with
standards, or (c) specialized and advanced equipment
and techniques must be adapted.

largely to overall objectives, critical issues, new con­
cepts, and policy matters. Consults with supervisor con­
cerning unusual problems and developments.

Responsibility for direction o f others. May supervise or
coordinate the work of a few technicians or aides, and
be assisted by lower level chemists.

Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the
following: (1) In a supervisory capacity, plans,
organizes, and directs assigned laboratory programs.
Independently defines scope and critical elements of the
projects and selects approaches to be taken. A substan­
tial portion of the work supervised is comparable to that
described for chemist IV. (2) As individual researcher
or worker, carries out project requiring development of
new or highly modified scientific techniques and pro­
cedures, extensive knowledge of specialty, and
knowledge of related scientific fields.

Chemist IV

General characteristics. As a fully competent chemist in
all conventional aspects of the subject matter or the
functional area of the assignments, plans and conducts
work requiring (a) mastery of specialized techniques or
ingenuity in selecting and evaluating approaches to un­
foreseen or novel problems, and (b) ability to apply a
research approach to the solution of a wide variety of
problems and to assimilate the details and significance
of chemical and physical analyses, procedures, and
tests. Requires sufficient professional experience to
assure competence as a fully trained worker; or, for
positions primarily of a research nature, completion of
all requirements for a doctoral degree may be
substituted for experience.

Responsibility for direction o f others. Supervises, coor­
dinates, and reviews the work of a small staff of
chemists and technicians engaged in varied research and
development projects, or a larger group performing
routine analytical work. Estimates personnel needs and
schedules and assigns work to meet completion date
Or, as individual researcher or worker, may be assisted
on projects by other chemists or technicians.

Direction received. Independently performs most
assignments with instructions as to the general results
expected. Receives technical guidance on unusual or
complex problems and supervisory approval on propos­
ed plans for projects.

Chemist VI

General characteristics. Performs work requiring
leadership and expert knowledge in a specialized field,
product, or process. Formulates and conducts a
systematic attack on a problem area of considerable
scope and complexity which must be approached
through a series of complete and conceptually related
studies, or a number of projects of lesser scope. The
problems are complex because they are difficult to
define and require unconventional or novel approaches
or have other difficult features. Maintains liaison with
individuals and units within and outside the organiza­
tion, with responsibility for acting independently on
technical matters pertaining to the field. Work at this
level usually requires extensive progressive experience
including work comparable to chemist V.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Conducts laboratory
assignments requiring the determination and evaluation
o f alternative procedures and the sequence of perform­
ing them. Performs complex, exacting, unusual
analytical assignments requiring specialized knowledge
of techniques or products. Interprets results, prepares
reports, and may provide technical advice in specialized
area.
Responsibility fo r direction o f others. May supervise a
small staff of chemists and technicians.
Chemist V

Direction received. Supervision received is essentially
administrative, with assignments given in terms of
broad, general objectives and limits.

General characteristics. Participates in planning
laboratory programs on the basis of specialized
knowledge of problems and methods and probable
value of results. May serve as an expert in a narrow
specialty (e.g., class of chemical compounds, or a class
o f products), making recommendations and conclusions
which serve as the basis for undertaking or rejecting im­
portant projects. Development of the knowledge and
expertise required for this level of work usually reflects
progressive experience through chemist IV.

Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the
following: (1) In a supervisory capacity, (a) plans,
develops, coordinates, and directs a number o f large
and important projects or a project of major scope and
importance; or (b) is responsible for the entire chemical
program of a company, when the program is o f limited
complexity and scope. Activities supervised are of such
68

a scope that they require a few (three to five) subor­
dinate supervisors or team leaders with at least one in a
position comparable to level V. (2) As individual
researcher or worker, determines, conceives, plans, and
conducts projects of major importance to the company.
Applies a high degree of originality and ingenuity in
adapting techniques into original combinations and
configurations. May serve as a consultant to other
chemists in specialty.

understood, and where few or contradictory scientific
precedents or results are available for reference. Out­
standing creativity and mature judgment are required to
devise hypotheses and techniques of experimentation
and to interpret results. As a leader and authority in the
company, in a broad area of specialization, or in a nar­
row but intensely specialized one, advises the head of a
large laboratory or company officials on complex
aspects of extremely broad and important programs.
Has responsibility for exploring, evaluating, and justi­
fying proposed and current programs and projects and
furnishing advice on unusually complex and novel prob­
lems in the specialty field. Typically will have con­
tributed innovations (e.g., techniques, products, pro­
cedures) which are regarded as significant advances in
the field.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Plans, organizes,
and supervises the work of a staff of chemists and
technicians. Evaluates progress of the staff and results
obtained, and recommends major changes to achieve
overall objectives. Or, as individual worker or re­
searcher, may be assisted on individual projects by other
chemists or technicians.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Directs several
subordinate supervisors or team leaders, some of whom
are in positions comparable to chemist VI; or, as in­
dividual researcher and consultant, may be assisted on
individual projects by other chemists and technicians.

Chemist VII

General characteristics. Makes decisions and recom­
mendations that are recognized as authoritative and
have an important impact on extensive chemical ac­
tivities. Initiates and maintains extensive contacts with
key chemists and officials of other organizations and
companies. Requires skill in persuasion and negotiation
o f critical issues. At this level, individuals will have
demonstrated creativity, foresight, and mature judg­
ment in anticipating and solving unprecedented chem­
ical problems, determining program objectives and re­
quirements, organizing programs and projects, and
developing standards and guides for diverse chemical
activities.

Chemist VIII

General characteristics. Makes decisions and recom­
mendations that are authoritative and have a farreaching impact on extensive chemical and related ac­
tivities of the company. Negotiates critical and con­
troversial issues with top level chemists and officers of
other organizations and companies. Individuals at this
level have demonstrated a high degree of creativity,
foresight, and mature judgment in planning, organiz­
ing, and guiding extensive chemical programs and ac­
tivities of outstanding novelty and importance.
Direction received. Receives general administrative

Direction received. Receives general administrative

direction.

direction.

Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of
the following: (1) In a supervisory capacity, is re­
sponsible for (a) an important segment of a very
extensive and highly deversified chemical program
of a company; or (b) the entire chemical program
of a company when the program is of moderate scope.
The programs are of such complexity and scope that
they are of critical importance to overall objectives, in­
clude problems of extraordinary difficulty that often
have resisted solution, and consist of several segments
requiring subordinate supervisors. Is responsible for
deciding the kind and extent of chemical and related
programs needed to accomplish the objectives of the
company, for choosing the scientific approaches, for
planning and organizing facilities and programs, and
for interpreting results. (2) As individual researcher and
consultant, formulates and guides the attack on pro­
blems of exceptional difficulty and marked importance
to the company and/or industry. Problems are
characterised by the lack of scientific precedents and

Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the
following: (1) In a supervisory capacity, is responsible
for (a) an important segment o f a chemical program of a
company with extensive and diversified scientific re­
quirements, or (b) the entire chemical program of a
company where the program is more limited in scope.
The overall chemical program contains critical problems
the solution of which requires major technological ad­
vances and opens the way for extensive related develop­
ment. Makes authoritative technical recommendations
concerning the scientific objectives and levels of work
which will be most profitable in light of company re­
quirements and scientific and industrial trends and
developments. Recommends facilities, personnel, and
funds required. (2) As individual researcher and consul­
tant, selects problems for research to further the comp­
any’s objectives. Conceives and plans investigations in
which the phenomena and principles are not adequately
69

and no experience, or the equivalent of a degree in ap­
propriate education and experience. Perform s
assignments designed to develop professional work
knowledge and abilities. May also receive formal
classroom or seminar-type training. (Terminal positions
are excluded.)

source materials, or the lack o f success o f prior research
and analysis so that their solution would represent an
advance o f great significance and importance. Performs
advisory and consulting work for the company as a
recognized authority for broad program areas o f con­
siderable novelty and importance. Has made contribu­
tions such as new products or techniques, development
o f processes, etc., which are regarded as major advances
in the field.

Direction received. Works under close supervision.
Receives specific and detailed instructions as to required
tasks and results expected. Work is checked during
progress and is reviewed for accuracy upon completion.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Supervises several
subordinate supervisors or team leaders, some of whose
positions are comparable to chemist VII, or individual
researchers, some of whose positions are comparable to

Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs a variety
of routine tasks that are planned to provide experience
and familiarization with the engineering staff, methods,
practices, and programs of the company.

chemist VII and sometimes chemist VIII. As an in­
dividual researcher and consultant, may be assisted on
individual projects by other chemists or technicians.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Usually none.
NOTE: Individuals in charge of a company’s chemical

program may match any of several of the survey job
levels, depending on the size and complexity o f chemical
programs. Excluded from the definition are: (1)
Chemists in charge o f programs so extensive and com­
plex (e.g., consisting of highly diversified or unusually
novel products and procedures) that one or more subor­
dinate supervisory chemists are performing at level
VIII; (2) individuals whose decisions have direct and
substantial effect on setting policy for the organization
(included, however, are supervisors deciding the “ kind
and extent of chemical program” within broad

Engineer II

General characteristics. At this continuing developmen­
tal level, performs routine engineering work requiring
application of standard techniques, procedures, and
criteria in carrying out a sequence of related engineering
tasks. Limited exercise of judgment is required on
details of work and in making preliminary selections
and adaptations of engineering alternatives. Requires
work experience acquired in an entry level position, or
appropriate graduate level study. For training and
developmental purposes, assignments may include some
work that is typical of a higher level. (Terminal posi­
tions are excluded.)

guidelines set at higher levels); and (3) individual re­
searchers and consultants who are recognized as na­
tional and/or international authorities and scientific
leaders in very broad areas of scientific interest and in­
vestigation.

Direction received. Supervisor screens assignments for
unusual or difficult problems and selects techniques and
procedures to be applied on nonroutine work. Receives
close supervision on new aspects o f assignments.

ENGINEER

Performs professional work in research, develop­
ment, design, testing, analysis, production, construc­
tion, maintenance, operation, planning, survey,
estimating, application, or standardization of engineer­
ing facilities, systems, structures, processes, equipment,
devices, or materials, requiring knowledge o f the
science and art by which materials, natural resources,
and power are made useful. Work typically requires a
B.S. degree in engineering or the equivalent in combined
education and experience. (Excluded are: Safety
engineers, industrial engineers, quality control
engineers, sales engineers, and engineers whose primary
responsibility is to be in charge of nonprofessional
maintenance work.)

Typical duties and responsibilities. Using prescribed
methods, performs specific and limited portions of a
broader assignment of an experienced engineer. Applies
standard practices and techniques in specific situations,
adjusts and correlates data, recognizes discrepancies in
results, and follows operations through a series of
related detailed steps or processes.
Responsibility fo r direction o f others. May be assisted
by a few aides or technicians.

Engineer III

General characteristics. Independently evaluates,
selects, and applies standard engineering techniques,
procedures, and criteria, using judgment in making
minor adaptations and modifications. Assignments

Engineer I

General characteristics. This is the entry level o f profes­
sional work requiring a bachelor’s degree in engineering
70

have clear and specified objectives and require the in­
vestigation of a limited number of variables. Perform­
ance at this level requires developmental experience in a
professional position, or equivalent graduate level
education.

materials, and difficult coordination requirements.
Work requires a broad knowledge o f precedents in the
specialty area and a good knowledge of principles and
practices o f related specialties.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. May supervise a
Direction received. Receives instructions on specific

few engineers or technicians on assigned work.

assignment objectives, complex features, and possible
solutions. Assistance is furnished on unusual problems
and work is reviewed for application of sound profes­
sional judgment.

Engineer V

Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs work
which involves conventional types of plans, investiga­
tions, surveys, structures, or equipment with relatively
few complex features for which there are precedents.
Assignments usually include one or more o f the follow­
ing: Equipment design and development, test of
materials, preparation of specifications, process study,
research investigations, report preparation, and other
activities o f limited scope requiring knowledge o f prin­
ciples and techniques commonly employed in the
specific narrow area of assignments.

General characteristics. Applies intensive and diver­
sified knowledge of engineering principles and practices
in broad areas o f assignments and related fields. Makes
decisions independently on engineering problems and
methods, and represents the organization in conferences
to resolve important questions and to plan and coor­
dinate work. Requires the use o f advanced techniques
and the modification and extension o f theories,
precepts, and practices of the field and related sciences
and disciplines. The knowledge and expertise required
for this level o f work usually result from progressive ex­
perience, including work comparable to engineer IV.
Direction received. Supervision and guidance relate

Responsibility for direction o f others. May supervise or

largely to overall objectives, critical issues, new con­

coordinate the work o f drafters, technicians, and others
who assist in specific assignments.

cepts, and policy matters. Consults with supervisor con­

Engineer IV

Typical duties and responsibilities. One or more o f the
following: (1) In a supervisory capacity, plans, deve­
lops, coordinates, and directs a large and important
engineering project or a number of small projects with
many complex features. A substantial portion of the
work supervised is comparable to that described for
engineer IV. (2) As individual researcher or worker,
carries out complex or novel assignments requiring the
development of new or improved techniques and pro­
cedures. Work is expected to result in the development
of new or refined equipment, materials, processes,
products, and/or scientific methods. (3) As staff
specialist, develops and evaluates plans and criteria for
a variety of projects and activities to be carried out by
others. Assesses the feasibility and soundness of propos­
ed engineering evaluation tests, products, or equipment

cerning unusual problems and developments.

General characteristics. As a fully competent engineer in
all conventional aspects of the subject matter of the
functional area of the assignments, plans and conducts
work requiring judgment in the independent evaluation,
selection, and substantial adaptation and modification
o f standard techniques, procedures, and criteria.
Devises new approaches to problems encountered. Re­
quires sufficient professional experience to assure com­
petence as a fully trained worker; or, for positions
primarily o f a research nature, completion o f all re­
quirements for a doctoral degree may be substituted for
experience.
Direction received.

Independently performs most
assignments with instructions as to the general results
expected. Receives technical guidance on unusual or
complex problems and supervisory approval on pro­
posed plans for projects.

when necessary data are insufficient or confirmation by
testing is advisable. Usually performs as a staff advisor
and consultant as to a technical specialty, a type of
facility or equipment, or a program function.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Supervises, coor­

Typical duties and responsibilities. Plans, schedules,
conducts, or coordinates detailed phases o f the
engineering work in a part o f a major project or in a
total project o f moderate scope. Performs work which

dinates, and reviews the work o f a small staff of
engineers and technicians; estimates personnel needs
and schedules and assigns work to meet completion
date. Or, as individual researcher or staff specialist,
may be assisted on projects by other engineers or techni­
cians.

involves conventional engineering practices but may in­
clude a variety of complex features such as conflicting
design requirements, unsuitability o f standard
71

obtained, and recommends major changes to achieve
overall objectives. Or, as individual researcher or staff
specialist, may be assisted on individual projects by
other engineers or technicians.

Engineer VI

General characteristics. Has full technical responsibility
for interpreting, organizing, executing, and coor­
dinating assignments. Plans and develops engineering
projects concerned with unique or controversial prob­
lems which have an important effect on major company
programs. This involves exploration of subject area,
definition of scope and selection of problems for in­
vestigation, and development of novel concepts and ap­
proaches. Maintains liaison with individuals and units
within or outside the organization with responsibility
for acting independently on technical matters pertaining
to the field. Work at this level usually requires extensive
progressive experience including work comparable to
engineer V.

Engineer Vil

General characteristics. Makes decisions and recom­
mendations that are recognized as authoritative and
have an important impact on extensive engineering ac­
tivities. Initiates and maintains extensive contacts with
key engineers and officials of other organizations and
companies, requiring skill in persuasion and negotiation
of critical issues. At this level, individuals will have
demonstrated creativity, foresight, and mature
engineering judgment in anticipating and solving un­
precedented engineering problems, determining pro­
gram objectives and requirements, organizing programs
and projects, and developing standards and guides for
diverse engineering activities.

Direction received. Supervision received is essentially
administrative, with assignments given in terms of
broad, general objectives and limits.
Typical duties and responsibilities. One or more of the
following: (1) In a supervisory capacity, (a) plans,

Direction received. Receives general administrative
direction.

develops, coordinates, and directs a number of large

and important projects or a project of major scope and
importance; or (b) is responsible for the entire engineer­

Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the
following: (1) In a supervisory capacity, is responsible
for (a) an important segment of the engineering pro­
gram of a company with extensive and diversified
engineering requirements, or (b) the entire engineering
program of a company when it is more limited in scope.
The overall engineering program contains critical prob­

ing program o f a company when the program is of
limited complexity and scope. Extent of responsibilities

generally requires a few (three to five) subordinate
supervisors or team leaders with at least one in a posi­
tion comparable to level V. (2) As individual researcher
or worker, conceives, plans, and conducts research in
problem areas of considerable scope and complexity.
The problems must be approached through a series of
complete and conceptually related studies, be difficult
to define, require unconventional or novel approaches,

lems, the solution of which requires major technological
advances and opens the way for extensive related
development. Extent of responsibilities generally re­
quires several subordinate organizational segments or
teams. Recommends facilities, personnel, and funds re­
quired to carry out programs which are directly related
to and directed toward fulfillment of overall company
objectives. (2) As individual researcher and consultant,
is a recognized leader and authority in the company in a
broad area of specialization or in a narrow but intensely
specialized field. Selects research problems to further
the company’s objectives. Conceives and plans in­
vestigations of broad areas of considerable novelty and
importance for which engineering precedents are lack­
ing in areas critical to the overall engineering program.
Is consulted extensively by associates and others, with a
high degree of reliance placed on the incumbent’s scien­
tific interpretations and advice. Typically, will have
contributed inventions, new designs, or techniques
which are regarded as major advances in the field.

and require sophisticated research techniques. Available
guides and precedents contain critical gaps, are only
partially related to the problem, or may be largely lack­
ing due to the novel character of the project. At this
level, the individual researcher generally will have con­
tributed inventions, new designs, or techniques which
are o f material significance in the solution of important
problems. (3) As a staff specialist, serves as the technical
specialist for the organization (division or company) in
the application of advanced theories, concepts, prin­
ciples, and processes for an assigned area of respon­
sibility (i.e., subject matter, function, type of facility or
equipment, or product). Keeps abreast of new scientific
methods and developments affecting the organization
for the purpose of recommending changes in emphasis
of programs or new programs warranted by such
developments.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Directs several
subordinate supervisors or team leaders, some o f whom
are in positions comparable to engineer VI; or, as in­
dividual researcher and consultant, may be assisted on
individual projects by other engineers and technicians.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Plans, organizes,
and supervises the work of a staff of engineers and
technicians. Evaluates progress of the staff and results
72

dustry. Problems are characterized by their lack of
scientific precedents and source material, or lack of suc­
cess of prior research and analysis so that their solution
would represent an advance of great significance and
importance. Performs advisory and consulting work for
the company as a recognized authority for broad pro­
gram areas or in an intensely specialized area of con­
siderable novelty and importance.

E n g in e e r VIII

General characteristics. Makes decisions and recom­
mendations that are recognized as authoritative and
have a far-reaching impact on extensive engineering and
related activities o f the company. Negotiates critical and
controversial issues with top level engineers and officers
of other organizations and companies. Individuals at
this level demonstrate a high degree of creativity,
foresight, and mature judgment in planning, organiz­
ing, and guiding extensive engineering programs and ac­
tivities of outstanding novelty and importance.

R e s p o n s ib ility fo r d ir e c tio n o f o th e r s .

Supervises several

subordinate supervisors or team leaders some of whose
positions are comparable to engineer VII, or individual
researchers some of whose positions are comparable to
engineer VII and sometimes engineer VIII. As an in­
dividual researcher and consultant, may be assisted on

Direction received. Receives general administrative
direction.

individual projects by other engineers or technicians.
Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the
following: ( 1) In a supervisory capacity, is responsible

\O T P : Individuals in charge of a company’s engineer­
ing program may match any of several of the survey job
levels, depending on the size and complexity of
engineering programs. Excluded from the definition
are: (1) Engineers in charge of programs so extensive
and complex (e.g., consisting of research and develop­
ment on a variety of complex products or systems with
numerous novel components) that one or more subor­
dinate supervisory engineers are performing at level
VIII; (2) individuals whose decisions have direct and
substantial effect on setting policy for the organization
(included, however, are supervisors deciding the “ kind
and extent of engineering and related programs’’ within
broad guidelines set a higher level): and (3) individual
researchers and consultants who are recognized as na­
tional and/or international authorities and scientific
leaders in very broad areas of scientific interest and in­
vestigation.

for (a) an important segment of a very extensive and
highly diversified engineering program of a company,
or (b) the entire engineering program of a company
when the program is of moderate scope. The programs
are of such complexity and scope that they are of critical
importance to overall objectives, include problems of
extraordinary difficulty that often have resisted solu­
tion, and consist of several segments requiring subor­
dinate supervisors. Is responsible for deciding the kind
and extent of engineering and related programs needed
to accomplish the objectives of the company, for choos­
ing the scientific approaches, for planning and organiz­
ing facilities and programs, and for interpreting results.
(2) As individual researcher and consultant, formulates
and guides the attack on problems of exceptional dif­
ficulty and marked importance to the company or in­

Technical Support Occupations
ENGINEERING TECHNICIAN

knowledge of engineering theory and principles to their
duties, unlike higher level engineering technicians who
may perform the same duties using only practical skills
and knowledge).
Also excludes engineering technicians:

To be covered by these definitions, employees must
meet all of the following criteria:

1.

2.
3.

Provides semiprofessional technical support for
engineers working in such areas as research, design,
development, testing, or manufacturing process
improvement.

a.

Work pertains to electrical, electronic, or mechanical
components or equipment.

Below level I who are limited to simple tasks
such as: Measuring items of regular shape with a
caliper and computing cross-sectional areas; identify­

ing, weighing, and marking easy-to-identify items; or
recording simple instrument readings at specified in­
tervals; and

Required to have some practical knowledge of
science or engineering; some positions may also
require a practical knowledge of mathematics or
computer science.

b.

Excludes production or maintenance workers, quality
control technicians or testers, modelmakers or other

Above level V who perform work of broad scope
and complexity either by planning and accomplishing
a complete project or study or by serving as an expert
in a narrow aspect of a particular field of engineer­
ing.

Engineering Technician I

craftworkers, chemical or other nonengineering techni­
cians, civil engineering technicians, drafters, designers,
and engineers (who are required to apply a professional

Performs simple routine tasks under close supervision
or from detailed procedures. Work is checked in process
73

or on completion. Performs, at this level, one or a com­
bination of such typical duties as:

variety and complexity, using precedents which are not
fully applicable. May also plan such assignments.
Receives technical advice from supervisor or engineer
(as needed, performs recurring work independently);
work is reviewed for technical adequacy (or conformity
with instructions). May be assisted by lower level techni­
cians and have frequent contact with professionals and
others within the establishment. Performs at this level
one or a combination o f such typical duties as:

Assembles or installs equipment or parts requiring simple
wiring, soldering, or connecting.
Performs simple or routine tasks or tests such as tensile or
hardness tests; operates and adjusts simple test equipment;
records test data.
Gathers and maintains specified records of engineering
data such as tests, drawings, etc.; performs computations by
substituting numbers in specified formulas; and plots data

Works on limited segment of development project; con­
structs experimental or prototype models to meet engineer­
ing requirements; conducts tests or experiments and re­
designs as necessary; and records and evaluates data and

and draws simple curves and graphs.
Engineering Technician II
Performs standardized or prescribed assignments in­
volving a sequence of related operations. Follows stand­
ard work methods on recurring assignments but receives
explicit instructions on unfamiliar assignments;
technical adequacy of routine work is reviewed on com­
pletion; nonroutine work is reviewed in process. Per­
forms, at this level, one or a combination of such typical
duties as:

reports findings.
Conducts tests or experiments requiring selection and
adaptation or modification of a wide variety of critical test
equipment and test procedures; sets up and operates
equipment; records data, measures and records problems of
sufficient complexity to sometimes require resolution at

higher level; and analyzes data and prepares test reports.
Extracts and analyzes a variety of engineering data; ap­
plies conventional engineering practices to develop or
prepare schematics, designs, specifications, parts lists, or
makes recommendations regarding these items. May review
designs or specifications for adequacy.

Assembles or constructs simple or standard equipment or
parts; may service or repair simple instruments or equip­
ment.
Conducts a variety of standardized tests; may prepare test
specimens; sets up and operates standard test equipment;
records test data, pointing out deviations resulting from
equipment malfunction or observational errors.

Engineering Technician V
Performs nonroutine and complex assignments in­
volving responsibility for planning and conducting a
complete project of relatively limited scope or a portion
of a larger and more diverse project. Selects and adapts
plans, techniques, designs, or layouts. Contacts person­
nel in related activities to resolve mutual problems and
coordinate the work; reviews, analyzes, and integrates
the technical work of others. Supervisor or professional
engineer outlines objectives, requirements, and design
approaches; completed work is reviewed for technical
adequacy and satisfaction of requirements. May train
and be assisted by lower level technicians. Performs at
this level one or a combination o f such typical duties as;

Extracts engineering data from various prescribed but
nonstandardized sources; processes the data following welldefined methods including elementary algebra and

geometry; presents the data in prescribed form.
Engineering Technician III
Performs assignments that are not completely stan­
dardized or prescribed. Selects or adapts standard pro­
cedures or equipment, using fully applicable precedents.
Receives initial instructions, equipment requirements,
and advice from supervisor or engineer as needed; per­
forms recurring work independently; and work is
reviewed for technical adequacy or conformity with in­
structions. Performs, at this level, one or a combination
of such typical duties as:

Designs, develops, and constructs major units, devices, or
equipment; conducts tests or experiments; analyzes results
and redesigns or modifies equipment to improve perform­

ance; and reports results.

Constructs components, subunits, or simple models or
adapts standard equipment. May troubleshoot and correct
malfunctions.

Plans or assists in planning tests to evaluate equipment
performance. Determines test requirements, equipment
modification, and test procedures; conducts tests, analyzes
and evaluates data, and prepares reports on findings and
recommendations.

Conducts various tests or experiments which may require
minor modifications in test setups or procedures as well as
subjective judgments in measurement; selects, sets up, and
operates standard test equipment and records test data.

Reviews and analyzes a variety of engineering data to
determine requirements to meet engineering objectives; may

Extracts and compiles a variety of engineering data from

calculate design data; and prepares layouts, detailed
specifications, parts lists, estimates, procedures, etc. May
check and analyze drawings or equipment to determine ad­
equacy of drawings and designs.

field notes, manuals, lab reports, etc.; processes data,
identifying errors or inconsistencies; and selects methods of
data presentation.
Engineering Technician IV

DRAFTER

Performs nonroutine assignments of substantial

Performs drafting work requiring knowledge and
74

including sectional profiles, irregular or reverse curves,
hidden lines, and small or intricate details. Work re­
quires use of most of the conventional drafting techni­
ques and a working knowledge of the terms and pro­
cedures of the industry. Familiar or recurring work is
assigned in general terms; unfamiliar assignments in­
clude information on methods, procedures, sources of

skill in drafting methods, procedures, and techniques.
Prepares drawings of structures, mechanical and elec­
trical equipment, piping and duct systems, and similar
equipment, systems, and assemblies. Drawings are used
to communicate engineering ideas, designs, and infor­
mation in support of engineering fuctions. Uses
recognized systems of symbols, legends, shadings, and

information, and precedents to be followed. Simple
revisions to existing drawings may be assigned with a
verbal explanation of the desired results; more complex
revisions are produced from sketches which clearly
depict the desired product.

lines having specific meanings in drawings.
The following are excluded when they constitute the
primary purpose of the job:

Design work requiring the technical knowledge, skill,
and ability to conceive or originate designs;
Illustrating work requiring artistic ability;
Work involving the preparation of charts, diagrams,
room arrangements, floor plans, etc.;
Cartographic work involving the preparation of maps
or plats and related materials and drawings of geological
structures; and
Supervisory work involving the management of a draft­
ing program or the supervision of drafters when either
constitutes the primary purpose of the job.

Drafter IV
Prepares complete sets of complex drawings which in­
clude multiple views, detail drawings, and assembly
drawings. Drawings include complex design features
that require considerable drafting skill to visualize and
portray. Assignments regularly require the use of
mathematical formulas to compute weights, load
capacities, dimensions, quantities of material, etc.
Working from sketches and verbal information supplied

b\ an engineer or designer, determines the most appro­
priate views, detail drawings, and supplementary infor­
mation needed to complete assignments. Selects re­
quired information from precedents, manufacturers’
catalogs, and technical guides. Independently resolves
most of the problems encountered. Supervisor or
designer may suggest methods of approach or provide
advice on unusually difficult problems.

Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the
following definitions.

Drafter I
Working under close supervision, traces or copies
finished drawings, making clearly indicated revisions.
Uses appropriate templates to draw curved lines.
Assignments are designed to develop increasing skill in
various drafting techniques. Work is spot checked dur­
ing progress and reviewed upon completion.

vo77 . Excludes drafters performing work of similar
difficulty to that described at this level but who provide
support for a variety of organizations which have widely
differing functions or requirements.

x o r t : Excludes drafters performing elementary tasks
while receiving training in the most basic drafting
methods.

Drafter V
Works closely with design originators, preparing
drawings of unusual, complex, or original designs which
require a high degree of precision. Performs unusually
difficult assignments requiring considerable initiative,
resourcefulness, and drafting expertise. Assures that an­
ticipated problems in manufacture, assembly, installa­
tion, and operation are resolved by the drawings pro­
duced. Exercises independent judgment in selecting and
interpreting data based on a knowledge of the design in­
tent. Although working primarily as a drafter, may oc­
casionally perform engineering design work in inter­
preting general designs prepared by others or in com­
pleting missing design details. May provide advice and
guidance to lower level drafters or serve as coordinator
and planner for large and complex drafting projects.

Drafter II
Prepares drawings of simple, easily visualized parts or
equipment from sketches or marked-up prints. Selects
appropriate templates and other equipment needed to
complete assignments. Drawings fit familiar patterns
and present few technical problems. Supervisor pro­
vides detailed instructions on new assignments, gives
guidance when questions arise, and reviews completed
work for accuracy.

Drafter III
Prepares various drawings of parts and assemblies,

COM PU TER O P ER A TO R

process data. Work is characterized by the following:

Monitors and operates the control console of either a
mainframe digital computer or a group of minicom­
puters, in accordance with operating instructions, to

Studies operating instructions to determine equipment
setup needed;
75

Loads equipment with required items (tapes, cards,
paper, etc);

to operating the system and resolving common error
conditions, diagnoses and acts on machine stoppage and
error conditions not fully covered by existing pro­
cedures and guidelines (e.g., resetting switches and
other controls or making mechancial adjustments to
maintain or restore equipment operations). In response
to computer output instructions or error conditions,
may deviate from standard procedures if standard pro­
cedures do not provide a solution. Refers problems
which do not respond to corrective procedures.

Switches necessary auxiliary equipment into system;
Starts and operates control console;
Reviews error messages and makes corrections during
operation or refers problems; and
Maintains operating record.
May test run new' or modified programs and assist in
modifying systems or programs. Included within the
scope of this definition are fully qualified computer
operators, trainees working to become fully qualified
operators, and lead operators providing technical
assistance to lower level positions.
Excluded are:

a.

Peripheral equipment operators and remote
terminal or computer operators who do not run the
co n tro l console of either a mainframe digital com­
puter or a group of minicomputers; and

c.

Adapts to a variety of nonstandard problems which
require extensive operator intervention (e.g., frequent
introduction of new programs, applications, or pro­
cedures). In response to computer output instructions or
error conditions, chooses or devises a course o f action
from among several alternatives and alters or deviates
from standard procedures if standard procedures do not
provide a solution (e.g., reassigning equipment in order
to work around faulty equipment or to transfer chan­
nels); then refers problems. Typically, completed work
is submitted to users without supervisory review.

Workers operating small computer systems where
there is little or no opportunity for operator interven­
tion in program processing and few requirements to
correct equipment malfunctions;

b.

Computer Operator IV

Workers using the computer for scientific, technical
or mathematical work when a knowledge of the sub­
ject matter is required.

Computer Operator V
Resolves a variety of difficult operating problems
(e.g., making unusual equipment connections and rarely
used equipment and channel configurations to direct
processing through or around problems in equipment,
circuits or channels or reviewing test run requirements
and developing unusual system configurations that will
allow test programs to process without interferring with
on-going job requirements). In response to computer
output instructions and error conditions or to avoid loss
of information or to conserve computer time, operator
deviates from standard procedures. Such actions may
materially alter the computer unit’s production plans.
May spend considerable time away from the control sta­
tion providing technical assistance to lower level
operators and assisting programmers, systems analysts,
and subject matter specialists in resolving problems.

Computer Operator I
Receives on-the-job training in operating the control
console (sometimes augmented by classroom training).
Works under close personal supervision and is provided
detailed written or oral guidance before and during as­
signments. As instructed, resolves common operating
problems. May serve as an assistant operator working
under close supervision or performing a portion of a
more senior operator’s work.

Computer Operator II
Processes scheduled routines which present few dif­
ficult operating problems (e.g., infrequent or easily
resolved error conditions). In response to computer out­
put instructions or error conditions, applies standard
operating or corrective procedure. Refers problems
which do not respond to preplanned procedure. May
serve as an assistant operator, working under general
supervision.

Computer Operator VI
In addition to level V responsibilities, uses a
knowledge of program language, computer features,
and software systems to assist in: (1) Maintaining,
modifying, and developing operating systems or pro­
grams; (2) developing operating instructions and techni­
ques to cover problem situations; and (3) switching to
emergency backup procedures.

Computer Operator III
Processes a range o f scheduled routines. In addition

Photographer
Takes pictures requiring a knowledge of photo-

graphic techniques, equipment, and processes. Typical-

76

ly, some familiarity with the company’s activities (e.g.,
scientific, engineering, industrial, technical, retail, com­
mercial, etc.) and some artistic ability are needed at the
higher levels. Depending on the objectives of the assign­
ment, photographers use standard equipment (including
simple still, graphic, and motion picture cameras, video
and television hand cameras, and similar commonly us­
ed equipment) and/or use special-purpose equipment
(including specialized still and graphic cameras, motion
picture production, television studio, and high-speed
cameras and equipment). At the higher levels, a com­
plex accessory system of equipment m a y be used, as
needed, with sound or lighting systems, generators, tim­
ing or measurement control mechanisms, or improvised
stages or environments, etc. Work of photographers at
all levels is reviewed for quality and acceptability.
Photographers may also develop, process, and edit film
or tape, may serve as a lead photographer to lower level
workers, or may do work described at lower levels as
needed.
E x c lu d e d are:
a.

Workers who have no training or experience in
photography techniques, equipment, and processes;

b.

Workers who primarily operate reproduction, offset,
or copying machines, motion picture projectors, or
machines to match, cut. or splice negatives;

c.

Workers who primarily develop, process, print, or
edit photographic film or tape; or develop, maintain,
or repair photographic equipment;

d.

Workers who primarily direct the sequences, actions,
photography, sound, and editing of motion pictures
tor television writer'- and editors; and

e.

Photographers taking pictures for commercial
newspaper or magazine publishers, television sta­
tions, or movie producers.

an uncomplicated photograph.
Typical subjects are employees who are photographed
for identification or publicity of award ceremonies, in­
terviews, banquets, or meetings; or external views of
machinery, supplies, equipment, buildings, damaged
shipments, or other routine subjects photographed to
record the condition at a specified time. Assignments
are usually performed without direct guidance due to
the clear and simple nature of the desired photograph.
Photographer II

Uses standard still cameras, commonly available
lighting equipment, and related techniques to take
photographs which involve limited problems of speed,
motion, color contrast, or lighting. Typically, the sub­
jects photographed are similar to those at level I, but the
technical aspects require more skill. Based on clear-cut
objectives, determines shutter speeds, lens settings and
filters, camera angles, exposure times, and type of film.
Requires familiarity with the situation gained from
similar past experience to arrange for specific emphasis,
balanced lighting, and correction for distortion, etc., as
needed. May use 16mm. or 35mm. motion picture
cameras for simple shots such as moving equipment, in­
dividuals at work or meetings, and the like, where
available or simple artificial lighting is used.
Ordinarily, there is opportunity for repeated shots or
for retakes if the original exposure is unsatisfactory.
Consults with supervisor or more experienced photo­
graphers when problems are anticipated.
Photographer III

Selects from a range of standard photographic equip­
ment for assignments demanding exact renditions, nor­
mally without opportunity for later retakes, when there
are specific problems or uncertainties concerning
lighting, exposure time, color, artistry, etc. Discusses
technical requirements with operating officials or super­
visor and customizes treatment for each situation accor­
ding to a detailed request. Varies camera processes and
techniques and uses the setting and background to pro­
duce esthetic, as well as accurate and informative, pic­
tures. Typically, standard equipment is used at this level
although “ specialized” photography work is usually
performed; may use some special-purpose equipment
under closer supervision.
In typical assignments, photographs: Drawings,
charts, maps, textiles, etc., requiring accurate computa­
tion of reduction ratios and exposure times and precise
equipment adjustments; tissue specimens in fine detail
and exact color when color and condition of the tissue
may deteriorate rapidly; medical or surgical procedures
or conditions which normally cannot be recaptured;
machine or motor parts to show wear or corrosion in
minute wires or gears; specialized real estate or retail
goods for company catalogs or listings where saleability

Positions are matched to the appropriate level based
on the difficulty of, and responsibility for, the
photography performed, including the subject-matter
knowledge and artistry required to fulfill the assign­
ment. While the equipment may be an indication of the
level of difficulty, photographers at the higher levels
may use standard equipment, as needed.
Photographer I

Takes routine pictures in situations where several
shots can be taken. Uses standard still cameras for pic
tures where complications, such as speed, motion, color
contrast, or lighting are not present or where there is not
particular need to overcome them. Photographs are
taken for identification, employee publications, infor­
mation, or publicity purposes. Workers must be able to
focus, center, and provide simple Hash type lighting for
77

is enhanced by the photography; company products,
work, construction sites, or patrons in prescribed detail
to substantiate legal claims, contracts, etc.; artistic or
technical design layouts requiring precise equipment set­
tings; fixed objects on the ground or air-to-air objects
which must be captured quickly and require directing
the pilot to get the correct angle o f approach.
Works independently; solves most problems through
consultations with more experienced photographers, if
available, or through reference sources.

Works under the guidelines and requirements of the
subject-matter area to be photographed. Consults with
supervisors only when dealing with highly unusual prob­
lems or altering existing equipment.

Photographer V
As a top technical expert, exercises imagination and
creative ability in response to photography situations re­
quiring novel and unprecedented treatment. Typically
performs one or m o r e of the following assignments: (1)
Develops and adapts photographic equipment or proc­
esses to meet new and unprecedented situations, e.g.,
works with engineers and physicists to develop and

Photographer IV
Uses special-purpose cameras and related equipment
for assignments in which the photographer usually
makes all the technical decisions, although the objective
of the pictures is determined by operating officials.
Conceives and plans the technical photographic effects
desired by operating officials and discusses modifica­
tions and improvements to their original ideas in light of
the potential and limits of the equipment. Improvises
photographic methods and techniques or selects and
alters secondary photographic features (e.g., scenes,
backgrounds, color, lighting) to carry out the desired
primary objectives. Many assignments afford only one
opportunity to photograph the subject. Typical ex­
amples o f equipment used at this level include ultra-high
speed, motion picture production, studio television,
animation cameras, specialized still and graphic
cameras, electronic timing and triggering devices, etc.
Some assignments are characterized by extremes in
light values and the use of complicated equipment. Sets
up precise photographic measurement and controls
equipment; uses high-speed color photography, syn­
chronized stroboscopic (interval) light sources, and/or
timed electronic triggering; operates equipment from a
remote point; or arranges and uses cameras operating at
several thousand frames per second. In other
assignments, selects and sets up motion picture or televi­
sion cameras and accessories and shoots a part of a pro­
duction or a sequence of scenes, or takes special scenes
to be used for background or special effects in the pro­
duction.

modify equipment for use in extreme conditions such as
excessive heat or cold, radiation, high altitude, under­
water, wind and pressure tunnels, or explosions; (2)
plans and organizes the overall technical photographic
coverage for a variety of events and developments in
phases of a scientific, industrial, medical, or commer­
cial research project or similar program; or (3) creates
the desired illusion or emotional effect through develop­
ing trick or special effects photography for novel situa­
tions requiring a high degree of ingenuity and im­

aginative camera work to heighten, simulate, or alter
reality.
Independently develops, plans, and organizes the
overall technical photographic aspects of the assignment
in collaboration with operating officials who are
responsible for the substance of the project. Uses im­
agination and creative ability to implement objectives
within the capabilities and limitations of cameras and
equipment. May exercise limited control over the
substance of the event to be photographed by staging
the action, suggesting behavior of the principals, and
rehearsing the activity before photographs are taken.

\OT£: Excluded are photographers above level V who
independently plan the objectives, scope, and substance
of the photography for the project in addition to plan­
ning the overall technical photographic coverage.

Clerical
ACCOUNTING CLERK

clerical methods and office practices and procedures as
they relate to the clerical processing and recording of
transactions and accounting information. Levels III and
IV require a knowledge and understanding of the
established and standardized bookkeeping and account­
ing procedures and techniques used in an accounting
system, or a segment of an accounting system, where
there are few variations in the types of transactions

Performs one or more accounting tasks, such as
posting to registers and ledgers; balancing and reconcil­
ing accounts; verifying the internal consistency, com­
pleteness, and mathematical accuracy of accounting
documents; assigning prescribed accounting distribu­
tion codes; examining and verifying the clerical ac­
curacy of various types of reports, lists, calculations,
postings, etc.; preparing journal vouchers; or making
entries or adjustment to accounts.
Levels I and II require a basic knowledge of routine

handled. In addition, some jobs at each level may
require a basic knowledge and understanding of
the terminology, codes, and processes used in an
78

automated accounting system.

tion in the accounting system); and/or analyzes and
reconciles computer printouts with operating unit
reports (contacting units and researching causes of
discrepancies, and taking action to ensure that accounts
balance). Employee resolves problems in recurring
assignments in accordance with previous training and
experience. Supervisor provides suggestions for handl­
ing unusual or nonrecurring transactions. Conformance

Accounting Clerk I

Performs very simple and routine accounting clerical
operations, for example, recognizing and comparing
easily identified numbers and codes on similar and
repetitive accounting documents, verifying ma­
thematical accuracy, and identifying discrepancies and
bringing them to the supervisor’s attention. Supervisor
gives clear and detailed instructions for specific
assignments. Employee refers to supervisor all matters
not covered by instructions. Work is closely controlled
and reviewed in detail for accuracy, adequacy, and
adherence to instructions.

with requirements and technical soundness of com­
pleted work are reviewed by the supervisor or are con­
trolled by mechanisms built into the accounting system.
NOTE. Excluded from level IV are positions responsi­
ble for maintaining either a general ledger or a general
ledger in combination with subsidiary accounts.

Accounting Clerk II

FILE CLERK

Performs one or more routine accounting clerical
operations, such as: Examining, verifying, and correct­
ing accounting transactions to ensure completeness and
accuracy of data and proper identification of accounts,

Files, classifies, and retrieves material in an establish­
ed filing system. May perform clerical and manual tasks
required to maintain files. Positions are classified into
levels on the basis of the following definitions.

and checking that expenditures will not exceed obliga­
tions in specified accounts; totaling, balancing, and
reconciling collection vouchers; posting data to transac­
tion sheets where employee identifies proper accounts
and items to be posted; and coding documents in accor­
dance with a chart (listing) of accounts. Employee
follows specific and detailed accounting procedures.
Completed work is reviewed for accuracy and com­
pliance with procedures.

File Clerk I
Performs routine filing of material that has already
been classified or which is easily classified in a simple
serial cla ssifica tio n system (e .g ., alph ab etical,
chronological, or numerical). As requested, locates
readily available material in files and forwards material;
may fill out withdrawal charge. May perform simple
clerical and manual tasks required to maintain and serv­
ice files.

Accounting Clerk III
Uses a knowledge of double entry bookkeeping in
performing one or more o f the following: Posts actions
to journals, identifying subsidiary accounts affected
and debit and credit entries to be made and assigning
proper codes; reviews computer printouts against
manually maintained journals, detecting and correcting
erroneous postings, and preparing documents to adjust
accounting classifications and other data; or reviews
lists o f transactions rejected by an automated system,
determining reasons for rejections, and preparing
necessary correcting material. On routine assignments,
employee selects and applies established procedures and
techniques. Detailed instructions are provided for dif­
ficult or unusual assignments. Completed work and
methods used are reviewed for technical accuracy.

File Clerk II
Sorts, codes, and files unclassified material by simple
(subject-matter) headings or partly classified material
by finer subheadings. Prepares simple related index and
cross-reference aids. As requested, locates clearly iden­
tified material in files and forwards material. May per­
form related clerical tasks required to maintain and
service files.

File Clerk III
Classifies and indexes file material such as cor­
respondence, reports, technical documents, etc., in an
established filing system containing a number of varied
subject matter files. May also file this material. May
keep records o f various types in conjunction with the
files. May lead a small group of lower level file clerks.

Accounting Clerk IV
KEY ENTRY OPERATOR

Maintains journals or subsidiary ledgers o f an ac­
counting system and balances and reconciles accounts.
Typical duties include one or both of the following:
Reviews invoices and statements (verifying information,
ensuring sufficient funds have been obligated, and, if
questionable, resolving with the submitting unit, deter­
mining accounts involved, coding transactions, and
processing material through data processing for applica­

Operates keyboard-controlled data entry device such
as keypunch machine or key-operated magnetic tape or
disc encoder to transcribe data into a form suitable for
computer processing. Work requires skill in operating
an alphanumeric keyboard and an understanding of
transcribing procedures and relevant data entry equip­
ment.
79

Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the
following definitions.

current and prospective employees, maintain personnel
records and information listings, and prepare and proc­
ess papers on personnel actions (hires, transfers,
changes in pay, etc.). At the higher levels,
clerks/assistants (often titled personnel assistants or
specialists) may perform limited aspects o f a personnel
professional’s work, e.g., interviewing candidates,
recommending placements, and preparing personnel
reports. Final decisions on personnel actions are made
by personnel professionals or managers. Some
clerks/assistants may perform a limited amount of work
in other specialties, such as benefits, compensation, or
employee relations. Typing may be required at any
level.
Excluded are:

Key Entry Operator I
Work is routine and repetitive. Under close supervi­
sion or following specific procedures or detailed in­
structions, works from various standardized source
documents which have been coded and require little or
no selecting, coding, or intepreting of data to be
entered. Refers to supervisor problems arising from er­
roneous items, codes, or missing information.

Key Entry Operator II
Work requires the application o f experience and judg­
ment in selecting procedures to be followed and in
searching for, interpreting, selecting, or coding items to
be entered from a variety of source documents. On oc­
casion, may also perform some routine work as describ­
ed for level I.

a.

b.

a.

Delivering valuables or security-classified mail when
the work requires a continuing knowledge of special
procedures for handling such items;

c.

Weighing mail, determining postage, or recording
and controlling registered, insured, and certified mail
in the mail room;

d.

Making deliveries to unfamiliar or widely separated
buildings or points which are not part of an estab­
lished route; or

e.

Workers who are primarily compensated for duties
outside the employment specialty, such as benefits,
compensation, or employee relations.

Positions are classified into levels on the basis o f the
following definitions. The work described is essentially
at a responsible clerical level at the low levels and prog­
resses to a staff assistant or technician level. At level
III, which is transitional, both types of work are
described. Jobs which match either type o f work
described at level III, or which are combinations o f the
two, can be matched.

Operating motor vehicles;

b.

Workers in positions requiring a bachelor’s degree;
and

e.

Performs various routine duties such as run­
ning errands, operating minor office machines such as
sealers or mailers, opening mail, distributing mail on a
regularly scheduled route or in a familiar area, and
other minor clerical work. May deliver mail that re­
quires some special handling, e.g., mail that is insured,
registered, or marked for special delivery.
Excluded are positions which include any of the
following as significant duties:

Workers whose duties do not require a knowledge of
the company’s personnel rules and procedures, such
as receptionists, messengers, typists, or steno­
graphers;

d.

MESSENGER

Workers who receive additional pay primarily for
maintaining and safeguarding personnel record files
for a company;

c.

n o t e . Excluded are operators above level II using the
key entry controls to access, read, and evaluate the
substance of specific records to take substantive ac­
tions, or to make entries requiring a similar level of
knowledge.

Workers who primarily compute and process pay­
rolls or compute and/or respond to questions on
company benefits or retirement claims;

Directing other workers.

P e rso n n e l C lerk7 A ssistant (E m p lo ym e n t) I

Performs routine tasks which require a knowledge of
company personnel procedures and rules, such as: Pro­
viding simple employment information and appropriate
lists and forms to applicants or employees on types of
jobs being filled, procedures to follow, and where to ob­
tain additional information; ensuring that the proper
company forms are completed for name changes,
locator information, applications, etc., and reviewing
completed forms for signatures and proper entries; or
maintaining assigned segments of company personnel
records, contacting appropriate sources to secure any
missing items, and posting the items, such as, dates of
promotion, transfer, and hire, or rates of pay or per­
sonal data. (If this information is computerized, skill in
coding or entering information may be needed as a
minor duty.) May answer outside inquiries for simple

PERSONNEL CLERK/ASSISTANT
(EMPLOYMENT)
Personnel clerks/assistants (employment) provide
clerical and technical support to personnel professionals
or managers in matters relating to recruiting, hiring,
transfer, change in pay status, and termination of
co m p a n y e m p lo y e e s. At the low er le v e ls,
clerks/assistants primarily provide basic information to
80

factual information, such as verification of dates of
employment in response to telephone credit checks on
employees. Some receptionist or other clerical duties
may be performed. May be assigned work to provide
training for a higher level position.
Detailed company rules and procedures are available
for all aspects of the assignment. Guidance and
assistance on unusual questions are available at all
times. Work is spot checked, often on a daily basis.

Personnel Clerk/Assistant (Employment) II
Examines an d/or processes personnel action
documents using experience in applying company per­
sonnel procedures and policies. Ensures that all infor­
mation is complete and consistent and determines
whether further discussion with applicants or employees
is needed or whether personnel information must be
checked against additional files or listings. Must select
the most appropriate precedent, rule, or procedure as a
basis for the personnel action from a number o f alter­
natives. Responds to varied questions from applicants,
employees, or managers for readily available informa­
tion which can be obtained from file material or
manuals; responses require skill to secure cooperation in
correcting improperly completed personnel action
documents or to explain regulations and procedures.
May provide information to managers on availability of
applicants and status of hiring actions; may verify
employment dates and places supplied on job applica­
tions; may maintain assigned personnel records, and
may administer typing and stenography tests.
Completes routine assignments independently.
Detailed guidance is available for situations which
deviate from established precedents. Clerks/assistants
are relied upon to alert higher level clerks/assistants or
supervisor to such situations. Work may be spot check­
ed periodically.

AND/OR
Type B
Performs routine personnel assignments beyond the
clerical level, such as: Orienting new employees to com­
pany programs, facilities, rules on time and attendance,
and leave policies; computing basic statistical informa­
tion for reports on manpower profiles, E E O progress
and accomplishments, hiring activities, attendance and
leave profiles, turnover, etc.; and screening applicants
for well-defined positions, rejecting those who do not
qualify for available openings for clear-cut reasons,
referring others to appropriate employment interviewer.
Guidance is provided on possible sources of informa­
tion, methods of work, and types of reports needed.
Completed written work receives close technical review
from higher level personnel office employees; other
work may be checked occasionally.

Personnel Clerk/Assistant (Employment) IV
Performs work in support of personnel professionals
which requires a good working knowledge o f personnel
procedures, guides, and precedents. In representative
assignments: Interviews applicants, obtains references
and recommends placement of applicants in a few welldefined occupations (trades or clerical) within a stable
organization or unit; conducts postplacement or exit
interviews to identify job adjustment problems or
reasons for leaving the company; performs routine
statistical analyses related to manpower, e e o , hiring, or
other employment concerns, e.g., compares one set of
data to another set as instructed; and requisitions ap­
plicants through employment agencies for clerical or
similar level jobs. At this level, assistants typically have
a range o f personal contacts within and outside the com­
pany and with applicants, and must be tactful and ar­
ticulate. May perform some clerical work in addition to
the above duties. Supervisor reviews completed work
against stated objectives.

Personnel Clerk/Assistant (Employment) III
Type A

Personnel Clerk/Assistant (Employment) V

Serves as a clerical expert in independently processing
the most complicated types o f personnel actions, e.g.,
temporary employment, rehires, and dismissals, and in
providing information when it is necessary to con­
solidate data from a number o f sources, often with
short deadlines. Screens applications for obvious rejec­
tions. Resolves conflicts in computer listings or other
sources o f employee information. Locates lost
documents or reconstructs information using a number
of sources. May check references of applicants when in­
formation in addition to dates and places o f past work is
needed, and judgment is required to ask appropriate
routine follow-up questions. May provide guidance to
lower level clerks. Supervisory review is similar to level
II.

Workers at this level perform duties similar to level
IV, but are responsible for more complicated cases and
work with greater independence. Performs limited
aspects of professional personnel work dealing with a
variety of occupations common to the company which
are clear cut and stable in employment requirements.
Typical duties include: Researching recruitment
sources, such as employment agencies or State man­
power offices, and advising managers on the availability
o f candidates in common occupations; screening and
selecting employees for a few routine, nonpermanent
jobs, such as summer employment; or answering in­
quiries on a controversial issue, such as a hiring or pro­
motion freeze. These duties often require considerable
skill and diplomacy in communications. Other typical
81

of purchases already made and who do not analyze
the facts at hand and do not make recommendations
for either extension of delivery dates or for other
similar modifications to the purchase agreement, as
described at level II, b;

duties may include: Surveying managers for future hir­
ing requirements; developing newspaper vacancy an­
nouncements or explaining job requirements to employ­
ment agencies for administrative or professional posi­
tions; or reviewing the effect o f corporate personnel
procedural changes on local employment programs
(e.g., automation o f records, new affirmative action
goals). May incidentally perform some clerical duties.
Supervisory review is similar to level IV.

f.

g.

Purchasing Assistant I
According to detailed procedures or company regula­
tions, examines documents such as requisitions, pur­
chase orders, invitations to bid, contracts, and support­
ing papers. Reviews the purchase requisition to deter­
mine whether the correct item description, price, quanti­
ty, discount terms, shipping instructions, and/or
delivery terms have been included and selects the ap­
propriate purchase phrases and forms from prescribed
company lists or files. Obtains any missing or corrected
information, prepares the purchase order, and gives it
to the buyer for approval when satisfied that the infor­
mation is complete and the computations are accurate.
Contacts are usually within the establishment to verify
or correct factual information. May contact vendors for
information about purchases already made and may
reorder items under routine and existing purchase ar­
rangements where few, if any, questions arise. Receives
detailed instructions on new assignments. Refers ques­
tions to supervisor who may spot check work on a daily
basis.
Assistants at this level examine documents for order
of standard goods, supplies, equipment, or services,
and/or for order o f specialized items when the complex­
ity of the item does not affect the assistant’s work, i.e.,
the assistant is not required to use considerable judg­
ment to find a previous transaction to use as a guideline,
as described at level II, a.

Purchasing clerks or assistants, typists, file clerks,
secretaries, receptionists, and trainees, who do not
examine purchase requisitions or other documents to
assure accuracy, completeness, and correct process­
ing; workers in these excluded positions may prepare
and type the final purchase order, entering such pre­
scribed items as quantities, model numbers, ad­
dresses, or prices, after a higher level employee
screens the requisition and assures the purchase order
data are complete and accurate.

b.

Workers who process or expedite the purchase of
items for direct sale, either wholesale or retail;

c.

Purchasing Assistant II
Assistants at this level perform assignments described
in paragraphs a or b, or a combination of the two.

Workers who as a primary duty: Maintain a filing
system or listing to monitor inventory levels; reorder
items by phone under ongoing contracts; or receive
and disburse supplies and materials for use in the
company;

d.

a.

Production expediters or controllers who primarily
ensure the timely arrival and coordination of
purchased materials with assembly line or production
schedules and requirements;

e.

Buyers.

Positions are classified into levels based on the
following definitions according to the complexity o f the
work, the conditions o f the purchase, and the amount
o f supervision.

Provides clerical or technical support to buyers or
contract specialists who deal with suppliers, vendors,
contractors, etc., outside the company to purchase
goods, materials, equipment, services, etc. Assistants at
level I examine requisitions and purchase documents,
such as purchase orders, invitations to bid, contracts,
and supporting papers; they review, verify, prepare, or
control the documents to assure accuracy, com­
pleteness, and correct processing. Assistants at levels II
and III may also expedite purchases already made, by
contacting vendors and analyzing and reporting on sup­
plier problems related to delivery, availability of goods,
or any other part of the purchase agreement. Assistants
at level III may also develop technical information for
buyers, e.g., comparative information on materials
sought. All assignments require a practical knowledge
of company purchasing procedures and operations and
experience in applying company regulations, guidelines,
or manuals to specific transactions. Assistants may type
the purchasing documents they prepare or may perform
work described at lower levels, as needed. Final deci­
sions on purchasing transactions are made by buyers or
contract specialists.
Excluded are:

a.

Positions requiring a bachelor’s degree; and

h.
PURCHASING ASSISTANT

Positions which require a technical knowledge of
equipment characteristics and parts, production
control, or manufacturing methods and procedures;

Purchasing expediters who only check on the status
82

Reviews and prepares purchase documents for spe­
cialized items, such as items with optional features or
technical equipment requiring precise specifications.
Since the transactions usually require special pur­
chasing conditions, e.g., multiple deliveries, provi­
sion of spare parts, or renegotiation of terms, con­
siderable judgment is needed to find a previous trans­
action to use as a guideline; as required, adapts
the phrases or clauses in the guideline transaction
that apply to the purchase at hand. In some cases,

the contract specifications with specialists, buyers,
suppliers, and users. Recommends revisions to the
contract or purchase agreement, if needed, based
upon company requirements. May reorder technical
and specialized items within existing purchase con­
tracts which contain special purchasing conditions.
Questions which arise are handled similarly to those
in level II, b.

reviews purchasing documents prepared by lower
level clerks or prepared by personnel in other com­
pany units to detect processing discrepancies or to
clarify the purchase papers; corrects clerical errors.
May advise company employees on how to prepare
requisitions for items to be ordered.
b. Expedites purchases by making a recommendation
for action based on simple analysis of the facts at
hand, company guidelines, and the background of
the purchase: Contacts suppliers to obtain informa­
tion on deliveries or on contracts; based on clearcut guidelines for each type of purchase and previous
performance of supplier, availability of item, or
impact of delay, recommends extension of delivery
date or other similar modifications. In some cases,
decides to refer problems to production, packaging,
or other company specialists. May reorder standard
items under a variety of existing purchase agreements
where judgment is needed to ask further questions

and follow up and coordinate transactions. Assist­
ants at this level expedite purchases of standard
goods, supplies, equipment, or services, and/or pur­
chases of specialized items when the complexity of
the item does not affect the assistant’s work, i.e., the
assistant does not coordinate requests for minor
deviations from contract specifications, etc., as
described at level III, b.

Purchasing assistants at this level receive instructions
about new procurement policies. Assistants seek
guidance on highly unusual problems but are expected
to propose solutions for supervisory approval. Super­
visory review is similar to level II; drafts o f special
clauses, etc., are reviewed in detail.

Assistants at this level coordinate information with
company buyers and with suppliers outside the com­
pany and keep others informed of the progress of tran­
sactions. Major changes in company regulations and
procedures are explained by supervisor. Refers unusual
situations to supervisor, who also spot checks all com­
pleted work for adequacy.

n o t e : Excluded are higher level workers who: Ne­
gotiate agreements with contractors on minor changes
in the terms of an established contract; or analyze and
make recommendations about proposals of specialized
equipment, about the solvency and performance of
firms, or about clerical processing methods needed to fit
new purchasing policies.

Purchasing Assistant III

SECRETARY

Assistants at this level have a good understanding o f
purchase circumstances for specialized items—what to
buy, where to buy, and under what terms buyers
negotiate and make purchases. They perform
assignments described in paragraphs a, b, or c, or a
combination o f any o f these.
a.

c. Furnishes technical support to buyers or contract
specialists, using a detailed knowledge of company
purchasing transactions and procedures, e.g., ana­
lyzes bids for contracts to determine the possible
number and interest of bidders for standard com­
modities and services; assembles contracts and drafts
special clauses, terms, or requirements for unprece­
dented purchases, e.g., for specially designed equip­
ment or for complex one-time transactions; gathers
and summarizes information on the availability of
special equipment and the ability of suppliers to
meet company needs.

Provides principal secretarial support in an office,
usually to one individual, and, in some cases, also to the
subordinate staff o f that individual. Maintains a close
and highly responsive relationship to the day-to-day ac­
tivities o f the supervisor and staff. Works fairly in­
dependently receiving a minimum o f detailed supervi­
sion and guidance. Performs varied clerical and
secretarial duties requiring a knowledge o f office
routine and an understanding of the organization, pro­
grams, and procedures related to the work o f the office.
Exclusions. Not all positions titled “ secretary”
possess the above characteristics. Examples o f positions
which are excluded from the definition are as follows.

Reviews and prepares purchase documents for highly
specialized items where few precedent transactions
exist that can be used as guidelines and where provi­
sions such as fixed-price contracts with provisions for
escalation, price redetermination, or cost incentives
are needed. Complicated provisions for progress
payments, for testing and evaluating the ordered
item, or for meeting company production schedules
may also exist. As necessary, drafts special clauses,
terms, or requirements for unusual purchases. Pro­
vides authoritative information to others on com­
pany purchase procedures and assures that
documents and transactions agree with basic pro­
curement policies.

a.

b.

Clerks or secretaries working under the direction of
secretaries or administrative assistants as described
in e;
Stenographers not fully performing secretarial

duties;
c.

83

Stenographers or secretaries assigned to two or
more professional, technical, or managerial persons
of equivalent rank;

d.

b. Expedites purchases of specialized items when the
complexity of the items does affect the assistant’s
work. (See level II, b.) Investigates supplier problems
and coordinates requests for minor deviations from

Assistants or secretaries performing any kind of

e.

f.

technical work, e.g., personnel, accounting, or legal
work;
Administrative assistants or supervisors performing
duties which are more difficult or more responsible
than the secretarial work described in LR-1 through
LR-4;
Secretaries receiving additional pay primarily for
maintaining confidentiality of payroll records or
other sensitive information;

g.

Secretaries performing routine receptionist, typing,
and filing duties following detailed instructions and
guidelines; these duties are less responsible than those
described in LR-1 below; and

h.

each level. Executive’s program(s) are usually interlock­
ed on a direct and continuing basis with other major
organizational segments, requiring constant attention to
extensive formal coordination, clearances, and pro­
cedural controls. Executive typically has: Financial deci­
sionmaking authority for assigned program(s); con­
siderable impact on the entire organization’s financial
position or image; and responsibility for, or has staff
specialists in, such areas as personnel and administra­
tion for assigned organization. Executive plays an im­
portant role in determining the policies and major pro­
grams o f the entire organization, and spends con­
siderable time dealing with outside parties actively in­
terested in assigned program(s) and current or con­
troversial issues.

Trainees.

Classification by Level
Secretary jobs which meet the required characteristics
are matched at one of five levels according to two fac­
tors: (a) Level of the secretary's supervisor within the
overall organizational structure, and (b) level of the
secretary’s responsibility. Table C-5 indicates the level
of the secretary for each combination of factors.

Level of secretary’s responsibility (LR)

LS-1. Organizational structure is not complex and in­

This factor evaluates the nature o f the work relation­
ship between the secretary and the supervisor or staff,
and the extent to which the secretary is expected to exer­
cise initiative and judgment. Secretaries should bematched at the level best describing their level of
responsibility. When a position’s duties span more
than one LR level, the introductory paragraph at the
beginning o f each LR level should be used to deter­
mine which of the levels best matches the position.
(Typically, secretaries performing at the higher levels o f
responsibility also perform duties described at the lower
levels.)

ternal procedures and administrative controls are simple
and informal; supervisor directs staff through face-toface meetings.

LR-1. Carries out recurring office procedures in­

Level of secretary’s supervisors (LS)
Secretaries should be matched at one of the three LS
levels below best describing the organization o f the
secretary’s supervisor.

dependently. Selects the guideline or reference which
fits the specific case. Supervisor provides specific in­
structions on new assignments and checks completed
work for accuracy. Performs varied duties including or
comparable to the following:

LS-2. Organizational structure is complex and is divid­
ed into subordinate groups that usually differ from each
other as to subject matter, function, etc.; and supervisor
usually directs staff through intermediate supervisors;
internal procedures and administrative controls are for­
mal. An entire organization (e.g., division, subsidiary,
or parent organization) may contain a variety of subor­
dinate groups which meet the LS-2 definition.
Therefore, it is not unusual for one LS-2 supervisor to
report to another LS-2 supervisor.
The presence of subordinate supervisors does not by
itself mean LS-2 applies, e.g., a clerical processing
organization divided into several units, each performing
very similar work, is placed in LS-1.
In smaller organizations or industries such as retail
trade, with relatively few organizational levels, the
supervisor may have an impact on the policies and may
deal with important outside contacts, as described in
LS-3.

a.

Responds to routine telephone requests which have
standard answers; refers calls and visitors to ap­
propriate staff. Controls mail and assures timely
staff response; may send form letters.

b.

As instructed, maintains supervisor’s calendar,
makes appointments, and arranges for meeting
rooms.

c.

Reviews materials prepared for supervisor’s approval
for typographical accuracy and proper format.

d.

Maintains recurring internal reports, such as: Time
and leave records, office equipment listings, cor­
respondence controls, training plans, etc.

e.

Requisitions supplies, printing, maintenance, or
other services. Types, takes and transcribes dictation,
and establishes and maintains office files.

LR-2.

Handles differing situations, problems, and

LS-3. Organizational structure is divided into two or
more subordinate supervisory levels (of which at least
one is a managerial level) with several subdivisions at
84

subordinate office(s) for periodic or special con­
ferences, reports, inquiries, etc. Shifts clerical staff
to accommodate workload needs.

deviations in the work o f the office according to the
supervisor’s general instructions, priorities, duties,
policies, and program goals. Supervisor may assist
secretary with special assignments. Duties include or are
comparable to the following:

a.

LS-4.

Handles a wide variety of situations and con­
flicts involving the clerical or administrative functions
of the office which often cannot be brought to the atten­
tion o f the executive. The executive sets the overall ob­
jectives of the work. Secretary may participate in
developing the work deadlines. Duties include or are
comparable to the following:

Screens telephone calls, visitors, and incoming cor­
respondence; personally responds to requests for in­
formation concerning office procedures; determines
which requests should be handled by the supervisor,
appropriate staff members, or other offices. May
prepare and sign routine, nontechnical cor­
respondence in own or supervisor’s name.

a.

Composes correspondence requiring some under­
standing of technical matters; may sign for executive
when technical or policy content has been authoriz­
ed.

b.

b. Schedules tentative appointments without prior
clearance. Makes arrangements for conferences and
meetings and assembles established background
materials, as directed. May attend meetings and
record and report on the proceedings.

Notes commitments made by executive during
meetings and arranges for staff implementation. On
own initiative, arranges for staff member to repre­
sent organization at conferences and meetings,
establishes appointment priorities, or reschedules or
refuses appointments or invitations.

c.

Reviews outgoing materials and correspondence for
internal consistency and conformance with super­
visor’s procedures; assures that proper clearances
have been obtained, when needed.

d.

Collects information from the files or staff for
routine inquiries on office program(s) or periodic
reports. Refers nonroutine requests to supervisor or
staff.

c.

Reads outgoing correspondence for executive’s ap­
proval and alerts writers to any conflict with the file
or departure from policies or executive’s viewpoints;
gives advice to resolve the problems.

e.

Explains to subordinate staff supervisor’s re­
quirements concerning office procedures. Coor­
dinates personnel and administrative forms for the
office and forwards for processing.

d.

Summarizes the content of incoming materials,
specially gathered information, or meetings to assist
executive; coordinates the new information with
background office sources; and draws attention to
important parts or conflicts.

Uses greater judgment and initiative to deter­
mine the approach or action to take in nonroutine situa­
tions. Interprets and adapts guidelines, including un­
written policies, precedents, and practices, which are
not always completely applicable to changing situations.
Duties include or are comparable to the following:

e.

In the executive’s absence, ensures that requests for
action or information are relayed to the appropriate
staff member; as needed, interprets request and helps
implement action; makes sure that information is
furnished in timely manner; decides whether ex­
ecutive should be notified of important or emergency
matters.

LR-3.

a.

Excludes secretaries performing any o f the following

Based on a knowledge of the supervisor’s views,
composes correspondence on own initiative about
administrative and general office policies for super­
visor’s approval.

b.

a.

b.

Prepares agenda for conferences; explains discussion
topics to participants; drafts introductions and
develops background information and prepares
outlines for executive or staff member(s) to use in
writing speeches.

c.

Reads publications, regulations, and directives and
takes action or refers those that are important to the
supervisor and staff.

Acts as office manager for the executive’s organiza­
tion, e.g., determines when new procedures are need­
ed for changing situations and devises and im­
plements alternatives; revises or clarifies procedures
to eliminate conflict or duplication; identifies and
resolves various problems that affect the orderly flow
of work in transactions with parties outside the
organization.

Advises individuals outside the organization on the
executive’s views on major policies or current issues
facing the organization; contacts or responds to con­
tacts from high-ranking outside officials (e.g., city or
State officials, Members of Congress, presidents of

Anticipates and prepares materials needed by the
supervisor for conferences, correspondence, ap­
pointments, meetings, telephone calls, etc., and in­
forms supervisor on matters to be considered.

c.

duties:

d.

e.

Prepares special or one-time reports, summaries, or
replies to inquiries, selecting relevant information
from a variety of sources such as reports, documents,
correspondence, other offices, etc., under general
direction.
Advises secretaries in subordinate offices on new
procedures; requests information needed from the
85

national unions or large national or international
firms, etc.) in unique situations. These officials may
be relatively inaccessible, and each contact typically
must be handled differently, using judgment and
discretion.

memoranda, and letters; composing simple letters from
general instructions; reading and routing incoming
mail; answering routine questions; etc.

TYPIST
Uses a manual, electric, or automatic typewriter to
type various materials. Included are automatic
typewriters that are used only to record text and update
and reproduce previously typed items from magnetic
cards or tape. May include typing of stencils, mats, or
similar materials for use in duplicating processes. May
do clerical work involving little special training, such as
keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or
sorting and distributing incoming mail.

T a b le C -5. C rite ria fo r m a tc h in g s e c re ta rie s by level
Level of
secretary’s
supervisor
LS-1
LS-2
LS-3

Level of secretary’s responsibility
LR-1

LR-2

LR-3

LR-4

I

II

I

III
IV

III
IV
V

IV
V
V

I

STENOGRAPHER

Excluded from this definition is work that involves:

Primary duty is to take dictation using shorthand and
to transcribe the dictation. May also type from written
copy. May operate from a stenographic pool. May occa­
sionally transcribe from voice recordings.
Excluded from this definition are:
a.

c.

Stenographers, such as shorthand reporters, who
record material verbatim at hearings, conferences, or
similar proceedings.

The use of varitype machines, composing equipment,
or automatic equipment in preparing material for
printing; and

c.

Stenographers who take dictation involving the fre­
quent use of a wide variety of technical or specialized
vocabulary. Typically this kind of vocabulary cannot
be learned in a relatively short period of time, e.g., a
month or two.

d.

b.

Secretaries providing the principal secretarial support
in an office and performing more responsible and
discretionary tasks, as described in LR-1 thru LR-4 in
the secretary definition.

Typing directly from spoken material that has been
recorded on discs, cylinders, belts, tapes, or other
similar media;

Familiarity with specialized terminology in various
keyboard commands to manipulate or edit the
recorded text to accomplish revisions, or to perform
tasks such as extracting and listing items from the
text, or transmitting text to other terminals, or using
sort commands to have the machine reorder material.
Typically requires the use of automatic equipment
which may be either computer linked or have a pro­
grammable memory so that material can be organiz­
ed in regularly used formats or preformed para­
graphs which can then be coded and stored for future
use in letters or documents.

Trainee positions not requiring a fully qualified
stenographer.

b.

a.

Typist I
Performs one o f more o f the following: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; or routine typing of forms,
insurance policies, etc; or setting up simple standard

Stenographer I
Takes and transcribes dictation, receiving specific
assignments along with detailed instructions on such re­
quirements as forms and presentation. The transcribed
material is typically reviewed in rough draft and the
final transcription is reviewed for conformance with the
rough drafts. May maintain files, keep simple records,
or perform other relatively routine clerical tasks.

tabulations; or copying more complex tables already set
up and spaced properly.

N o t e : The occupational titles1 and definitions for ac­
counting clerks, drafters, file clerks, key entry operators,
stenographers, and typists are the same as those used in the
Bureau’s program of occupational wage surveys in
metropolitan areas.
Revised definitions for stenographer and typist were in­
troduced into the area surveys in calendar year 1981; the
4-level accounting clerks, in 1980; and the 5-level drafter,
in 1979. Three years are required to bring a new job
definition into all areas covered by the program.

Stenographer II
Takes and transcribes dictation, determining the most
appropriate format. Performs stenographic duties re­

quiring significantly greater independence and respon­
sibility than stenographer I. Supervisor typically pro­
vides general instruction. Work requires a thorough
working knowledge of general business and office pro­
cedures and o f the specific business operations,
organizations, policies, procedures, files, workflow,
etc. Uses this knowledge in performing stenographic
duties and responsible clerical tasks such as maintaining
followup files; assembling material for reports,

' Before 1981, level designations differed between the area and national
surveys. See National Survey o f Professional, Administrative,Technical, and
Clerical Pay, March 1980, Bulletin 2081 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1980),
p . 68, fo r d etails.

86

technical or unusual words or foreign language
materials; or planning layout and typing of complicated
statistical tables to maintain uniformity and balance in
spacing. May type routine form letters, varying details
to suit circumstances.

Typist II
Performs one or more o f the following: Typing
material in final form when it involves combining
material from several sources; or responsibility for cor­
rect spelling; syllabification, punctuation, etc., of

Classification by Standard Occupational Codes
found in the soc manual. For example, the p a t c oc­
cupations Accountant, Chief Accountant, Auditor, and

The titles and the 3- or 4-digit codes to the right o f the
b ls

(P A T C )

occupations in table C-6 are taken from the

1980 edition o f the Standard Occupational Classifica­

Public Accountant are all classified in the soc manual

tion Manual

as accountants and auditors. The soc occupation (code
1412) includes a variety o f accounting occupations (e.g.,
budget accountants, credit analysts, accounting
methods analysts) that are excluded from the p a t c
description.

(S O C ),

issued by the U.S. Department of

Commerce, Office o f Federal Statistical Policy and
Standards.

In general, the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ occupa­
tional descriptions are much more specific than those

T a b le C-6. C o m p a ris o n o f o c c u p a tio n s in th e p ro fe s s io n a l, a d m in is tra tiv e , te c h n ic a l, a n d c le ric a l (PATC) su rvey w ith th e
S ta n d a rd O c c u p a tio n a l C la s s ific a tio n M a n u a l
patc

occupation

Standard Occupational Classification Manual (SOC)

SOC
code
A cco u n ta n ts ........
Chief accountants
Auditors
Public accountants
Job analysts
Directors of personnel
A tto rn e y s ...............

1412
1412
1412
1412
143
143
211

Accountants
Accountants
Accountants
Accountants

and
and
and
and

auditors
auditors
auditors
auditors

Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists
Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists
Lawyers

Buyers...............................................
Programmers/programmer analysts
Systems analysts ...................

1449
397
1712

Purchasing agents and buyers, not elsewhere classified
Programmers
Computer systems analysts

Chemists
Engineers

1845
162-3

Chemists, except biochemists
Engineers

Engineering technicians
Drafters
Computer operators
Photographers

371
312
4612
326

Electrical and electronic engineering technologists and technicians
Drafting occupations
Computer operators
Photographers

Accounting clerks
File clerks
Key entry operators
Messengers
Personnel clerks/assistants
Purchasing assistants
Secretaries
Stenographers
Typists

4712
4696
4793
4745
4692
4664
4622
4623
4624

Bookkeepers and accounting and auditing clerks
File clerks
Data entry operators
Messengers
Personnel clerks, except payroll and timekeeping
Order clerks
Secretaries
Stenographers
Typists

87

Appendix D. Comparison of Salaries
in Private Industry with Salaries
of Federal Employees
Under the General Schedule

The survey was designed to provide a basis for com­
paring salaries under the General Schedule classification
and pay system with salaries in private enterprise. To
assure collection of pay data for work levels equivalent
to the General Schedule grade levels, the Office of Per­
sonnel Management ( O P M ) , in cooperation with the

88

Bureau of Labor Statistics, prepared the occupational
work level definitions used in the survey. Definitions
were graded by O P M according to standards established
for each grade level. Table D-l shows the surveyed jobs
grouped by work levels equivalent to General Schedule
grade levels.

Table D-1. Comparison of average annual salaries in private industry with salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule
—

Occupation and level
surveyed by BLS'

O'

tC c *
X c\
cr> —
^ -

Salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule, March 19843
Step*

Average,5
March
1984

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

GS 1

$ 9 208

69 023

$9,324

$9,624

$9 924

$10,224

$10 400

$10 697

$10 995

$11 008

$11,283

Grade4

c

i_______

File clerks I
...................
M e s s e n g e rs .............

Average
annual
salary
in private
indu stry.2
March 1984

A cc o u n tin g c le rks I
D rafters I
File clerks II
Kev entry operators I
T yp ists I

11 704
I ? 596
I I 981
1P.81 1
11793

GS 2

10.477

10.146

'0 386

10 722

11.008

I ' 129

11 466

11.783

12.110

12.437

12.764

A c coun ting clerks II
D rafters II
E ngineering te c h n ic ia n s I
File clerks III
Key entry operators II
Personnel c le rk s /a s s is ta n ts I
S tenographers I
T yp ists II

14 060
16 1?0
16.169
13 676
16.898
13 379
17 241
16 160

GS 3

11 8 8 1

11.070

11 439

1 1 808

12 177

13.546

12.915

13.284

13 653

14.022

14 394

A ccoun ting clerks III
.................
C om puter op erators I ...............
D rafters III
.................
E ngineering te c h n ic ia n s II
Personnel c le rk s /a s s is ta n ts II
P hotographers I
P urchasing a s s is ta n ts I
S ecretaries I
S tenographers II

16.627
19 068
19.098
18.733
16.160
17,348
16.629
16 296
20.376

GS 4

13.821

12 427

12 841

13.255

1.3.669

14 083

14 497

M 911

1 5 325

1 5 739

16.153

A c c o u n tin g c le rk s IV
A c c o u n ta n ts I
A udito rs I ..........................
Buyers I
C hem ists I
C om puter op erators II
D rafters I V ....................
Engineers I ...............
E ngineering te c h n ic ia n s III
Personnel c le rk s /a s s is ta n ts III
P hotoaraphers I I ........................
P rogram m ers/program m er an a ly s ts I
P urchasing a s s is ta n ts II
S ecretaries II

20.244
19,843
19.671
20 226
21 609
16 337
23.067
26.163
22.361
18 268
21.738
19.801
20.001
16.920

GS 5

15.759

'3.903

M 366

14.829

15 755

16 218

16 6 8 1

17.144

17.607

'8.070

C om puter op erators III
Personnel c le rk s /a s s is ta n ts IV
P urchasing a s s is ta n ts III
S ecretaries III

19.743
21.830
26 916
19.053

GS 6

17.849

15.497

16.014

16.531

17 048

17.565

18.082

18.699

19 116

19.633

20.150

A cco u n ta n ts II
A udito rs I I .........................................
Buyers II
C hem ists II
C om puter op erators IV
D rafters V ..............................................
Engineers I I ............................................
E ngineering te c h n ic ia n s IV
Job an a ly s ts II .............
Photographers I I I ...................................
P rogram m ers/program m er an a ly s ts II

24.326
25.391
24 676
25.481
2.3 107
29.067
28.899
26 362
22 845
26 974
22.815

GS 7

19.551

17 221

'7.796

18.369

18.943

19.517

20.091

20 665

21 239

21.813

22.387

See footnotes at end of table

Table D-1. Continued—Comparison of average annual salaries in private industry with salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule

Occupation

a n d le v e l

s u rv e y e d b y BLS’

Average
annual
salary
in private
in d u s try ,2
March 1984

Salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule, March 19843
Average,5
March
1984

Grade*

Step6
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Public a cco u n ta n ts I ............................ $19 142
S ecretaries I V ..........................................
21 525
C om puter operators V ........................
S ecretaries V
A cc o u n ta n ts I I I .....................................
A tto rn e ys I
A u d ito rs I I I ......................
Buyers III
C hem ists III
.
Enqineers III
E ngineerinq te c h n ic ia n s V
Job a n alysts III
...............
P hotographers IV . .
Program m ers/program m er analysts III
Public acc o u n ta n ts II
S ystem s an a ly s ts I

vC

o

28 72^
28.918
20.209
30.610
30.441
32.761
30.084
27.987
28 749
27 188
21.164
27.084

A cc o u n ta n ts IV
A ttorneys II .
A udito rs I V ...........
Buyers I V ......................
C hem ists IV . . . . . . .
C hief a c c o u n ta n ts I ...............................
D irecto rs of personnel I
Engineers IV
Job a n alysts IV
Program m ers/program m er analysts IV
P ublic a c c o u n ta n ts III
S ystem s an a ly s ts II

35.716
35.238
37 378
37 843
37.643
.35 199
35 444
39.005
34 880
.31.929
24.702
32 .324

A c c o u n ta n ts V ...................
A ttorneys III
C hem ists V
C hief a c c o u n ta n ts II
D irecto rs of personnel II
Engineers V ...............................
Proqram m ers/program m er analysts V
Public a c c o u n ta n ts IV
System s a n alysts III

44,466
44 743
48.6M
44.128
42 620
46 349
38.868
29.663
38 057

A cc o u n ta n ts VI ........................
A ttorneys IV . .
C hem ists VI
........................
C hief a c c o u n ta n ts III .
D irecto rs of personnel III .
Enqineers V I ..........................
S ystem s a n alysts IV .

66.618
55.462
84.163
56 816
58.717
53.749
44.748

A ttorneys V
.........................................
C h e m is ts V Il
..........................
C hief a cco u n ta n ts IV ..........................
D irecto rs of personnel IV
Enqineers VII
........................
S ystem s an a ly s ts V ....................

70 478
63.072
69,838
65 874
61 166
53.917

A ttorneys V I .........................................
Engineers VIII .....................................

87.568
70.788

See footnotes at end of table

$22,140

$ 19.073

$19,709

$20,348

$20 981

$21 617

$22,253

$22,889

$23,525

$24 161

$24,797

23.666

21.066

21.768

22.4 70

23.172

23.874

24 576

25.278

25.980

26.682

27.384

28.760

25 489

26.339

27 189

28.039

28.889

29 739

30.589

31 4.39

32.289

33.139

1 34.868

30.549

31 567

32.886

33.60.3

34 621

35.639

36,657

37 675

38.693

39.711

41.957

36.327

37.538

38 7 49

39.960

41.171

42 382

43.593

44.804

46015

47.226

GS 14

27.223
24.700

49.777

42.928

44 359

45.790

47 221

48.652

50.083

51.514

52.945

54.376

55.807

GS 15

59.045

50.495

52 178

53.861

55.544

57,227

58.910

60.593

62.276

63.959

65 642

GS 8
GS 9
l

i
I

i
;
i
j

GS 11
|
i
|
i
|
'
I

I

GS 12
j

1

1

GS 13

|

[

Footnotes to table D-1
’ For d e fin itio n s , see appendix C.
2 Survey fin d in g s as sum m arized in table 1 of th is bulletin. For scope of survey, see appendix A.
3 General Schedule rates in e ffe c t in March 1984, the reference date of the patc survey. Rates
re fle c t 0.5-percent increase e ffe c tiv e in May 1984, retroactive to January 1984.
4 C orresponding grades in the General Schedule were supplied by the O ffice of Personnel
M anagem ent.
5 Mean salary of all G eneral S chedule em ployees in each grade as of March 31,1984. Not lim ited
to Federal em ployees in o c c u p a tio n s surveyed by bls .
• S ection 5335 of title 5 of the U.S. Code provides for w ithin-grade increases on c o n d itio n that the
em ployee’s w ork is of an acce ptab le level of com petence as defined by the head o f the agency. For
em ployees w ho m eet th is c o n d itio n , the service requirem ents are 52 calendar weeks for each ad­
vancem ent to salary rates 2, 3, and 4; 104 weeks for each advancem ent to salary rates 5, 6, 7; and
156 w eeks fo r each advancem ent to salary rates 8, 9, and 10. Section 5336 provides th a t an a d di­

tional within-grade increase may be granted w ithin any 52-week period in recognition of high quality
perform ance above tha t o rd in a rily found in the type of p o sitio n concerned.
N o t e : Under Section 5303 of title 5 of the U.S. Code, higher m inim um rates (but not exceeding the
m axim um salary rate prescribed in the General S chedule for the grade or level) and a correspon­
ding new salary range may be esta blished fo r p o sitio n s or occu p a tio n s under certain conditions.
The c o n d itio n s include a find in g th a t the G overnm ent's re cruitm e nt or retention of w ell-qualified
persons is s ig n ific a n tly handicapped because the salary rates in private industry are sub stantia lly
above the salary rates of the s ta tu to ry pay schedules. As of M arch 1984, special higher salary rates
were authorized for professional engineers at the entry grades (GS-5 and GS-7), and at GS-9 and
GS-11. In ad dition, special rates were authorized for m ining engineers at GS-5 through GS-14. Infor­
m ation on special salary rates, in clud ing the occu p a tio n s and the areas to w hich they apply, may
be obtained from the O ffice of Personnel M anagem ent, W ashington, D.C. 20415, or its regional
offices.

Now available
from the
Bureau of
Labor Statistics

Wage Surveys
for the following industries:

Bituminous Coal

Computer and Data
Processing Services

Oil and Gas Extraction

Women’s and Misses’
Dresses

Surveys include:

•Results from the latest BLS
survey of wages and
supplemental benefits.

•Detailed occupational data
for the Nation, regions, and
selected areas (where
available).

• Data useful for wage and
salary administration, union
contract negotiation,
arbitration, and Government
policy considerations.

The BLS regional ofV.e neams:
you will expertise your '.•raer

P.0 Box 13309
Philadelphia. Pa. 19101

You may s e nd your orderdirectly to:

1603 John F. Kennedy Building
Boston. Mass. 02203

1371 Peachtree Street, NE.
Atlanta. Ga. 30367

2nd Floor
555 Griffin Sguare Building
Dallas. Tex 75202

Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York. N Y 10036

9th Floor
Federal Office Building
230 South Dearborn Street
Chicago, III. 60604

Where to send order:

911 Walnut Street
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
450 Golden Gate Avenue
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102

Superintendent of Docum ents
U.S. Gov ernment Printing Office
Washington, D C. 20402

Note: G P O prices are subject to
chang e without notice.

□ Industry Wage Survey: Bituminous Coal, July 1982, Bulletin 2185, G P O Stock No. 029-001-02799-1, price $2.50.
r i Industry Wage Survey: Computer and Data Processing Services, October 1982, Bulletin 2184. G P O Stock No. 029-001-02791-5, price $2.00.
: 1 Industry Wage Survey: Oil and Gas Extraction, June 1982, Bulletin 2193. G P O Stock No. 029-001-02810-5, price $3.00.
I Industry Wage Survey: Women’s and Misses’ Dresses, August 1982, Bulletin 2187. G P O Stock No. 029-001-02796-6, price 2.00.
" . Enclosed is a check or money order payable to Superintendent of Documents.
Charge to G P O A ccount

No.

- .......... -

-

-

—

-

-

--------- --

.-

Charge to MasterCard*.

A ccount No.

_

_

Chargp to VISA*.

A ccount No

..

...

Available oniy on orders se0' directly to Superintendent of Documents

Name
Organization
(if applicable)
Street ad dress
City, State, and ZIP Code

.

— . ____

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—

.

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Expiration date

___

Expiration date

Bureau of Labor Statistics
Regional Offices

Region I
Suite 1603
John F. Kennedy Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: (617) 223-6761

Region II
Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York, N.Y. 10036
Phone: (212) 944-3121

Region III
3535 Market Street
P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101
Phone: (215) 596-1154

Region IV
1371 Peachtree Street, N.E.
Atlanta, Ga. 30367
Phone: (404) 881-4418

Region V
9th Floor
Federal Office Building
230 S. Dearborn Street
Chicago, III. 60604
Phone: (312) 353-1880

Region VI
Second Floor
Griffin Square Building
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone: (214) 767-6971

Regions VII and VIII
911 Walnut Street
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: (816) 374-2481

Regions IX and X
450 Golden Gate Avenue
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: (415) 556-4678


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102