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L <2. 3//3-<3- ; 387

National Survey of Professional,
Administrative, Technical, and
Clerical Pay: Private Service Industries,
March 1987




National Survey of Professional,
Administrative, Technical, and
Clerical Pay: Private Service Industries,
March 1987
U.S. Department of Labor
Dennis E. Whitfield, Deputy Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Janet L. Norwood, Commissioner
December 1987
Bulletin 2290




For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402




P re fac e

responsibilities. The definitions used to collect salary data
(appendix C) reflect duties and responsibilities in private in­
dustry; however, they also are designed to be translatable
to specific General Schedule (GS) grades applying to Fed­
eral employees (appendix D).
The survey could not have been conducted without the
cooperation of the many firms whose salary data provided
the statistical information in this bulletin. The Bureau, on
its own behalf and on behalf of the other Federal agencies
that contributed to survey planning, wishes to express ap­
preciation for the cooperation it has received.
The analysis in this bulletin was prepared in the Office
of Wages and Industrial Relations by the staff of the Divi­
sion of Occupational Pay and Employee Benefit Levels.
Computer programming and systems design were provided
by the Division of Directly Collected Periodic Surveys. The
Division of Wage Statistical Methods was responsible for
the sample design, nonresponse adjustments, and other
statistical procedures. Fieldwork for the survey was direct­
ed by the Bureau’s Assistant Regional Commissioners for
Operations.
In 1986, a survey of employee benefits in private indus­
try covered the same industrial scope as the 1986 nationwide
PATC survey. The findings of the survey, which excluded
most of the service industries, appear in Employee Benefits
in Medium and Large Firms, 1986, Bulletin 2281 (Bureau
of Labor Statistics, 1987).
Material in this publiucation is in the public domain and,
with appropriate credit, may be reproduced without permission.

This is the first-time that the survey of professional, ad­
ministrative, technical, and clerical pay (the patc survey)
has produced data for all of the private service industries
only. This bulletin summarizes the results of that March 1987
survey. Previous Bureau white-collar pay surveys have in­
cluded other private sectors of the economy as well as select­
ed service industries. Consequently, the March 1987 results
of the patc survey cannot be directly compared with earli­
er survey data. The 1987 salary information, collected from
establishments with as few as 20 employees, is representa­
tive of all private service industries throughout the United
States, except Alaska and Hawaii.
In conducting this survey, the Bureau of Labor Statistics
carries out its responsibility under the Federal Pay Compara­
bility Act of 1970, which currently governs general pay ad­
justments for Federal white-collar employees. Under the Act,
a Pay Agent designated by the President (currently the Secre­
tary of Labor, and the directors of the Office of Manage­
ment and Budget and the Office of Personnel Management)
sets up comparability procedures and reports annually to the
President. The report compares salaries of Federal employees
with those paid in private industry for the same levels of
work, as determined by the PATC survey. The Bureau selects
a list of sample establishments and collects, edits, tabulates,
and reports the data. The survey scope, including the indus­
tries to be covered and the occupations to be studied, is the
responsibility of the President’s Pay Agent. More informa­
tion on the survey scope is contained in appendix A.
The occupations studied span a wide range of duties and




iii




Contents

Page
Sum m ary.................................................................................................................................................................
Characteristics of the su rv e y ..............................................................................................................................
Employment.............................................................................................................................................................
Average salaries, March 1987 ............................................................................................................................
Salary levels in metropolitan a re a s ....................................................................................................................
Salary levels by establishment s iz e .................................................
Salary distributions..............................................................................................................................................
Pay differences by industry................................................................................................................................
Average standard weekly hours..........................................................................................................................

2
3
4
4
5
5

Text tables:
1. Distribution of work levels by degree of salarydispersion, private services, March 1987 ............
2. Average pay relatives by type of service...............................

4
5

Reference tables for private service industries:
Average salaries:
1. United S tates........................................................................................................................................
2. Metropolitan areas................................................................................................................................
3. By size of establishment......................................................................................................................

9
12
15

Employment distribution by salary:
4. Professional and administrative occupations......................................................................................
5. Technical support occupations............................................................................................................
6. Clerical occupations ............................................................................................................................

17
27
31

Selected industry characteristics:
7. Percent distribution of employment......................................................................................................
8. Relative salary levels ............................................................................................................................
9. Average weekly hours ..........................................................................................................................
Charts:
1. Salaries in professional occupations, March 1987 ............................................................................
2. Salaries in administrative and technical occupations, March 1987 ..................................................
3. Salaries in clerical occupations, March 1987 ....................................................................................

1
1
1

36
37
38

6
7
8

Appendixes:
A. Scope and method of survey .................................................................................................................... 39
B. Survey changes in 1987 .............................................................................................................................. 43
C. Occupational definitions .............................................................................................................................. 47
D. Comparison of salaries in private industry with those of Federal
employees under the General Schedule .................................................................................................. 98




v




Professional, Administrative,
Technical, and Clerical Pay:
Private Service Industries:
March 1987

Summary

survey of private services cannot be compared with the earlier
findings.2
The survey occupations are divided into work levels based
on duties and responsibilities. (See appendix C.) The number
of work levels—designated by roman numerals, with “ I” the
lowest—varies from occupation to occupation, as do degree
of difficulty and responsibility.3
The number of levels in each occupation ranges from one
for messengers to eight for engineers. These work levels,
however, are not intended to represent all the workers in a
specific occupation. For example, the duties and responsibili­
ties of an establishment’s top engineers may exceed those of
the highest level of engineers in the survey. Thus, the survey
does not present comparisons of overall occupational salary lev­
els, such as between accountants as a group and engineers.
The approximately 120,000 establishments within the scope
of the survey employed about 13 million workers; 48 percent
were professional, administrative, technical, and clerical em­
ployees on full-time schedules. Of these white-collar workers,
29 percent or approximately 1,700,000, were in occupations
and work levels for which salary data were developed. The
survey presents separate occupational pay data for metropoli­
tan areas—where about nine-tenths of the white-collar workers
covered by the study were employed—and for various estab­
lishment size groups based on employment.

This survey of private service industries developed average
salaries for 93 of the 134 occupational work levels studied.
These averages ranged from $8,558 for nursing assistants per­
forming routine duties to $78,049 for the highest level of en­
gineer studied. Even within similar categories of employees,
such as professional, technical, or clerical, wage levels varied
widely: For example, $10,338 to $19,151 for four levels of
general clerks, $15,285 to $29,014 for five levels of secretar­
ies, and $19,588 for beginning accountants to $49,291 for su­
pervisory accountants in complex accounting systems.
For most occupations, salary levels in metropolitan areas and
in large establishments were higher than the average for all
establishments covered by the survey. Among the service in­
dustries, firms providing architectural, engineering, and
research services generally reported the highest average salar­
ies while those providing educational services reported the
lowest salaries. Separate information on selected service in­
dustries is provided in this bulletin where data are sufficient
to warrant publication.
In 1987, the Bureau’s Professional, Administrative, Tech­
nical and Clerical Pay survey (PATC) was designed to cover
all private service industries, including health care and educa­
tional services, and to obtain data from firms employing as few
as 20 workers.1 Three jobs in the nursing field also were ad­
ded to the survey because of the introduction of health serv­
ices, yielding salary data for about 1,064,000 additional
workers.

Employment
Employment varied widely among occupations in the sur­
vey, reflecting both actual differences in employment counts
and differences in the range of duties and responsibilities co­
vered by survey definitions. For example, there were 426,000
incumbents in the four levels of registered nurses, accounting
for 70 percent of the 606,500 professional employees covered

Characteristics of the survey
This survey—28th in an annual series of white-collar pay
studies—provides nationwide data for 26 occupations spanning
93 work level categories. Information was collected from es­
tablishments throughout the United States, except Alaska and
Hawaii. Because previous surveys have included jobs in non­
service sectors of the private economy, results from the 1987

2 For a description and results of the 1986 survey, see National Survey o f
Professional, Administrative, Technical, and Clerical Pay, March 1986, Bulletin
2271 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1986).
3 The roman numerals do not necessarily identify equal levels of work among
occupations. For example, public accountant levels I to IV equate to accoun­
tant levels II to V, while attorney I equates to accountant IE and public ac­
countant n. See appendix D.

1 For a description of the survey and its design changes, see appendixes A
and B. Also see John D. Morton, “BLS Prepares to Broaden Scope of its WhiteCollar Pay Survey,” Monthly Labor Review, March 1987, pp.3-7.




1

from $21,006 for new graduates at level I to $33,989 for su­
pervisors at level IV. In the survey classification structure,
the level designations among occupations are not synonymous;
for example, public accountant levels I to HI are comparable
to skill levels II to IV for accountants and auditors. The ac­
countants, public accountants, and auditors included in the sur­
vey had at least a bachelor’s degree in accounting or the
equivalent in education and experience.
Attorneys included in the study (all having at least L.L.B.
degrees and bar membership) were employed in the legal
departments of establishments other than law firms. Those per­
forming work involving applicable precedents and established
facts were classified at level II and averaged $41,370 a year;
those at level IV, with responsibility for resolving difficult
legal problems, averaged $63,711.
Buyers, who purchase “ off-the shelf’ and readily availa­
ble items and services from local sources (level I), averaged
$20,492 a year. Buyers IV, who purchase highly complex and
technical items, or materials that are custom designed and
manufactured, averaged $41,828.
Computer programmer trainees (level I) averaged $20,980
a year; this was approximately half the average of level V
incumbents who plan and direct large computer programming
projects or solve unusually complex computer programming
problems.
Computer systems analysts averaged $28,607 a year. This
level includes workers who are familiar with systems analysis
procedures and are working independently on routine
problems. Systems analysts V, the highest of six job levels
for which publishable data could be developed, averaged
$59,841 a year. At this level, analysts are either senior tech­
nicians or managers responsible for the development and main­
tenance of large and complex computer systems.5
Personnel management occupations are represented by job
analysts, and directors of personnel. Job analyst salaries wer
published for levels II and HI of a four-level series. Le*
II salaries averaged $23,315 and level III, $27,433. Din _
tors of personnel are limited by definition to those who, at
a minimum, are responsible for administering a job evalua­
tion system, employment and placement functions, and em­
ployee relations and services. Those with significant
responsibility as the principal company representative in con­
tract negotiations with labor unions are excluded. Various
combinations of work force size, duties, and responsiblities
determine the work level. Annual salaries for directors of per­
sonnel averaged $35,167 for level I and $43,927 for level n.
Engineers are surveyed in eight levels starting with a profes­
sional trainee level typically requiring a bachelor’s degree. The
highest level surveyed involves either full responsibility over
a broad, complex, and diversified engineering program, with
several subordinates each directing large and important seg­
ments of the program, or individual research and consultation

by the survey occupations; in contrast, the three-level auditor
occupation had 600 incumbents.
The five levels of computer programmers and five levels of
systems analysts had 42,500 and 34,400 employees, respec­
tively. Together, they accounted for nine-tenths of the em­
ployees estimated to match the survey’s administrative job
descriptions. Other administrative jobs included buyers, job
analysts, and directors of personnel.
Among the technical support occupations surveyed, nursing
assistants accounted for almost two-thirds of the 698,000 in­
cumbents, while licensed practical nurses accounted for nearly
three-tenths. None of the other technical support occupations
studied—engineering technician, drafter, computer operator,
and photographer—accounted for over 4 percent of the total.
Of the clerical occupations surveyed, secretaries accounted
for nearly one-third of the 294,000 incumbents. Accounting
clerks and general clerks each made up slightly over one-fifth
of the clerical total.
Employment in many of the occupations surveyed was heav­
ily concentrated in health services (primarily in hospitals) and
in architectural, engineering, and research services (table 7).
Health services, for example, employed not only virtually all
of the registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and nurs­
ing assistants, but also accounted for three-fourths of the direc­
tors of personnel and file clerks, and between one-half and
three-fifths of the job analysts, messengers, personnel
clerks/assistants, purchasing clerks/assistants, and typists.
Firms providing architectural, engineering, and research serv­
ices employed at least nine-tenths of the engineers, engineer­
ing technicians, and drafters; they also employed two-fifths
of the buyers, one-third of the auditors, and one-fourth of the
attorneys.
Average salaries, March 1987
Reflecting the wide range of duties and responsibilities co­
vered by the survey occupations, average annual salaries
ranged from $8,558 for nursing assistants I to $78,049 for
the top level of engineer (table 1). Despite such wide differ­
ences, salary averages for professional jobs of equivalent work
levels often fell within a relatively narrow band. For exam­
ple, annual averages for the following equivalent work levels
fell within $3,800, or an 8-percent range: Accountant V
($49,291), Attorney IQ ($53,100), and Engineer V ($50,597).
The following paragraphs summarize findings for many of
the occupations studied.4
Annual salaries of accountants averaged $19,588 at level I
and $49,291 at level V. Salaries of public accountants ranged

4 The following occupational work levels were surveyed but insufficient data
were obtained to warrant publication: Accountant VI; auditor I; chief accoun­
tant I-V; attorney I, V, and VI; systems analyst VI; job analyst I and IV; director
of personnel HI-V; chemist I-VIII; nursing assistant IV; civil engineering tech­
nician I-V; engineering technician I; computer operator V and VI; photographer
I, IV, and V; file clerk HI; personnel clerk/assistant V; purchasing clerk/assistant IV; and stenographer I and II.



3 As noted in appendix C, information was collected separately for five lev­
els of nonsupervisory systems analysts and four levels of systems analysts supervisors/managers. The data were consolidated for publication, using the
approach shown in appendix C.

2

Secretary was the most populous among the clerical occu­
pations surveyed. Average yearly salaries ranged from
$15,285 for level I to $29,014 for level V. Secretaries in hospi­
tal wards were not included in the survey.
Typists I averaged $13,016 and those at level II, $15,106.
Word processors were not studied.
Accounting clerks performing simple and routine clerical
accounting operations (level I) averaged $11,569 a year. Level
IV clerks who maintain journals or subsidiary ledgers aver­
aged $20,097. Four-fifths of all accounting clerks were clas­
sified in levels n and HI, which averaged $14,424 and $16,739
a year, respectively.
Personnel clerks/assistants who perform routine tasks re­
quiring a knowledge of personnel rules and procedures (level
I) averaged $13,409 a year. Level IV assistants, who pro­
vide support such as interviewing and recommending place­
ment for well-defined occupations, averaged $23,130.
Level I purchasing clerks/assistants follow well-established
and clear-cut procedures to prepare and process purchasing
documents. Their yearly average of $13,425 compares with
$20,940 for level HI assistants, who generally expedite pur­
chases by making recommendations for action based on sim­
ple analyses of the facts at hand, organizational guidelines,
and the background of the purchase.
Four levels of general clerks, who perform a combination
of clerical tasks to support office, business, or administrative
operations, were surveyed. Level I clerks who follow detailed
procedures in performing simple and repetitive tasks averaged
$10,338 annually. Level IV clerks, who use subject matter
knowledge and judgment to complete various nonroutine as­
signments averaged $19,151 a year. Level 13 and ID clerks,
the largest levels, averaged $12,178 and $14,767 a year,
respectively.

in problem areas where the engineer is a recognized authori­
ty and where solutions represent a major scientific or techno­
logical advance. Average yearly salaries ranged from $26,355
for engineers I to $78,049 for engineers VIII. Level IV em­
ployees, performing complex, conventional engineering were
the largest group in the profession and averaged $42,964.
Data on pay are presented for three new jobs in the nurs­
ing field. One of these, registered nurse, was the largest of
the professional and administrative occupations studied. Aver­
age salaries ranged from $21,012 for level I to $34,383 for
level IV. Registered nurse n, which designates those nurses
working with considerable independence in cases presenting
difficult nursing problems, accounted for nearly nine-tenths
of the nurses surveyed. They averaged $24,127 annually.
The other two new jobs—nursing assistant and licensed
practical nurse—are included among the survey’s technical
support occupations. Nursing assistants, with 440,000 incum­
bents, had average salaries ranging from $8,558 for level I
to $14,369 for level in, the highest level for which pay data
met Bureau publication standards. Of the three levels of
licensed practical nurse, average salaries ranged from $14,636
(level I) to $18,837 (level IH). Just over four-fifths of the
licensed practical nurses were at level II; their salaries aver­
aged $16,487 a year.
Engineering technician is a five-level series limited to em­
ployees providing technical support to engineers. These tech­
nicians work with engineers in such areas as research, design,
development, testing, or manufacturing process improvement,
and normally use electrical, electronic, or mechanical com­
ponents or equipment. Technicians involved in production or
maintenance work are excluded. Engineering technicians II,
who perform standardized assignments, averaged $20,149 a
year. Engineering technicians V, who plan and conduct com­
plex projects under general guidelines supplied by a supervi­
sor or professional engineer, averaged $34,275. Salaries for
intermediate levels LQ and IV, containing a majority of the
technicians surveyed, averaged $24,425 and $30,009, respec­
tively.
Average salaries for drafters ranged from $12,450 a year
for level I (those who trace or copy finished drawings) to
$31,634 for level V (those who work closely with designers
preparing drawings of unusual, complex, or original designs).
Drafters who primarily use computers to transmit and dupli­
cate designs were not surveyed.
Computer operators are classified on the basis of responsi­
bility for problem solving, variability of assignments, and
scope of authority for corrective actions needed by their equip­
ment. Computer operators I, whose work assignments con­
sist of on-the-job training, averaged $14,067 a year. Level
II, the largest group surveyed, averaged $16,812, and the top
level publishable (TV) averaged $24,673.
Among the 27 clerical levels for which data are shown, aver­
age yearly salaries ranged from $10,338 for general clerks I
to $29,014 for secretaries V, the highest of a five-level series.
Averages for 8 of the clerical levels exceeded $19,000; 7 ranged
from $15,000 to $19,000; and 12 fell below $15,000.




Salary levels in metropolitan areas
For most occupational levels, average salaries in metropoli­
tan areas6 (table 2) were slightly higher than the national aver­
ages (table 1). In only 19 cases, however, did such differences
exceed 1 percent because metropolitan areas made up a large
majority of the workers in the survey jobs.
Approximately nine-tenths of the employees covered by the
survey were located in metropolitan areas. Among the occu­
pations studied, licensed practical nurses and nursing assis­
tants recorded the lowest proportions in such areas, about 70
percent each. On the other hand, 95 percent or more of the
auditors, public accountants, attorneys, computer program­
mers, systems analysts, job analysts, engineers, engineering
technicians, drafters, photographers, and messengers were in
metropolitan areas.

6
Metropolitan Statistical Areas as defined by the U.S. Office of Manage­
ment and Budget through June 1984.

3

Text table 1. Distribution of work levels by degree of salary dispersion, private services, March 1987
Number of levels having degree of dispersion' of-Occupation

All occupations.......................................................
Professional and administrative
Accountants............................................................
Auditors...................................................................
Public accountants..................................................
Attorneys.................................................................
Buyers......................................................................
Computer programmers .........................................
Systems analysts....................................................
Job analysts............................................................
Directors of personnel............................................
Engineers................................................................
Registered nurses...................................................

levels

Under 15
percent

93

9

37

35

7

5

5
3
4
3
4
5
5
2
2

1
2
1
1
1

5
2
1
1
2
2
4

_
_
_

_
_
_

8

4

Technical support
Licensed practical nurses......................................
Nursing assistants...................................................
Engineering technicians.........................................
Drafters....................................................................
Computer operators................................................
Photographers........................................................

4
2

Clerical w orkers....................................................

27

3
3
4

5

1
-

-

1
7
2

_
_
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
2

1
1

2
1
2
-

2
1
2
2
2
-

-

5

15

-

-

1 D egree o f salary dispersion equals the salary range o f th e m iddle 50
p e rcent o f em ployees in a w ork level expressed as a p e rcent o f the m edian
salary fo r th a t level.

_
_
_
_
_
_
1
_
_
1

30 percent and
over

_

_
_
_

_
_
_

_
2

_

_
_
_

-

1

5

2

NOTE: A dash indicates th a t no da ta w ere reported,

Salary levels by establishment size

pations in table 5, and for clerical occupations in table 6. Within
most work levels, the highest salaries were at least twice the
lowest salaries. As illustrated in charts 1 to 3, pay differences
tended to increase with each rise in the work level. Salary
ranges for specific work levels also tended to overlap each
other. This reflects both salary differences among establish­
ments and the frequent overlapping of salary ranges within in­
dividual firms.7
Median annual salaries for most work levels were slightly
lower than mean annual salaries.8 Hence, salaries in the upper
half of the arrays affected the means more than salaries in the
lower half. The relative difference between the mean and the
median was less than 2 percent for 62 of the 93 published work
levels, from 2 to 4 percent for 25 levels, and from over 4 to
8 percent in the other 6 levels.
The degree of salary dispersion tended to be larger for cler­
ical occupations than for professional, administrative, or tech­
nical occupations. These dispersions, shown in text table 1,
reflect the salary range of the middle 50 percent of employees
expressed as a percent of the median salary. This eliminates
the extremely low and high salaries for each comparison. In
about three-fourths of the 93 publishable work levels, the degree
of dispersion ranged from 15 to 25 percent. Observations of

Table 3 compares average annual salaries for 40 work lev­
els across three establishment size groupings—20 to 499 em­
ployees, 500 to 2,499, and 2,500 employees or more. These
comparisons show that average salaries were usually highest
in the largest size category and lowest in the smallest; that such
pay relationships were sometimes reversed; and that the size
of the differences varied by type of occupation, as well as by
skill level within occupations.
Because of the limited number of comparisons across all three
size categories, no definite pattern emerged. For example, some
occupations, such as nursing assistant ID and general clerk I,
had pay advantages (in establishments with 2,500 workers or
more) as large as 35 and 28 percent, respectively. For others
(accountant DI, systems analysts I, and engineer IV), the aver­
age pay difference dropped to 2 to 3 percent; and, in 11 ob­
servations, the large-establishment pay advantage disappeared
entirely.
The smallest establishment size category accounted for onehalf of all employees in the 40 work levels shown in table 3.
The highest concentrations were: Nearly nine-tenths of the
drafters DI, and between 70 and 80 percent of the nursing as­
sistants D, accounting clerks I through IV, key entry operators
I and D,and general clerks I, D, and ID.

7 For an analysis of rate ranges within establishments, see Martin E. Personick, “White-Collar Pay Determination Under Range-of-Rate Systems,” Monthly
Labor Review, December 1984, pp.25-30.
8 The median designates position; one-half of the workers receive the same
as or more and one-half receive the same as or less than thennedian rate. The
mean is computed for each job by totaling the earnings of all workers and dividing
by the number of workers.

Salary distributions
Salary distributions for professional and administrative oc­
cupations are presented in table 4, for technical support occu­



15 and under 20 20 and under 25 25 and under 30
percent
percent
percent

4

Text table 2. Average pay relatives by type of service

Selected occupational work level

All private
services

Business
services1

Architectural,
engineering, and
research
services2

Health services

Educational
services

Accountants III .......................................................
Accounting clerks I I ................................................
General clerks III.....................................................
Secretaries II ..........................................................

100
100
100
100

105
102
102
103

107
110
109
105

98
99
98
99

96
94
95
88

Key entry operators 1..............................................
Computer operators I I ............................................
Computer programmers I I ......................................
Systems analysts I I .................................................

100
100
100
100

95
102
101
101

115
107
100
103

103
97
96
95

99
93
89
91

testing laboratories, engineering and architectural services, and
noncommercial educational, scientific, and research organizations.

1 Includes business services in addition to research and devel­
opment laboratories and commercial testing laboratories presented
separately as part of architectural, engineering, and research serv­
ices.
2 Includes research and development laboratories, commercial

NOTE: “All private services” includes industries in addition to
those shown separately.

25 percent and over were recorded only for technical support
and clerical jobs.
Salary differences within work levels reflect a variety of fac­
tors other than duties and responsibilities. These include sa­
lary structures within establishments which provide for a range
of rates for each grade level; variations in occupational em­
ployment among service industries (table 7); and geographic
salary differences, especially for clerical employees.9 Clerical
employees usually are recruited locally, while professional and
administrative employees generally are recruited on a broader
regional or national basis.

ness services, one of the fastest growing industries in the econ­
omy, usually ranked second in the pay relatives displayed in
these two tabulations; health services was third.
In the health services industry, hospital workers nearly al­
ways averaged more than their counterparts in nursing homes.
The hospital pay advantage over nursing homes averaged from
31 percent for nursing assistants to 3 percent for computer oper­
ators and personnel clerks; generally the differences were be­
tween 10 and 20 percent.

Pay differences by industry

Average weekly hours (rounded to the nearest half hour) are
shown in table 9 by occupation for selected service industries.
Average weekly hours were slightly longer in architectural, en­
gineering, and research services (40 hours for most occupa­
tions) than in the health and educational service industries
(38-39.5 hours for most occupations). Observations in busi­
ness services were about equally divided between 40 and 39.5
hours per week. Standard weekly hours, the base for regular
straight-time salary, were obtained for individual employees
in the occupations studied. When individual hours were not
available, particularly for some higher level professional and
administrative positions, the predominant workweek of the
office work force was used as die standard.

Average standard weekly hours

Pay levels varied significantly by type of services provided
(table 8). Occupational salary levels generally were highest in
architectural, engineering, and research services and lowest in
educational services. The pay advantages typically averaged
10 to 20 percent. Even when comparisons between these two
service industries are limited to the same work levels, pay
spreads remained relatively constant. (See text table 2.) Busi9
For an analysis o f interarea pay differentials in clerical salaries, see Wage
Differences Among M etropolitan Areas, 1986, Summary 86-5 (Bureau o f Labor
Statistics, 1987), and M ark S. S id in g , “ C lerical Pay D ifferences in M etropolitan
A reas, 19 6 1 -8 0 ,” M onthly Labor Review, July 1982, pp. 10-14.




5

Chart 1. Salaries in professional occupations, March 1987
(M ean annual salaries and ranges within which fell 5 0 percent of em ployees)

O c c u p a tio n
a n d level




0

$ 1 0 ,0 0 0

$ 2 0 ,0 0 0

$ 3 0 ,0 0 0

$ 4 0 ,0 0 0

6

$ 5 0 ,0 0 0

$ 6 0 ,0 0 0

$ 7 0 ,0 0 0

$ 8 0 ,0 0 0

$ 9 0 ,0 0 0




7

Chart 3. Salaries in clerical occupations, March 1987
(Mean annual salaries and ranges within which fell 50 percent of employees)

Occupation
and level

0

$10,000 $12,500 $15,000

$17,500 $20,000

Accounting clerks

IV -

File clerks

I “

General clerks I

IV -

Key entry operators

I

Messengers

Personnel clerks/ I
assistants ,,

IV

Secretaries

IV
V

Typists I -




8

$22,500 $25,000 $27,500 $30,000

$32,500

Table 1. Private services: Average salaries-United States
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,'
March 1987)

Annual salaries 4

Monthly salaries4
Occupation and level2

Number of
employees3

Middle range5

Middle range5
Mean5

Median 5

First
quartile

Third
quartile

Mean5

Median 5

First
quartile

Third
quartile

Accountants
$1,606
1,937
2,499
3,200
4,000

$1,499
1,750
2,246
2,929
3,750

$1,769
2,091
2,707
3,455
4,428

$19,588
23,426
29,791
38,707
49,291

$19,267
23,244
29,988
38,400
48,000

$17,985
21,000
26,949
35,149
45,000

$21,223
25,089
32,487
41,460
53,140

2,140
2,766
3,401

2,078
2,855
3,380

1,999
2,499
3,167

2,333
2,999
3,565

25,683
33,187
40,817

24,940
34,255
40,564

23,990
29,988
38,009

27,996
35,986
42,779

14,233
14,443
15,563
6,849

1,750
1,920
2,295
2,832

1,750
1,916
2,232
2,775

1,654
1,791
2,071
2,500

1,874
2,041
2,417
3,075

21,006
23,044
27,537
33,989

21,000
22,991
26,789
33,300

19,850
21,491
24,850
30,000

22,491
24,490
29,004
36,900

186
458
586

3,447
4,425
5,309

3,409
4,172
5,415

3,086
4,165
4,940

3,765
4,811
5,569

41,370
53,100
63,711

40,908
50,060
64,974

37,027
49,980
59,276

45,180
57,727
66,823

1,634
2,739
845
451

1,708
2,114
2,776
3,486

1,683
2,083
2,768
3,499

1,534
1,903
2,399
3,280

1,852
2,307
3,116
3,710

20,492
25,373
33,309
41,828

20,195
24,991
33,217
41,983

18,408
22,837
28,785
39,361

22,221
27,689
37,392
44,520

5,385
13,587
15,102
6,594
1,849

1,748
1,990
2,453
3,017
3,608

1,750
1,999
2,457
2,991
3,582

1,541
1,792
2,237
2,675
3,336

1,916
2,199
2,666
3,250
3,749

20,980
23,883
29,435
36,204
43,292

21,000
23,990
29,488
35,889
42,983

18,490
21,504
26,844
32,100
40,037

22,991
26,389
31,987
39,000
44,982

5,047
15,081
9,494
4,066
749

2,384
2,949
3,557
4,222
4,987

2,379
2,916
3,500
4,165
4,992

2,167
2,685
3,249
3,744
4,448

2,557
3,165
3,802
4,582
5,350

28,607
35,386
42,687
50,658
59,841

28,548
34,986
41,999
49,980
59,899

25,998
32,223
38,984
44,925
53,379

30,688
37,985
45,630
54,978
64,200

114
182

1,943
2,286

1,938
2,251

1,753
2,024

2,002
2,496

23,315
27,433

23,258
27,013

21,036
24,290

24,022
29,950

416
853

V ......................................................................

$1,632
1,952
2,483
3,226
4,108

212
275
112

I I I .....................................................................

2,644
7,056
7,129
3,227
808

2,931
3,661

2,916
3,624

2,666
3,270

3,106
3,998

35,167
43,927

34,986
43,483

31,987
39,234

37,276
47,981

7,321
14,392
21,903
27,115

2,196
2,513
2,982
3,580

2,167
2,513
2,946
3,549

2,040
2,291
2,686
3,250

2,378
2,693
3,232
3,898

26,355
30,151
35,779
42,964

25,998
30,158
35,357
42,583

24,480
27,489
32,238
39,000

28,540
32,316
38,784
46,781

Auditors

Public accountants

I I ......................................................................

Attorneys
I I ......................................................................

Buyers

IV .....................................................................
Computer programmers
I .......................................................................

IV .....................................................................
V ......................................................................
Systems analysts
I .......................................................................
I l l .....................................................................

Job analysts

i l l .....................................................................
Directors of personnel

Engineers

I I ......................................................................
IV .....................................................................
See footnotes at end of table.




9

Table 1. Private services: Average salaries-United States—Continued
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1
March 1987)

Monthly salaries4
Occupation and level2

Engineers
V ......................................................................
V I .....................................................................
V II....................................................................
V III...................................................................

Number of
employees3

Annual salaries 4

Middle range5
Mean5

Median 5

First
quartile

Third
quartile

Middle range5
Mean5

Median 5

First
quartile

Third
quartile

21,285
10,573
3,251
933

$4,216
4,952
5,599
6,504

$4,167
4,898
5,546
6,500

$3,813
4,428
5,132
5,915

$4,582
5,385
6,050
7,084

$50,597
59,422
67,183
78,049

$49,999
58,776
66,555
78,000

$45,756
53,136
61,584
70,975

$54,978
64,620
72,600
85,003

38,257
366,888
20,402
392

1,751
2,011
2,601
2,865

1,736
1,986
2,589
2,811

1,565
1,778
2,290
2,600

1,907
2,201
2,787
3,035

21,012
24,127
31,216
34,383

20,830
23,835
31,073
33,735

18,777
21,339
27,479
31,198

22,878
26,414
33,444
36,418

31,195
165,049
2,061

1,220
1,374
1,570

1,213
1,357
1,570

1,066
1,192
1,367

1,349
1,541
1,731

14,636
16,487
18,837

14,559
16,285
18,836

12,791
14,309
16,410

16,184
18,490
20,778

148,366
269,803
22,075

713
906
1,197

676
854
1,200

607
711
997

771
1,049
1,392

8,558
10,872
14,369

8,111
10,248
14,394

7,279
8,527
11,959

9,255
12,583
16,701

2,253
3,034
3,428
2,535

1,679
2,035
2,501
2,856

1,647
2,036
2,478
2,821

1,559
1,824
2,257
2,595

1,829
2,236
2,749
3,132

20,149
24,425
30,009
34,275

19,761
24,430
29,736
33,852

18,713
21,890
27,084
31,140

21,943
26,830
32,987
37,585

1,848
4,223
6,582
7,128
2,023

1,037
1,325
1,729
2,107
2,636

1,040
1,300
1,699
2,037
2,601

910
1,213
1,475
1,863
2,416

1,127
1,406
1,950
2,340
2,773

12,450
15,898
20,742
25,281
31,634

12,479
15,599
20,382
24,438
31,208

10,919
14,559
17,700
22,358
28,993

13,519
16,868
23,398
28,078
33,277

2,616
12,000
6,790
2,191

1,172
1,401
1,752
2,056

1,166
1,378
1,737
2,045

1,060
1,258
1,603
1,915

1,295
1,533
1,877
2,215

14,067
16,812
21,020
24,673

13,994
16,535
20,840
24,540

12,720
15,094
19,239
22,982

15,544
18,393
22,525
26,580

2,017
435

1,504
2,232

1,416
2,296

1,300
2,101

1,733
2,296

18,046
26,782

16,992
27,558

15,599
25,208

20,798
27,558

7,692
33,476
20,392
5,276

964
1,202
1,395
1,675

953
1,191
1,390
1,707

858
1,040
1,230
1,460

1,049
1,329
1,550
1,907

11,569
14,424
16,739
20,097

11,439
14,287
16,685
20,480

10,300
12,479
14,761
17,523

12,583
15,952
18,600
22,878

10,114
6,470

953
1,097

880
1,040

780
940

1,036
1,192

11,430
13,166

10,566
12,479

9,359
11,275

12,432
14,304

Registered nurses
1 .......................................................................
II .................................... .................................
Ill .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................
Licensed practical nurses
1 .......................................................................
I I ......................................................................
I l l .....................................................................
Nursing assistants
1 .......................................................................
I I ......................................................................
I l l .....................................................................
Engineering technicians
II ......................................................................
Ill .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................
V ......................................................................
Drafters
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
Ill .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................
V ......................................................................
Computer operators
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
I l l .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................
Photographers
II ......................................................................
I l l .....................................................................
Accounting clerks
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
Ill .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................
File clerks
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
See footnotes at end of table.




10

Table 1. Private services: Average salaries-United States—Continued
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1
March 1987)

Monthly salaries4
Occupation and level1
2

Number of
employees3
4

Annual salaries 4

Middle range5
Mean5

Median 5

First
quartile

Third
quartile

Middle range5
Mean5

Median 5

First
quartile

Third
quartile

Key entry operators
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................

24,832
11,067

$1,036
1,267

$1,018
1,262

$889
1,071

$1,153
1,445

$12,431
15,199

$12,219
15,141

$10,670
12,853

$13,831
17,343

Messengers....................................

5,916

946

929

812

1,090

11,354

11,148

9,749

13,082

1,297
1,333
1,071
320

1,117
1,393
1,613
1,928

1,127
1,366
1,569
1,983

1,000
1,242
1,445
1,707

1,257
1,525
1,749
2,083

13,409
16,717
19,359
23,130

13,519
16,389
18,827
23,799

12,000
14,908
17,346
20,486

15,079
18,303
20,992
24,990

1,216
1,279
346

1,119
1,375
1,745

1,118
1,361
1,751

1,005
1,215
1,565

1,220
1,499
1,890

13,425
16,502
20,940

13,415
16,327
21,006

12,063
14,580
18,781

14,642
17,993
22,680

24,316
31,190
26,195
10,904
2,021

1,274
1,526
1,720
2,009
2,418

1,257
1,474
1,681
1,995
2,425

1,116
1,291
1,500
1,780
2,102

1,416
1,699
1,916
2,207
2,690

15,285
18,309
20,644
24,109
29,014

15,079
17,693
20,174
23,945
29,100

13,395
15,494
18,000
21,360
25,228

16,993
20,382
22,991
26,489
32,280

6,108
2,503

1,085
1,259

1,083
1,300

936
1,130

1,196
1,426

13,016
15,106

12,995
15,599

11,228
13,561

14,351
17,117

5,385
26,145
27,105
5,595

861
1,015
1,231
1,596

867
1,000
1,213
1,583

737
895
1,083
1,468

927
1,127
1,365
1,712

10,338
12,178
14,767
19,151

10,399
11,995
14,559
18,996

8,839
10,744
12,999
17,618

11,127
13,519
16,380
20,550

Personnel clerks/assistants
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
I l l .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................
Purchasing clerks/assistants
1 .......................................................................
I I ......................................................................
I l l .....................................................................
Secretaries
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
Ill .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................
V ......................................................................
Typists
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
General clerks
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
Ill .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................

1 For the scope of the survey, see table A-1 in appendix A.

increases - but not bonuses - under cost-of-living allowance clauses, and

2 O ccupational d e finitions ap pear in appendix C.

incentive paym ents, however, are included.

3 Occupational employment estimates relate to the total in all
establishments within the scope of the survey and not to the number
actually surveyed. For further explanation, see appendix A.
4 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends,
holidays, and late shifts.
Also excluded are performance bonuses and
lump-sum payments of the type negotiated in the auto and aerospace
industries, as well as profit-sharing payments, attendance bonuses,
Christmas or year-end bonuses, and other nonproduction bonuses. Pay




5
The mean is computed for each job by totaling the earnings of all
workers and dividing by the number of workers. The median designates
position; one-half of the workers receive the same as or more and onehalf receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range
is defined by two rates of pay; one-fourth of the workers earn the same as
or less than the lower of these rates and one-fourth earn the same as or
more than the higher rate.

11

ta b le 2. Private services: Average salaries-Metropolitan areas
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations, metropolitan areas,1 United States, except
Alaska and Hawaii, March 1987)

..................

.......................

Monthly salaries4
Occupation and level2

Number of
employees3

Annual salaries4

Middle range5
Mean5

Median5

First
quartile

Third
quartile

Middle range5
Mean5

Median5

First
quartile

Third
quartile

Accountants

1.............................................................
it .............................................................
IN ............................................................

tv .....................................................
V .....................................................

2,487
6,114
6,664
3,092
778

$1,643
1,977
2,502
3,236
4,127

$1,622
1,959
2,499
3,217
4,014

$1,499
1,789
2,283
2,937
3,755

$1,785
2,128
2,728
3,490
4,450

$19,720
23,724
30,029
38,833
49,521

$19,467
23,502
29,988
38,607
48,170

$17,993
21,464
27,402
35,246
45,060

$21,422
25,540
32,737
41,878
53,400

212
274
106

2,140
2,765
3,397

2,078
2,855
3,380

1,999
2,499
3,167

2,333
2,999
3,565

25,683
33,176
40,766

24,940
34,255
40,564

23,990
29,988
38,009

27,996
35,986
42,779

13,976
14,084
14,958
6,742

1,756
1,928
2,305
2,842

1,750
1,916
2,249
2,782

1,666
1,800
2,083
2,500

1,874
2,041
2,450
3,080

21,078
23,136
27,662
34,101

21,000
22,991
26,989
33,387

19,992
21,600
24,990
30,000

22,491
24,490
29,400
36,960

167
449
585

3,460
4,443
5,311

3,415
4,172
5,415

3,017
4,165
4,950

3,836
5,000
5,569

41,517
53,322
63,726

40,984
50,060
64,974

36,199
49,980
59,400

46,032
60,000
66,823

1,454
2,463
771
451

1,715
2,134
2,765
3,486

1,712
2,114
2,759
3,499

1,534
1,920
2,366
3,280

1,862
2,320
3,101
3,710

20,585
25,607
33,182
41,828

20,538
25,366
33,111
41,983

18,408
23,045
28,389
39,361

22,350
27,840
37,208
44,520

5,285
13,343
14,695
6,498
1,820

1,752
1,994
2,456
3,017
3,608

1,750
1,999
2,457
2,997
3,582

1,558
1,798
2,239
2,675
3,336

1,916
2,200
2,666
3,250
3,749

21,021
23,925
29,469
36,205
43,295

21,000
23,990
29,488
35,960
42,983

18,693
21,571
26,869
32,100
40,037

22,991
26,400
31,988
39,000
44,982

5,001
14,999
9,393
4,050
747

2,385
2,950
3,556
4,224
4,988

2,382
2,916
3,499
4,165
4,992

2,167
2,689
3,249
3,749
4,415

2,557
3,165
3,800
4,582
5,350

28,618
35,405
42,669
50,688
59,853

28,589
34,993
41,983
49,980
59,899

25,998
32,273
38,984
44,982
52,980

30,688
37,985
45,600
54,978
64,200

110
177

1,953
2,278

1,951
2,249

1,765
2,024

2,024
2,496

23,433
27,333

23,417
26,989

21,175
24,290

24,293
29,950

357
758

2,958
3,700

2,916
3,665

2,666

3,333

3,200
3,998

35,500
44,394

34,986
43,982

31,987
39,995

38,398
47,981

7,065
13,814
21,001
25,542

2,192
2,519
2,982
3,581

2,167
2,513
2,945
3,549

2,037
2,291
2,686
3,250

2,374
2,698
3,227
3,895

26,300
30,226
35,782
42,975

25,998
30,158
35,346
42,583

24,438
27,489
32,238
39,000

28,489
32,374
38,724
46,740

Auditors

» .............................................................
Il l............................................................
IV ............................................................
Public accountants

1......................................................
i t ......................................................................

H I............................................................

iV ............................................................
Attorneys

N .............................................................

Hi............................................................
IV ............................................................
Buyers

1.............................................................
N .............................................................
Nt............................................................
IV ............................................................
Computer programmers

1.............................................................
I f .............................................................
IN ............................................................
IV ............................................................
V ............................................................
Systems analysts

I .............................................................
N .............................................................
IN ............................................................
IV ............................................................
V .............................................................
Job analysts

N .............................................................
IN ............................................................
Directors of personnel

1.............................................................
N .............................................................
Engineers

I .............................................................

N .............................................................
N l............................................................
IV ............................................................
See footnotes at end of table.




12

Table 2. Private services: Average salaries-Metropoiitan areas—Continued
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations, metropolitan areas,' United States, except
Alaska and Hawaii, March 1987)

Annual salaries4

Monthly salaries4
Occupation and level2

Engineers
V ......................................................................
V I .....................................................................
V II....................................................................
V III...................................................................

Number of
employees3

Middle range5
Mean5

Median5

First
quartile

Third
quartile

Middle range5
Mean5

Median5

First
quartile

Third
quartile

20,696
10,328
3,229
933

$4,216
4,954
5,599
6,504

$4,168
4,900
5,546
6,500

$3,809
4,435
5,130
5,915

$4,582
5,385
6,053
7,084

» $50,596
59,452
67,187
78,049

$50,020
58,800
66,555
78,000

$45,709
53,223
61,563
70,975

$54,978
64,620
72,640
85,003

28,996
317,678
18,283
384

1,788
2,047
2,652
2,858

1,782
2,028
2,633
2,811

1,617
1,820
2,373
2,600

1,943
2,238
2,799
3,033

21,450
24,563
31,829
34,297

21,381
24,338
31,593
33,735

19,402
21,838
28,471
31,198

23,315
26,851
33,589
36,397

20,305
119,599
1,578

1,270
1,439
1,599

1,267
1,428
1,571

1,127
1,265
1,388

1,381
1,603
1,731

15,240
17,264
19,186

15,204
17,131
18,851

13,519
15,183
16,660

16,577
19,239
20,778

97,190
184,200
16,209

733
967
1,280

693
936
1,312

624
757
1,133

792
1,134
1,432

8,791
11,600
15,361

8,319
11,231
15,744

7,487
9,089
13,595

9,505
13,602
17,179

2,185
2,929
3,314
2,486

1,681
2,032
2,495
2,857

1,647
2,026
2,466
2,820

1,559
1,820
2,253
2,595

1,827
2,230
2,730
3,139

20,177
24,381
29,943
34,286

19,761
24,313
29,596
33,843

18,713
21,840
27,039
31,140

21,924
26,760
32,757
37,668

1,848
4,158
6,269
6,978
1,955

1,037
1,324
1,739
2,108
2,631

1,040
1,300
1,700
2,041
2,599

910
1,213
1,500
1,863
2,416

1,127
1,406
1,978
2,340
2,773

12,450
15,888
20,867
25,290
31,574

12,479
15,599
20,400
24,490
31,188

10,919
14,559
17,997
22,358
28,993

13,519
16,868
23,731
28,078
33,277

2,527
10,970
6,519
2,068

1,176
1,410
1,751
2,051

1,166
1,387
1,737
2,031

1,060
1,278
1,604
1,915

1,295
1,549
1,873
2,200

14,106
16,922
21,017
24,616

13,994
16,639
20,840
24,376

12,720
15,339
19,248
22,982

15,544
18,593
22,478
26,400

1,991
432

1,503
2,232

1,416
2,296

1,300
2,101

1,733
2,296

18,039
26,786

16,992
27,558

15,599
25,208

20,798
27,558

7,316
30,270
17,973
5,057

970
1,220
1,417
1,680

953
1,200
1,409
1,733

867
1,047
1,270
1,461

1,058
1,333
1,575
1,907

11,642
14,643
17,001
20,164

11,439
14,400
16,909
20,798

10,399
12,562
15,240
17,526

12,695
15,996
18,900
22,878

9,393
6,192

962
1,102

884
1,043

784
953

1,036
1,198

11,541
13,229

10,607
12,521

9,404
11,439

12,432
14,372

Registered nurses
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
Ill .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................
Licensed practical nurses
I .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
I l l .....................................................................
Nursing assistants
I .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
I l l .....................................................................
Engineering technicians
I I ......................................................................
Ill .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................
V ......................................................................
Drafters
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
Ill .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................
V ......................................................................
Computer operators
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
Ill .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................
Photographers
II ......................................................................
Ill .....................................................................
Accounting clerks
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
I l l .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................
File clerks
1 .......................................................................
I I ......................................................................
See footnotes at end of table.




13

Table 2. Private services: Average saiaries-Metropoiitan areas—Continued
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations, metropolitan areas,1 United States, except
Alaska and Hawaii, March 1987)

Monthly salaries4
Occupation and level1
2

Number of
employees3
4

Annual salaries4

Middle range5
Mean5

Median5

First
quartile

Third
quartile

Middle range5
Mean5

Median5

First
quartile

Third
quartile

Key entry operators
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................

23,018
10,764

$1,043
1,270

$1,030
1,262

$896
1,074

$1,166
1,452

$12,516
15,234

$12,354
15,141

$10,753
12,888

$13,994
17,419

Messengers.....................................

5,810

946

927

808

1,090

11,348

11,125

9,697

13,082

1,193
1,230
1,023
307

1,119
1,403
1,619
1,927

1,127
1,374
1,569
1,991

1,000
1,249
1,451
1,692

1,257
1,532
1,749
2,083

13,428
16,841
19,428
23,118

13,519
16,493
18,827
23,897

12,000
14,986
17,408
20,299

15,079
18,386
20,992
24,990

1,051
1,106
286

1,131
1,381
1,746

1,126
1,365
1,739

1,026
1,238
1,565

1,227
1,499
1,891

13,573
16,571
20,949

13,515
16,379
20,869

12,311
14,850
18,781

14,725
17,993
22,692

20,650
29,514
24,492
10,524
1,950

1,308
1,541
1,738
2,021
2,432

1,295
1,480
1,708
1,999
2,451

1,147
1,309
1,529
1,791
2,126

1,435
1,712
1,928
2,208
2,695

15,694
18,491
20,860
24,248
29,183

15,544
17,765
20,492
23,990
29,415

13,769
15,703
18,348
21,491
25,511

17,221
20,538
23,138
26,496
32,340

5,829
2,044

1,089
1,338

1,083
1,331

936
1,213

1,206
1,478

13,070
16,060

12,999
15,973

11,228
14,554

14,476
17,741

4,952
22,333
23,915
5,180

869
1,026
1,250
1,604

867
1,004
1,235
1,589

750
909
1,100
1,485

936
1,137
1,387
1,712

10,426
12,315
15,006
19,246

10,399
12,042
14,819
19,072

9,006
10,906
13,200
17,820

11,231
13,645
16,639
20,550

Personnel clerks/assistants
1 .......................................................................
I I ......................................................................
I l l .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................
Purchasing clerks/assistants
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
I l l .....................................................................
Secretaries
1 .......................................................................
I I ......................................................................
I l l .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................
V ......................................................................
Typists;
1 .......................................................................
II ......................................................................
General clerks
1 .......................................................................
I I ......................................................................
I l l .....................................................................
IV .....................................................................

industries, as well as profit-sharing payments, attendance bonuses,
Christmas or year-end bonuses, and other nonproduction bonuses. Pay
increases - but not bonuses - under cost-of-living allowance clauses, and
incentive payments, however, are included.
5
The mean is computed for each job by totaling the earnings of all
workers and dividing by the number of workers. The median designates
position; one-half of the workers receive the same as or more and onehalf receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range
is defined by two rates of pay; one-fourth of the workers earn the same as
or less than the lower of these rates and one-fourth earn the same as or
more than the higher rate.

1 Metropolitan data relate to all 327 Metropolitan Statistical Areas
(MSA’s) and Primary Metropolitan Statistical Areas (PSMA’s) within the
contiguous 48 states, as defined by the U.S. Office of Management and
Budget through June 1983.
2 Occupational definitions appear in appendix C.
3 Occupational employment estimates relate to the total in all
establishments within the scope of the survey and not to the number
actually surveyed. For further explanation, see appendix A.
4 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends,
holidays, and late shifts.
Also excluded are performance bonuses and
lump-sum payments of the type negotiated in the auto and aerospace




14

Table 3. Private services: Average salaries-By size of establishment
(Employment and average annual salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations, United States, except Alaska
and Hawaii,' March 1987)
Establishments employing
20 - 499 workers3
Occupation and level2
Number of
employees5

Annual salaries6

Establishments employing
500-2,499 workers
Number of
employees5

Annual salaries6

Establishments employing 2,500
workers or more4
Number of
employees5

Annual salaries6
Mean7

Median7

588
892
797
437

$20,661
24,881
30,518
37,810

$20,449
24,610
30,480
37,333

20,192
25,019

321
592

22,069
26,110

21,797
25,740

20,845
24,594
29,924

21,000
24,648
29,961

875
2,150
2,342

23,685
25,410
28,776

24,802
25,990
28,988

1,293
3,764
2,366
1,023

29,284
36,332
44,469
51,836

28,988
35,926
43,083
49,896

660
2,592
1,423
635

28,730
34,396
41,550
48,740

28,373
34,161
41,289
48,564

41,983

8,760

43,941

43,800

2,795

43,696

43,080

20,315
22,401
29,181

20,133
21,891
29,867

8,882
205,776
8,061

21,969
24,234
31,722

21,630
23,960
30,823

4,139
82,374
5,906

23,210
25,512
32,741

22,733
25,249
31,619

201,791

10,009

9,511

54,026

13,414

13,311

13,986

13,498

13,997

5,854

20,829

20,392

545

19,817

20,122

183

20,723

20,742

1,538
7,089
3,364

13,717
16,657
21,271

13,994
16,223
21,038

840
3,671
2,395

14,631
16,863
20,622

14,160
16,847
20,018

238
1,240
1,031

14,338
17,546
21,127

14,081
17,408
20,911

5,604
25,422
14,865
4,009

11,266
14,210
16,472
19,909

11,439
13,994
16,556
20,480

1,826
6,100
3,569
644

12,264
14,883
17,195
20,179

11,751
14,559
17,093
20,722

262
1,954
1,958
623

13,224
15,778
17,937
21,222

12,977
15,548
17,780
20,958

1......................................................................
I I .....................................................................

19,479
8,141

12,248
14,728

11,995
14,494

4,251
2,306

12,760
16,314

12,479
16,223

1,102
620

14,401
17,245

14,039
17,325

Messengers..................................

3,337

11,180

11,019

2,065

11,215

10,732

514

13,047

12,772

Personnel clerks/assistants
I I .....................................................................
I l l ....................................................................

402
478

16,569
19,781

16,366
18,758

714
466

16,591
18,875

16,140
18,823

217
127

17,409
19,544

17,200
19,821

Mean7

Median7

Mean7

Median7

1,252
4,345
4,097
1,657

$18,942
22,879
29,704
39,092

$18,115
22,991
29,988
38,880

804
1,819
2,235
1,133

$19,808
24,020
29,692
38,490

$19,492
23,835
29,304
37,985

575
1,022

20,019
24,904

19,570
24,290

738
1,125

20,175
25,410

3,046
8,105
9,057

20,267
23,185
29,406

20,492
23,031
29,488

1,464
3,332
3,703

3,094
8,725
5,705
2,408

28,298
35,272
42,231
50,663

28,489
34,986
41,983
50,280

15,560

42,283

1......................................................................
I I .....................................................................
I l l ....................................................................

25,236
78,738
6,435

Nursing assistants
I I .....................................................................
Drafters
III....................................................................

Accountants
1......................................................................
I I .....................................................................
I l l ....................................................................
I V ...................................................................
Buyers

I I .....................................................................
Computer programmers
1......................................................................
I I .....................................................................
I l l ....................................................................
Systems analysts
1......................................................................
I I .....................................................................
I l l ....................................................................
I V ...................................................................
Engineers
I V ...................................................................
Registered nurses

Computer operators
1......................................................................
I I .....................................................................
I l l ....................................................................
Accounting clerks
1......................................................................
I I .....................................................................
I l l ....................................................................
I V ...................................................................
Key entry operators

See footnotes at end of table.




15

Table 3. Private services: Average salaries~By size of establishment—Continued
(Employment and average annual salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations, United States, except Alaska
and Hawaii,1 March 1987)
Establishments employing
20 - 499 workers3
Occupation and level2
Number of
employees5

Purchasing clerks/assistants
I I .....................................................................

Establishments employing
500-2,499 workers

Annual salaries6
Mean7

Median7

462

$15,799

$15,141

12,548
12,125
4,216
868

14,653
21,214
24,699
30,122

3,592

4,032
18,374
19,372

Number of
employees5

Annual salaries6
Mean7

Median7

627

$16,814

$16,793

14,734
20,798
24,326
31,499

7,670
7,922
4,310
809

15,641
20,113
23,846
27,760

12,386

12,895

1,675

9,831
11,771
14,525

10,200
11,699
14,556

828
5,400
4,623

Establishments employing 2,500
workers or more4
Number of
employees5

Annual salaries6
Mean7

Median7

190

$17,181

$16,587

15,306
19,904
23,669
26,925

4,098
6,148
2,378
344

16,557
20,207
23,538
29,163

16,493
20,125
23,359
28,988

13,655

13,068

841

14,436

14,455

11,410
12,707
15,219

11,314
12,604
15,079

525
2,371
3,110

12,542
14,127
15,599

12,444
13,935
15,079

Secretaries
l ......................................................................
I l l ....................................................................
I V ...................................................................
V ....................................................................
Typists
1......................................................................
General clerks
1......................................................................
I I .....................................................................
I l l ....................................................................

holidays, and late shifts. Also excluded are performance bonuses and
lump-sum payments of the type negotiated in the auto and aerospace
industries, as well as profit-sharing payments, attendance bonuses,
Christmas or year-end bonuses, and other nonproduction bonuses. Pay
increases - but not bonuses - under cost-of-living allowance clauses,
and incentive payments, however, are included.
7
The mean is computed for each job by totaling the earnings of all
workers and dividing by the number of workers. The median designates
position; one-half of the workers receive the same as or more and onehalf receive the same as or less than the rate shown.

1 For the scope of the survey, see table A-1 in appendix A.
2 Occupational definitions appear in appendix C.
3 Includes establishments employing fewer than the 20 worker
minimum at the time of the survey.
4 Includes data from some large companies that provide
companywide data not identified by size of establishment.
5 Occupational employment estimates relate to the total in all
establishments within the scope of the survey and not to the number
actually surveyed. For further explanation, see appendix A.
6 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends,




16

Table 4. Private services: Earnings distribution-professional and administrative occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and
Hawaii,'March 1987)

Accountants
Annual salary
I

II

Ill

IV

V

Number of employees............................
Average annual salary............................

2,644
$19,588

7,056
$23,426

7,129
$29,791

3,227
$38,707

808
$49,291

T o ta l..................................................
Under $15,000 ........................................
$15,000 and under $16,000 ..................
$16,000 and under $17,000 ..................
$17,000 and under $18,000 ..................
$18,000 and under $19,000 ..................
$19,000 and under $20,000 ..................

100.0
2.6
6.2
6.7
17.2
15.4
14.0

100.0
.2
.4
1.5
.8
5.8
5.2

100.0

100.0

100.0

.1
.1
.4

_
-

-

_
.3
.1

_
_
-

$20,000
$21,000
$22,000
$23,000
$24,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$21,000
$22,000
$23,000
$24,000
$25,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

10.4
9.1
6.0
7.0
1.9

8.5
14.2
9.8
14.2
14.0

.3
1.1
4.8
1.4
3.8

$25,000
$26,000
$27,000
$28,000
$29,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$26,000
$27,000
$28,000
$29,000
$30,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

2.3
.5
.3
.3
.1

6.7
6.1
4.5
2.4
2.3

9.3
4.7
11.2
4.9
11.1

.1
.2
.7
1.2
2.1

$30,000
$31,000
$32,000
$33,000
$34,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$31,000
$32,000
$33,000
$34,000
$35,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

(2
)
-

1.3
1.2
.5
.4
.1

6.7
12.4
7.6
5.2
5.1

2.1
2.6
2.0
2.8
10.4

$35,000
$36,000
$37,000
$38,000
$39,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$36,000
$37,000
$38,000
$39,000
$40,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

_
-

ft
-

3.6
2.5
.9
.8
.9

7.2
8.8
7.6
8.1
11.2

.5
.7
1.7
.7
3.0

$40,000
$41,000
$42,000
$43,000
$44,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$41,000
$42,000
$43,000
$44,000
$45,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

_
-

_
-

.6
.2
.1
.2

6.0
6.6
2.0
3.3
2.4

1.2
5.9
3.5
2.0
5.1

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

_

_

.1

-

-

(2
)

3.3
2.9
1.5
.9
1.1

12.4
6.7
5.7
4.2
3.2

_

_

-

-

.8
.6
.5
.2
.1

9.7
5.0
3.0
2.7
3.7

.1
.1
.1
.1

5.8
1.4
1.2
2.1
1.2

$45,000
$46,000
$47,000
$48,000
$49,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$46,000
$47,000
$48,000
$49,000
$50,000

.1
-

_

(2
)

-

$50,000
$51,000
$52,000
$53,000
$54,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$51,000
$52,000
$53,000
$54,000
$55,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

_
-

$55,000
$56,000
$57,000
$58,000
$59,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$56,000
$57,000
$58,000
$59,000
$60,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

$60,000 and under $61,000 ..................
$61,000 and o v e r...................................

_

_

“

See footnotes at end of table.




17

_

-

.1

.2
.2

1.7
5.4

Table 4. Private services: Earnings distribution-professional and administrative occupations-Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and
Hawaii,’March 1987)
Auditors

Public accountants

Annual salary
II

Ill

IV

I

II

III

IV

Number of employees............................
Average annual salary............................

212
$25,683

275
$33,187

112
$40,817

14,233
$21,006

14,443
$23,044

15,563
$27,537

6,849
$33,989

T o ta l..................................................
Under $16,000 ........................................
$16,000 and under $17,000 ..................
$17,000 and under $18,000 ..................
$18,000 and under $19,000 ..................
$19,000 and under $20,000 ..................
$20,000 and under $21,000 ..................

100.0
.9
4.2

100.0
-

100.0
-

100.0
2.5
3.1
6.5
6.8
11.9
13.7

100.0
.3
1.2
3.8
6.1
7.8

100.0
ft
.4

100.0
-

25.3
16.2
7.8
3.6
1.3

18.8
13.5
17.3
15.2
6.2

2.4
4.8
10.8
9.6
12.2

.1
.8
3.1
3.3

,5
.2
.1

3.9
3.1
1.2
.3
.5

14.4
11.4
8.7
5.7
3.8

2.6
3.4
4.8
5.7
10.5

.1

4.1
2.1
2.3
1.6
1.6

6.9
7.7
8.1
6.5
5.3

1.5
.7
.4
.1
.3

7.8
4.0
5.9
1.5
1.3

.1
.3

1.0
1.7
1.9
.6
1.4

.4

.2
.7
1.2
1.9

$21,000
$22,000
$23,000
$24,000
$25,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$22,000
$23,000
$24,000
$25,000
$26,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

4.2
4.7
32.5
7.5
14.6

$26,000
$27,000
$28,000
$29,000
$30,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$27,000
$28,000
$29,000
$30,000
$31,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

$31,000
$32,000
$33,000
$34,000
$35,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$32,000
$33,000
$34,000
$35,000
$36,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

$36,000
$37,000
$38,000
$39,000
$40,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$37,000
$38,000
$39,000
$40,000
$41,000

..................

-

..................
..................
..................

-

$41,000
$42,000
$43,000
$44,000
$45,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$42,000
$43,000
$44,000
$45,000
$46,000

$46,000
$47,000
$48,000
$49,000

and
and
and
and

_

.4

_

................................

__

1.5
1.8
4.0

-

2.8
4.2
2.8
13.2
.9

3.6
3.3
4.0
6.5
4.7

-

1.4
1.9
1.9
1.9

7.3
6.2
3.6
12.7
21.1

1.8
3.6
2.7
.9
1.8

-

7.3
4.0
.4
4.0
.4

3.6
9.8
8.0
17.0
13.4

-

2.2
.4
.7

7.1
6.3
1.8
4.5
5.4

-

-

-

................................

-

................................

-

................................

-

................................

-

-

................................

-

-

under $47,000 ................................
under $48,000 ..................
under $49,000 ..................

_

_

o v e r .........................................

-

-

3.6
.9
7.1
.9

-

See footnotes at end of table.




ft

18

.5
-

-

0

.4
f t

f t
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

f t

-

-

“

-

f t

-

(*)

Table 4. Private services: Earnings distribution-professional and administrative occupationsContinued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and
Hawaii,'March 1987)
Job analysts

Directors of personnel

Annual salary
II

Ill

I

II

Number of employees............................
Average annual salary............................

114
$23,315

182
$27,433

416
$35,167

853
$43,927

T o ta l..................................................
Under $19,000 ........................................
$19,000 and under $20,000 ..................
$20,000 and under $21,000 ..................
$21,000 and under $22,000 ..................
$22,000 and under $23,000 ..................
$23,000 and under $24,000 ..................

100.0
5.3
4.4
14.9
16.7
7.9
21.S

100.0
1.6
1.1
1.1
3.3
4.9
4.9

100.0
-

100.0
-

_

$24,000
$25,000
$26,000
$27,000
$28,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$25,000
$26,000
$27,000
$28,000
$29,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

8.8
7.9
2.6
.9

13.7
11.5
6.6
9.3
7.1

4.3
1.2

$29,000
$30,000
$31,000
$32,000
$33,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$30,000
$31,000
$32,000
$33,000
$34,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

1.8
1.8
.9

9.9
11.0
4.4
1.1
1.1

9.6
1.7
13.9
6.7
9.9

$34,000
$35,000
$36,000
$37,000
$38,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$35,000
$36,000
$37,000
$38,000
$39,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

_

1.6
1.6
1.1

6.0
2.9
9.6
11.5
3.6

1.5
3.5
5.4
4.1
4.8

-

1.2
10.3
_
1.4
4.6

4.7
6.0
6.3
4.0
7.2

1.0
-

-

5.0
5.4
4.8
12.1
1.8

-

_

4.4

-

-

$39,000
$40,000
$41,000
$42,000
$43,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$40,000
$41,000
$42,000
$43,000
$44,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$45,000
$46,000
$47,000
$48,000
$49,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

..
-

$49,000
$50,000
$51,000
$52,000
$53,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$50,000
$51,000
$52,000
$53,000
$54,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

$54,000
$55,000
$56,000
$57,000
$58,000

and
and
and
and
and

under $55,000 ..................
under $56,000 ..................
under $57,000 ..................
under $58,000 ..................
o v e r....................................

1.1

_
-

$44,000
$45,000
$46,000
$47,000
$48,000

-

.5
.5
.5

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

See footnotes at end of table.




.5
-

19

.7
-

.2
1.5
2.0
.9

3.3
2.5
2.2
1.4
2.2

-

-

-

.2
.2
.5
3.2
2.3




Table 4. Private services: Earnings distribution-professional and administrative occupationsContinued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by annual
salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,'March 1987)
Attorneys
Annual salary
II

Ill

IV

Number of employees............................
Average annual salary.................. .........

186
$41,370

458
$53,100

586
$63,711

T o ta l..................................................
Under $30,000 ........................................
$30,000 and under $31,000 ..................
$31,000 and under $32,000 ..................
$32,000 and under $33,000 ..................
$33,000 and under $34,000 ..................
$34,000 and under $35,000 ..................

100.0
.5
2.7
.5
13.4
2.7

100.0
.4
-

100.0
_
_
_
-

_

$35,000
$36,000
$37,000
$38,000
$39,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$36,000
$37,000
$38,000
$39,000
$40,000

..................
..................
..................
.................
..................

2.2
2.2
7.0
7.0
11.3

$40,000
$41,000
$42,000
$43,000
$44,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$41,000
$42,000
$43,000
$44,000
$45,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

7.0
6.5
4.8
2.2
4.3

$45,000
$46,000
$47,000
$48,000
$49,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$46,000
$47,000
$48,000
$49,000
$50,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

2.7
2.7

$50,000
$51,000
$52,000
$53,000
$54,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$51,000
$52,000
$53,000
$54,000
$55,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

_
-

-

-

_

$55,000
$56,000
$57,000
$58,000
$59,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$56,000
$57,000
$58,000
$59,000
$60,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

$60,000
$61,000
$62,000
$63,000
$64,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$61,000
$62,000
$63,000
$64,000
$65,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

.2
1.5
.7
.9
.2
9.0
-

_
_
-

_
-

2.7
12.4

-

3.2

-

1.7
2.2
.4
2.6
11.8

-

25.3
6.6
2.4
2.4
4.6

1.4
.9
.7
.2
6.5

.2

-

8.0
3.2
1.5
.9
1.9

-

1.7

-

1.1
1.1

-

.2
9.6
2.2
1.7

1.0

.5

-

3.9

1.4
1.2
3.2
13.1
13.1

2.2
.7
.4
1.1

12.3
9.0
.7
7.5

_
2.8

1.4
.9
1.0
.3
4.9
3.2

~
-

$65,000
$66,000
$67,000
$68,000
$69,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

$70,000
$71,000
$72,000
$73,000
$74,000
$75,000

and
and
and
and
and
and

under $71,000 ..................
under $72,000 ..................
under $73,000 ..................
under $74,000 ..................
under $75,000 ..................
o v e r....................................

-

_
_
-

$66,000
$67,000
$68,000
$69,000
$70,000

_
.2

See footnotes at end of table.

20

Table 4. Private services: Earnings distribution-professional and administrative occupationsContinued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and
Hawaii,1
March 1987)
Buyers
Annual salary
I

II

Ill

IV

Number of employees............................
Average annual salary............................

1,634
$20,492

2,739
$25,373

845
$33,309

451
$41,828

T o ta l..................................................
Under $16,000 ........................................
$16,000 and under $17,000 ..................
$17,000 and under $18,000 ..................
$18,000 and under $19,000 ..................
$19,000 and under $20,000 ..................
$20,000 and under $21,000 ..................

100.0
8.4
5.7
6.2
12.4
14.2
12.9

100.0
.6
.4
1.0
3.5
5.1
2.7

100.0

-

100.0
_
-

_

_

-

-

-

$21,000
$22,000
$23,000
$24,000
$25,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$22,000
$23,000
$24,000
$25,000
$26,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

13.4
7.2
6.0
5.8
2.8

5.5
7.7
13.3
11.2
9.0

$26,000
$27,000
$28,000
$29,000
$30,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$27,000
$28,000
$29,000
$30,000
$31,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

1.8
1.5
1.0
.2
.3

9.7
7.8
3.9
4.7
3.3

8.6
9.0
5.4
3.9
5.6

$31,000
$32,000
$33,000
$34,000
$35,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$32,000
$33,000
$34,000
$35,000
$36,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

.1

4.6
2.2
.8
1.5
.9

4.6
5.6
8.5
3.4
8.4

1.3
.4
.7
1.6
7.8

$36,000
$37,000
$38,000
$39,000
$40,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$37,000
$38,000
$39,000
$40,000
$41,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

.2

5.9
10.3
2-7
4.3
2.1

2.7
2.2
4.4
20.6
4.0

$41,000
$42,000
$43,000
$44,000
$45,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$42,000
$43,000
$44,000
$45,000
$46,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

.7
.8
3.3
.4
.5

3.8
12.2
8.4
7.1
9.5

$46,000
$47,000
$48,000
$49,000
$50,000

and
and
and
and
and

under $47,000 ..................
under $48,000 ..................
under $49,000 ..................
under $50,000 ..................
over ...................................

.1
.7
.1

1.3
2.7
3.1
1.6
4.0

.2

_
-

.1

_

0
(2
)

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

21

-

.9
.6
3.3

0

See footnotes at end of table.




-

-

.1

-

-

_
_
.2
.4

Table 4. Private services: Earnings distribution-professional and administrative occupations-Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and
Hawaii,'March 1987)
Computer programmers
Annual salary
I

II

Ill

IV

V

Number of employees............................
Average annual salary............................

5,385
$20,980

13,587
$23,883

15,102
$29,435

6,594
$36,204

1,849
$43,292

T o ta l..................................................
Under $16,000 ........................................
$16,000 and under $17,000 ..................
$17,000 and under $18,000 ..................
$18,000 and under $19,000 ..................
$19,000 and under $20,000 ..................
$20,000 and under $21,000 ..................

100.0
3.3
8.5
9.8
9.6
7.6
11.3

100.0
.3
.7
3.4
4.6
5.9
7.1

100.0
-

100.0
-

100.0
-

ft

.3
.8

_
-

$21,000
$22,000
$23,000
$24,000
$25,000

and
and
and
and
and

unde*- $22,000
under $23,000
under $24,000
under $25,000
under $26,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

16.4
11.1
6.1
6.5
5.3

8.0
10.9
11.0
10.7
10.3

1.5
1.8
2.4
6.2
6.7

$26,000
$27,000
$28,000
$29,000
$30,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

2.3
1.6
.6
(2
)
.1

7.1
8.9
4.8
2.6
1.8

8.5
11.5
7.4
11.4
8.6

1.4
2.3
2.5
3.6
3.3

.7
.4
.2
.2
.1

8.6
8.2
5.0
4.5
1.9

9.3
9.7
6.3
8.5
5.6

.5
.1
.5
4.1
2.1

1.1
1.4
.5
.8
.3

7.2
10.0
3.8
6.5
3.3

4.3
4.4
3.1
4.5
9.6

.5

2.9
2.7
3.0
.9
.2

12.3
16.4
3.6
9.9
5.1

.5
.8
.2
2.5
.2

.6
.6
4.3
1.9
.7

.2
.8
.2
.2

1.1
2.3
.6
.2
-

.2

.4
6.2

$27,000
$28,000
$29,000
$30,000
$31,000

$31,000
$32,000
$33,000
$34,000
$35,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$32,000
$33,000
$34,000
$35,000
$36,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

_
-

$36,000
$37,000
$38,000
$39,000
$40,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$37,000
$38,000
$39,000
$40,000
$41,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

-

ft
-

$41,000
$42,000
$43,000
$44,000
$45,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$42,000
$43,000
$44,000
$45,000
$46,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

_
-

_
-

$46,000
$47,000
$48,000
$49,000
$50,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$47,000
$48,000
$49,000
$50,000
$51,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

_

_

_

-

-

-

$51,000
$52,000
$53,000
$54,000
$55,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$52,000
$53,000
$54,000
$55,000
$56,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

$56,000 and under $57,000 ..................
$57,000 and o v e r...................................

ft

-

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

_

_

_
“

-

-

See footnotes at end of table.




-

22

.1
.9

-

_

.5

Table 4. Private services: Earnings distribution-professional and administrative occupations-Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and
Hawaii,'March 1987)
Systems analysts
Annual salary
I

II

III

IV

V

Number of employees............................
Average annual salary............................

5,047
$28,607

15,081
$35,386

9,494
$42,687

4,066
$50,658

749
$59,841

Total..................................................
Under $21,000 ........................................
$21,000 and under $22,000 ..................
$22,000 and under $23,000 ..................
$23,000 and under $24,000 ..................
$24,000 and under $25,000 ..................
$25,000 and under $26,000 ..................

100.0
2.5
.8
1.4
5.0
9.4
6.8

100.0
.1
.2
.3
.3

100.0
-

100.0
-

100.0
-

.2
.1

-

-

.1
.2
.4

-

$26,000
$27,000
$28,000
$29,000
$30,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$27,000
$28,000
$29,000
$30,000
$31,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

7.7
11.8
11.2
10.1
11.0

.9
1.2
1.7
3.8
5.2

$31,000
$32,000
$33,000
$34,000
$35,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$32,000
$33,000
$34,000
$35,000
$36,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

7.9
5.0
2.0
3.0
1.2

10.3
7.9
9.3
9.8
8.9

.4
1.3
1.3
1.6
2.0

$36,000
$37,000
$38,000
$39,000
$40,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$37,000
$38,000
$39,000
$40,000
$41,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

.9
1.0
.4
.3
.1

9.1
6.6
6.1
6.0
3.5

4.3
8.0
5.7
9.3
8.1

.4
.3
.4
1.3
1.8

-

$41,000
$42,000
$43,000
$44,000
$45,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$42,000
$43,000
$44,000
$45,000
$46,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

.2
.2
(2
)

2.6
1.7
1.0
.9
.7

7.4
7.8
5.7
7.5
5.1

2.7
1.3
13.1
3.9
3.3

-

$46,000
$47,000
$48,000
$49,000
$50,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$47,000
$48,000
$49,000
$50,000
$51,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
.................

_
-

.6
.3
.4
.2
.1

4.6
4.2
3.0
2.6
1.9

5.0
4.1
3.9
9.2
5.2

_
2.3
.9
1.2
2.0

$51,000
$52,000
$53,000
$54,000
$55,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$52,000
$53,000
$54,000
$55,000
$56,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

_
-

.1
.2
ft
ft

2.2
.8
.6
.8
.9

5.5
7.0
4.2
3.4
4.2

1.6
15.6
1.6
3.1
2.8

$56,000
$57,000
$58,000
$59,000
$60,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$57,000
$58,000
$59,000
$60,000
$61,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

_
-

-

.4
.6
.2
.3
.4

1.6
1.4
3.5
2.3
2.1

4.0
1.6
2.3
15.8
3.9

$61,000
$62,000
$63,000
$64,000
$65,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$62,000
$63,000
$64,000
$65,000
$66,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

_

_

-

-

-

-

.1
.1
.1

-

-

-

-

-

-

.8
1.6
.9
1.4
.4

5.7
4.7
3.3
12.4
1.7

$66,000
$67,000
$68,000
$69,000
$70,000

and
and
and
and
and

under $67,000 ..................
under $68,000 ..................
under $69,000 ..................
under $70,000 ..................
over...................................

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

”

~

“

See fo o tn o te s at end o f table.




23

ft
.1
.4

.5
.6
.4
.4
1.2

.7

.7

2.3
-

.5
1.7
7.6

Table 4. Private services: Earnings distribution-professional and administrative occupations-Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and
Hawaii,’March 1987)
Engineers
Annual salary
I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

VIII

Number of employees ............................
Average annual salary............................

7,321
$26,355

14,392
$30,151

21,903
$35,779

27,115
$42,964

21,285
$50,597

10,573
$59,422

3,251
$67,183

933
$78,049

Total..................................................
Under $22,000 ........................................
$22,000 and under $23,000 ..................
$23,000 and under $24,000 ..................
$24,000 and under $25,000 ..................
$25,000 and under $26,000 ..................
$26,000 and under $27,000 ..................

100.0
4.1
10.1
9.0
15.5
14.9
7.3

100.0
1.2
.7
1.2
4.4
6.0
6.6

100.0
.2
.2
.7
.7
.5

100.0
.1
ft
.1

100.0
(2
)
-

100.0
-

100.0
-

100.0
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
ft
-

$27,000
$28,000
$29,000
$30,000
$31,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$28,000
$29,000
$30,000
$31,000
$32,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

10.2
10.1
8.5
5.8
2.5

10.8
8.9
7.4
14.0
11.4

1.3
2.5
4.6
5.1
7.2

.1
.2

$32,000
$33,000
$34,000
$35,000
$36,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$33,000
$34,000
$35,000
$36,000
$37,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

1.1
.3
.4
.2
.1

7.7
5.2
4.8
4.3
2.2

7.7
6.7
9.2
8.6
8.1

1.4
2.2
2.7
2.2
2.6

$37,000
$38,000
$39,000
$40,000
$41,000

and" under
and under
and under
and under
and under

$38,000
$39,000
$40,000
$41,000
$42,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

.1

1.0
.5
.5
.8
.3

6.9
5.7
4.6
5.3
3.2

6.6
4.8
7.7
7.0
6.5

.6
.7
2.1
1.8
2.2

$42,000
$43,000
$44,000
$45,000
$46,000

and
and
and
and
and

$43,000
$44,000
$45,000
$46,000
$47,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

ft
-

.1
.1
.1
.1

2.8
1.9
2.0
1.2
.6

8.3
6.5
6.1
5.3
4.6

3.4
4.5
5.7
4.9
5.2

.8
.5
.5
2.0
1.9

(2
)
-

.6
.7
.2
.3
.3

4.0
4.2
3.9
2.5
2.4

6.5
6.2
5.4
4.2
8.4

1.7
.8
1.1
1.1
.6

under
under
under
under
under

ft
.1
-

ft

$47,000
$48,000
$49,000
$50,000
$51,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$48,000
$49,000
$50,000
$51,000
$52,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

_
-

$52,000
$53,000
$54,000
$55,000
$56,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$53,000
$54,000
$55,000
$56,000
$57,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

_
-

_
-

$57,000
$58,000
$59,000
$60,000
$61,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$58,000
$59,000
$60,000
$61,000
$62,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

_
-

-

-

-

_
-

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

$62,000
$63,000
$64,000
$65,000
$66,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$63,000
$64,000
$65,000
$66,000
$67,000

-

(2
)
-

$67,000
$68,000
$69,000
$70,000
$71,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$68,000
$69,000
$70,000
$71,000
$72,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

-

$72,000
$73,000
$74,000
$75,000

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$73,000
$74,000
$75,000
$76,000

..................
..................
..................
..................

_
-

(2
)
ft
-

_
“




.1
ft
.1
.2

_
-

2.0
2.1
3.7
3.2
4.2

.4
.4
.4
.5
.7

_
-

4.3
4.0
4.2
4.3
3.2

2.6
3.5
5.2
4.2
3.6

1.1
2.1
2.2
2.5
1.6

-

3.5
3.3
2.3
1.4
1.4

5.7
4.8
3.4
5.8
4.2

2.0
2.6
2.3
3.1
3.3

.1
.2
.9
.3
.6

.9
1.2
1.2
.3
.3

3.5
5.1
3.5
3.4
3.3

4.9
6.2
5.8
3.4
5.2

3.8
2.7
6.3
1.1
1.6

.3
.3
.5
.1
.1

2.7
2.9
1.7
1.3
.8

5.0
3.4
3.8
6.1
2.5

1.4
2.0
1.8
3.4
3.9

.1

.9
.9
.9
.8

4.0
3.3
2.1
3.9

1.7
1.6
1.4
7.2

ft
(2
)
ft

ft
ft
-

-

-

-

_
-

24

.1
ft
ft

.1
.4
.3
.3

ft

-

See footnotes at end of table.

.1
.2
.1
.5

.1

.3

-

ft

.5
.4
.1
.1

_

-

-

.6
.7

”

ft
ft
ft

_

.1

Table 4. Private services: Earnings distribution-professional and administrative occupations-Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and
Hawaii,'March 1987)
Engineers
Annual salary
VIII

I

II

Ill

IV

V

$76,000 and under $77,000 ..................

-

-

-

-

O

0.8

2.5

1.9

$77,000
$78,000
$79,000
$80,000
$81,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$78,000
$79,000
$80,000
$81,000
$82,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

-

-

_
-

-

0
ft
-

.6
.2
.2
.2
.2

1.9
1.4
1.2
.8
.6

5.1
2.9
2.5
8.3
1.8

$82,000
$83,000
$84,000
$85,000
$86,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$83,000
$84,000
$85,000
$86,000
$87,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

-

-

.
-

•
-

ft
-

.1
.1
.4
.1

1.3
.4
.5
.6
1.0

2.4
2.1
4.3
5.7
6.0

$87,000
$88,000
$89,000
$90,000
$91,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$88,000
$89,000
$90,000
$91,000
$92,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.3
.1
.1
.1
.1

2.8
1.2
1.4
.6
1.9

$92,000 and under $93,000 ..................
$93,000 and over...................................

-

-

-

_

“

-

“

.1
1.2

1.2
5.8

See footnotes at end of table.




25

VII

VI

ft
ft

-

•

-

ft
ft
ft
ft

-

ft
-

.8

Table 4. Private services: Earnings distribution-professional and administrative occupationsContinued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and
Hawaii,’March 1987)
Registered nurses
Annual salary
I

II

Ill

IV

Number of employees............................
Average annual salary............................

38,257
$21,012

366,888
$24,127

20,402
$31,216

392
$34,383

Total..................................................
Under $16,000 ........................................
$16,000 and under $17,000 ..................
$17,000 and under $18,000 ..................
$18,000 and under $19,000 ..................
$19,000 and under $20,000 ..................
$20,000 and under $21,000 ..................

100.0
4.2
5.3
8.0
10.8
11.9
11.6

100.0
.2
.6
1.8
4.0
6.5
8.3

100.0

100.0

.1
.1
.3
1.3

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

$21,000
$22,000
$23,000
$24,000
$25,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$22,000
$23,000
$24,000
$25,000
$26,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

15.4
9.5
6.3
6.1
2.4

9.6
9.8
10.8
10.3
9.2

2.2
2.2
2.8
4.4
5.4

$26,000
$27,000
$28,000
$29,000
$30,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$27,000
$28,000
$29,000
$30,000
$31,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

4.1
1.6
1.1
.6
.4

7.8
6.9
4.6
2.8
2.0

3.4
6.0
7.5
7.5
6.5

3.3
3.8
3.3
4.8
5.4

$31,000
$32,000
$33,000
$34,000
$35,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$32,000
$33,000
$34,000
$35,000
$36,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

.5
.2

1.4
.6
.8
.6
.4

7.1
6.4
15.6
3.2
3.1

13.3
9.4
7.1
7.1
11.5

$36,000
$37,000
$38,000
$39,000
$40,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$37,000
$38,000
$39,000
$40,000
$41,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

_

.6
.1

-

(2
)
(2
)
ft

2.6
2.0
2.1
1.3
1.1

8.2
3.1
3.6
1.5
1.8

$41,000
$42,000
$43,000
$44,000
$45,000

and
and
and
and
and

under $42,000 ..................
under $43,000 .......... ......
under $44,000 ..................
under $45,000 ..................
over....................................

_
-

ft
ft

ft
O
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1 For the scope of the study see table A-1 in appendix A




2 Less than 0.05 percent

26

1.0
1.0
.9
.7
2.2

.5
.3

6.6
-

.8
2.6
2.0

Table 5. Private services: Earnings distribution-Technical support occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected technical support occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1
March 1987)
Licensed practical nurses

Nursing assistants

Annual salary
I

II

III

I

II

Ill

Number of employees............................
Average annual salary............................

31,195
$14,636

165,049
$16,487

2,061
$18,837

148,366
$8,558

269,803
$10,872

22,075
$14,369

Total..................................................
Under $6,500 ..........................................
$6,500 and under $7,000 .......................
$7,000 and under $7,500 .......................
$7,500 and under $8,000 .......................
$8,000 and under $8,500.......................
$8,500 and under $9,000.......................

100.0
-

100.0
-

100.0
-

100.0
.4
11.8
20.7
14.3
13.3
11.4

100.0

100.0
-

2.5
7.0
6.6
8.3
8.6

-

$9,000 and under $9,500 .......................
$9,500 and under $10,000.....................
$10,000 and under $10,500 ..................
$10,500 and under $11,000 ..................
$11,000 and under $11,500 ..................

.8
.9
1.9
1.9
5.1

_
-

6.4
5.8
3.4
3.2
2.6

7.4
6.5
6.3
5.3
5.7

1.6
.7
1.5
.7
14.6

$11,500
$12,000
$12,500
$13,000
$13,500

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$12,000
$12,500
$13,000
$13,500
$14,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

3.0
6.4
8.7
5.9
7.2

2.7
3.2
4.0
3.8
5.1

_

8.7

1.6
1.2
1.5
.5
.4

5.0
4.7
4.1
3.2
2.9

4.4
5.2
4.9
3.6
5.7

$14,000
$14,500
$15,000
$15,500
$16,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$14,500
$15,000
$15,500
$16,000
$16,500

..................
............... .
..................
..................
..................

6.0
6.3
11.0
8.1
6.1

5.4
6.3
6.2
6.1
6.8

5.2
2.6
3.4
2.4
1.8

.4
.2
.2
.3
.2

2.7
2.5
2.1
1.6
1.2

5.0
5.1
4.3
5.5
5.6

$16,500
$17,000
$17,500
$18,000
$18,500

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$17,000
$17,500
$18,000
$18,500
$19,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

5.6
2.7
3.6
1.5
1.7

6.2
6.2
5.0
5.2
4.5

5.7
1.2
5.1
10.6
6.7

.1
.1
.1

1.0
1.0
1.2
1.0
.8

9.0
4.9
4.3
6.1
.5

$19,000
$19,500
$20,000
$20,500
$21,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$19,500
$20,000
$20,500
$21,000
$21,500

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

1.8
1.7
1.2
.5
.3

3.9
3.9
2.8
2.5
1.8

3.3
10.6
5.4
6.6
1.1

ft
ft

.2
.1
.3

-

ft
ft

.5
.2
1.2
.1
.6

$21,500
$22,000
$22,500
$23,000
$23,500

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$22,000
$22,500
$23,000
$23,500
$24,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

.1
.1

1.5
.8
.7
.7
.6

.5
1.8
.4
3.8
1.9

_
-

ft
ft
ft

$24,000
$24,500
$25,000
$25,500
$26,000

and
and
and
and
and

under $24,500 ..................
under $25,000 ..................
under $25,500 ..................
under $26,000 ..................
over...................................

-

_
-

ft
.3
.3
.9
1.6

.2
1.2

1.4
.2
.2
1.5
6.3

.5
.1
.3
.1
.2

See footnotes at end of table.




27

ft

ft
ft

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

.3
.8
.4
1.8

.4
ft
.2
ft
ft

ft
ft
ft
“

.1

Table 5. Private services: Earnings distribution-!echnical support occupations-Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected technical support occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1
March 1987)
Engineering technicians

Drafters

Annual salary
II

III

IV

V

I

II

III

IV

V

Number of employees............................
Average annual salary............................

2,253
$20,149

3,034
$24,425

3,428
$30,009

2,535
$34,275

1,848
$12,450

4,223
$15,898

6,582
$20,742

7,128
$25,281

2,023
$31,634

Total..................................................
Under $10,500 ........................................
$10,500 and under $11,000 ..................
$11,000 and under $11,500 ..................
$11,500 and under $12,000 ..................
$12,000 and under $12,500 ..................
$12,500 and under $13,000 ..................

100.0
-

100.0
-

100.0
-

100.0
-

100.0
11.4
18.7
8.5
2.2
13.9
9.0

100.0
-

100.0
-

100.0
-

100.0
-

2.3
15.6
5.6
9.3
2.4

2.2
6.8
7.1
12.0
16.1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.1

-

$13,000
$13,500
$14,000
$14,500
$15,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$13,500
$14,000
$14,500
$15,000
$15,500

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

.6
.4
.1
.5
.7

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

$15,500
$16,000
$16,500
$17,000
$17,500

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$16,000
$16,500
$17,000
$17,500
$18,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

1.4
1.8
1.3
5.4
5.7

-

_

-

$18,000
$18,500
$19,000
$19,500
$20,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$18,500
$19,000
$19,500
$20,000
$20,500

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

5.5
11.5
6.3
14.9
5.5

.1

.1

_

.1

-

-

-

-

.1
.3

-

-

-

.2
.5
1.1
9.4
1.1

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

0

.3
.4

1.1

-

-

1.7
.1
2.0
.1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

(*)

-

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

4.6
3.6
6.1
3.7
5.1

5.4
2.2
5.3
4.0
4.9

.1
.5
.5
.6
1.1

$23,000
$23,500
$24,000
$24,500
$25,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$23,500
$24,000
$24,500
$25,000
$25,500

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

3.7
6.3
1.8
.7
.5

3.5
6.0
7.3
8.3
4.6

.8
1.6
2.3
2.2
3.3

.3
.2
.2
.2
.3

-

$25,500
$26,000
$26,500
$27,000
$27,500

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$26,000
$26,500
$27,000
$27,500
$28,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

.7
.2
.1
.9

5.3
4.1
2.2
7.1
4.3

3.6
3.2
4.0
4.1
3.2

.7
1.6
.9
.7
1.1

_

$28,000
$28,500
$29,000
$29,500
$30,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$28,500
$29,000
$29,500
$30,000
$30,500

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

3.0
2.8
2.5
1.2
.6

5.0
6.8
4.6
6.3
2.9

2.2
1.5
2.6
3.2
3.2

.7
.1
.4
.1
.1

5.5
5.5
2.3
2.3
2.2

2.7
7.1
5.0
4.6
4.3

.1
.7
.1
.1

5.7
1.5
1.3
.6
2.8

4.7
3.7
3.5
4.3
3.4

.1

1.0
1.6
.3
8.4
.1

3.6
3.0
3.2
2.4
3.0

$30,500
$31,000
$31,500
$32,000
$32,500

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$31,000
$31,500
$32,000
$32,500
$33,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

$33,000
$33,500
$34,000
$34,500
$35,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$33,500
$34,000
$34,500
$35,000
$35,500

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

_

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

-

$35,500
$36,000
$36,500
$37,000
$37,500

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$36,000
$36,500
$37,000
$37,500
$38,000

-

-

-

0
"

See footnotes at end of table.




28

-

.1
1.7
1.9

-

$21,000
$21,500
$22,000
$22,500
$23,000

_

_

-

.1
0

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

6.5
5.9
2.2
4.4
7.9

-

under
under
under
under
under

0
(*)
-

_

(*)
(*)

2.0
2.8
2.8
3.0
(2
)

-

and
and
and
and
and

0
-

-

3.4
1.6
6.3
5.0
7.1

-

$20,500
$21,000
$21,500
$22,000
$22,500

-

-

-

12.2
8.0
8.7
5.3
3.7

-

0

-

-

.4

-

0

-

1.6
1.6
1.5
2.5
.3
2.0

-

_
-

-

_

7.4
3.2
3.3
.8
5.5

5.8
3.5
3.0
5.1
7.8

(*)

1.4
3.1
1.3
2.3
1.1

6.5
4.9
4.0
5.7
3.1

.1
1.2
.3
1.6
1.2

-

-

4.5
.1
6.6
2.5
(*)

4.3
1.2
3.6
4.0
2.7

2.1
.4
1.0
2.1
4.2

_

-

-

-

1.1
1.1
.2
.3

2.3
1.3
5.4
1.0
3.5

2.6
9.1
5.2
4.4
3.2

-

-

1.4
1.4
1.5
1.4
1.1

7.9
6.8
6.5
5.2
8.0

.3
.3
1.1
.3
1.5

5.1
1.3
1.7
.3
3.1

1.9
.1
0
.1

-

-

(2
)
.6

(*)

(2
)
.1
-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

(2
)

_
”

-

-

-

-

_
.3
-

-

.1

.4
3.9
.2
.4
3.9

Table 5. Private services: Earnings distribution-Technicai support occupations-Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected technical support occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1
March 1987)
Engineering technicians

Drafters

Annual salary
II

$38,000
$38,500
$39,000
$39,500
$40,500

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$38,500
$39,000
$39,500
$40,000
$41,000

$41,000
$41,500
$42,000
$42,500
$43,000

and
and
and
and
and

under $41,500 ..................
under $42,000 ..................
under $42,500 ..................
under $43,000 ..................
over...................................

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

Ill

-

-

-

-

_
-

IV

-

0.7
.1
.2
.1
(2
)

2.4
3.0
2.1
5.7
2.6

_
-

.1
(*)
-

.6
1.5
.3
1.2
2.3

See footnotes at end of table.




I

V

29

II

III

IV

-

-

-

-

0.1
.1
.1
3.0
.1

-

_
’r

_
-

”

_
3.0
“

1.3

V

Table 5. Private services: Earnings distribution-Technical support occupations-Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected technical support occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1
March
1987)
Computer operators
Annual salary

I

II

III

IV

Number of em p lo ye e s.............................
Average annual s a la ry .............................

2,616
$14,067

12,000
$16,812

6,790
$21,020

2,191
$24,673

T o ta l.....................................................
Under $9,500 .............................................
$9,500 and under $1 0,000......................
$10,000 and under $10,500 ...................
$10,500 and under $11,000 ...................
$11,000 and under $11,500 ...................
$11,500 and under $12,000 ...................

100.0
.5
3.5
3.7

100.0

100.0

100.0
-

-

-

4.9
6.5

.1
.1
.1
.8
1.5

1.2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

$12,000
$12,500
$13,000
$13,500
$14,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$12,500
$13,000
$13,500
$14,000
$14,500

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

3.0
5.5
7.8
14.1
12.1

1.8
3.5
2.5
3.9
4.5

$14,500
$15,000
$15,500
$16,000
$16,500

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$15,000
$15,500
$16,000
$16,500
$17,000

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

6.8
4.5
10.8
1.4
4.5

4.9
5.3
10.2
10.1
9.7

.8
.8
1.7
1.0
1.2

$17,000
$17,500
$18,000
$18,500
$19,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$17,500
$18,000
$18,500
$19,000
$19,500

...................
.................. .
...................
...................
...................

2.1
2.3
.7
1.0
.7

4.6
8.0
4.2
3.6
3.8

2.7
3.1
4.7
6.7
6.2

.2
.8
.7
.6
1.4

$19,500
$20,000
$20,500
$21,000
$21,500

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$20,000
$20,500
$21,000
$21,500
$22,000

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

.9
.6
.4

4.4
2.4
2.4
3.2
1.9

10.5
5.9
7.3
5.8
8.6

1.0
1.9
4.0
.6
3.9

$22,000
$22,500
$23,000
$23,500
$24,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$22,500
$23,000
$23,500
$24,000
$24,500

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

.7
.5
.5
.3
.2

7.0
4.8
4.1
4.5
2.1

3.4
8.1
3.4
8.9
8.6

$24,500
$25,000
$25,500
$26,000
$26,500

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$25,000
$25,500
$26,000
$26,500
$27,000

...................
...................
...................
...................
...................

.2
.1

2.6
1.6
2.3
.6
.3

3.8
9.5
8.4
4.2
6.4

$27,000
$27,500
$28,000
$28,500
$29,000
$29,500
$30,000

and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under $27,500 ...................
under $28,000 ...................
under $28,500 ...................
under $29,000 ...................
under $29,500 ...................
under $30,000 ...................
o v e r ......................................

.8
.3
.4
.4
.2
.1
.5

3.7
3.1
2.5
2.4
1.5
1.9
3.7

(2
)
.1
.1
-

(*>
.2

-

_
-

-

.1

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“
2 Less than 0.05 percent

For the scope of the study see table A-1 in appendix A




30

.1
.1
.1
.2

.4

_
.1
.5
.1
.2

Table 6. Private services: Earnings distribution-clerical occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected clerical occupations by annual salaiy, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,'March 1987)
Accounting clerks

File clerks

Annual salary
I

II

III

IV

I

II

Number of employees............................
Average annual salary............................

7,692
$11,569

33,476
$14,424

20,392
$16,739

5,276
$20,097

10,114
$11,430

6,470
$13,166

T o ta l..................................................
Under $7,000 ..........................................
$7,000 and under $7,500 .......................
$7,500 and under $8,000 .......................
$8,000 and under $8,500 .......................
$8,500 and under $9,000 .......................
$9,000 and under $9,500 .......................

100.0
.8
.7
1.5
2.0
2.5
7.0

100.0
.1
.9
.5
.7

100.0
(2
)

100.0
-

100.0
0
.2
.5
.9

$9,500 and under $10,000.....................
$10,000 and under $10,500 ..................
$10,500 and under $11,000 ..................
$11,000 and under $11,500 ..................
$11,500 and under $12,000 ..................

7.3
9.8
9.6
12.8
13.4

-

-

.4
1.0

-

100.0
1.5
2.4
.6
4.7
8.5
9.4

1.9
1.9
3.5
3.5
5.2

1.4
.1
.3
2.6
.5

_
-

7.4
14.7
6.1
12.1
5.0

1.5
6.7
9.4
7.9
17.0

$12,000
$12,500
$13,000
$13,500
$14,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$12,500
$13,000
$13,500
$14,000
$14,500

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

7.3
4.9
3.8
5.9
3.9

9.5
7.3
6.3
5.9
7.5

2.0
2.0
2.5
5.1
4.9

2.7
(2
)
6.6
2.7
2.0

4.6
2.8
1.4
2.1
1.1

6.2
9.4
4.0
7.3
5.3

$14,500
$15,000
$15,500
$16,000
$16,500

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$15,000
$15,500
$16,000
$16,500
$17,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

1.8
1.4
.9
.4
.5

8.9
5.4
8.0
4.7
3.0

4.0
5.7
4.7
8.7
9.2

.6
1.2
2.7
.8
4.1

3.9
1.7
1.1
.5
.2

2.6
1.3
2.4
5.3
3.6

$17,000
$17,500
$18,000
$18,500
$19,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$17,500
$18,000
$18,500
$19,000
$19,500

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

.7
.2
.4

2.9
2.6
2.2
1.2
1.2

4.3
7.9
6.5
5.9
5.7

1.6
2.2
4.2
7.2
3.0

$19,500
$20,000
$20,500
$21,000
$21,500

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$20,000
$20,500
$21,000
$21,500
$22,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

.7
.5
.3
.1
.9

3.8
2.4
1.8
1.3
1.3

5.4
3.5
2.5
3.2
5.7

$22,000
$22,500
$23,000
$23,500
$24,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$22,500
$23,000
$23,500
$24,000
$24,500

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

1.0
.8

.4
1.5
.5
.1
.3

4.3
12.1
4.3
5.3
2.1

-

$24,500
$25,000
$25,500
$26,000
$26,500
$27,000

and
and
and
and
and
and

under $25,000 ..................
under $25,500 ..................
under $26,000 ..................
under $26,500 ..................
under $27,000 ..................
o v e r...................................

.3
.1
.2
.3

2.4
.7
1.9
1.1
1.0
3.0

(2
)

(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
.1
.1
-

(2
)

_
(2
)
-

.3
(2
)
.1

(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
(2
)

-

(2
)
(2
)
(2
)
.2

.2
.1

(2
)
.2

See footnotes at end of table.




31

.4
.7
4.0
.8

(*)
.6
.2
.5
.5
5.8
.2
.1
-

.2

-

0
.1
.2
1.5
(2
)
.7

_
0

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Table 6. Private services: Earnings distribution-clerical occupations-Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected clerical occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1
March 1987)
Key entry operators
Annual salary

General clerks

Messengers
I

II

I

II

III

IV

Number of employees............................
Average annual salary............................

5,916
$11,354

24,832
$12,431

11,067
$15,199

5,385
$10,338

26,145
$12,178

27,105
$14,767

5,595
$19,151

Total..................................................
Under $7,000 ..........................................
$7,000 and under $7,500 .......................
$7,500 and under $8,000 .......................
$8,000 and under $8,500 .......................
$8,500 and under $9,000.......................
$9,000 and under $9,500.......................

100.0
.3
4.9
2.1
2.6
5.0
7.2

100.0
.2
1.2
.3
1.0
3.1
5.3

100.0
-

100.0
4.4
2.8
1.9
8.9
9.3
8.6

100.0
.5
.9
1.2
4.0
5.8

100.0

100.0

$9,500 and under $10,000.....................
$10,000 and under $10,500 ..................
$10,500 and under $11,000 ..................
$11,000 and under $11,500 ..................
$11,500 and under $12,000 ..................

6.7
11.6
7.2
5.7
10.6

4.7
7.0
8.6
8.2
8.3

.1
.8
4.0
3.3
8.6

2.7
24.0
8.0
9.7
4.3

4.4
5.9
7.2
11.3
10.9

1.1
2.7
1.7
4.9
4.1

$12,000
$12,500
$13,000
$13,500
$14,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$12,500
$13,000
$13,500
$14,000
$14,500

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

5.5
3.9
13.0
3.0
3.2

11.0
7.9
5.1
4.8
4.2

2.5
7.2
5.7
6.3
5.2

4.2
3.0
1.9
1.1
1.0

7.5
7.2
7.9
7.5
4.1

3.5
5.7
5.9
8.3
7.7

.2
1.4
.7
.9
1.2

$14,500
$15,000
$15,500
$16,000
$16,500

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$15,000
$15,500
$16,000
$16,500
$17,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

1.8
1.4
.7
1.4
.5

4.0
3.2
2.0
2.9
1.9

5.1
5.1
6.3
7.2
5.6

.9
.6
.8
.4
1.1

3.0
2.6
3.6
1.3
1.6

9.6
6.7
8.0
4.3
6.2

1.4
1.7
3.2
4.5
3.6

$17,000
$17,500
$18,000
$18,500
$19,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$17,500
$18,000
$18,500
$19,000
$19,500

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

.3
.1
.8
.1
.1

1.1
.6
1.2
.3
.4

6.1
2.1
6.0
3.5
1.7

.1
ft
ft
(2
)
-

.6
.6
.1
.2
.1

3.0
4.1
2.2
1.5
2.6

5.3
10.5
6.7
8.3
8.6

$19,500
$20,000
$20,500
$21,000
$21,500

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$20,000
$20,500
$21,000
$21,500
$22,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

.3

.2
1.1
.2
ft
0

1.6
2.7
.8
.9
.4

-

1.2
.6
.8
.5
.2

4.7
4.1
13.1
1.9
2.4

$22,000
$22,500
$23,000
$23,500
$24,000

and
and
and
and
and

under $22,500 ..................
under $23,000 ..................
under $23,500 ..................
under $24,000 ..................
over....................................

.9
.2
.1
.2
.1

1.8
2.1
4.8
1.0
5.5

ft
.1
-

“

-

-

.4
.2

ft
ft

ft
ft
ft

ft
0

See footnotes at end of table.




32

.4

.2
.1

“

ft
ft
ft
.1
ft
ft
ft
-

ft

-

-

-

-

-

-

.6
1.0

_
.1
-

.4

Table 6. Private services: Earnings distribution-Clerical occupations-Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected clerical occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii.'March 1987)
Personnel clerks/assistants

Purchasing clerks/assistants

Annual salary
I

II

III

IV

I

II

III

Number of employees............................
Average annual salary............................

1,297
$13,409

1,333
$16,717

1,071
$19,359

320
$23,130

1,216
$13,425

1,279
$16,502

346
$20,940

Total..................................................
Under $9,500 ..........................................
$9,500 and under $10,000.....................
$10,000 and under $10,500 ..................
$10,500 and under $11,000 ..................
$11,000 and under $11,500 ..................
$11,500 and under $12,000 ..................

100.0
.2
8.5
.6
6.9
4.4
4.2

100.0
_
.5

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

.5

-

-

100.0
1.4
.4
3.7
7.3
6.5
4.6

12.1
4.4
6.2
8.2
9.6

1.2
4.4
3.5
5.6
6.0

_
-

-

7.9
13.0
6.2
8.5
9.9

.8
4.0
2.0
7.7
6.9

13.9
4.1
5.2
2.5
.8

5.3
7.0
9.3
7.3
8.5

.7
1.6
.3
1.3

5.9
8.6
6.4
4.1
2.6

4.3
7.2
3.2
9.5
3.5
4.6
4.9
4.9
9.8
6.9

$12,000
$12,500
$13,000
$13,500
$14,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$12,500
$13,000
$13,500
$14,000
$14,500

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

-

-

-

.8
1.5
1.7

_

_
-

_
-

.5
1.9

-

_
.6
1.7

$14,500
$15,000
$15,500
$16,000
$16,500

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$15,000
$15,500
$16,000
$16,500
$17,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

8.2
17.0
2.5
1.7
1.1

9.5
4.6
8.4
9.8
7.2

2.6
.7
1.5
4.9
8.6

$17,000
$17,500
$18,000
$18,500
$19,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$17,500
$18,000
$18,500
$19,000
$19,500

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

1.2
.8
.8
1.1

3.8
7.4
5.4
4.2
3.2

4.1
10.4
8.8
6.0
5.2

.6
.6
1.9
4.7
1.9

$19,500
$20,000
$20,500
$21,000
$21,500

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$20,000
$20,500
$21,000
$21,500
$22,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

-

3.6
1.9
1.3
1.5
.5

4.3
9.2
5.6
3.7
2.9

9.7
4.4
.9
5.9
6.3

-

4.5
.7
.9
.3
.9

$22,000
$22,500
$23,000
$23,500
$24,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$22,500
$23,000
$23,500
$24,000
$24,500

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

-

2.3
1.4
.4
1.1
.6

.7
3.6
1.3
3.9
.4

6.3
1.3
3.1
1.9
22.2

_
-

1.7
.4
.5
.2
.2

2.3
12.7
1.4
4.6
.6

$24,500
$25,000
$25,500
$26,000
$26,500

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$25,000
$25,500
$26,000
$26,500
$27,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

-

.3

-

-

-

-

-

7.5
2.2
4.1
.6
.9

.5
.1
.1

-

2.0
3.0
.2
2.4

_

-

1.2
3.5
1.2
.9
.6

$27,000
$27,500
$28,000
$28,500
$29,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$27,500
$28,000
$28,500
$29,000
$29,500

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

_
-

$29,500 and under $30,000 ..................
$30,000 and over...................................

_
“

“

_
“

_
7.5

_
“

.1
.2

.1

See footnotes at end of table.




33

.6
1.6

.9
1.6
.6
.3

.2

-

1.7
.6
2.3

-

-

.6
-

.1
.1
.2
_

.9
.3
.6
.3
.3
2.3

Table 6. Private services: Earnings distribution-Clerical occupations-Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected clerical occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,'March 1987)
Secretaries

Typists

Annual salary
I

II

III

IV

V

I

II

Number of employees............................
Average annual salary............................

24,316
$15,285

31,190
$18,309

26,195
$20,644

10,904
$24,109

2,021
$29,014

6,108
$13,016

2,503
$15,106

Total..................................................
Under $8,500 ..........................................
$8,500 and under $9,000.......................
$9,000 and under $9,500.......................
$9,500 and under $10,000.....................
$10,000 and under $10,500 ..................
$10,500 and under $11,000 ..................

100.0
.3
.1
.3
.7
1.5
2.3

100.0
.1
.1
.1
ft
.5

100.0
-

100.0
-

100.0
-

100.0
1.1
2.7
2.6
6.5
6.9
2.7

100.0
_
11.1
1.5
-

6.8
4.4
6.5
11.2
16.7

.6
1.6
1.7
5.3
1.3

3.8
4.5
7.0
3.6
3.0

5.3
6.4
6.5
4.0
14.2

.2
.6
.2

1.3
1.4
1.0
1.5
.5

6.9
6.6
4.8
7.3
7.9

.8
1.5
.9
.4
.6

1.6
1.1
1.7
.4
1.0

ft
-

_

ft

$11,000
$11,500
$12,000
$12,500
$13,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$11,500
$12,000
$12,500
$13,000
$13,500

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

2.2
5.5
4.6
3.9
5.8

.7
1.4
1.1
1.8
2.9

.2
.1
.3
.3
.3

$13,500
$14,000
$14,500
$15,000
$15,500

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$14,000
$14,500
$15,000
$15,500
$16,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

7.2
6.9
7.3
6.6
9.0

2.6
4.7
4.2
4.9
6.3

1.1
1.0
1.5
1.6
2.6

$16,000
$16,500
$17,000
$17,500
$18,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$16,500
$17,000
$17,500
$18,000
$18,500

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

5.3
6.7
5.7
3.8
2.8

6.1
6.4
4.2
7.2
4.2

2.5
4.1
3.3
5.1
5.5

.2
1.0
1.9
1.8
1.9

$18,500
$19,000
$19,500
$20,000
$20,500

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$19,000
$19,500
$20,000
$20,500
$21,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

2.5
2.4
1.9
.6
.7

5.1
4.4
4.1
2.9
3.9

6.7
5.4
6.6
4.1
5.0

2.3
2.6
3.0
3.1
3.9

.2
2.1
.7
.8
.5

$21,000
$21,500
$22,000
$22,500
$23,000

and
and
and
and
and

under $21,500
under $22,000
under $22,500
under $23,000
under $23,500

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

1.5
.3
.2
.8
.2

2.9
1.2
1.9
2.7
1.8

4.5
5.4
3.1
5.0
4.1

3.6
6.6
3.7
5.4
4.6

1.4
.7
1.5
1.1
.9

ft

$23,500
$24,000
$24,500
$25,000
$25,500

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$24,000
$24,500
$25,000
$25,500
$26,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

.3
.5
2.3
.4
.3

4.3
2.1
2.5
1.7
1.6

5.6
6.2
6.6
3.8
3.8

3.8
2.9
4.8
3.8
4.3

_
-

ft

$26,000
$26,500
$27,000
$27,500
$28,000
$28,500

and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under

$26,500
$27,000
$27,500
$28,000
$28,500
$29,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
2.4

1.0
.7
1.0
2.2
.5
.4

3.1
2.4
2.7
1.8
1.6
2.2

2.1
3.0
2.7
4.2
1.3
4.0

_
-

_
-

$29,000
$29,500
$30,000
$30,500
$30,000

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$29,500 ..................
$30,000 ..................
$30,500 ..................
$31,1000 ................
$31,500 ..................

ft

1.7
.2

.5
.2
.1
.4
.9

1.6
1.6
.9
.9
2.7

3.5
4.3
3.0
3.3
4.3

-

_
-

$31,500
$32,000
$32,500
$33,000
$33,500

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$32,000
$32,500
$33,000
$33,500
$34,000

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

-

.1

1.5
.5
.2
2.5
.1

6.0
5.0
5.8
2.8
1.9

-

-

$34,000
$34,500
$35,000
$35,500

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$34,500
$35,000
$35,500
$36,000

..................
..................
..................
..................

-

-

.1

-

-

.7
4.0
.7
.5

_
-

-

.1
.3
.1
.1

0
.1
0
.1
.1
.1
.1
.1
(2
)
ft
ft

ft
-

ft

.1
.1
.1
.1
.2
.2

.1

ft

ft
ft
ft
ft
-

ft

“

See footnotes at end of table.




34

.2
-

-

.2

_

.4
.3

-

ft

ft

*
-

.2
.1

-

ft
-

.4
.1
_
.3
.4

-

-

“

“

Table 6. Private services: Earnings distribution-Clerical occupations-Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected clerical occupations by annual salary, United States, except Alaska and Hawaii,1
March 1987)
Secretaries

Typists

Annual salary
I

$36,500 and under $37,000 ..................
$37,000 and over...................................

_
-

III

-

$36,000 and under $36,500 ..................

II

-

0.1

“

0
-

.1
.1

1 For the scope of the study see table A-1 in appendix A




IV

V

2 Less than 0.05 percent

35

I

II

0.5

-

-

.9
4.8

“

-

_

Table 7. Private services: Percent distribution of employment-occupation by industry
(Relative employment in selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations,' selected private service industries,2 United States, except
Alaska and Hawaii, March 1987)

Occupation

All private
services

Business
services3

Architectural,
engineering, and
research
services4

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

20
29
24
27
56
54
15
6
41
-

100
100
100
100
100
100

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

Health services
Total

Hospitals

21
34
27
40
19
17
12
5
92
-

40
25
11

37
23
11

72
27
39
8

95
93
13
16

98
98
36

15

13
8
8
13
12
17
18
15
20

Educational
services

Professional and administrative
Accountants............................................................
Auditors...................................................................
Attorneys.................................................................
Buyers......................................................................
Computer programmers.........................................
Systems analysts....................................................
Job analysts............................................................
Directors of personnel............................................
Engineers................................................................
Registered nurses............ ......................................

-

-

14
15
50
76
97

13
14
49
74

17
23
18
9
10
11
26
6

-

-

94

2

1
1
3
_

44

76
53
34
42

31

39
76
45
53
61
56
40
55
48

33
68
40
50
58
54
39
53
43

19
2
10
8
10
13
26
11
20

Technical support
Licensed practical nurses......................................
Nursing assistants...................................................
Engineering technicians.........................................
Drafters....................................................................
Computer operators................................................
Photographers .........................................................

-

Clerical
Accounting clerks....................................................
File clerks................................................................
Key entry operators................................................
Messengers............................................................
Personnel clerks/assistants...................................
Purchasing clerks/assistants..................................
Secretaries..............................................................
Typists.....................................................................
General clerks .........................................................

4

26
12
16
18
15
11
15

' Each occupation is limited to the work levels shown in table 1.
2 For scope of the study, see table A-1, appendix A.
3 Includes business services in addition to research and development
laboratories and commercial testing laboratories presented separately as
part of Architectural, Engineering, and Research Services.
4 Includes research and development laboratories, commercial testing




laboratories, engineering and architectural services, and noncommercial edu­
cational, scientific, and research organizations.
NOTE: A dash indicates that no workers were found in the occupation-in­
dustry designation. “All private services” includes industries in addition to
those shown separately.

36

Table 8. Private services: Relative salary levels-Occupation by industry
(Relative salary levels for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations,' selected private service industries,2 United States, except
Alaska and Hawaii, March 1987)

All private
services

Business
services3

Architectural,
engineering, and
research
services4

Professional and administrative
Accountants............................................................
Auditors...................................................................
Attorneys.................................................................
Buyers......................................................................
Computer programmers.........................................
Systems analysts....................................................
Job analysts............................................................
Directors of personnel............................................
Engineers................................................................
Registered nurses...................................................

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

104
104
104
105
100
100
104
110
103
“

104
104
99
108
104
103
118
109
100
-

Technical support
Licensed practical nurses......................................
Nursing assistants...................................................
Engineering technicians.........................................
Drafters....................................................................
Computer operators................................................
Photographers........................................................

100
100
100
100
100
100

99
106
101
122

Clerical
Accounting clerks....................................................
File clerks................................................................
Key entry operators................................................
Messengers ............................................................
Personnel clerks/assistants ..................................
Purchasing clerks/assistants.................................
Secretaries..............................................................
Typists.....................................................................
General clerks........................................................

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

104

Occupation

92
95

108
104
107
102
102
102

1 Each occupation is limited to the work levels shown in table 1. In com­
puting relative salary levels for each occupation by industry, the total em­
ployment in each work level in all industries surveyed was used as a con­
stant employment weight to eliminate the effect of differences in the propor­
tion of employment in various work levels within each occupation.
2 For scope of the study, see table A-1, appendix A.
3 Includes business services in addition to research and development
laboratories and commercial testing laboratories presented separately as




Health services
Total

Hospitals

98
99
98

99
99
98

-

-

96
96
98
97

97
96
98
97

Educational
services

97
92
99
99
89
92
99
94
-

-

-

100

101

96

100
100
105
117

100
100

105
123
98
106

107
138
102
-

109
102
114
114
109
105
108
107
106

98

103
109
107
109
100
100
97
107
105

95
85

-

97
106

99

103
105
99
99

98
103
99

-

101

99

101
92
97
87
91
96

part of Architectural, Engineering, and Research Services.
4
Includes research and development laboratories, commercial testing
laboratories, engineering and architectural services, and noncommercial edu­
cational, scientific, and research organizations.
NOTE: A dash indicates that no workers were found in the occupation-in­
dustry designation. "All private services” includes industries in addition to
those shown separately.

37

Table 9. Private services: Average weekly hours-Occupation by industry
(Average standard weekly hours1 for employees in selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations,1 selected private service
industries,2 United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1987)

O ccupation

All private
services

B usiness
service s3

A rchitectural,
engineering, and
research
service s4

H ealth services
Total

H ospitals

E ducational
services

Professional and administrative
A c c o u n ta n ts ......................................................................
A udito rs .............................................................................
A tto r n e y s ...........................................................................
B u y e rs .................................................................................
C om p uter program m ers ................................................
S ystem s a n a ly s ts ............................................................
Job a n a ly s ts ......................................................................
D irectors o f p e rs o n n e l..................................................
E n g in e e rs ..........................................................................
R egistered n u rs e s ...........................................................

39.5
39.5
38.0
39.5
39.5
39.5
39.5
39.5
40.0
39.5

39.5
40.0
37.5
40.0
39.5
40.0
40.0
39.5
40.0

40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0

39.5
39.5
40.0
39.5
40.0
39.5
40.0
39.5

39.5
39.5
40.0
-

40.0
40.0
39.5
40.0
39.5

38.5
39.0
39.0
38.5
38.5
39.5
39.0
38.5
-

40.0

Technical support
Licensed practical nurses ............................................
N ursing a s s is ta n ts ...........................................................
Engineering te c h n ic ia n s ...............................................
D ra fte rs ..............................................................................
C om puter o p e ra to rs .......................................................
P h o to g ra p h e rs .................................................................

39.5
39.5
40.0
40.0
39.5
39.5

40.0
40.0
39.5
40.0

40.0
40.0
40.0
39.5

39.5
39.5

39.5
39.5

38.0

39.5
39.0
39.5
38.0
39.5
39.5
39.0
39.0
39.0

39.5
39.5
39.5
39.5
39.5
40.0
39.5
38.5
39.5

39.5
40.0
40.0
39.0
40.0
40.0
40.0
39.5
39.5

39.5
40.0
39.5
40.0
40.0
39.5
39.5
39.5
39.5

39.5
40.0
39.5
40.0
40.0
39.5
39.5
39.5
40.0

38.5
39.0
39.0
38.5
38.0
38.0
38.5
39.0
38.0

-

-

39.5
39.5
-

40.0
39.5
-

40.0
39.5
40.0
-

Clerical
A ccounting c le r k s ............................................................
File c le r k s ..........................................................................
Key entry o p e ra to rs .......................................................
M essengers .....................................................................
Personnel c le rks/a ssista n ts ........................................
P urchasing c le rk s /a s s is ta n ts .......................................
S e c re ta rie s ........................................................................
T y p is ts ...............................................................................
G eneral c le r k s .................................................................

part of Architectural, Engineering, and Research Services.
4
Includes research and development laboratories, commercial testing
laboratories, engineering and architectural services, and noncommercial edu­
cational, scientific, and research organizations.

1 Based on the standard workweek for which employees receive their
regular straight-time salaiy. If standard hours are not available, the standard
hours applicable for a majority of the office workforce in the establishment
were used. The average for each job category was rounded to the nearest
half hour.
2 For scope of the study, see table A-1, appendix A.
3 Includes business services in addition to research and development
laboratories and commercial testing laboratories presented separately as




NOTE: A dash indicates that no workers were found in the occupation-in­
dustry designation. “All private services” includes industries in addition to
those shown separately.

38

Appendix A. Scope and
Method of Survey

This type of review and refinement was not practical for
the large number o f small units in the sampling frame (units
with 20-99 employees). Instead, the small units selected were
checked prior to collection to verify location, employment,
and industry.
Survey design
The design for a survey of this nature includes classify­
ing individual establishments into homogeneous groups or
strata, determining the size of the sample for each stratum,
and selecting the sample o f establishments for each stratum.
Establishments within the scope of the 1987 survey were
stratified by industry and by total employment.
The sample size in a stratum was proportionate to the ex­
pected number o f employees to be matched in professional,
administrative, technical, and clerical ( p a t c survey) occu­
pations. The expected number o f matched employees was
estimated using previous PATC surveys, experience from col­
lecting data for similar jobs in the Bureau’s Industry Wage
Surveys, and other sources. Using this allocation method,
the larger the expected number of employees in all surveyed
occupations for all establishments in a stratum, the larger
the sample in that stratum. Also, an upward adjustment was
made to the sample size in those strata expected to have
specific occupations with relatively high sampling errors
based upon the results o f previous surveys. (See “ Reliabili­
ty o f estimates” section for a discussion of sampling errors.)
For the small firms, the estimated number o f occupation­
al matches in each size class was derived from information
on the expected incidence o f workers matched in the larger
size classes, and an appropriate sample selected. Supplemen­
tary samples were prepared and designated for collection for
those strata where the out-of-business and out-of-scope rate
was unusually high.

Scope
The survey covered establishments 1 in the United States,
except Alaska and Hawaii, employing at least 20 workers2
and primarily providing personal, business, educational,
health, legal, recreational, and technical services. (See ta­
ble A -l.)
Establishments which met the minimum size criterion dur­
ing the reference period o f the information used in compil­
ing the survey universe were included even if they employed
fewer than 20 workers at the time o f the survey. Establish­
ments found to be outside o f the industrial scope o f the sur­
vey at the time o f data collection were excluded.
Table A -l shows the estimated number o f establishments
and employees within the scope o f the survey (the universe)
and the number within the sample actually studied for each
major service industry. Separate estimates are presented for
establishments located in metropolitan areas,3 for those em­
ploying at least 2,500 workers, and for full-time white-collar
groupings.
Sampling frame
The list o f establishments (the sampling frame) from which
the sample was selected was developed using data from the
most recently available (usually March 1985) Unemployment
Insurance reports for the 48 contiguous States and the Dis­
trict o f Columbia. For the portion o f the sampling frame to
be checked for accuracy and completeness, updating proce­
dures were used (including results o f other b l s programs)
in which establishments known to be missing were added;
out-of-business and out-of-scope establishments were re­
moved; some units were combined or split to meet the establishment/collection unit definitions; and for some, address,
employment, type o f industry, or other information was cor­
rected.

Data collection
Data for the survey are obtained primarily by personal
visits o f the Bureau’s field representatives to a nationwide
sample of establishments. Collection for the 1987 survey was
from October 1986 through May 1987 and reflects an aver­
age reference month o f March 1987.
Employees are classified by occupation and work level us­
ing job descriptions (appendix C) prepared jointly by the
Bureau o f Labor Statistics and the Office o f Personnel
Management. Descriptions are designed to reflect duties and
responsibilities o f employees in private industry and to be
translatable to specific General Schedule grades applying to
Federal employees (appendix D). Thus, definitions o f some
occupations and work levels are limited to specific elements
which can be classified uniformly among establishments.
In comparing the actual duties and responsibilities o f em­
ployees with those enumerated in job descriptions, the
Bureau’s field representatives, with the assistance o f com­
pany officials, make extensive use o f company position

1 For this survey, a services establishm ent is an eco n o m ic unit w hich
includes all locations o f an individual com pany in a M etropolitan Statisti­
cal A rea (M SA ) or Primary M etropolitan Statistical A rea (PM SA ) or non­
m etropolitan county.
2 See appendix B for details on the expansion o f the survey in 1986 and
1987.
3 M etropolitan data relate to all 327 MSA’s and PMSA’s w ithin the con­
tiguous 4 8 States as defined by the U .S . O ffice o f M anagem ent and B udget
through June 1984.




39

descriptions, organization charts, and other personnel
records.
Salaries reported for survey occupations are those paid to
full-time employees for standard work schedules, i.e ., the
straight-time salary corresponding to the employee’s normal
work schedule excluding overtime hours and premium pay
for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. However,
premium pay for overtime was included in reported salaries
o f workers in nursing occupations on 12-hour shifts. Exclud­
ed are performance bonuses and lump-sum payments o f the
type negotiated in the auto and aerospace industries,4 as well
as profit-sharing payments, attendance bonuses, Christmas
or year-end bonuses, and other nonproduction bonuses. Pay
increases (but not bonuses) under cost-of-living allowance
clauses and incentive payments, however, are included.

Factors which reflect the normal work schedules for the
month are used to convert hourly rates to a monthly basis.
Employment. Occupational employment data published in this
bulletin are estimated totals for all establishments within the
scope o f the survey and are not limited to establishments ac­
tually studied. An occupational employment estimate is der­
ived by multiplying the full-time employment in the
occupation in each sample establishment by the establishment
weight and summing these results. (See “ Limitations” sec­
tion o f this appendix.)
Salary averages. The mean salary (average wage rate) for
a specific occupational level is obtained by dividing total
wages for that level by the corresponding total employment.
All salary averages in the tables are rounded to the nearest
dollar. For all annual salary calculations, individual month­
ly salaries (to the nearest one-tenth cent) are multiplied by
12 before performing the necessary data aggregation.

Survey nonresponse
i

In the March 1987 survey, salary data were not available
from 13 percent o f the sample establishments (representing
1,472,948 employees in the total universe covered by the
survey). An additional 7 percent o f the sample establishments
(representing 911,723 employees) were either out o f busi­
ness or outside the scope o f the survey.
If data are not provided by a sample member, the weights
o f responding sample establishments are increased to adjust
for the missing data. The weights for establishments which
are out o f business or outside the scope o f the survey are
changed to zero.
Some sampled companies have a policy o f not disclosing
salary data for certain employees. No adjustments are made
to salary estimates for the survey as a result o f these miss­
ing data. In all but three o f the professional, administrative,
technical, and clerical work levels published in this bulle­
tin, the proportion o f employees for whom salary data was
not available was less than 3 percent. The three are accoun­
tant V (9 percent), director o f personnel II (7 percent), and
job analyst III (3.7 percent).

Limitations
Survey occupations are limited to employees meeting the
specific criteria in each job definition and are not intended
to include all employees in each field o f work.5 Employees
whose salary data are not available, as well as those for whom
there is no satisfactory basis for classification by work lev­
el, are not taken into account in the estimates. For these rea­
sons, and because o f differences in occupational structure
among establishments, estimates of occupational employment
obtained from the sample o f establishments studied indicate
only the relative importance o f occupations and levels as de­
fined for the survey. These limitations affecting the employ­
ment estimates do not materially affect the accuracy o f the
earnings data.
Reliability of estimates
The statistics in this report are estimates derived from a
sample survey. There are two types o f errors possible in an
estimate based on a sample survey—sampling and non­
sampling.
Sampling errors occur because observations come only from
a sample, not the entire population. The particular sample
used in this survey is one o f a number o f all possible sam­
ples o f the same size that could have been selected using the
same sample design. Estimates derived from the different
samples would differ from each other.
A measure o f the variation among these differing estimates

Survey estim ation methods
Data conversion. Salary data are collected from company
records in the most readily available form, i.e ., weekly, bi­
weekly, semimonthly, monthly, or annual. Before initial
tabulations, all salary data are converted to a monthly basis.
The factors used to convert the salary data are as follows:
P ayroll basis

Conversion factor

W e e k l y .......................................................

4 .3 3 3 3

B iw e e k ly .....................................................

2 .1 6 6 5

S e m im o n th ly .............................................

2 .0 0 0 0

M o n th ly .......................................................

1 .0 000

A n n u a l..........................................................

0 .0 8 3 3

5

Engineers, for exam ple, include em ployees engaged in engineering work

within a band o f eight levels, starting with inexperienced engineering gradu­
ates and excludin g on ly those w ithin certain field s o f specialization or in

4 For a discussion o f such paym ents, see Joan Borum and others, “ C o l­

position s above th ose covered by le v e l VIII. In contrast, occupations such

lectiv e B argaining in 1987: L ocal, R egional Issues to Set T o n e ” and G e­

as directors o f personnel include on ly th ose w ith reponsibility for a sp ecif­

org e R uben,

ic program and w ith duties and respon sib ilities as indicated for each o f the

“ Labor-M anagem ent S cene in

1986:

Industrial W oes

C ontinue” , Monthly Labor Review, January 1987, pp. 2 3 -4 8 .




m ore lim ited num ber o f w ork le v e ls selected for study.

40

is called the standard error or sampling error.6 It indicates
the precision with which an estimate from a particular sam­
ple approximates the average result of all possible samples.
The relative standard error is the standard error divided by
the estimate. The smaller the r s e , the greater the reliability
of the estimate.
Estimates of relative standard errors (RSE) for the 1987
survey vary among the occupational work levels depending
on such factors as the frequency with which the job occurs,
the dispersion of salaries for the job, and the survey design.
For the 93 publishable work levels, estimated relative stan­
dard errors for average salary estimates are distributed as
follows:

Relative standard error.

obtained; and other errors of collection, response, coverage,
and estimation of missing data. Although not specifically
measured, the survey’s nonsampling errors are expected to
be minimal due to the high response rate and the extensive
and continuous training of field representatives, careful
screening of data at several levels of review, annual main­
tenance and evaluation of the suitability of job definitions,
and thorough field testing of new or revised job definitions.
To measure and better control nonsampling errors that oc­
cur during data collection, a quality control procedure was
added to the p a t c survey in 1983 and repeated in the fol­
lowing years.7 The procedure, job match validation (JMV),
is designed to identify the frequency, reasons for, and sources
of incorrect decisions made by Bureau field representatives
in matching company jobs to survey occupations. Once iden­
tified, the problems are discussed promptly with the field
representatives while the data are still being collected. Sub­
sequently, the JMV results are tallied, reported to BLS staff,
and become the basis for remedial action at annual training
conferences.
The 1987 JMV process was limited to a sample of the PATC
survey. About 15 percent of the sampled 1,534 job match
decisions checked with respondents were subsequently
changed by survey reviewers. Of those revised, slightly over
one-half (127) were either original job matches that should
have been excluded or company jobs excluded by the field
representative that should have been matches for bls occupa­
tional work levels. Three-tenths of these errors of inclusion
or exclusion were made in matching the accountant and ac­
counting clerk occupations. Training prior to the 1988 sur­
vey will include a review of these two jobs. Most of the
remaining errors were matching one work level too high or
too low within the appropriate occupation, e.g., registered
nurse I instead of registered nurse II.

Number o f
occupational
work levels

Less than 1 percent .........................................................
1 to 2
percent...........................................................
2 to 3
percent ...........................................................
3 percent or more ....................................................

18
59
13
3

In general, a sample estimate ± 1 standard error will con­
tain the “ true value’’ in 68 percent of all samples, ± 2 stan­
dard errors in 95 percent, and ± 3 standard errors in 99
percent. The Bureau evaluated the reliability of its estimates
of average salaries in this survey based partly on the value
of two relative standard errors. For example, the 95-percent
confidence interval for accountants I is from $19,196 to
$19,980 (annual average $19,588 plus or minus 2 RSE’s or
2 percent).
Nonsampling errors can come from many sources, such as
inability to obtain information from some establishments;
definitional difficulties; inability of respondents to provide
correct information; mistakes in recording or coding the data

7
For a more detailed description of the process, see National Survey o f
Professional, Administrative, Technical, and Clerical Pay, March 1983,

6 A replication technique with 15 random groups was used to obtain es­
timates of relative standard errors for the 1987 survey.




Bulletin 2181 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1983), p. 35.

41

Table A-1. Number of establishments and workers within scope of study and number studied, by service industry, United States, March 1987
W ithin s c o p e o f survey
S ervice in d u stry1

A ctu a lly studied

W o rke rs in e sta b lish m e n ts
N um ber of
establishm ents

T o tal

W o rke rs in es ta b lis h m e n ts

P rofe ssional and
C lerica l and
ad m in istra tive
te c h n ic a l s up port

N um b e r o f
es ta b lis h m e n ts

T o tal

P rofe ssional and
C lerical and
a d m inistra tive
te c h n ic a l s up port

United States:
All priva te service indu stries2 ...............................

114,850

12,123,224

3,025,0 55

2,759,8 15

3,269

2 ,1 67,2 82

68 5,77 2

531,715

B usiness service s .................................................
H ealth s e r v ic e s .......................................................
N ursing h o m e s ....................................................
H o s p ita ls ................................................................
E ducational s e r v ic e s .............................................
S ocial s e rv ic e s ........................................................
M isce lla n e o u s service s3 ......................................

19,951
26,356
10,998
4,487
7,036
12,242
8,572

2,523,8 03
4 ,5 03,2 56
1,069,280
2,767,0 36
997,571
770,768
64 2,68 0

49 9,26 5
1,119,111
129,792
827,630
381,21 6
220,818
334,864

454,369
1,342,739
385,945
707,045
166,255
167,114
212,623

564
1,467
433
866
262
162
340

2 2 5,56 4
1,245,931
75,803
1,110,930
33 5,54 4
27 ,660
136,175

87 ,820
37 5,03 8
9,118
35 0,09 2
111,592
6,671
74,035

53,227
337,239
28,902
285,958
67,870
4,962
41,979

All priva te se rvice indu stries2 ...............................

95,857

10,683,585

2,7 09,4 06

2,406,6 34

2,791

2 ,0 34,9 33

64 7,33 6

499,064

B usiness service s .................................................
H ealth s e r v ic e s ......................................................
N ursing h o m e s ....................................................
H o s p ita ls ................................................................
E ducational s e r v ic e s ............................................
S ocial s e rv ic e s ........................................................
M isce lla n e o u s service s3 ......................................

19,146
18,364
6,329
2,712
5,927
10,274
7,893

2 ,4 66,0 15
3,639,1 08
70 5,77 6
2,334,5 92
87 6,07 6
636,658
6 1 4,00 9

48 8,61 3
945,826
91,070
713,71 6
325,421
186,229
322,984

444,934
1,074,111
25 9,80 6
586,911
146,889
140,511
202,103

543
1,140
289
702
223
136
323

21 0,02 3
1,157,067
62 ,069
1,037,092
3 1 7,42 6
2 4 ,906
134,182

82 ,654
35 2,81 5
7,669
32 9,72 8
102,478
6,116
73,074

50,334
311,798
24,076
265,766
65,037
4,448
41,449

Metropolitan areas:1

1 A s d e fined in th e 1972 edition of the
“ S tandard Industrial C lassificatio n M a n u a l,”
U.S. O ffice o f M a nage m en t and Budget.
2 E stablishm ents w ith to ta l e m ploym e nt at o r above the 2 0 -w o rk e r m inim um ; e xclu d e s
A laska and Hawaii.




3 Inclu des engineering, a rchitectu ral, and surveying service s and no ncom m ercia l e d u c a ­
tion al, scientific, and re search organiza tions.
4 M e tro p o lita n S tatistical A re a s and Prim ary M e tro p o lita n S tatistical A reas, as de fined by
th e U.S. O ffic e o f M a na g e m e n t and B u d g e t th ro u g h Jun e 1984.

Appendix B. Survey
Changes in 1987

Changes in scope

the President’s Pay Agent, who used the annual median sa­
laries in the Federal pay comparability process for whitecollar workers. In producing the combined data, (1) the
selected services studied in 1986 were deleted (engineering,
architectural, and surveying services; commercially operat­
ed research, development, and testing laboratories; credit
reporting and collection agencies; computer and data process­
ing services; management, consulting, and public relations
services; noncommercial educational, scientific, and research
organizations; and accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping
services); (2) the remaining results were updated by apply­
ing the March 1986-March 1987 Employment Cost Index
component for wages and salaries of private industry whitecollar occupations, excluding sales (3.9 percent); and (3)
these updated statistics were combined with the results of
the 1987 survey of all private services.

The March 1987 survey reflects the second stage of
changes designed to broaden the coverage of the p a t c sur­
vey to more industries, including health care and education­
al services, and to smaller establishments. The survey’s
minimum establishment size was lowered to 20 workers and
was limited to private service industries. Service industries,
largely excluded from the previous surveys, primarily pro­
vide personal, business, educational, health, legal, recrea­
tional, and technical services. The 1987 survey findings were
combined with updated information from establishments in
industries other than services that had been studied in 1986.
These findings are presented in table B-2. Rotating industry
coverage in different years allows bl s to obtain a broader
scope of pay data within budgetary limits.
In the first phase of the expansion, the 1986 survey in­
creased its coverage of small establishments within the in­
dustries previously studied. The survey’s minimum
establishment size requirement, which generally had ranged
from 100 to 250 employees depending on industry, was lo­
wered to 50 employees in 1986, regardless of industry.
These changes were part of a proposal by the President’s
Cabinet Council on Management and Administration (CCMA)
to expand the PATC survey to major segments of the labor
force not covered previously and*to use this additional in­
formation to broaden the base of the Federal pay compara­
bility process.
Table B-l presents the estimated number of establishments
and workers and the number actually studied for the com­
bined 1986 and 1987 survey coverage, which included all
private industries except farms and households. Table B-2
presents the occupational employment and salary data from
the combined surveys. BLS delivered these combined data to




Changes in occupational coverage
Three jobs in the nursing field were introduced into the
survey in 1987. A four-level registered nurse job describes
duties ranging from routine patient care at level I to the com­
plex duties of a nursing specialist/consultant or practitioner
at level IV. The three-level licensed practical nurse job
describes routine hygiene and patient duties at level I to the
more complex duties at level III, which involve care of crit­
ically ill or dependent patients. Nursing assistant, a four-level
job, describes duties ranging from simple housekeeping tasks
at level I to assisting the professional staff in patient care
and maintenance at level IV. Also introduced in 1987 was
a five-level civil engineering or survey technician/construction inspector job which was rarely encountered in this sur­
vey of the service industries. Consequently, data did not
warrant publication.

43

Table B-1. Number of establishments and workers within scope of study and number studied, by industry, United States, March 1986 and March
1987
W ithin s c o p e o f survey
In d u stry1

A ctu a lly studied

W o rk e rs in es ta b lis h m e n ts
N um ber of
esta blishm e nts

T o tal

W o rke rs in es ta b lis h m e n ts

P rofe ssional and
C lerical and
a d m inistra tive
te c h n ic a l s u p p o rt

N um b er o f
esta b lish m e n ts

T o tal

P rofe ssional and
C lerica l and
a d m inistra tive
te c h n ic a l support

United States:
Ail indu stries ...............................................................

263,965

44,097 ,072

9,391,823

8 ,7 29,8 66

7,534

8,170,145

2,338,529

2,001,646

M a nufa cturing .........................................................

58,581

14,856,991

2,926,433

1,908,188

2,1 10

3,352,415

977,090

634,875

N onm anu factu ring:
M in in g .....................................................................
C o n s tru c tio n .........................................................
Tra n sp o rta tio n , com m unica tions,
electric, gas, and sa n ita ry s e r v ic e s ...........
W ho le sa le t r a d e ..................................................
R etail t r a d e ...........................................................
Finance, insurance, and real e sta te ............

2,455
9,109

439,68 5
1,093,057

104,071
150,148

62 ,399
72 ,952

110
102

68,114
65,178

27,700
13,036

16,787
8,250

11,637
15,082
36,600
15,651

3,448,0 99
1,770,326
7,105,151
3,260,539

755,105
498,521
863,710
1,068,780

81 8,71 3
37 7,40 5
1,080,042
1,650,352

43 3
41 0
503
597

1,263,271
105,226
517,655
63 1,00 4

31 4,86 9
40,977
64,091
214,994

324,135
31,109
106,016
348,759

S ervice indu stries2 ..............................................
B usiness s e r v ic e s ............................................
H ealth se rvice s ................................................
N ursing h o m e s ..............................................
H o sp ita ls .........................................................
E duca tiona l s e r v ic e s ......................................
S ocial s e r v ic e s .................................................
M isce lla n e o u s se rvice s3 ................................

114,850
19,951
26,356
10,998
4,487
7,036
12,242
8,572

12,123,224
2,523,8 03
4,503,2 56
1,069,280
2,767,0 36
997,571
770,768
642,680

3,025,055
499,265
1,119,111
129,792
827,630
381,21 6
220,818
334,864

2,759,8 15
45 4,36 9
1,342,739
38 5,94 5
70 7,04 5
166,255
167,114
212,623

3,2 69
564
1,467
43 3
866
262
162
340

2,167,282
225,564
1,245,931
75,803
1,110,930
335,544
27,660
136,175

68 5,77 2
87,820
375,038
9,118
350,092
111,592
6,671
74,035

531,715
53,227
337,239
28,902
285,958
67,870
4,962
41,979

A ll in d u s trie s ...............................................................

215,660

37,413,021

8,427,363

7,805,9 98

6,378

7,709,652

2,2 36,5 15

1,925,502

M a nufa cturing .........................................................

43,624

11,249,366

2,511,4 04

1,646,348

1,681

3,083,349

926,903

603,999

Metropolitan areas:4

N onm anu factu ring:
M in in g .....................................................................
C o n s tru c tio n .........................................................
Tra n sp o rta tio n , com m unica tions,
electric, gas, and san itary s e rv ic e s ...........
W h olesa le t r a d e ..................................................
R etail t r a d e ...........................................................
Finance, insurance, an d real e s t a t e ............

1,082
8,704

200,766
1,019,556

70,056
175,768

46,818
70,025

64
92

46,577
57,560

22,109
11,494

13,511
7,176

9,064
13,730
29,687
13,912

3,171,7 00
1,622,185
6,389,845
3,076,0 18

708,067
461,72 6
772,466
1,018,470

759,365
362,242
947,915
1,566,651

376
384
436
554

1,253,215
101,905
508,583
623,530

312,667
40,295
62,934
212,77 7

321,929
30,821
104,086
344,916

S ervice indu stries2 ..............................................
B usiness s e r v ic e s ...........................................
H ealth service s ................................................
N ursing h o m e s ..............................................
H o s p ita ls .........................................................
E d uca tiona l service s ......................................
S ocial s e r v ic e s .................................................
M isce lla n e o u s se rvice s3 ................................

95,857
19,146
18,364
6,329
2,712
5,927
10,274
7,893

10,683,585
2,466,0 15
3,639,1 08
705,776
2,334,592
876,07 6
636,658
614,009

2,709,4 06
488,613
945,826
91,070
713,716
325,421
186,229
322,984

2,406,6 34
444,93 4
1,074,111
259,806
586,911
146,889
140,511
202,103

2,791
543
1,140
289
702
223
136
323

2,034,933
210,023
1,157,067
62,069
1,037,092
317,426
24,906
134,182

6 4 7,33 6
82,654
352,81 5
7,669
329,72 8
102,478
6,116
73,074

499,064
50,334
311,798
24,076
265,766
65,037
4,448
41,449

1 A s d e fined in th e 1972 e d itio n o f the
“ S tandard Industrial C lassificatio n M a nual,”
U.S. O ffice o f M a na g e m e n t and Budget.
2 Inclu des service indu stries in addition to tho se show n separately.




3 Inclu des enginee ring, a rchitectu ral, and surveying se rvice s an d no n co m m e rcia l education al, s cientific, an d re search organizations.
4 M e tro p o lita n S tatistical A re a s and Prim ary M e tro p o lita n S ta tistica l A reas, as defined by
th e U.S. O ffic e o f M a na g e m e n t and B udget th ro u g h J u n e 1984.

TABLE B-2. Average Salaries for Selected Occupations, National Survey of Professional, Administrative,
Technical, and Clerical Pay, All Private Industries Surveyed in March 1986 and March 19871
O ccup ation al C lassification

N um ber o f w orkers

Annual m ean salary

Annual m edian salary

I .......................................................
I I ......................................................
I I I .....................................................
IV ....................................................

41,656
160,540
94,900
26,486

$12,831
15,102
18,296
22,223

$12,247
14,630
17,871
21,623

File clerks I ......................................................................
File clerks I I .....................................................................

30,054
16,100

10,984
12,821

10,535
12,047

Key entry op erators I ...................................................
Key entry op erators II ......................................... ........

80,597
39,231

13,408
16,931

12,962
16,207

M e s s e n g e rs ....................................................................

14,754

12,197

11,585

I ....................................................................
II ..................................................................
I I I .................................................................
I V .................................................................
V ..................................................................

80,024
94,752
127,130
55,527
16,948

16,448
18,769
21,745
24,603
29,090

15,890
18,125
21,082
24,203
28,417

S teno gra phe rs I .............................................................
S teno gra phe rs II ............................................................

6,847
5,443

19,011
22,603

18,764
23,189

Typists I ...........................................................................
Typists II ..........................................................................

28,030
14,381

13,098
17,218

12,895
16,379

A ccoun ting
A ccoun ting
A ccoun ting
A ccoun ting

clerks
clerks
clerks
clerks

S ecretaries
S ecretaries
S ecre taries
S ecretaries
S ecretaries

Personnel
P ersonnel
Personnel
P ersonnel

c le rks/a sst.
cle rk s /a s s t.
cle rk s /a s s t.
cle rk s /a s s t.

I ..............................................
I I .............................................
I l l ............................................
I V ...........................................

3,708
5,487
4,041
1,482

14,310
17,343
20,158
24,457

14,392
16,633
19,879
23,883

Purchasing
Purchasing
Purchasing
Purchasing

c le rk /a s s t.
c le rk /a s s t.
c le rk /a s s t.
c le rk /a s s t.

I ...............................................
I I .............................................
I l l ............................................
IV ...........................................

5,090
6,651
4,271
1,037

14,285
17,689
22,832
30,524

14,046
17,072
22,629
29,288

I .............................................................
II ............................................................
III ...........................................................
I V ...........................................................

16,537
82,850
89,708
37,750

10,702
12,907
15,700
19,987

10,405
12,463
15,149
19,325

I .................................................................
I I ................................................................
I I I ...............................................................
I V ...............................................................
V ................................................................
V I ...............................................................

15,604
34,887
50,828
25,661
8,388
1,411

21,527
25,984
32,074
40,611
51,144
63,977

21,291
25,445
31,482
40,272
50,152
62,975

I .........................................................................
II ........................................................................
III .......................................................................
I V .......................................................................

1,748
3,046
4,836
2,037

22,354
27,007
33,302
41,250

22,226
26,276
33,071
40,505

I ......................................................
II .....................................................
III ....................................................
I V ....................................................

937
1,484
515
230

40,198
49,531
65,564
83,883

41,144
49,852
65,400
82,725

I .....................................................
I I .............................................
III............................................

14,233
14,443
15,563
6,849

21,006
23,044
27,537
33,989

21,000
22,991
26,789
33,300

110
448
760
488

22,642
25,615
30,749
39,326

22,137
24,259
29,222
38,469

I ..............................................
I I .............................................
I I I ............................................
IV ...........................................

2,258
2,767
1,302
406

40,229
47,021
65,106
78,123

38,775
46,713
64,392
75,090

A ttorneys I .......................................................................
A ttorneys II ............................................................
A ttorneys III ...........................................................

1,421
3,070
4,519

32,022
41,319
52,158

31,188
40,667
50,620

G eneral
G eneral
G eneral
G eneral

clerks
clerks
clerks
clerks

A ccoun tants
A cco u n ta n ts
A ccoun tants
A ccoun tants
A ccoun tants
A cco u n ta n ts
A udito rs
A uditors
A udito rs
A uditors
C hief
C hief
C hief
C hief
Public
Public
Public
Public
Jo b
Jo b
Job
Jo b

a cco unta nts
a cco unta nts
a cco unta nts
a cco unta nts
a cco unta nts
a cco unta nts
a cco unta nts
a cco unta nts

analysts
analysts
analysts
analysts

D irectors
D irectors
D irectors
D irectors

of
of
of
of

IV ..................................................

I .................................................................
I I ........................................................
II I .......................................................
IV ..............................................................
personnel
personnel
personnel
personnel

See footnotes at end of table.




45

TABLE B-2. Average Salaries for Selected Occupations, National Survey of Professional, Administrative,
Technical, and Clerical Pay, All Private Industries Surveyed in March 1986 and March 1987'—Continued
O ccup ation al C lassification

A nnual m ean salary

A nnual m edian salary

3,924
1,960
609

$65,944
80,856
105,658

$64,992
79,995
106,235

N um ber of w orkers

A ttorneys I V .....................................................................
A ttorneys V ......................................................................
A tto rn e ys V I .....................................................................
C hem ists
C hem ists
C hem ists
C hem ists
C hem ists
C hem ists
C hem ists

I ........................................................................
I I .......................................................................
I I I ......................................................................
I V .....................................................................
V ......................................................................
VI .....................................................................
VII ....................................................................

3,833
6,685
10,140
8,869
7,176
3,539
871

23,205
28,238
35,504
43,480
52,927
63,548
78,605

23,003
28,042
34,910
43,015
52,569
63,499
75,921

Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
E ngineers
Engineers

I ......................................................................
II .....................................................................
III ....................................................................
I V ....................................................................
V .....................................................................
V I ....................................................................
V I I ...................................................................
V I I I .................................................................

40,460
75,123
147,085
160,817
112,374
50,605
12,223
2,755

28,958
32,295
37,235
44,360
52,698
61,807
71,475
81,060

29,392
32,205
37,006
44,083
52,303
61,440
70,291
80,517

I ......................................................
I I .....................................................
I I I ....................................................
I V ....................................................

38,257
366,888
20,402
392

21,012
24,127
31,216
34,383

20,830
23,835
31,073
33,735

Licensed practical nurses I ........................................
Licensed practical nurses II .......................................
Licensed practical nurses III ......................................

31,195
165,049
2,061

14,636
16,487
18,837

14,559
16,285
18,836

N ursing assista nts I ......................................................
N ursing assista nts I I .....................................................
N ursing assista nts I I I ....................................................

148,366
269,803
22,075

8,558
10,872
14,369

8,111
10,248
14,394

I ...........................................
II ..........................................
III .........................................
I V .........................................
V ..........................................

5,524
17,215
32,443
35,064
18,367

17,577
21,131
24,857
29,732
34,380

17,288
20,792
24,627
29,475
34,186

I .............................................................................
I I ...........................................................................
I I I ..........................................................................
I V .........................................................................

8,119
24,706
18,459
4,953

21,779
27,184
34,818
42,772

21,610
26,939
34,035
42,139

I ...................................................
I I ..................................................
I I I .................................................
IV ................................................
V .................................................

10,476
44,318
28,475
9,011
1,457

14,339
17,690
22,207
25,441
30,295

14,162
17,288
21,657
25,098
30,522

P hotographers III ...........................................................
P hotographers I V ...........................................................
P hotographers V ............................................................

1,079
410
81

27,712
33,452
37,961

27,558
34,317
39,484

16,995
42,721
52,523
23,412
9,763

21,398
25,056
30,320
36,422
44,693

21,387
24,936
30,048
36,143
44,698

23,249
53,410
39,382
14,342
2,685
246

30,111
36,103
43,592
51,537
61,673
74,632

29,849
35,960
43,070
50,912
60,582
74,378

3,645
13,523
27,346
25,978
13,747

13,258
16,479
21,071
25,621
32,117

13,086
16,064
20,759
25,185
31,539

R egistered
R egistered
R egistered
R egistered

nurses
nurses
nurses
nurses

Engineering
E ngineering
E ngineering
Engineering
E ngineering
Buyers
Buyers
Buyers
Buyers

C om p uter
C om p uter
C om p uter
C om p uter
C om p uter

C om p uter
C o m p uter
C om p uter
C om p uter
C om p uter

tech nicians
tech nicians
tech nicians
tech nicians
tech nicians

op erators
op erators
op erators
op erators
op erators

program m ers
program m ers
program m ers
program m ers
program m ers

I ............................................

II .....................................
III ...................................
I V .........................................
V ..........................................

S ystem s
S ystem s
System s
S ystem s
System s
System s

analysts
analysts
analysts
analysts
analysts
analysts

I .......................................................
II ......................................................

D rafters
D rafters
D ralte rs
D rafters
D rafters

I ..........................................................................
I I ...............................................................
II I ..............................................................

III ..............................................
I V .....................................................
V ......................................................
V I .....................................................

IV .......................................................................
V ........................................................................

salaries of private industry white-collar occupations,
excluding sales, was used for updating. This adjustment
factor was a 3.9 percent increase between March 1986 and
March 1987.

' This tabulation combines the results of the March 1987
survey in the service industries with updated results from the
March 1986 survey of private industries, excluding services.
The BLS Employment Cost Index component for wages and




46

Appendix C. Occupational
Definitions

comparability of job content, some occupations and
work levels are defined to include only those workers
meeting specific criteria as to training, job functions,
and responsibilities. Because of this emphasis on inter­
establishment and interarea comparability of occupa­
tional content, the Bureau’s occupational definitions
may differ significantly from those in use in individual
establishments or those prepared for other purposes.

The primary purpose of preparing job definitions for
the Bureau’s wage surveys is to assist its field staff in
classifying into appropriate occupations, or levels
within occupations, workers who are employed under a
variety of payroll titles and different work arrangements
from establishment to establishment and from area to
area. This permits the grouping of occupational wage
rates representing comparable job content. To secure

Accountants and Auditors
Interpreting the meaning of accounting records, reports,
and statements;

ACCOUNTANTS
Performs professional operating or cost accounting
work requiring knowledge of the theory and practice of
recording, classifying, examining, and analyzing the
data and records of financial transactions. The work
generally requires a bachelor’s degree in accounting or,
in rare instances, equivalent experience and education
combined. Positions covered by this definition are
characterized by the inclusion of work that is analytical,
creative, evaluative, and advisory in nature. The work
draws upon and requires a thorough knowledge of
the fundamental doctrines, theories, principles, and
terminology of accounting, and often entails some
understanding of such related fields as business law,
statistics, and general management. (See also chief
accountant.)
Professional responsibilities in accountant positions
above the entry and developmental levels include such
duties as:

Advising operating officials on accounting matters; and
Recommending improvements, adaptations, or revisions in
the accounting system and procedures.

Entry and developmental level positions provide op­
portunity to develop ability to perform professional
duties such as those enumerated above.

In addition to such professional work, most account­
ants are also responsible for assuring the proper record­
ing and documentation of transactions in the accounts.
They, therefore, frequently direct nonprofessional per­
sonnel in the actual day-to-day maintenance of books of
accounts, the accumulation of cost or other comparable
data, the preparation of standard reports and state­
ments, and similar work. (Positions involving such
supervisory work, but not including professional duties
as described above, are not included in this description.)

Analyzing the effects of transactions upon account relation­
ships;

Excluded are accountants whose principal or sole
duties consist of designing or improving accounting
systems or other nonoperating staff work, e.g., budget
analysis, financial analysis, financial forecasting, tax
advising, etc. (The criteria that follow for distinguishing
among the several levels of work are inappropriate for
such jobs.) Note, however, that professional accountant
positions with responsibility for recording or report­
ing accounting data relative to taxes are included, as
are other operating or cost accountants whose work

Evaluating alternative means of treating transactions;
Planning the manner in which account structures should be
developed or modified;
Assuring the adequacy o f the accounting system as the basis
for reporting to management;
Considering the need for new or changed controls;
Projecting accounting data to show the effects of proposed
plans on capital investments, income, cash position, and
overall financial condition;




47

includes, but is not limited to, improvement of the
accounting system.
Some accountants use electronic data processing
equipment to process, record, and report accounting
data. In some such cases, the machine unit is a subor­
dinate segment of the accounting system; in others, it is
a separate entity or is attached to some other organiza­
tion. In either instance, provided that the primary
responsibility of the position is professional accounting
work of the type otherwise included, the use of data
processing equipment of any type does not of itself ex­
clude a position from the accountant description nor
does it change its level.

greater professional competence. Initial assignments are
designed to expand practical experience and to develop
professional judgment in the application of basic ac­
counting techniques to simple problems. Is expected to
be competent in the application of standard procedures
and requirements to routine transactions, to raise ques­
tions about unusual or questionable items, and to sug­
gest solutions.
Work is reviewed closely to verify
general accuracy and coverage of unusual problems,
and to insure conformance with required procedures
and special instructions.

Direction received.

Accountants I

Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs a variety
of accounting tasks, e.g., prepares routine working
papers, schedules, exhibits, and summaries indicating
the extent of the examination and presenting and sup­
porting findings and recommendations. Examines a
variety of accounting documents to verify accuracy of
computations and to ascertain that all transactions are
properly supported, are in accordance with pertinent
policies and procedures, and are classified and recorded
according to acceptable accounting standards.

General characteristics. At this beginning professional
level, the accountant learns to apply the principles,
theories, and concepts of accounting to a specific
system. The position is distinguishable from nonprofes­
sional positions by the variety of assignments; rate and
scope of development expected; and the existence, im­
plicit or explicit, of a planned training program designed
to give the entering accountant practical experience.
(Terminal positions are excluded.)

Usually none,
although sometimes responsible for supervision of a few
clerks.

Responsibility f o r direction o f others.

Works under close supervision of
an experienced accountant whose guidance is directed
primarily to the development of the trainee’s profes­
sional ability and to the evaluation of advancement
potential. Limits of assignments are clearly defined,
methods of procedure are specified, and kinds of items
to be noted and referred to supervisor are identified.

Direction received.

Accountants III
General characteristics. The accountant at this level
applies well-established accounting principles, theories,
concepts, and practices to moderately difficult prob­
lems. Receives detailed instructions concerning the
overall accounting system and its objectives, the policies
and procedures under which it is operated, and the
nature of changes in the system or its operation.
Characteristically, the accounting system or assigned
segment is stable and well established (i.e., the basic
chart of accounts, classifications, the nature of the cost
accounting system, the report requirements, and the
procedures are changed infrequently).
Depending upon the workload involved, the account­
ant may have such assignments as supervision of the
day-to-day operation of: (a) The entire system of a
relatively small establishment; or (b) a major segment
(e.g., general accounting, cost accounting, or financial
statements and reports) of a somewhat larger system; or
(c) in a complex system, may be assigned to a relatively
narrow and specialized segment dealing with some prob­
lem, function, or portion of work which is appropriate
for this level.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs a variety
of accounting tasks such as: Examining a variety of
financial statements for completeness, internal accuracy,
and conformance with uniform accounting classifications
or other specific accounting requirements; reconciling
reports and financial data with financial statements
already on file, and pointing out apparent inconsistencies
or errors; carrying out assigned steps in an accounting
analysis, such as computing standard ratios; assembling
and summarizing accounting literature on a given sub­
ject; preparing relatively simple financial statements not
involving problems of analysis or presentation; and
preparing charts, tables, and other exhibits to be used in
reports. In addition, may also perform some nonprofes­
sional tasks for training purposes.
Responsibility fo r direction o f others.

Usually none.

Accountants II
General characteristics. At this level, the accountant
makes practical application of technical accounting
practices and concepts beyond the mere application of
detailed rules and instructions, as a phase in developing



A higher level professional ac­
countant normally is available to furnish advice and
assistance as needed. Work is reviewed for technical ac­

Direction received.

48

more complex establishment; or (c) in a complex
system, may be assigned to a relatively narrow and
specialized segment dealing with some problem, func­
tion, or portion of work which is itself of the level of
difficulty characteristic of this level.

curacy, adequacy of professional judgment, and com­
pliance with instructions through spot checks, appraisal
of results, subsequent processing, analysis of reports
and statements, and other appropriate means.

Typical duties and responsibilities. The primary re­
sponsibility of most positions at this level is to assure
that the assigned day-to-day operations are carried out
in accordance with established accounting principles,
policies, and objectives. The accountant performs such
professional work as: Developing nonstandard reports
and statements (e.g., those containing cash forecasts
reflecting the interrelations of accounting, cost
budgeting, or comparable information); interpreting
and pointing out trends or deviations from standards;
projecting data into the future; predicting the effects of
changes in operating programs; or identifying manage­
ment informational needs, and refining account struc­
tures or reports accordingly.
Within the limits of delegated responsibility, makes
day-to-day decisions concerning the accounting treat­
ment of financial transactions. Is expected to recom­
mend solutions to moderately difficult problems and
propose changes in the accounting system for approval
at higher levels. Such recommendations are derived
from personal knowledge of the application of wellestablished principles and practices.

Direction received. A higher level accountant normally is
available to furnish advice and assistance as needed. Work
is reviewed by spot checks and appraisal of results for ade­
quacy of professional judgment, compliance with instruc­
tions, and overall accuracy and quality.
Typical duties and responsibilities. As in level III, a
primary characteristic of most positions at this level is
the responsibility of operating an accounting system or
major segment of a system in the intended manner.
The accountant IV exercises professional judgment in
making frequent, appropriate recommendations for:
New accounts; revisions in the account structure; new
types of ledgers; revisions in reporting system or sub­
sidiary records; and changes in instructions regard­
ing the use of accounts, new or refined account
classifications or definitions; etc. Also makes day-today decisions concerning the accounting treatment of
financial transactions and is expected to recommend
solutions to complex problems beyond incumbent’s
scope of responsibility.
Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Accounting
staff supervised, if any, may include professional
accountants.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. In most in­
stances, is responsible for supervision of a subordinate
nonprofessional staff; may coordinate the work of
lower level professional accountants.

Accountants V
Accountants IV

General characteristics. The accountant V applies ac­
counting principles, theories, concepts, and practices to
the solution of problems for which no clear precedent
exists or performs work which is of greater than average
responsibility due to the nature or magnitude of the
assigned work. Responsibilities at this level, in contrast to
accountants at level IV, extend beyond accounting
system maintenance to the solution of more complex
technical and managerial problems. Work of accountants
V is more directly concerned with what the accounting
system (or segment) should be, what operating policies
and procedures should be established or revised, and
what is the managerial as well as the accounting meaning
of the data included in the reports and statements for
which they are responsible. Typically, this level of work
approaches chief accountant positions in terms of the
nature of the concern for the accounting system and its
operation, but not in terms of the breadth or scope of
responsibility.
Examples of assignments characteristic of this level
are supervision of the day-to-day operation of: (a) The
entire accounting system of an establishment having a
few relatively complex accounting segments; or (b) a

General characteristics. At this level, the accountant
applies well-established accounting principles, theories,
concepts, and practices to a wide variety of difficult
problems. Receives instructions concerning the objec­
tives and operation of the overall accounting system.
Compared with level III, the accounting system or
assigned segment is more complex, i.e., (a) is relatively
unstable, (b) must adjust to new or changing company
operations, (c) is substantially larger, or (d) is com­
plicated by the need to provide and coordinate separate
or specialized accounting treatment and reporting (e.g.,
cost accounting using standard cost, process cost, and
job order techniques) for different operations or divi­
sions of company.
Depending upon the workload and degree of coor­
dination involved, the accountant IV may have such
assignments as the supervision of the day-to-day opera­
tion of: (a) The entire accounting system of an
establishment having a few relatively stable accounting
segments; or (b) a major segment (e.g., general ac­
counting, cost accounting, or financial statements and
reports) of an accounting system serving a larger and




49

Direction received. A higher level professional account­
ant is normally available to furnish advice as needed.
Work is reviewed for adequacy of professional judgment,
compliance with instructions and policies, and overall
quality.

major segment of a larger and more complex accounting
system; or (c) the entire accounting system (or major
segment) of a company that has a relatively stable and
conventional accounting system when the work includes
significant responsibility for accounting systems design
and development; or (d) in a complex system, may be
assigned to a relatively narrow and specialized segment
dealing with some problem, function, or portion of
work which is of a difficulty characteristic of this level.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Accountants at
this level are delegated complete responsibility from
higher authority to establish and implement new or
revised accounting policies and procedures. Typically,
accountants VI participate in decisionmaking sessions
with operating managers who have policymaking
authority for their subordinate organizations or
establishments; recommend management actions or
alternatives which can be taken when accounting data
disclose unfavorable trends, situations, or deviations;
and assist management officials in applying financial
data and information to the solution of administrative
and operating problems.

Direction received. An accountant of higher level nor­
mally is available to furnish advice and assistance as
needed. Work is reviewed for adequacy of professional
judgment, compliance with instructions, and overall
quality.
Typical duties and responsibilities. The accountant V
performs such professional work as: Participating in
the development and coordinating the implementation
of new or revised accounting systems, and initiating
necessary instructions and procedures; assuring
accounting reporting systems and procedures are in
compliance with established company policies, regula­
tions, and acceptable accounting practices; providing
technical advice and services to operating managers,
interpreting accounting reports and statements, and
identifying problem areas; and evaluating completed
assignments for conformance with applicable policies,
regulations, and tax laws.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Accounting staff
supervised generally includes professional accountants.
N o t e : Excluded are accountants above level VI whose
principal function is to direct, manage, or administer an
accounting program in that they are primarily concerned
with the administrative, budgetary, and policy matters of
the program rather than the actual supervision of the dayto-day operations of an accounting program. This type of
work requires extensive managerial ability as well as
superior professional competence in order to cope with the
technical accounting and management problems encoun­
tered. Typically, the level of work involves responsibility
for more than one accounting activity (e.g., cost account­
ing, sales accounting, etc.).

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Accounting staff
supervised generally includes professional accountants.
Accountants VI

General characteristics. At this level, the accountant
applies accounting principles, theories, concepts, and
practices to specialized, unique or nonrecurring com­
plex problems (e.g., implementation of specialized
automated accounting systems). The work is substan­
tially more difficult and of greater responsibility than
level V because of the unusual nature, magnitude, im­
portance, or overall impact of the work on the account­
ing program.
At this level, the accounting system or segment is
usually complex, i.e., (a) is generally unstable, (b) must
adjust to the frequent changing needs of company
operations, or (c) is complicated by the need to provide
specialized or individualized reports.
Examples of assignments at this level are the supervi­
sion of the day-to-day operation of: (a) A large and com­
plex corporate accounting system, or (b) a major seg­
ment (e.g., general accounting, property accounting,
etc.) of an unusually complex accounting system requir­
ing technical expertise in a particular accounting field
(e.g., cost accounting, tax accounting, etc.).



AUDITORS
Performs professional auditing work requiring a
bachelor’s degree in accounting or, in rare instances,
equivalent experience and education combined. Audits
the financial records and practices of a company, or of
divisions or components of the company, to appraise
systematically and verify the accounting accuracy of
records and reports and to assure the consistent applica­
tion of accepted accounting principles. Evaluates the
adequacy of the accounting system and internal finan­
cial controls. Makes appropriate recommendations for
improvement as necessary. To the extent determined
necessary, examines the transactions entering into the
balance sheet, and the transactions entering into in­
come, expense, and cost accounts. Determines:
1. The existence of recorded assets (including the obser­
vation of the taking of physical inventories) and the
all-inclusiveness of recorded liabilities.
2. The accuracy of financial statements or reports and
the fairness of presentation of facts therein.
50

3. The propriety or legality of transactions.

Auditors II

4. The degree of compliance with established policies
and procedures concerning financial transactions.

General characteristics. At this level, the professional
auditor serves as a junior member of an audit team, in­
dependently performing selected portions of the audit
which are limited in scope and complexity, as a phase in
developing greater professional competence. Auditors
at this level typically have acquired knowledge of com­
pany operations, policies, and procedures.

Excluded from this definition are:
a. Auditors primarily examining or reporting on the
financial management of company operations. These
auditors evaluate such matters as: (1) The operation’s
degree of compliance with the principles of sound
financial management; and (2) the effectiveness of
management and operating controls.

Direction received. Detailed instructions are furnished
and the work is reviewed to the extent necessary to
verify its general accuracy and coverage of unusual
problems, to insure conformance with required pro­
cedures and special instructions, and to assure the
auditor’s professional growth. Any technical problems
not covered by instructions are brought to the attention
of a superior.

b. Auditors assigned to audit programs which are con­
fined on a relatively permanent basis to repetitive ex­
amination of a limited area of company operations
and accounting processes, e.g., accounts payable and
receivable; payroll; physical inventory; and branch
offices which do not have complete accounting
systems. This does not preclude positions responsible
for performing a segment of an audit (i.e., examining
individual items on a balance sheet, rather than the
entire balance sheet), as long as the work directly
relates to the financial audit program; and

Typical duties and responsibilities. Applies knowledge
of accounting theory and audit practices to a variety of
relatively simple professional problems in audit
assignments, including such tasks as: The verification of
reports against source accounts and records to deter­
mine their reliability; reconciliation of bank and other
accounts and verifying the detail of recorded transac­
tions; detailed examinations of cash receipts and
disbursement vouchers, payroll records, requisitions,
work orders, receiving reports, and other accounting
documents to ascertain that transactions are properly
supported and are recorded correctly from an account­
ing or regulatory standpoint; or preparation of working
papers, schedules, and summaries.

c. Electronic data processing (EDP) auditors. These
positions require an extensive knowledge of computer
systems, programming, etc.

Auditors I

General characteristics. As a trainee auditor at the
entering professional level, performs a variety of
routine assignments. Typically, the trainee is rotated
through a variety of tasks under a planned training pro­
gram designed to provide practical experience in apply­
ing the principles, theories, and concepts of accounting
and auditing to specific situations. (Terminal positions
are excluded.)

Auditors III

General characteristics. Work at this level consists of
the audit of operations and accounting processes that
are relatively stable, well established, and typical of the
industry. The audits primarily involve the collection and
analysis of readily available findings; there is previous
audit experience that is directly applicable; the audit
reports are normally prepared in a prescribed format using
a standard method of presentation; and few, if any, major
problems are anticipated. The work performed requires
the application of substantial knowledge of accounting
principles and practices, e.g., bases for distinguishing
among capital maintenance and operating expenses; accru­
ing reserves for taxes; and other accounting considerations
of an equivalent nature.

Direction received. Works under close supervision of
an experienced auditor whose guidance is directed
primarily to the development of the trainee’s profes­
sional ability and to the evaluation of advancement
potential. Limits of assignments are clearly defined,
methods of procedure are specified, and kinds of items
to be noted and referred to supervisor are identified.
Typical duties and responsibilities. Assists in making
audits by performing such tasks as: Verifying the ac­
curacy of the balances in various records; examining a
variety of types of documents and vouchers for ac­
curacy of computations; checking transactions to assure
they are properly documented and have been recorded
in accordance with correct accounting classifications;
verifying the count of inventories; preparing detailed
statements, schedules, and standard audit working
papers; counting cash and other assets; and preparing
simple reconciliations and similar functions.




Direction received. Work is normally within an estab­
lished audit program and supervision is provided
by a higher level auditor who outlines and discusses
assignments. Work is spot checked in progress. Completed
assignments are reviewed for adequacy of coverage,
soundness of judgment, compliance with professional
standards, and adherence to policies.
51

Typical duties and responsibilities. The auditor examines
transactions and verifies accounts; observes and evaluates
accounting procedures and internal controls; and prepares
audit working papers and submits an audit report in the re­
quired pattern containing recommendations for needed
changes or improvements. Usually is responsible for select­
ing the detailed audit methods to follow, choosing the
audit sample and its size, determining the extent to which
discrepancies need to be investigated, and deciding the
depth of the analyses required to support reported findings
and conclusions.
Examples of assignments involving work at this level:

Direction received. Within an established audit program,
has responsibilities for independently planning and
executing audits. Usually difficult problems are dis­
cussed with the supervisor who also reviews completed
assignments for adherence to principles and standards and
the soundness of conclusions.
Typical duties and responsibilities. Auditors at this level
have full responsibility for planning the audit, including
determination of the aspects to emphasize, methods to be
used, development of nonstandard or specialized audit
aids, such as questionnaires, etc., where previous audit
experience and plans are o f limited applicability.
Included in the scope of work that characterizes this
level are such functions as: Evaluation of methods used
for determining depreciation rates of equipment; evalua­
tion of assets where original costs are unknown; evaluation
of the reliability of accounting and reporting systems;
analysis of cost accounting systems and cost reports to
evaluate the basis for cost and price setting; evaluation of
accounting procurement and supply management records,
controls, and procedures; and many others.
Examples of assignments involving work at this level:

1. As a team leader or working alone, independently
conducts audits of the complete accounts and related
operations of smaller or less complex companies (e.g.,
involving a centralized accounting system with few
or no subordinate, subsidiary, or branch accounting
records) or of comparable segments of larger companies.
2. As a member of an audit team, independently accomp­
lishes varied audit assignments of the above described
characteristics, typically major segments of complete
audits, or assignments otherwise limited in scope,
of larger and more complex companies (e.g., complex
in that the accounting system entails cost, inven­
tory, and comparable specialized systems integrated
with the general accounting system).

1. As a team leader or working alone, independently
plans and conducts audits of the complete accounts
and related operations of relatively large complex
companies (e.g., complex in that the accounting system
entails cost, inventory, and comparable specialized
accounting systems integrated with the general
accounting system) or of company branch, subsidiary,
or affiliated organizations which are individually
of comparable size and complexity.

Illustrative of such assignments are the audit and initial
review of the accounting treatment and validity of report­
ing of overhead expenses in a large manufacturing or
maintenance organization (e.g., major repair yard of a
railroad); or the checking, verification, and balancing of
all accounts receivable and accounts payable; or the
analysis and verification of assets and reserves; or the
inspection and evaluation of account controls and pro­
cedures.

2. As a member of an audit team, independently plans
and accomplishes audit assignments that constitute
major segments of audits of very large and complex
organizations, for example, those with financial
responsibilities so great as to involve specialized
subordinate, subsidiary, or affiliate accounting systems
that are complete in themselves.

Auditors IV

General characteristics. Auditors at this level are ex­
perienced professionals who apply thorough knowledge
of accounting principles and theory in connection with a
variety of audits. Work at this level is characterized by
the audit of organizations and accounting processes
which are complex and difficult because of such factors
as: Presence of new or changed programs and account­
ing systems; existence of major specialized accounting
functions (e.g., cost accounting, inventory accounting,
sales accounting), in addition to general accounting;
need to consider extensive and complicated regulatory
requirements; lack of or difficulty in obtaining infor­
mation; and other similar factors. Typically, a variety
of different assignments are encountered over a period
of time, e.g., 1 year. The audit reports prepared are
comprehensive, explain irregularities, cite rules and
regulations violated, recommend remedial actions, and
contain analyses of items of special importance or in­
terest to company management.



N o te : Excluded from level IV are auditors who, as
team leaders or working alone, conduct complete audits of
very large and complex organizations, for example, those
with financial responsibilities so great as to involve
specialized subordinate, subsidiary, or affiliate accounting
systems that are complete in themselves; or are team
members assigned to major segments of audits of even
larger or more complex organizations. Also excluded are
positions primarily responsible for overseeing multiple
concurrent audits.

PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS
Performs professional auditing work in a public
accounting firm. Work requires at least a bachelor’s
degree in accounting. Participates in or conducts audits
to ascertain the fairness of financial representations
made by client companies. May also assist the client in
improving accounting procedures and operations.
52

higher level public accountant who provides instructions
and continuing direction as necessary. Work is spot
checked in progress and reviewed upon completion to
determine the adequacy of procedures, soundness of judg­
ment, compliance with professional standards, and
adherence to clearly established methods and techniques.
All interpretations are subject to close professional review.

Examines financial reports, accounting records, and
related documents and practices of clients. Determines
whether all important matters have been disclosed and
whether procedures are consistent and conform to ac­
ceptable practices. Samples and tests transactions, inter­
nal controls, and other elements of the accounting
system(s) as needed to render the accounting firm’s final
written opinion.
Excluded are positions which do not require full pro­
fessional accounting training. Also excluded are special­
ist positions in tax or management advisory services.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Carries out a variety
of sampling and testing procedures in accordance with the
prescribed audit program, including examination of trans­
actions and verification of accounts, the analysis and
evaluation of accounting practices and internal controls,
and other detail work. Prepares a share of the audit work­
ing papers and participates in drafting reports. In
moderately complex audits, may assist in selecting
appropriate tests, samples, and methods commonly ap­
plied by the firm and may serve as primary assistant to the
accountant in charge. In more complicated audits, concen­
trates on detail work. Occasionally, may be in charge of
small, uncomplicated audits which require only one or two
other subordinate accountants. Personal contacts usually
involve only the exchange of factual technical information
and are usually limited to the client’s operating accounting
staff and department heads.

Public Accountants I

General characteristics. As an entry level public ac­
countant, serves as a junior member of an audit team.
Receives classroom and on-the-job training to provide
practical experience in applying the principles, theories,
and concepts of accounting and auditing to specific
situations. (Positions held by trainee public accountants
with advanced degrees, such as m b a ’ s , are excluded at
this level.)
Direction received. Complete instructions are furnished
and work is reviewed to verify its accuracy, conform­
ance with required procedures and instructions, and
usefulness in facilitating the accountant’s professional
growth. Any technical problems not covered by instruc­
tions are brought to the attention of a superior.

Public Accountants III

General characteristics. At this level, the public account­
ant is in charge of a complete audit and may lead a team of
several subordinates. Audits are usually accomplished one
at a time and are typically carried out at a single location.
The firms audited are typically moderately complex, and
there is usually previous audit experience by the firm. The
audit conforms to standard procedural guidelines, but is
often tailored to fit the client’s business activities. Routine
procedures and techniques are sometimes inadequate and

Typical duties and responsibilities. Carries out basic
audit tests and procedures, such as: Verifying reports
against source accounts and records; reconciling bank
and other accounts; and examining cash receipts and
disbursements, payroll records, requisitions, receiving
reports, and other accounting documents in detail to
ascertain that transactions are properly supported and
recorded. Prepares selected portions of audit working
papers.

require adaptation. Necessary data are not always readily

available. When assigned to more difficult and complex
audits (see level IV), the accountant may run the audit of a
major component or serve as the primary assistant to the
accountant in charge.

Public Accountants II

General characteristics. At this level, the public account­
ant carries out routine audit functions and detail work
with relative independence. Serves as a member of an
audit team on assignments planned to provide exposure
to a variety of client organizations and audit situations.
Specific assignments depend upon the difficulty and
complexity of the audit and whether the client has been
previously audited by the firm. On moderately complex
audits where there is previous audit experience by the
firm, accomplishes complete segments of the audit (i.e.,
functional work areas such as cash, receivables, etc.).
When assigned to more complicated audits, carries out
activities similar to public accountants I.
Direction received.



Direction received. Works under the general supervision
of a higher level public accountant who oversees the opera­
tions of the audit. Work is performed independently,
applying generally accepted accounting principles and
auditing standards, but assistance on difficult technical
matters is available. Work may be checked occasionally
during progress for appropriateness and adherence to time
requirements, but routine analyses, methods, techniques,
and procedures applied at the worksite are expected to be
correct.
Typical duties and responsibilities. Is responsible for
carrying out the technical features of the audit, leading
team members, and personally performing the most dif­

Works under the supervision of a
53

ficult work. Carries out field work in accordance with the
general format prescribed in the audit program, but
selects specific methods and types and sizes of samples
and tests. Assigns work to team members, furnishes
guidance, and adjusts workloads to accommodate daily
priorities. Thoroughly reviews work performed for
technical accuracy and adequacy. Resolves anticipated
problems within established guidelines and priorities but
refers problems of unusual difficulty to superiors for
discussion and advice. Drafts financial statements, final
reports, management letters, and other closing memoran­
da. Discusses significant recommendations with superiors
and may serve as technical resource at “ closing”
meetings with clients. Personal contacts are usually with
chief accountants and assistant controllers of mediumsize companies and divisions of large corporations to
explain and interpret policies and procedures governing
the audit process.

adjustments as necessary once an audit has begun; and
selects specific methods, types, and sizes of samples, the
extent to which discrepancies need to be investigated, and
the depth of required analyses. Resolves most operational
difficulties and unanticipated problems.
Assigns work to team members; reviews work for
appropriateness, contormance to time requirements, and
adherence to generally accepted accounting principles
and auditing standards. Consolidates working papers,
drafts reports and findings; and prepares financial
statements, management letters, and other closing
memoranda for management approval. Participates in
“ closing” meetings as a technical resource and may be
called upon to sell or defend controversial and critical
observations and recommendations. Personal contacts
are extensive and typically include top executives of
smaller clients and mid- to upper-level financial and
managment officers of large corporations, e.g., assist­
ant controllers or controllers. Such contacts involve coor­
dinating and advising on work efforts and resolving
operating problems.

Public Accountants IV

General characteristics. At this level, the public account­
ant directs field work including difficult audits—e.g.,
those involving initial audits of new clients, acquisitions,
or stock registrations—and may oversee a large audit team
split between several locations. The audit team usually
includes one or more level III public accountants who
handle major components of the audit. The audits are
complex and clients typically include those engaged in
projects which span accounting periods; highly regulated
industries which have various external reporting require­
ments; publicly held corporations; or businesses with very
high dollar or transaction volume. Clients are frequently
large with a variety of operations which may have different
accounting systems. Guidelines may be general or lacking
and audit programs are intricate, often requiring extensive
tailoring to meet atypical or novel situations.

N o t e : Excluded from this level are public account­
ants who direct field work associated with the complete
range of audits undertaken by the firm, lead the largest
and most difficult audits, and who frequently oversee
teams performing concurrent audits. This type of work
requires extensive knowledge of one or more industries to
make subjective determinations on questions of tax, law,
accounting, and business practices. Audits may be com­
plicated by such factors as: The size and diversity of the
client organization (e.g., multinational corporations and
conglomerates with a large number of separate and
distinct subsidiaries); accounting issues where precedents
are lacking or in conflict; and, in some cases, clients who
are encountering substantial financial difficulties. They
perform most work without technical supervision, and
completed audits are reviewed mainly for propriety of
recommendations and conformance with general policies
of the firm. Also excluded are public accountants whose
principal function is to manage, rather than perform
accounting work, and the equity owners of the firm who
have final approval authority.

Direction received. Works under general supervision.
The supervisor sets overall objectives and resource limits
but relies on the accountant to fully plan and direct all
technical phases of the audit. Issues not covered by
guidelines or known precedents are discussed with the
supervisor, but the accountant’s recommended approaches
and courses of action are normally approved. Work is
reviewed for soundness of approach, completeness, and
conformance with established policies of the firm.

CHIEF ACCOUNTANTS
As the top technical expert in accounting, is responsible
for directing the accounting program for a company or for
an establishment of a company. The minimum accounting
program includes: (1) General accounting (assets,
liabilities, income, expense, and capital accounts, in­
cluding responsibility for profit and loss and balance sheet
statements); and (2) at least one other major accounting
activity, typically tax accounting, cost accounting, proper­
ty accounting, or sales accounting. It may also include
such other activities as payroll and timekeeping, and

Typical duties and responsibilities. Is responsible for
carrying out the operational and technical features of
the audit, directing the work of team members, and
personally performing the most difficult work. Often
participates in the development of the audit scope, and
drafts complicated audit programs with a large number
of concurrently executed phases. Independently develops
audit steps and detailed procedures, deviating from tradi­
tional methods to the extent required. Makes program



54

mechanical or electronic data processing operations which
are an adjunct of the accounting system. (Responsibility
for an internal audit program is typically not included.)
The responsibilities of the chief accountant include all of
the following:

subaccounts, and subsidiary records; and
Providing special or interim reports and statements
needed by the manager responsible for the day-to-day
operations of the organization served.

This degree of authority is typically found at a plant or
similar subordinate establishment.

1. On own responsibility, developing, adapting, or
revising an accounting system to meet the needs of
the organization;

AR-2. The basic accounting system is prescribed in
broad outline rather than in specific detail. While cer­
tain major financial reports, overall accounts, and
general policies are required by the basic system, the
chief accountant has broad latitude and authority to
decide the specific methods, procedures, accounts,
reports, etc., to be used within the organizational seg­
ment served. Approval must be secured from higher
levels only for those changes which would basically af­
fect the broad requirements prescribed by such higher
levels. Typical responsibilities include:

2. Supervising, either directly or through subordinate
supervisors, the operation of the system with full
management responsibility for the quality and quan­
tity of work performed, training and development of
subordinates, work scheduling and review, coordina­
tion with other parts of the organization served, etc.;
3. Providing directly, or through an official such as a
comptroller, advisory services to the top manage­
ment officials of the organization served as to:
a. The status of financial resources and the finan­
cial trends or results of operations as revealed
by accounting data, and selecting a manner of
presentation that is meaningful to management;
b.

Evaluating and taking final action on recommendations
proposed by subordinate establishments for changes in
aspects of the accounting system or activities not prescribed
by higher authority;

Methods for improving operations as suggested
by an expert knowledge of accounting, e.g.,
proposals for improving cost control, property
management, credit and collection, tax reduction,
or similar programs.

Extending cost accounting
previously covered;

to

areas

not

Instituting new cost accounting procedures;
Expanding the utilization of computers within the ac­
counting process; and

Excluded are positions with responsibility for the ac­
counting program if they also include (as a major part of
the job) responsibility for budgeting; work measurement;
organization, methods, and procedures studies; or similar
nonaccounting functions. (Positions of such breadth are
sometimes titled comptroller, budget and accounting
manager, financial manager, etc.)
Some positions responsible for supervising general ac­
counting and one or more other major accounting ac­
tivities but which do not fully meet all of the respon­
sibilities of a chief accountant specified above may be
covered by the descriptions for accountant.
Chief accountant jobs which meet the characteristics
described are classified by level of work according to (a)
authority and responsibility, and (b) technical complexity,
using table C -l.

Preparing accounting reports and statements reflecting
the events and progress of the entire organization for which
incumbent is responsible, often consolidating data sub­
mitted by subordinate segments.

This degree of authority is most typically found at in­
termediate organizational levels such as regional offices,
or division or subsidiary headquarters. It is also found
in some company-level situations where the authority of
the chief accountant is less extensive than is described in
AR-3. More rarely, it is found in plant-level chief ac­
countants who have been delegated more authority than
usual for such positions as described in AR-1.

AR-3.
Has complete responsibility for establishing
and maintaining the framework for the basic accounting
system used in the company, subject only to general
policy guidance and control from a higher level com­
pany official responsible for general financial manage­
ment. Typical responsibilities include:

Authority and Responsibility

AR-1.
The accounting system (i.e., accounts, pro­
cedures, and reports to be used) has been prescribed in
considerable detail by higher levels in the company or
organization. The chief accountant has final, unre­
viewed authority, within the prescribed system, to ex­
pand it to fit the particular needs of the organization
served, e.g., in the following or comparable ways:

Determining the basic characteristics of the company’s
accounting system and the specific accounts to be used;
Devising and preparing accounting reports and statements
required to meet management’s needs for data;
Establishing basic accounting policies, interpretations,
and procedures;

Providing greater detail in accounts and reports or
financial statements;

Reviewing and taking action on proposed revisions to the
company’s accounting system suggested by subordinate
units; and

Establishing additional accounting controls, accounts,




operations

55

Table C-1. Criteria for matching chief accountants by level

Authority
and
responsibility1

Technical
complexity'

I

AR-l

TC-1

Only 1 or 2 professional accountants who do not exceed the accountant III
job definition.

II

AR-I

TC-2

About 5 to 10 professional accountants, with at least one or two matching the
accountant IV job definition.

AR-2

TC-1

About 5 to 10 professional accountants. Most of these match the accountant
III job definition, but one or two may match the accountant IV job definition.

AR-3

TC-1

Only 1 or 2 professional accountants who do not exceed the accountant IV
job definition.

AR-l

TC-3

About 15 to 20 professional accountants. At least one or two match the
accountant V job definition.

AR-2

TC-2

About 15 to 20 professional accountants. Many of these match the accountant
IV job definition, but some may match the accountant V job definition.

AR-3

TC-1

About 5 to 10 professional accountants. Most of these match the accountant
III job definition, but one or two may match as high as accountant V.

AR-2

TC-3

About 25 to 40 professional accountants. Many of these match the accountant
V job definition, but several may exceed that level.

AR-3

TC-2

About 15 to 20 professional accountants. Most of these match the accountant
IV job definition, but several may match the accountant V and one or two may
exceed that level.

AR-3

TC-3

About 25 to 40 professional accountants. Many Of these match the accountant
V job definition, but several may exceed that level.

Level

Subordinate professional accounting staff

or

or

III
or

or

IV
or

v

1 AR-l, -2, -3, and TC-1, -2, and -3 are explained in the text.

serves nas a relatively large number of functions, products,
work processes, etc., which require substantial and fre­
quent adaptations of the basic system to meet management
needs (e.g., adoption of new accounts, subaccounts, and
subsidiary records; revision of instructions for the use of
accounts; improvements or expansion of methods for ac­
cumulating and reporting cost data in connection with new
or changed work processes).

Taking final action on all technical accounting matters.

Characteristically, participates extensively in broad
company management processes by providing account­
ing advice, interpretations, or recommendations based
on data accumulated in the accounting system and on
professional judgment and experience.
Technical Complexity

TC-3. The organization which the accounting pro­
gram serves puts a heavy demand on the accounting

TC-1. The organization which the accounting pro­
gram serves has relatively few functions, products, work
processes, etc., and these tend to be stable and unchang­
ing. The accounting system operates in accordance with
well-established principles and practices or those of
equivalent difficulty which are typical of that industry.
TC-2.

organization fo r specialized and extensive adaptations
of the basic system to meet management needs. Such
demands arise because the functions, products, work
processes, etc., of the organization are very numerous,
diverse, unique, or specialized, or there are other com­
parable complexities. Consequently, the accounting
system, to a considerable degree, is developed well

The organization which the accounting program




56

Subordinate Staff

beyond established principles and accounting practices
in order to:

In table C - l, the number of professional accountants
supervised is recognized to be a relatively crude criterion
for distinguishing between various levels. It is to be con­
sidered less important in the matching process than the
other criteria. In addition to the staff o f professional ac­
countants in the system for which the chief accountant
is responsible, there are clerical, machine operation,
bookkeeping, and related personnel.

Provide for the solution of problems for which no clear
precedents exist; or
Provide for the development or extension of accounting
theories and practices to deal with problems to which these
theories and practices have not previously been applied.

Attorneys
Difficulty

Performs consultation and advisory work and carries
out the legal processes necessary to effect the rights,
privileges, and obligations o f the company. The work
performed requires completion o f law school with an
l .l .b . degree (or the equivalent) and admission to the
bar. Responsibilities or functions include one or more

D -l.

Legal questions are characterized by: Facts that
are well established; clearly applicable legal precedent;
and matters not o f substantial importance to the
organization. (Usually relatively limited sums o f money,
e.g., a few thousand dollars, are involved.)

o f the following or comparable duties:

Examples o f D -l work:

Preparing and reviewing various legal instruments and
documents, such as contracts, leases, licenses, purchases,
sales, real estate, etc.;

Legal investigation, negotiation, and research pre­
paratory to defending the organization in potential or
actual lawsuits involving alleged negligence where the
facts can be firmly established and there are precedent
cases directly applicable to the situation.

Acting as agent of the company in its transactions;
Examining material (e.g., advertisements, publications,
etc.) for legal implications; advising officials of proposed
legislation which might affect the company;

Searching case reports, legal documents, periodicals,
textbooks, and other legal references, and preparing
draft opinions on employee compensation or benefit
questions when there is a substantial amount of clearly
applicable statutory, regulatory, and case material.

Applying for patents, copyrights, or registration of com­
pany’s products, processes, devices, and trademarks;
Advising whether to initiate or defend lawsuits;

Drawing up contracts and other legal documents in
connection with real property transactions requiring
the development of detailed information but not
involving serious questions regarding titles to propertv or other major factual or legal issues.

Conducting pretrial preparations; defending the com­
pany in lawsuits; and
Advising officials on tax matters, government regula­
tions, and/or corporate rights.

Excluded from this definition are:
D-2.

Legal work is regularly difficult by reason o f one
or more o f the following: The absence o f clear and
directly applicable legal precedents; the different possi­
ble interpretations that can be placed on the facts, the
laws, or the precedents involved; the substantial impor­
tance o f the legal matters to the organization (e.g., sums
as large as $100,000 are generally directly or indirectly
involved); and the matter is being strongly pressed or
contested in formal proceedings or in negotiations by
the individuals, corporations, or government agencies
involved.

Patent work which requires professional training in ad­
dition to legal training (typically a degree in engineering or
in a science);
Claims examining, claims investigating, or similar work
for which professional legal training and bar membership
is not essential: and
Attorneys, frequently titled “general counsel” (and
their immediate full associates or deputies), who serve as
company officers or the equivalent and are responsible
for participating in the overall management and form­
ulation of policy for the company in addition to directing
its legal work. (The duties and responsibilities of such
positions exceed level VI as described below.)

Examples o f D-2 work:
Advising on the legal implications of advertising represen­
tations when the facts supporting the representations and
the applicable precedent cases are subject to different
interpretations.

Attorney jobs which meet the above definition are to
be classified in accordance with table C -2 and the
definitions which follow.




57

Table C-2. Criteria for matching attorneys by level

Difficulty
of legal work1

Level
I

Responsibility
of job1

This is the entry level. The duties and re­
sponsibilities after initial orientation and
training are those described in D-l and R-l.

Experience required
Completion of law school with an LL.B, or J.D. degree plus admission to the
bar.
Sufficient professional experience (at least 1
level to assure competence as an attorney.

D-l

R-2

D-2

R-l

D-2

R-2

D -3

R-l

D-2

R-3

D-3

R-2

V

D-3

R-3

E x te n siv e p r o fe ss io n a l exp erien ce at th e D -3 lev el.

VI

D-3

R-4

E x te n siv e p r o fe ss io n a l exp erien ce at th e D -3 an d R -3 lev els.

II
or

III

At least 1 year,

y ea r, u su a lly m ore) at th e D - l

u su a lly m o r e , o f p r o fe ss io n a l e x p erien ce at th e D -2 level.

or

IV

E x te n siv e p r o fe ss io n a l exp erien ce at the D -2 or h igh er level.

or

1 D-l, -2, -3, and R-l, -2, -3, and -4 are explained in the text.

Reviewing and advising on the implications of new or
revised laws affecting the organization.
Presenting the organization’s defense in court in a
negligence lawsuit which is strongly pressed by counsel for
organized group.
Providing legal counsel on tax questions complicated by
the absence of precedent decisions that are directly ap­
plicable to the organization’s situtation.

Serving as the principal counsel to the officers and staff of
an insurance company on the legal problems in the sale,
underwriting, and administration of group contracts in­
volving nationwide or multistate coverages and laws.
Performing the principal legal work in nonroutine,
major revision of the company’s charter or in effectuating
new major financing steps.

Responsibility

D-3. Legal work is typically complex and difficult
because of one or more of the following: The questions
are unique and require a high order of original and
creative legal endeavor for their solution; the questions
require extensive research and analysis and the obtain­
ing and evaluation of expert testimony regarding con­
troversial issues in a scientific, financial, corporate
organization, engineering, or other highly technical
area; and the legal matter is of critical importance to the
organization and is being vigorously pressed or con­
tested (e.g., sums such as $1 million or more are general­
ly directly or indirectly involved).

R -l. Responsibility for final action is usually limited
to matters covered by legal precedents and in which little
deviation from standard practice is involved. Any deci­
sions or actions having a significant bearing on the
organization’s business are reviewed. Is given guidance
in the initial stages of assignment, e.g., in planning and
organizing legal research and studies. Assignments are
then carried out with moderate independence although
guidance is generally available and is sought from time
to time on problem points.
R-2. Usually works independently in investigating the
facts, searching legal precedents, defining the legal and
factual issues, drafting the necessary legal documents,
and developing conclusions and recommendations.
Decisions having an important bearing on the organiza­
tion’s business are reviewed. Receives information from
supervisor regarding unusual circumstances or impor­
tant policy considerations pertaining to a legal problem.
If trials are involved, may receive guidance from a
supervisor regarding presentation, line of approach,
possible line of opposition to be encountered, etc. In the
case of nonroutine written presentations, the final prod­
uct is reviewed carefully, but primarily for overall
soundness of legal reasoning and consistency with

Examples of D-3 work:
Advising on the legal aspects and implications of Federal
antitrust laws to projected greatly expanded marketing
operations involving joint ventures with several other
organizations.
Planning legal strategy and representing a utility company
in rate or government franchise cases involving a
geographic area including parts of all or several States.
Preparing and presenting a case before an appellate court
where the case is highly important to the future operation
of the organization and is vigourously contested by very
distinguished (e.g., having a broad regional or national
reputation) legal talent.




58

ranking officials in private companies or in government
agencies. On various aspects of assigned work, may give
advice directly and personally to corporation officers and
top-level managers, or may work through the general
counsel of the company in advising officers. Generally
receives no preliminary instructions on legal problems.
On matters requiring the concentrated efforts of several
attorneys or other specialists, is responsible for directing,
coordinating, and reviewing the work of the attorneys
involved.

organization policy. Some, but not all, attorneys make
assignments to one or more lower level attorneys, aides,
or clerks.

R-3. Carries out assignments independently and makes
final legal determinations in matters of substantial impor­
tance to the organization. Such determinations are subject
to review only for consistency with company policy, possi­
ble precedent effect, and overall effectiveness. To carry
out assignments, deals regularly with company officers
and top-level management officials and confers or
negotiates regularly with senior attorneys and officials in
other companies or in government agencies on various
aspects of assigned work. Receives little or no preliminary
instruction on legal problems and a minimum of technical
legal supervision. May assign and review work of a few
attorneys, but this is not a primary responsibility.

OR
As a primary responsibility, directs the work of a
staff of attorneys, one, but usually more, of whom
regularly performs D-3 legal work. With respect to
the work directed, gives advice directly to corporation
officers and top managerial officers, or may give such
advice through the general counsel. Receives guidance
as to organization policy but no technical supervision or
assistance except when requesting advice from, or brief­
ing by, the general counsel on the overall approach to
the most difficult, novel, or important legal questions.
Usually reports to the general counsel or deputy.

R-4. Carries out assignments which entail independently
planning investigations and negotiations on legal problems
of the highest importance to the organization and develop­
ing completed briefs, opinions, contracts, or other legal
products. To carry out assignments, represents the
organization at conferences, hearings, or trials and per­
sonally confers and negotiates with top attorneys and top­

Buyers
N o t e : Some buyers are responsible for the purchas­
ing of a variety of items and materials. When the variety
includes items and work described at more than one of
the following levels, the position should be considered
to equal the highest level that characterizes at least a
substantial portion of the buyer’s time.

Purchases materials, supplies, equipment, and serv­
ices (e.g., utilities, maintenance, and repair). In some
instances, items are of types that must be specially de­
signed, produced, or modified by the vendor in accord­
ance with drawings or engineering specifications.
Solicits bids, analyzes quotations received, and selects
or recommends supplier. May interview prospective
vendors. Purchases items and services at the most
favorable price consistent with quality, quantity,
specification requirements, and other factors. Prepares
or supervises preparation of purchase orders from req­
uisitions. May expedite delivery and visit vendors’
offices and plants.
Normally, purchases are unreviewed when they are
consistent with past experience and are in conformance
with established rules and policies. Proposed purchase
transactions that deviate from the usual or from past ex­
perience in terms of prices, quality of items, quantities,
etc., or that may set precedents for future purchases are
reviewed by higher authority prior to final action.
In addition to work described above, some (but not
all) buyers direct the work of one or a few clerks who
perform routine aspects of the work. As a secondary
and subsidiary duty, some buyers may also sell or
dispose of surplus, salvage, or used materials, equip­
ment, or supplies.




E xcluded are:
a. Buyers of items for direct sale, either wholesale or
retail;
b. Brokers and dealers buying for clients or for invest­
ment purposes;
c. Positions that specifically require professional educa­
tion and qualifications in a physical science or in
engineering (e.g., chemist, mechanical engineer);
d. Buyers who specialize in purchasing a single or a few
related items of highly variable quality such as raw
cotton or wool, tobacco, cattle, or leather for shoe
uppers, etc. Expert personal knowledge of the item is
required to judge the relative value of the goods of­
fered, and to decide the quantity, quality, and price
of each purchase in terms of its probable effect on
the organization’s profit and competitive status;
e. Buyers whose principal responsibility is the supervis­
ion of a purchasing program;
59

the types described for buyer I when the quantities pur­
chased are so large that local sources of supply are
generally inadequate and the buyer must deal directly
with manufacturers on a broader-than-local scale.

f. Persons predominantly concerned with contract or
subcontract administration;
g. Persons whose major duties consist of ordering,
reordering, or requisitioning items under existing
contracts;

Buyers III
Purchases items, materials, or services of a technical
and specialized nature. The items, while of a common
general type, are usually made, altered, or customized
to meet the user’s specific needs and specifications.
Transactions usually require dealing with manufac­
turers. The number of potential vendors is likely to be
small and price differentials often reflect important fac­
tors (quality, delivery dates and places, etc.) that are dif­
ficult to evaluate.
The quantities purchased of any item or service may
be large.
Many of the purchases involve one or more of such
complications as: Specifications that detail, in technical
terms, the required physical, chemical, electrical, or
other comparable properties; special testing prior to ac­
ceptance; grouping of items for lot bidding and awards;
specialized processing, packing, or packaging require­
ments; export packs; overseas port differentials; etc.
Is expected to keep abreast of market and product
developments. May be required to locate new sources of
supply.
Some positions may involve assisting in the training
or supervising of lower level buyers or clerks.
Examples of items purchased include: Castings;
special extruded shapes of normal size and material;
special formula paints; electric motors of special shape
or speeds; production equipment; special packaging of
items; and raw materials in substantial quantities or
with special characteristics.

h. Positions restricted to clerical functions or to pur­
chase expediting work; and
i. Positions not requiring: (1) Three years of admin­
istrative, technical, or substantive clerical experi­
ence; (2) a bachelor’s degree in any field; or (3) any
equivalent combination of experience and education
yielding basic skills in problem analysis and communi­
cation.

Buyers I
Purchases “ off-the-shelf” types of readily available,
commonly used materials, supplies, tools, furniture,
services, etc.
Transactions usually involve local retailers, whole­
salers, jobbers, and manufacturers’ sales representa­
tives.
Quantities purchased are generally small amounts,
e.g., those available from local sources.
Examples of items purchased include: Common sta­
tionery and office supplies; standard types of office fur­
niture and fixtures; standard nuts, bolts, and screws;
janitorial and common building maintenance supplies; or
common utility services or office machine repair services.
Buyers II
Purchases “ off-the-shelf” types of standard, general­
ly available technical items, materials, and services.
Transactions may involve occasional modification of
standard and common usage items, materials, and serv­
ices, and include a few stipulations about unusual pack­
ing, marking, shipping, etc.
Transactions usually involve dealing directly with
manufacturers, distributors, jobbers, etc.
Quantities of items and materials purchased may be
relatively large, particularly in the case of contracts for
continuing supply over a period of time.
May be responsible for locating or promoting possi­
ble new sources of supply. Usually is expected to keep
abreast of market trends, changes in business practices
in the assigned markets, new or altered types of
materials entering the market, etc.
Examples of items purchased include: Standard in­
dustrial types of handtools; gloves and safety equipment;
standard electronic parts, components, and component
test instruments; electric motors; gasoline service station
equipment; pbx or other specialized telephone services;
special-purpose printing services; and routine purchases of
common raw materials such as standard grades and sizes
of steel bars, rods, and angles.
Also included at this level are buyers of materials of



Buyers IV
Purchases highly complex and technical items,
materials, or services, usually those specially designed
and manufactured exclusively for the purchaser.
Transactions require dealing with manufacturers and
often involve persuading potential vendors to undertake
the manufacturing of custom-designed items according
to complex and rigid specifications.
Quantities of items and materials purchased are often
large in order to satisfy the requirements for an entire
large organization for an extended period of time. Com­
plex schedules of delivery are often involved. Buyer
determines appropriate quantities to be contracted for
at any given period of time.
Transactions are often complicated by the presence of
one or more such matters as inclusion of: Requirements
for spare parts, preproduction samples and testing, or
technical literature; or patent and royalty provisions.
Keeps abreast of market and product developments.
Develops new sources of supply.
60

In addition to the work described above, a few posi­
tions may also require supervision over a few lower level
buyers or clerks. (No position is included in this level
solely because supervisory duties are performed.)
Examples of items purchased include: Specialpurpose, high-cost machine tools and production
facilities; specialized condensers, boilers, and turbines;
raw materials of critically important characteristics or
quality; and parts, subassemblies, components, etc.,
specially designed and made to order (e.g., communica­
tions equipment for installation in aircraft being
manufactured; component assemblies for missiles and
rockets; and motor vehicle frames).

N o t e : Excluded are buying positions above level IV.

Some buyers above level IV make purchases in such
unusually large quantities that they can affect the
market price of a commodity or produce other signifi­
cant effects on the industry or trade concerned. Others
may purchase items of either (1) extraordinary technical
complexity, e.g., involving the outermost limits of science
or engineering, or (2) unusually high individual or unit
value. Such buyers often persuade suppliers to expand
their plants or convert facilities to the production of new
items or services. These types of buying functions are often
performed by program managers or company officials
who have primary responsibilities other than buying.

Computer Systems Analysts1
compilers, assemblers, system utility routines, etc.,
which provide basic services for the use of all programs
and provide for the scheduling of the execution of pro­
grams; however, positions matching this definition may
develop a “total package” which includes not only
analyzing work problems to be processed but also
selecting the computer equipment and system software
required.

Analyzes business or scientific problems for resolu­
tion through electronic data processing. Gathers infor­
mation from users, defines work problems, and, if
feasible, designs a system of computer programs and
procedures to resolve the problems. Develops complete
specifications to enable computer programmers to
prepare required programs: Analyzes subject-matter
operations to be automated; specifies number and types
of records, files, and documents to be used and outputs
to be produced; prepares work diagrams and data flow
charts; coordinates tests of the system and participates
in trial runs of new and revised systems; and recom­
mends computer equipment changes to obtain more
effective operations. May also write the computer
programs.
Excluded are:

Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the
following definitions.
Computer Systems Analysts I
At this level, initial assignments are designed to ex­
pand practical experience in applying systems analysis
techniques and procedures. Provides several phases of
the required systems analysis where the nature of the
system is predetermined. Uses established factfinding
approaches, knowledge of pertinent work processes and
procedures, and familiarity with related computer pro­
gramming practices, system software, and computer
equipment.
Carries out factfinding and analysis as assigned,
usually of a single activity or a routine problem; applies
established procedures where the nature of the system,

(a) Trainees who receive detailed directives and work
plans, select authorized procedures for use in specific
situations, and seek assistance for deviations and
problems;
(b) Positions which require a bachelor’s degree in a
specific scientific field (other than computer science),
such as an engineering, mathematics, physics, or
chemistry degree; however, positions are potential
matches where the required degree may be from any
of several possible scientific fields;

1 For publication purposes, data for Computer Systems Analysts and Com­
puter Systems Analysts Supervisors/Managers were combined into a six level
series as follows:

(c) Computer programmers who write computer pro­
grams and solve user problems not requiring systems
modification;

Systems Analysts

(d) Workers who primarily analyze and evaluate prob­
lems concerning computer equipment or its selection
or utilization; and

Level
Nonsupervisory
I ......................................................................

II ...............................................
III ..............................................
IV ..............................................
V ..............................................
VI ..............................................

(e) Computer systems programmers or analysts who
primarily write programs or analyze problems con­
cerning the system software, e.g., operating systems,




61

Supervisory/
Managerial

I

II
Ill
IV
V
-

I
II
III
IV

feasibility, computer equipment, and programming
language have already been decided; may assist a higher
level systems analyst by preparing the detailed specifica­
tions required by computer programmers from informa­
tion developed by the higher level analyst; may research
routine user problems and solve them by modifying the
existing system when the solutions follow clear
precedents. When costs and deadline estimates are re­
quired, results receive close review.
The supervisor defines objectives, priorities, and
deadlines. Incumbents work independently; adapt
guides to specific situations; resolve problems and
deviations according to established practices; and obtain
advice where precedents are unclear or not available.
Completed work is reviewed for conformance to re­
quirements, timeliness, and efficiency. May supervise
technicians and others who assist in specific
assignments.

compatibility with other work, and effectiveness in
meeting requirements. May provide functional direction
to lower level assistants on assigned work.

OR
Works on a segment of a complex data processing
scheme or broad system, as described for computer
systems analysts, level III. Works independently on
routine assignments and receives instructions and
guidance on complex assignments. Work is reviewed for
accuracy of judgment, compliance with instructions,
and to insure proper alignment with overall system.
Computer Systems Analysts III
Applies systems analysis and design techniques to
complex computer systems in a broad area such as
manufacturing; finance management; engineering, ac­
counting, or statistics; logistics planning; material
management; etc. Usually, there are multiple users of
the system; however, there may be complex single-user
systems, e.g., for engineering or research projects. Re­
quires competence in all phases of available systems
analysis techniques, concepts, and methods and
knowledge of available systems software, computer
equipment, and the regulations, structure, techniques,
and management practices of one or more subjectmatter areas. Since input data usually come from
diverse sources, is responsible for recognizing probable
conflicts and integrating diverse data elements and
sources. Produces innovative solutions for a variety of
complex problems.
Maintains and modifies complex systems or develops
new subsystems such as an integrated production
scheduling, inventory control, cost analysis, and sales
analysis record in which every item of each type is
automatically processed through the full system of
records. Guides users in formulating requirements; ad­
vises on alternatives and on the implications of new or
revised data processing systems; analyzes resulting user
project proposals, identifies omissions and errors in re­
quirements, and conducts feasibility studies; recom­
mends optimum approach and develops system design
for approved projects. Interprets information and in­
formally arbitrates between system users when conflicts
exist. May serve as lead analyst in a design subgroup,
directing and integrating the work of one or two lower
level analysts, each responsible for several programs.
Supervision and nature of review are similar to level
II; existing systems provide precedents for the operation
of new subsystems.

Computer Systems Analysts II
Applies systems analysis and design skills in an area
such as a recordkeeping or scientific operation. A
system of several varied sequences or formats is usually
developed, e.g., develops systems for maintaining
depositor accounts in a bank, maintaining accounts
receivable in a retail establishment, maintaining inven­
tory accounts in a manufacturing or wholesale establish­
ment, or processing a limited problem in a scientific
project. Requires competence in most phases of systems
analysis and knowledge of pertinent system software
and computer equipment and of the work processes,
applicable regulations, workload, and practices of the
assigned subject-matter area. Recognizes probable in­
teractions of related computer systems and predicts
impact of a change in assigned system.
Reviews proposals which consist of objectives, scope,
and user expectations; gathers facts, analyzes data, and
prepares a project synopsis which compares alternatives
in terms of cost, time, availability of equipment and
personnel, and recommends a course of action; and,
upon approval of synopsis, prepares specifications for
development of computer programs. Determines and
resolves data processing problems and coordinates the
work with programmers, users, etc.; orients user per­
sonnel on new or changed procedures. May conduct
special projects such as data element and code standard­
ization throughout a broad system, working under
specific objectives and bringing to the attention of the
supervisor any unusual problems or controversies.
Works independently under overall project objectives
and requirements; apprises supervisor about progress
and unusual complications. Guidelines usually include
existing systems and the constraints imposed by related
systems with which the incumbent’s work must be meshed.
Adapts design approaches successfully used in prece­
dent systems. Completed work is reviewed for timeliness,



Computer Systems Analysts IV
Applies expert systems analysis and design techniques
to complex systems development in a specialized design
area and/or resolves unique or unyielding problems in
62

existing complex systems by applying new technology.
Work requires a broad knowledge of data sources and
flow, interactions of existing complex systems in the
organization, and the capabilities and limitations of the
systems software and computer equipment. Objectives
and overall requirements are defined in organization
e d p policies and standards; the primary constraints
typically are those imposed by the need for compatibili­
ty with existing systems or processes. Supervision and
nature of review are similar to levels II and III.

Typical duties and responsibilities.

T y p ic a l d u tie s a n d r e s p o n s ib ilitie s .

1. As team or project leader, guides the development of
broad unprecedented computer systems. The infor­
mation requirements are complex and voluminous.
Devises completely new ways to locate and develop
data sources; establishes new factors and criteria for
making subject-matter decisions. Coordinates fact­
finding, analysis, and design of the system and ap­
plies the most recent developments in data processing
technology and computer equipment. Guidelines
consist of state-of-the-art technology and general
organization policy. At least one team member per­

One or more of the

forms work at level IV.

following:

2. As staff specialist or consultant, is a recognized
leader and authority in a large organization (as de­
fined above). Performs at least two of the following: (a)
Has overall responsibility for evaluating the signifi­
cance of technological advancement and developing
edp standards where new and improved approaches
are needed, e.g., programming techniques; (b) conceives
and plans exploratory investigations critical to the
overall organization where useful precedents do not
exist and new concepts are required, e.g., develops
recommendations regarding a comprehensive management
information system; or (c) evaluates existing edp
organizational policy for effectiveness, devising
and formulating changes in the organization’s position
on broad policy issues. May be assisted on individual
projects by other analysts.

1. As team project leader, provides systems design in
a specialized and highly complex design area, e.g.,
interrelated business statistics and/or projections,
scientific systems, mathematical models, or similar
unprecedented computer systems. Establishes the
framework of new computer systems from feasibility
studies to postimplementation evaluation. Devises
new sources of data and develops new approaches
and techniques for use by others. May serve as
technical authority for a design area. At least one or
two team members perform work at level III; one or
two team members may also perform work as a level
IV staff specialist or consultant as described below.
2. As staff specialist or consultant, with expertise in a
specialty area (e.g., data security, telecommunica­
tions, systems analysis techniques, edp standards
development, etc.), plans and conducts analyses of
unique or unyielding problems in a broad system.
Identifies problems and specific issues in assigned
area and prepares overall project recommendations
from an edp standpoint, including feasible ad­
vancements in edp technology; upon acceptance,
determines a design strategy that anticipates direc­
tions of change; designs and monitors necessary
testing and implementation plans. Performs work
such as: Studies broad areas of projected work proc­
esses which cut across established organization edp
systems; conducts continuing review of computer
technological developments applicable to systems
design and prepares long-range forecasts; develops
edp standards where new and improved approaches
are needed; or develops recommendations for a
management information system where new concepts
are required.

COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYSTS
SUPERVISORS/MANAGERS
Supervises three or more employees, two of whom
perform systems analysis. Work requires substantial
and recurring use of systems analysis skills in directing
staff. May also supervise programmers and related
clerical and technical support personnel.
Excluded are:
a. Positions also having significant responsibility for
the management or supervision of functional areas
(e.g., system software development, data entry, or
computer operations) not related to the Computer
Systems Analyst and Computer Programmer defini­
tions.
b. Supervisory positions having base levels below Computer
Systems Analyst II or Computer Programmer IV.

Computer Systems Analysts V

c. Managers who supervise two or more subordinates
performing at Computer Systems Analyst Supervisor/
Manager level IV.

As a top technical expert, develops broad unprec­
edented computer systems and/or conducts critical studies
central to the success o f large organizations having
extensive technical or highly diversified computer
requirements. Considers such requirements as broad
company policy, and the diverse user needs of several
organization levels and locations. Works under general
administrative direction.



One or more of the

following:

Supervisory jobs are matched at 1 of 4 levels accord­
ing to two factors: (a) Base level of work supervised,
and (b) level of supervision. Table C-3 indicates the
level of the supervisor for each combination of factors.
63

Table C-3. Criteria for matching computer systems analyst supervisors/managers
S upe rvisor/m ana ger level
Base level o f no nsupervisory job(s)
Level o f supervision
M a tched in the
co m p u te r progra m m e rs
de finition

M a tched in the
c o m p u te r system s
analysts de fin itio n

LS-1

LS-2

LS-3

IV
V

II
III
IV
V

I
II
III
IV

II
III
IV
E xclude

III
IV
E xclude
E xclude

-

-

supervisors and reviews their evaluations of other
employees; selects nonsupervisors (higher level approval
is virtually assured) and recommends supervisory selec­
tions; and hears group grievances and serious or
unresolved complaints. May shift resources among
projects and perform long-range budget planning.

Base Level of Work
The base level of work is that level of nonsupervisory
work under the direct or indirect supervision of the
supervisor/manager which (when added to the non­
supervisory levels above it) represents at least 25 percent
of the total nonsupervisory, nonclerical staff and at
least two of the full-time positions supervised.
To determine the base level of nonsupervisory,
nonclerical work: (1) Positions are arrayed by level of
difficulty; (2) the number of workers in each position is
determined; and (3) the highest level is determined that
has at least 25 percent of the total nonsupervisory,
nonclerical staff accumulated from itself and levels
above itself.

N o t e : In rare instances, supervisory positions
responsible for directing a sizable staff (e.g., 20-30
employees) may not have subordinate supervisors, but
have all other LS-2 responsibilities. Such positions are
matched to LS-2.

LS-3. Directs two subordinate supervisory levels, and
the work force managed typically includes substantially
more than 30 employees. Makes major decisions and
recommendations which have a direct, important, and
substantial effect on own organization and work. Per­
forms at least three of the following:

Level of Supervision
Supervisors and managers are matched at 1 of the 3
LS levels below best describing their supervisory
responsibility.

Decides what programs and projects should be initiated, drop­
ped, expanded, or curtailed;

LS-1 Plans, coordinates, and evaluates the work of a
small staff, normally not more than 15 programmers,
systems analysts, and technicians; estimates personnel
needs and schedules, assigns and reviews work to meet
completion date; interviews candidates for own unit and
recommends hires, promotions, or reassignments;
resolves complaints and refers group grievances and
more serious unresolved complaints to higher level
supervisors; and may reprimand employees.

Determines long-range plans in response to program changes,
evaluates program goals, and redefines objectives;
Determines changes to be made in organizational structure,
delegation of authority, coordination of units, etc.;
Decides what compromises to make in operations in view
of public relations implications and need for support from
various groups;

LS-2. Directs a sizable staff (normally 15-30 em­
ployees), typically divided into subunits controlled by
subordinate supervisors; advises higher level manage­
ment of work problems of own unit and the impact on
broader programs; collaborates with heads of other
units to negotiate and/or coordinate work changes;
makes decisions on work or training problems presented
by subordinate supervisors; evaluates subordinate

Decides on the means to substantially reduce operating costs
without impairing overall operations; justifies major equip­
ment expenditures; and
Resolves differences between key subordinate officials;
decides, or significantly affects final decisions, on person­
nel actions for supervisors and other key officials.

Computer Programmers
Performs programming services for establishments or
for outside organizations who may contract for services.



Converts specifications (precise descriptions) about
business or scientific problems into a sequence of de64

tailed instructions to solve problems by electronic data
processing (E D P ) equipment, i.e., digital computers.
Draws program flow charts to describe the processing of
data and develops the precise steps and processing logic
which, when entered into the computer in coded
language (C O B O L , f o r t r a n , or other programming
language), cause the manipulation of data to achieve
desired results. Tests and corrects programs and
prepares instructions for operators who control the
computer during production runs. Modifies programs
to increase operating efficiency or to respond to changes
in work processes; maintains records to document pro­
gram development and revisions.
At levels I, II, and III, some computer programmers
may also perform programming analysis such as:
Gathering facts from users to define their business or
scientific problems and to investigate the feasibility of
solving problems through new or modified computer
programs; developing specifications for data inputs,
flow, actions, decisions, and outputs; and participating
on a continuing basis in the overall program planning
along with other e d p personnel and users.
In contrast, at levels IV and V, some programming
analysis must be performed as part of the programming
assignment. The analysis duties are identified as a
separate paragraph at levels I, II, III, and IV and are
part of each alternative described at level V. However,
the systems requirements are defined by systems
analysts or scientists.
Excluded are:
a. Positions which require a bachelor’s degree in a
specific scientific field (other than computer science),
such as an engineering, mathematics, physics, or
chemistry degree; however, positions are potential
matches where the required degree may be from any
o f several p o ssib le scientific field s;

b. Positions responsible for developing and modifying
computer systems;
c. Computer programmers who perform level IV or V
programming duties but who p erfo rm no program m ing

g. Positions not requiring: (1) Three years of administrative,
technical, or substantive clerical experience; (2) a
bachelor’s degree in any field; or (3) any equivalent
combination of experience and education yielding basic
skills in problem analysis and communication.

Positions are classified into levels based on the
following definitions.
Computer Programmers I
At this trainee level, assignments are usually planned to
develop basic programming skills because incumbents
are typically inexperienced in applying such skills on the
job. Assists higher level staff by performing elementary
programming tasks which concern limited and simple data
items and steps and which closely follow patterns of
previous work done in the organization, e.g., drawing flow
charts, writing operator instructions, or coding and testing
routines to accumulate counts, tallies, or summaries. May
perform routine programming assignments (as described
in level II) under close supervision.
In addition, as training and to assist higher level staff,
computer programmers may perform elementary fact­
finding concerning a specified work process, e.g., a file
of clerical records which is treated as a unit (invoices,
requisitions, or purchase orders, etc.); reports findings
to higher level staff.
Receives classroom and/or on-the-job training in com­
puter programming concepts, methods, and techniques
and in the basic requirements of the subject matter area.
May receive training in elementary factfinding. Detailed,
step-by-step instructions are given for each task and any
deviation must be authorized by a supervisor. Work is
closely monitored in progress and reviewed in detail upon
completion.
Computer Programmers II
At this level, initial assignments are designed to
develop competence in applying established programm­
ing procedures to routine problems. Performs routine
programming assignments that do not require skilled
background experience but do require knowledge of
established programming procedures and data process­
ing requirements. Works according to clear-cut and
complete specifications. The data are refined and the
format of the final products is very similar to that of the
input or is well defined when significantly different, i.e.,
there are few, if any, problems with interrelating varied
records and outputs.
Maintains and modifies routine programs. Makes
approved changes by amending program flow charts,
developing detailed processing logic, and coding changes.
Tests and documents modifications and writes operator

analysis;
d. W orkers who p rim arily analyze and evaluate prob­
lems concerning com pu ter equ ipm ent or its selection

or utilization;
e. Computer systems programmers or analysts who
prim arily write program s or analyze p ro b le m s concern­
ing the system softw are, e.g., operating systems,

compilers, assemblers, system utility routines, etc.,
which provide basic services for the use of all pro­
grams and provide for the scheduling of the execution
of programs; however, p o sitio n s m atching this defin i­
tion m ay develop a “ to ta l p a ck a g e” which includes
not only writing programs to process data but also
selecting the computer equipment and system software
required;
f. Employees who have significant responsibility for the
management or supervision of workers (e.g., systems




analysts) whose positions are n ot covered in this defi­
nition; or employees with significant responsibility
for oth er fu n ctio n s such as computer operations, data
entry, system software, etc.; and

65

instructions. May write routine new programs using
prescribed specifications; may confer with edp personnel
to clarify procedures, processing logic, etc.
In addition and as continued training, computer pro­
grammers may evaluate simple interrelationships in the
immediate programming area, e.g., whether a con­
templated change in one part of a simple program
would cause unwanted results in a related part; confers
with user representatives to gain an understanding of
the situation sufficient to formulate the needed change;
implements the change upon approval of the supervisor
or higher level staff. The incumbent is provided with
charts, narrative descriptions of the functions perform­
ed, an approved statement of the product desired (e.g.,
a change in a local establishment report), and the in­
puts, outputs, and record formats.
Reviews objectives and assignment details with higher
level staff to insure thorough understanding; uses judg­
ment in selecting among authorized procedures and seeks
assistance when guidelines are inadequate, significant
deviations are proposed, or when unanticipated problems
arise. Work is usually monitored in progress; all work is
reviewed upon completion for accuracy and compliance
with standards.

portions of a scientific programming project, applying
established scientific programming techniques to welldefined mathematical, statistical, engineering, or other
scientific problems usually requiring the translation of
mathematical notation into processing logic and code.
(Scientific programming includes assignments such
as: Using predetermined physical laws expressed in
mathematical terms to relate one set of data to another;
the routine storage and retrieval of field test data; and
using procedures for real-time command and control,
scientific data reduction, signal processing, or similar
areas.) Tests and documents work and writes and main­
tains operator instructions for assigned programs.
Confers with other edp personnel to obtain or provide
factual data.
In addition, computer programmers may carry out
factfinding and programming analysis of a single activity
or routine problem, applying established procedures
where the nature of the program, feasibility, computer
equipment, and programming language have already
been decided. May analyze present performance of the
program and take action to correct deficiencies based on
discussion with the user and consultation with and ap­
proval of the supervisor or higher level staff. May assist in
the review and analysis of detailed program specifications
and in program design to meet changes in work processes.
Works independently under specified objectives; ap­
plies judgment in devising program logic and in selecting
and adapting standard programming procedures; re­
solves problems and deviations according to established
practices; and obtains advice where precedents are
unclear or not available. Completed work is reviewed for
conformance to standards, timeliness, and efficiency.
May guide or instruct lower level programmers; may
supervise technicians and others who assist in specific
assignments.

Computer Programmers III
As a fully qualified computer programmer, applies
standard programming procedures and detailed knowledge
of pertinent subject matter (e.g., work processes, govern­
ing rules, clerical procedures, etc.) in a programming area
such as: A recordkeeping operation (supply, personnel
and payroll, inventory, purchasing, insurance payments,
depositor accounts, etc.); a well-defined statistical or scien­
tific problem; or other standardized operation or problem.
Works according to approved statements of requirements
and detailed specifications. While the data are clear cut,
related, and equally available, there may be substantial
interrelationships of a variety of records, and several
varied sequences or formats are usually produced. The
programs developed or modified typically are linked to
several other programs in that the output of one becomes
the input for another. Recognizes probable interactions of
other related programs with the assigned program(s) and is
familiar with related system software and computer equip­
ment. Solves conventional programming problems. (In
small organizations, may maintain programs which con­
cern or combine several operations, i.e., users, or develop
programs where there is one primary user and the other
gives input.)
Performs such duties as: Develops, modifies, and
maintains assigned programs; designs and implements
modifications to the interrelation of files and records
within programs in consultation with higher level staff;
monitors the operation of assigned programs and responds
to problems by diagnosing and correcting errors in logic
and coding; and implements and/or maintains assigned



OR
Works on complex programs (as described in level IV)
under close direction of higher level staff or supervisor.
May assist higher level staff by independently performing
less difficult tasks assigned, and performing more dif­
ficult tasks under close supervision.
Computer Programmers IV
Applies expertise in programming procedures to com­
plex programs; recommends the redesign of programs,
investigates and analyzes feasibility and program
requirements, and develops programming specifications.
Assigned programs typically affect a broad multiuser
computer system which meets the data processing needs
of a broad area (e.g., manufacturing, logistics planning,
finance management, human resources, material manage­
ment, etc.) or a computer system for a project in engineer­
ing, research, accounting, statistics, etc. Plans the full
range of programming actions to produce several inter­
66

related but different products from numerous and diverse
data elements which are usually from different sources;
solves difficult programming problems. Uses knowledge
of pertinent system software, computer equipment, work
processes, regulations, and management practices.
Performs such duties as: Develops, modifies, and
maintains complex programs; designs and implements
the interrelation of files and records within programs
which will effectively fit into the overall design of the
project; working with problems or concepts, develops
programs for the solution to major scientific computa­
tional problems requiring the analysis and development
of logical or mathematical descriptions of functions to
be programmed; and develops occasional special pro­
grams, e.g., a critical path analysis program to assist in
managing a special project. Tests, documents, and writes
operating instructions for all work. Confers with other
edp personnel to secure information, investigate and
resolve problems, and coordinate work efforts.
In addition, performs such programming analysis as:
Investigates the feasibility of alternate program design
approaches to determine the best balanced solution,
e.g., one that will best satisfy immediate user needs,
facilitate subsequent modification, and conserve resources;
on typical maintenance projects and smaller scale, limited
new projects, assists user personnel in defining problems
or needs and determines how the work should be organiz­
ed, the necessary files and records, and their interrelation
within the program; and on large or more complicated
projects, usually participates as a team member along with
other edp personnel and users and is typically assigned a
portion of the project.
Works independently under overall objectives and
direction, apprising the supervisor about progress and
unusual complications. Modifies and adapts precedent
solutions and proven approaches. Guidelines include
constraints imposed by the related programs with which
the incumbent’s programs must be meshed. Completed
work is reviewed for timeliness, compatibility with other
work, and effectiveness in meeting requirements. May
function as team leader or supervise a few lower level
programmers or technicians on assigned work.

gramming analysis is included as a part of the program­
ming assignment. Supervision and review are similar to
level IV.

Typical duties and responsibilities.

One or more of the

following:
1. In a supervisory capacity, plans, develops, coordinates,
and directs a large and important programming project
(finance, manufacturing, sales/marketing, human re­
sources, or other broad area) or a number of small pro­
gramming projects with complex features. A substantial
portion of the work supervised (usually two to three
workers) is comparable to that described for level IV.
Supervises, coordinates, and reviews the work of a small
staff, normally not more than 15 programmers and
technicians; estimates personnel needs and schedules,
assigns, and reviews work to meet completion date. These
day-to-day supervisors evaluate performance, resolve
complaints, and make recommendations on hiring and
firing. They do not make final decisions on curtailing pro­
jects, reorganizing, or reallocating resources.

2. A s team leader, staff specialist, or consultant, defines
complex scientific problems (e.g., computational) or other
highly complex programming problems (e.g., generating
overall forecasts, projections, or other new data
fields widely different from the source data or untried
at the scale proposed) and directs the development of
computer programs for their solution; or designs improve­
ments in complex programs where existing precedents
provide little guidance, such as an interrelated group of
mathematical/statistical programs which support health
insurance, natural resources, marketing trends, or other
research activities. In conjunction with users (scientists or
specialists), defines major problems in the subject-matter
area. Contacts coworkers and user personnel at various
locations to plan and coordinate project and gather data;
devises ways to obtain data not previously available; and
arbitrates differences between various program users when
conflicting requirements arise. May perform simulation
studies to determine effects of changes in computer equip­
ment or system software or may assess the feasibility and
soundness of proposed programming projects which are
novel and complex. Typically, develops programming tech­
niques and procedures where few precedents exist. May be
assisted on projects by other programmers or technicians.

Computer Programmers V
At level V, workers are typically either supervisors,
team leaders, staff specialists, or consultants. Some pro­

Personnel Management
JOB ANALYSTS
Performs work involved in collecting, analyzing, and
developing occupational data relative to jobs, job qualifi­
cations, and worker characteristics as a basis for compen­
sating employees in a fair, equitable, and uniform manner.
Performs such duties as studying and analyzing jobs and




preparing descriptions of duties and responsibilities and of
the physical and mental requirements needed by workers;
evaluating jobs and determining appropriate wage or
salary levels in accordance with their difficulty and
responsibility; independently conducting or participating
with representatives of other companies in conducting
67

compensation surveys within a locality or labor market
area; assisting in administering merit rating programs;
reviewing changes in wages and salaries indicated by
surveys and recommending changes in pay scales; and
auditing individual jobs to check the propriety of
evaluations and to apply current job classifications.
Excluded are:

rating programs. May plan survey methods and conduct
or direct surveys within a broad compensation area.

DIRECTORS OF PERSONNEL
Directs a personnel management program for a com­
pany or a segment of a company. Serves top management
officials of the organization as the source of advice and
assistance on personnel management matters and pro­
blems generally; is typically consulted on the personnel im­
plications of planned changes in management policy or
program, the effects on the organization of economic or
market trends, product or production method changes,
etc.; and represents management in contacts with other
companies, trade associations, government agencies, etc.,
dealing primarily with personnel management matters.
Typically, the director of personnel for a company
reports to a company officer in charge of industrial rela­
tions and personnel management activities or an officer of
similar level. Below the company level, the director of per­
sonnel typically reports to a company officer or a high
management official who has responsibility for the opera­
tion of a plant, establishment, or other segment of the
company.
For a job to be covered by this definition, the person­
nel management program must include responsibility for
all three of the following functions:

a. Positions also responsible for supplying management
with a high technical level of advice regarding solu­
tion of broad personnel management problems;
b. Positions not requiring (1) three years of adminis­
trative, technical, or substantive clerical experience;
(2) a bachelor’s degree in any field; or (3) any equivalent
combination of experience and education yielding basic
skills in problem analysis and communication.
Job Analysts I
As a trainee, performs work in designated areas and
of limited occupational scope. Receives immediate
supervision in assignments designed to provide training
in the application of established methods and tech­
niques of job analysis. Studies the least difficult jobs
and prepares reports for review by a job analyst of
higher level.
Job Analysts II
Studies, describes, and evaluates jobs in accordance
with established procedures. Is usually assigned to the
simpler kinds of both wage and salaried jobs in the
establishment. Works independently on such assignments
but is limited by defined areas of assignment and
instructions of superior.

1. Administering a job evaluation system: i.e., a system
in which there are established procedures by which jobs
are analyzed and evaluated on the basis of their duties,
responsibilities, and qualification requirements in order
to provide a foundation for equitable compensation.
Typically, such a system includes the use of one or more
sets of job evaluation factors and the preparation of for­
mal job descriptions. It may also include such related
functions as wage and salary surveys or merit rating
system administration. The job evaluation system(s)
does not necessarily cover all jobs in the organization,
but does cover a substantial portion of the organization.

Job Analysts III
Analyzes and evaluates a variety of wage and salaried
jobs in accordance with established evaluation systems and
procedures. May conduct wage surveys within the locality
or participate in conducting surveys of broad compensa­
tion areas. May assist in developing survey methods and
plans. Receives general supervision but responsibility for
final action is limited.

2. Employment and placement function: i.e., recruiting
actively for at least some kinds of workers through a
variety of sources (e.g., schools or colleges, employment
agencies, professional societies, etc.); evaluating ap­
plicants against demands of particular jobs by use of
such techniques as job analysis to determine re­
quirements, interviews, written tests of aptitude,
knowledge or skill, reference checks, experience evalua­
tions, etc.; recommending selections and job placements
to management, etc.

Job Analysts IV
Analyzes and evaluates a variety of jobs in accordance
with established evaluation systems and procedures, and is
given assignments which regularly include responsibility
for the more difficult kinds of jobs. (“ More difficult”
means jobs which consist of hard-to-understand work
processes; e.g., professional, scientific, administrative, or
technical; or jobs in new or emerging occupational fields;
or jobs which are being established as part of the creation
of new organizations; or where other special considera­
tions of these types apply.) Receives general supervision,
but responsibility for final action is limited. May partic­
ipate in the development and installation of evaluation or
compensation systems, which may include those for merit



3. Employee relations and services function: i.e., func­
tions designed to maintain employees’ morale and
productivity at a high level (e.g., administering a
formal or informal grievance procedure; identifying
and recommending solutions for personnel problems
such as absenteeism, high turnover, low productivity,
etc.; administration of beneficial suggestions system,
retirement, pension, or insurance plans, merit rating
68

agreement reached at higher levels, or to supply advice
and information on technical points to the company’s
principal representative;

system, etc.; overseeing cafeteria operations, recrea­
tional programs, industrial health and safety pro­
grams, etc.).

c. Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO); and

In addition, positions covered by this definition may,
but do not necessarily, include responsibilities in the
following areas:

d. Reporting under the Occupational Safety and Health
A ct (OSHA).

Excluded are positions in which responsibility for
actual contract negotiations with labor unions as the
principal company representative is a significant aspect
of the J o b , i.e., a responsibility which serves as a
primary basis for qualification requirements and com­
pensation.
Director of personnel jobs which meet the above
definition are classified by level of work in accordance
with the criteria shown in table C-4.

a. Employee training and development;
b. Labor relations activities which are confined mainly

to the administration, interpretation, and application of
those aspects of labor union contracts that are essential­
ly of the type described under (3) above. May also par­
ticipate in bargaining of a subordinate nature, e.g., to
negotiate detailed settlement of such matters as specific
rates, job classifications, work rules, hiring or layoff
procedures, etc., within the broad terms of a general

Table C-4. Criteria for matching directors of personnel by level
“ Development level”
personnel program2

"Operations level"
personnel program'
Number of employees in
work force serviced

250-750
1 000-5,000
6^000-12,000
15,000-25,000 ............................

"Type A"
organization
serviced3
I
II
III
IV

Number of employees in
work force serviced

"Type B”
organization
serviced4
II
III
IV
V

250-750 .....................................
1,000-5.000 ...............................
6,000-12,000 ............................
15,000-25,000
......................

“ Type A"
organization
serviced3

“ Type B“
organization
serviced4

II
III
IV
V

III
IV
V

because the jobs consist of relatively easy-to-understand work processes,
and an adequate labor supply is available. These conditions are most likely to
be found in organizations in which the work force and organizational struc­
ture are relatively stable.
4 “Type B” organization serviced— a substantial proportion of the jobs pre­
sent difficult recruitment, job evaluation, or training problems because the
jobs: Consist of hard-to-understand work processes (e.g., professional, scien­
tific, administrative, or technical); have hard-to-match skill requirements; are
in new or emerging occupations; or are extremely hard to fill. These condi­
tions are most likely to be found in organizations in which the work force,
organizational structure, work processes or functions, etc., are complicated
or unstable.

1 “ Operations level" personnel program—director of personnel servicing
an organizational segment (e.g., a plant) of a company where the basic per­
sonnel program policies, plans, objectives, etc., are established at company
headquarters or some other higher level between the plant and the com­
pany headquarters level. The personnel director’s responsibility is to put
these into operation at the local level, in such a manner as to most effectively
serve the local management needs.
2 "Development level" personnel program— either:
(a) Director of personnel servicing an entire company (with or without
subordinate establishments) where the personnel director plays an im­
portant role in establishment of basic personnel policies, plans, objectives,
etc., for the company subject to policy direction and control from com­
pany officers: or (b) director of personnel servicing an intermediate
organization below the company level, e.g., a division or a subsidiary to
which a relatively complete delegation of personnel program planning
and development responsibility is made. In this situation, only basic policy
direction is given by the parent company and local officers. The director of
personnel has essentially the same degree of latitude and responsibility
for basic personnel policies, plans objectives, etc., as described above
in (a).
3 "Type A" organization serviced— most jobs serviced do not present par­
ticularly difficult or unusual recruitment, job evaluation, or training problems

N o t e : There are gaps between different degrees of all three elements
used to determine job level matches. These gaps have been provided pur­
posely to allow room for judgment in getting the best overall job level match
for each job Thus, a job which services a work force of 850 employees
should be matched with level II if it is a personnel program operations level
job where the nature of the organization serviced seems to fall slightly below
the definition for type B. However, the same job should be matched with level
I if the nature of the organization serviced clearly falls well within the
definition for type A.

Chemists and Engineers
CHEMISTS
Performs professional work in research, develop­
ment, interpretation, and analysis to determine the com­
position, molecular structure, and properties of
substances; to develop or investigate new materials and
processes; and to investigate the transformations which
substances undergo. Work typically requires a b . s .




degree in chemistry or the equivalent in appropriate and
substantial college level study of chemistry plus ex­
perience.
Chemists I

General characteristics. This is the entry level of profes­
sional work requiring a bachelor’s degree in chemistry and
69

Responsibility fo r direction o f others.
by a few aides or technicians.

no experience, or the equivalent of a degree in appropriate
education and experience. Performs assignments designed
to develop professional capabilities and to provide ex­
perience in the application of training in chemistry as it
relates to the company’s programs. May also receive
formal classroom or seminar-type training. (Terminal
positions are excluded.)

Chemists III

General characteristics. Performs a broad range of
chemical tests and procedures utilized in the laboratory,
using judgment in the independent evaluation, selection,
and adaptation of standard methods and techniques. May
carry through a complete series of tests on a product in its
different process stages. Some assignments require a
specialized knowledge of one or two common categories of
related substances. Performance at this level requires
developmental experience in a professional position, or
equivalent graduate level education.

Direction received. Works under close supervision.
Receives specific and detailed instructions as to required
tasks and results expected. Work is checked during prog­
ress, and is reviewed for accuracy upon completion.
Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs a variety
of routine tasks that are planned to provide experience
and familiarization with the chemistry staff, methods,
practices, and programs of the company. The work in­
cludes a variety of routine qualitative and quantitative
analyses; physical tests to determine properties such as
viscosity, tensile strength, and melting point; and
assisting more experienced chemists to gain additional
knowledge through personal observation and discussion.
Responsibility fo r direction o f others.

Direction received. On routine work, supervision is very
general. Assistance is furnished on unusual problems and
work is reviewed for application of sound professional
judgment.

Usually none.

Typical duties and responsibilites. In accordance with in­
structions as to the nature of the problem, selects standard
methods, tests, or procedures; when necessary, develops or
works out alternative or modified methods with super­
visor’s concurrence. Assists in research by analyzing
samples or testing new procedures that require specialized
training because (a) standard methods are inapplicable,
(b) analytical findings must be interpreted in terms of
compliance or noncompliance with standards, or (c) spe­
cialized and advanced equipment and techniques must be
adapted.

Chemists II

General characteristics. At this continuing developmen­
tal level, performs routine chemical work requiring
selection and application of general and specialized
methods, techniques, and instruments commonly used
in the laboratory, and the ability to carry out instructions
when less common or proposed methods or procedures are
necessary. Requires work experience acquired in an entry
level position, or appropriate graduate level study. For
training and developmental purposes, assignments may
include some work that is typical of a higher level.

Responsibility for direction o f others. May supervise or
coordinate the work of a few technicians or aides, and be
assisted by lower level chemists.

Direction received. Supervisor establishes the nature
and extent of analyses required, specifies methods and
criteria on new types of assignments, and reviews work
for thoroughness of application of methods and ac­
curacy of results.

Chemists IV

General characteristics. As a fully competent chemist in
all conventional aspects of the subject matter or the
functional areas of the assignments, plans and conducts
work requiring (a) mastery of specialized techniques or
ingenuity in selecting and evaluating approaches to un­
foreseen or novel problems, and (b) ability to apply a
research approach to the solution of a wide variety of
problems and to assimilate the details and significance
of chemical and physical analyses, procedures, and
tests. Requires sufficient professional experience to assure
competence as a fully trained worker; or, for positions
primarily of a research nature, completion of all re­
quirements for a doctoral degree may be substituted for
experience.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Carries out a wide
variety of standardized methods, tests, and procedures.
In accordance with specific instructions, may carry out
proposed and less common ones. Is expected to detect
problems in using standardized procedures because of
the condition of the sample, difficulties with the equip­
ment, etc. Recommends modifications of procedures,
e.g., extending or curtailing the analysis or using alter­
nate procedures, based on knowledge of the problem
and pertinent available literature. Conducts specified
phases of research projects as an assistant to an ex­
perienced chemist.



May be assisted

70

Direction received. Independently performs most
assignments with instructions as to the general results
expected. Receives technical guidance on unusual or
complex problems and supervisory approval on pro­
posed plans for projects.

Chemists VI

General characteristics. Performs work requiring
leadership and expert knowledge in a specialized field,
product, or process. Formulates and conducts a
systematic attack on a problem area of considerable
scope and complexity which must be approached
through a series of complete and conceptually related
studies, or a number of projects of lesser scope. The
problems are complex because they are difficult to
define and require unconventional or novel approaches
or have other difficult features. Maintains liaison with
individuals and units within and outside the organiza­
tion, with responsibility for acting independently on
technical matters pertaining to the field. Work at this
level usually requires extensive progressive experience
including work comparable to chemist V.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Conducts laboratory
assignments requiring the determination and evaluation of
alternative procedures and the sequence of performing
them. Performs complex, exacting, or unusual analytical
assignments requiring specialized knowledge of techniques
or products. Interprets results, prepares reports, and may
provide technical advice in specialized area.
Responsibility for direction o f others. May supervise a
small staff of chemists and technicians.

Direction received. Supervision received is essentially
administrative, with assignments given in terms of
broad, general objectives and limits.

Chemists V

General characteristics. Participates in planning
laboratory programs on the basis of specialized
knowledge of problems and methods and probable
value of results. May serve as an expert in a narrow
specialty (e.g., class of chemical compounds, or a class
of products), making recommendations and conclusions
which serve as the basis for undertaking or rejecting im­
portant projects. Development of the knowledge and
expertise required for this level of work usually reflects
progressive experience through chemist IV.

Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the
following: (1) In a supervisory capacity, (a) plans,
develops, coordinates, and directs a number of large
and important projects or a project of major scope and
importance; or (b) is responsible for the entire chemical
program of a company, when the program is of limited
complexity and scope. Activities supervised are of such
a scope that they require a few (three to five) subordi­
nate supervisors or team leaders with at least one in a
position comparable to level V. (2) As individual
researcher or worker, determines, conceives, plans, and
conducts projects of major importance to the company.
Applies a high degree of originality and ingenuity in
adapting techniques into original combinations and
configurations. May serve as a consultant to other
chemists in specialty.

Direction received. Supervision and guidance relate
largely to overall objectives, critical issues, new con­
cepts, and policy matters. Consults with supervisor con­
cerning unusual problems and developments.
Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the
following: (1) In a supervisory capacity, plans,
organizes, and directs assigned laboratory programs.
Independently defines scope and critical elements of the
projects and selects approaches to be taken. A substan­
tial portion of the work supervised is comparable to that
described for chemist IV. (2) As individual researcher
or worker, carries out projects requiring development
of new or highly modified scientific techniques and
procedures, extensive knowledge of specialty, and
knowledge of related scientific fields.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Plans,
organizes, and supervises the work of a staff of chemists
and technicians. Evaluates progress of the staff and
results obtained, and recommends major changes to
achieve overall objectives. Or, as individual worker or
researcher, may be assisted on individual projects by
other chemists or technicians.

Chemists VII

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Supervises,
coordinates, and reviews the work of a small staff of
chemists and technicians engaged in varied research and
development projects, or a larger group performing
routine analytical work. Estimates personnel needs and
schedules and assigns work to meet completion date.
Or, as individual researcher or worker, may be assisted
on projects by other chemists or technicians.




General characteristics. Makes decisions and recommen­
dations that are recognized as authoritative and have an
important impact on extensive chemical activities. Ini­
tiates and maintains extensive contacts with key chemists
and officials of other organizations and companies. Re­
quires skill in persuasion and negotiation of critical issues.
71

impact on extensive chemical and related activities of the
company. Negotiates critical and controversial issues with
top level chemists and officers of other organizations and
companies. Individuals at this level have demonstrated a
high degree of creativity, foresight, and mature judgment
in planning, organizing, and guiding extensive chemical
programs and activities of outstanding novelty and
importance.

At this level, individuals will have demonstrated creativity,
foresight, and mature judgment in anticipating and solving
unprecedented chemical problems, determining program
objectives and requirements, organizing programs and
projects, and developing standards and guides for diverse
chemical activities.

Direction received.
direction.

Receives general administrative

Direction received.
direction.

Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the
following: (1) In a supervisory capacity, is responsible
for (a) an important segment of a chemical program of
a company with extensive and diversified scientific
requirements, or (b) the entire chemical program of a
company where the program is more limited in scope.
The overall chemical program contains critical problems
the solution of which requires major technological ad­
vances and opens the way for extensive related develop­
ment. Makes authoritative technical recommendations
concerning the scientific objectives and levels of work
which will be most profitable in light of company re­
quirements and scientific and industrial trends and
developments. Recommends facilities, personnel, and
funds required. (2) As individual researcher and consul­
tant, selects problems for research to further the com­
pany’s objectives. Conceives and plans investigations in
which the phenomena and principles are not adequately
understood, and where few or contradictory scientific
precedents or results are available for reference.
Outstanding creativity and mature judgment are re­
quired to devise hypotheses and techniques of ex­
perimentation and to interpret results. As a leader and
authority in the company, in a broad area of specializa­
tion, or in a narrow but intensely specialized one, ad­
vises the head of a large laboratory or company officials
on complex aspects of extremely broad and important
programs. Has responsibility for exploring, evaluating,
and justifying proposed and current programs and proj­
ects and furnishing advice on unusually complex and
novel problems in the specialty field. Typically will have
contributed innovations (e.g., techniques, products,
procedures) which are regarded as significant advances
in the field.

Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the
following: (1) In a supervisory capacity, is responsible
for (a) an important segment of a very extensive and
highly diversified chemical program of a company; or
(b) the entire chemical program of a company when the
program is of moderate scope. The programs are of
such complexity and scope that they are of critical im­
portance to overall objectives, include problems of ex­
traordinary difficulty that often have resisted solution,
and consist of several segments requiring subordinate
supervisors. Is responsible for deciding the kind and
extent of chemical and related programs needed to ac­
complish the objectives of the company, for choosing
the scientific approaches, for planning and organizing
facilities and programs, and for interpreting results. (2)
As individual researcher and consultant, formulates and
guides the attack on problems of exceptional difficulty
and marked importance to the company and/or industry.
Problems are characterized by the lack of scientific
precedents and source materials, or the lack of success of
prior research and analysis so that their solution would
represent an advance of great significance and impor­
tance. Performs advisory and consulting work for the
company as a recognized authority for broad program
areas of considerable novelty and importance. Has
made contributions such as new products or techniques,
development of processes, etc., which are regarded as
major advances in the field.
Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Supervises
several subordinate supervisors or team leaders, some of
whose positions are comparable to chemist VII, or in­
dividual researchers, some of whose positions are com­
parable to chemist VII and sometimes chemist VIII. As
an individual researcher and consultant, may be assisted
on individual projects by other chemists or technicians.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Directs several
subordinate supervisors or team leaders, some of whom
are in positions comparable to chemist VI; or, as in­
dividual researcher and consultant, may be assisted on
individual projects by other chemists and technicians.

N o t e : Individuals in charge of a com pany’s
chemical program may match any of several of the
survey job levels, depending on the size and complexity
of chemical programs. Excluded from the definition
are: (1) Chemists in charge of programs so extensive
and complex (e.g., consisting of highly diversified or
unusually novel products and procedures) that one or

Chemists VIII

General characteristics. Makes decisions and recommen­
dations that are authoritative and have a far-reaching



Receives general administrative

72

adaptations of engineering alternatives. Requires
work experience acquired in an entry lever position, or
appropriate graduate level study. For training and
developmental purposes, assignments may include some
work that is typical of a higher level.

more subordinate supervisory chemists are performing
at level VIII; (2) individuals whose decisions have direct
and substantial effect on setting policy for the organiza­
tion (included, however, are supervisors deciding the
“ kind and extent of chemical program’’ within broad
guidelines set at higher levels); and (3) individual
researchers and consultants who are recognized as
national and/or international authorities and scientific
leaders in very broad areas of scientific interest and
investigation.

Direction received. Supervisor screens assignments for
unusual or difficult problems and selects techniques and
procedures to be applied on nonroutine work. Receives
close supervision on new aspects of assignments.

ENGINEERS
Performs professional work in research, development,
design, testing, analysis, production, construction,
maintenance, operation, planning, survey, estimating,
application, or standardization of engineering facilities,
systems, structures, processes, equipment, devices, or
materials, requiring knowledge of the science and art by
which materials, natural resources, and power are made
useful. Work typically requires a B.s. degree in engineer­
ing or the equivalent in combined education and ex­
perience. (Excluded are: Safety engineers, industrial
engineers, quality control engineers, sales engineers, and
engineers whose primary responsibility is to be in charge
of nonprofessional maintenance work.)

Typical duties and responsibilities. Using prescribed
methods, performs specific and limited portions of a
broader assignment of an experienced engineer. Applies
standard practices and techniques in specific situations,
adjusts and correlates data, recognizes discrepancies in
results, and follows operations through a series of
related detailed steps or processes.
Responsibility fo r direction o f others.
by a few aides or technicians.

Engineers III

General characteristics. Independently evaluates,
selects, and applies standard engineering techniques,
procedures, and criteria, using judgment in making
minor adaptations and modifications. Assignments
have clear and specified objectives and require the in­
vestigation of a limited number of variables. Perform­
ance at this level requires developmental experience in
a professional position, or equivalent graduate level
education.

Engineers I

General characteristics. This is the entry level of profes­
sional work requiring a bachelor’s degree in engineering
and no experience, or the equivalent of a degree in ap­
propriate education and experience. Performs assignments
designed to develop professional work knowledge and
abilities. May also receive formal classroom or seminartype training.

Direction received. Receives instructions on specific
assignment objectives, complex features, and possible
solutions. Assistance is furnished on unusual problems
and work is reviewed for application of sound profes­
sional judgment.

Direction received. Works under close supervision.
Receives specific and detailed instructions as to required
tasks and results expected. Work is checked during prog­
ress and is reviewed for accuracy upon completion.
Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs a variety
of routine tasks that are planned to provide experience
and familiarization with the engineering staff, methods,
practices, and programs of the company.
Responsibility fo r direction o f others.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs work
which involves conventional types of plans, investiga­
tions, surveys, structures, or equipment with relatively
few complex features for which there are precedents.
Assignments usually include one or more of the follow­
ing: Equipment design and development, test of
materials, preparation of specifications, process study,
research investigations, report preparation, and other
activities of limited scope requiring knowledge of prin­
ciples and techniques commonly employed in the
specific narrow area of assignments.

Usually none.

Engineers II

General characteristics. At this continuing developmen­
tal level, performs routine engineering work requiring
application of standard techniques, procedures, and
criteria in carrying out a sequence of related engineering
tasks. Limited exercise of judgment is required on
details of work and in making preliminary selections and




May be assisted

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. May supervise
or coordinate the work of drafters, technicians, and
others who assist in specific assignments.
73

Engineers IV

General characteristics. As a fully competent engineer
in all conventional aspects of the subject matter or the
functional area of the assignments, plans and conducts
work requiring judgment in the independent evaluation,
selection, and substantial adaptation and modification
of standard techniques, procedures, and criteria. Devi­
ses new approaches to problems encountered. Requires
sufficient professional experience to assure competence
as a fully trained worker; or, for positions primarily of a
research nature, completion of all requirements for a
doctoral degree may be substituted for experience.
Direction received. Independently performs most
assignments with instructions as to the general results
expected. Receives technical guidance on unusual or
complex problems and supervisory approval on propos­
ed plans for projects.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Supervises, coor­
dinates, and reviews the work of a small staff of engineers
and technicians; estimates personnel needs and schedules
and assigns work to meet completion date. Or, as in­
dividual researcher or staff specialist, may be assisted on
projects by other engineers or technicians.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Plans, schedules,
conducts, or coordinates detailed phases of the
engineering work in a part of a major project or in a
total project of moderate scope. Performs work which
involves conventional engineering practices but may
include a variety of complex features such as conflicting
design requirements, unsuitability of standard materi­
als, and difficult coordination requirements. Work re­
quires a broad knowledge of precedents in the specialty
area and a good knowledge of principles and practices
of related specialties.

Engineers VI

General characteristics. Has full technical responsibility
for interpreting, organizing, executing, and coordinating
assignments. Plans and develops engineering projects con­
cerned with unique or controversial problems which have
an important effect on major company programs. This in­
volves exploration of subject area, definition of scope and
selection of problems for investigation, and development
of novel concepts and approaches. Maintains liaison with
individuals and units within or outside the organization
with responsibility for acting independently on technical
matters pertaining to the field. Work at this level usually
requires extensive progressive experience including work
comparable to engineer V.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. May supervise a
few engineers or technicians on assigned work.
Engineers V

General characteristics. Applies intensive and diversi­
fied knowledge of engineering principles and practices
in broad areas of assignments and related fields. Makes
decisions independently on engineering problems and
methods, and represents the organization in conferences
to resolve important questions and to plan and coor­
dinate work. Requires the use of advanced techniques
and the modification and extension of theories,
precepts, and practices of the field and related sciences
and disciplines. The knowledge and expertise required
for this level of work usually result from progressive
experience, including work comparable to engineer IV.

Direction received. Supervision received is essentially ad­
ministrative, with assignments given in terms of broad,
general objectives and limits.
Typical duties and responsibilities. One or more of
the following: (1) In a supervisory capacity, (a) plans,
develops, coordinates, and directs a number of large and
important projects or a project of major scope and
importance; or (b) is responsible for the entire engineering
program of a company when the program is of limited
complexity and scope. Extent of responsibilities generally
requires a few (three to five) subordinate supervisors or
team leaders with at least one in a position comparable to
level V. (2) As individual researcher or worker, conceives,
plans, and conducts research in problem areas of

Direction received. Supervision and guidance relate
largely to overall objectives, critical issues, new concepts,
and policy matters. Consults with supervisor concerning
unusual problems and developments.
Typical duties and responsibilities. One or more of the
(1) In a supervisory capacity, plans, develops,

following:




coordinates, and directs a large and important engineering
project or a number of small projects with many complex
features. A substantial portion of the work supervised is
comparable to that described for engineer IV. (2) As indi­
vidual researcher or worker, carries out complex or novel
assignments requiring the development of new or improv­
ed techniques and procedures. Work is expected to result
in the development of new or refined equipment, materi­
als, processes, products, and/or scientific methods. (3) As
staff specialist, develops and evaluates plans and criteria
for a variety of projects and activities to be carried out by
others. Assesses the feasibility and soundness of proposed
engineering evaluation tests, products, or equipment when
necessary data are insufficient or confirmation by testing
is advisable. Usually performs as a staff advisor and
consultant as to a technical specialty, a type of facility or
equipment, or a program function.

74

opens the way for extensive related development. Extent of
responsibilities generally requires several subordinate
organizational segments or teams. Recommends facilities,
personnel, and funds required to carry out programs
which are directly related to and directed toward fulfill­
ment of overall company objectives. (2) As individual
researcher and consultant, is a recognized leader and
authority in the company in a broad area of specialization
or in a narrow but intensely specialized field. Selects
research problems to further the company’s objectives.
Conceives and plans investigations of broad areas of con­
siderable novelty and importance for which engineering
precedents are lacking in areas critical to the overall
engineering program. Is consulted extensively by associates
and others, with a high degree of reliance placed on the in­
cumbent’s scientific interpretations and advice. Typically,
will have contributed inventions, new designs, or tech­
niques which are regarded as major advances in the field.

considerable scope and complexity. The problems must be
approached through a series of complete and conceptually
related studies, be difficult to define, require unconven­
tional and novel approaches, and require sophisticated
research techniques. Available guides and precedents
contain critical gaps, are only partially related to the
problem, or may be largely lacking due to the novel
character of the project. At this level, the individual
researcher generally will have contributed inventions, new
designs, or techniques which are of material significance
in the solution of important problems. (3) As a staff
specialist, serves as the technical specialist for the
organization (division or company) in the application
of advanced theories, concepts, principles, and processes
for an assigned area of responsibility (i.e., subject
matter, function, type of facility or equipment, or
product). Keeps abreast of new scientific methods and
developments affecting the organization for the purpose
of recommending changes in emphasis of programs or new
programs warranted by such developments.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Directs several
subordinate supervisors or team leaders, some of whom
are in positions comparable to engineer VI; or, as in­
dividual researcher and consultant, may be assisted on
individual projects by other engineers and technicians.

Responsibility for direction o f others. Plans, organizes,
and supervises the work of a staff of engineers and techni­
cians. Evaluates progress of the staff and results obtained,
and recommends major changes to achieve overall objec­
tives. Or, as individual researcher or staff specialist, may
be assisted on individual projects by other engineers or
technicians.

Engineers VIII

General characteristics. Makes decisions and recom­
mendations that are recognized as authoritative and
have a far-reaching impact on extensive engineering and
related activities of the company. Negotiates critical and
controversial issues with top level engineers and officers
of other organizations and companies. Individuals at
this level demonstrate a high degree of creativity,
foresight, and mature judgment in planning, organiz­
ing, and guiding extensive engineering programs and
activities of outstanding novelty and importance.

Engineers Vli

General characteristics. Makes decisions and recom­
mendations that are recognized as authoritative and have
an important impact on extensive engineering activities.
Initiates and maintains extensive contacts with key
engineers and officials of other organizations and com­
panies, requiring skill in persuasion and negotiation of
critical issues. At this level, individuals will have
demonstrated creativity, foresight, and mature engineer­
ing judgment in anticipating and solving unprecedented
engineering problems, determining program objectives
and requirements, organizing programs and projects,
and developing standards and guides for diverse
engineering activities.
Direction received.
direction.

Direction received.
direction.

Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the
following: (1) In a supervisory capacity, is responsible
for (a) an important segment of a very extensive and
highly diversified engineering program of a company,
or (b) the entire engineering program of a company
when the program is of moderate scope. The programs
are of such complexity and scope that they are of critical
importance to overall objectives, include problems of
extraordinary difficulty that often have resisted solu­
tion, and consist of several segments requiring subor­
dinate supervisors. Is responsible for deciding the kind
and extent of engineering and related programs needed
to accomplish the objectives of the company, for choos­
ing the scientific approaches, for planning and organiz­

Receives general administrative

Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the
following: (1) In a supervisory capacity, is responsible
for (a) an important segment of the engineering program
of a company with extensive and diversified engineering
requirements, or (b) the entire engineering program of a
company when it is more limited in scope. The overall
engineering program contains critical problems, the solu­
tion of which requires major technological advances and




Receives general administrative

75

ing facilities and programs, and for interpreting results.
(2) As individual researcher and consultant, formulates
and guides the attack on problems of exceptional dif­
ficulty and marked importance to the company or in­
dustry. Problems are characterized by their lack of
scientific precedents and source material, or lack of suc­
cess of prior research and analysis so that their solution
would represent an advance of great significance and
importance. Performs advisory and consulting work
for the company as a recognized authority for broad
program areas or in an intensely specialized area of
considerable novelty and importance.

Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Supervises
several subordinate supervisors or tearnjeaders, some of
whose positions are comparable to engineer VII, or in­
dividual researchers some of whose positions are com­
parable to engineer VII and sometimes engineer VIII.
As an individual researcher and consultant, may be

assisted on individual projects by other engineers or
technicians.
N ote : Individuals in charge of a company’s engineer­
ing program may match any of several of the survey job
levels, depending on the size and complexity of engineering
programs. Excluded from the definition are: (1) Engineers
in charge of programs so extensive and complex (e.g.,
consisting of research and development on a variety of
complex products or systems with numerous novel
components) that one or more subordinate supervisory
engineers are performing at level VIII; (2) individuals
whose decisions have direct and substantial effect on set­
ting policy for the organization (included, however, are
supervisors deciding the “ kind and extent of engineering
and related programs” within broad guidelines set at a
higher level); and (3) individual researchers and con­
sultants who are recognized as national and/or interna­
tional authorities and scientific leaders in very broad areas
of scientific interest and investigation.

Registered Nurses (RN)
Provides professional nursing care to patients in hospitals,
nursing homes, clinics, health units, private residences, and
community health organizations. Assists physicians with
treatment; assesses patient health problems and needs; de­
velops and implements nursing care plans; maintains medi­
cal records; and assists patients in complying with prescribed
medical regimen. May specialize, e.g., operating room
nurse, psychiatric nurse, nurse anesthetist, industrial nurse,
nurse practitioner, and clinical nurse specialist. May super­
vise LPN’s and nursing assistants.
Excluded are:
a. Nurse midwives;
b. Nursing instructors, researchers and consultants who do not

provide nursing care to patients;
c. Nursing supervisors and managers, e.g., head nurses, nurs­
ing coordinators, directors of nursing;

d. RN’s in nursing homes who perform the same duties as the
LPN’s but who are hired primarily to meet State certifica­
tion requirements for nursing homes; and
e. RN trainees primarily performing such entry level nursing
care as: Recording case histories; measuring temperature,
pulse, respiration, height, weight, and blood pressure; and
testing vision and hearing.

Registered Nurses I
Provides comprehensive general nursing care to patients
whose conditions and treatment are normally uncomplicated.



Follows established procedures, standing orders, and doc­
tor’s instructions. Uses judgment in selecting guidelines ap­
propriate to changing patient conditions. Routine duties are
performed independently; variations from established rou­
tines are performed under specific instructions. Typical as­
signments include:
Staff. Prepares hospital or nursing home patients for tests, ex­
aminations, or treatment; assists in responding to emergencies;
records vital signs and effects of medication and treatment in
patient charts; and administers prescribed medications and in­
travenous feedings.

Operating Room. Assists in surgical procedures by preparing
patients for less complex operations (e.g., appendectomies);
sterilizes instruments and other supplies; handles instruments;
and assists in operating room, recovery room, and intensive care
ward.
Psychiatric. Provides routine nursing care to psychiatric patients.
May observe and record patient behavior.

Health Unit/Clinic. Administers immunizations, inoculations,
allergy treatments, and medications in a clinic or employer health
unit; performs first aid for minor bums, cuts, bruises, and
sprains; obtains patient histories; and keeps records, writes
reports, and maintains supplies and equipment.

Registered Nurses II
Plans and provides comprehensive nursing care in accor­
dance with professional nursing standards. Uses judgment
in assessing patient conditions, interprets guidelines, and

modifies patient care as necessary. Recognizes and deter­
mines proper action for medical emergencies, e.g., calls phy­
sician or takes preplanned emergency measures. Typical
assignments include:

Specialists. Provides specialized hospital nursing care to patients
having illnessess and injuries that require adaptation of estab­
lished nursing procedures. Renders expertise in caring for pa­
tients who are seriously ill; are not responding to normal
treatment; have undergone unique surgical operations; or are
receiving infrequently used medication. Duties may require
knowledge of special drugs or the ability to provide pulmonary
ventilation.

Staff. In addition to the duties described at level I, usually per­
forms more complex procedures, such as: Administering blood
transfusions; managing nasal-pharyngeal, gastric suction, and
other drainage tubes; using special equipment such as ventila­
tor devices, resuscitators, and hypothermic units; or closely
monitoring postoperative and seriously ill patients.

Anesthetist. Recommends, administers, and manages anesthe­
sia for a broad range of surgical procedures.
Psychiatric Specialist. Provides nursing expertise on an inter­
disciplinary treatment team which defines policies and develops
total care programs for psychiatric patients.

Operating Room. Provides nursing service for surgical opera­
tions, including those involving complex and extensive surgi­
cal procedures. Confers with surgeons concerning instruments,
sutures, prosthesis and special equipment; cares for physical and
psychological needs of patients; assists in the care and handling
of supplies and equipment; assures accurate care and handling
of specimens; and assumes responsibility for aseptic technique
maintenance and adequacy of supplies during surgery.

Practitioner. Provides primary health care and nursing services
in clinics, schools, employer health units, or community health
organizations. Assesses, diagnoses, and treats minor illnesses
and manages chronic health problems. Other services may in­
clude: Providing primary care for trauma cases, including sutur­
ing; planning and conducting a clinic, school, or employer health
program; or studying and appraising community health services.

Psychiatric. Provides comprehensive nursing care for psychiatric
patients. In addition to observing patients, evaluates and records
significant behavior and reaction patterns and participates in
group therapy sessions.

Registered Nurses IV
Plans, researches, develops, and implements new or modi­
fied techniques, methods, practices, and approaches in nursing
care. Acts as consultant in area of specialization and is consid­
ered an expert or leader within specialty area. Consults with
supervisor to develop decisions and coordinates with other
medical staff and community. Typical assignments include:

Health Unit/Clinical. Provides a range of nursing services, in­
cluding preventive health care counseling. Coordinates health
care needs and makes referrals to medical specialists; assesses
and treats minor health problems; administers emergency treat­
ment; performs limited portions of physical examinations;
manages the stable phases of common chronic illnesses; and pro­
vides individual and family counselling.

Specialist/Consultant. Provides expert and complex hospital
nursing and health care to a specialized group of patients. De­
velops and monitors the implementation of new nursing tech­
niques, policies, procedures and programs; instructs nursing and
medical staff in specialty; represents the specialty to outside or­
ganizations; and evaluates, interprets, and integrates research
findings into nursing practices.

Community Health. Provides a broad range of nursing services
including adult and child health care, chronic and communica­
ble disease control, health teaching, counselling, referrals, and
follow-up.

Registered Nurses III
Plans and performs specialized and advanced nursing as­
signments of considerable difficulty. Uses expertise in as­
sessing patient condition and develops nursing plans which
serve as a role model for others. Evaluation and observa­
tion skills are relied upon by physicians in developing and
modifying treatment. Work extends beyond patient care to
the evaluation of concepts, procedures, and program effec­
tiveness. Typical assignments include:

Practitioner. Serves as primary health advisor in clinics and com­
munity health organizations and provides full range of health
care services. Manages clinic and is responsible for formulat­
ing nursing and health care standards and policies, including
developing and teaching new techniques or practices and estab­
lishing or revising criteria for care. Collaborates with physi­
cian in planning, evaluating, coordinating and revising program
and determines conditions, resources and policies essential to
delivery of health care services.

Technical Support Occupations
LICENSED PRACTICAL NURSES (LPN’s)
LPN’s are licensed to provide practical or vocational nurs­
ing care to patients in hospitals, nursing homes, clinics, health
units, homes and community health organizations. They typi­
cally work under the supervision of a registered nurse or phy­
sician, and may supervise unlicensed nursing assistants.




LPN’s I
Provides standard nursing care requiring little latitude for
independent judgment equipment. Uses initiative to perform
recurring duties. Deviations from specific guidelines are
authorized by the supervisor. Typical assignments include:
77

recertifying applicants for supplemental food programs when
test results indicate nutritional deficiencies.

Hospitals/Nursing Homes. As part of a nursing team, assists pa­
tients in attending to their personal hygiene; measures and labels
routine specimens; records vital signs; provides routine treat­
ments such as compresses, enemas, sterile dressings and sitz
baths; prepares and administers commonly prescribed medica­
tions; and observes and reports on patient conditions.

Employer Health Units. Uses judgment to perform moderately
complex procedures such as: Treating employees for minor ill­
nesses and work related injuries, and referring difficult cases
to RN or physician; observing reactions to drugs and treatments
and reporting irregularities; assisting physicians with examina­
tions and treatments; and maintaining records of occupational
illnesses and injuries as required by government regulations.

Mental Health/Resident Care. As part of a nursing team, makes
rounds of assigned area to count patients; observes patients for
changes in behavior and checks for cleanliness; encourages pa­
tients to participate in recreational activities; maintains standard
records of patients and medications; and administers first aid.

LPN’s III
This level applies to two different work situations. In sit­
uation 1, LPN’s provide nursing care for patients in various
stages of dependency, setting priorities and deadlines for pa­
tient care, and modifying nursing care as necessary, prior
to notifying the supervisor. In situation 2, LPN’s are assigned
to a selected group of critically ill patients, e.g., in hospital
intensive care or coronary care units. These assignments re­
quire LPN’s to immediately recognize and respond to seri­
ous situations, sometimes prior to notifying an RN. However,
their overall independence and authority is more limited than
that described in situation 1 and supervisory approval is re­
quired for proposed deviations from established guidelines.

Clinics/Community Health Organizations. Performs routine
nursing procedures such as taking and recording height, weight,
measurements and vital signs. Performs vision, hearing, urine
and tuberculin skin tests; records test results. Administers medi­
cations and immunizations under supervision of an RN; observes,
records and reports signs of illness or changes in patient condi­
tion; and assists physician with physical examinations. May pro­
vide routine nursing care to the sick at home, reinforcing
physician’s instructions, checking medication and eating and
sleeping habits, and inquiring about additional problems.

LPN’s II
Provides nursing care requiring an understanding of diseases
and illnesses sufficient to enhance communication with phy­
sicians, registered nurses and patients. Follows general in­
structions in addition to established policies, practices and
procedures. Uses judgment in assessing the applicability of
guide lines to specific situations; supervisory approval for
requested deviations is given routinely. Guidance is provid­
ed for unusual occurrences.

Hospitals. Under direct supervision of an RN, provides nurs­
ing care to critically ill patients in such areas as intensive care
or coronary care. Duties, while similar to the more complex
responsibilities described at level II, are performed under stress­
ful conditions requiring special techniques and procedures in
reacting to life-threatening situations and in providing basic pa­
tient care. Evaluates appropriateness of planned treatment, given
the patient’s condition, and proposes modifications to RN.

Hospitals/Nursing Homes. As a responsible member of a nurs­
ing team, cares for patients in various stages of dependency (e.g.,
ranging from those receiving general medical care to those who
are critically ill). Provides appropriate verbal and written in­
formation for patient care plans. In addition to the tasks described
at level I, assignments may include more complex duties such
as: Tube-feeding patients and giving catheterizations; observ­
ing and reporting on subtle changes in a patient’s condition;
providing irrigations and suctioning patients; monitoring and
maintaining intravenous fluids; and assisting in resuscitation
procedures.

Mental Health/Resident Care/Nursing Homes. Duties are simi­
lar to those described at level II. However, these LPN’s are
authorized to adapt, if necessary, nursing care methods and
procedures to meet changing patient needs.

Exclude LPN’s above level III. Such positions not only
provide difficult nursing care to a selected group of critical­
ly ill patients, but also set priorities and deadlines for pa­
tient care, and modify nursing care prior to notifying the
supervisor.

Mental Health/Resident Care. Provides input into nursing team
conferences by interpreting patient nursing care needs and
responses to therapy. In addition to the tasks described at level
I, serves as a role model by performing and teaching self care;
and participates in therapy sessions by promoting self care and
self worth, and recording progress in treatment plans.

NURSING ASSISTANTS
Provides personal and nursing care to patients in hospi­
tals, nursing homes, resident care facilities, clinics, homes,
and community health organizations. Duties include main­
taining patient hygiene and supporting doctors and nurses
in diagnostic procedures, technical treatments, patient chart­
ing, and patient teaching. Work does not require State licen­
sure. Supervisory positions are excluded.

Clinics/Community Health Organizations. In addition to the
duties described at level I uses experience and judgment to per­
form more complex procedures, such as: Screening patients for
health problems such as hypertension and diabetes, using judg­
ment in deciding to refer patients to RN or physician; provid­
ing patient counseling and implementing therapeutic approaches
specified in the patient’s treatment plan; coordinating selected
clinic operations; giving irrigations and catheterizations, suc­
tioning tracheotomies, and conducting electrocardiograms; or



Nursing Assistants I
Performs simple personal care and housekeeping tasks re­
quiring no previous training. Typical tasks include: Bath­
ing, dressing, feeding, lifting, escorting, and transporting
78

patients; collecting laundry carts and food trays; taking and
recording temperatures; and changing bed linen and clean­
ing patient’s room. Follows detailed and specific instructions.

CIVIL ENGINEERING OR SURVEY TECHNICIANS/
CONSTRUCTION INSPECTORS
Provides semiprofessional support to engineers or related
professionals engaged in the planning, design, management,
or supervision of the construction (or alteration) of such struc­
tures as buildings, streets and highways, airports, sanitary
systems, or flood control systems. Applies knowledge of the
methods, equipment, and techniques of several of the fol­
lowing support functions:

Nursing Assistants II
In addition to providing personal care, performs common
nursing procedures such as: Observing and reporting on pa­
tient conditions; taking and recording vital signs; collecting
and labeling specimens; sterilizing equipment; listening to
and encouraging patients; giving sitz baths and enemas; ap­
plying and changing compresses and non-sterile dressings;
checking and replenishing supplies; securing admission data
from patients; and assisting in controlling aggressive or dis­
ruptive behavior. Follows specific instructions; matters not
covered are verified with the supervisor.

Data compilation and analysis/design and specificationgathering, tabulating, and/or analyzing hydrologic and meteorologic information, quantities of materials required, traffic pat­
terns, or other engineering data; or preparing project site layouts
and specifications;
Testing-measuring the physical characteristics of soil, rock, con­
crete, or other construction materials to determine methods and
quantities required or to comply with safety and quality
standards;

NOTE: Positions receiving additional pay for performing
the above duties duties and responsibilities in forensic units
of mental health institutions should be matched at level III.
Workers in such positions must regularly use skill in influenc­
ing and communicating with patients who display abusive
or resistant behavior.

Surveying—measuring or determining distances, elevations,
areas, angles, land boundaries, or other features of the earth’s
surface; or
Construction inspection—performing on-site inspection of con­
struction projects to determine conformance with contract specifi­
cations and building codes.

Nursing Assistants III
Performs a variety of common nursing procedures as
described at level II. Work requires prior experience or train­
ing to perform these procedures with some latitude for ex­
ercising independent initiative or limited judgment. May also
perform several procedures sequentially; chart patient care;
administer prescribed medication and simple treatments;
teach patient self care; and lead lower level nursing assistants.

Excluded are building inspectors and construction, main­
tenance, and craft workers; chemical or other physical
science technicians; engineers required to apply profession­
al rather than technical knowledge of engineering to their
work; and technicians not primarily concerned with civil or
construction engineering.

NOTE. Positions receiving additional pay for performing
the above duties and responsibilities in forensic units of men­
tal health institutions should be matched at level IV. (See
NOTE for level II.)

Also excluded are technicians:
—Below level I whose work is limited to very simple and rou­
tine tasks, such as identifying, weighing and marking easy-toidentify items or recording simple instrument readings at speci­
fied intervals; and

Nursing Assistants IV
Applies advanced patient or resident care principles, proce­
dures and techniques which require considerable training and
experience. In addition to the work described at level III,
typical duties include: Assisting professional staff in plan­
ning and evaluating patient or resident care; recognizing sub­
tle changes in patient’s condition and behavior and varying
nursing care accordingly; catheterizing, irrigating, and suc­
tioning patients; monitoring IV fluids and alerting registered
nurse when system needs attention; and performing minor
operative and diagnostic procedures in a clinic. Supervisor
describes limitations or priorities of work.

—Above level V who perform work of: broad scope and com­
plexity either by planning and accomplishing a complete project
or by serving as an expert in a narrow aspect of a particular
engineering field.

Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the fol­
lowing definitions.

Civil Engineering or Survey Technicians/Construction Inspectors I
Performs simple, routine tasks under close supervision or
from detailed procedures. Work is checked in progress and
on completion. Performs a variety of such typical duties as:

Excluded are nursing assistants above level IV. Workers
in these excluded positions independently set priorities and
deadlines for patient care and modify care as necessary. Also
excluded are positions receiving additional pay for perform­
ing level IV duties and responsibilities in forensic units of
mental health institutions. (See NOTE for level II.)



Data compilation—compiles engineering data from tests, draw­
ing, specifications or field notes; performs arithmetic compu­
tations by substituting values in specified formulas; plots data
and draws simple curves and graphs.
79

Testing—conducts simple or repetitive tests on soils, concrete
and aggregates; e.g., sieve analysis, slump tests, and moisture
content determination.

Testing—conducts tests for which established procedures and
equipment require either adaptation or the construction of aux­
iliary devices. Uses judgment to interpret precise test results.

Surveying—performs routine and established functions such as
holding range poles or rods where special procedures are re­
quired or directing the placement of surveyor’s chain or tape
and selecting measurement points.

Surveying—uses a variety of complex instruments to measure
angles and elevations, applying judgment and skill in selecting
and describing field information. Assignments include: Record­
ing complete and detailed descriptive data and providing sketches
of relief, drainage, and culture; or running short traverse lines
from specified points along unobstructed routes.

Construction inspection—makes simple measurements and ob­
servations; may make preliminary recommendations concern­
ing the acceptance of materials or workmanship in clear-cut
situations.

Construction inspection—independently inspects standard proce­
dures, items or operations of limited difficulty, e.g., slope, em­
bankment, grading, moisture content, earthwork compaction,
concrete forms, reinforcing rods or simple batching and place­
ment of concrete on road construction.

Civil Engineering or Survey Technicians/Construction Inspectors II
Performs standard or prescribed assignments involving a
sequence of related operations. Follows standard work
methods and receives detailed instructions on unfamiliar as­
signments. Technical adequacy of routine work is assessed
upon completion; nonroutine work is reviewed in progress.
Performs a variety of such typical duties as:

Civil Engineering or Survey Technicians/Construction Inspectors IV
Plans and performs nonroutine assignments of substantial
variety and complexity. Selects appropriate guidelines to
resolve problems which are not fully covered by precedents.
Performs recurring work independently, receiving techni­
cal advice as needed. Performs a variety of such typical duties
as:

Data compilation and analysis—compiles and examines a vari­
ety of data required by engineers for project planning (e.g.,
hydrologic and sedimentation data; earthwork quantities), ap­
plying simple algebraic or geometric formulas.

Design and specification—prepares site layouts for projects from
such information as design criteria, soil conditions, existing
buildings, topography, and survey data; makes preliminary cost
estimates from established unit prices.

Testing—conducts a variety of standard tests on soils, concrete
and aggregates, e.g., determines the liquid and plastic limits of
soils or the flexural and compressive strength, air content, and
elasticity of concrete. Examines test results and explains unusual
findings.

Testing—conducts tests which require the selection and substan­
tial modification of equipment and procedures. Recognizes and
interprets subtle, i.e., fluctuating, test reactions.

Surveying—applies specialized knowledge, skills or judgment
to a varied and complex sequence of standard operations, e.g.,
surveys small land areas using rod, tape, and hand level to esti­
mate volume to be excavated; or records data requiring numer­
ous calculations.

Surveying—makes exacting measurements under difficult con­
ditions, e.g., leads detached observing unit on surveys involv­
ing unusually heavy urban, rail, or highway traffic; serves as
party chief on conventional construction, property, topographi­
cal, hydrographic, or geodetic surveys. Excluded are party chiefs
responsible for unusually difficult or complex surveys.

Construction inspection—Applies a variety of techniques in in­
specting less complex projects, e.g., the quality, quantity, and
placement of gravel for road construction, excavations and con­
crete footings for structures. Determines compliance with plans
and specifications. May assist in inspecting more complex
projects.

Construction inspection—performs inspections for a variety of
complete projects of limited size and complexity or a phase of
a larger project, e.g., conventional one or two story concrete
and steel buildings; park and forest road construction limited
to clearing, grading, and drainage. Interprets plans and specifi­
cations, resolves differences between plans and specifications,
and approves minor deviations in methods which conform to
established precedents.

Civil Engineering or Survey Technicians/Constructiori Inspectors III
Performs assignments which include nonstandard appli­
cations, analyses or tests; or the use of complex instruments.
Selects or adapts standard procedures using fully applicable
precedents. Receives initial instructions, requirements, and
advice as needed; performs recurring work independently.
Work is reviewed for technical adequacy and conformance
with instructions. Performs a variety of such typical duties as:

Civil Engineering or Survey Technicians/Construction Inspectors V
Performs nonroutine and complex assignments involving
responsibility for planning and conducting a complete project
of limited scope or a portion of a larger, more complex
project. Selects and adapts techniques, designs, or layouts.
Reviews, analyzes, and interprets the technical work of
others. Completed work is reviewed for technical adequacy.
Performs a variety of such typical duties as:

Data compilation and analysis—applies knowledge and judgment
in selecting sources, evaluating data, and adapting methods, e.g.,
computes, from file notes, quantities of materials required for
roads which include retaining walls and culverts; plots profiles,
cross sections, and drainage areas for a small earthwork dam.



Design and specification—prepares plans and specifications for
major projects such as roads and airport runways, or electrical
80

distribution systems. Applies established engineering practice;
selects and adapts precedents to meet specific requirements.

Performs simple or routine tasks or tests such as tensile or
hardness tests; operates and adjusts simple test equipment;
records test data.

Testing—modifies established testing programs, analyzing
specifications, drawings, and other data to determine the tests
required; adapts test equipment and procedures; analyzes and
evaluates test data and writes evaluative reports of findings and
recommendations.

Gathers and maintains specified records of engineering
data such as tests, drawings, etc.; performs computations by
substituting numbers in specified formulas; and plots data
and draws simple curves and graphs.

Construction inspection—inspects projects of unusual difficulty
and complexity, e.g., large multi-story hospitals or laborato­
ries which include sophisticated electrical and mechanical equip­
ment; airport runways for jet aircraft with exacting requirements.
Independently interprets plans and specifications to resolve com­
plex construction problems.

Engineering Technicians II
Performs standardized or prescribed assignments in­
volving a sequence of related operations. Follows standard
work methods on recurring assignments but receives ex­
plicit instructions on unfamiliar assignments; technical
adequacy of routine work is reviewed on completion;
nonroutine work is reviewed in process. Performs, at this
level, one or a combination of such typical duties as:

ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS
To be covered by these definitions, employees must
meet all of the following criteria:

Assembles or constructs simple or standard equipment or
parts; may service or repair simple instruments or equip­
ment.

1. Provides semiprofessional technical support for
engineers working in such areas as research, de­
sign, development, testing, or manufacturing process
improvements.
2. Work pertains to electrical, electronic, or mechanical
components or equipment.

Conducts a variety of standardized tests; may prepare test
specimens; sets up and operates standard test equipment;
records test data, pointing out deviations resulting from
equipment malfunction or observational errors.

3. Required to have some practical knowledge of
science or engineering; some positions may also
require a practical knowledge of mathematics or
computer science.

Extracts engineering data from various prescribed but
nonstandardized sources; processes the data following welldefined methods including elementary algebra and
geometry; presents the data in prescribed form.

Excludes production or maintenance workers, quality
control technicians or testers, modelmakers or other
craft workers, chemical or other nonengineering techni­
cians, civil engineering technicians, drafters, designers,
and engineers (who are required to apply a professional
knowledge of engineering theory and principles to their
duties, unlike higher level engineering technicians who
may perform the same duties using only practical skills
and knowledge).
Also excludes engineering technicians:

Engineering Technicians III
Performs assignments that are not completely
standardized or prescribed. Selects or adapts standard
procedures or equipment, using fully applicable
precedents. Receives initial instructions, equipment re­
quirements, and advice from supervisor or engineer as
needed; performs recurring work independently; and
work is reviewed for technical adequacy or conformity
with instructions. Performs, at this level, one or a com­
bination of such typical duties as:

a. Below level I who are limited to simple tasks
such as: Measuring items of regular shape with a
caliper and computing cross-sectional areas; identify­
ing, weighing, and marking easy-to-identify items; or
recording simple instrument readings at specified
intervals; and

Constructs components, subunits, or simple models or
adapts standard equipment. May troubleshoot and correct
malfunctions.
Conducts various tests or experiements which may require
minor modifications in test setups or procedures as well as
subjective judgments in measurement; selects, sets up, and
operates standard test equipment and record test data.

b. Above level V who perform work of broad scope
and complexity either by planning and accomplishing
a complete project or study or by serving as an expert
in a narrow aspect of a particular field of engineering.

Extracts and compiles a variety of engineering data from
field notes, manuals, lab reports, etc.; processes data,
identifying errors or inconsistencies; and selects methods of
data presentation.

Engineering Technicians i
Performs simple routine tasks under close supervision
or from detailed procedures. Work is checked in process
or on completion. Performs, at this level, one or a
combination of such typical duties as:

Engineering Technicians IV
Performs nonroutine assignments of substantial
variety and complexity, using precedents which are not
fully applicable. May also plan such assignments.

Assembles or installs equipment or parts requiring simple
wiring, soldering, or connecting.




81

Receives technical advice from supervisor or engineer
(as needed, performs recurring work independently);
work is reviewed for technical adequacy (or conformity
with instructions). May be assisted by lower level techni­
cians and have frequent contact with professionals and
others within the establishment. Performs at this level
one or a combination of such typical duties as:

drawings of structures, facilities, land profiles, water systems,
mechanical and electrical equipment, pipelines, duct systems,
and similar equipment, systems, and assemblies. Drawings
are used to communicate engineering ideas, designs, and in­
formation. Uses recognized systems of symbols, legends,
shadings, and lines having specific meanings in drawings.
Excluded are:

Works on limited segment of development project; con­
structs experimental or prototype models to meet engineer­
ing requirements; conducts tests or experiments and
redesigns them as necessary; and records and evaluates data
and report findings.

(a) Designers using technical knowledge and judgment to con­
ceive, plan, or modify designs;
(b) Illustrators or graphic artists using artistic ability to prepare
illustrations;
(c) Office drafters preparing charts, diagrams, and room arrange­
ments to depict statistical and administrative data;

Conducts tests or experiments requiring selection and adap­
tation or modification of a wide variety of critical test
equipment and test procedures; sets up and operates equip­
ment; records data, measures and records problems of suf­
ficient complexity to sometimes require resolution at higher
level; and analyzes data and prepares test reports.

(d) Cartographers preparing maps and charts primarily using a
technical knowledge of cartography;
(e) Computer-assisted drafters;
(f) Supervisors.

Extracts and analyzes a variety of engineering data; applies
conventional engineering practices to develop or prepare
schematics; designs, specifications, parts lists, or makes
recommendations regarding these items. May review
designs or specification for adequacy.

Positions are classified into levels based on the following
definitions.
Drafters I
Working under close supervision, traces or copies finished
drawings, making clearly indicated revisions in notes and
dimensions. Uses appropriate templates to draw curved lines.
Assignments are designed to develop increasing skill in vari­
ous drafting techniques. Work is spot checked during progress
and reviewed upon completion.

Engineering Technicians V
Performs nonroutine and complex assignments in­
volving responsibility for planning and conducting a
complete project of relatively limited scope or a portion
of a larger and more diverse project. Selects and adapts
plans, techniques, designs, or layouts. Contacts person­
nel in related activities to resolve mutual problems and
coordinate the work; reviews, analyzes, and integrates
the technical work of others. Supervisor or professional
engineer outlines objectives, requirements, and design
approaches; completed work is reviewed for technical
adequacy and satisfaction of requirements. May train
and be assisted by lower level technicians. Performs at
this level one or a combination of such typical duties as:

NOTE: Excludes drafters receiving instruction in the elemen­
tary methods and techniques of drafting and learning to use
and care for equipment. Workers in these excluded positions
typically trace and copy simple drawings having straight lines
and few details; prepare border lines and title boxes for draw­
ing sheets; and prepare basic title headings by tracing or us­
ing lettering kits.
Drafters II
Prepares drawings of simple, easily visualized structures,
systems, parts or equipment from sketches or marked-up
prints. Selects appropriate templates or uses a compass and
other equipment needed to complete assignments. Drawings
fit familiar patterns and present few technical problems.
Supervisor provides detailed instructions on new assignments,
gives guidance when questions rise, and reviews completed
work for accuracy. Typical assignments include:

Designs, develops, and constructs major units, devices, or equip­
ment; conducts tests or experiments; analyzes results and redesigns
or modifies equipment to improve performance; and reports results.
Plans or assists in planning tests to evaluate equipment performance.
Determines test requirements, equipment modification, and test pro­
cedures; conducts tests, analyzes and evaluates data, and prepares
reports on findings and recommendations.
Reviews and analyzes a variety of engineering data to determine
requirements to meet engineering objectives; may calculate design
data; and prepares layouts, detailed specifications, parts lists,
estimates, procedures, etc. May check and analyze drawings or
equipment to determine adequacy of drawing and designs.

From marked-up prints, revises the original drawings of a plumb­
ing system by increasing pipe diameters.
From sketches, draws building floor plans, determining size, spac­
ing, and arrangement of freehand lettering according to scale.
Draws simple land profiles from predetermined structural dimen­
sions and reduced survey notes. Traces river basin maps and
enters symbols to denote stream sampling locations, municipal
and industrial waste discharges, and water supplies.

DRAFTERS
Performs drafting work requiring knowledge and skill in
drafting methods, procedures, and techniques. Prepares



82

problems encountered. Supervisor or design originator may
suggest methods of approach or provide advice on unusually
difficult problems. Typically assignments include:

Drafters III
Prepares various drawings of such units as construction
projects or parts and assemblies, including various views,
sectional profiles, irregular or reverse curves, hidden lines,
and small or intricate details. Work requires use of most of
the conventional drafting techniques and a working knowl­
edge of the terms and procedures of the occupation. Makes
arithmetic computations using standard formulas. Familiar
or recurring work is assigned in general terms. Unfamiliar
assignments include information on methods, procedures,
sources of information, and precedents to follow. Simple re­
visions to existing drawings may be assigned with a verbal
explanation of the desired results. More complex revisions
are produced from sketches or specifications which clearly
depict the desired product. Typical assignments include:

From layouts or sketches, prepares complete sets of drawings
of test equipment to be manufactured. Several cross-sectional
and subassembly drawings are required. From information
supplied by the design originator and from technical handbooks
and manuals, describes dimensions, tolerances, fits, fabrication
techniques, and standard parts to use in manufacturing the
equipment.
From electronic schematics, information as to maximum size,
and manuals giving dimensions of standard parts, determines
the arrangement and prepares drawings of printed circuit boards.
From precedents, drafting standards, and established practices,
prepares final construction drawings for floodgates, navigation
locks, dams, bridges, culverts, levees, channel excavations,
dikes, and berms; prepares boring profiles, typical crosssections, and land profiles; and delineates related typographi­
cal details as required.

From a layout and manual references, prepares several views
of a simple gear system. Obtains dimensions and tolerances from
manuals and by measuring the layout.
Draws base and elevation views, sections, and details of new
bridges or other structures; revises complete sets of roadway
drawings for highway construction projects; or prepares block
maps, indicating water and sewage line locations.

Prepares final drawings for street paving and widening or for
water and sewer lines having complex trunk lines; reduces field
notes and calculates true grades. From engineering designs, lays
out plan, profile and detail appurtenances required; notifies
supervisor of conflicting details in design.

Prepares and revises detail and design drawings for such projects
as the construction and installation of electrical or electronic
equipment, plant wiring, and the manufacture and assembly of
printed circuit boards. Drawings typically include details of
mountings, frames, guards, or other accessories; conduit lay­
outs; or wiring diagrams indicating transformer sizes, conduit
locations and mountings.

NOTE: Excludes drafters performing work of similar
difficulty to that described at this level but who provide sup­
port for a variety of organizations which have widely differ­
ing functions or requirements.

Drafters IV
Prepares complete sets of complex drawings which include
multiple views, detail drawings, and assembly drawings.
Drawings include complex design features that require con­
siderable drafting skill to visualize and portray. Assignments
regularly require the use of mathematical formulas to draw
land contours or to compute weights, center of gravity, load
capacities, dimensions, quantities of material, etc. Works
from sketches, models, and verbal information supplied by
an engineer, architect, or designer to determine the most
appropriate views, detail drawings, and supplementary
information needed to complete assignments. Selects required
information from precedents, manufacturers’ catalogs, and
technical guides. Independently resolves most of the

Drafters V
Works closely with design originators, preparing draw­
ings of unusual, complex, or original designs which require
a high degree of precision. Performs unusually difficult
assignments requiring considerable initiative, resourceful,
and drafting expertise. Assures that anticipated problems in
manufacture, assembly, installation, and operation are
resolved by the drawings produced. Exercises independent
judgment in selecting and interpreting data based on a
knowledge of the design intent. Although working primarily
as a drafter, may occasionally interpret general designs pre­
pared by others to complete minor details. May provide
advice and guidance to lower level drafters or serve as coor­
dinator and planner for large and complex drafting projects.




83

Computer Operators
Monitors and operates the control console of either a
mainframe digital computer or a group of minicom­
puters, in accordance with operating instructions, to
process data. Work is characterized by the following:

Computer Operators I
Receives on-the-job training in operating the control
console (sometimes augmented by classroom training).
Works under close personal supervision and is provided
detailed written or oral guidance before and during
assignments. As instructed, resolves common operating
problems. May serve as an assistant operator working
under close supervision or performing a portion of a
more senior operator’s work.

Studies operating instructions to determine equipment
setup needed;
Loads equipment with required items (tapes, cards,
paper, etc.);
Switches necessary auxiliary equipment into system;
Starts and operates control console;

Computer Operators II
Processes scheduled routines which present few dif­
ficult operating problems (e.g., infrequent or easily
resolved error conditions). In response to computer out­
put instructions or error conditions, applies standard
operating or corrective procedure. Refers problems
which do not respond to preplanned procedure. May
serve as an assistant operator, working under general
supervison.

Reviews error messages and makes corrections during opera
tion or refers problems; and
Maintains operating record.

May test run new or modified programs and assist in
modifying systems or programs. Included within the
scope of this definition are fully qualified computer
operators, trainees working to become fully qualified
operators, and lead operators providing technical
assistance to lower level positions.

Excluded are:
Computer Operators III
Processes a range of scheduled routines. In addition
to operating the system and resolving common error
conditions, diagnoses and acts on machine stoppage and
error conditions not fully covered by existing pro­
cedures and guidelines (e.g., resetting switches and
other controls or making mechanical adjustments to
maintain or restore equipment operations). In response
to computer output instructions or error conditions,
may deviate from standard procedures if standard pro­
cedures do not provide a solution. Refers problems
which do not respond to corrective procedures.

a. Workers operating small computer systems where
there is little or no opportunity for operator interven­
tion in program processing and few requirements to
correct equipment malfunctions;

b. Peripheral equipment operators and remote term­
inal or computer operators who do not run the
control console of either a mainframe digital com­
puter or a group of minicomputers; and
c. Workers using the computer for scientific, technical,
or mathematical work when a knowledge of the sub­
ject matter is required.




84

Computer Operators IV
Adapts to a variety of nonstandard problems which
require extensive operator intervention (e.g., frequent
introduction of new programs, applications, or pro­
cedures). In response to computer output instructions or
error conditions, chooses or devises a course of action
from among several alternatives and alters or deviates
from standard procedures if standard procedures do not
provide a solution (e.g., reassigning equipment in order
to work around faulty equipment or to transfer chan­
nels); then refers problems. Typically, completed work
is submitted to users without supervisory review.

and developing unusual system configurations that will
allow test programs to process without interferring with
on-going job requirements). In response to computer
output instructions and error conditions or to avoid loss
of information or to conserve computer time, operator
deviates from standard procedures. Such actions may
materially alter the computer unit’s production plans.
May spend considerable time away from the control sta­
tion providing technical assistance to lower level
operators and assisting programmers, systems analysts,
and subject matter specialists in resolving problems.
Computer Operators VI
In addition to level V responsibilities, uses a
knowledge of program language, computer features,
and software systems to assist in: (1) Maintaining,
modifying, and developing operating systems or pro­
grams; (2) developing operating instructions and
techniques to cover problem situations; and (3) switch­
ing to emergency backup procedures.

Computer Operators V
Resolves a variety of difficult operating problems
(e.g., making unusual equipment connections and rarely
used equipment and channel configurations to direct
processing through or around problems in equipment,
circuits, or channels or reviewing test run requirements

Photographers
acceptability. Photographers may also develop, process,
and edit film or tape, may serve as a lead photographer to
lower level workers, or may do work described at lower
levels as needed.

Takes pictures requiring a knowledge of photo­
graphic techniques, equipment, and processes. Typically,
some familiarity with the company’s activities (e.g.,
scientific, engineering, industrial, technical, retail,
commercial, etc.) and some artistic ability are needed at
the higher levels. Depending on the objectives of the
assignment, photographers use standard equipment
(including simple still, graphic, and motion picture
cameras, video and television hand cameras, and similar
commonly used equipment) and/or use special-purpose
equipment (including specialized still and graphic
cameras, motion picture production, television studio,
and high-speed cameras and equipment). At the higher
levels, a complex accessory system of equipment may be
used, as needed, with sound or lighting systems,
generators, timing or measurement control mechanisms,
or improvised stages or environments, etc. Work of
photographers at all levels is reviewed for quality and




Excluded are:
a. Workers who have no training or experience in
photography techniques, equipment, and processes;
b. Workers who primarily operate reproduction, offset,
or copying machines, motion picture projectors, or
machines to match, cut, or splice negatives;
c. Workers who primarily develop, process, print, or
edit photographic film or tape; or develop, maintain,,
or repair photographic equipment;
d. Workers who primarily direct the sequences, actions,
photography, sound, and editing of motion pictures
for television writers and editors; and

85

e. Photographers taking pictures for commercial news­
paper or magazine publishers, television stations,
or movie producers.

equipment for assignments demanding exact renditions,
normally without opportunity for later retakes, when there
are specific problems or uncertainties concerning lighting,
exposure time, color, artistry, etc. Discusses technical
requirements with operating officials or supervisor and
customizes treatment for each situation according to a
detailed request. Varies camera processes and techniques
and uses the setting and background to produce esthetic,
as well as accurate and informative, pictures. Typically,
standard equipment is used at this level although
“ specialized” photography work is usually performed;
may use some special-purpose equipment under closer
supervision.
In typical assignments, photographs: Drawings,
charts, maps, textiles, etc., requiring accurate computation
of reduction ratios and exposure times and precise equip­
ment adjustments; tissue specimens in fine detail and exact
color when color and condition of the tissue may
deteriorate rapidly; medical or surgical procedures or con­
ditions which normally cannot be recaptured; machine or
motor parts to show wear or corrosion in minute wires or
gears; specialized real estate or retail goods for company
catalogs or listings where saleability is enhanced by the
photography; company products, work, construction
sites, or patrons in prescribed detail to substantiate legal
claims, contracts, etc.; artistic or technical design layouts
requiring precise equipment settings; fixed objects on the
ground or air-to-air objects which must be captured quick­
ly and require directing the pilot to get the correct angle of
approach.
Works independently; solves most problems through
consultations with more experienced photographers, if
available, or through reference sources.

Positions are matched to the appropriate level based
on the difficulty of, and responsibility for, the photog­
raphy performed, including the subject-matter knowl­
edge and artistry required to fulfill the assignment.
While the equipment may be an indication of the level
of difficulty, photographers at the higher levels may use
standard equipment, as needed.

Photographers I
Takes routine pictures in situations where several shots
can be taken. Uses standard still cameras for pictures
where complications, such as speed, motion, color con­
trast, or lighting are not present or where there is no
particular need to overcome them. Photographs are
taken for identification, employee publications, informa­
tion, or publicity purposes. Workers may be able to
focus, center, and provide simple flash-type lighting for
an uncomplicated photograph.
Typical subjects are employees who are photographed
for identification or publicity of award ceremonies, inter­
views, banquets, or meetings; or external views of
machinery, supplies, equipment, buildings, damaged
shipments, or other routine subjects photographed to
record the condition at a specified time. Assignments are
usually performed without direct guidance due to the
clear and simple nature of the desired photograph.

Photographers II
Uses standard still cameras, commonly available
lighting equipment, and related techniques to take
photographs which involve limited problems of speed, mo­
tion, color contrast, or lighting. Typically, the subjects
photographed are similar to those at level I, but the
technical aspects require more skill. Based on clear-cut ob­
jectives, determines shutter speeds, lens settings and filters,
camera angles, exposure times, and type of film. Requires
familiarity with the situation gained from similar past ex­
perience to arrange for specific emphasis, balanced
lighting, and correction for distortion, etc., as needed.
May use 16mm. or 35mm. motion picture cameras for
simple shots such as moving equipment, individuals at
work or meetings, and the like, where available or simple
artificial lighting is used.
Ordinarily, there is opportunity for repeated shots or for
retakes if the original exposure is unsatisfactory. Consults
with supervisor or more experienced photographers when
problems are anticipated.

Photographers IV
Uses special-purpose cameras and related equipment
for assignments in which the photographer usually
makes all the technical decisions, although the objective
of the pictures is determined by operating officials.
Conceives and plans the technical photographic effects
desired by operating officials and discusses modifica­
tions and improvements to their original ideas in light of
the potential and limits of the equipment. Improvises
photographic methods and techniques or selects and
alters secondary photographic features (e.g., scenes,
backgrounds, color, lighting) to carry out the desired
primary objectives. Many assignments afford only one
opportunity to photograph the subject. Typical ex­
amples of equipment used at this level include ultra-high
speed, motion picture production, studio television,
animation cameras, specialized still and graphic
cameras, electronic timing and triggering devices, etc.
Some assignments are characterized by extremes in light
values and the use of complicated equipment. Sets up
precise photographic measurement and controls equip­
ment; uses high-speed color photography, synchronized

Photographers III
Selects from a range of standard photographic



86

and pressure tunnels, or explosions; (2) plans and
organizes the overall technical photographic coverage
for a variety of events and developments in phases of a
scientific, industrial, medical, or commercial research
project or similar program; or (3) creates the desired
illusion or emotional effect through developing trick
or special effects photography for novel situations
requiring a high degree of ingenuity and imaginative
camera work to heighten, simulate, or alter reality.
Independently develops, plans, and organizes the
overall technical photographic aspects of the assignment
in collaboration with operating officials who are respon­
sible for the substance of the project. Uses imag­
ination and creative ability to implement objectives
within the capabilities and limitations of cameras and
equipment. May exercise limited control over the
substance of the event to be photographed by staging the
action, suggesting behavior of the principals, and
rehearsing the activity before photographs are taken.

stroboscopic (interval) light sources, and/or timed elec­
tronic triggering; operates equipment from a remote point;
or arranges and uses cameras operating at several thou­
sand frames per second. In other assignments, selects
and sets up motion picture or television cameras and
accessories and shoots a part of a production or a sequence
of scenes, or takes special scenes to be used for
background or special effects in the production.
Works under the guidelines and requirements of the
subject-matter area to be photographed. Consults with
supervisors only when dealing with highly unusual prob­
lems or altering existing equipment.

Photographers V
As a top technical expert, exercises imagination and
creative ability in response to photography situations re­
quiring novel and unprecedented treatment. Typically per­
forms one or more of the following assignments:
(1) Develops and adapts photographic equipment or pro­
cesses to meet new and unprecedented situations, e.g.,
works with engineers and physicists to develop and modify
equipment for use in extreme conditions such as excessive
heat or cold, radiation, high altitude, under-water, wind

N o te : Excluded are photographers above level V
who independently plan the objectives, scope, and
substance of the photography for the project in addition
to planning the overall technical photographic coverage.

Clerical
Accounting Clerks I
Performs very simple and routine accounting clerical
operations, for example, recognizing and comparing
easily identified numbers and codes on similar and re­
petitive accounting documents, verifying mathematical
accuracy, and identifying discrepancies and bringing
them to the supervisor’s attention. Supervisor gives
clear detailed instructions for specific assignments.
Employee refers to supervisor all matters not covered by
instructions. Work is closely controlled and reviewed in de­
tail for accuracy, adequacy, and adherence to instructions.

ACCOUNTING CLERKS
Performs one or more accounting tasks, such as
posting to registers and ledgers; balancing and reconcil­
ing accounts; verifying the internal consistency, com­
pleteness, and mathematical accuracy of accounting
documents; assigning prescribed accounting distribu­
tion codes; examining and verifying the clerical accuracy
of various types of reports, lists, calculations, postings,
etc.; preparing journal vouchers; or making entries or
adjustments to accounts.
Levels I and II require a basic knowledge of routine
clerical methods and office practices and procedures as
they relate to the clerical processing and recording of
transactions and accounting information. Levels III and
IV require a knowledge and understanding of the
established and standardized bookkeeping and account­
ing procedures and techniques used in an accounting
system, or a segment of an accounting system, where
there are few variations in the types of transactions
handled. In addition, some jobs at each level may re­
quire a basic knowledge and understanding of the ter­
minology, codes, and processes used in an automated
accounting system.




Accounting Clerks II
Performs one or more routine accounting clerical opera­
tions, such as: Examining, verifying, and correct­
ing accounting transactions to ensure completeness and ac­
curacy of data and proper identification of accounts, and
checking that expenditures will not exceed obliga­
tions in specified accounts; totaling, balancing, and rec­
onciling collection vouchers; posting data to transaction
sheets where employee identifies proper accounts and
items to be posted; and coding documents in accord­

87

File Clerks I
Performs routine filing of material that has already
been classified or which is easily classified in a simple
serial classification system (e.g., alphabetical, chrono­
logical, or numerical). As requested, locates readily
available materials in files and forwards material; may
fill out withdrawal charge. May perform simple clerical
and manual tasks required to maintain and service files.

ance with a chart (listing) of accounts. Employee follows
specific and detailed accounting procedures. Completed
work is reviewed for accuracy and compliance with pro­
cedures.

Accounting Clerks III
Uses a knowledge of double entry bookkeeping in per­
forming one or more of the following: Posts actions to
journals, identifying subsidiary accounts affected and
debit and credit entries to be made and assigning proper
codes; reviews computer printouts against manually main­
tained journals, detecting and correcting erroneous
postings, and preparing documents to adjust accounting
classifications and other data; or reviews lists of transac­
tions rejected by an automated system, determining
reasons for rejections, and preparing necessary correcting
material. On routine assignments, employee selects and ap­
plies established procedures and techniques. Detailed in­
structions are provided for difficult or unusual
assignments. Completed work and methods used are
reviewed for technical accuracy.

File Clerks II
Sorts, codes, and files unclassified material by simple
(subject-matter) headings or partly classified material
by finer subheadings. Prepares simple related index
and cross-reference aids. As requested, locates clearly
identified material in files and forwards material. May
perform related clerical tasks required to maintain and
service files.

File Clerks III
Classifies and indexes file material such as cor­
respondence, reports, technical documents, etc., in an
established filing system containing a number of varied
subject matter files. May also file this material. May
keep records of various types in conjunction with the
files. May lead a small group of lower level file clerks.

Accounting Clerks IV
Maintains journals or subsidiary ledgers of an ac­
counting system and balances and reconciles accounts.
Typical duties include one or both of the following:
Reviews invoices and statements (verifying information,
ensuring sufficient funds have been obligated, and, if
questionable, resolving with the submitting unit, deter­
mining accounts involved, coding transactions, and proc­
essing material through data processing for application in
the accounting system); and/or analyzes and reconciles
computer printouts with operating unit reports (contact­
ing units and researching causes of discrepancies, and
taking action to ensure that accounts balance). Employee
resolves problems in recurring assignments in accordance
with previous training and experience. Supervisor pro­
vides suggestions for handling unusual or nonrecurring
transactions. Conformance with requirements and
technical soundness of completed work are reviewed by
the supervisor or are controlled by mechanisms built into
the accounting system.

GENERAL CLERKS
Performs a combination o f clerical tasks to support
office, business or administrative operations, such
as: Maintaining records; receiving, preparing, or verify­
ing documents; searching for and compiling information
and data; responding to routine requests with standard
answers (by phone, in person, or by correspondence).
The work requires a basic knowledge of proper office
procedures. Workers at levels I, II, and III follow
prescribed procedures or steps to process paperwork;
they may perform other routine office support work,
(e.g., typing, filing, or operating a keyboard controlled
data entry device to transcribe data into a form suitable
for data processing). Workers at level IV are also re­
quired to make decisions about the adequacy and content
of transactions handled in addition to following proper
procedures.
Clerical work is controlled (e.g., through spot checks,
complete review, or subsequent processing) for both
quantity and quality. Supervisors (or other employees)
are available to assist and advise clerks on difficult prob­
lems and to approve their suggestions for significant
deviations from existing instructions.
Excluded from this definition are: Workers whose
pay is primarily based on the performance of a single
clerical duty such as typing, stenography, office machine

N o t e : Excluded from level IV are positions respon­
sible for maintaining either a general ledger or a general
ledger in combination with subsidiary accounts.

FILE CLERKS
Files, classifies, and retrieves material in an establish­
ed filing system. May perform clerical and manual tasks
required to maintain files. Positions are classified into
levels on the basis of the following definitions.



88

Proficiency in the full cycle of operations or variety of
work may require from several months to 1 year of
on-the-job-experience.
Typical duties include: Assisting in a variety of
administrative matters; maintaining a wide variety of
financial or other records; verifying statistical reports for
accuracy and completeness; and handling and adjusting
complaints. May also direct lower level clerks.
Positions above level IV are excluded. Such positions
(which may include supervisory responsibility over lower
level clerks) require workers to use a thorough knowledge
of an office’s work and routine to: (1) Choose among wide­
ly varying methods and procedures to process complex tran­
sactions, and (2) select or devise steps necessary to complete
assignments. Typical jobs covered by this exclusion include
administrative assistants, clerical supervisors, and office
managers.

operation, or filing; and other workers, such as secre­
taries, messengers, receptionists or public information
specialists who perform general clerical tasks incidental
to their primary duties.

General Clerks I
Follows a few clearly detailed procedures in perform­
ing simple repetitive tasks in the same sequence, such as
filing precoded documents in a chronological file or
operating office equipment, e.g., mimeograph, photo­
copy, addressograph or mailing machine. Full perform­
ance can usually be reached after a few days of training
and on-the-job practice.

General Clerks II
Follows a number of specific procedures in com­
pleting several repetitive clerical steps performed in a
prescribed or slightly varied sequence, such as coding
and filing documents in an extensive alphabetical file,
simple posting to individual accounts, opening mail,
running mail through metering machines, and calculating
and posting charges to departmental accounts. Little or
no subject matter knowledge is required, but the clerk
needs to choose the proper procedure for each task. Full
performance can usually be reached after a few days to
2 weeks of training.

KEY ENTRY OPERATORS
Operates keyboard-controlled data entry device such
as keypunch machine or key-operated magnetic tape or
disc encoder to transcribe data into a form suitable for
computer processing. Work requires skill in operating
an alphanumeric keyboard and an understanding of tran­
scribing procedures and relevant data entry equipment.
Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the
following definitions.

General Clerks III
Work requires a familiarity with the terminology of
the office unit. Selects appropriate methods from a wide
variety of procedures or makes simple adaptations and
interpretations of a limited number of substantive
guides and manuals. The clerical steps often vary in type
or sequence, depending on the task. Recognized prob­
lems are referred to others. Full performance can usual­
ly be reached after several weeks to several months.
Typical duties include a combination of the fol­
lowing: Maintaining time and material records, taking
inventory of equipment and supplies, answering ques­
tions on departmental services and functions, operating a
variety of office machines, posting to various books,
balancing a restricted group of accounts to controlling
accounts, and assisting in preparation of budgetary
requests. May oversee work of lower level clerks.

Key Entry Operators I
Work is routine and repetitive. Under close supervi­
sion or following specific procedures or detailed instruc­
tions, works from various standardized source documents
which have been coded and require little or no selecting,
coding, or interpreting of data to be entered. Refers to
supervisor problems arising from erroneous items,
codes, or missing information.

Key Entry Operators II
Work requires the application of experience and judg­
ment in selecting procedures to be followed and in
searching for, interpreting, selecting, or coding items to
be entered from a variety of source documents. On
occasion, may also perform some routine work as
described for level I.

General Clerks IV
Uses some subject matter knowledge and judgment to
complete assignments consisting of numerous steps that
vary in nature and sequence. Selects from alternative
methods and refers problems not solvable by adapting or
interpreting substantive guides, manuals, or procedures.




N o te : Excluded are operators above level II using
the key entry controls to access, read, and evaluate the
substance of specific records to take substantive actions,
or to make entries requiring a similar level of knowledge.

89

MESSENGERS
Performs various routine duties such as running er­
rands, operating minor office machines such as sealers
or mailers, opening mail, distributing mail on a regular­
ly scheduled route or in a familiar area, and other minor
clerical work. May deliver mail that requires some
special handling, e.g., mail that is insured, registered, or
marked for special delivery.
Excluded are positions which include any of the
following as significant duties:
a. Operating motor vehicles;
b. Delivering valuables or security-classified mail when
the work requires a continuing knowledge of special
procedures for handling such items;
c. Weighing mail, determining postage, or recording
and controlling registered, insured, and certified mail
in the mail room;
d. Making deliveries to unfamiliar or widely separated
buildings or points which are not part of an estab­
lished route; or

d. Workers in positions requiring a bachelor’s degree; and
e. Workers who are primarily compensated for duties out­
side the employment specialty, such as benefits, com­
pensation, or employee relations.
Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the
following definitions. The work described is essentially
at a responsible clerical level at the low levels and pro­
gresses to a staff assistant or technician level. At level
III, which is transitional, both types of work are
described. Jobs which match either type of work
described at level III, or which are combinations of the
two, can be matched.

Personnel Clerks/Assistants (Employment) I
Performs routine tasks which require a knowledge of
company personnel procedures and rules, such as: Pro­
viding simple employment information and appropriate
lists and forms to applicants or employees on types of
jobs being filled, procedures to follow, and where to ob­
tain additional information; ensuring that the proper
company forms are completed for name changes,
locator information, applications, etc., and reviewing
completed forms for signatures and proper entries; or
maintaining assigned segments of company personnel
records, contacting appropriate sources to secure any
missing items, and posting the items, such as, dates of
promotion, transfer, and hire, or rates of pay or per­
sonal data. (If this information is computerized, skill in
coding or entering information may be needed as
aminor duty.) May answer outside inquiries for simple
factual information, such as verification of dates of
employment in response to telephone credit checks on
employees. Some receptionist or other clerical duties
may be performed. May be assigned work to provide
training for a higher level position.
Detailed company rules and procedures are available
for all aspects of the assignment. Guidance and assist­
ance on unusual questions are available at all times.
Work is spot checked, often on a daily basis.

e. Directing other workers.

PERSONNEL CLERKS/ASSISTANTS
(EMPLOYMENT)
Personnel clerks/assistants (employment) provide
clerical and technical support to personnel professionals
or managers in matters relating to recruiting, hiring,
transfer, change in pay status, and termination of com­
pany employees. At the lower levels, clerks/assistants
primarily provide basic information to current and pro­
spective employees, maintain personnel records and in­
formation listings, and prepare and process papers on
personnel actions (hires, transfers, changes in pay, etc.).
At the higher levels, clerks/assistants (often titled per­
sonnel assistants or specialists) may perform limited
aspects of a personnel professional’s work, e.g., inter­
viewing candidates, recommending placements, and
preparing personnel reports. Final decisions on person­
nel actions are made by personnel professionals or
managers. Some clerks/assistants may perform a limited
amount of work in other specialties, such as benefits,
compensation, or employee relations. Typing may be re­
quired at any level.
Excluded are:

Personnel Clerks/Assistants (Employment) II
Examines and/or processes personnel action documents
using experience in applying company personnel pro­
cedures and policies. Ensures that all information is com­
plete and consistent and determines whether further
discussion with applicants or employees is needed or
whether personnel information must be checked against
additional files or listings. Must select the most ap­
propriate precedent, rule, or procedures as a basis for the

a. Workers who primarily compute and process payrolls or
compute and/or respond to questions on company
benefits or retirement claims;
b. Workers who receive additional pay primarily for main­
taining and safeguarding personnel record files for a
company;



c. Workers whose duties do not require a knowledge of the
company’s personnel rules and procedures, such as
receptionists, messengers, typists, or stenographers;

90

personnel action from a number of alternatives. Responds
to varied questions from applicants, employees, or
managers for readily available information which can be
obtained from file material or manuals; responses require
skill to secure cooperation in correcting improperly com­
pleted personnel action documents or to explain regula­
tions and procedures. May provide information to
managers on availability of applicants and status of hiring
actions; may verify employment dates and places supplied
on job applications; may maintain assigned personnel
records, and may administer typing and stenography tests.
Completes routine assignments independently. Detailed
guidance is available for situations which deviate from
established precedents. Clerks/assistants are relied upon to
alert higher level clerks/assistants or supervisor to such
situations. Work may be spot checked periodically.

procedures, guides, and precedents. In representative
assignments: Interviews applicants, obtains references and
recommends placement of applicants in a few well-defined
occupations (trades or clerical) within a stable organization
or unit; conducts postplacement or exit interviews to iden­
tify job adjustment problems or reasons for leaving the
company; performs routine statistical analyses related to
manpower, e e o , hiring, or other employment concerns,
e.g., compares one set of data to another set as instructed;
and requisitions applicants through employment agencies
for clerical or similar level jobs. At this level, assistants
typically have a range of personal contacts within and out­
side the company and with applicants, and must be tactful
and articulate. May perform some clerical work in addi­
tion to the above duties. Supervisor reviews completed
work against stated objectives.

Personnel Clerks/Assistants (Employment) III
Type A
Serves as a clerical expert in independently processing
the most complicated types of personnel actions, e.g., tem­
porary employment, rehires, and dismissals, and in pro­
viding information when it is necessary to consolidate data
from a number of sources, often with short deadlines.
Screens applications for obvious rejections. Resolves con­
flicts in computer listings or other sources of employee
information. Locates lost documents or reconstructs infor­
mation using a number of sources. May check references
of applicants when information in addition to dates and
places of past work is needed, and judgment is required to
ask appropriate routine follow-up questions. May provide
guidance to lower level clerks. Supervisory review is similar
to level II.

Personnel Clerks/Assistants (Employment) V
Workers at this level perform duties similar to level IV,
but are responsible for more complicated cases and work
with greater independence. Performs limited aspects of
professional personnel work dealing with a variety of oc­
cupations common to the company which are clear cut and
stable in employment requirements. Typical duties in­
clude: Researching recruitment sources, such as employ­
ment agencies or State manpower offices, and advising
managers on the availability of candidates in common oc­
cupations; screening and selecting employees for a few
routine, nonpermanent jobs, such as summer employ­
ment; or answering inquiries on a controversial issue, such
as a hiring or promotion freeze. These duties often require
considerable skill and diplomacy in communications.
Other typical duties may include: Surveying managers for
future hiring requirements; developing newspaper vacancy
announcements or explaining job requirements to employ­
ment agencies for administrative or professional positions;
or reviewing the effect of corporate personnel procedural
changes on local employment programs (e.g., automation
of records, new affirmative action goals). May incidentally
perform some clerical duties. Supervisory review is similar
to level IV.

AND/OR
Type B
Performs routine personnel assignments beyond the
clerical level, such as: Orienting new employees to com­
pany programs, facilities, rules on time and attendance,
and leave policies; computing basic statistical information
for reports on manpower profiles, e e o progress and
accomplishments, hiring activities, attendance and leave
profiles, turnover, etc.; and screening applicants for
well-defined positions, rejecting those who do not qualify
for available openings for clear-cut reasons, referring
others to appropriate employment interviewer. Guidance
is provided on possible sources of information, methods of
work, and types of reports needed. Completed written
work receives close technical review from higher level
personnel office employees; other work may be checked
occasionally.

PURCHASING CLERKS/ASSISTANTS
Provides clerical or technical support to buyers or
contract specialists who deal with suppliers, vendors,
contractors, etc., outside the company to purchase
goods, materials, equipment, services, etc. Clerks/
assistants at level I prepare and process purchase
documents, such as purchase orders, invitations to bid,
contracts, and supporting papers. Clerks/assistants at
level II also examine, review, verify, and control these
documents to assure accuracy, and correct processing.
Clerks/assistants at levels III and IV may also expedite
purchases already made, by contacting vendors and
analyzing and recommending company reactions to sup­
plier problems related to delivery, availability of goods,

Personnel Clerks/Assistants (Employment) IV
Performs work in support of personnel professionals
which requires a good working knowledge of personnel




91

or precedents for each transaction. Contacts are usually
limited to the supervisor and the immediate work unit.
Receives step-by-step instructions on new assignments.
Refers questions to supervisor who may spot check
work on a daily basis.

or any other part of the purchase agreement. Clerks/
assistants at level IV may also develop technical infor­
mation for buyers, e.g., comparative information on
materials sought.
All assignments require a practical knowledge of
company purchasing procedures and operations.
Assignments above level I require experience in applying
company regulations, guidelines, or manuals to specific
transactions. Clerks/assistants may type the purchasing
documents or perform work described at lower levels, as
needed. Final decisions on purchasing transactions are
made by buyers, contract specialists, or supervisors.
Excluded are:

Purchasing Clerks/Assistanfs II
According to detailed procedures or company regula­
tions, examines documents such as requisitions, purchase
orders, invitations to bid, contracts, and supporting
papers. Reviews the purchase requisition to determine
whether the correct item description, price, quantity, dis­
count terms, shipping instructions, and/or delivery terms
have been included and selects the appropriate purchase
phrases and forms from prescribed company lists or files.
Obtains any missing or corrected information, prepares^
the purchase order, and gives it to the buyer for approval
when satisfied that the information is complete and the
computations are accurate. Contacts are bsually within
establishment to verify or correct factual information.
May contact vendors for information about purchases
already made and may reorder items under routine and
existing purchase arrangements where few, if any, ques­
tions arise. Receives detailed instructions on new
assignments. Refers questions to supervisor who may
spot check work on a daily basis.
Assistants at this level examine documents for orders of
standard goods, supplies, equipment, or services, and/or
for orders of specialized items when the complexity of the
item does not affect the assistant’s work, i.e., the assist­
ant is not required to use considerable judg­
ment to find a previous transaction to use as a guideline,
as described at level III, a.

a. Typists, file clerks, secretaries, receptionists, and
trainees not required to have a knowledge of company
purchasing procedures and operations;
b. Workers who process or expedite the purchase of
items for direct sale, either wholesale or retail;
c. Workers who as a primary duty: Maintain a filing
system or listing to monitor inventory levels; reorder
items by phone under ongoing contracts; or receive
and disburse supplies and materials for use in the
company;
d. Production expediters or controllers who primarily
ensure the timely arrival and coordination of
purchased materials with assembly line or production
schedules and requirements;
e. Purchasing expediters who only check on the status
of purchases already made and who do not analyze
the facts at hand and do not make recommendations
for either extension of delivery dates or for other
similar modifications to the purchase agreement, as
described at level III, b;
f. Positions which require a technical knowledge of
equipment characteristics and parts, production
control, or manufacturing methods and procedures;

Purchasing Clerks/Assistants III
Assistants at this level perform assignments described
in paragraphs a or b, or a combination of the two.

g. Positions requiring a bachelor’s degree; and
a. Reviews and prepares purchase documents for spe­
cialized items, such as items with optional features or
technical equipment requiring precise specifications.
Since the transactions usually require special pur­
chasing conditions, e.g., multiple deliveries, provi­
sion of spare parts, or renegotiation of terms, con­
siderable judgment is needed to find a previous trans­
action to use as a guideline; as required, adapts
the phrases or clauses in the guideline transaction
that apply to the purchase at hand. In some cases,
reviews purchasing documents prepared by lower
level clerks or prepared by personnel in other com­
pany units to detect processing discrepancies or to
clarify the purchase papers; corrects clerical errors.
May advise company employees on how to prepare
requisitions for items to be ordered.

h. Buyers.
Positions are classified into levels based on the
following definitions according to the complexity of the
work, the conditions of the purchase, and the amount
of supervision.
Purchasing Clerks/Assistants I
Following well established and clear-cut procedures and
instructions, prepares and processes documents such as
purchase orders, invitations to bid, contracts, and sup­
porting papers. Enters such prescribed information as
quantities, model numbers, addresses and prices, after a
higher level employee screens the requisition for com­
pleteness and accuracy. Posts data from requisitions to
internal controls. Work requires a knowledge of proper
terminology (including spelling and abbreviations) and
some judgment in selecting the appropriate procedures



b. Expedites purchases by making a recommendation
for action based on simple analysis of the facts at
hand, company guidelines, and the background of
92

c. Furnishes technical support to buyers or contract
specialists, using a detailed knowledge of company
purchasing transactions and procedures, e.g., ana­
lyzes bids for contracts to determine the possible
number and interest of bidders for standard com­
modities and services; assembles contracts and drafts
special clauses, terms, or requirements for unprece­
dented purchases, e.g., for specially designed equip­
ment or for complex one-time transactions; gathers
and summarizes information on the availability of
special equipment and the ability of suppliers to
meet company needs.

the purchase: Contacts suppliers to obtain informa­
tion on deliveries or on contracts; based on clearcut guidelines for each type of purchase and previous
performance of supplier, availability of item, or
impact of delay, recommends extension of delivery
date or other similar modifications. In some cases,
decides to refer problems to production, packaging,
or other company specialists. May reorder standard
items under a variety of existing purchase agreements
where judgment is needed to ask further questions
and follow up and coordinate transactions. Assist­
ants at this level expedite purchases of standard
goods, supplies, equipment, or services, and/or pur­
chases of specialized items when the complexity of
the item does not affect the assistant’s work, i.e., the
assistant does not coordinate requests for minor
deviations from contract specifications, etc., as
described at level IV, b.

Purchasing assistants at this level receive instructions
about new procurement policies. Assistants seek
guidance on highly unusual problems but are expected to
propose solutions for supervisory approval. Supervisory
review is similar to level III; drafts of special clauses, etc.,
are reviewed in detail.

Assistants at this level coordinate information with
company buyers and with suppliers outside the com­
pany and keep others informed of the progress of trans­
actions. Major changes in company regulations and
procedures are explained by supervisor. Refers unusual
situations to supervisor, who also spot checks all com­
pleted work for adequacy.

N o te : Excluded are higher level workers who:
Negotiate agreements with contractors on minor changes
in the terms of an established contract; or analyze and
make recommendations about proposals of specialized
equipm ent, ab out the solvency and p erfo rm ­
ance of firms, or about clerical processing methods need­
ed to fit new purchasing policies.

Purchasing Clerks/Assistants IV
Assistants at this level have a good understanding of
purchase circumstances for specialized items—what to
buy, where to buy, and under what terms buyers negoti­
ate and make purchases. They perform assignments
described in paragraphs a, b, or c, or a combination of
any of these.

SECRETARIES
Provides principal secretarial support in an office,
usually to one individual, and, in some cases, also to the
subordinate staff of that individual. Maintains a close
and highly responsive relationship to the day-to-day
activities of the supervisor and staff. Works fairly
independently receiving a minimum of detailed supervi­
sion and guidance. Performs varied clerical and
secretarial duties requiring knowledge of office routine
and an understanding of the organization, programs, and
procedures related to the work of the office.
Exclusions: Not all positions titled “ secretary”
possess the above characteristics. Examples of positions
which are excluded from the definition are as follows:

a. Reviews and prepares purchase documents for highly
specialized items where few precedent transactions
exist that can be used as guidelines and where provi­
sions such as fixed-price contracts with provisions for
escalation, price redetermination, or cost incentives
are needed. Complicated provisions for progress
payments, for testing and evaluating the ordered
item, or for meeting company production schedules
may also exist. As necessary, drafts special clauses,
terms, or requirements for unusual purchases. Pro­
vides authoritative information to others on company
purchase procedures and assures that documents and
transactions agree with basic procurement policies.

a. Clerks or secretaries working under the direction of
secretaries or administrative assistants as described in e\

b. Expedites purchases of specialized items when the
complexity of the items does affect the assistant’s
work. (See level III, b.) Investigates supplier problems
and coordinates requests for minor deviations from
the contract specifications with specialists, buyers,
suppliers, and users. Recommends revisions to the
contract or purchase agreement, if needed, based
upon company requirements. May reorder technical
and specialized items within existing purchase con­
tracts which contain special purchasing conditions.
Questions which arise are handled similarly to those
in level III, b.




b. Stenographers not fully performing secretarial duties;
c. Stenographers or secretaries assigned to two or more
professional, technical, or managerial persons of
equivalent rank;
d. Assistants or secretaries performing any kind of
technical work, e.g., personnel, accounting, or legal
work;
e. Administrative assistants or supervisors performing
duties which are more difficult or more responsible than
the secretarial work described in LR-1 through LR-4;
93

f. Secretaries receiving additional pay primarily for main­
taining confidentiality of payroll records or other
sensitive information;

more subordinate supervisory levels (of which at least one
is a managerial level) with several subdivisions at each
level. Executive’s program(s) are usually interlocked on a
direct and continuing basis with other major organiza­
tional segments, requiring constant attention to extensive
formal coordination, clearances, and procedural con­
trols. Executive typically has: Financial decisionmaking
authority for assigned program(s); considerable impact
on the entire organization’s financial position or image;
and responsibility for, or has staff specialists in, such
areas as personnel and administration for assigned
organization. Executive plays an important role in deter­
mining the policies and major programs of the entire
organization, and spends considerable time dealing with
outside parties actively interested in assigned program(s)
and current or controversial issues.

g. Secretaries performing routine receptionist, typing, and
filing duties following detailed instructions and
guidelines; these duties are less responsible than those
described in LR-1 below; and
h. Trainees.
Classification by Level
Secretary jobs which meet the required characteristics
are matched at one of five levels according to two fac­
tors: a) Level of the secretary’s supervisor within the
overall organizational structure, and (b) level of the
secretary’s responsibility. Table C-5 indicates the level
of the secretary for each combination of factors.

Level of secretaries’ responsibility (LR)
This factor evaluates the nature of the work relation­
ship between the secretary and the supervisor or staff,
and the extent to which the secretary is expected to
exercise initiative and judgment. Secretaries should be
matched at the level best describing their level of respon­
sibility. When a position’s duties span more than one
LR level, the introductory paragraph at the beginning of
each LR level should be used to determine which of the
levels best matches the position. (Typically, secretaries
performing at the higher levels of responsibility also
perform duties described at the lower levels.)

Level of secretaries’ supervisor (LS)
Secretaries should be matched at one of the three LS
levels below best describing the organization of the
secretary’s supervisor.

LS-1. Organizational structure is not complex and in­
ternal procedures and administrative controls are simple
and informal; supervisor directs staff through face-toface meetings.
LS-2. Organizational structure is complex and is
divided into subordinate groups that usually differ from
each other as to subject matter, function, etc.; and
supervisor usually directs staff through intermediate
supervisors; internal procedures and administrative con­
trols are formal. An entire organization (e.g., division,
subsidiary, or parent organization) may contain a variety
of subordinate groups which meet the LS-2 definition.
Therefore, it is not unusual for one LS-2 supervisor to
report to another LS-2 supervisor.
The presence of subordinate supervisors does not by
itself mean LS-2 applies, e.g., a clerical processing
organization divided into several units, each performing
very similar work, is placed in LS-1.
In smaller organizations or industries such as retail
trade, with relatively few organizational levels, the super­
visor may have an impact on the policies and may deal
with important outside contacts, as described in LS-3.
LS-3.

LR-1. Carries out recurring office procedures in­
dependently. Selects the guideline or reference which
fits the specific case. Supervisor provides specific in­
structions on new assignments and checks completed
work for accuracy. Performs varied duties including or
comparable to the following:
a. Responds to routine telephone requests which have
standard answers; refers calls and visitors to appropriate
staff. Controls mail and assures timely staff response;
may send form letters.
b. As instructed, maintains supervisor’s calendar, makes
appointments, and arranges for meeting rooms.
c. Reviews materials prepared for supervisor’s approval
for typographical accuracy and proper format.
d. Maintains recurring internal reports, such as: Time and
leave records, office equipment listings, correspondence
controls, training plans, etc.

Organizational structure is divided into two or

e. Requisitions supplies, printing, maintenance, or other
services. Types, takes and transcribes dictation, and
establishes and maintains office files.

Table C-5. Criteria for matching secretaries by level
Level of
secretary’s
supervisor
LS-1
LS-2
LS-3




Level of secretary’s responsibility
LR-1
I
I
I

LR-2

LR-3

LR-4

II
III
IV

III
IV
V

IV
V
V

LR-2. Handles differing situations, problems, and
deviations in the work of the office according to the
supervisor’s general instructions, priorities, duties,
policies, and program goals. Supervisor may assist
94

LR-4. Handles a wide variety of situations and con­
flicts involving the clerical or administrative functions
of the office which often cannot be brought to the atten­
tion of the executive. The executive sets the overall
objectives of the work. Secretary may participate in
developing the work deadlines. Duties include or are
comparable to the following:

secretary with special assignments. Duties include or are
comparable to the following.
a. Screens telephone calls, visitors, and incoming cor­
respondence; personally responds to requests for in­
formation concerning office procedures; determines
which requests should be handled by the supervisor,
appropriate staff members, or other offices. May
prepare and sign routine, nontechnical correspond­
ence in own or supervisor’s name.

a. Composes correspondence requiring some under­
standing of technical m atters; may sign for
executive when technical or policy content has been
authorized.

b. Schedules tentative appointm ents without prior
clearance. Makes arrangements for conferences and
meetings and assembles established background
materials, as directed. May attend meetings and
record and report on the proceedings.

b. Notes commitments made by executive during
meeting and arranges for staff implementation. On
own initiative, arranges for staff members to repre­
sent organization at conferences and meetings,
establishes appointment priorities, or reschedule
or refuses appointments or invitations.

c. Reviews outgoing materials and correspondence for
internal consistency and conformance with super­
visor’s procedures; assures that proper clearances
have been obtained, when needed.

c. Reads outgoing correspondence for executive’s ap­
proval and alerts writers to any conflict with the file
or departure from policies or executives’s view­
points; gives advice to resolve the problems.

d. Collects information from the files or staff for routine
inquiries on office program(s) or periodic reports.
Refers nonroutine requests to supevisor or staff.

d. Summarizes the content of incoming materials,
specially gathered information, or meetings to assist
executive; coordinates the new information with
background office sources; and draws attention to
important parts or conflicts.

e. Explains to subordinate staff supervisor’s require­
ments concerning office procedures. Coordinates
personnel and administrative forms for the office
and forwards for processing.

e. In the executive’s absence, ensures that requests for
action or information are relayed to the appropriate
staff member; as needed, interprets requests and
helps implement action; makes sure that informa­
tion is furnished in timely manner; decides whether
executive should be notified of im portant or
emergency matters.

LR-3. Uses greater judgment and initiative to deter­
mine the approach or action to take in nonroutine situa­
tions. Interprets and adapts guidelines, including un­
written policies, precedents, and practices, which are
not always completely applicable to changing situations.
Duties include or are comparable to the following:

Excludes secretaries performing any of the following

a. Based on a knowledge of the supervisor’s views,
composes correspondence on own initiative about
administrative and general office policies for super­
visor’s approval.

duties:
a. Acts as office manager for the executive’s organization,
e.g., determines when new procedures are needed for
changing situations and devises and implements alter­
natives; revises or clarifies procedures to eliminate
conflict or duplication; identifies and resolves various
problems that affect the orderly flow of work in transac­
tions with parties outside the organization.

b. Anticipates and prepares materials needed by the
supervisor for conferences, correspondence, ap­
pointments, meetings, telephone calls, etc., and in­
forms supervisor on matters to be considered.
c. Reads publications, regulations, and directives and
takes action or refers those that are important to the
supervisor and staff.

b. Prepares agenda for conferences; explains discussion
topics to participants; drafts introductions and develops
background information and prepares outlines for execu­
tive or staff members(s) to use in writing speeches.

d. Prepares special or one-time reports, summaries, or
replies to inquiries, selecting relevant information
from a variety of sources such as reports, documents,
correspondence, other offices, etc., under general
direction.

c. Advises individuals outside the organization on the
executive’s views on major policies or current issues fac­
ing the organization; contacts or responds to contacts
from high-ranking outside officials (e.g., city or State
officials, Members of Congress, presidents of national
unions or large national or international firms, etc.) in
unique situations. These officials may be relatively
inaccessible, and each contact typically must be handled
differently, using judgment and discretion.

e. Advises secretaries in subordinate offices on new
procedures; requests information needed from the
subordinate office(s) for periodic or special con­
ferences, reports, inquiries, etc. Shifts clerical staff
to accommodate workload needs.




95

STENOGRAPHERS
Primary duty is to take dictation using shorthand
and to transcribe the dictation. May also type from
written copy. May operate from a stenographic pool.
May occasionally transcribe from voice recordings.
Excluded from this definition are:
a.

Uses a manual, electric, or automatic typewriter to
type various materials. Included are automatic type­
writers that are used only to record text and update and
reproduce previously typed items from magnetic cards
or tape. May include typing of stencils, mats, or similar
materials for use in duplicating processes. May do
clerical work involving little special training, such as
keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or
sorting and distributing incoming mail.
Excluded from this definition is work that involves:

Trainee positions not requiring a fully qualified
stenographer.

b.

TYPISTS

Secretaries providing the principal secretarial support
in an office and performing more responsible and
discretionary tasks, as described in LR-1 thru LR-4 in
the secretary definition;

c.

d.

a.

b.

Stenographers, such as shorthand reporters, who
record material verbatim at hearings, conferences, or
similar proceedings.

Stenographers I
Takes and transcribes dictation, receiving specific
assignments along with detailed instructions on such re­
quirements as forms and presentation. The transcribed
material is typically reviewed in rough draft and the final
transcription is reviewed for conformance with the
rough drafts. May maintain files, keep simple records,
or perform other relatively routine clerical tasks.

Familiarity with specialized terminology in various
keyboard commands to manipulate or edit the record­
ed text to accomplish revisions, or to perform tasks
such as extracting and listing items from the text, or
transmitting text to other terminals, or using sort com­
mands to have the machine reorder material. Typically
requires the use of automatic equipment which may be
either computer linked or have a programmable
memory so that material can be organized in regularly
used formats or preformed paragraphs which can then
be coded and stored for future use in letters or
documents.

Typists I
Performs one o f more o f the following: Copy typ­
ing from rough or clear drafts; or routine typing of
forms, insurance policies, etc.; or setting up simple stand­
ard tabulations; or copying more complex tables already
set up and spaced properly.

Stenographers II
Takes and transcribes dictation, determining the most
appropriate format. Performs stenographic duties re­
quiring significantly greater independence and respon­
sibility than stenographer I. Supervisor typically pro­
vides general instructions. Work requires a thorough
working knowledge of general business and office pro­
cedures and of the specific business operations,
organizations, policies, procedures, files, workflow, etc.
Uses this knowledge in performing stenographic duties
and responsible clerical tasks such as maintaining
followup files; assembling material for reports,
memoranda, and letters; composing simple letters from
general instructions; reading and routing incoming mail;
answering routine questions; etc.




The use of varitype machines, composing equipment,
or automatic equipment in preparing material for
printing; and

c.

Stenographers who take dictation involving the fre­
quent use of a wide variety of technical or specialized
vocabulary. Typically this kind of vocabulary cannot
be learned in a relatively short period of time, e.g., a
month or two; and

Typing directly from spoken material that has been
recorded on discs, cylinders, belts, tapes, or other
similar media;

Typists II
Performs one or more o f the following: Typing
material in final form when it involves combining
material from several sources; or responsibility for cor­
rect spelling, syllabication, punctuation, etc., of
technical or unusual words or foreign language
materials; or planning layout and typing of complicated
statistical tables to maintain uniformity and balance in
spacing. May type routine form letters, varying details
to suit circumstances.

96

Classification by Standard Occupational Codes
found in the SOC manual. For example, the pa t c occupa­
tions Accountant, Chief Accountant, Auditor, and Public Ac­
countant are all classified in the SOC manual as accountants
and auditors, the SOC occupations (e.g., budge accoutants,
credit analysts, accounting methods analysts) than are ex­
cluded from the pa t c description.

The titles and the 3- or 4-digit codes to the right of the
BLS (PATC) occupations in table C-6 are taken from the 1980
edition of the Standard Occupational Classification Manual
(SOC) issued by the U.S. Department of Commerce, Office
of Federal Statisitcal Policy and Standards.
In general, the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ occupa­
tional descriptions are much more specific than those

Table C-6. Comparison of occupations in the professional, administrative, technical, and clerical (PATC) survey with the
Standard Occupational Classification Manual
PATC occupation

Standard O ccupational Classification M anual (SOC)
SOC

code
Accountants .........
Chief accountants .
A u d ito rs ...................
Public accountants

1412
1412
1412
1412
143
143

Jo b a n a ly s ts ..............
Directors of personnel
A tto rn e y s .....................
B u y e rs ..............................
C om puter program m ers
Systems an a lysts............

211
1449
397
1712

A ccountants
A ccountants
A ccountants
A ccountants

and
and
and
and

auditors
auditors
auditors
auditors

Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists
Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists
Lawyers
Purchasing agents and buyers, not elsewhere classified
P rogram m ers
C om puter system s analysts

Chem ists .
Engineers

1845
162-3

Chemists, except biochem ists
Engineers

Registered n u rs e s ............
Licensed practical nurses
N ursing assista nts............

290
366
5236

Registered nurses
Licensed practical nurses
N ursing aides, orderlies, and attendants

371
372

E ngineering technicians
D ra fte rs ............................
Civil engineering or survey technicans
C om puter o p e ra to rs ..............................
Photographers ........................................
A ccoun ting c le r k s ..............
File c le r k s ............................
Key entry o p e r a to r s .........
M e ssenge rs..........................
Personnel clerks/assistants
Purchasing assistants

Secretaries ......................
S te n o g ra p h e rs.....................
T y p is ts ...................................
General c le rk s .....................




(1472
(3733
4612
326
4712
4696
4793
4745
4692
4664
4622
4623
4624
463

97

Electrical and electronic engineering technologists and technicians
Drafting occupations
C onstruction inspectors
S urveying technicians
C om puter operators
Photographers
B ookkeepers and accounting and auditing clerks
File clerks
Data entry operators
M essengers
Personnel clerks, except payroll and tim ekeeping
O rder clerks
Secretaries
S tenographers
Typists
General office occupations

A p p en d ix D. C om parisons of
S a la rie s in P riv a te In d u s try
w ith T h o s e o f F ed eral
G o v e rn m e n t E m p lo y ee s
U n d e r th e G e n e ra l S c h e d u le

The PATC survey is designed to provide a basis for com­
paring salaries under the General Schedule classification and
pay system with salaries in private enterprise. To assure col­
lection of pay data for work levels equivalent to the General
Schedule grade levels, the Office of Personnel Management
(OPM), in cooperation with the Bureau of Labor Statistics,
prepares the occupational work level definitions used in the
survey. Definitions are developed by OPM according to stan­
dards established for each grade level. Table D-l shows the
surveyed jobs grouped by work levels equivalent to General
Schedule grade levels.




98




Table D-1. Comparison of average annual salaries in private industry with salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule, March
1987

Occupation and level surveyed by BLS'

Average
annual
salary in
private
indu­
stry2

Salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule
Step6
Grade"

Average5
1

2

9,619

9,940

10,260

10,579

10,899

11,087

11,403

11,721

11,735

12,036

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

File clerks I .................................................... $10,984 GS 1
General clerks I ............................................ $10,702
Messengers................................................... $12,197

$9,980

Accounting clerks I .......................................
Drafters I ........................................................
File clerks I I ...................................................
General clerks I I ...........................................
Key entry operators I ...................................
Typists I ........................................................

$12,831 GS 2
$13,258
$12,821
$12,907
$13,408
$13,016

$11,112 10,816

11,073

11,430

11,735

11,866

12,215

12,564

12,913

13,262

13,611

Accounting clerks II .....................................
Drafters I I .......................................................
Engineering technicians I .............................
General clerks I I I ..........................................
Key entry operators I I ...................................
Personnel clerks/assistants I ......................
Purchasing clerks/assistants I .....................
Typists II ........................................................

$15,102 GS 3
$16,479
$17,577
$15,700
$16,931
$14,310
$14,285
$17,218

$12,691

11,802

12,195

12,588

12,981

13,374

13,767

14,160

14,553

14,946

15,339

Accounting clerks III .....................................
Computer operators I ...................................
Drafters III .....................................................
Engineering technicians I I ............................
General clerks IV ..........................................
Personnel clerks/assistants II .....................
Purchasing clerks/assistants I I ....................
Secretaries I ..................................................

$18,296 GS 4
$14,339
$21,027
$21,131
$19,987
$17,343
$17,689
$16,448

$14,727 13,248

13,690

14,132

14,574

15,016

15,458

15,900

16,342

16,784

17,226

Accounting clerks I V ....................................
Accountants I ................................................
Auditors I .......................................................
Buyers I .........................................................
Chemists I .....................................................
Computer operators I I ...................................
Drafters I V .....................................................
Engineers I ....................................................
Engineering technicians I I I ...........................
Job analysts I ................................................
Personnel clerks/assistants III ....................
Computer programmers I .............................
Purchasing clerks/assistants III...................
Secretaries I I .................................................

$22,223 GS 5
$21,527
$22,354
$21,779
$23,205
$17,690
$25,621
$28,958
$24,857
$22,642
$20,158
$21,398
$22,832
$18,769

$16,783 14,822

15,316

15,810

16,304

16,798

17,292

17,786

18,280

18,744

19,268

Computer operators III..................................
Personnel clerks/assistants IV ....................
Purchasing clerks/ assistants IV .................
Secretaries III................................................

$22,207 GS 6
$24,457
$30,524
$21,745

$18,980 16,521

17,072

17,623

18,174

18,725

19,276

19,827

20,378

20,929

21,480

See fo o tn o te s a t end o f table.




Table D-1. Comparison of average annual salaries in private industry with salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule, March
1987 —Continued

Occupation and level surveyed by BLS'

Average
annual
salary in
private
indu­
stry2

Salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule
Step6
Grade4

Average5
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Accountants I I ...............................................
Auditors II ......................................................
Buyers II ........................................................
Chemists II ....................................................
Computer operators I V .................................
Drafters V ......................................................
Engineers l i ...................................................
Engineering technicians IV ...........................
Job analysts I I ...............................................
Photographers I I I ..........................................
Computer programmers II ............................
Public accountants I ......................................
Secretaries IV ...............................................

$25,984 GS 7
$27,007
$27,184
$28,238
$25,441
$32,117
$32,295
$29,732
$25,615
$27,712
$25,056
$21,006
$24,603

$20,817 18,358

18,970

19,582

20,194

20,806

21,418

22,030

22,642

23,254

23,866

Computer operators V .................................
Secretaries V ................................................

$30,295 GS 8
$29,090

$23,618 20,333

21,011

21,689

22,367

23,045

23,723

24,401

25,079

25,757

26,435

Accountants II I ..............................................
Attorneys I .....................................................
Auditors I I I .....................................................
Buyers III .......................................................
Engineers III ..................................................
Engineering technicians V ............................
Job analysts III .............................................
Photographers IV ..........................................
Computer programmers III ...........................
Public accountants I I .....................................
Systems analysts I .......................................

$32,074 GS 9
$32,022
$33,302
$34,818
$37,235
$34,380
$30,749
$33,452
$30,320
$23,044
$30,111

$25,289 22,458

23,207

23,956

24,705

25,454

26,203

26,952

27,701

28,450

29,199

Accountants IV .............................................
Attorneys I I ....................................................
Auditors IV .....................................................
Buyers I V .......................................................
Chemists I V ...................................................
Directors of personnel I ................................
Engineers IV ..................................................
Job analysts I V .............................................
Photographers V ...........................................
Computer programmers IV ...........................
Public accountants III ...................................
Systems analysts II ......................................

$40,611 GS 11
$41,319
$41,250
$42,772
$43,480
$40,229
$44,360
$39,326
$37,961
$36,422
$27,537
$36,103

$30,811

27,172

28,078

28,984

29,890

30,796

31,702

32,608

33,514

34,420

35,326

Accountants V ..............................................
Attorneys i l l ...................................................
Chemists V ....................................................
Chief accountants I I ......................................
Directors of personnel I I ...............................
Engineers V ...................................................

$51,144 GS 12
$52,158
$52,927
$49,531
$47,021
$52,698

$37,243 32,567

33,653

34,73

3 5 ,8 2 5

36,911

37,997

39,083

40,169

41,255

42,341

S e e fo o tn o te s a t end o f table.

Table D-1. Comparison of average annual salaries in private industry with salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule, March
1987 —Continued

Occupation and level surveyed by BLS1

Average
annual
salary in
private
indu­
stry1
2

Salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule
Step6
Grade4
5

5
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Computer programmers V ............................ $44,693
Public accountants I V ................................... $33,989
Systems analysts I I I ...................................... $43,592

☆ U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1987—

Attorneys I V ..................................................
Chemists V I ...................................................
Chief accountants I I I ....................................
Directors of personnel III..............................
Engineers V I..................................................
Systems analysts IV .....................................

I
u
>
GO

O




$65,944 GS 13
$63,548
$65,564
$65,106
$61,807
$51,537

$44,797 38,727

40,018

41,309

42,600

43,891

45,182

46,473

47,764

49,055

50,346

Attorneys V ...................................................
Chemists V II..................................................
Chief accountants I V ....................................
Directors of personnel I V .............................
Engineers V II.................................................
Systems analysts V ......................................

$80,856 GS 14
$78,605
$83,883
$78,123
$71,475
$61,673

$53,309 45,763

47,288

48,813

50,338

51,863

53,388

54,913

56,438

57,963

59,488

Attorneys VI .................................................. $105,658 GS 15
Engineers VIII................................................ $81,060
Systems analysts V I..................................... $74,632

$63,725 53,830

55,624

57,418

59,212

61,006

62,800

64,594

66,388

68,182

69,976

1 For definitions, see appendix C.
2 Survey findings as summarized in table B-2 of this bulletin. For scope of 1986
and 1987 surveys, see appendix B.
3 General schedule rates in effect in March 1987, the reference date of the PATC
survey.
4 Corresponding grades in the General Schedule were supplied by the Office of
Personnel Management.
5 Mean salary of all General Schedule employees in each grade as of March 31,
1987. Not limited to Federal employees in occupations surveyed by BLS.
6 Section 5335 of title 5 of the U.S. Code provides for within-grade increases on
condition that the employee’s work is of an acceptable level of competence as de­
fined by the head of the agency. For employees who meet this condition, the service
requirements are 52 calendar weeks for each advancement to salary rates 2, 3, and
4; 104 weeks for advancement to salary rates 5,6, and 7; and 156 weeks for each
advancement to salary rates 8, 9, and 10. Section 5336 provides that an additional

within-grade increase may be granted within any 52-week period in recognition of high
quality performance above that ordinarily found in the type of position concerned.
NOTE: Under Section 5303 of title 5 of the U.S. Code, higher minimum rates (but
not exceeding the maximum salary rate prescribed in the General Schedule for the
grade or level) and a corresponding new salary range may be established for posi­
tions or occupations under certain conditions. The conditions include a finding that
the Government’s recruitment or retention of well-qualified persons is significantly
handicapped because the salary rates in private industry are substantially above the
salary rates of the statutory pay schedules. As of March 1987, special higher salary
rates were authorized for professional engineers at the entry grades (GS-5 and GS-7),
and at GS-9 through GS-12. In addition, special rates were authorized for petroleum
engineers at GS-5 through GS-13. Information on special salary rates, including the
occupations and the areas to which they apply, may be obtained from the Office of
Personnel Management, Washington, D.C. 20415, or its regional offices.

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