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* /S ~

National Survey of
Professional, Administrative,
Technical, and Clerical Pay,
March 1979
U.S. D epartm ents Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
1979
Bulletin 2045




National Survey of
Professional, Administrative,
Technical, and Clerical Pay,
March 1979
U.S. Department of Labor
Ray Marshall, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Janet L. Norwood, Commissioner
October 1979
Bulletin 2045




For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U .S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D .C . 20402
Stock Number 020-001-02403-7




Preface

This bulletin summarizes the results of the Bureau’s
annual salary survey of selected professional, administra­
tive, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry.
The nationwide salary information, relating to March 1979,
represents establishments in a broad spectrum of industries
throughout the United States, except Alaska and Hawaii.
The results of this survey are used for a number of
purposes, including general economic analysis and wage and
salary administration by private and public employers. One
important use is to provide the basis for setting Federal
white-collar salaries under the provisions of the Federal Pay
Comparability Act of 1970. Under this act, the President
has designated the Secretary of Labor, Director of the
Office of Management and Budget, and Director of the
Office of Personnel Management (formerly the U.S. Civil
Service Commission) to serve jointly as his agent for the
purpose of setting pay for Federal white-collar employees.
The agent is responsible for translating the survey findings
into recommendations to the President as to the appropri­
ate adjustments needed to make Federal pay rates compar­
able with private enterprise pay rates for the same levels of
work. The President’s agent also determines the industrial,
geographic, establishment-size, and occupational coverage
of the survey. The role of the Bureau of Labor Statistics in
the pay-setting process is limited to conducting the survey
and advising on the feasibility of proposed survey changes.
It should be emphasized that this survey, like any other
salary survey, does not provide mechanical answers to pay
policy questions.
The occupations studied span a wide range of duties and
responsibilities. The occupations selected were judged to be
(a) surveyable in industry within the framework of a broad




survey design, (b) representative of occupational groups
which are numerically important in industry as well as in
the Federal service, and (c) essentially of the same nature in
both the Federal and private sectors.
Occupational definitions used to collect salary data
(appendix C) reflect duties and responsibilities in private
industry; however, they are also designed to be translatable
to specific General Schedule grades applying to Federal
employees. Thus, definitions of some occupations and work
levels were limited to specific elements that could be
classified uniformly among establishments. The Bureau of
Labor Statistics and the Office of Personnel Management
worked jointly to prepare the definitions.
The survey could not have been conducted without the
cooperation of the many firms whose salary data provide
the basis for the statistical information presented in this
bulletin. The Bureau, on its own behalf and on behalf of the
other Federal agencies that were involved in planning the
survey, wishes to express appreciation for the cooperation
it has received.
This study was conducted in the Bureau’s Office of
Wages and Industrial Relations by the Division of Occupa­
tional Wage Structures. The analysis in this bulletin was
prepared by Philip M. Doyle and Robin Zoltek. Field work
for the survey was directed by the Bureau’s Assistant
Regional Commissioners for Operations. Material in this
publication is in the public domain and may be reproduced
without permission of the Federal Government. Please
credit the Bureau of Labor Statistics and cite National
Survey o f Professional, Administrative, Technical, and
Clerical Pay, March 1979, Bulletin 2045.

iii




Contents

Page
Summary
......................................................................................................................................................................................
Characteristics of the survey ....................................................................................................................................................
Changes in salary levels
...........................................................................................................................................................
Average salaries, March 1979
Salary levels in metropolitan a r e a s ...............................................................................................................................................
Salary levels in large establishments ...........................................................................................................................................
Salary distributions
......................................................................................................................................................................
Pay differences by industry ........................................................................................................................................................
Average standard weekly hours
.................................................................................................................................................
Text tables:
1. Percent increases in average salaries, 1961-79, by
occupation and group ..........................................................................................................................................
2. Percent increases in average salaries, 1961-79,
by work level category
.......................................................................................................................................
3. Distribution of work levels by degree of salary dispersion ..................................................................................

1
1
2
7
7
7
8
12

3
7
8

Reference tables:
Average salaries:
1. United States .......................................................................................................................................................
2. Metropolitan a r e a s .................................................................................................................................................
3. Establishments employing 2,500 workers or more
.........................................................................................

13
15
17

Employment distribution by salary:
4. Professional and administrative o cc u p a tio n s......................................................................................................
5. Technical support occupations
..................................................................................................................
6. Clerical occupations ..............................................................................................................................................

19
26
28

7. Occupational employment distribution: By industry division,
United States, March 1979 .................................................................................. ................................................
8. Relative salary levels: Occupation by industry division,
United States, March 1979 ...................................................................................................................................
9. Average weekly hours: Occupation by industry division,
United States, March 1979 ...................................................................................................................................
Charts:
1. Increases in average salaries for selected
occupational groups, 1961 to 1979 ...................................................................................................................
2. Salaries in professional and technical occupations, March 1979
.........................................................................
3. Salaries in administrative and clerical occupations, March 1979 .........................................................................
4. Relative employment in selected occupational groups by industry
division, March 1979
..........................................................................................................................................




v

31
31
32

4
9
10
11

Contents— Continued
Page
Appendixes:
A. Scope and method of survey ....................................................................................................................................
B. Survey changes in 1979 ..............................................................................................................................................
C. Occupational definitions ..........................................................................................................................................
D. Comparison of salaries in private industry with salaries of Federal
employees under the General Schedule .............................................................................................................




vi

33
37
38
68

Professional, Adm inistrative, Technical,
and Clerical Pay, March 1979

level I as the lowest. Specific job factors determining
classification, however, vary from occupation to occupa­
tion.
The number of work levels in each occupation ranges
from one for messengers to eight each for chemists and
engineers. Most occupations have more than one work level;
some occupations are purposely defined, however, to cover
specific bands of levels which are not intended to represent
all workers in those occupations.
The survey is designed to present separate data for all
metropolitan areas combined. These include the 276
Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United
States, except Alaska and Hawaii, as revised through June
1977 by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget.
Establishments in metropolitan areas employed over fivesixths of all workers and nine-tenths of professional,
administrative, technical and clerical employees within the
scope of the survey. Similarly, metropolitan areas ac­
counted for nine-tenths of the employees in occupations
for which salary data were developed.
These occupations included more than 1,708,000 em­
ployees, or almost one-fifth of the professional, administra­
tive, technical, and clerical personnel in establishments
covered by the survey. Employment in occupations varied
widely, reflecting not only actual differences among occu­
pations, but also differences in the range of duties and
responsibilities covered by the occupational definitions.
Among professional and administrative occupations, the
eight levels of engineers included 431,100 employees,
whereas two other occupational categories (chief account­
ants and job analysts) each included fewer than 2,500 em­
ployees. Accounting clerks and secretaries made up just over
one-half of the 791,100 employees in the clerical occupa­
tions studied. Selected drafting occupations had aggregate
employment of 92,600; five engineering technician levels
together had 100,900; and the five computer operator
levels for which salary data could be published, 58,700.
About one-half of the workers in the selected occupa­
tions were women.3 The proportion of women varied
significantly, however, among the 21 survey occupations.
For example, women accounted for more than 90 percent
of the clerical employees but for less than 5 percent of the

Summary

Average salaries o f workers in occupations covered by
this survey rose 7.8 percent from March 1978 to March
1979, the third largest annual increase recorded since the
survey was begun in 1960. Increases for the 11 professional,
administrative, and technical support occupations surveyed
ranged from 6.5 percent for auditors to 8.6 percent for job
analysts; the average increase was 7.7 percent. Increases for
clerical occupations surveyed averaged 7.8 percent; in­
creases ranged from 5.5 percent for file clerks to 12.1
percent for stenographers.1 The unusually large gain for
stenographers can be attributed partly to the decreasing
incidence of the job and its concentration in higher paying
industries.
Average monthly salaries for the 89 occupational levels
varied from $589 for clerks engaged in routine filing to
$4,747 for the highest level in the attorney series. For most
of the occupations, salary levels in metropolitan areas and
in large establishments were higher than the average for all
establishments within the full scope of the survey. Salary
levels and reported standard weekly hours in finance
industries were generally lower than those in other major
industry divisions represented in the survey.
Characteristics o f the survey

This survey, the 20th in an annual series, provides
nationwide salary averages and distributions for 89 work
level categories covering 21 occupations. It relates to
establishments in all areas of the United States, except
Alaska and Hawaii, engaged in the following industries:
Mining; construction; manufacturing; transportation, com­
munications, electric, gas, and sanitary services; wholesale
trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and
selected services. The minimum size of establishments
surveyed is either 50, 100, or 250 employees, depending on
the industry.2
Occupational definitions in this study permit employees
to be classified by duties and responsibilities into appro­
priate work levels—
designated by Roman numerals, with

R esults of the March 1978 survey were presented in National
Survey o f Professional, Administrative, Technical and Qerical Pay,
March 1978, Bulletin 2004 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1978).

3Whenever possible, data were collected for men and women
separately. Bureau field representatives were unable to obtain data
by sex for about 6 percent of the workers.

2For a full description of the scope of the 1979 survey, see
appendix A.




1

chief accountants and engineers. Salary levels for women
were typically below those for men in the same occupa­
tion and level—
generally by 5 percent or less; in 11 occu­
pational work levels average salaries for women exceeded
those of men. Occupations and work levels in which women
accounted for 5 percent or more of the employment
identified by sex were distributed as follows:4
W omen
(percen t)
95 or m ore ................

90-94

........................

85-89
80-84
70-74
45-4 9

.......................
........................
.......................
.......................

40-4 4
35-39

.......................
........................

30-3 4

.......................

25-29

........................

20-24

.......................

15-19

.......................

10-14

.......................

5-9

............................

Changes in salary levels

Text table 1 presents increases in average salaries
between annual survey periods since 1961 for the
occupations studied.5 Also shown are average percent
changes for the two broad occupational groups covered by
the survey (the professional, administrative, and technical
support group; and the clerical group) and the average
percent change for the two groups combined.
The 7.8-percent increase in white-collar salaries in the
year ended March 1979 was the third largest recorded since
the series was begun. It was exceeded only by the increases
in 1975 and 1978. Clerical salaries rose 7.8 percent in the
March 1978-79 period; salaries of professional, administra­
tive, and technical support occupations were up 7.7
percent.

O ccu pation and level
A ccou n tin g clerks I, file clerks I
and II, k ey entry operators I and
II, personnel clerks I, II, and III,
secretaries I, II, III, IV, and V,
general stenographers, senior
stenographers, and typ ists I and
II
A ccou n tin g clerks II, file clerks
III, and personnel clerks IV and
V
A ccou n tin g clerks III
A ccou n tin g clerks IV
Job analysts II
Messengers, buyers I, and com ­
puter operators II
Job analysts III
A ccou n tan ts I, chem ists I, and
drafters I
Job analysts IV, and com puter
operators I and III
A ccou n tan ts II, auditors I, pub­
lic accountants I, and engineer­
ing technicians I
A uditors II, public accountants
II, attorn eys I, directors o f per­
son n el I, chem ists II, and
drafters II
A ccou n tan ts III, public a cco u n t­
ants III, attorneys II, buyers II,
directors o f personnel II, engi­
neering technicians II, and com ­
puter operators IV
A uditors III, attorneys III, chem ­
ists III, drafters III, and com ­
puter operators V
A ccou n tan ts IV, auditors IV,
public accountants IV, buyers
III, chem ists IV, engineers I and
II, engineering technicians III,
and drafters IV.

Among the 17 occupations for which comparable data
were available from the previous year, the smallest increases
were for file clerks at 5.5 percent, and auditors at 6.5
percent. Largest increases were recorded for stenographers,
at 12.1 percent, and attorneys at 8.9 percent.
To show changes in salaries since 1961 for different
levels of work, occupational classifications were grouped
into the three broad categories described in text table 2.
Group A contains survey classifications which equate to
grades 1-4 of the General Schedule for Federal white-collar
employees; group B covers GS grades 5-10; and group C,
grades 11-15. (See appendix D, table D-l, for a listing of
survey classifications that equate to each GS grade.)
In general, average salaries increased more for higher
occupational levels (group C) than for the two lower groups
from 1976 to 1979. Between 1966 and 1971, however, the
middle occupational levels (group B) typically showed
larger annual increases than did the lower or higher levels.
From 1971 to 1976 the largest gains were usually reported
by the lower occupational group (group A). Salaries of
occupational levels in group C show the largest cumulative
increase over the entire 1961-79 period—173.4 percent,
compared with 156.7 and 159.1 percent for groups A and
B, respectively.
Another method of examining salary trends is to
combine the data into the four occupational groups shown
in chart I. Increases from 1978 to 1979 amounted to 8.1
percent for the experienced professional and administrative
group; 6.7 percent for the entry and developmental
professional and administrative group; 7.2 percent for the

^Unlike earlier surveys, this distribution is limited to workers for
which data by sex could be obtained. This change resulted in a
somewhat higher proportion of women being reported in most
occupational levels. In 78 occupational levels, these changes
amounted to 5 percent or less. In the remaining 11 levels the
differences were: Buyers I (6 percent); accounting clerks II, III, and
IV (8, 6, and 8 percent, respectively); key entry operators (6
percent); personnel clerks IV and V (11 and 22 percent, respect­
ively); secretaries V (7 percent); general stenographers (8 percent),
senior stenographers (8 percent); and typists I and II (6 and 8
percent, respectively).




5Beginning in 1965, data are for establishments in metropolitan
areas and nonmetropolitan counties; before 1965, data are for
metropolitan areas only. Establishments employing fewer than 250
workers were excluded before 1966.

2

T e x t table 1. Percent increases in average salaries, 1961-79, b y occu p a tio n and group

1961
to
1962

1962
to
1963

1963
to
1964

1964
to
1965

1965
to
1966

Ail survey occupations1 .......................
3
*

2.9

3 .0

3.1

3.1

3.3

Professional, administrative, and technical
support3....................................................................
A ccountants.....................................................
A uditors ..........................................................
C h ief acc ou n t a n t s ........................................
A tto rn e y s ..........................................................
B u y e rs ...............................................................
Job an a ly s ts .....................................................
Directors o f p e rs o n n e l.................................
C h e m is ts...........................................................
Engineers ..........................................................
Engineering te c h n ic ia n s ..............................
Drafters* ..........................................................
C om puter o p erato rs......................................
C lerical3...........................................................................
Accounting clerks...........................................
File clerks .......................................................
Key entry op erato rs......................................
Messengers.......................................................
S ecreta rie s.......................................................
S te n o g ra p h e rs ................................................
T y p is ts ...............................................................

3 .0
2.8
2.9
2.6
3.2
<4 >
1.4
3.7
3.9
2.6
(4 )
3.2
(4 )
2.8
3 .0
(3 )
(3 )
2.6
(4 )
(3 )
2.5

3.3
3.3
3.6
2.8
4 .6
(4 )
2.6
3 .0
3 .8
4 .4
2.9
3.6
<4 )
2.6
2.5
2.6
2.5
2.8
(4 )
2.5
2.6

3 .4
2.8
3.1
4 .8
3 .3
(4 )
3.5
4.6
3 .3
2.9
3.6
2.6
<4 )
2.7
2.8
3.1
2.7
2.3
(4 )
2.4
2.6

3.7
3.5
3.9
3.9
4.2
(4 )
4.3
3 .5
3.9
3.2
2.3
(3 )
<4 )
2.4
2.2
2.2
2.3
3 .0
(4 )
2.3
2.5

1971
to
1972*

1972
to
1973

Occupation and group

1970
to
1971

1967
to
1968

1968
to
1969

19
to
1 9 70

4 .5

5.4

5.7

6.2

3.6
3.8
3.8
3.3
4 .0
(3 )
5.4
3.6
4 .8
3.7
2.8
1.5
(4 )
3 .0
3 .0
2.9
3.7
2.8
<4 )
2.9
2.6

4 .2
4.6
4.8
5.1
3.2
4.2
3.4
3.8
4 .4
4.3
3.7
3.5
(4 )
4.8
3.3
5.1
5.2
5.4
(3 )
4.6
5.4

5.5
5.7
5.5
5.5
5.3
4.9
7.0
5 .4
5.1
5.4
5.1
5.3
(4 )
5.3
4.7
6.8
4.9
6.2
4.6
4.9
5.8

5.8
7 .0
7.2
5.8
(3 )
6.6
2.1
5.4
6 .5
6 .2
5.8
5.8
(4 )
5.5
4.7
5.5
5.3
6.7
5.3
5.9
5.7

6.2
6.7
7 .0
7.1
7.1
6.1
4.1
7.4
5.9

1973
to
1974

1 9 74
to
1975

1975
to
1976

1976
to
1977

1 9 77
to
1978

1978
to
1979

6.9

7.9

7.8

8 .3
8 .3
8.2
8 .0
9.1
7.8
7.2
10.0
9 .0
9 .0
7.1
7.1
8 .5
7.4
6.2
9.7
7.1
6 .0
6 .5
8 .2
8 .0

7.7
8 .0
6 .5
7.7
8.9
7 .0
8.6
7.5
7.6
8 .4
7.6
<3 >
7.2
7.8
(3 )
5.5
6.8
6.8
7.3
12.1
8 .5

1966
to
19671

A ll survey occupations3 .......................

6.6

5.8

5.4

6 .4

9 .0

7.0

Professional, adm inistrative, and technical
support3....................................................................
A cco un tan ts.....................................................
A u d ito rs ............................................................
C hief accountants...........................................
A tto rn e y s ..........................................................
B u y e rs ...............................................................
Job a n a ly s ts .....................................................
Directors o f p e rs o n n e l.................................
Chem ists............................................................
E ng ineers..........................................................
Engineering te c h n ic ia n s ..............................
D rafters*............................................................
C om pu ter op erato rs......................................
Clerical3 .........................................................................
Accounting clerks...........................................
File c l e r k s ........................................................
Key entry o p erato rs......................................
Messengers.......................................................
S ecreta rie s.......................................................
Stenographers..................................................
T y p is ts ...............................................................

6.7
6.7
7.0
9.1
5 .0
7.0
7.7
8 .0
5.5
5.7
6 .5
5.6
(4 )
6 .5
6 .0
6.1
7.0
6.7
6 .6
7.5
6.1

5.5
5.6
5.5
3.9
6.1
6.3
6.8
3.9
5.1
5.2
5.1
7.2
(4 )
6.1
6 .0
5.5
6.8
6.3
6.1
6 .4
5.7

5.4
4 .9
5.2
5.8
6.3
5.0
5.2
7.5
3.7
5.1
4.7
6.2
<4 )
5.4
4.6
5.9
5.4
5.1
5.1
5.2
4 .0

6.3
6.1
5.2
7.2
5.8
6 .0
6.1
7.2
7.1
5.4
6.0
6.7
<3 )
6 .4
6.9
5.4
7.3
5.6
(3 )
6 .5
6.7

8.3
9.8
6.8
8.6
7.6
9.2
7.5
6.1
10.1
8 .4
9.0
8 .0
(4 )
9.6
7.7
9.6
9.9
10.1
(4 )
11.6
9.9

6.7
6.4
5.5
6.6
6.1
6.7
6 .0
7.8
6.6
6 .8
8.1
7.4
(3)
7.3
7.2
6.4
7.6
7.4
(3 )
8 .0
7.1

1 Survey data did n o t represent a 12-m onth period due to change
in survey tim ing. Data have been prorated to represent a 12-m onth
interval.
3
Data fo r 1 adm inistrative occupation (managers o f office
services, last surveyed in 1 9 6 8 ), 1 clerical supervisory occupation
(keypunch supervisors, surveyed fro m 1 9 7 0 to 1 9 7 6 ), and 3 clerical
occupations (bookkeeping machine operators last surveyed in 19 64,
and switchboard operators and tabulating-m achine operators, last




7.1
7.8
6.8
10 .5
5.4
7.0
6.5
9.1
7.0
6 . 4 ___
c 7.2
6 .0
5.4
6.6
6.9
5.5
5.9
7.5
6 .4
7.9
6.2

6 .3
4.9
(4 )
6.2
6.2
5.5
6 .4
6 .3
6 .4
5.8
6 .0

surveyed in 1 9 7 0 ), no t shown above, are included in th e all sur­
vey and th e broad occupational group averages fo r th e periods
during which th ey were surveyed.
3 Comparable data not available fo r both years.
4 N ot surveyed.
5 includes drafter-tracers.
N O TE :

For m ethod o f com putation, see appendix A.

Chart 1. Increases in average salaries for selected occupational groups, 1961 to 1979
Percent increase

______

Experienced professional and administrative

Entry and developmental professional and
administrative
—,

6

—

8

—

6

—

Technical support

8 --Clerical

6

—

Mean
increase
1961
to
1979




Mean
increase
1961
to
1966

Mean
increase
1966
to
1971

Mean
increase
1971
to
1976

4

1976
to
1977

1977
to
1978

1978
to
1979

technical support group; and 7.7 percent for the clerical
group.6
Salary increases for the entry and developmental profes­
sional and administrative group averaged 5.2 percent over
the 18 year period—
less than the increases for the technical
support (5.3 percent), clerical (5.4 percent), and the
experienced professional and administrative groups (5.8
percent).7

plexity of the accounting system, and, to a lesser degree,
the size of the professional staff directed. Chief accountants
at level I, who have authority to adapt the accounting
system established at higher levels to meet the needs of an
establishment with relatively few and stable functions and
work processes (directing one or two accountants), aver­
aged $2,121 a month. Chief accountants IV,9 who have
authority to establish and maintain the accounting pro­
gram, subject to general policy guidelines, for a company
with numerous and varied functions and work processes
(directing as many as 40 accountants), averaged $3,773 a
month. Almost two-thirds of the chief accountants who
met the requirements of the definitions for these four levels
were employed in manufacturing industries.
Public accountants were studied for the first time this
year. Among the four levels surveyed, average monthly sal­
aries ranged from $1,162 for entry level employees who are
receiving practical experience in applying the principles,
theories, and concepts of accounting and auditing to spe­
cific situations (level I) to $2,015 for public accountants
who direct the fieldwork for large or complex audits (level
IV). This occupation was found only in public accounting
firms in the selected service industry group.
Attorneys are classified into survey levels based upon the
difficulty of their assignments and their responsibilities. At­
torneys I, who include new law graduates with bar member­
ship and those performing work that is relatively uncompli­
cated due to clearly applicable precedents and wellestablished facts, averaged $1,562 a month. Attorneys in
the top level surveyed, level VI, averaged $4,747 a month.
These attorneys deal with legal matters of major impor­
tance to their organization, and are usually subordinate
only to the general counsel or an immediate deputy in very
large firms. Finance, insurance, and real estate industries
employed almost one-half of the attorneys, and manufac­
turing industries employed about one-fourth.10*
Buyers averaged $1,155 a month at level I, which in­
cludes those who purchase “off-the-shelf’ and readily avail­
able items and services from local sources. Buyers IV, who
purchase large amounts of highly complex and technical
items, materials, or services, averaged $2,126 a month. Man­
ufacturing industries employed 81 percent of the buyers in
the four levels.
In the personnel management field, four work levels of
job analysts and five levels of directors o f personnel were
studied.11 Job analysts II, the lowest level for which data
could be presented, averaged $1,278 compared with $2,019
for job analysts IV, who, under general supervision, analyze

Average salaries, March 19 79

Average monthly salaries for occupations studied (table
1) ranged from $589 for file clerks I to $4,747 for the top
level of attorneys surveyed. These extremes reflect the wide
range of duties and responsibilities represented by the work
levels surveyed. Average salaries for workers in various
occupational levels and a brief indication of duties and
responsibilities these levels represent are summarized in the
following paragraphs.8
Among the five levels of accountants surveyed, average
monthly salaries ranged from $1,149 for accountants I to
$2,479 for accountants V. Auditors in the four levels
defined for the survey had average salaries ranging from
$1,124 a month for auditors I to $2,058 for auditors IV.
Level I in both the accounting and auditing series included
trainees who had bachelor’s degrees in accounting or the
equivalent in education and experience combined. For level
III, the most heavily populated group in both series,
monthly salaries averaged $1,622 for accountants and
$1,692 for auditors. Sixty-four percent of the accountants
and 38 percent of the auditors were employed in
manufacturing industries. Large numbers of auditors were
also employed in the finance, insurance, and real estate
industries (37 percent); and in public utilities (14 percent).
C h ie f a c c o u n ta n ts —surveyed separately from
accountants—
include those who develop or adapt and direct
the accounting program for a company or an establishment
(plant) of a company. Levels are classified by the extent of
delegated authority and responsibility, the technical com­
6Work levels used to compute 1978-79 increases were:
Clerical-All clerical levels except accounting clerks and personnel
clerks. Technical support-All levels of engineering technicians, and
computer operators I, II, III, IV, and V. Entry and developmental
professional and administrative-Accountants I and II; auditors I
and II; attorneys I; job analysts II; chemists I and II; and engineers I
and II. Experienced professional and administrative-Accountants
III, IV, and V; auditors III and IV; chief accountants I, II, III, and
IV; attorneys II, III, IV, V, and VI; job analysts III and IV; directors
of personnel I, II, III, and IV; chemists III, IV, V, VI, VII, and VIII;
and engineers III, IV, V, VI, VII, and VIII.
A few survey levels, not readily identifiable with any of the four
occupational categories, were not used.
n
1966-67 and 1971-72 did not represent 12-month periods due
to changes in survey timing. Increases for these periods have been
prorated to represent a 12-month period.
*Classification of employees in the occupations and work levels
surveyed is based on factors detailed in the definitions in appendix
C.




’ Although chief accountants V, directors of personnel V, and
job analysts I were surveyed, as defined in appendix C, too few
employees in each occupational level met requirements for the level
to warrant presentation of salary figures.
10 The survey excludes establishments primarily offering legal
advice or legal services.
11 See footnote 9.

5

and evaluate a variety of the more difficult jobs and who
may participate in the development and installation of eval­
uation or compensation systems. Directors of personnel are
limited by definition to those who have programs that in­
clude, at a minimum, responsibility for administering a job
evaluation system, employment and placement functions,
and employee relations and services functions. Those with
significant responsibility for actual contract negotiation
with labor unions as the principal company representative
are excluded. Provisions in the definition weight various
combinations of duties and responsibilities to determine the
level. Among personnel directors, average monthly salaries
ranged from $1,916 for level I to $3,661 for level IV.12
Manufacturing industries employed 57 percent of the job
analysts and 68 percent of the directors of personnel in­
cluded in the study; the finance, insurance, and real estate
industries ranked next with 26 percent of the job analysts
and 13 percent of the directors of personnel.

Technicians engaged primarily in production or mainte­
nance work are excluded. Engineering technicians I, who
perform simple routine tasks under close supervision, or
from detailed procedures, averaged $902 a month. Engi­
neering technicians V, the highest level surveyed, averaged
$1,685 a month. That level includes fully experienced
technicians performing more complex assignments involving
responsibility for planning and conducting a complete
project of relatively limited scope, or a portion of a larger
and more diverse project in accordance with objectives,
requirements, and design approaches as outlined by the
supervisor or a professional engineer. Salaries for interme­
diate levels III and IV, at which a majority of the
technicians surveyed are classified, averaged $1,258 and
$1,469, respectively. As might be expected, most tech­
nicians defined were employed in manufacturing (81
percent) and in the selected services studied (12 percent),
with public utilities employing nearly all the rest (5
percent). Although the ratio of such technicians to engi­
neers studied was about 1 to 4 in all manufacturing
industries, a ratio of approximately 1 to 3 was found in
establishments manufacturing mechanical and electrical
equipment, and in research, development, and testing
laboratories, and 1 to 5 in public utilities.
The drafting series was revised this year and a new entry
level position, drafter I, was added. Among the five levels
currently surveyed, monthly salaries ranged from $783 for
drafters I, who trace or copy finished drawings, to $1,606
for drafters V, who work closely with design originators in
preparing unusual, complex, or original drawings. Drafters
were distributed by industry in about the same proportion
as engineers, with 69 percent in manufacturing, 8 percent in
public utilities, and 18 percent in the selected services.
Computer operators are classified on the basis of respon­
sibility for solving problems and equipment malfunctions,
the degree of variability of their assignments, and the rela­
tive level of sophistication of the equipment they operate.
Computer operators I whose work assignments consist of
on-the-job training averaged $766 a month. Computer oper­
ators III, the largest of this group surveyed, averaged
$1,001. At the highest publishable level, computer operator
V, the average monthly salary was $1,415.14
Among the survey’s eight clerical jobs, secretary was the
most heavily populated. Average monthly salaries for secre­
taries ranged from $863 at level I to $1,308 at level V. Av­
erage salaries of $911 and $1,038 were reported for general
and senior stenographers; and $700 and $844 for the two
levels of typists. Generally, average salaries for clerical
workers were highest in the public utilities, manufacturing,
and mining industries and lowest in the finance, insurance,
and real estate, and retail trade divisions.
The accounting clerk definition was revised for the 1979
survey, incorporating two additional work levels. Average

Chemists and engineers each are surveyed in eight levels.
Both series start with a professional trainee level, typically
requiring a B.S. degree. The highest level surveyed involves
either full responsibility over a very broad and highly com­
plex and diversified engineering or chemical program, with
several subordinates each directing large and important seg­
ments of the program; or individual research and consulta­
tion in difficult problem areas where the chemist or engi­
neer is a recognized authority and where solutions would
represent a major scientific or technological advance.13
Average monthly salaries ranged from $1,205 for chemists I
to $4,080 for chemists VIII, and from $1,445 for engineers
I to $3,768 for engineers VIII. Although at level I the aver­
age salaries of engineers exceeded those of chemists by 20
percent, the salary advantage of engineers over chemists de­
creased steadily with each level, until at levels IV, V, and
VI, the average salaries for both occupations were nearly
equal, and at level VIII the average salaries for chemists ex­
ceeded those for engineers by 8 percent.
Level IV represents the largest group in both the chemist
and engineer series; it includes professional employees who
are fully competent in all technical aspects of their assign­
ments, work with considerable independence, and in some
cases, supervise a few professional and technical workers.
Manufacturing industries accounted for 90 percent of all
chemists and 73 percent of all engineers; the selected ser­
vices accounted for 7 and 16 percent, respectively.
By definition, the five-level series for engineering tech­
nicians is limited to employees providing semiprofessional
technical support to engineers engaged in areas such as re­
search, design, development, testing, or manufacturing
process improvement, and whose work pertains to electri­
cal, electronic, or mechanical components or equipment.1

12 See footnote 9.
14
Although a sixth level of computer operator was surveyed, too
13
It is recognized in the definition that top positions of some
few establishments reported employees meeting requirements for
companies with unusually extensive and complex engineering or
chemical programs are above that level.
this level to warrant presentation of salary figures.




6

monthly salaries ranged from $687 for those performing
very simple and routine clerical accounting operations
(level I) to $1,134 for employees who maintain journals
or subsidiary ledgers of an accounting system (level IV).
Three-fourths of the accounting clerks were classified in
levels II and III, for which average salaries were $796 and
$947 a monm, respectively. Levels II and III are most
comparable to the two levels previously surveyed.
Surveyed for the first time this year were personnel
clerks (employment), who provide clerical and technical
support to personnel professionals. Salaries for the five lev­
els surveyed ranged from $748 a month for clerks perform­
ing routine tasks while receiving training and gaining exper­
ience (level I) to $1,376 a month for clerks providing tech­
nical support in processing a variety of complicated
personnel actions (level V). Nearly two-fifths of the classi­
fied personnel clerks were at level II, in which employees
process a variety of personnel documents, by selecting the
most appropriate precedent, rule, or procedure. They aver­
aged $890 a month.
In 19 of the 24 clerical work levels, employment in man­
ufacturing exceeded that in any of the nonmanufacturing
divisions within the scope of the survey; highest employ­
ment totals in the other 5 levels (file clerks I, II, III, mes­
senger, and typist I) were in the finance, insurance, and real
estate division. Women constituted 90 percent or more of
the employees in 14 of the clerical work levels; men consti­
tuted more than one-half in only one (messengers).

T e x t table 2. Percent increases in average salaries, 1961-79, b y
w ork level category.

Period

19 61 -1 9 6 2 .......................
1 9 62-1 963 .......................
1 9 6 3 -1 9 6 4 .......................
1 9 6 4 -1 9 6 5 .......................
19 65 -1 9 6 6 .......................
1 9 6 6 - 1 9 6 7 * .......................
1967-1 968 .......................
1 9 68-1 969 .......................
1 9 6 9 -1 9 7 0 .......................
19 70-1971 .......................
1 9 7 1 - 1 9 7 2 '.......................
19 72 -1 9 7 3 ......................
19 73 -1 9 7 4 .......................
1974-1 975 .......................
19 75 -1 9 7 6 .......................
1976-1 977 .......................
1977-1 978 .......................
1 9 78-1 979 .......................
1 9 6 1 -1 9 7 9

Group B
(GS grades
5-10)

Group C
(GS grades
11-15)

2.8
2.7
2.7
2.2
2.9
4.5
5.1
5.5
6.2
6.2
6.3
5.5
6.2
9.1
7.6
6.9
7.5
7.2

2.6
4 .0
2.6
3.3
3.7
4.8
5.8
6.5
6.3
6.3
5.2
4 .4
5.7
8.6
6 .4
6.3
8 .0
7.5

3.5
3.7
3.5
4.2
4.2
4.1
4.7
5.9
6 .4
6.2
5.6
5.7
6.2
8 .8
6.5
7.7
8.8
8 .0

156.7

159.1

17 3.4

'A c tu a l survey-to-survey increases have been prorated to a 12m onth period.
N O T E : For m ethod of com putation, see appendix A. For detail
on GS grades, see appendix D.

administrative, and technical support occupations although
for the numerically important engineer and engineering
technician occupations the proportion was 49 percent. The
proportion was 27 percent for employees in the clerical
occupations.
Salary levels in large establishments expressed as a
percent of those in all establishments combined ranged
from 99 to 125 and averaged 108 for the 78 occupational
levels. Salary levels in large establishments exceeded all­
establishment averages by 5 percent or more in all but two
of the clerical levels (general and senior stenographers), but
in only 33 of 56 nonclerical levels, as shown by the
following tabulation (all-establishment average for each
occupational level =100 percent):

Salary levels in m etropolitan areas

For most occupational levels, average salaries in metro­
politan areas (table 2) were slightly higher than the national
averages (table 1). In only two instances (computer opera­
tors II and personnel clerks II), however, did these
differences exceed 1.0 percent.
About nine-tenths of the employment in the survey
occupations was in metropolitan areas. The proportions var­
ied, however, among occupations and work levels. Nearly
all attorneys, for example, but only about four-fifths of the
directors of personnel and chief accountants, were em­
ployed in metropolitan areas. In 65 of the 89 work levels,
90 percent or more of the employment was in metropolitan
areas. It is apparent, therefore, that for most work levels,
salaries in nonmetropolitan counties could have little effect
upon the averages for all establishments combined.

Professional,
adm in istrative,
an d tech n ical
56

22

95-99 p e r c e n t ..............................
100 -1 0 4 p e r c e n t ........................
105 -1 0 9 p e r c e n t ........................
110 -1 1 4 p e r c e n t ........................
115 percent and over
............

Table 3 presents separate data for 78 occupational work
levels in large establishments. Included are the proportions
of employees working in large establishments and their
salary levels relative to all employees covered by the survey.
Large establishments accounted for 34 percent of all
employees in the 78 occupational levels—
ranging from 10
percent for file clerks I to 71 percent for the highest levels
of engineers and engineering technicians studied. The
proportion was near 33 percent for most professional,

Clerical

T otal number o f levels . . .

Salary levels in large establishments




.......................

Group A
(GS grades
1-4)

1
22
20
11
2

2
8
8
4

As expected, the pay relatives were close to 100 for
those work levels where large establishments contributed
heavily to total employment and, consequently, to the
all-establishment average.
Salary distributions

Median monthly salaries (the amount below and above
which 50 percent of the employees are found) for most
work levels presented in table 1 were slightly lower than the
7

T e x t table 3. D istribu tion o f w o rk levels by degree o f salary dispersion

Num ber o f levels having degree o f dispersion1 o f—
Occupation

Num ber
of
w ork
levels

Under
15
percent

15 and
under
20
percent

2 0 and
under
25
percent

2 5 and
under
30
percent

30
percent
and
over

24

32

19

9

2

3

All o c c u p a tio n s ................................................

89

5

Accountants .........................................................................
Public accountants...............................................................
A u d it o r s ................................................................................
C hief a c c o u n ta n ts ...............................................................
A tto rn eys................................................................................
B u y e rs .....................................................................................
Job analysts...........................................................................
Directors of p e rs o n n e l.......................................................
C h e m is ts ................................................................................
Engineers................................................................................
Engineering te c h n ic ia n s ....................................................
D ra fte rs ...................................................................................
C om puter operators ..........................................................
Clerical w o rk e rs ....................................................................

5
4
4
4
6
4
3
4
8
8
5
5
5
24

_
3
—
1
—

—

—

2
2
1

—

—

—
—
—
1
—
—

1
1
4
7
2
—
1
1

2
1
4
4
2
2
3
—
3
2

—

—

—

6

—
1
—

_
—
—

—

—

—

1
—
—
—
—
—
—
—

—

—
1
1
—
—
3
4
9

—

8

1 Degree of dispersion equals th e salary range of th e m iddle 50
percent of employees in a w ork level expressed as a percent o f th e
median salary fo r th at level.

include salary structures within establishments which pro­
vide for a range of rates for each grade level; variations in
occupational employment among industries, as illustrated
in table 7 and chart 4; and salary variations among regions,
particularly for clerical occupations.15 Clerical employees
usually are recruited locally while professional and adminis­
trative positions tend to be recruited on a broader regional
or national basis.

weighted averages (means) cited earlier (i.e., salaries in the
upper halves of the arrays affected averages more than
salaries in the lower halves). The relative difference between
the mean and the median was less than 2 percent for 36 of
the 89 work levels, from 2 to 4 percent in 31 work levels,
and from 4 to 7.8 percent in the other 22 levels.
Percent distributions of employees by monthly salary
are presented for professional and administrative occupa­
tions in table 4, for technical support occupations in table
5, and for clerical occupations in table 6. Within all 89
work levels, salary rates for the highest paid employees
were more than twice those of the lowest paid employees.
The absolute spread between highest and lowest paid
workers within a given work level tended to widen with
each rise in work level for most occupations. Individual
salaries between work levels overlapped substantially in all
occupations. Ranges in salary rates of employees in
established pay grades or work levels within salary struc­
tures of individual firms also often overlapped substantially.
The middle 50 and 80 percent of the salary range, and
the median salary for each occupational work level, are
shown in charts 2 and 3. The charts point up occupational
pay relationships as well as the typically greater degree of
salary dispersion associated with the higher work levels in
each occupational series.
Expressing the salary range of the middle 50 percent of
employees in each work level as a percent of the median
salary permits comparison of salary ranges and eliminates
extremely low and high salaries from each comparison. As
shown in text table 3, the degree of dispersion ranged from
15 to 30 percent of the median salary in 75 of the 89 work
levels. The degree of dispersion tended to be greatest among
clerical occupations.
Differences in salaries within work levels reflect a variety
of factors other than duties and responsibilities. These




Pay differences by industry

By combining data for all levels of work studied in each
occupation, relative salary levels in major industry divisions
may be compared to each other and to salary levels in all
industries combined (table 8).
Relative salary levels for the 13 professional, administra­
tive, and technical support occupations in manufacturing
industries tended to be closest to the average for all
industry divisions. However, manufacturing contributed
more to total employment than any other industry division
for all but two (attorneys and public accountants) of the 13
occupations. Relative salary levels in the mining and public
utilities industry divisions were generally the highest.
For most occupations studied, relative salary levels were
lower in retail trade and in finance, insurance, and real
estate than in other industry divisions. Where retail trade
and the finance industries contributed a substantial propor­
tion of total employment in an occupation, the average
salary for all industries combined was lowered, and relative
levels in industries such as manufacturing and public
utilities tended to be above the all-industry level. For
15
For analysis o f interarea pay differentials in clerical salaries,
see Area Wage Surveys: Metropolitan Areas, United States and
Regional Summaries, 1976, Bulletin 1900-82 (Bureau o f Labor
Statistics, 1979), and Wage Differences Among Metropolitan Areas,
1977, Summary 78-11 (Bureau o f Labor Statistics, 1978).

8

Chart 2. Salaries in professional and technical occupations, March 1979
Median monthly salaries and ranges within which fell 50 percent and 80 percent of employees

0

Occupation
and level

$500

$1,000 $1,500 $2,000 $2,500 $3,000 $3,500 $4,000 $4,500 $5,000 $5,500 $6,000 $6,500

Accountants

I
IV
V
Auditors

I
V
Public
accountants

I
II
V

Chief I
accountants II
IV
Attorneys I
II
III
IV
V
VI
Chemists I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
Engineers I
II
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
Engineering I
technicians II
III
IV
V
Drafters I
IV
V
Computer |
operators II
III
IV
V




9

Chart 3. Salaries in administrative and clerical occupations, March 1979
Median monthly salaries and ranges within which fell 50 percent and 80 percent of employees
Occupation
and level

0

Buyers I
II
III
IV
Job analysts II
III
IV
Directors I
of personnel II
III
IV
Accounting I
clerks II
III
IV
File clerks I
II
III
Key entry I
operators II
Messengers
Personnel I
clerks H
III
IV
V
Secretaries I
II
III
IV
V
Stenographers,
general
Stenographers,
senior
Typists I
II




10

Chart 4. Relative employment in selected occupational groups by industry division, March 1979

Occupational group

Accountants and
chief accountants1
a ja a S iM

Auditors

Attorneys
IJ.'T....
JJIllltt

Buyers

Directors of personnel
and job analysts

Chemists

Engineers

Engineering technicians
and drafters

r ' .'• X v
.

.vtfSW:

Computer operators

MMm m
Wmmm
W P*

Clerical employees

wMmmk

__l
and
construction

utilities

Public accountants are not included. This occupation is found only in accounting, auditing, and
bookkeeping services in the selected services industry group.




V ////////y

11

insurance,
and
real estate

selected
services

example, relative pay levels for file clerks (109 percent of
the all-industry level in manufacturing and 120 percent in
public utilities) reflected the influence of lower salaries for
the large proportion (58 percent) of these workers em­
ployed in the finance industries. The finance industries,
however, also reported lower average standard weekly hours
than other industries surveyed, as shown in table 9.
Average standard w eekly hours

the predominant workweek of the office work force was
used as the standard workweek. The distribution of average
weekly hours (rounded to the nearest half hour) is
presented in table 9 for each occupation by major industry
division surveyed. Average weekly hours were lower in
finance, insurance, and real estate (38 hours in most
occupations) than in the other industry divisions (39 or 40
hours). Average weekly hours have been stable over the past
decade.16

The length of the standard workweek, on which the
regular straight-time salary is based, was obtained for
individual employees in occupations studied. When indi­
vidual weekly hours were not available, particularly for
some higher level professional and administrative positions,

1 4 For information on scheduled weekly hours of office workers
employed in metropolitan areas, see Area Wage Surveys, Selected
Metropolitan Areas, 1977, Bulletin 1950-76 (Bureau o f Labor
Statistics, 1979).

Although only nationwide salary data are presented in this bulletin, salary data for clerical, drafting,
and computer operator occupations are available for each of the metropolitan areas in which the Bureau
conducts area wage surveys. These area reports also include information on supplementary benefits such
as paid vacations, holidays, and health, insurance, and pension plans relating to nonsupervisory office
workers. A directory of occupational wage surveys by State and area is available at the Bureau’s regional
offices listed on the inside back cover of this bulletin.




12

Table 1. Average salaries: United States
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry,1 United States except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1979)

Annual salaries4

Monthly salaries4

Occupation and level2

Number
of
employees3

Middle range3

Middle range3
Mean

Median

Mean
First
quartile

Median

Third
quartile

First
quartile

Third
quartile

ACCOUNT AMT S AND A UD ITO R S
10, 279
I B , 202
31,749
19,512
6,5 94

S I , 149
1 ,3 9 2
1,6 22
2 ,0 0 4
2 ,4 79

$1,133
1,3 35
1 ,5 9 4
1,9 75
2 ,4 50

$1,032
1,2 08
1 ,4 30
1,7 97
2 ,2 07

$1,238
1 ,5 3 7
1 ,7 8 1
2 ,1 80
2 , 707

$ 13 ,7 9 0
16,706
19,468
24,045
29,744

$13,595
16,020
19,127
23,700
29,400

$12,383
14,495
17,160
21,561
26,48 9

$14,860
18,444
21,368
26,160
32,487

2 ,1 79
2 ,9 66
4 ,7 57
3 ,3 56

1, 124
1 ,374
1 ,6 92
2 ,0 58

1 ,100
1 ,3 5 0
1 ,6 7 3
2 ,0 42

1 ,0 0 7
1 ,2 0 8
1 ,4 9 9
1,8 74

1 ,2 01
1 ,5 0 0
1 ,8 85
2, 235

13,482
16,493
20,303
2 4,700

13,200
16,200
20,074
24,506

12,085
14,494
17,993
22,491

14,411
1 8 , QUO
22,620
26,820

I ...............................................
I I ............................................
I I I ..........................................
I V .............................................

7,1 77
6 ,8 62
5,3 97
2 ,721

1, 162
1 ,3 1 8
1 ,5 98
2,0 15

1 ,166
1 ,2 92
1 ,5 6 6
1 ,9 16

1,1 25
1,2 33
1 ,4 5 0
1 ,7 0 8

1 ,2 08
1,3 75
1 ,6 6 7
2 , 249

13,939
15,817
1 9,174
24,183

13,994
15,504
18,792
22,991

13,495
14,794
17,400
2 0,496

14,494
16,505
20,004
26,989

I ..................................................
I I ...............................................
I I I .............................................
I V ...............................................

728
1 ,0 52
498
165

2 ,121
2 ,4 67
3,0 47
3 ,773

2 ,167
2 ,4 99
3 ,0 20
3,6 93

1 ,916
2 ,1 66
2 ,8 07
3 ,4 99

2 ,252
2 , 700
3 ,3 32
4 ,0 48

2 5,457
29,604
36,561
4 5,27 4

26,004
29,988
36,236
44,319

22,991
2 5,99 0
33,687
41,983

27,024
32,400
39,984
48,581

1.3 05
2 ,6 0 9
3 ,4 4 0
2 ,7 50
1 ,8 75
742

1 ,562
1 ,956
2 ,4 70
3 ,1 5 1
3 ,800
4,7 47

1,5 04
1 ,9 58
2 ,4 58
3 ,0 77
3 ,6 6 7
4 ,6 66

1,2 99
1,7 50
2,1 40
2 ,7 99
3 ,382
4 ,2 50

1 ,7 7 0
2, 129
2 ,7 49
3 ,4 48
4 ,1 65
5, 269

18,740
23,468
2 9,644
3 7,807
45,599
56,964

18,048
23,496
29,496
36,924
44,300
55,992

15,594
2 1,000
2 5,680
33,587
40,584
51,000

21,240
25,549
32,987
41,376
4 9 , 9B0
63,225

6 ,9 5 9
17,392
15,964
5 ,163

1 ,1 5 5
1 ,4 26
1,7 67
2,1 26

1 ,1 05
1 ,4 0 4
1 ,7 2 3
2,0 91

1,0 00
1 ,2 5 5
1 ,5 6 3
1 ,8 7 0

1 ,2 6 6
1 ,5 7 5
1,9 38
2 ,355

13,859
17,107
2 1,200
25,508

13,260
16,848
20,674
25,092

1 2,000
1 5,060
18,760
22,440

15,194
18,900
23,256
28,260

ACCOU NTAN TS I ..................................................................
ACCO UNT AN TS I I ................................................................
A CCO UNT AN TS I I I .............................................................
ACCOU NTAN TS IN . .............................................................
A C CO U NT A N TS V ..................................................................
A U D IT O R S
A U D IT O R S
A U D IT O R S
A U D IT O R S
P U B L IC
P U B L IC
P U B L IC
P U B LI C

I ...........................................................................
I I ........................................................................
I I I ................................. ...................................
I V ........................................................................

ACCOU NTAN TS
AC COUNTANTS
ACCO UNT AN TS
ACCO UNT AN TS

C r l l E F ACCOUNTANTS
C H I E F ACCOUNTANTS
C H I E F ACCOUNTANTS
C H I E F AC COUNTANTS

AT TO R N EY S
A T T OR N EY S
A T T OR N EY S
A T T OR N EY S
A T T O R N EY S
A T T OR N EY S
A T T O R N EY S

I .................... ...................................................
I I ............................ ........................................
I I I ...................................................................
I V .....................................................................
V ........................................................................
VI .....................................................................
BUYERS

BUYERS
BUYERS
BUYERS
BUYERS

I ................................................................................
I I .............................................................................
I I I ...........................................................................
I V ............................................................................
PERSONNEL

MANAGEMENT

UOB A N AL YS TS
UOB ANAL YS TS
UOB A NA LYS TS

I I .............................................................
I I I ..........................................................
I V .............................................................

395
667
484

1 ,2 7 8
1,6 75
2,0 19

1,2 08
1 ,649
1 ,9 8 0

1,1 50
1,478
1 ,800

1, 3 84
1 ,8 50
2 ,2 16

15,333
20,106
24,231

14,494
19,792
23,760

13,800
17,736
21,600

16,607
22,200
26,592

D IR EC T O R S
D IR E C T O R S
D IR E C T O R S
D IR E C T O R S

PERSONNEL I ....................................
PERSONNEL I I ..................................
PERSONNEL I I I ...............................
PERSONNEL I V ..................................

1 ,1 60
1 ,6 56
893
292

1 ,9 1 6
2 ,3 3 2
2 ,657
3 » 6b 1

1,8 70
2,2 91
2 ,7 50
3 ,6 50

1 ,6 58
2 ,083
2 ,5 42
3 ,3 50

2 ,1 7 1
2 , 541
3 ,1 49
3 ,9 40

22,996
27,981
3 4,285
43,933

22,439
27,489
32,997
43,798

19,897
2 4,990
30,502
4 0,200

26,052
30,488
37,785
47,280

3 ,1 68
5 ,5 88
11,437
10,858
8 ,4 19
4 ,6 61
1,3 91
330

1,205
1 ,4 4 7
1,7 52
2 ,1 2 2
2 ,5 69
2,9 36
3 ,501
4 ,0 80

1,185
1,4 31
1,7 47
2 ,1 10
2,5 65
2 ,857
3 ,3 13
3 ,860

1 ,0 6 7
1 ,3 0 4
1 ,5 6 6
1 ,9 2 5
2 ,3 47
2 ,6 40
3 ,0 90
3 ,4 50

1 ,3 00
1,5 97
1,915
2 ,2 9 1
2, 78 5
3,1 90
3 ,8 32
4 ,5 23

14,455
17,365
21,025
25,459
30,828
3 5,232
42,016
48,961

14,225
17,176
20,968
25,320
30,780
34,286
39,759
46,320

12,799
15,642
18,792
2 3,10 0
28,165
31,680
3 7,080
4 1,400

15,600
19,161
22,980
27,489
33,420
38,280
45,982
54,278

OF
OF
OF
OF

C HE MI S TS
C H E M IS T S
C H E M IS T S
C H E M IS T S
C H E M IS T S
C H EM IS TS
C H E M IS T S
C H E M IS T S
C H E M IS T S

AND ENGI NE ERS

I ..........................................................................
I I ........................................................................
I I I .....................................................................
IV ........................................................................
V ..........................................................................
VI ........................................................................
V I I .....................................................................
V I I I ..................................................................

See footnotes at end of table.




13

Table 1. Average salaries: United States—Continued
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry,1 United States except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1979)

Monthly salaries4

Occupation and level1
2

Number
of
employees3

I ........................................................................
I I .....................................................................
I I I ..................................................................
IV .....................................................................
V ........................................................................
VI ............................ ........................................
V I I .................................................................
V I I I ................................................................

Middle range5

Middle range5
Mean

Mean

Median
First
quartile

EN GI N EE R S
EN GIN EER S
EN G IN EE R S
EN GI N EE R S
EN GI N EE R S
EN GI N EE R S
EN GI N EE R S
EN GI N EE R S

Annual salaries4

First
quartile

Third
quartile

Third
quartile

21.203
39.636
94.991
123 .3 0 2
92.602
39.388
14,628
3 .3 28

*1,445
1 ,5 8 6
1,8 28
2 ,166
2 , 539
2.9U0
3,2 78
3 ,7 68

*1,450
1,570
1 ,8 0 8
2,1 50
2 ,5 1 1
2,8 76
3 ,2 80
3 ,750

*1,350
1,4 60
1 ,656
1 ,9 5 8
2.3 13
2 ,635
2,9 99
3 ,393

*1,547
1 ,7 0 0
1 ,980
2, 362
2 ,7 5 0
3, 132
3 ,5 4 1
4 , 050

*17,345
19,026
21,931
25,989
30,47 2
34,601
39,340
4 5,221

*17,100
18,840
21,691
25,800
30,137
34,517
39,366
45,000

* 1 6 ,2 0 0
17,520
19,872
23,496
27,757
31,620
35,986
40,721

*18 ,5 6 2
20,400
23,765
28,339
33,000
37,535
4 2,494
48,594

I .................................
I I ...............................
I I I ............................
I V .............. ...............
V .................................

4 ,5 55
16,784
28,225
32,545
18,745

902
1,0 57
1 ,2 58
1,4 69
1,6 85

869
1 ,034
1 ,2 3 8
1 ,4 5 4
1,679

782
925
1 ,1 0 0
1 ,3 2 0
1,5 21

978
1, 147
1,3 90
1,603
1,8 22

10,825
12,690
15,094
17,624
2 0,222

10,428
12,409
14,860
17,446
20,148

9,3 85
11,100
13,200
15,840
18,249

11,732
13,765
16,680
19,240
21,864

DR AFT ER S
DRAFTE RS
D RA FTE RS
DR AFT ER S
DRAFTE RS

1 ...........................................................................
I I ........................................................................
I I I .....................................................................
IV ........................................................................
V ...........................................................................

3,211
10,008
21.766
3 0 , 842
26,780

783
893
1.070
1 ,2 7 6
1 ,6 0 6

735
869
1,0 43
1 ,2 5 0
1 ,556

660
782
9 16
1,1 04
1 ,3 9 0

865
975
1,191
1 ,4 1 6
1,7 67

9 ,3 95
10,715
12,835
15,307
19,269

8 ,8 20
10,428
12,514
14,994
18,666

7 ,925
9 ,3 85
10,992
13,244
16,685

10,362
11,703
14,236
16,998
21,204

COMPUTER
COMPUTER
COMPUTER
COMPUTER
COMPUTER

OPERATORS I ...............................................
OPERATORS I I .............................................
OPERATORS I I I ..........................................
OPERATORS I V .............................................
OPERATORS V ...............................................

5 ,713
7 ,3 70
26,299
15,616
3 ,7 12

766
906
1,001
1 ,2 43
1 ,4 15

740
875
969
1 ,195
1,369

691
791
857
1 ,0 5 9
1,2 08

827
1,0 33
1, 121
1 ,3 90
1, 580

9 ,1 98
10,875
12,013
14,921
16,975

8 ,880
10,500
11,627
14,340
16,424

8 ,2 9 0
9 ,4 96
10,285
12,708
14,495

9 ,9 27
12,393
13,452
16,685
18,960

I ............................................ ..
I I ...............................................
I I I ............................................
I V ...............................................

23,963
83,137
60,838
24,304

687
796
947
1 ,134

652
756
906
1 ,100

595
669
792
9 50

730
869
1,0 69
1 ,3 0 8

8 ,2 48
9 ,5 5 5
11,367
13,606

7 ,821
9 ,0 7 2
10,871
13,200

7 ,1 40
8 ,0 30
9 ,5 0 6
11,400

8 ,7 60
10,428
12,826
15,694

I ..................................................................
I I ................................................................
I I I .............................................................

25,362
16,187
4 ,3 5 8

589
689
874

564
651
835

520
583
733

625
743
969

7 ,0 63
8,2 65
10,483

6 ,772
7,818
10,020

6 ,2 38
6 ,9 93
8 ,7 94

7,5 00
8,9 19
11,627

I ............................................
I I ..........................................

74,572
4 7 , 037

758
903

704
855

6 30
743

83 7
1 ,0 24

9 ,0 9 4
10,833

8,4 47
10,261

7 ,5 6 0
8 ,9 16

10,044
12,283

MESSENGERS ..........................................................................

T E C H N I C A L SUPPORT
ENGINEERING
E N G IN E E R IN G
EN G IN E E R IN G
ENGINEERING
ENGINEERING

TECHNICIANS
TECHNICIANS
TECHNICIANS
TECHNICIANS
TECHNICIANS

CLERICAL
A C C O U N T IN G
A C C O U N T IN G
A C C O U N T IN G
A C C O U N T IN G

CLERKS
CLER KS
CLERKS
CLER KS

F I L E CLERKS
F I L E CLERKS
F I L E CLERKS

KE Y ENT RY OPERATO RS
KE Y ENTRY OPERATO RS

18,869

676

624

556

721

8 ,1 12

7 ,487

6 ,6 7 4

8 ,6 55

I ....................................................
I I ..................................................
I I I ...............................................
I V ............................ ....................
V ....................................................

2 ,2 9 0
5,4 46
3 ,3 73
1 ,994
754

748
890
1 ,0 05
1,1 92
1 ,3 7 6

721
852
982
1 ,1 3 0
1,3 50

652
745
869
1 ,0 00
1 ,1 6 1

804
985
1, 143
1 ,3 6 5
1,4 65

6 ,979
10,683
12,060
14,298
16,518

8 ,655
10,219
11,784
13,556
l b , 200

7,8 21
8 ,9 40
10,428
12,000
13,932

9,6 46
11,820
13,713
16,378
17,580

S E C R E T A R I E S I ..................................................................
S E C R E T A R I E S I I ................................................................
S E C R E T A R I E S I I I .............................................................
S E C R E T A R IE S IV ................................................................
S E C R E T A R IE S V ..................................................................

38,628
79,328
92,373
49.983
17,187

8b3
948
1,0 72
1 ,1 7 3
1 ,3 0 8

834
915
1 ,0 4 0
1 ,1 4 7
1 ,2 9 0

7 50
8 04
905
998
1,1 00

950
1,055
1» 201
1,3 25
1,5 00

10,354
11,375
12 v 361
14,075
15,693

10,011
10,980
12,480
13,765
15,475

8 ,9 96
9 ,6 46
10,860
11,971
13,200

11,400
12,660
14,411
15,903
18,000

ST ENOGRAPHERS.
ST ENOGRAPHERS.

G E N E R A L ..........................................
SE N IO R ............................................

24,495
22,316

911
1 ,0 3 8

865
1 ,0 2 6

735
869

1 ,0 5 1
1 ,1 8 7

10,931
12,458

10,380
12,313

8 ,8 2 0
10,428

12,616
14, 244

I .............................................................................
I I ...........................................................................

45,988
28,346

700
844

652
799

5 96
695

758
944

8 ,3 98
10,125

7,821
9,5 94

7 ,1 47
8,3 42

9 ,0 9 6
11,327

PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL

TYPISTS
TYPISTS

CLERKS
CLERKS
CLERKS
CLERKS
CLERKS

1 For scope of study, see table A-1 in appendix A.
2Occupational definitions appear in appendix C.
3Occupational employment estimates relate to the total in all establishments within the scope
of the survey and not to the number actually surveyed. For further explanation, see appendix A.
4 Salaries reported are standard salaries paid for standard work schedules; i.e., the




straight-time salary corresponding to the employee's normal work schedule excluding overtime
hours. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded, but cost-of-living payments and incentive earnings
are included.
5The middle range (interquartile) is the central part of the array excluding the upper and
lower fourths of the employee distribution.

14

Table 2. Average salaries: M etropolitan areas
(Employment and average la lariat for telactad professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry, metropolitan areas,' United States except Alaska and Hawaii,
March 1979)
Monthly salaries4

Occupation and level3

Number
of
employees3

Annual salaries4

Middle range5
Mean

Middle range5
Mean

Median
First
quartile

Median
First
quartile

Third
quartile

Third
quartile

AC COUNT AMTS ANO A UO IT O R S
9» 359
16« 4 84
27,881
17,594
6 ,0 54

$1,153
1 ,4 0 0
1 ,6 32
2 ,0 09
2,4 81

$1,137
1 ,3 40
1,6 00
1 ,9 81
2 ,4 50

$1,033
1 ,2 14
1 ,4 3 7
1 ,8 0 0
2 ,2 07

$1,243
1 ,5 5 8
1,7 99
2 ,1 89
2 , 718

$13,B31
16,796
19,580
24,109
29,767

$13 ,6 4 4
16,080
19,200
23,774
29,400

$12,400
14,568
17,243
2 1,600
2 6,489

$ 14,916
18,693
21,586
26,268
32,616

2 ,1 6 9
2,9 11
4 ,5 36
3 ,2 60

1, 122
1 ,374
1,6 96
2 ,0 6 1

1 ,100
1 ,350
1 ,6 8 3
2 ,0 50

1,0 07
1,2 07
1 ,500
1 ,874

1,2 01
1,500
1 ,894
2 ,236

13,470
16,487
20,356
2 4,730

13,200
16,200
20,196
24,595

12,085
14,489
18,000
22,491

14,411
18,000
22,728
26,834

I ................................................
I I ............................................
I I I ..........................................
I V .............................................

7 , 177
6 ,8 6 2
5 ,3 97
2,7 21

1, 162
1 ,3 1 8
1 ,5 9 8
2,0 15

1 ,166
1,2 92
1 ,5 66
1,9 16

1 ,1 25
1 ,2 3 3
1 ,4 50
1 ,7 0 8

1,2 08
1,375
1 ,6 6 7
2, 249

13,939
15,817
19,174
24,183

13,994
15,504
18,792
22,991

13,495
14,794
17,400
20,496

14,494
16,505
20,004
26,989

1 ..................................................
I I ...............................................
I I I .............................................
I V ................................................

593
894
456
161

2 , 143
2,4 46
3 ,0 32
3,7 92

2 , 167
2 ,499
3 ,0 20
3 ,6 93

1 ,8 76
2 ,1 19
2,7 91
3 ,4 99

2 ,2 91
2 , 720
3 ,332
4 , 111

25,720
29,351
36,378
45,510

26,004
29,988
36,236
44,319

2 2,515
25,427
33,487
4 1,983

27,489
32,638
39,984
49,328

1 ,244
2 ,5 65
3 ,3 80
2 ,6 94
1 ,825
742

1 ,5 77
1 ,957
2 ,4 70
3 ,1 58
3,8 09
4 ,7 47

1,545
1 ,9 59
2 ,458
3 ,082
3,6 79
4 ,6 6 6

1,3 33
1 ,7 5 0
2 ,1 38
2 ,8 01
3 ,4 15
4 ,2 5 0

1 ,8 25
2, 129
2,7 49
3 ,4 58
4 , 165
5 ,2 6 9

18,925
23,486
29,646
37,895
45,706
56,964

18,541
23,511
29,496
36,985
44,148
55,992

15,994
2 1,00 0
25,652
33,617
40,98 4
51,000

21,900
25,549
32,987
41,496
49,980
63,225

6 ,121
14,747
14,134
4 , 927

1,1 59
1,435
1,7 77
2 ,1 30

1,105
1 ,4 0 7
1 ,7 3 3
2 ,1 00

1 ,0 0 5
1 ,259
1,5 71
1 ,868

1 ,2 7 3
1,582
1 ,9 4 9
2 ,3 6 6

13,908
17,217
21,327
25,563

13,260
16,882
20,793
25,200

12,059
15,114
18,854
22,420

15,277
18,982
23,391
28,389

JO B A NA LYS TS I I .............................................................
J O B ANAL YS TS I I I ..........................................................
J O B ANAL YS TS I V .................... .......................................

389
655
473

1,277
1 ,6 7 9
2 ,0 22

1,2 08
1,6 49
1,9 80

1 ,1 5 0
1,4 95
1 ,8 0 3

1,3 84
1 ,8 5 0
2 ,2 49

15,325
20,145
24,26 6

14,494
19,792
23,760

13,800
17,936
21,638

16,607
22,200
26,982

I ....................................
I I ..................................
I I I ...............................
I V ..................................

810
1,4 29
B45
269

1,9 35
2 ,315
2 ,853
3 ,6 4 1

1,9 52
2 ,291
2 ,7 49
3 ,6 5 0

1 ,6 65
2 ,0 5 0
2 ,5 4 2
3 ,3 50

2 ,2 00
2 , 520
3 ,1 52
3 ,8 75

23,226
2 7,785
34,231
43,687

23,428
27,489
32,987
43,798

19,980
24,600
3 0,502
40,200

26,400
30,240
37,828
46,500

2 ,9 61
5 ,1 5 8
10,335
9 ,3 5 5
7,1 79
4 ,0 11
1 ,2 8 8

1,2 06
1,449
1,762
2 ,1 2 6
2 ,5 5 5
2 ,9 40
3,4 81

1 ,1 9 0
1,4 31
1 ,7 5 5
2 ,1 16
2 ,557
2 ,8 75
3 ,2 7 4

1 ,0 69
1 ,3 0 7
1,5 75
1 ,9 4 0
2,3 32
2,6 40
3 ,0 79

1,300
1,5 97
1,9 25
2 ,2 9 1
2 ,7 60
3 ,178
3,8 15

14,478
17,388
21,143
25,510
30,654
3 5,275
4 1,770

14,277
17,175
21,060
25,390
30,688
34,500
39,284

12,829
15,684
18,900
23,280
27,989
3 1,680
36,949

15,600
19,161
23,100
27,493
33,120
38,136
45,782

ACCO UNT AN TS I ..................................................................
ACCO UNT AN TS I I ................................................................
A C CO U NT A N TS I I I ....................... .....................................
ACCO UNT AN TS I N ....................... ........................................
A C CO UNT AN TS V ..................................................................
A U O IT O R S
A U O IT O R S
A U O IT O R S
A U O IT O R S
P U B L IC
P U B L IC
P U B L IC
P U B L IC

1 ...........................................................................
11 ........................................................................
I I I .................................. .................................
I V ........................................................................

ACCOU NTAN TS
ACCOU NTAN TS
ACCO UNT AN TS
ACCO UNT AN TS

C H I E F ACCOUNTANTS
C H I E F ACCOUNTANTS
C H I E F ACCOUNTANTS
C H I E F ACCOUNTANTS

A TT OR N EY S
A T T OR N EY S
A T T O R N EY S
A T T OR N EY S
A T T OR N EY S
AT TO R N EY S
A T T OR N EY S

I ........................................................................
I I .....................................................................
I I I ..................................................................
I V .....................................................................
V .......................................................................
VI ......................................................................
BUYERS

BUYERS I ................................................................................
BUYERS I I .............................................................................
BUYERS I I I ...........................................................................
BUYERS IV .............................................................................
PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT

01 RECTORS
01 RECTORS
DIR EC TO R S
D IR E C T O R S

OF
OF
OF
OF

PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL

C HE MI ST S
C H E M IS TS
C H E M IS T S
C H E M IS TS
C H E M IS TS
C H E M IS T S
C H E M IS TS
C H E M IS T S

AND EN GIN EER S

I ..........................................................................
I I ........................................................................
I I I .....................................................................
IV ........................................................................
V ...........................................................................
V I ........................................................................
V I I .....................................................................

See footnotes at end of table.




15

Table 2. Average salaries: M etropolitan areas—Continued
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry, metropolitan areas,1 United States except Alaska and Hawaii,
March 1979)

Monthly salaries4

Occupation and level1
3
*

Number
of
employees3

Annual salaries4

Middle range3
Mean

Middle range3
Mean

Median
First
quartile

Median

Third
quartile

First
quartile

Third
quartile

19.381
36,020
86,984
116.970
87,203
37,769
14,217
3 ,2 14

S I , 442
1,588
1 ,8 3 3
2, 171
2 ,5 43
2 ,903
3 ,2 79
3 ,7 6 2

$1,450
1 ,5 74
1,8 15
2,1 59
2 ,517
2 ,8 8 2
3 ,2 80
3 ,749

$1,349
1 ,464
1,6 60
1 ,964
2 ,3 20
2 ,6 39
2 .9 99
3,3 75

$ 1 , 541
1 ,7 03
1 ,9 91
2 ,3 67
2 , 751
3, 134
3,5 41
4 , 035

$ 17 ,3 0 5
19,059
21,99 4
26,052
30,518
34,838
39,346
45,14 4

$17,400
18,892
21,780
25,914
30,200
34,584
39,366
44,982

$16 ,1 9 4
17,571
19,920
23,567
2 7,840
31,667
35,986
40,500

$18,493
20,439
23,892
28,405
33,012
37,603
4 2,494
48,420

I ..................................
I I ..............................
I I I ............................
I V ...............................
V .................................

3 ,932
14,884
24,964
29,930
18,004

903
1 ,0 5 8
1,2 60
1,4 72
1 ,6 8 8

869
1,0 32
1,243
1 ,4 5 4
1,6 82

775
919
1 ,100
1 ,3 2 1
1,524

1 ,0 0 0
1 ,1 5 1
1 ,3 90
1 ,6 08
1,8 26

10,840
12,698
15,120
17,662
20,260

10,428
12,388
14,912
17,446
20,178

9 ,3 02
11,030
13,200
15,851
18,291

12,000
13,809
16,685
19,292
21,912

GR A F T ER S
GRAFTERS
GRA FT ERS
GRAF TERS
GR A FT ER S

I ...........................................................................
I I ........................................................................
I I I .....................................................................
IV ........................................................................
V ...........................................................................

2 ,7 6 4
8 ,9 60
19,353
27,995
25,179

783
898
1 ,0 7 2
1 ,280
1 ,6 1 4

730
869
1 ,0 4 3
1 ,2 5 0
1 ,564

660
7 82
918
1 ,100
1,390

86 5
978
1,191
1,427
1,7 75

9 ,3 95
10,777
12,868
15,359
19,366

8,761
10,428
12,514
15,000
18,770

7 ,925
9 ,3 85
11,016
13,200
16,685

10,382
11,732
14,286
17,123
21,300

COMPUTER
COMPUTER
COMPUTER
COMPUTER
COMPUTER

OPERATORS
OPERATORS
OPERATORS
OPERATORS
OPERATORS

5 ,2 46
6,4 70
24,256
14,575
3 ,4 47

768
918
1,005
1 ,2 4 4
1 ,4 1 0

743
886
972
1,195
1 ,3 4 7

6 87
795
860
1 ,0 6 0
1 ,194

82 7
1 ,0 6 7
1,121
1 ,390
1 ,5 7 0

9 ,2 1 7
11,021
12,061
14,932
16,918

8 ,916
10,637
11,669
1 4 ,3 4 0
16,163

8,2 38
9 ,5 4 2
10,324
12,722
14,328

9 ,928
12,806
13,452
16,685
18,840

I ..................................................
I I ...............................................
I I I ............................................
I V ...............................................

22,375
73,914
55,399
22,643

689
801
953
1 ,1 3 5

652
760
912
1, 134

595
674
800
949

734
874
1 ,0 7 3
1 ,3 1 1

8 ,2 6 5
9 ,6 12
11,431
13,618

7,8 21
9 ,120
10,949
13,244

7 ,1 40
8,0 92
9 ,6 0 0
11,388

8 ,8 10
10,486
12,879
15,732

CLER KS I ...................................................................
CLERKS I I ................................................................
CLERKS I I I .............................................................

23,473
15,051
3 ,9 13

587
689
868

562
651
823

517
586
7 24

624
743
965

7 ,048
8,2 68
10,413

6 ,748
7,8 18
9,8 76

6 ,2 03
7 ,0 3 2
8,6 88

7,4 39
8 ,9 1 9
11,575

KEY ENTRY OPERATORS I ............................................
KEY ENTRY OPERATORS 11 ..........................................

68,023
43,391

763
908

713
859

634
7 47

847
1 ,0 3 6

9 , 156
10,891

8,5 51
10,313

7 ,6 12
8 ,9 68

10,167
12,430

M E S S E N G E R S ..................................... ....................................

EN GIN EER S
EN GI N EE R S
EN G IN EE R S
EN GI N EER S
EN G IN EE R S
E N GI N EE RS
EN G IN EE R S
EN GI N EE R S

I .......................................................................
I I .....................................................................
I I I ............................................. ....................
I f ............................... ....................................
V .............. .........................................................
VI ..........................................................
V I I ..................................................................
V I I I ................................................................
T E C H N I C A L SUPPORT

ENGINEERING
E N G IN E E R IN G
E N G IN E E R IN G
ENGINEERING
E N G IN E E R IN G

TECHNICIANS
TECHNICIANS
TECHNICIANS
TECHNICIANS
TECHNICIANS

I ...............................................
11 ............................................
I I I ..........................................
I V .............................................
V ................................................

CLERICAL
A C C O U N TI N G
A C C O U N TI N G
A C C O U N TI N G
A C C O U N TI N G
FILE
F ILE
F ILE

CLERAS
CLER KS
CLER KS
CLERKS

18,196

675

621

556

717

8 ,1 0 2

7 ,4 5 6

6 ,6 74

8 ,6 0 3

I ....................................................
I I ..................................................
I I I ...............................................
I V ..................................................
V ....................................................

1,9 35
4 ,5 32
2,7 37
1 ,897
733

751
900
1 ,0 0 3
1, 199
1,385

721
850
980
1,1 33
1 ,3 5 8

6 52
7 50
869
1 ,0 0 0
1 ,1 6 6

810
999
1,1 43
1,377
1,4 74

9 ,0 09
10,802
12,035
14,383
16,623

8 ,6 5 5
10,324
11,763
13,595
16,293

7 ,821
9 ,0 00
10,428
12,000
13,994

9,7 17
11,983
13,713
16,529
17,693

S E C R E T A R I E S I ...................................................................
S E C R E T A R I E S I I ................................................................
S E C R E T A R I E S I I I .............................................................
S E C R E T A R I E S IV ................................................................
S E C R E T A R I E S V ..................................................................

35,629
72,338
87,764
47,826
16,524

864
946
1,0 74
1 ,1 79
1, 313

83 5
912
1 ,0 4 0
1,151
1 ,2 9 1

750
802
906
1 ,0 0 0
1,1 00

950
1 ,0 5 3
1,205
1,332
1 ,5 0 1

10,367
11,350
12,887
14,147
15,761

10,020
10,949
12,480
13,817
15,490

8 ,9 96
9 ,6 24
10,868
12,000
13,200

11,400
12,631
14,460
15,984
13,012

ST EN OGRAPHERS.
STENOGRAPHERS.

GENERAL ..........................................
S EN IO R ............................................

22,276
21,080

914
1,041

85 9
1,0 26

733
869

1,058
1,187

10,963
12,486

10,428
12,313

8 ,7 9 6
10,428

12,696
14,244

I .............................................................................
I I ...........................................................................

43,174
27,278

697
844

652
797

595
695

752
944

8 ,3 69
10,125

7,821
9 ,564

7 ,1 4 0
8,3 42

9 ,0 20
11,331

PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL

TYPISTS
TYPISTS

CLERKS
C l ERKS
CLERKS
CLERKS
CLERKS

straight-time salary corresponding to the employee's normal work schedule excluding overtime
hours. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded, but cost-of-living payments and incentive earnings
are included.
5The middle range (interquartile) is the central part of the array excluding the upper and
lower fourths of the employee distribution.

1For scope of study, see table A-1 in appendix A.
3Occupational definitions appear in appendix C.
3Occupational employment estimate* relate to the total in all establishments within the scope
of the survey and not to the number actually surveyed. For further explanation, see appendix A.
‘ Salaries reported are standard salaries paid for standard work schedules; i.e., the




16

Table 3. Average salaries: Establishments em ploying 2 ,5 0 0 workers or more
(Employment and average monthly salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry,1 in establishments employing 2,500 workers or more,2
United States except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1979)

Monthly salaries5

Occupation and level3

d

Number
of
employees4

Middle range6
Mean

Median
First
quartile

Levels in establishments
employing 2,500 workers
or more expressed as
percent of those in all
establishments combined

Third
quartile
Employment

Mean
salaries

AC COUNTANTS ANO A U D IT O R S
A C CO UNT AN TS I .......................................... .. .......................
AC COUNTANTS I I ..................................................................
ACCO UNT AN TS I I I ...............................................................
ACCO UNT AN TS IV ..................................................................
ACCOUNTANTS V .....................................................................

2 ,*13
*>» 467
8.5 67
5,7 82
2 ,8 28

S I , 2*1
1,563
1,7 *7
2,3 70
2 , 526

$1,212
1 ,552
1, 718
2 ,0 *0
2 ,5 0 0

S I ,1 1 0
1 ,3 *7
1 ,5 1 6
1 ,8 33
2,2 57

S I , 358
1 ,7 9 6
1 ,979
2 ,2 9 0
2,7 66

23
36
27
30
*3

108
112
108
103
102

A U D ITO RS
A U D IT O R S
A U D IT O R S
A U D IT OR S

*69
1 ,086
1 ,67*
1,1 55

1 ,1 7 5
1, **2
1 ,7 6 1
2 ,090

1 ,1 * 8
1 ,* 10
1,7 *1
2 ,0 60

1 ,0*3
1 ,25 1
1,5 29
1 ,82*

1,2 85
1,6 08
2 ,0 10
2 ,350

22
37
35
3*

105
105
10*
102

129
65

3,153
3*7 66

3,0 05
3 , 739

2 ,8 20
3 ,* 1 7

3 ,5 *7
* ,1 5 1

26
39

103
100

237
511
805
72*
603
268

1,8 08
2 ,097
2,6 20
3 ,2 1 6
3 ,3 01
*,b79

1 ,7 91
2 , 107
2 ,5 90
3 ,111
3 ,7 5 0
*,* 51

1 ,6 0 *
1 ,899
2 ,3 32
2 ,8 3 8
3 ,* 20
* ,123

2 ,0 00
2 ,2 9 9
2 ,8 75
3 ,52*
* ,2 65
5 ,0 *0

18
20
23
26
32
36

116
107
106
102
103
99

6*8
* ,0 5 9
5 , *39
3 ,0 29

1 ,3 16
1,553
1,859
2 ,1 62

1 ,2 *0
1 ,5 09
1 ,8 25
2 ,1 07

1 ,1 0 0
1 ,37 3
1 ,6 2 9
1 ,8 6*

1 , *99
1 ,7 00
2 ,0 *0
2 , *5 7

12
23
3*
59

11*
109
105
102

UOB ANALYS TS I I ...............................................................
UOB A N AL YS TS I I I ............................................................
UOB ANALYSTS I V .................... ...........................................

115
*29
330

1,3*5
1 ,7 55
2 ,0 *3

1 ,3 2 0
1 ,7 08
2 ,0 2 0

1 ,1 6 5
1,5*0
1 ,833

1,5 07
2 ,0 00
2 ,2 * *

29
6*
68

105
105
101

I I I .................................
I V ....................................

12*
135

3 ,1 05
*,0 67

3 , 115
3 ,9 58

2 ,7 27
3 ,7 * 9

3 ,3 67
*,* 50

1*
*6

109
111

507
1,7 63
2 ,8 79
3 ,7 55
3 ,389
1 ,9 72
663

1 ,3 7 *
1,591
1,892
2 ,235
2 ,6 62
3 ,0 8 *
3,711

1 ,3 *2
1 ,5 63
1, 68 7
2 ,2 00
2 ,6 25
2 ,975
3 ,5 *2

1 ,2 3 *
1 ,* 1 6
1,685
2 ,01 9
2 ,3 70
2 ,739
3 ,2 60

1, *7*
1,7 50
2,0 83
2 ,* 25
2,9 30
3,3 90
* ,082

16
32
25
35
*3
*2
*3

11*
110
108
105
10*
105
106

CHIEF
C HIEF

I .............................................................................
I I ..........................................................................
I I I .......................................................................
IV ..........................................................................

ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS

I I I ...............................................
I V ..................................................

A TT ORN EYS
AT TO R N EY S I ..........................................................................
AT TO R N EY S I I ........................................................................
A T TOR NE YS I I I ....................................................................
A T T OR N EY S IV ........................................................................
A T T O R N EY S V ..........................................................................
A T TOR NE YS VI .......................................................................
BUYERS
BUYERS I ..................................................................................
BUYERS 11 ...............................................................................
BUYERS I I I .............................................................................
BUYERS I V ...............................................................................
PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT

D IR EC T OR S OF PERSONNEL
D IR EC T OR S OF PERSONNEL
CH EMI ST S
C H EM IS TS
C H EM IS TS
C H EM IS TS
C H E M IS TS
C H E M IS T S
C H EM IS TS
C H E M IS TS

ANO EN GI N EE R S

I .............................................................................
I I ..........................................................................
I I I .......................................................................
IV ..........................................................................
V .............................................................................
VI .........................................................................
V I I .......................................................................

See footnotes at end of table.




17

Table 3. Average salaries: Establishments employing 2 ,5 0 0 workers or m ore—Continued
(Employment and average monthly salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry,1 in establishments employing 2,500 workers or more,1
2
United States except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1979)

Monthly salaries5

Occupation and level3

Number
of
employees4

Middle range6
Mean

Median
First
quartile

Levels in establishments
employing 2,500 workers
or more expressed as
percent of those in all
establishments combined

Third
quartile
Employment

Mean
salaries

8 ,196
16,710
40,002
61,887
48,895
22,67 4
9 ,2 52
2 ,368

S I , 494
1,637
1 ,8 92
2,221
2 ,5 7 8
2,9 64
3 ,3 1 4
3 ,8 6 6

S I , 483
1 ,6 03
1 ,8 6 1
2 ,2 03
2 ,5 64
2 ,9 42
3 ,2 99
3 ,8 1 5

S I ,399
1 ,50 0
1 ,7 0 8
2 ,012
2 ,3 5 2
2,7 10
3 ,0 50
3 ,524

S I , 5 86
1 ,747
2 ,0 5 2
2 ,4 2 5
2 ,7 96
3 ,1 83
3 ,5 64
4 ,1 3 0

39
42
42
49
53
58
63
71

103
103
104
103
102
102
101
103

I ....................................
I I ..................................
I I I ..............................
IV .................................
V ....................................

1 ,5 01
5 ,8 23
11,409
17,233
13,237

971
1,1 35
1,297
1 ,5 0 0
1,697

934
1 , 100
1 ,2 86
1 ,4 90
1 ,6 9 5

829
1,0 03
1 ,1 37
1 ,3 5 0
1,535

1 ,0 9 1
1 ,2 30
1 ,4 45
1 ,639
1 ,8 4 6

33
35
40
53
71

108
107
103
102
101

GRAF TERS
GRAFTERS
GRAF TERS
GRAFTERS
GRAF TERS

I .............................................................................
I I ..........................................................................
I I I ........................................................................
IV ..........................................................................
V .............................................................................

738
2 ,4 0 4
6 ,3 7 9
8 ,9 89
10,208

939
1,G 1 G
1,1 96
1,405
1,7 28

899
980
1 ,1 70
1,3 85
1 ,667

761
865
1 ,024
1,222
1 ,4 7 4

1 ,1 49
1,1 33
1 ,3 58
1 ,559
1 ,9 0 8

23
24
29
29
33

120
113
112
110
108

COMPUTER
COMPUTER
COMPUTER
COMPUTER
COMPUTER

OPERATORS
OPERATORS
OPERATORS
OPERATORS
OPERATORS

I ....................... .. .................. ...
I I ...............................................
I I I ............................................
IV ................................. ..
V ..................................................

1 ,4 9 2
2,1 14
6 ,4 9 0
5 ,7 51
1,8 84

851
1 ,0 2 9
1 ,1 4 1
1 , 3 59
1 ,4 93

818
1 ,107
1 ,1 14
1 ,317
1 ,4 62

711
890
960
1 ,1 6 4
1,3 04

945
1 ,1 4 3
1 ,252
1 ,5 18
1 ,5 9 7

26
2)
25
37
51

111
114
114
109
106

I I ..................................................
I I I ...............................................
I V ............ .. ..................................

14,036
14,208
7 ,4 67

932
1 ,0 5 2
1 ,2 83

897
1 ,055
1 ,2 53

754
869
1 ,11 0

1 ,096
1 ,169
1,4 82

17
23
31

117
111
113

CLERKS I .....................................................................
CLERKS I I ..................................................................
CLERKS I I I ...............................................................

2 ,6 49
2 ,8 27
1 ,5 09

655
788
936

587
695
915

543
597
756

6 92
951
1 ,0 5 4

10
17
35

111
114
107

KEY ENTRY OPERATORS I ...............................................
KEY ENTRY OPERATORS I I ............................................
MESSENGERS .............................................................................

12,611
11,683
5 ,0 00

936
1 ,0 03
729

900
947
673

730
804
593

1 ,0 93
1, 164
816

17
25
26

123
111
108

I .....................................................
I I ....................................................
I I I .................................................
I V ....................................................

367
1 ,0 04
665
434

839
1, 035
1 ,0 97
1 ,4 8 4

800
1 ,0 2 0
1 ,0 82
1 ,5 03

669
827
965
1 ,2 60

1 ,0 04
1 ,2 58
1,2 55
1 ,7 4 5

16
18
20
, 22

112
116
109
125

I ....................................................................
11 ..................................................................
I I I ...............................................................
IV ..................................................................
V .....................................................................

9 ,4 01
25,885
3 3 , 6 83
16,135
5 ,5 83

916
1 ,0 2 4
1,1 69
1,308
1 ,4 32

891
1 ,0 00
1 ,1 38
1 ,2 89
1 ,4 12

789
870
986
1 ,11 2
1 ,2 3 8

1 ,0 08
1 ,1 52
1, 325
1 ,477
1 ,595

24
33
36
32
32

106
108
109
111
110

G E N E R A L .............................................
S EN IOR ...............................................

10,846
11,224

9 34
1 ,0 5 6

900
1 ,0 40

759
872

1 ,0 74
1,1 98

44
50

103
102

I ...............................................................................
I I .............................................................................

10,990
9 ,7 50

765
902

710
860

621
705

845
1 ,0 64

24
34

109
107

ENGl Nc ERS
EN GIN EER S
EN GI N EE R S
EN GI N EE R S
EN GI N EER S
EN GI N EE R S
EN GI N EE R S
EN GI N EE R S

I ..........................................................................
I I .................................. . .......................... ..
I I I .....................................................................
IV .......................................................................
V ..........................................................................
VI ........................................................................
V I I .....................................................................
VI I I ..................................................................
T E C H N I C A L SUPPORT

E N G IN E E R IN G
E N G IN E E R IN G
EN G IN E E R IN G
E N G IN E E R IN G
EN G IN E E R IN G

TECHNICIANS
TECHNICIANS
TECHNICIANS
TECHNICIANS
TECHNICIANS

CLERICAL
A C C O U N T IN G CLERKS
A C CO UN TI N G CLERKS
A C CO UN TI N G CLERKS
FILE
FILE
FILE

PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL
PERSONNEL

CLERKS
CLERKS
CLERKS
CLERKS

S E C R E T A R IE S
S E C R E T A R IE S
S E C R E T A R IE S
S E C R E T A R IE S
S E C R E T A R IE S

ST ENOGRAPHERS,
STENOGRAPHERS,
TYPISTS
TYPISTS

1For scope of study, see table A-1 in appendix A.
2Includes data from 6 large companies that provide companywide data not identified by size
of establishment.
3Occupational definitions appear in appendix C.
40ccupational employment estimates relate to the total in all establishments within the
scope of the survey and not to the number actually surveyed. For further explanation, see
appendix A.




18

5Salaries reported are standard salaries paid for standard work schedules; i.e., the
straight-time salary corresponding to the employee's normal work schedule excluding overtime
hours. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded, but cost-of-living payments and incentive earnings are
included.
6The middle range (interquartile) is the central part of the array excluding the upper and
lower fourths of the employee distribution.

Table 4. Em ploym ent distribution by salary: Professional and adm inistrative occupations
(Percent distribution o f employees in selected professional and administrative occupations b y m on thly salary. United States except Alaska and H a w a ii,' March 1979)

Auditors

Accountants
Monthly salary
1

II

III

ANO
AN0
$ NO
AND

UNOEX
UNOEX
UNOEX
UNOEX

$ 32 5 ..................................
$ 85 0 ..................................
$ 875 ..................................
$ 90 0 ..................................

(1 .3 )
1 .4
.7

-

UNOEX
UNOEX
UNOEX
UNOEX

$ 925 .................................
$ 9 5 0 .................................
$ 975 ..................................
$ 1 , 0 0 0 ............................

3 .5
1 .9
2 .3
3 .4

(2 .5 )
1 .3

-

$80 0
$825
$850
$87 5

V

1

II

III

-

—

$90 0 ANO
$92 5 ANO
$95 3 4 NO
$975 4 NO

IV

-

0 .5
1 .0
.8
. 5

_
-

_
-

-

1 .9
1 .9
8 .4
5 .4

-

-

-

-

-

-

2 .9
4 .1
1 .0
1 .6
2 .5

10.7
7 .8
12.2
6 .5
6 .6

2 .3
4 .6
4 .4
4 .9
5 .2

(2 .5 )

( 1 .9 )
-

5 .8
4 .5
2 .9
3 .3
2 .7

6 .0
7 .4
7 .0
7 .8
6 .9

1 .1
1 .5
2 .3
2 .2
4 .0

(1 .3 )
1.1
1 .0
3 .0
2 .3

-

1 .0
1 .0
2 .0
(2 .1 )
"

5 .6
5 .9
4 .5
6 .1
3 .1

3 .3
6 .3
8. 6
5 .9
6 .0

6 .4
6 .6
4 .7
5 .4
4 .0

3 .2
4 .7
3 .7
3 .7
5 .0

-

-

“

“

4 .0
3 .6
2 .6
1 .3
(2 .8 )

7 .5
7 .4
6 .4
7 .4
4 .4

3 .8
2 .8
2 .3
3 .1
1 .6

4 .6
5 .6
4 .1
6 .3
5 .7

-

_

-

3 .6
3 .8
3 .2
2 .3
2 .3

2 .2
1 .8
1 .0
(1 .0 )
“

9 .6
9 .3
7 .6
4 .9
4 .6

-

“

“

-

3 .5
1 .8
1 .1
(2 .2 )

“

-

-

13.8
11.3
14.0
1 2.9
11.0

1 .5
3 .8
5 .2
8 .9
9 .6

(0 .9 )
1 .9
2 .5

-

-

$1,253
$1,303
$1,350
$1,403
$1,450

ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO

UNOEX
UNOEX
UNOEX
UNOEX
UNOEX

$ 1,300
$1,350
$ 1,400
$1,450
$1,530

......................
......................
.......................
.......................
......................

7 .3
5 .2
2 .3
1 .9
2 .2

9 .4
9 .9
7 .6
5 .9
5 .3

4 .0
5 .4
6 .6
6 .1
8 .1

(0 .7 )
1 .0
1 .1

-

$ 1 , 5 0 3 ANO UNOEX $ 1 , 5 5 0
$ 1 , 5 5 0 ANO UNOEX $ l , b 0 0
$ 1 , 5 0 0 ANO UNOEX $ 1 , 6 5 0
$ 1 , 6 5 0 ANO UNOcX $ 1 , 7 0 0
$ 1 , 7 0 3 ANO UNOEX $ 1 , 7 5 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

1 .6
(2 .1 )

4 .8
3 .9
3 .0
2 .5
2 .5

8 .3
7 .1
7 .6
7 .3
6 .0

1 .2
2 .4
3 .3
5 .2
5 .8

-

$1,750
$1,803
$1,850
$1,903
$1,953

ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO

UNOEX
UNOEX
UNOEX
UNOEX
UNOEX

$1,800
$1,850
$1,900
$1,950
$2,000

......................
......................
......................
.......................
.......................

_

2 .2
2 .6
4 .4
(3 .2 )

5 .0
3 .9
3 .4
3. 1
2 .7

4 .8
7 .5
6 .0
7 .8
6 .6

$2,300
$2,350
$2,100
$2,150
$2,203

ANO
AND
AND
ANO
ANO

UNOEX
UNOEX
UNOEX
UNOEX
JNOE X

$2,050
$2,100
$2,150
$2,200
$2,250

.......................
.......................
.......................
......................
.......................

-

2 .5
1 .9
2 .6
(3 .0 )
“

$2,250
$2,303
$2,350
$2,403
$2,450

ANO
AND
ANO
ANO
ANO

UNOEX $ 2 , 3 0 0
UNOEX $ 2 , 3 5 0
UNOEX $ 2 , 4 0 0
UNOEX $ 2 , 4 5 0
UNOEX $ 2 , 5 0 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

-

$2,500
$2,600
$2,700
$2,800
$2,903

ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO

UNDER
UNOEX
UNOEX
UNOEX
UNOEX

.......................
.......................
.......................
......................
.......................

$3,000
$3,103
$3,200
$3,303

ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO

UNOEX $ 3 , 1 0 0 .......................
UNOEX $ 3 , 2 0 3 .......................
UNOEX $ 3 , 3 0 0 ......................
OVER .............................................

$2,600
$ 2,70 0
$2,800
$ 2,900
$3,000

“

-

”

-

-

-

-

-

*

-

*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3 .3
2 .3
(2 .3 )

*

18,202

31,749

19,512

6 ,5 9 4

2 , 179

2,9 66

4 ,7 57

3 ,3 5 6

$1,392

$1,622

$2,004

$2,479

$1,124

$ 1 , 3 74

$1,692

$2,058

10,279

.........................

$1,149

See footnotes at end of table.

19

100.0

1 00.0

1 00 .0

1 00 .0

100. 0

1 00 .0

OF EMPLOYEES .................................




-

100.0

1 0 0 .0

A V E X A i E MONTHLY SALARY

-

-

1 00 .0

T O T A L ..........................................................

NUM8EX

-

-

( 1 .7 )
2 .3

.......................
......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

-

-

UNOEX $ 1 , 0 5 0
UNOEX $ 1 , 1 0 0
UNOEX $ 1 , 1 5 0
UNOEX $ 1 , 2 0 0
UNOEX $ 1 , 2 5 0

-

(1 .6 )

-

2 .4
2 .2
5 .4
11.7
7 .7

AND
AND
ANO
AND
ANO

-

*

.
-

14.5
1 3.9
9 .6
15.1
1 2.5

$1,003
$1,353
$1,103
$1,150
$1,203

-

-

IV

Table 4. Em ploym ent distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations—
Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by monthly salary. United States except Alaska and Hawaii,1
March 1979)

Monthly salary

1

UNDER $ 95 0
$953 4 NO UNDER $ 375 ..................................
$975 ANO UNDER $ 1 , 0 0 0 ............................

( 1 .2 1
1 .0
2 .8

Public accountants
III
II
_

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

IV

Chief accountants
II
III

-

-

-

“

“

*

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

IV
_
“
“
“

$1,303
$1,353
$1,103
$1,153
$1,203

AND
AND
AND
AN0
AND

UNDER
JNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$1,050
$1,130
$1,150
$1,200
$1,250

......................
......................
.......................
.......................
......................

2 .2
9 .3
25.5
30.4
17.1

(0 .6 )
1 .0
13. 1
18.9

$1,253
$1,303
$1,353
$1,433
$1,453

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

JNDER $ 1 , 3 0 0
UNDER $ 1 , 3 5 0
JNDER $ 1 , 4 0 0
JNOER $ 1 , 4 5 0
UNDER $ 1 , 5 0 0

......................
.......................
......................
......................
......................

6 .4
2 .2
1 .0
1 1 .1 )
-

18.8
15.0
10.9
7 .7
6 .2

(1 .2 )
3 .9
8 .9
10.4
12.7

0 .6
2 .9
2 .8

-

$1,503
$1,553
$1,533
$1,653
$1,703

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
JNDER
JNDER
UNDER
JNDER

3 .4
1 .9
(2 .5 )

8 .9
14.0
10.1
7 .2
6 .4

3 .6
5 .6
3 .1
4 .9
7 .9

(1 .1 )
2 .5
3 .6

$1,750
$1,803
$1,853
$1,903
$1,953

AND
AND
AND
ANO
AND

UNDER $ 1 , 8 0 0
JNDER $ 1 , 8 5 0
UNDER $ 1 , 9 0 0
JNDER $ 1 , 9 5 0
UNDER $ 2 , 0 0 0

......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
......................

-

3 .3
3 .6
1 .4
1.1
1 .4

6 .2
5 .0
5 .4
6 .2
7 .1

8 .0
1 .1
4 .5
7 .6
3 .3

$2,303
$2,353
$2,103
$2,150
$2,233

ANO
AND
AND
AND
ANO

JNOER $ 2 , 0 5 0
JNDER $ 2 , 1 0 0
JNDER $ 2 , 1 5 0
UNDER $ 2 , 2 0 0
JNDER $ 2 , 2 5 0

.......................
.......................
......................
......................
......................

-

.8
.8
1.6
.5

3 .4
3 .3
2 .2
3 .0
3 .0

4 .0
1 .6
9 .9
9 .8
12.6

4 .7
1 0.7
.9
5 .0
3 .2

-

-

(3 .4 )

-

.3
1 .5
-

1 .5
1 .9
1 .0
2 .9
4 .4

11.3
.7
14.4
.5

3 .8
6 .0
5 .2
2 .0
1 1.2

1 .4
1 .0
4 .6
2 .4

“

-

2 .8
.7
1 .5
1 .6
2 .4

.8
2 .7
-

12.5
3 .6
7 .8
7 .3
.7

6 .0
2 .4
6 .6
12.9
ID . 8

1 .2
3 .6
1 .2
*

(3 .1 )

“

6 .2
2 .1
1 .3
(1 .0 )
-

7 .8
11.8
3 .6
3 .0
6 .6

2 .4
2 .4
3 .6
2 0.6

.
-

.
-

3 .6
3 .2
2 .8
1 .4
(2 .4 )

4 .8
1 3.9
5 .5
7 .9
1 .2

$ 1 , 5 5 0 .......................
$ 1 , 6 0 0 .......................
$ 1 , 6 5 0 .......................
$ 1 , 7 0 0 ......................
$ 1 , 7 5 0 .......................

-

"
-

-

-

$2,250
$2,303
$2,353
$2,403
$2,450

ANO
ANO
AND
ANO
AND

UNDER $ 2 , 3 0 0
UNDER $ 2 , 3 5 3
UNDER $ 2 , 4 0 0
UNDER $ 2 , 4 5 0
UNDER $ 2 , 5 0 0

......................
.......................
......................
.......................
.......................

“

$2,503
$2,603
$2,703
$2,803
$2,903

AND
AND
AND
AND
ANO

JNDER $ 2 , 6 0 0
UNDER $ 2 , 7 0 0
JNDER $ 2 , 8 0 0
UNDER $ 2 , 9 3 0
UNDER $ 3 , 0 0 0

......................
......................
.......................
.......................
......................

_
-

-

-

-

-

$3,000
$3,103
$3,200
$3,333
$3,403

ANO
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
JNDER
UNDER
JNDER
UNDER

$3,100
$3,200
$3,300
$3,400
$3,500

......................
.......................
......................
......................
......................

_
-

-

-

-

-

$3,503
$3,600
$3,733
$3,803
$3,903

AND
AND
AND
AND
ANO

UNDER
UNDER
JNDER
JNDER
JNDER

$3,630
$3,700
$3,800
$3,900
$4,000

......................
.......................
......................
......................
......................

-

-

_

-

-

-

AND
AND
AND
AND
ANO

UNDER
JNDER
UNDER
JNDER
JNDER

$4,100
$4,200
$4,300
$4,400
$4,500

......................
......................
.......................
......................
.............. ..

_
-

-

_

-

$4,533
$4,603
$4,700
$4,803
$4,903

ANO
AND
ANO
ANO
ANO

JNDER
UNDER
JNDER
UNDER
JNDER

$4,600
$4,700
$4,800
$4,900
$ 5,000

......................
.......................
......................
.......................
......................

“

-

-

NUMBER QF

EMPLOYEES

....................................
.........................

*

“

“

100 .0

AVERAGE MONTHLY SALARY

“

“

*

-

"
“

“

-

-

-

“
-

-

1 00.0

1 00.0

-

“
2 .9
.9
.8
. 1

_
“
—
-

-

-

-

-

*

—
-

_
-

_
“

100 .0

1 0 0 .0

“
-

“

-

*
1 00 .0

1 00 .0

_

-

6 .7
3 .6
3 .6
2 .4
4 .8
6 .7
1 .8
1 .8
1 00 .0

7, 177

6 , 862

5 ,3 97

2 ,7 21

728

1 ,052

498

165

$1, 162

$1,318

$1,598

$2,015

$2,121

$2,467

$3,047

$3,773

See footnotes at end of table.




*

“

*

-

-

-

$4,000
133
$4,203
$4,303
$4,403

TOTAL

-

-

20

Table 4. Em ploym ent distribution by salary: Professional and adm inistrative occupations—Continued
(Percent distribution o f employees in selected professional and administrative occupations b y m o n th ly salary. U n ited States except Alaska and H a w a ii,1 March 1979)

Attorneys
Monthly salary
1

III

_
-

IV

V

VI

.
“

II

“

.
-

-

_
-

-

-

S
S
S
S

I . 050
I . 103
I . 150
I . 203

$ 1 , 1 0 0 .......................
$1,150 . . . . . . . . .
$1,200 . . . . . . . . .
$ 1 , 2 5 0 ....................

4 .9
.6
.6
13.6

-

S
S
S
S
S

I . 250 ANO UNDER $ 1 , 3 0 0 .......................
I . 303 ANO UNDER $ 1 , 3 5 0 .......................
I . 350 AND UNDER $ 1 , 4 0 0 .......................
I . 4 0 3 ANO JNDER $ 1 , 4 5 0 .......................
I . *53 ANO UNDER $ 1 , 5 0 0 .......................

5 .5
7 .3
5 .1
8 .1
3 .4

1 0.9)
2 .8
1 .6

•
—
—

S
S
S
S
S

I . 500
I . 553
I . 503
i .553
I , 700

ANO
ANO
ANO
AND
ANO

UNDER $ 1 , 5 5 0
UNDER $ 1 , 6 0 0
UNDER $ 1 , 6 5 0
UNDER $ 1 , 7 0 0
UNDER $ 1 , 7 5 0

.......................
.......................
............ ..
.......................
.......................

3 .8
4 .7
1 .7
8 .8
2 .6

2 .4
3 .9
2 .5
8 .5
1 .8

.
1 .2
1 .2
.4

-

S I , 750
$1,833
S I . 853
S I , 903
S I , 950

ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO

UNDER $ 1 , 8 0 0
UNDER $ 1 , 8 5 0
UNDER $ 1 , 9 0 0
UNDER $ 1 , 9 5 0
UNDER $ 2 , 0 0 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

5 .3
.7
1 .7
8 .3
.8

5 .7
4 .1
6 .1
8 .1
6 .7

1 .0
.5
3 .8
2 .2
1 .2

-

$2,003
$2,053
$2,100
$2,150
$2,200

AND
ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO

UNDER $ 2 , 0 5 0
UNDER $ 2 , 1 0 0
UNDER $ 2 , 1 5 0
UNDER $ 2 , 2 0 0
UNDER $ 2 , 2 5 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

8 .4
.8
1 .1
1 .4
1 0.9)

5 .6
10.1
5 .2
5 .1
4 .2

5 .6
5 .0
3 .7
4 .8
5 .3

$2,250
$2,303
S2.353
$2,503
$2,453

ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 , 3 0 0 .......................
$ 2 , 3 5 0 .......................
$ 2 , 4 0 0 .......................
$ 2 , 4 5 0 .......................
$ 2 , 5 0 3 .......................

-

2 .8
4 .3
1 .3
1.7
.6

3 .0
3 .6
2 .1
4 .7
5 .7

(2 .6 )
1 .6
1 .2
2 .5

-

-

$2,503
$2,503
$2,700
$2,800
$2,900

ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$2,600
$ 2,700
$2,80 0
$2,903
$ 3,000

............ ..
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

-

1 .9
1.1
(0 .8 )
-

8 .2
8 .8
7 .4
4 .6
4 .2

3 .8
4 .5
8 .8
9 .0
11.5

(0 .3 )
1 .3
.3
1 .0
3 .7

.
-

$3,000
$3,100
$3,203
$3,300
$3,403

ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO

UNDER $ 3 , 1 0 0
JNDER $ 3 , 2 0 0
UNDER $ 3 , 3 3 0
UNDER $ 3 , 4 0 0
JNDER $ 3 , 5 0 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

.
-

3 .0
3 .4
2 .4
1 .7
(1 .9 )

6 .8
7 .5
5 .2
6 .2
5 .7

2 .4
6 .1
4 .2
6 .7
8 .2

_
(2 .2 )
5 .3
1 .5

$3,500
$3,603
$3,700
$3,800
$3,903

AND
ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$3,600
$3,700
$3,800
$3,900
$4,000

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

-

-

-

-

—

-

“

“

4 .4
3 .3
4 .8
1 .7
2 .1

9 .3
7 .6
4 .9
4 .8
5 .8

1 .6
.5
1 .5
1.1
1 .6

$4,000
$4,103
$4,203
$4,303
$4,403

ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 4 .1 0 0
$4,230
$4,300
$4,430
$4,500

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

_
-

•

-

*
“

-

.8
1 .6
.7
.6
1 .1

4 .7
5 .7
3 .9
2 .4
3 .6

3 .5
3 .1
8 .2
6 .6
4 .4

$4,503
$4,600
$4,700
$4,803
$4,903

ANO
ANO
ANO
AND
ANO

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
JNDER

$4,600
$ 4,700
$4,800
$4,900
$5,000

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

-

-

-

(1 .6 )
“

3 .8
2 .5
1.1
1 .7
.4

3 .6
9 .6
3 .1
3 .0
3 .8

$5,000
$5,103
$5,200
$5,300
$5,400

ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO

UNDER $ 5 , 1 0 0
UNDER $ 5 , 2 3 0
JNDER $ 5 , 3 0 0
UNDER $ 5 , 4 0 0
UNDER $ 5 , 5 0 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
. . . . . . . . .
.......................

-

1 .3
(2 .6 )
*
”

5 .1
1 .8
3 .5
5 .1
2 .3

$5,503
$5,600
$5,703
$5,803
$5,903

ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO

UNDER
UNDER
JNDER
UNDER
JNDER

$ 5,600
$ 5,70 0
$5,800
$ 5,900
$6,000

. . . . . . . . .
.......................
.......................
.......................
. . . . . . . . .

-

*
*
*

“

“

3 .6
1 .9
.8
.1
1.1

$6,000
$6,103
$6,203
$6,303
$6,403

ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO

UNDER $ 6 , 1 0 0
UNDER $ 6 , 2 0 3
UNDER $ 6 , 3 0 0
JNDER $ 6 , 4 0 0
UNDER $ 6 , 5 0 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
................. ..
.......................

-

•

-

-

*
*

“

“ •

—
*

—

1 .6
1 .8
.3
.7
2 .0

$6,503

ANO OVER

-

-

-

-

AND
ANO
ANO
ANO

UNDER
UNDER
UNO Et
UNDER

-

-

-

*

-

*

-

_
*

*
“

*

-

-

-

-

*

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

* •

-

-

-

-

-

*
-

-

_
-

-

-

_
-

•
—
~
-

“
“

“
-

-

3 .6

1 00 .0

TOTAL

100 .0

1 00 .0

1 00.3

100.0

100.0

$1,562

$1,956

$2,470

$3,151

$3,800

$4,747

NUM8ER OF EMPLOYEES ..................................
AVERASE MONTHLY SALARY

..........................

See footnotes at end of table.




21

Table 4. Em ploym ent distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations—Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by monthly salary. United States except Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1979)
Buyers
Monthly salary
1
UNOER $850 ..........................................................
$853 AND UNDER $ 87 5 ..................................
$875 4 NO UNDER $ 9 0 0 .................................
$900
$925
$953
$975

AND
AND
ANO
AND

UNDE4
UNDER
UNDER
RWJER

$ 92 5 ..................................
$ 9 5 0 ..................................
$ 9 7 5 .................................
$ 1 , 0 0 0 ............................

II

III

IV

(2 .6 )
2 .5
2 .2

-

-

-

.
*

-

-

-

“

“

“

2 .1
2 .5
7. 1
4 .1

-

-

(3 .2 )
4 .1
4 .4
5 .2
7.1

-

6 .7
4 .4
4 .4
3 .5
1 .8

8 .2
8 .6
8 .2
7 .5
8 .7

(2 .4 )
2 .7
2 .8
3 .6
5 .0

“
(3 .8 )
1 .2
1 .0

.......................
.......................
......................
.......................
.......................

2 .4
.7
. 7
1 .3
(2 .2 )

6 .7
6 .0
5 .5
4 .0
2 .9

6 .8
8 .4
6 .4
9 .3
7 .1

2 .1
2 .0
2 .6
2 .8
3 .2

$1,800
$1,850
$1,900
$ 1,950
$2,000

......................
......................
.......................
......................
.......................

-

2 .5
1 .8
1 .0
1 .2
(3 .1 )

5 .3
6 .4
5 .0
5 .2
5 .2

3 .4
4 .4
4 .6
6 .1
5 .8

ANO
ANO
AND
AND
AND

JNDER $ 2 , 0 5 0
UNDER $ 2 , 1 0 0
UNDER $ 2 , 1 5 0
JNDER $ 2 , 2 0 0
JNDER $ 2 , 2 5 0

......................
.......................
......................
.......................
......................

-

-

2 .9
2 .3
1 .8
2 .0
1 .4

6 .4
4 .0
5 .7
4 .8
4 .5

$2,250
$2,303
$2,353
$2,403
$2,453

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER $ 2 , 3 0 0
UNDER $ 2 , 3 5 0
UNDER $ 2 , 4 0 0
UNDER $ 2 , 4 5 0
JNDER $ 2 , 5 0 0

.......................
......................
......................
......................
.......................

-

-

1 .9
1.2
.8
1.1
(2 .9 )

3 .8
5 .5
2 .7
3. 1
2 .4

$2,503
$2,603
$2,703
$2,803
$2,900

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

JNDER $ 2 , 6 0 0
JNDER $ 2 , 7 0 0
UNDER $ 2 , 8 0 0
JNDER $ 2 , 9 3 0
UNDER $ 3 , 0 0 0

......................
.......................
......................
......................
......................

-

-

-

-

-

2 .7
2 .9
2 .0
2 .0
1 .2

$3,003
$3,103
$3,203
$3,300
$3,403

AND
AND
AND
AND
ANO

J N J E A $ 3 , 1 0 0 .......................
JNDER $ 3 , 2 0 0 ......................
JNDER $ 3 , 3 0 0 ......................
UNDER $ 3 , 4 0 0 ......................
OVER .............................................

-

$1,000
$1,053
$1,103
$1,150
$1,203

AND
AND
AND
AND
ANO

UNDER $ 1 , 0 5 0
J N3E 1 $ 1 , 1 0 0
UNDER $ 1 , 1 5 0
UNDER $ 1 , 2 0 0
JNDER $ 1 , 2 5 0

......................
......................
......................
......................
......................

11.0
12.2
9 .4
9 .7
6 .7

$1,250
$1,303
$1,350
$1,403
$1,453

AND
AND
ANO
AND
ANO

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
JNDER
UNDER

$1,300
$1,350
$1,400
$1,450
$1,500

......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

$1,503
$1,550
$1,603
$1,650
$1,700

AND
AND
AND
AND
ANO

JNDER $ 1 , 5 5 0
UNDER $ 1 , 6 0 0
JNDER $ 1 , 6 5 0
UNDER $ 1 , 7 0 0
UNDER $ 1 , 7 5 0

$1,750
$1,833
$1,853
$1,903
$1,953

AND
AND
AND
ANO
AND

UNDER
JNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$2,303
$2,350
$2,103
$2,153
$2,203

T O T A L ..........................................................

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES .................................
A V E R A iE

MONTHLY SALARY

. . . . . . . . . .

-

-

-

-

*

-

-

1 00 .0

100.0

1 00 .0

1 .0
1 .0
1 .3
2 .5
1 00 .0

6 ,9 59

17,392

15,964

5 ,1 63

$1,155

$1,426

$1,767

$2,126

See footnotes at end of table.




-

22

Table 4. Em ploym ent distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations—Continued
(Percent distribution o f employees in selected professionel end administrative occupations b y m on thly salary. United States except Alaska and H aw aii,1 March 1979)

Job analysts

Directors of personnel

Monthly salary
II

IV

III

1

II

III

- .
-

-

-

-

*

1 .3

-

-

-

-

-

-

(1 .2 )
1 .0
.8

4 .7
1 .5
3 .0
6 .6

-

-

( 0 . 5)
1 .5

-

-

-

-

9 .0
4 .6
9 .6
8 .4
6 .7

3 .3
•6
3 .7
5 .6
5 .6

3 .2
1 .0
1 .6
11.5
4 .8

.5
.3
.7
3 .9

-

•
—

-

~

4 .6
3 .9
2 .8
3 .9
1 .8

. 8
9 .5
2. 7
6 .0
1 0.5

2 .7
4 .2
7 .1
6 .5
3 .8

1 .7
.7
.1
1 .8
4 .2

•
10 .3 )

-

3 .9
1 .9
3 .3
3 .0
(4 .6 )

6 .8
5 .8
4 .8
2 .5
4 .8

4 .9
1. 1
2 .8
3 .5
3 .2

7 .6
9 .2
1 .2
6 .8
4 .0

1 .9
1.2
.2
6 .0
2 .2

—
-

_
-

5 .8
5 .6
1 .7
2 .3
1 .0

.2
2 .4
2 .9
6 .0
.9

8 .7
5 .3
5 .4
2 .2
6 .5

.2
1 .5
.2
3 .4
3 .6

1 .0
2.1

6 .2
5 .3
1 .9
4 .0
4 .5

5.2
19.6
5 .9
8 .0
4 .7

2 .7
2 .1
1 .4
1 .0
4 .5

7 .6
4 .9
6 .3
6 .9
2 .4

6 .2
1 .4
5 .8
9 .6

.3
1 .1
1 .0
2 .2
.7

7 .9
7 .9
10.6
8 .2
3 .4

-

.7
.1
.1
1 .0

2 .4
3 .1
3 .4
2 .1
2 .7

-

(0 .4 )

•
-

*

3 .4
.7
1 .7
2 .1
.7

-

-

UNDER $95 0
$950 AND UNOER $ 9 7 5 .............................
$975 AND UNDER $ 1 , 0 0 0 .......................

(0 .8 )
1 .5
1 .3

( 0 .6 )

-

-

$1,900
$1,050
$1,100
$1,150
$1,200

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
JN0ER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1,05 0
$ 1 ,1 0 0
$1,150
$1,200
$1,250

.................
..................
.................
..................
.................

3 .3
4 .3
12.4
18.0
14.7

3 .3
.3
.7
.4

-

$1,250
$1,300
$1,350
$1,400
$1,450

ANO
AND
AND
AND
AND

J nder
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$1,300
$1,350
$1,400
$1,450
$1,500

.................
..................
.................
..................
..................

11.6
5 .6
3 .3
4 .6
3 .3

.3
5 .4
2 .5
7 .9
6. 1

$1,500
$1,550
$1,600
$1,550
$1,700

ANO
AND
ANO
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1,55 0
$1,600
$1,650
$1,700
$ 1,750

.................
..................
.................
.................
..................

1 .3
5 .1
4 .3
1 .0
.3

$1,750
$1,800
$1,350
$1,900
$1,950

ANO
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 ,8 0 0
$1,850
$1,900
$1,950
$2,000

..................
.................
.................
..................
.................

2 .3
(1 .3 )

$2,000
$2,050
$2,100
$2,150
$2,200

AND
AND
ANO
ANO
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2,050
$ 2,100
$2,150
$2,200
$2,250

.................
..................
..................
.................
..................

-

$2,250
$2,300
$2,350
$2,400
$2,450

AND
AND
AND
ANO
AND

UNDER $ 2 , 3 0 0
UNDER $ 2 , 3 5 0
UNDER $ 2 , 4 0 0
UNDER $ 2 , 4 5 0
UNDER $ 2 , 5 0 0

..................
..................
.................
..................
.................

-

-

-

-

*

-

-

-

$2,500
$2,600
$2,700
$2,800
$2,903

AND
ANO
AND
AND
AND

UNDER $ 2 , 6 0 3
UNDER $ 2 , 7 0 0
UNDER $ 2 , 8 0 0
UNDER $ 2 , 9 0 0
UNDER $ 3 , 0 0 0

..................
.................
..................
. . . . . . .
.................

$3,000
$3,100
$3,200
$3,300
$3,403

AND
AND
ANO
AND
ANO

UNDER $ 3 , 1 0 0
UNDER $ 3 , 2 0 0
UNDER $ 3 , 3 0 0
UNDER $ 3 , 4 0 0
UNDER $ 3 , 5 0 0

.................
.................
.................
.................
..................

-

-

-

-

$3,500
$3,600
$3,700
$3,800
$3,900

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER $ 3 , 6 0 0
UNOER $ 3 , 7 0 0
UNDER $ 3 , 8 0 0
UNDER $ 3 , 9 0 0
UNDER $ 4 , 0 0 0

.................
.................
.................
..................
.................

-

-

$4,003
$4,103
$4,200
$4,303
$4,403

AND
ANO
AND
ANO
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$4,100
$4,200
$4,300
$ 4,400
$4,500

..................
.................
.................
.................
..................

-

“

“
-

$4,503
$4,600
$4,700
$4,800
$4,903

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER $ 4 , 6 0 0 .................
UNDER $ 4 , 7 0 0 .................
UNDER $ 4 , 8 0 0 . . . . . . .
UNDER $ 4 , 9 0 0 .................
UNDER $ 5 , 0 0 0 ..................

-

-

-

$5,000
$5,100
$5,200

AND UNOER
AND UNDER
AND UNDER

$ 5,100
$5,200
$5,300

..................
..................
. . . . . . .

TOTAL

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ............................
AV ERA3

MONTHLY S A L A R Y ....................

-

-

“

-

2 .3
1 .2
1. 7
.8
1 .7

6 .2
(2 .6 )
-

-

-

1. 1
( 4 . 2)

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

.
-

-

-

-

_
-

.
-

-

“

*

-

-

*
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

“

“

“

-

“

1 00.0

1 00.0

1 00 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 00.0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.
-

.7
1 .0
0 .3

100.0

100 .0

395

667

484

1 ,1 60

1 ,6 5 6

8 93

292

$1,278

$1,675

$2,019

$1,916

$2,332

$2,857

$3,661

See footnotes at end of table.




-

IV

23

Table 4 . Em ploym ent distribution by salary: Professional and adm inistrative occupations—Continued
(Percent distribution o f employees in selected profanional and administrat ive occupations b y m on thly salary. U nited States except Alaska and H aw aii,1 M arch 1979)

V III

1

II

III

IV

V

VI

UNDER $950
$95 0 $ NO UNDER $ 97 5 . . . .
$97 5 ANO UNDER $ 1 , 0 0 0 . . .

(3 .9 1
3 .1
6 .9

(1 .3 )
2 .5

“

_
“

•
-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

$1,000
$1,050
$1,100
$1,150
$1,200

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER $ 1 , 0 5 0
UNDER $ 1 , 1 0 0
UNDER $ 1 , 1 5 0
UNDER $ 1 , 2 0 0
UNDER $ 1 , 2 5 0

6 .7
1 1.5
8 .3
1 2.4
14.4

1 .4
2 .5
1 .7
2 .9
6 .4

_
(0 .4 )
1 .0

-

.
-

-

.
-

•
-

“

-

-

-

*

$1,250
$1,300
$1,350
$1,400
$1,450

A NO
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER $ 1 , 3 0 0
UNDER $ 1 , 3 5 0
UNDER $ 1 , 4 0 0
UNDER $ 1 , 4 5 0
UNDER $ 1 , 5 0 0

7 .3
6 .2
3 .5
3 .6
3 .3

4 .9
10.7
10.4
8 .9
10.5

1 .1
2 .0
2 .9
4 .1
5 .8

_
-

—
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

$1,500
$1,550
$1,600
$1,650
$1,700

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER $ 1 , 5 5 0
UNDER $ 1 , 6 0 0
UNDER $ 1 , 6 5 0
UNDER $ 1 , 7 0 0
JNDER $ 1 , 7 5 0

2 .5
1 .8
2 .3
1 .1
( 1 .2 )

6 .0
5 .7
6 .1
3 .3
4 .8

4 .9
5 .6
8 .0
5 .8
8 .2

( 1 .6 )
1 .1
1 .9
2 .1
2 .8

-

_
-

-

•

-

-

-

-

$1,750
$1,300
$1,350
$1,900
$1,950

AND
AND
ANO
ANO
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
JNDER
UNDER

$ 1,80 0
$1,850
$ 1,900
$1,950
$2,000

-

6 .7
7 .8
7 .5
5 .8
5 .4

2 .9
4 .0
3 .3
7 .9
6 .6

•
(2 .7 )
1 .1
.7
1 .4

-

-

.
•
.

“

2 .4
2 .1
1 .4
1 .6
1 .0

-

*

-

$ 2,000
$2,050
$2,100
$2,150
$2,200

AND
ANO
AND
AND
AND

UNDER $ 2 , 0 5 0
JNDER $ 2 , 1 0 0
JNDER $ 2 , 1 5 0
UNDER $ 2 , 2 0 0
JNDER $ 2 , 2 5 0

-

1 .0
(0 .6 )
-

1 .4
1 .4
1 .7
3 .2
4 .1

(1 .4 )
1 .2
.4
.7
1 .6

_
.
-

-

6 .0
8 .3
7 .3
8 .8
6 .0

_
-

-

4 .4
2 .8
2 .2
1 .7
1 .2

$2,250
$2,300
$2,350
$2,400
$2,450

AND
ANO
ANO
AND
AND

JNDER $ 2 , 3 0 0
JNDER $ 2 , 3 5 0
UNDER $ 2 , 4 0 0
JNDER $ 2 , 4 5 0
UNDER $ 2 , 5 0 0

-

-

1 .3
(2 .2 )
-

-

-

-

5 .8
5 .5
3 .1
1 .9
2 .6

3 .7
3 .7
4 .5
8 .2
4 .9

1 .2
.7
2 .4
2 .3
2 .7

$2,500
$2,600
$2,700
$2,300
$2,900

AND
AND
ANO
AND
ANO

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2,600
$2,700
$2,800
$2,930
$3,000

-

-

-

3 .9
2 .8
1 .7
( 2 . 0)
“

13.6
11.1
9 .1
6 .5
5 .2

6 .4
9 .3
11.2
11.3
7 .6

$3,000
$3,100
$3,200
$3,300
$3,400

AND
ANO
AND
AND
ANO

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
JNDER

$3,100
$ 3,200
$3,300
$3,400
$3,500

-

“

_
-

*

*

*

3 .5
2 .6
2 .3
1 .0
1 .2

8 .8
6 .7
4 .3
4 .2
3 .5

$3,503
$3,600
$3,700
$3,300
$3,900

AND
AND
AND
ANO
AND

UNDER $ 3 , 6 0 0
JNDER $ 3 , 7 0 0
UNDER $ 3 , 8 0 0
UNDER $ 3 , 9 0 0
UNDER $ 4 , 0 0 0

“
“

.

.
-

“

(1 .2 )
-

$4,000
$4,103
$4,200
$4,300
$4,400

ANO
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER $ 4 , 1 0 0
UNDER $ 4 , 2 0 0
UNDER $ 4 , 3 0 0
UNDER $ 4 , 4 0 0
JNDER $ 4 , 5 0 0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

$4,500
$4,603
$4,700
$4,300
$4,900

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
JNDER
UNDER
JNDER
UNDER

$4,600
$4,700
$4,800
$4,900
$5,000

.

-

-

-

-

-

“

“

-

-

$5,003
$5,100
$5,200
$5,300
$5,400

AND
AND
ANO
ANO
AND

UNDER
UNDER
JNDER
UNDER
JNDER

$5,100
$ 5,200
$5,300
$5,400
$5,500

*

$5,500
$5,600

AND UNDER
AND OVER

$5,60 0

_

-

”
_

'
“

“

“

-

-

.
-

_
-

-

*

(1 .9 )
1 .5
8 .2
7 .2

-

11.1
4 .7
14.2
8 .7
2 .9

(0 .3 1
1 3.6
.3
15.2

3 .6
3 .0
2 .3
(3 .5 )
-

3 .2
4 .2
4 .5
6 .3
1 .9

1 .8
3 .0
12. 7
5 .8
3 .6

•
-

2 .3
4 .3
1 .9
2 .0
1 .1

8 .8
1 .2
•9
1 .8
4 .5

—

—

2 .4
(5 .3 )
•
•

-

-

-

4 .8
1 .5
3 .3
2 .1
2 .4

-

-

-

-

-

..

-

-

-

-

-

.

-

-

-

-

2 .1
.9
1 .3
1 .2
.6

-

-

.

•

-

-

-

*

1 .2
(4 .2 )

1 00 .0

3 ,1 68

5 ,5 88

11,437

10,658

8 ,4 19

4,6 61

1,391

330

$1,205

1 1 ,4 4 7

$1,752

$2,122

$2,56 9

$2,936

$3,501

$4,080

See footnotes at end of table.

24

1 30 .0

-

1 00 .0

1 00 .0

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ............




*

-

-

-

TOTAL

AV ERA6E MONTHLY SALARY

-

_

V II

100.0

100.0

1 00.0

1 00 .0

Table 4. E m ploym ent distribution by salary: Professional and adm inistrative occupations—Continued
(Percent distribution o f employees in selected professional and administrative occupations b y m o n th ly salary. United States except Alaska and Haw aii,1 March 1979)

Engineers
1
UNDER S I . 100 . . . .
S I . 103 AND UNDER * 1 , 1 5 0
S I . 150 ANO UNDER * 1 . 2 0 0
S I . Z O O AND UNDER * 1 , 2 5 0
ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO

I *250
I . 300
I . 350
I . *00
I .*50

S
S
S
S
S

I . 500 ANO UNDER
I . 550 ANO UNDER
I . 600 ANO UNDER
I . *50 ANO UNDER
I . 700 ANO UNDER

VI

III

IV

_
-

_
-

—
-

*

|

_

“

-

,

-

V

VII

VIII

-

-

-

-

-

-

......................
.......................
.......................

12.11
1 .6
2 .1
3 .5

(0 .9 )
1 .3
1 .8

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

7 .0
8 .3
11.5
13.3
1*.0

2 .*
3 .5
* .9
7 .1
10.*

(1 .3 )
1 .2
1 .9
3 .*

_
-

S I . 550
*1.600
*1,650
*1,700
* 1,750

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

12.2
9 .3
6 .6
* .0
1 .9

12.5
11.*
9 .5
8 .5
7 .1

t.l
5 .8
6 .1
7 .7
3 .d

( 1 .9 )
1 .0
1 .8
2 .2

*

-

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

1 .2
(1 .5 )
-

* .9
* .l
3 .2
1 .8
1 .3

7 .6
3 .9
6 .9
7 .0
6 .3

3 .0
3 .9
* .l
5 .6
6 .6

—
(3 .2 )
1 .6

-

-

*

* .8
3 .9
3 .*
3 .*
2 .*

6 .5
6 .*
6 .5
6 .9
6 .*

1 .7
2 .3
2 .8
3 .5
3 .9

_
(2 .6 )
1 .2

-

.
-

UNDER * 1 , 3 0 0
UNDER * 1 , 3 5 0
UNDER S I . * 0 0
UNDER S I . *50
UNDER * 1 , 5 0 0

S
S
S
S
S

II

-

-

-

-

-

-

•
-

-

S I , 750
S I . 300
S I . 850
S I . 900
SI .950

ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO

UNDER * 1 . 8 0 0
UNDER * 1 . 8 5 0
UNDER * 1 , 9 0 0
UNDER * 1 . 9 5 0
UNDER * 2 , 0 0 0

S2.000
S2.050
S2.100
S2.150
S2.200

ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO

UNDER * 2 . 0 5 0 .......................
UNDER * 2 , 1 0 0 .......................
UNDER * 2 , 1 5 0 .......................
UNDER * 2 . 2 0 0 ......................
UNDER * 2 . 2 5 0 .......................

_
“

.9
1 .0
(1 .3 )
-

S2.250
S2.300
S2.350
S2.S00
S2.S50

ANO
AND
ANO
ANO
ANO

UNDER * 2 , 3 0 0
UNDER * 2 , 3 5 0
UNDER * 2 , * 0 0
UNDER * 2 , * 5 0
UNDER * 2 , 5 0 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

_
-

-

1 .*
1 .0
(2 .6 )
-

5 .8
5 .*
* .*
* .2
3 .5

* .5
6 .3
6 .0
6 .3
6 .0

1 .*
1 .7
1 .9
2 .2
3 .*

*2,500
*2,600
*2,700
*2,800
S 2.900

ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

.......................
.......................
.......................
......................
.......................

-

-

-

-

-

-

5 .8
* .8
1 .6
(1 .7 )
-

11.9
10.1
9 .0
6 .7
5 .0

S 3,000

ANO UNDER

* 3 , 1 0 0 .......................

-

-

-

-

3 .6

*2,600
*2,700
*2,80 0
*2.900
*3.000

-

“

-

-

*3,100
*3.200
*3,300
S3,*00

ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO

UNDER * 3 , 2 0 0
UNDER * 3 . 3 0 0
UNDER * 3 , * 0 0
UNDER * 3 . 5 0 0

.......................
......................
.......................
.......................

-

-

*3,500
S3.600
*3,700
*3,800
S3.900

ANO
AND
ANO
ANO
ANO

UNDER S 3 . 6 0 0
UNDER * 3 , 7 0 0
UNDER * 3 . 8 0 0
UNDER * 3 , 9 0 0
UNDER * * , 0 0 0

......................
............ ..
.......................
.......................
. . . . . . . . .

“

-

“

*

**.000
$*,100
$*.200
**.300
**,*00

ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO

UNDER * * . 1 0 0 .......................
UNDER * * . 2 0 0 .......................
UNDER * *• 3 00 .......................
UNDER * * , * 0 0 .......................
UNDER * * , 5 0 0 .......................

-

-

-

-

“
*

**,500
**.500
**.700
**.800
**,900

ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO

UNDER * * , 6 0 0
UNDER * * , 7 0 0
UNDER * * , 8 0 0
UNDER * * , 9 0 0
UNDER * 5 , 0 0 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

-

S5.000
*5.100
*5,200
$5,300
*5.*00

ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO

UNDER * 5 . 1 0 0
UNDER * 5 , 2 0 0
UNDER * 5 . 3 0 0
UNDER * 5 , * 0 0
UNDER $ 5 , 5 0 0

.......................
......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

*5,500

ANO UNDER

*5,600

.......................

*
-

-

-

6 .9
9 .9
10.8
10.0
10.3

2 .6
3 .1
3 .6
5 .1
7 .2

(0 .* )
1 .0
1 .2
2 .5
3 .8

9 .9

8 .3

2 .*

-

“
“
“

“
-

-

*

2 .3
1 .6
1 .2
(2 .1 )
“

7 .0
6 .3
* .3
3 .2
1 .9

7 .o
8 .4
7 .8
7 .7
7 .9

-

-

*

“

*

2 .1
(3 .7 )
"

7 .0
* .8
3 .6
2 .8
3. 7

-

“

“
“
*
“

l.a
1 .1
.7
•d
i.i

-

*
-

-

“

“
~

-

“
"

-

-

t .l

7 .6
5 .6
* .2
3 .2

“

-

8 .7
11.*
10.*
7 .*

-

2 .2
1 .3
(2 .3 )
”

-

-

-

_
(2 .7 )
1 .0

-

-

*

-

“

-

-

-

“
“
-

-

“
“
-

1 00.0

“
1 00 .0

.*
•3
. ?.

.2
.2

1 .4
1 00 .0

1 00 .0

1 00 .0

1 00 .0

1 0 0 .0

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES .................................

2 1,203

39,636

9*.991

1 25,302

92,602

39,388

1*,628

3 ,3 28

AV ER A Ut

t 1 ,t*5

*1,586

*1,323

*2,166

*2,539

*2,900

*3,278

*3,768

T O T A L ............

MONTHLY

SALARY

..........................

intervals have been accumulated and are shown in the interval above or below the
extreme interval containing at least 1 percent. The percentages representing these
employees are shown in parentheses. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may
not equal 100.

1For scope of study, see table A-1 in appendix A.
N O T E : T o avoid showing small proportions of employees scattered at or near the
extremes of the distributions for some occupations, the percentages of employees in these




1 00 .0

*
*

*. 1
5 .8
5 .5

25

Table 5. Em ploym ent distribution by salary: Technical support occupations
(Percent distribution o f employees in selected technicel support occu pet ions b y m on thly selary. United Stetes except Alaska and H aw aii,1 March 1979)

Engineering technician

Drafters

Monthly salary
1
* 50 0
*525
*55 0
*57 5

ANO
AND
ANO
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

*52 5
* 55 0
*575
*600

* 60 0
*625
*650
*675

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

* 6 2 5 ............................
* 6 5 0 ............................
( 6 7 5 ............................
( 7 0 0 .............................

* 70 0
(7 2 5
*750
*775

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

*725
(7 5 0
(7 7 5
(8 0 0

*800
(3 2 5
* 85 0
*875

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

............................
.................
............................
.............................

-

II

III

IV

-

-

“

-

6 .3
.5
1 .8
2 .5

-

-

-

V

III

IV

(0 .9 )

-

-

7 .6
2 .0
11.1
7 .2

1 .9
.6
2 .1
6 .8

(0 .2 )
1.0

-

-

-

-

11.6
6 .5
6 .0
7 .1

2 .9
5 .1
3 .7
11.3

.9
1 .0
1 .2
2 .6

-

_
-

1

II

V
“
*

(0 .3 )
1 .0
6 .2
6 .3

_
-

-

-

*

—
-

............................
.............................
.............................
............................

2 .6
4 .0
5 .1
7 .3

(1 .6 )
1 .7

-

_
-

“

-

-

-

-

( 8 2 5 .............................
* 8 5 0 ............................
* 87 5 .............................
* 9 0 0 .............................

5 .9

_
(0 .8 )

_
-

—
-

2 .6
2 .1
5 .8
1 .5

6 .9
7 .7
6 .6
7 .2

2 .5
2 .9
5 .0
3 .1

(2 .3 )

-

3 .0
6. 1

2 .7
3 .6
6 .7
6 .1

*90 0 AND UNDER * 9 2 5 .............................
*925 AND UNDER ( 9 5 0 .............................
* 95 0 ANO UNDER * 97 5 ............................
*975 AND UNDER t i t 000 .......................

7 .7
5 .6
6 .6
2 .6

6 .6
5 .6
5 .7
5 .0

1 .1
2 .3
2 .7
2 .7

_
(0 .2 )

-

5 .3
3 .1
6 .7
5 .0

6 .6
6 .0
6 .0
5 .3

1 .6
1 .6
1 .7
2 .1

-

-

1 .8
1 .2
1 .1
1 .8

(itO O O
( 1 1D5D
S i >103
*1.150
*1.200

AND
AND
AND
AND
ANO

UNDER * i . 0 5 0
JNDER ( 1 , IDO
UNDER ( l t l 5 0
UNDER * 1 . 2 0 0
UNDER * 1 , 2 5 0

..................
.................
..................
. . . . . . .
.................

6 .9
6 .7
6 .5
2. 1
2 .1

16.2
10.3
9 .9
6 .9
5 .2

7 .7
7 .3
8 .1
9 .0
10.1

1 .6
1 .8
2 .6
3 .6
6 .1

(1 .2 7

1 .9
3 .1
6 .6
.6
1 .0

3 .9
6 .5
2 .9
2 .3
2 .6

10.5
9 .3
7 .9
7 .6
6 .3

7 .0
7 .9
7 .9
8 .9
9 .3

(0 .6 )
1 .2
1 .5
2 .3
3 .9

(1 ,2 5 0
(1 ,3 0 0
*1,350
*1,600
*1,650

ANO
AND
ANO
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

* 1,300
* 1,350
(1 ,6 0 0
*1,650
(1 ,5 0 0

.................
.................
..................
..................
.................

.8
.8
1 .2
1 .1
(0 .8 )

2 .8
2 .0
1 .5
1 .7
1 .2

9 .3

5 .7
9 .0
8 .5
10.1
10.1

2 .0
2 .6
3 .8
6 .3
8 .0

-

1 .6
(2 .6 )
-

6 .6
3 .8
2 .2
2 .5
1 .3

8 .5
7 .8
6 .0
5 .8
3 .6

6 .1

(1 ,5 0 0
*1,550
*1,600
*1,650
*1,700

AND
AND
AND
AND
And

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

.................
..................
..................
.................
..................

-

1 .3
1 .2
(1 .0 )
*

8 .0
7 .6
6 .1
5 .7
6 .6

7 .6
7 .5
7 .9
9 .1
9 .3

_
-

“

3 .7
2 .2
1 .9
1 .2
(2 .6 )

.
-

under

* 1,550
*1,600
(1 ,6 5 0
*1,700
* 1 ,7 5 0

2 .6
(2 .0 )
-

6 .6
2 .5
2 .8
1 .8
1.1

5 .6
7 .6
6 .5
5 .9
5 .5

(1 ,7 5 0
(1 ,8 0 0
* 1,850
*1,900
*1,950

AND
AND
ANO
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

(1 ,8 0 0
*1,850
(1 ,9 0 0
*1,950
(2 ,0 0 0

.................
..................
.................
..................
..................

-

-

-

2 .9
1 .6
1 .6
1 .0
1 .0

8 .9
6 .2
5 .8
3 .9
2 .7

-

_
-

•
-

(3 .3 )
-

6 .5
3 .3
2 .3
2 .1
2 .2

(2 ,0 0 0
*2,050
*2,100
(2 ,1 5 0
(2 ,2 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

*2,050
*2,100
*2,150
*2,200
*2,250

..................
..................
..................
..................
..................

-

-

“

2 .3
2 .1
2. 1
(2 .5 )
*

-

-

-

(1 .6 )
-

*2,250
* 2,350

ANO UNDER ( 2 , 3 0 0 .................
AND OVER ........................................

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

T O T A L .....................................................

1 00 .0

1 00 .0

100.0

1 00.0

1 00.0

NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES ............................

6 ,5 55

16,786

28,225

32,565

*902

(1 ,0 5 7

(1 ,2 5 8

*1,669

AVERAGE MONTHLY SALARY

....................

8.8

*

-

-

8.6
6 .7
6 .0
6 .2

-

—

-

See footnotes at end of table.




-

26

.3
1 .2
.1

-

“

-

-

6.6
6 .7
7 .6
B. 5

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

2 .0
1 .2
1 .7
1 .6
1 .0

•

-

-

-

1 .2
(3 .6 )

100.0

1 00 .0

100 .0

1 00 .0

100 .0

18,765

3,2 11

10,008

21,766

30,862

26,780

*1,685

*783

*89 3

*1,070

*1,276

(1 ,6 0 6




Table 5. Em ploym ent distribution by salary: Technical support
occupations—Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected technical support occupations by monthly salary. United States except
Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1979)

Computer operators
Monthly salary
1

II

III

IV

-

.
-

-

V
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

J NOE R $ 55 0 .....................................................
$55 0 4 NO UNDER $57 5 ............................
$575 4 NO UNDER $ 60 0 .................

0 .8
2 .5
1 .6

1 .3
.5

$ 60 0
$625
$ 65 0
$675

4 NO
4 NO
4 NO
4 NO

UNDER
UN0ER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 62 5
$$5 0
$675
$ 70 0

............................
............................
.............................
.............................

4 .5
4 .3
8 .4
7 .2

.7
2 .3
3 .2
2 .3

(0 .6 )
1 .2
.9
1 .0

$70 0
$725
$75 0
$775

4 NO
4 NO
4 NO
4 NO

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$72 5
$ 75 0
$77 5
$ 30 0

............ ...............
............................
............................
............................

1 2.7
1 4.5
8 .1
4 .9

2 .5
3 .7
6 .0
5 .6

2 .4
2 .6
3 .8
3 .0

$80 0
$825
$ 85 0
$875

4 NO
4 NO
4 NO
4 NO

UN0ER
UNDER
UNDER
UN0ER

$ 82 5
$ 35 0
$875
$ 90 0

............................
............................
............................
............................

3 .6
6 .0
4 .8
1 .9

8 .5
8 .6
4 .5
7 .0

3 .3
4 .5
7 .1
4 .5

(1 .9 )
1 .5
1 .5

$90 0
$92 5
$950
$975

AND
4 NO
4 NO
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 92 5 ............................
$95 0 ............................
$ 97 5 ............................
$ 1 , 0 0 0 .......................

3 .2
2 .3
1 .9
1 .3

4 .9
3 .9
4 .7
2 .9

5 .2
4 .9
6 .4
4 .4

2 .6
2 .4
2 .8
3 .0

(0 .9 )

3 .9
2 .7
1 1.5
5 .9
1 .1

7 .9
8 .5
7 .4
5 .5
3 .9

3 .1
8 .8
9 .5
8 .5
6 .8

1 .8
4 .8
10.4
6 .2
6 .8

2 .9
1 .6
1.6
1 .0
(3 .8 )

6 .6
7 .0
5 .2
4 .6
3 .1

6 .3
1 1.5
5 .3
5 .8
5 .9

-

2 .7
2 .7
1 .8
2 .1
1 .1

6 .0
8 .4
4 .3
3 .5
2 .9

-

1 .1
1 .4
1 .4
.6

.9
.9
1 .0
.9
.9

-

-

-

.
-

-

$1,000
$1,050
$1,100
$1,150
$ 1,200

AND
AND
AND
AND
ANO

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$1,050
$1,100
$1,15 0
$1,200
$1,250

.................
.................
..................
.................
.................

1 .6
1 .3
1 2.6)
-

$1,250
$1,300
$ 1 ,3 5 D
$1,400
$1,450

AND
AND
ANO
AND
ANO

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$1,300
$1,350
$1,400
$1,450
$1,500

.................
.................
..................
.................
.................

-

(1 .9 )
-

$1,500
$1,550
$1,600
$1,650
$ 1,700

AND
ANO
AND
AND
ANO

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$1,55 0
$1,600
$1,650
$1,700
$ 1,750

.................
.................
.................
..................
.................

-

-

-

-

$1,750
$ 1,800
$1,850
$1,903
$1,950

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER $ 1 , 8 0 0
UNDER $ 1 , 8 5 0
UNDER $ 1 , 9 0 0
UNDER $ 1 , 9 5 0
UNDER $ 2 , 0 0 0

..................
.................
..................
.................
.................

-

-

-

-

“

“

$2,000
$2,050
$2,100
$2,15J
$2,200

ANO
AND
ANO
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

.......................

-

-

-

(0 .1 )

-

-

-

TOTAL

NUM3ER OF

$ 2,05 0
$2,100
$2,150
$2,200
$2,250

EMPLOYEES

-

1 . 0

-

......................
......................

-

.......................

-

-

*

*

.9
1 .4
1.1
1 .3
.1

100 .0

100.0

100.0

1 00 .0

100 .0

5 ,7 13

7 ,3 70

26,299

15,616

3 ,7 1 2

$766

$906

$1,001

$ 1,243

$1,415

.......................

....................................................................

....................................

AVERAGE MONTHLY SALARY

-

“
-

..........................

-

1 Fo r scope o f sttrdy, see table A -1 in appendix A .

N O T E : T o avoid showing small proportions of
employees scattered at or near the extremes of the
distributions for some occupations, the percentages of
employees in these intervals have been accumulated and

are shown in the interval above or below the extreme
interval containing at least 1 percent. The percentages
representing these employees are shown in parentheses.
Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not
equal 100.

27

Table 6. Em ploym ent distribution by salary: Clerical occupations
(Percent distribution o f employees in selected clericel occupations, b y m on thly salary. U nited States except Alaska and H aw aii,1 March 1979)

File clerks

Accounting clerks

Key entry operators

Monthly salary
1

II

IV

III

1

II

III

1 .7
2 .0
6 .6

_

-

-

-

0 .1
1 .0

*

(0 .1 )

"

1 8 .2
1 4 .3
1 2 .4
1 1 .3

7 .1
6 .4
8 .3
6 .7

(1 .7 )
1 .3

2 .5
3 .2
4 .7
5 .4

(2 .2 )

8 .0
6 .6
5 .3
3 .6

1 1 .0
8 .3
1 1 .2
6 .7

2 .2
2 .0
5 .4
4 .7

7 .2
8 .8
8 .7
8 .4

1 .6
2 .6
4 .0
4 .9

1

II

(1 .8 )

-

-

-

-

-

-

( 5 2 5 ............................
* 5 5 0 .............................
* 5 7 5 .............................
* 6 0 0 ............................

3 .4
4 .9
9 .9
8 .5

1 .4
1 .6
3 .6
3 .7

(1 .0 )

-

4 NO
4 NO
4 NO
4 NO

UNDE* * 6 2 5 .............................
UNOE* ( 6 5 0 ......................... ...
UNOE* * 6 7 5 ............................
UNOE* ( 7 0 0 ............................

1 0 .4
8 .6
1 3 .2
9 .4

4 .5
5 .1
6 .4
8 .4

1 .2
.9
2 .1
3 .3

* 70 0
*725
* 75 0
*775

4NO
4 NO
4 NO
4ND

UNOE*
UNOE*
UNOE*
UNOE*

*725
(7 5 0
(7 7 5
(3 0 0

............................
............................
............................
.............................

6 .8
5 .2
4 .0
3 .1

7 .0
6 .5
6 .6
6 .7

3 .0
4 .0
4 .8
5 .6

(4 .5 )
1 .9

2 .1
2 .0
1 .2
(4 .8 )

4 .5
7 .3
3 .1
2 .B

6 .9
5 .3
4 .3
8 .2

5 .1
6 .3
4 .5
4 .2

5 .1
6 .4
5 .0
5 .2

*800
(8 2 5
(8 5 0
(8 7 5

4 NO
4 NO
4 NO
4 NO

UNOE*
UNOE*
UNOE*
UNOE*

*825
(3 5 0
(8 7 5
(9 0 0

............................
............................
............................
.............................

1 .8
1 .7
.9
.8

5 .2
5 .0
3 .9
3 .0

4 .8
6 .1
6 .3
5 .5

1 .9
2 .6
3 .0
3 .1

.
*

1 .9
1 .4
2 .8
.6

5 .2
5 .8
5 .3
5 .7

3 .7
3 .7
3 .2
2 .1

5 .4
6 .3
5 .0
5 .8

( 9 2 5 ............................
( 9 5 0 .............................
1 9 7 5 ............................
( 1 . 0 0 0 .......................

.8
.7
.8
.4

2 .7
2 .0
1 .3
1 .8

5 .5
4 .5
4 .2
4 .7

4 .8
3 .0
4 .9
3 .6

“
-

.7
.6
.8
.6

3 .5
1 .9
6 .3
3 .9

2 .5
1 .6
2 .1
1 .9

3 .8
3 .4
2 .5
3 .4

1 .3
1 .2
(3 .6 )
-

5 .0
3 .9
2 .4
1 .6
1 .4

2 .4
1 .6
1 .1
1 .0
(4 .1 )

6 .6
3 .9
2 .9
2 .6
2 .6

.
-

1 .0
1 .3
1 .6
1 .1
(1 .1 )

_
-

1 .5
3 .5
1 .2
(2 .7 )
-

-

*425
*450
*475

4 NO UNDE* * 4 5 0 .............................
4 NO UNDE* * 4 7 5 ............................
AND UNDE* * 5 0 0 .............................

* 50 0
(5 2 5
*550
*575

4 NO
4 NO
4 NO
4 NO

UNDE*
UNDE*
UN0E*
UNOE*

* 60 0
*625
*650
*675

*90 0 4 NO UNDE*
*92 5 4 NO UNDE*
( 9 5 0 4 NO UNDE*
*975 4 NO UNOE*

*
_

*
-

(1 .0 0 0
* 1 .0 5 0
* 1 .1 0 0
* 1 .1 5 0
* 1 .2 0 0

ANO
ANO
ANO
A NO
ANO

U N D t*
JN D E *
JN D E *
JN D E *
UNDE*

(1 .0 5 0
* 1 .1 0 0
* 1 .1 5 0
* 1 .2 0 0
(1 .2 5 0

.................
.................
.................
.................
.................

1 .1
2 .8
(2 .3 )
-

2 .8
2 .2
2 .7
1 .6
(4 .3 )

5 .8
5 .1
5 .7
4 .5
2 .7

8 .5
7 .8
8 .3
8 .1
4 .7

* 1 .2 5 0
* 1 .3 0 0
* 1 ,3 5 3
* 1 ,4 0 0
(1 ,4 5 3

ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO

UNDE*
JN D E*
JN D E *
JN D E*
JN D E*

* 1 .3 0 0
(1 .3 5 0
* 1 ,4 0 0
* 1 ,4 5 0
* 1 .5 0 0

..................
..................
..................
..................
. ...............

“
*

-

1 .8
1 .7
1 .5
1 .0
(2 .9 )

3 .8
4 .6
3 .7
3 .5
3 .4

*

* 1 ,5 0 3
* 1 .5 5 3
(1 ,6 0 0
* 1 ,6 5 3
(1 .7 0 0

ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO

UNDE*
JN D E *
JN D E*
JN D E *
JN D E *

(1 .5 5 0
* 1 ,6 0 0
* 1 ,6 5 0
(1 ,7 0 0
(1 ,7 5 0

..................
..................
.................
..................
.................

-

-

-

-

3 .4
1 .8
1 .7
1 .3
1 .0

“

_
“

( 1 .8 0 D

ANO Q V E *

-

-

-

( 1 .0 )

-

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

OP EM P LO YEES .............................

2 3 ,9 6 3

8 3 .1 3 7

6 0 .8 3 8

....................

*687

*796

*94 7

........................................

T O T A L .....................................................

N JN 3 E *
A V E * A JE

MONTHLY SA LA RY

.
-

*

•

“

-

-

-

-

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

2 4 ,3 0 4

2 5 .3 6 2

1 6 , 187

4 ,3 5 8

7 4 ,5 7 2

4 7 ,0 3 7

* 1 , 134

*589

(6 8 9

*874

*758

*903

See footnotes at end of table.




*

28

.
-

-

Table 6 . Em ploym ent distribution by salary: Clerical occupations—Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected clerical occupations, b y monthly salary. United States except Alaska and Hawaii,1
March 1979)

Personnel clerk.
Monthly salary

Messengers
II

III

_

-

-

.

1
$ ♦50 ANO UNDER $ 5 7 5 ............................
$ ♦75 AND UNDER $ 5 0 0 ............................

(0 .3 )
2 .9

$500
$525
$550
$575

AND
AND
ANO
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$525
$550
$575
$600

............................
............................
............................
............................

8 .9
9 .7
1 0 .7
8 .8

0 .5
2 .1
3 .7
5 .2

$600
$62 5
$650
$ 67 5

ANO
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$625
$650
$675
$700

............................
. . . . . . . . . . .
.............. ..
............................

3 .8
7. 1
7 .5
5 .8

$700
$725
$750
$775

AND
ANO
ANO
ANO

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 7 2 5 ............................
$ 7 5 0 ............................
$ 7 7 5 ............................
$ 8 0 0 ............ ....................

5 .1
3 .9
2 .6

$800
$825
$850
$ 87 5

ANO
ANO
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 8 2 5 .....................................
$ 8 5 0 ............................
$ 8 7 5 .....................................
$ 9 0 0 ................... ...

1 .6
1 .8

$900
$ 92 5
$950
$975

ANO
AND
ANO
ANO

UNDER $ 9 2 5
UNDER $ 9 5 0
UNDER $ 9 7 5
UNDER $ 1 , 0 0

.....................................
....................................
.....................................
0
..............................

$ 1 ,0 0 0
$ 1 ,0 5 0
$ 1 ,1 0 3
$ 1 ,1 5 0
$ 1 .2 0 3

AND
ANO
AND
ANO
ANO

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 ,0 5 0
$ 1 ,1 0 0
$ 1 ,1 5 0
$ 1 ,2 0 0
$ 1 ,2 5 0

$ 1 ,2 5 3
$ 1 ,3 0 0
$ 1 ,3 5 0
$ 1 ,6 0 0
$ 1 ,6 5 0

ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO
AND

JND ER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 ,3 0 0
$ 1 ,3 5 0
$ 1 ,6 0 0
$ 1 ,6 5 0
$ 1 ,5 0 0

$ 1 ,5 0 0
$ 1 ,5 5 0
$ 1 ,6 0 0
$ 1 ,6 5 0
$ 1 ,7 0 0

ANO
AND
AND
ANO
ANO

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
JN D ER

$ 1 ,5 5 0
$ 1 ,6 0 0
$ 1 ,6 5 0
$ 1 ,7 0 0
$ 1 ,7 5 0

$ 1 ,7 5 0
$ 1 ,8 0 0
$ 1 ,8 5 0
$ 1 ,9 0 0
$ 1 ,9 5 0

ANO
A ND
ANO
A ND
AND

$ 2 ,0 0 0
$ 2 ,0 5 3
$ 2 ,1 0 3
$ 2 ,1 5 0
$ 2 ,2 0 3

AND
ANO
ANO
ANO
ANO

TO TA L

NUMBER

OF

.......................

. . . . . . .
..................
.................

1 .8

1 .0
1 .1

1 .6
1 .6
(6 .3 )

-

-

-

-

-

(0 .6 )

-

-

6 .6
5 .6
1 1 .8
7 .0

1 .5
3 .5
3 .8
6 .5

1 .2
1 .2
.3
1 .3

1 0 .5
7 .7
8 .3
7 .3

5 .2
6 .0
6 .3
6 .6

3 .6
3 .0
3 .2
3 .9

6 .1
2 .1
3 .1
5 .7

6 .3

6 .8

2 .0
1 .9
7 .1
2 .6

6 .7
3 .6
2 .8
3 .1

7 .7
6 .5
3 .9
5 .8

.7
.6
.9
2 .1

2 .6

6 .2
3 .6
3 .8

“

-

1 .1

......................

-

-

.......................

-

-

1 .3
.7
3 .8
(1 .5 )

“

*

.......................
......................

“

.......................
......................

-

-

-

-

.......................
......................

-

-

..................

*

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
JN D ER
UNDER

$ 1 ,8 0 0 .................
$ 1 ,8 5 0 ..................
$ 1 ,9 0 0 ..................
$ 1 ,9 5 0 .......................
$ 2 ,0 0 0 .......................

-

-

UNDER
UNDER
JN D ER
UNDER
JND ER

$ 2 ,0 5 0
$ 2 ,1 0 0
$ 2 ,1 5 0
$ 2 ,2 0 0
$ 2 ,2 5 0

2 .6

_
-

-

-

-

—

—

-

-

*

*

.

-

(0 .8 )

-

1 .1

-

1 .2

*

2 .0

-

2 .6

-

1 .9
1 .0
2 .8

-

3 .8

9 .0
6 .8
7 .1
5 .3

5 .8
1 5 .7
6 .9
7 .7
8 .8

3 .6
9 .5
6 .1
6 .6
1 6 .2

1 .5
3 .6
2 .3
2 .2
.8

2 .7
2 .6
7 .2
2 .2
1 .0

1 .7
6 .6
1 7 .1
7 .6
5 .6

1 .6
(0 .3 )

5 .0
1 .1
1 .3
.8
1 .1

.8
1 .3
3 .1
1 .5
1 .3
.8
1 .2
1 .3
.7
1 .6

8 e8

-

1 .2

-

-

-

1 .0

-

-

-

-

*

2 .6
(1 .6 )

-

-

......................

-

-

-

......................

-

-

-

“
-

-

-

1 .1

“

-

-

.

1 .2

7 .2
2 .8

_

.......................
. . . . . . .

-

1 .5
1 .3
1 .6
2 .8
0 .3

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

-

“

....................................................................

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

EM P LO YEES ............................

1 8 ,8 6 9

2 ,2 9 0

5 ,6 6 6

3 .3 7 3

1 ,9 9 6

756

$67 6

$76 8

$ 89 0

$ 1 ,0 0 5

$ 1 ,1 9 2

$ 1 ,3 7 6

AVERAGE MONTHLY SALARY

....................

See footnotes at end of table.




8 .2
7 .1

......................

.......................

_

-

2 .1

-

-

-

(1 .3 )

( 2 . 0 )
-

.......................

V

_

“

1 .0

.9
1 .3
.5

IV

29

1 0 0 .0

Table 6. Em ploym ent distribution by salary: Clerical occupations—Continued
(Percent distribution o f amployeas in salactad darical occupations, b y m o n th ly salary. U nited States except Alaska and Haw aii,1 M arch 1979)

Secretaries
Monthly salary
1
UNDER $ 5 0 0 .....................................................

II

III

-

-

-

-

IV
-

V

_

-

-

$500
$ 52 5
$550
$57 5

ANO
AND
$ NO
AND

UNDE*
UNDER
UNDE*
UNDER

$ 5 2 5 ............................
$ 5 5 0 ............................
$ 5 7 5 . ..........................
$ 6 0 0 ............................

_
(1 .8 )

-

$600
$625
$650
$ 67 5

AND
AND
AND
A N0

UNDE* $ 6 2 5 ............................
UN0ER $ 6 5 0 ............................
UNDER $ 6 7 5 ............................
UNDER $ 7 0 0 ............................

1 .8
2 .3
3 .7
6. 7

(1 .6 )
1 .0
1 .6
2 .1

(1 .8 )

-

-

-

-

$709
$72 5
$750
$77 5

AND
AN0
AND
ANO

UNDER $ 7 2 5 .............................
UNDER $ 7 5 0 .................... ...
UNDER $ 7 7 5 ............................
UNDER $ 8 0 0 ............................

6 .0
6 .8
5 .9
3 .0

3 .0
6 .0
6 .9
6 .7

1 .9
2 .1
2 .0
2 .8

(6 .1 )

$800
$ 82 5
$ 85 0
$ 87 5

AND
ANO
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$825
$850
$875
$900

7 .6
6 .9
6 .3
6 .6

5 .3
5 .9
6 •6
6 .8

2 .7
3 .6
3 .9
3 .6

$ 90 0
$925
$950
$97 5

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 9 2 5 ............................
$ 9 5 0 ............................
$ 9 7 5 ............................
$ 1 ,0 0 0 . . . . . . . . .

5 .3
5 .3
6 .6
3. 7

5 .9
6 .6
6 .5
5 .6

............................
.................
............................
............................

Standoraphers,
general

Standoraphers,
senior

Typists
II

1

-

-

(0 .6 )

-

-

.
-

(0 .6 )
1 .0
1 .6
1 .9

(0 .6 )
1 .1
1 .7

-

3 .8
5 .1
8 .1
8 .6

3 .1
3 .5
6 .6
6 .8

•
(1 .6 )
1 .0
1 .7

1 0 .6
9 .5
1 0 .7
6 .3

3 .6
5 .6
6 .5
5 .6

.
-

6 .6
6 .3
6 .7
6 .2

2 .0
3 .1
3 .1
3 .3

5 .0
6 .9
6 .7
3 .6

7 .8
5 .5
6. D
5 .6

1 .7
2 .6
2 .6
2 .1

.
(2 .6 )
1 .1
.6

5 .2
5 .0
6 .8
3 .6

3 .3
2 .8
3 .9
3 .6

2 .9
2 .5
1 .2
1 .6

6 .0
5 .1
6 .7
3 .7

5 .1
6 .0
5 .1
6 .7

2 .9
2 .6
3 .8
6 .0

2 .1
1 .6
1 .8
6 .2

3 .5
2 .9
2 .9
6 .0

5 .2
3 .6
3 .6
3 .7

1 .2
.8
.9
.8

3 .0
2 .6
2 .6
2 .2
3 .5
3 .8
3 .0
1 .8
1 .6

-

-

-

$ 1 ,0 0 0
$ 1 ,0 5 0
$ 1 ,1 0 0
$ 1 ,1 5 0
$ 1 ,2 0 0

AND
AND
AND
ANO
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 ,0 5 0
$ 1 ,1 0 0
$ 1 ,1 5 0
$ 1 ,2 0 0
$ 1 ,2 5 0

.................
..................
.................
..................
..................

6 .9
3 .7
2 .0
1 .7
2 .0

8 .0
6 .6
6 .8
6 .0
2 .5

9 .7
8 .0
8 .0
6 .6
5 .2

8 .6
8 .9
7 .1
7 .7
6 *6

5 .8
5 .2
6 .7
7 .1
7 .0

6 .0
6 .5
6 .2
2 .0
1 .5

1 0 .6
5 .9
9 .1
7 .2
5 .0

2 .0
1 .3
(3 .1 )
-

$ 1 ,2 5 0
$ 1 ,3 0 9
$ 1 ,3 5 0
$ 1 ,6 0 0
$ 1 ,6 5 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER $ 1 ,3 0 0
UNDER $ 1 , 3 5 0
UNDER $ 1 ,6 0 0
UNDER $ 1 ,6 5 0
DN0ER $ 1 ,5 0 0

..................
.................
..................
.................
.................

1 .1
1 .0
1 0 .8 )
-

6 .5
3 .2
2 .6
2 .2
1 .9

6*6
6 .2
6 .5
3 .9
3 .1

6 .1
6 .6
5 .6
5 .8
5 .0

2 .3
3 .0
3 .6
1 .6
(1 .0 )

6 .0
2 .5
6 .6
2 .9
1 .7

-

-

2 .5
1 .7
1 .3
1 .3
(1 .6 )

-

1 .1
1 .6
1 .0
1 .6
(0 .8 )

$ 1 ,5 0 0
$ 1 ,5 5 0
$ 1 ,6 0 0
$ 1 ,6 5 0
$ 1 ,7 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
ANO

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

..................
. . . . . . .
..................
.................
..................

-

-

1 .3
1 .8
1 .0
1 .2
(0 .6 )

2 .9
2 .0
1 .6
1 .6
(3 .2 )

5 .6
3 .7
2 .9
2 .9
6 .3

•

-

_
-

-

( 1 .9 )
-

-

-

$ 1 ,7 5 3
$ 1 ,8 0 0
$ 1 ,9 0 0

AND UNDER $ 1 ,8 0 0 .................
AND UNDER $ 1 ,8 5 0 .................
AND OVER ........................................

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.

-

-

-

1 .3
1 .3
(3 .2 )

-

-

-

f O T A L .....................................................

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

NUMBER OF EM P LO YEES ............................

3 8 .6 2 8

7 9 ,3 2 8

9 2 ,3 7 3

6 9 ,9 8 3

1 7 .1 8 7

2 6 ,6 9 5

2 2 ,3 1 6

6 5 ,9 8 8

2 8 ,3 6 6

$863

$968

$ 1 ,0 7 2

$ 1 ,1 7 3

$ 1 ,3 0 8

$ 91 1

$ 1 ,0 3 8

$700

$ 86 6

$ 1 ,5 5 0
$ 1 ,6 0 0
$ 1 ,6 5 0
$ 1 ,7 0 0
$ 1 ,7 5 0

AVERAGE MONTHLY SALARY

....................

-

1For scope of study, see table A-1 in appendix A.
N O T E : T o avoid showing small proportions of employees scattered at or near the
extremes of the distributions for some occupations the percentages of employees in these




-

-

intervals have bean accumulated and are shown in the interval above or below the extreme
interval containing at least 1 percent. The percentages representing these employees are
shown in parentheses. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal 100.

30

Table 7. Occupational em ploym ent distribution: By industry division, United States, March 19 79
(Percent distribution o f employees in selected professionel, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations1 b y industry division,2 U n ited States except Alaska and Hawaii)

Occupation and level

Mining

Con­
struction

Manu­
facturing

Public
utilities3

Wholesale
trade

Retail
trade

Finance,
insurance,
and real
estate

Selected
services4

(5 )
(5 )
100
15)
15)
5
(5 )
(5 )
7
16

P R O F E S S IO N A L AND A D M IN IS T R A T IV E
A C C O U N T A N T S -....................................................................
A U D IT O R S ................................................................................
P U B L IC A C C O U N T A N T S ...................................................
C H IE F A C C O U N TA N TS ....................................................
A T T O R N E Y S -..........................................................................
B U Y E R S .....................................................................................
J O B A N A L Y S TS .....................................................................
D IR E C T O R S OF P E R S O N N EL .........................................
C H E M IS T S ..............................................................................
E N G IN E E R S ..........................................................................
T E C H N IC A L

15)
(5 )
(5 )
15)
15)
(5 )
15)
15)
(5 )

(5 )
(5 )
(5 )
(5 )
(5 )
15)
15)
(5 )
(5 )

68
27
81
57
68
90
73

9
14
*
14
4
8
(5 )
15)
6

(5 )
(5 )
(5 )

(5 )
(5 )
(5 )

81
69
39

(5 )
15)
15)
15)
(5 )
(5 )
15)
15)

(5 )
(5 )
(5 )
15)
(5 )
(5 )
(5 )
(5 )

42
21
35
32
62
49
49
40

64
33
-

5
(5 )

4
5

-

-

3
(5 )
(5 )
(5 )
(5 )
(5 )
(5 )

4
4
(5 )
(5 )
(5 )
(5 )
15)

10
37
9
47
(5 )
26
13
(5 )
(5 )

5
8
10

(5 )
•5 )
8

(5 )
(5 )
7

(5 )
(5 )
22

12
18
13

13
7
7
9
9
10
23
8

ID
4
9
(5 )
(5 )
6
7
(5 )

14
15)

15
58
19
39
14
23
10
35

(5 )
6
20
8
5
6
5
7

SUPPORT

E N G IN E E R IN G T E C H N IC IA N S ....................................
D R A FTE R S .............................................................................
COMPUTER O P E R A TO R S ...................................................
C L E R IC A L
A C C O U N TIN G C L E R K S -......................................................
F I L E C L E R K S ........................................................................
K EY EN TR Y O PERATO RS .................................................
M ES S EN G ER S ..........................................................................
PERSONNEL C LER K S...........................................................
S E C R E T A R IE S .........................................................................
STENOGRAPHER S ' .................................................................
T Y P I S T S .................................................................................

a
7
6
4
(5 )
4

research, development, and testing laboratories; credit reporting and collection agencies;
computer and data processing services; management, consulting, and public relations services;
noncommercial educational, scientific, and research organizations; and accounting, auditing, and
bookkeeping services.
5 Less than 4 percent.

1Each occupation includes the work levels shown in table 1.
2 For scope of study, see table A-1 in appendix A.
3Transportation (except U.S. Postal Service), communications, electric, gas, and sanitary
services.
4 Limited to engineering, architectural, and surveying services; commercially operated

Table 8. Relative salary levels: Occupation by industry division, United States, March 19 79
(Relative salary levels for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations' by industry division,2 United States except Alaska and Hawaii)
(Average salary for each occupation in all industries = 100)

Occupation and level

P R O F E S S IO N A L

Mining

Con­
struction

Manu­
facturing

Public
utilities3

Wholesale
trade

Retail
trade

Finance,
insurance,
and real
estate

Selected
services4

92
92
92
96
99
86
100
(5 )
(5 )

99
106
100
(5 )
96
98
102
86
96
97

AND A D M IN IS T R A T IV E

A C C O U N TA N TS ...................................................................
A U D ITO R S .............................................................................
P U B L IC A C C O U N TA N TS .................................................
C H IE F A C C O U N TA N TS ...................................................
A TTO R N E Y S
BUYERS
J O B A N A L Y S TS
D IR E C TO R S OF PERSONNEL
C H E M IS TS
E N G IN E E R S

95
93

101
104
(5 )
111
102
112
121
108
109

100
108
(5 )
(5 )
103
90
(5 )
(5 )
101

101
105
100
107
10J
105
101
100
100

105
107
110
96
109
108
109
(5 )
102

(5 )
95
10J
103
( 5)
(5 )
95

99
102
102
102
102
(5 )
96
(5 )
(5 )

116
15)
113

(5 )
105
90

99
100
106

112
105
112

(5 )
(5 )
104

(5 )
(5 )
98

88
92
91

102
97
87

117
111
110
98
122
110
95
106

100
113
97
95
(5 )
93
93
103

100
109
105
107
102
103
102
105

120
120
126
124
110
112
106
121

99
104
103
115
(5 )
97
108
111

94
101
99
97
83
89
84
98

88
92
91
89
91
90
81
88

95
102
90
96
97
102
88
101

T E C H N IC A L SUPPORT
E N G IN E E R IN G T E C H N IC IA N S ....................................
D R A FTE R S ..........................................................................
COM PUTER O P E R A TO R S ................................................
C L E R IC A L
A C C O U N TIN G C L E R K S ....................................................
F I L E C LER K S ’ ..................................................................
K EY EN TR Y O P E R A T O R S ............................................
M ES S EN G ER S ......................................................................
PERSON N EL C L E R K S ......................................................
S E C R E T A R IE S ....................................................................
S TEN O G R A P H E R S ..............................................................
T Y P I S T S .............................................................................

4
Limited to engineering, architectural, and surveying services; commercially operated
research, development, and testing laboratories; advertising; credit reporting and collection
agencies; computer and data processing services; management, consulting, and public relations
services; noncommercial educational, scientific, and research organizations; and accounting,
auditing, and bookkeeping services.
3 Insufficient employment in 1 work level or more to warrant separate presentation of
data.

'Each occupation includes the work levels shown in teble 1. In computing relative salary
levels for each occupation by industry division, the total employment in each work level in all
industries surveyed was used as a constant employment weight to eliminate the effect of
differences in the proportion of employment in various work levels within each occupation.
2 For scope of study, see table A-1 in appendix A .
3Transportation (except U.S. Postal Service), communications, electric, gas, and sanitary
services.




31

Table 9 . Average w eekly hours: Occupation by industry division. United States, March 19 7 9
(Average standard w eekly hours1 fo r employees in selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations3 b y industry division,3 U nited States except Alaska and Haw aii)

Occupation and level

Mining

Con­
struction

Manu­
facturing

Public
utilities4

Wholesale
trade

Retail
trade

Finance,
insurance,
and real
estate

Selected
services3

P R O F E S S IO N A L AND A D M IN IS T R A T IV E
A C C O U N TA N TS ................................................................
A U D IT O R S ...........................................................................
P U B L IC A C C O U N TA N TS ..............................................
C H IE F A C C O U N TA N TS ...................................................
A TTO R N E Y S ......................................................................
BUYERS ..............................................................................
J O B A N A L Y S TS ...............................................................
D IR E C TO R S OF PERSON N EL......................................
C H E M IS T S .........................................................................
E N G IN E E R S ......................................................................
T E C H N IC A L

* 0 .0
* 0 .0
(6 1
3 9 .5
* 0 .0
* 0 .0
* 0 .0
* 0 .0
* 0 .0

3 9 .5
* 0 .0
(6 )
(6 )
* 0 .0
* 0 .0
(6 )
(6 )
* 0 .0

3 9 .5
3 9 .0
3 9 .5
3 B .5
* 0 .0
3 9 .5
* 0 .0
* 0 .0
* 0 .0

3 9 .5
3 9 .0
3 9 .0
3 9 .0
3 9 .0
3 8 .5
* 0 .0
(6 )
3 9 .5

3 9 .0
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 8 .0
3 6 .5
(6 )
(6 )
3 8 .5

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
(6 )
3 8 .5
3 9 .0
(6 )
3 9 .5
16)
(6 )

3 8 .0
3 8 .0
3 8 .5
3 8 .0
3 8 .5
3 8 .0
3 8 .5
(6 )
(6 )

3 9 .5
3 9 .0
3 9 .5
(6 )
3 9 .0
* 0 .0
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
* 0 .0

* 0 .0
(6 )
* 0 .0

16)
* 0 .0
* 0 .0

* 0 .0
* 0 .0
3 9 .5

* 0 .0
3 9 .0
3 B .5

16)
(6 )
3 9 .5

(6 )
(6 )
3 9 .5

3 6 .5
3 8 .0
3 8 .5

3 9 .5
* 0 .0
3 9 .5

* 0 .0
* 0 .0
* 0 .0
* 0 .0
* 0 .0
* 0 .0
3 9 .0
* 0 .0

3 9 .5
* 0 .0
* 0 .0
3 9 .5
16)
* 0 .0
3 9 .5
* 0 .0

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .0
* 0 .0
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5

3 9 .0
3 8 .0
3 9 .5
3 B .5
3 9 .5
3 8 .5
3 9 .0
3 9 .5

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .0
(6 )
3 9 .5
3 9 .0
3 9 .0

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .0
3 9 .0
* 0 .0
3 9 .5

3 8 .0
3 8 .0
3 8 .0
3 7 .5
3 8 .0
3 8 .0
3 8 .0
3 7 .5

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
* 0 .0
3 8 .0
3 9 .0
3 9 .5
3 9 .0
3 9 .0

SUPPORT

E N G IN E E R IN G T E C H N IC IA N S ..................................
D R A FTE R S .........................................................................
COMPUTER O P E R A TO R S ...............................................
C L E R IC A L
A C C O U N TIN G C L E R A S ..................................................
F I L E C LER K S .................................................................
K E Y EN TR Y O P E R A TO R S .............................................
M ESSEN GERS ....................................................................
PERSON N EL CLERK S ....................................................
S E C R E T A R IE S .................................................................
S TEN OGRA PHERS ............................................................
T Y P I S T S ..............................................................................

5
Limited to engineering, architectural, and surveying services; commercially operated
research, development, and testing laboratories; advertising; credit reporting and collection
agencies; computer and data processing services; management, consulting, and public relations
services; and noncommercial educational, scientific, and research organizations; and accounting,
auditing, and bookkeeping services.
‘ Insufficient employment in 1 or more work levels to warrant separate presentation of
data.

1Based on the standard workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time
salary. If standard hours ware not available, the standard hours applicable for a majority of the
office work force in the establishment were used. The average for each job category was
rounded to the nearest half hour.
1Each occupation includes the work levels shown in table 1.
3 For scope of study, see table A-1 in appendix A .
4Transportation (except U.S. Postal Service), communications, electric, gas, and sanitary
services.




32

A ppendix A . Scope and Method
o f Survey

address, employment, type of industry, or other informa­
tion.

Scope

The survey relates to establishments1 in the United
States, except Alaska and Hawaii, employing at least a
specified minimum number of workers, and engaged in the
following industries: Mining; construction; manufacturing;
transportation, communications, electric, gas, and sanitary
services (except the U.S. Postal Service); wholesale trade;
retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and selected
services (table A-l). Establishments which employed fewer
than the minimum number of employees specified for each
industry division were excluded. Establishments which met
the minimum size criteria during the reference period of the
information used in compiling the survey universe were
included, even if they employed fewer than the specified
minimum number of workers at the time of the survey.
Establishments outside of the industrial scope of the survey
at the time of data collection were excluded.
Table A-l shows the estimated number of establishments
and employees within scope of the survey and the number
within the sample actually studied for each major industry
division. Separate estimates are presented for establish­
ments employing 2,500 workers or more and for those
located in Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas
(SMSA’s).1 Similar estimates of the number of full-time
2
white-collar employees are also provided.

Survey design

The design for a survey consists of the method by which
the individual establishments are classified into homo­
geneous groups or strata, how the sample sizes were chosen
for the individual strata, and the method by which the
sample of establishments was selected from each stratum.
Establishments within scope of the 1979 survey were
stratified by industry group and by total employment.
Establishments were also stratified on a limited scale
geographically to allow BLS to publish estimates for New
York State and the New York area in a separate report.
The sample size in a stratum was approximately propor­
tional to the total employment of all establishments within
the stratum. Thus, a stratum which contained 1 percent of
total employment within the scope of the survey received
approximately 1 percent of total sample. Within each
stratum, a random sample was selected systematically to
maximize the probability of retaining establishments which
were selected for the 1978 sample.3 This method of
selection would reduce collection costs by decreasing the
number of new establishments in the sample.
Data collection

The list of establishments (called the sampling frame)
from which the sample was selected was developed by
updating the 1978 survey sampling frame using data from
the most recently available (usually March 1977) unem­
ployment insurance reports for 48 States and the District of
Columbia. During the update process, some establishments
were added, some were removed, while others changed

Data for the survey were obtained by personal visits of
the Bureau’s field representatives to a nationwide sample of
establishments. Collection was scheduled during the months
of January through April to reflect an average reference
period of March 1979.4
Employees were classified by occupation and level using
job descriptions (see appendix C) prepared jointly by the
Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Office of Personnel

1 For this survey, an establishment is an economic unit which
produces goods or services, a central administrative office, or an
auxiliary unit providing support services to a company. In manufac­
turing industries the establishment is usually a single physical
location. In nonmanufacturing industries, all locations of an
individual company within a Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area
(SMSA) or within a nonmetropolitan county are usually considered
an establishment.
2 The metropolitan area data relate to all 276 SMSA’s within the
48 States as revised through June 1977 by the U.S. Office of
Management and Budget.

3This method modifies the method introduced by Nathan
Keyfitz in 1951 in his paper titled “Sampling with Probabilities
Proportional to Size-Adjusting for Changes in the Probabilities”,
Journal o f the American Statistical Association, 1951, No. 46, pp.
105-109.
4 The March payroll period has been used since the 1972 survey.
The 1967 through 1971 surveys had a June reference period for all
occupations. Before the 1967 study, the average reference period
was February for clerical and drafting jobs, and March for all other
occupations. Until 1963, reports listed “Winter” as the reference
period. From 1963 through 1966, the designation “FebruaryMarch” was used.

Sampling frame




33

Table A -1. Num ber o f establishments and workers w ith in scope o f survey and num ber studied
by industry division, United States, March 19 79
Within scope of survey
Minimum
employment
in establish­
ments within
scope of
survey

Industry division1

U N IT E D S T A T E S

-

Studied

Workers in establishments
Number of
establish­
ments

Professional
and
administrative

Total

Workers in establishments

Clerical
and
technical
support

Number of
establish­
ments

Total

Professional
and
administrative

Clerical
and
technical
support

A LL
A 0 , 251 2 2 , 9 2 3 ,1 2 5

A , 6 6 2 ,2 7 9

A ,6 0 8 ,5 3 A

3 ,5 2 9

7 ,0 0 8 , 6 A 5

1 , A 5 6 , 781

1 , 6 A 7 •996

1 0 0 -2 5 0

1 9 , 8A5

1 2 ,9 7 1 ,7 8 0

1 , 6 2 5 , 9A8

2 .3 A 5 ,9 A 7

1 ,7 8 7

A , 1 0 5 ,8 0 3

5 5 1 ,7 1 5

9 A 0 , 092

250
250

5AT
A5A

3 A 3 ,7 7 6
1 9 3 ,1 3 3

A 0 , 117
3 3 ,6 5 5

56 ,2 57
5 2 ,2 55

57
A1

7 1 ,7 2 2
3 9 ,9 7 1

9 ,9 1 0
8 ,7 7 0

1 5 ,6 7 3
1 6 ,9 1 2

S E R V IC E S .....................................................
WHOLESALE TR A D E .................................
R E T A IL TRAD E ..........................................
F IN A N C E , 1 N S JR A N C E , AND
R EA L E S T A T E .............................................

1 0 0 -2 5 0
100
250

3 ,7 1 2
A , 606
3 ,5 1 7

2 ,6 9 2 , 6 3 1
9 6 3 , 1A2
2 , 9 9 9 , A77

6 0 9 , A98
2 7 0 ,0 8 1
5 8 0 ,1 2 1

5 9 8 ,8 9 5
2 5 1 ,3 9 7
3 6 9 ,6 7 2

A29
239
382

1 ,2 6 3 , 8 5 8
6 A ,926
7 5 0 ,8 3 8

3 1 8 , 8AA
2 1 »7 1 A
1 6 2 ,1 2 5

3 0 7 ,8 1 7
2 3 ,3 1 5
9 8 ,3 6 3

100

5 ,A 7 6

2 ,0 9 9 , 9 0 6

1 ,2 6 A , 2 7 5

6 0 9 .0 3 A

A01

5 3 3 ,6 6 5

3 3 0 , A53

1 A 9 .1 5 A

SELEC TED

50 - 1 0 0

2 ,0 9 4

6 5 9 ,2 8 3

2 3 8 , 58A

3 2 5 ,0 7 7

193

1 7 7 ,8 6 2

5 3 ,2 5 0

9 6 ,6 7 0

-

3 2 ,6 1 9

1 9 , 1 6 2 ,6 8 2

A , 3 0 8 , 335

A , 2 0 5 ,1 2 2

2 ,9 A A

6 .A 5 2 . 2 A A

1 ,3 9 8 ,70A

1 ,5 6 8 , 5 6 6

1 0 0 -2 5 0

1 A .3 9 5

9 ,9 8 2 , 0 1 5

1 , A 0 5 ,696

2 ,0 5 3 , 3 7 6

1 ,3 5 1

3 ,6 7 0 , 1 6 3

5 1 0 ,7 6 5

8 8 0 ,9 0 7

IN D U S T R IE S

.............................................

3

M A N U FA C TU R IN G

...............................................

NDNMANUFACT U R IN S :
M IN IN G ..........................................................
C O N S TR U C TIO N ..........................................
T R A N S P O R T A T IO N , C O M M U N IC A TIO N ,
E L E C T R I C , G A S , AND S A N ITA R Y
A

S E R V IC E S ............................

M E TR O P O L ITA N
IN D U S T R IE S

AREAS -

A LL

.............................................
3

M A N U FA C TU R IN G

...............................................

N O N M A N U FA C TU R IN G :
M IN IN G ..........................................................
C O N STR UC T I O N ..........................................
T R A N S P O R T A T IO N , C O M M U N IC A TIO N ,
E L E C T R I C , G A S , AND S A N ITA R Y

250
250

261
36 7

1 6 1 ,7 5 9
1 6 5 ,6 5 9

2 8 ,0 1 0
3 1 ,7 3 3

3 7 ,0 1 1
A9 ,6 1 0

26
35

3 9 ,3 6 5
3 3 ,9 7 7

5 ,8 0 9
8 ,5 1 1

9 .A A 2
1 6 .5 0 A

S E R V IC E S .....................................................
W HOLESALE TR A D E ..................................
R E T A IL TR A D E ..........................................
F IN A N C E , IN S J R A N C E , AND
R EA L E S T A T E .............................................

1 3 0 -2 5 0
100
250

2 ,7 3 0
A , 239
3 ,3 0 1

2 ,3 6 5 , 1 8 9
9 0 0 ,3 2 8
2 , 9 0 A , 355

5 6 1 ,5 6 1
2 5 9 ,0 1 2
5 6 2 , 0A3

5 5 2 ,0 6 7
2 A 5 ,5 2 2
3 5 9 ,5 9 0

36A
225
368

1 , 2 0 A , 162
6 3 .1 A A
7 3 7 , A 60

3 1 1 ,9 8 5
2 1 ,3 8 9
1 6 0 ,A 92

2 9 8 ,1 7 5
2 3 ,1 9 6
9 7 ,2 7 6

100

5 ,2 2 8

2 ,0 3 7 , 7 0 1

1 ,2 2 7 , 3 0 2

5 8 8 ,5 3 9

387

5 2 8 ,2 0 5

3 2 7 ,1 3 1

1A 7 , 351

S E L E C T E D S E R V IC E S .............................

50 - 1 0 0

2 ,0 A S

6 A 5 .6 7 6

2 3 2 ,9 7 8

3 1 9 , A07

188

1 7 5 ,7 6 8

5 2 ,6 2 2

9 5 ,7 1 5

-

1 ,0 2 6

6 ,8 0 3 , 5 8 1

1 ,3 8 0 , 8 8 9

1 , 6 0 9 , A 33

7A5

5 , 2 1 7 , A27

1 ,0 7 3 , 9 1 9

1 , 2 7 8 , A51

1 0 0 -2 5 0

526

3 ,9 8 3 , 3 1 0

5 3 8 ,5 3 3

9 6 0 .A 0 7

AA2

3 , 1 7 7 ,2 9 6

A 2 8 , 566

7 8 5 ,5 7 9

A

E S T A B L IS H M E N T S EM P LO YIN G
2 ,5 0 0 WORKERS OR MORE - A LL
IN D U S T R IE S .............................................
3
M A N U FA C TU R IN G

...............................................

1As defined in the 1972 edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual, U.S. Office
of Management and Budget.
1 Establishments with total employment at or above the minimum limitation indicated in the
first column; excludes Alaska and Hawaii.
3Minimum employment size was 100 for chemical and allied products; petroleum refining
and related industries; machinery except electrical; electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies;
transportation equipment; and instruments and related products. Minimum size was 250 in all
other manufacturing industries.
4Minimum employment size was 100 for railroad transportation; local and suburban transit;
deep sea foreign and domestic transportation; air transportation; communications, electric, gas.




3H

and sanitary services; and pipelines; and 250 for all other transportation industries. U.S. Postal
Service is excluded from the survey.
5 Limited to advertising; credit reporting and collection agencies; computer and data
processing services; research and development laboratories; commercial tasting laboratories;
management and public relations services, engineering and architectural services; noncommercial
research organizations; and accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping services.
6 Minimum employment size was 50 for accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping services; and
100 in all other selected services.
7Standard metropolitan statistical areas in the United States, except Alaska and Hawaii, as
revised through June 1977 by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget.

Management (formerly the U.S. Civil Service Commission).
The descriptions are designed to reflect duties and respon­
sibilities of employees in private industry and to be
translatable to specific General Schedule grades applying to
Federal employees (see appendix D). Thus, definitions of
some occupations and work levels were limited to specific
elements which could be classified uniformly among estab­
lishments.
In comparing the actual duties and responsibilities of
employees with those enumerated in the job descriptions,
the Bureau’s field representatives, with the assistance of
company officials, extensively used company position
descriptions, organization charts, and other personnel
records.
The salaries reported for survey occupations are the
standard salaries paid to full-time employees for standard
work schedules, i.e., the straight-time salary corresponding
to the employee’s normal work schedule excluding over­
time hours. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded, but
cost-of-living payments and incentive earnings are included.

Payroll basis

Survey nonresponse

Salary averages. The mean salary (average wage rate) for a
specific occupational level was obtained by dividing total
wages for that level by the corresponding total employ­
ment. Median and quartile values were derived from
distributions of employees by salary using 10-cent class
intervals. All salary averages in the tables were rounded to
the nearest dollar. For all annual salary calculations,
individual monthly salaries (to the nearest one-tenth cent)
were multiplied by 12 before performing the necessary data
aggregation.

Weekly
Biweekly
Semimonthly
Monthly
Annual

4.3450
2.1725
2.0000

1.0000
.0833

Factors which reflect the normal work schedules for the
month w re used to convert hourly rates to a monthly
basis.
Employment. Occupational employment counts, generated
by the survey, are estimates of the total for all establish­
ments within the scope of the survey and are not limited to
establishments actually studied. An occupational employ­
ment estimate was derived by multiplying the full-time
employment in the occupation in each sample establish­
ment by the establishment weight and then summing these
results.

In the March 1979 survey, salary data were not available
from about 15 percent of the sample members (represent­
ing 2,720,000 employees in the total universe). An addi­
tional 5 percent of the sampled establishments (represent­
ing 745,000 employees) were either out of business or
outside the scope of the survey.
If data were not provided by a sample member, the
weights of responding establishments randomly selected
from the same stratum were increased to adjust for the
missing data. No adjustment was made for establishments
which were out of business or out of the scope o f the
survey at the time of data collection.
Some sampled companies had an established policy of
not disclosing salary data for certain employees. No
adjustments were made to the salary estimates for the
survey as a result of these missing data. In all but 8 of the
65 professional, administrative, and technical levels sur­
veyed, the proportion of employees for whom salary data
were not available was less than 5 percent.5
Survey estim ation methods

Data conversion. Salary data were collected from company
records in the most readily available form, i.e., weekly,
biweekly, semimonthly, monthly, or annually. Before
initial tabulations, all salary data were converted to a
monthly basis. The factors used to convert the salary data
are as follows:
s Those with 5 percent or more were: Chief accountants I and
III— 12 and 13 percent, respectively; Attorneys V I-5 percent; Job
analysts III-7 percent; and Directors of personnel I, II, III, and
I V - 6, 5, 14, and 23 percent, respectively.




Conversion factor

35

Salary trends. Percent increases for each occupation in text
table 1 were obtained by adding the aggregate salaries for
each level in each of 2 successive years and dividing the
later sum by the earlier sum. To eliminate the effects of
year-to-year employment shifts in this computation,
average salaries in each year were multiplied by employ­
ment in the most recent year. Increases for each of the two
broad occupational groups (the professional, administrative,
and technical support group; and the clerical group) were
obtained by calculating a simple mean of the increases
reported for the occupations within the group. Increases for
all survey occupations combined were determined by
averaging the increases for the two broad occupational
groups. Annual percentage increases were then linked to
compute average annual rates of increase for each occupa­
tion and group and for all occupations combined.
Year-to-year percent increases for each group specified
in text table 2 and chart 1 were determined by adding
average salaries for all occupational levels in the group for 2
consecutive years and, dividing the later sum by the earlier
sum. The trends in chart 1 and text table 2 were obtained
by linking changes for the individual periods.

opposite effect. Similarly, promotions of employees to
higher work levels of professional and administrative
occupations may affect the average of each level. Estab­
lished salary ranges for such occupations are relatively wide,
and employees who may have been paid the maximum of
the salary scale for the lower level are likely to be replaced
by less experienced employees who may be paid the
minimum. Occupations most likely to reflect such changes
are higher levels of professional and administrative occupa­
tions and single-incumbent positions such as chief account­
ant and director of personnel.

Changes in the scope of the survey and in occupational
definitions were incorporated into the various trend series
as soon as two consecutive periods with comparable data
were available.
Lim itations

Survey occupations were limited to employees meeting
the specific criteria in each survey definition and were not
intended to include all employees in each field of work.6
Employees whose salary data were not available, as well as
those for whom there was no satisfactory basis for
classification by work level, were not taken into account in
the estimates. For these reasons, and because of differences
in occupational structure among establishments, estimates
of occupational employment obtained from the sample of
establishments studied indicate only the relative importance
of occupations and levels as defined for the survey. These
qualifications of employment estimates do not materially
affect the accuracy of the earnings data.
Data on year-to-year changes in average salaries are
subject to limitations which reflect the nature of the data
collected. Changes in average salaries reflect not only
general salary increases and merit or other increases in the
same work level category, but also other factors such as
employee turnover, expansions or contractions in the work
force, and changes in staffing patterns within establish­
ments with different salary levels. For example, an expan­
sion in force may increase the proportion of employees at
the minimum of the salary range established for a work
level, which would tend to lower the average, whereas a
reduction or a low turnover in the work force may have the

R eliability o f the estimates

The relative standard error of an average salary estimate
is a measure of the reliability of that estimate: The smaller
the relative standard error, the greater the reliability of the
estimate.7 Estimates of relative standard errors for the
1979 survey vary widely among various occupational work
levels depending on a number of factors, which include:
The frequency with which the job occurs, the dispersion of
salaries for the job, and the survey design. For the 89
published occupational work levels, estimated relative
standard errors for the average salary estimates were
distributed as follows: 59 were under 1 percent; 17 were
between 1 and 2 percent; 5 were between 2 and 3 percent;
5 were between 3 and 4 percent; and 3 were over 4
percent.8 The current method of estimating standard errors
for this survey indicates there is a 70-percent chance that
the true value of a salary average lies within a band of
values defined by the reported average plus and minus two
standard errors.
7 A replication technique with one replicate was used to obtain
estimates o f relative standard errors for the 1979 survey. Standard­
ized survey wage rate estimates are, thus, approximately distributed
as a student’s t random variable with one degree of freedom.
Although no estimates o f the effects o f nonresponse are available,
the reduction in the reliability of wage rate estimates should be
small because o f the nature o f the data collected, the survey
method, and the high response rate.
‘ Chief accountants II at 4.15 percent; Directors o f personnel IV
at 4.46 percent; and Attorneys I at 5.49 percent.

6 Engineers, for example, include employees engaged in
engineering work within a band of eight levels, starting with
inexperienced engineering graduates and excluding only those
within certain fields of specialization or in positions above those
covered by level VIII. In contrast, occupations such as chief
accountants and directors o f personnel include only those with
responsibility for a specified program and with duties and responsi­
bilities as indicated for each o f the more limited number of work
levels selected for study.




36

Appendix B. Survey Changes in 1979

personnel clerks, as defined in Appendix C, have been
added to the survey. Three levels o f purchasing clerks were
also surveyed but the definitions will require additional
refinement and testing before they yield reliable results.

Changes in occupational definitions

The definitions of accounting clerks and drafters were
revised and levels were added to both occupations to
facilitate classification and better relate the definitions to
duties and responsibilities as they exist in private industry.
Data for these occupations are not comparable to those
previously published and thus are not used in any trend
comparisons.

Industries added

Firms in accounting, auditing, and bookkeeping services
(SIC 8931) with a minimum employment o f 50 workers
have been added to the industries surveyed.

Occupations added

Four levels of public accountants and five levels of




37

A ppendix C. Occupational
Definitions

The primary purpose of preparing job definitions for the Bureau’s wage surveys is to assist
its field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations, or levels within occupations, work­
ers who are employed under a variety of payroll titles and different work arrangements from
establishment to establishment and from area to area. This permits the grouping of occupa­
tional wage rates representing comparable job content. To secure comparability of job
content, some occupations and work levels are defined to include only those workers meet­
ing specific criteria as to training, job functions, and responsibilities. Because of this empha­
sis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bureau’s
occupational definitions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establish­
ments or those prepared for other purposes. Also see note referring to the definitions for the
drafting and clerical occupations at the end of this appendix.

Accountants and Auditors
Advising operating officials on accounting matters;
and
Recommending improvements, adaptations, or revi­
sions in the accounting system and procedures.
(Entry and developmental level positions provide opportu­
nity to develop ability to perform professional duties such
as those enumerated above.)
In addition to such professional work, most accountants
are also responsible for assuring the proper recording and
documentation of transactions in the accounts. They, there­
fore, frequently direct nonprofessional personnel in the ac­
tual day-to-day maintenance of books of accounts, the ac­
cumulation of cost or other comparable data, the prepara­
tion of standard reports and statements, and similar work.
(Positions involving such supervisory work but not includ­
ing professional duties as described above are not included
in this description.)
Excluded are accountants whose principal or sole duties
consist of designing or improving accounting systems or
other nonoperating staff work, e.g., financial analysis, fi­
nancial forecasting, tax advising, etc. (The criteria that fol­
low for distinguishing among the several levels of work are
inappropriate for such jobs.) Note, however, that profes­
sional accountant positions with responsibility for record­
ing or reporting accounting data relative to taxes are in­
cluded, as are operating or cost accountants whose work
includes, but is not limited to, improvement of the account­
ing system.
Some accountants use electronic data processing equip­
ment to process, record, and report accounting data. In

ACCOUNTANT

Performs professional accounting work requiring knowl­
edge of the theory and practice of recording, classifying,
examining, and analyzing the data and records of financial
transactions. The work generally requires a bachelor’s de­
gree in accounting or, in rare instances, equivalent experi­
ence and education combined. Positions covered by this
definition are characterized by the inclusion of work that is
analytical, creative, evaluative, and advisory in nature. The
work draws upon and requires a thorough knowledge of the
fundamental doctrines, theories, principles, and terminolo­
gy of accountancy, and often entails some understanding of
such related fields as business law, statistics, and general
management. (See also chief accountant.)
Professional responsibilities in accountant positions
above the entry and developmental levels include several
such duties as:
Analyzing the effects of transactions upon account
relationships;
Evaluating alternative means of treating transactions;
Planning the manner in which account structures
should be developed or modified;
Assuring the adequacy of the accounting system as
the basis for reporting to management;
Considering the need for new or changed controls;
Projecting accounting data to show the effects of pro­
posed plans on capital investments, income, cash posi­
tion, and overall financial condition;
Interpreting the meaning of accounting records, re­
ports, and statements;



38

some such cases the machine unit is a subordinate segment
of the accounting system; in others it is a separate entity or
is attached to some other organization. In either instance,
provided that the primary responsibility of the position is
professional accounting work of the type otherwise includ­
ed, the use of data processing equipment of any type does
not of itself exclude a position from the accountant de­
scription nor does it change its level.

problems. Is expected to be competent in the application of
standard procedures and requirements to routine transac­
tions, to raise questions about unusual or questionable
items, and to suggest solutions. (Terminal positions are ex­
cluded.)
Direction received. Work is reviewed closely to verify its
general accuracy and coverage of unusual problems, to in­
sure conformance with required procedures and special in­
structions, and to assure professional growth. Progress is
evaluated in terms of ability to apply professional knowl­
edge to basic accounting problems in the day-to-day opera­
tions of an established accounting system.

A ccountant I

General characteristics. At this beginning professional level,
the accountant learns to apply the principles, theories, and
concepts of accounting to a specific system. The position is
distinguishable from nonprofessional positions by the vari­
ety of assignments; rate and scope of development expected
of the incumbent; and the existence, implicit or explicit, of
a planned training program designed to give the entering
accountant practical experience. (Terminal positions are ex­
cluded.)

Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs a variety of
accounting tasks, e.g., prepares routine working papers,
schedules, exhibits, and summaries indicating the extent of
the examination and presenting and supporting findings and
recommendations. Examines a variety of accounting docu­
ments to verify accuracy of computations and to ascertain
that all transactions are properly supported, are in accord­
ance with pertinent policies and procedures, and are
classified and recorded according to acceptable accounting
standards.

Direction received. Works under close supervision of an ex­
perienced accountant whose guidance is directed primarily
to the development of the trainee’s professional ability and
to the evaluation of advancement potential. Limits of as­
signments are clearly defined, methods of procedure are
specified, and kinds of items to be noted and referred to
supervisor are identified.

Responsibility for the direction o f others. Usually none,
although sometimes responsible for supervision of a few
clerks.
Accountant I II

Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs a variety of
accounting tasks such as: Examining a variety of financial
statements for completeness, internal accuracy, and con, formance with uniform accounting classifications or other
specific accounting requirements; reconciling reports and
financial data with financial statements already on file, and
pointing out apparent inconsistencies or errors; carrying out
assigned steps in an accounting analysis, such as computing
standard ratios; assembling and summarizing accounting
literature on a given subject; preparing relatively simple fi­
nancial statements not involving problems of analysis or
presentation; and preparing charts, tables, and other exhib­
its to be used in reports. In addition to such work, may also
perform some nonprofessional tasks for training purposes.

General characteristics. Performs professional operating or
cost accounting work requiring the standardized application
of well-established accounting principles, theories, con­
cepts, and practices. Receives detailed instructions con­
cerning the overall accounting system and its objectives, the
policies and procedures under which it is operated, and the
nature of changes in the system or its operation. Character­
istically, the accounting system or assigned segment is sta­
ble and well established (i.e., the basic chart of accounts,
classifications, the nature of the cost accounting system,
the report requirements, and the procedures are changed
infrequently).
Depending upon the workload involved, the accountant
may have such assignments as supervision of the day-to-day
operation of: (a) The entire system of a subordinate estab­
lishment, or (b) a major segment (e.g., general accounting;
cost accounting; or financial statements and reports) of a
somewhat larger system, or (c)in a very large and complex
system, may be assigned to a relatively narrow and special­
ized segment dealing with some problem, function, or por­
tion of work which is itself of the level of difficulty charac­
teristic of this level.

Responsibility for direction o f others. Usually none.
A ccountant II

General characteristics. At this continuing developmental
level the professional accountant makes practical applica­
tions of technical accounting practices and concepts be­
yond the mere application of detailed rules and instruc­
tions. Assignments are designed to expand practical experi­
ence and to develop professional judgment in the applica­
tion of basic accounting techniques to simple professional




Direction received. A higher level professional accountant
normally is available to furnish advice and assistance as
39

(e.g., employing several thousand persons) subordinate
establishment which in other respects has an accounting
system of the complexity that characterizes level III.

needed. Work is reviewed for technical accuracy, adequacy
of professional judgment, and compliance with instructions
through spot checks, appraisal of results, subsequent pro­
cessing, analysis of reports and statements, and other appro­
priate means.

Direction received. A higher level accountant normally is
available to furnish advice and assistance as needed. Work is
reviewed by spot checks and appraisal of results for ade­
quacy of professional judgment, compliance with instruc­
tions, and overall accuracy and quality.

Typical duties and responsibilities. The primary responsibil­
ity of most positions at this level is to assure that the as­
signed day-to-day operations are carried out in accordance
with established accounting principles, policies, and objec­
tives. The accountant performs such professional work as:
Developing nonstandard reports and statements (e.g., those
containing cash forecasts reflecting the interrelations of ac­
counting, cost budgeting, or comparable information); in­
terpreting and pointing out trends or deviations from
standards; projecting data into the future; predicting the
effects of changes in operating programs; or identifying
management informational needs, and refining account
structures or reports accordingly.
Within the limits of delegated responsibility, makes dayto-day decisions concerning the accounting treatment of
financial transactions. Is expected to recommend solutions
to complex problems and propose changes in the account­
ing system for approval at higher levels. Such recommenda­
tions are derived from personal knowledge of the applica­
tion of well-established principles and practices.

Typical duties and responsibilities. As at level III, a primary
characteristic of most positions at this level is the responsi­
bility of operating an accounting system or major segment
of a system in the intended manner.
The accountant IV exercises professional judgment in
making frequent appropriate recommendations for: New
accounts; revisions in the account structure; new types of
ledgers; revisions in reporting system or subsidiary records;
changes in instructions regarding the use of accounts; new
or refined account classifications or definitions; etc. Also
makes day-to-day decisions concerning the accounting
treatment of financial transactions and is expected to rec­
ommend solutions to complex problems beyond incum­
bent’s scope of responsibility.
Responsibility for direction o f others. Accounting staff su­
pervised, if any, may include professional accountants.

Responsibility for the direction o f others. In most instances
is responsible for supervision of a subordinate nonprofes­
sional staff.

A ccountant V

General characteristics. Performs professional operating or
cost accounting work which is of greater than average pro­
fessional difficulty and responsibility because of the pres­
ence of unusual and novel problems or the unusual magni­
tude or impact of the accounting program. Typically this
level of difficulty arises from (a) the large size o f the ac­
counting and operating organization, (b) the atypical nature
of the accounting problems encountered, or (c) the unusu­
ally great involvement in accounting systems design and
development.
Examples of assignments characteristic of this level are
the supervision of the day-to-day operation of: (a) The en­
tire accounting system of a subordinate establishment hav­
ing an unusually novel and complex accounting system, or
(b) the entire accounting system of a large (e.g., employing
several thousand persons) subordinate establishment which
in other respects has an accounting system of the complexi­
ty that characterizes level IV, or (c) the entire accounting
system of a company or corporation that has a relatively
stable and conventional accounting system and employs
several thousand persons and has a few subordinate estab­
lishments which include accounting units, or (d )a major
segment of an accounting system that substantially exceeds
the characteristics described in any one of the preceding
examples.

A ccountant IV

General characteristics. Performs professional operating or
cost accounting work which requires the application of
well-established accounting principles, theories, concepts,
and practices to a wide variety of difficult problems. Re­
ceives instructions concerning the objectives and operation
of the overall accounting system. At this level, compared
with level III, the accounting system or assigned segment is
more complex, i.e., (a) is relatively unstable, (b) must ad­
just to new or changing company operations, (c) serves or­
ganizations of unusually large size, or (d) is complicated by
the need to provide and coordinate separate or specialized
accounting treatment and reporting (e.g., cost accounting
using standard cost, process cost, and job order techniques)
for different operations or divisions of the company.
Depending upon the workload and degree of coordina­
tion involved, the accountant IV may have such assign­
ments as the supervision of the day-to-day operation o f: (a)
The entire accounting system of a subordinate establish­
ment, or (b) a major segment (e.g., general accounting; cost
accounting; or financial statements and reports) of an ac­
counting system serving a larger and more complex estab­
lishment, or (c) the entire accounting system of a large




40

Direction received. An accountant of higher level normally
is available to furnish advice and assistance as needed. Work
is reviewed for adequacy of professional judgment, compli­
ance with instructions, and overall quality.

normally do not require or permit professional audit work
to be performed.)

A u d ito r I

Typical duties and responsibilities. The work is character­
ized by its unusual difficulty or responsibility. Accountants
V typically are directly concerned on a relatively continu­
ous basis with what the nature of the accounting system
should be, with the devising or revising of the operating
accounting policies and procedures that are necessary, and
with the managerial as well as the accounting meaning of
the reports and statements for which they are responsible.
Accountants V are necessarily deeply involved in funda­
mental and complex accounting matters and in the manage­
rial problems that are affected.
Responsibility for the direction o f others. Accounting staff
supervised generally includes professional accountants.

A U D IT O R

Direction received. Works under close supervision of an ex­
perienced auditor whose guidance is directed primarily to
the development of the trainee’s professional ability and to
the evaluation of advancement potential. Limits of assign­
ments are clearly defined, methods of procedure are speci­
fied, and kinds of items to be noted and referred to super­
visor are identified.
Typical duties and responsibilities. Assists in making audits
by performing such tasks as: Verification of the accuracy of
the balances in various records; examination of a variety of
types of documents and vouchers for accuracy of computa­
tions; checking transactions to assure they are properly doc­
umented and have been recorded in accordance with cor­
rect accounting classifications; verifying the count of inven­
tories; preparing detailed statements, schedules, and stand­
ard audit working papers; counting cash and other assets;
preparing simple reconciliations; and similar functions.

Performs professional auditing work requiring a bache­
lor’s degree in accounting or, in rare instances, equivalent
experience and education combined. Audits the financial
records and practices of a company, or of divisions or com­
ponents of the company, to appraise systematically and
verify the accounting accuracy of records and reports and
to assure the consistent application of accepted accounting
principles. Evaluates the adequacy of the accounting system
and internal financial controls. Makes appropriate recom­
mendations for improvement as necessary. To the extent
determined necessary, examines the transactions entering
into the balance sheet and the transactions entering into
income, expense, and cost accounts. Determines:

A u d ito r II

General characteristics. At this continuing developmental
level the professional auditor serves as a junior member of
an audit team, independently performing selected portions
of the audit which are limited in scope and complexity.
Auditors at this level typically have acquired knowledge of
company operations, policies, and procedures. (Terminal
positions are excluded.)

The existence of recorded assets (including the obser­
vation of the taking of physical inventories) and the allinclusiveness of recorded liabilities;
The accuracy of financial statements or reports and
the fairness of presentation of facts therein;
The propriety or legality of transactions;
The degree of compliance with established policies
and procedures concerning financial transactions.

Direction received. Detailed instructions are furnished and
the work is reviewed to the extent necessary to verify its
general accuracy and coverage of unusual problems, to in­
sure conformance with required procedures and special in­
structions, and to assure the auditor’s professional growth.
Any technical problems not covered by instructions are
brought to the attention of a superior. Progress is evaluated
in terms of ability to apply professional knowledge to basic
auditing situations.

Excluded are positions which do not require full profes­
sional accounting training because the work is confined on
a relatively permanent basis to repetitive examinations of a
limited area of company operations and accounting proc­
esses, e.g., only accounts payable and receivable; demur­
rage records and related functions, or station operations
only of a railroad company; branch offices which do not
engage in the full range of banking and accounting activities
of the main bank; warehouse operations only of a mail
order company; checking transactions to determine wheth­
er or not they conform to prescribed routines or proce­
dures. (Examinations of such a repetitive or limited nature



General characteristics. As a trainee auditor at the entering
professional level, performs a variety of routine assign­
ments. Typically, the trainee is rotated through a variety of
tasks under a planned training program designed to provide
practical experience in applying the principles, theories, and
concepts of accounting and auditing to specific situations.
(Terminal positions are excluded.)

Typical duties and responsibilities. Applies knowledge of
accounting theory and audit practices to a variety of rela­
tively simple professional problems in audit assignments,
41

accounts receivable and accounts payable; or, the analysis
and verification of assets and reserves; or, the inspection
and evaluation of accounting controls and procedures.

including such tasks as: The verification of reports against
source accounts and records to determine their reliability;
reconciliation of bank and other accounts and verifying the
detail of recorded transactions; detailed examinations of
cash receipts and disbursement vouchers, payroll records,
requisitions, work orders, receiving reports, and other ac­
counting documents to ascertain that transactions are prop­
erly supported and are recorded correctly from an account­
ing or regulatory standpoint; or preparing working papers,
schedules, and summaries.

A uditor IV

General characterisitcs. Auditors at this level are experi­
enced professionals who apply a thorough knowledge of
accounting principles and theory in connection with a vari­
ety of audits. Work at this level is characterized by the
audit of organizations and accounting processes which are
complex and difficult because of such factors as: Presence
of new or changed programs and accounting systems; exis­
tence of major specialized accounting functions (e.g., cost
accounting, inventory accounting, sales accounting), in ad­
dition to general accounting; need to consider extensive and
complicated regulatory requirements; lack of or difficulty
in obtaining information; and other similar factors. Typical­
ly, a variety of different assignments are encountered over a
period of time, e.g., 1 year. The audit reports prepared are
comprehensive, explain irregularities, cite rules or regula­
tions violated, recommend remedial actions, and contain
analyses of items of special importance or interest to com­
pany management.

A u d ito r I II

General characteristics. Work at this level consists of the
audit of operations and accounting processes that are rela­
tively stable, well-established, and typical of the industry.
The audits primarily involve the collection and analysis of
readily available findings; there is previous audit experience
that is directly applicable; the audit reports are normally
prepared in a prescribed format using a standard method of
presentation; and few if any major problems are anticipat­
ed. The work performed requires the application of sub­
stantial knowledge of accounting principles and practices,
e.g., bases for distinguishing among capital maintenance and
operating expenses; accruing reserves for taxes; and other
accounting considerations of an equivalent nature.

Direction received. Within an established audit program, has
responsibility for independently planning and executing au­
dits. Unusually difficult problems are discussed with the
supervisor who also reviews completed assignments for ad­
herence to principles and standards and the soundness of
conclusions.

Typical duties and responsibilities. The auditor examines
transactions and verifies accounts; observes and evaluates
accounting procedures and internal controls; prepares audit
working papers and submits an audit report in the required
pattern containing recommendations for needed changes or
improvements. Usually is responsible for selecting the de­
tailed audit methods to follow, choosing the audit sample
and its size, determining the extent to which discrepancies
need to be investigated, and deciding the depth of the anal­
yses required to support reported findings and conclusions.
Examples of assignments involving work at this level:

Typical duties and responsibilities. Auditors at this level
have full responsibility for planning the audit, including
determination of the aspects to emphasize, methods to be
used, development of nonstandard or specialized audit aids
such as questionnaires, etc., where previous audit experi­
ence and plans are o f limited applicability.
Included in the scope of work that characterizes this
level are such functions as: Evaluation of methods used for
determining depreciation rates of equipment; evaluation of
assets where original costs are unknown; evaluation of the
reliability of accounting and reporting systems; analysis of
cost accounting systems and cost reports to evaluate the
basis for cost and price setting; evaluation of accounting
procurement and supply management records, controls, and
procedures; and many others.
Examples of assignments involving work at this level:

As a team leader or working alone, independently
conducts audits of the complete accounts and related
operations of smaller or less complex companies (e.g.,
involving a centralized accounting system with few or no
subordinate, subsidiary, or branch accounting records)
or of comparable segments of larger companies.
As a member of an audit team, independently accom­
plishes varied audit assignments of the above described
characteristics, typically major segments of complete au­
dits, or assignments otherwise limited in scope of larger
and more complex companies (e.g., complex in that the
accounting system entails cost, inventory, and compara­
ble specialized systems integrated with the general ac­
counting system).

As a team leader or working alone, independently
plans and conducts audits of the complete accounts and
related operations of relatively large and complex com­
panies (e.g., complex in that the accounting system en­
tails cost, inventory, and comparable specialized ac­
counting systems integrated with the general accounting
system) or of company branch, subsidiary, or affiliated
organizations which are individually of comparable size
and complexity.

Illustrative of such assignments are the audit and initial
review of the accounting treatment and validity of re­
porting of overhead expenses in a large manufacturing or
maintenance organization (e.g., major repair yard of a rail­
road); or, the checking, verification, and balancing of all



42

As a member of an audit team, independently plans
and accomplishes audit assignments that constitute
major segments of audits of very large and complex
organizations, for example, those with financial respon­
sibilities so great as to involve specialized subordinate,
subsidiary, or affiliate accounting systems that are
complete in themselves.

accounts; and examining cash receipts and disbursements,
payroll records, requisitions, receiving reports, and other
accounting documents in detail to ascertain that transac­
tions are properly supported and recorded. Prepares
selected portions of audit working papers.
Public A ccountant II

NOTE: Excluded from level IV are auditors who, as
team leaders or working alone, conduct complete audits of
very large and complex organizations, for example, those
with financial responsibilities so great as to involve special­
ized subordinate, subsidiary, or affiliate accounting systems
that are complete in themselves; or are team members
assigned to major segments of audits o f even larger or more
complex organizations.
P U B L IC A C C O U N T A N T

Performs professional auditing work in a public account­
ing firm. Work requires at least a bachelor’s degree in
accounting. Participates in or conducts audits to ascertain
the fairness of financial representations made by client
companies. May also assist the client in improving account­
ing procedures and operations.
Examines financial reports, accounting records, and
related documents and practices of clients. Determines
whether all important matters have been disclosed and
whether procedures are consistent and conform to accept­
able practices. Samples and tests transactions, internal
controls, and other elements of the accounting system(s) as
needed to render the accounting firm’s final written
opinion.
Excluded are positions which do not require full
professional accounting training. Also excluded are special­
ist positions in tax or management advisory services.
Public Accountant I

General characteristics. As an entry level public account­
ant, serves as a junior member of an audit team. Receives
classroom and on-the-job training to provide practical
experience in applying the principles, theories, and con­
cepts of accounting and auditing to specific situations.
(Positions held by trainee public accountants with advanced
degrees, such as MBA’s, are excluded at this level.)
Direction received. Complete instructions are furnished
and work is reviewed to verify its accuracy, conformance
with required procedures and instructions, and usefulness in
facilitating the accountant’s professional growth. Any
technical problems not covered by instructions are brought
to the attention of a superior.

Direction received. Works under the supervision of a higher
level public accountant who provides instructions and
continuing direction as necessary. Work is spot checked in
progress and reviewed upon completion to determine the
adequacy of procedures, soundness of judgment, com­
pliance with professional standards, and adherence to
clearly established methods and techniques. All interpreta­
tions are subject to close professional review.
Typical duties and responsibilities. Carries out a variety of
sampling and testing procedures in accordance with the
prescribed audit program, including the examination of
transactions and verification of accounts, the analysis and
evaluation of accounting practices and internal controls,
and other detail work. Prepares a share of the audit working
papers and participates in drafting reports. In moderately
complex audits, may assist in selecting appropriate tests,
samples, and methods commonly applied by the firm and
may serve as primary assistant to the accountant in charge.
In more complicated audits concentrates on detail work.
Occasionally may be in charge of small, uncomplicated
audits which require only one or two other subordinate
accountants. Personal contacts usually involve only the
exchange of factual technical information and are usually
limited to the client’s operating accounting staff and
department heads.
Public A ccountant I II

General characteristics. At this level the public accountant
is in charge of a complete audit and may lead a team of
several subordinates. Audits are usually accomplished oneat-a-time and are typically carried out at a single location.
The firms audited are typically moderately complex and

Typical duties and responsibilities. Carries out basic audit
tests and procedures, such as: verifying reports against
source accounts and records; reconciling bank and other




General characteristics. At this level, the public accountant
carries out routine audit functions and detail work with
relative independence. Serves as a member of an audit team
on assignments planned to provide exposure to a variety of
client organizations and audit situations. Specific assign­
ments depend upon the difficulty and complexity o f the
audit and whether the client has been previously audited by
the firm. On moderately complex audits where there is
previous audit experience by the firm, accomplishes com­
plete segments of the audit (i.e., functional work areas such
as cash, receivables, etc.). When assigned to more compli­
cated audits, carries out activities similar to Public Account­
ant I.

43

transaction volume. Clients are frequently large with a
variety o f operations which may have different accounting
systems. Guidelines may be general or lacking and audit
programs are intricate, often requiring extensive tailoring to
meet atypical or novel situations.

there is usually previous audit experience by the firm. The
audit conforms to standard procedural guidelines, but is
often tailored to fit the client’s business activities. Routine
procedures and techniques are sometimes inadequate and
require adaptation. Necessary data are not always readily
available. When assigned to more difficult and complex
audits (see level IV), the accountant may run the audit of a
major component or serve as a primary assistant to the
accountant in charge.

Direction received. Works under general supervision. The
supervisor sets overall objectives and resource limits but
relies on the accountant to fully plan and direct all
technical phases of the audit. Issues not covered by
guidelines or known precedents are discussed with the
supervisor, but the accountant’s recommended approaches
and courses of action are normally approved. Work is
reviewed for soundness of approach, completeness, and
conformance with established policies of the firm.

Direction received. Works under the general supervision of
a higher level public accountant who oversees the operation
of the audit. Work is performed independently, applying
generally accepted accounting principles and auditing stand­
ards, but assistance on difficult technical matters is avail­
able. Work may be checked occasionally during progress for
appropriateness and adherence to time requirements, but
routine analysis, methods, techniques, and procedures
applied at the work site are expected to be correct.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Is responsible for
carrying out the operational and technical features o f the
audit, directing the work of team members, and personally
performing the most difficult work. Often participates in
the development of the audit scope, and drafts complicated
audit programs with a large number of concurrently
executed phases. Independently develops audit steps and
detailed procedures, deviating from traditional methods to
the extent required. Makes program adjustments as neces­
sary once an audit has begun; selects specific methods,
types and sizes of samples, the extent to which discrep­
ancies need to be investigated, and the depth of required
analyses. Resolves most operational difficulties and unantic­
ipated problems.
Assigns work to team members; reviews work for
appropriateness, conformance to time requirements, and
adherence to generally accepted accounting principles and
auditing standards. Consolidates working papers, draft
reports, and findings; and prepares financial statements,
management letters, and other closing memoranda for
management approval. Participates in “closing” meetings as
a technical resource and may be called upon to sell or
defend controversial and critical observations and recom­
mendations. Personal contacts are extensive and typically
include top executives of smaller clients and mid-to-upperlevel financial and management officers o f large corpora­
tions, e.g., assistant controllers or controllers. Such contacts
involve coordinating and advising on work efforts and
resolving operating problems.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Is responsible for
carrying out the technical features of the audit, leading
team members and personally performing the most difficult
work. Carries out field work in accordance with the general
format prescribed in the audit program, but selects specific
methods and types and sizes of samples and tests. Assigns
work to team members, furnishes guidance, and adjusts
workloads to accommodate daily priorities. Thoroughly
reviews work performed for technical accuracy and ade­
quacy. Resolves anticipated problems within established
guidelines and priorities but refers problems of unusual
difficulty to superiors for discussion and advice. Drafts
financial statements, final reports, management letters, and
other closing memoranda. Discusses significant recommend­
ations with superiors and may serve as technical resource at
“ closing” meetings with clients. Personal contacts are
usually with chief accountants and assistant controllers of
medium size companies and divisions of large corporations
to explain and interpret policies and procedures governing
the audit process.
Public Accountant IV

General characteristics. At this level the public account­
ant directs field work including difficult audits, e.g., those
involving initial audits of new clients, acquisitions, or stock
registrations — and may oversee a large audit team split
between several locations. The audit team usually includes
one or more Level III public accountants who handle major
components of the audit. The audits are complex and
clients typically include those engaged in projects which
span accounting periods; highly regulated industries which
have various external reporting requirements; publicly
held corporations; or businesses with very high dollar or




NOTE: Excluded from this level are public accountants
who direct field work associated with the complete range of
audits undertaken by the firm, lead the largest and most
difficult audits, and who frequently oversee teams perform­
ing concurrent audits. This type of work requires extensive
knowledge of one or more industries to make subjective
determinations on questions of tax, law, accounting, and
business practices. Audits may be complicated by such

44

sometimes titled comptroller, budget and accounting mana­
ger, financial manager, etc.)
Some positions responsible for supervising general ac­
counting and one or more other major accounting activities
but which do not fully meet all of the responsibilities of a
chief accountant specified above may be covered by the
descriptions for accountant.
Chief accountant jobs which meet the characteristics de­
scribed are classified by level of work1 according to
(a) authority and responsibility and (b) technical complex­
ity, using the table accompanying the definitions which fol­
low.

factors as: the size and diversity of the client organizations
(e.g., multi-national corporations and conglomerates with a
large number of separate and distinct subsidiaries); account­
ing issues where precedents are lacking or in conflict; and,
in some cases, clients who are encountering substantial
financial difficulties. They perform most work without
technical supervision and completed audits are reviewed
mainly for propriety o f recommendations and conformance
with general policies o f the firm. Also excluded are public
accountants whose principal function is to manage, rather
than perform accounting work, and the equity owners of
the firm who have final approval authority.

A u th o rity and responsibility

C H IE F A C C O U N T A N T

AR-1. The accounting system (i.e., accounts, procedures,
and reports to be used) has been prescribed in considerable
detail by higher levels in the company or organization. The
chief accountant has final, unreviewed authority within the
prescribed system, to expand it to fit the particular needs
of the organization served, e.g., in the following or compar­
able ways:

As the top technical expert in accounting, is responsible
for directing the accounting program for a company or for
an establishment of a company. The minimum accounting
program includes: (1) General accounting (assets, liabilities,
income, expense, and capital accounts, including responsi­
bility for profit and loss and balance sheet statements); and
(2) at least one other major accounting activity, typically
tax accounting, cost accounting, property accounting, or
sales accounting. It may also include such other activities as
payroll and timekeeping, and mechanical or electronic data
processing operations which are an adjunct of the account­
ing system. (Responsibility for an internal audit program is
typically not included.)
The responsibilities of the chief accountant include all of
the following:

Provides greater detail in accounts and reports or fi­
nancial statements;
Establishes additional accounting controls, accounts,
subaccounts, and subsidiary records; and
Provides special or interim reports and statements
needed by the manager responsible for the day-to-day
operations of the organization served.
This degree of authority is typically found at a plant or
similar subordinate establishment.

1. On own responsibility, developing or adapting or
revising an accounting system to meet the needs of the
organization;
2. Supervising, either directly or through subordinate
supervisors, the operation of the system with full man­
agement responsibility for the quality and quantity of
work performed, training and development of subordi­
nates, work scheduling and review, coordination with
other parts of the organization served, etc.;
3. Providing, directly or through an official such as a
comptroller, advisory services to the top management
officials of the organization served as to:
a. The status of financial resources and the finan­
cial trends or results of operations as revealed by ac­
counting data, and selecting a manner of presentation
that is meaningful to management;
b. Methods for improving operations as suggested
by an expert knowledge of accounting, e.g., proposals
for improving cost control, property management,
credit and collection, tax reduction, or similar pro­
grams.

AR-2. The basic accounting system is prescribed in broad
outline rather than in specific detail. While certain major
financial reports, overall accounts, and general policies are
required by the basic system, the chief accountant has
broad latitude and authority to decide the specific meth­
ods, procedures, accounts, reports, etc., to be used within
the organizational segment served. Approval must be se­
cured from higher levels only for those changes which
would basically affect the broad requirements prescribed by
such higher levels. Typical responsibilities include:
Evaluating and taking final action on recommenda­
tions proposed by subordinate establishments for
changes in aspects of the accounting system or activities
not prescribed by higher authority;
Extending cost accounting operations to areas not
previously covered;
Changing from one cost accounting method to anoth­
er;
Expanding the utilization of computers within the
accounting process; and
Preparing accounting reports and statements reflect­
ing the events and progress of the entire organization for

Excluded are positions with responsibility for the ac­
counting program i f they also include (as a major part of
the job) responsibility for budgeting; work measurement;
organization, methods, and procedures studies; or similar
nonaccounting functions. (Positions o f such breadth are




1Insufficient data were obtained for level V to warrant presenta­
tion of average salaries.

45

Table C-1.

Criteria fo r matching chief accountants by level
A u th o r ity
and
re s p o n s ib ility 1

T e c h n ica l
c o m p le x ity 1

1

A R -1

TC -1

O n ly o n e or tw o professional a c c o u n ta n ts , w h o d o n o t exceed th e a c c o u n ta n t I I I jo b
d e fin itio n .

II

A R -1

T C -2

A b o u t 5 to 1 0 professional a c c o u n ta n ts , w ith
a c c o u n ta n t IV jo b d e fin itio n .

A R -2

TC -1

A b o u t 5 to 1 0 professional a c c o u n ta n ts . M o s t o f these m a tc h th e a c c o u n ta n t I I I jo b
d e fin itio n , b u t on e o r t w o m a y m a tc h th e a c c o u n ta n t IV jo b d e fin itio n .

A R -3

T C -1

O n ly o n e or tw o professional a c c o u n ta n ts , w h o do n o t exceed th e a c c o u n ta n t IV jo b
d e fin itio n .

A R -1

T C -3

A b o u t 1 5 to 2 0 professional a cc o u n ta n ts . A t least on e or tw o m a tc h th e a c c o u n ta n t V
jo b d e fin itio n .

A R -2

T C -2

Level

III

S u b o rd in a te professional a c c o u n tin g s ta ff

a t least o n e o r tw o m a tc h in g th e

or
A b o u t 1 5 to 2 0 professional a cc o u n ta n ts . M a n y o f these m a tc h th e a c c o u n ta n t IV jo b
d e fin itio n , b u t som e m a y m a tc h th e a c c o u n ta n t V jo b d e fin itio n .
A R -3

A b o u t 5 t o 1 0 professional a c c o u n ta n ts . M o s t o f these m a tc h th e a c c o u n ta n t I I I jo b
d e fin itio n , b u t o n e o r tw o m a y m a tc h as high as a c c o u n ta n t V .

A R -2

T C -3

A b o u t 2 5 to 4 0 professional a c c o u n ta n ts . M a n y o f these m a tc h th e a c c o u n ta n t V jo b
d e fin itio n , b u t several m a y exceed th a t level.

A R -3

IV

TC -1

T C -2

A b o u t 1 5 to 2 0 professional acc o u n ta n ts . M o s t o f these m a tc h th e a c c o u n ta n t IV jo b
d e fin itio n , b u t several m a y m atc h th e a c c o u n ta n t V and o n e or tw o m a y exceed th a t

or

level.
V

A R -3

T C -3

A b o u t 2 5 to 4 0 professional a c c o u n ta n ts . M a n y o f these m atc h th e a c c o u n ta n t V jo b
d e fin itio n , b u t several m a y exceed th a t level.

1 A R -1, -2, and -3 and TC -1, -2, and -3 are explained in the accompanying te xt.

which incumbent is responsible; often consolidating data
submitted by subordinate segments.

the company’s accounting system suggested by subordi­
nate units; and
Taking final action on all technical accounting mat­
ters.

This degree of authority is most typically found at inter­
mediate organizational levels such as regional offices, or
division or subsidiary headquarters. It is also found in some
company level situations where the authority of the chief
accountant is less extensive than is described in AR-3. More
rarely it is found in plant level chief accountants who have
been delegated more authority than usual for such positions
as described in AR-1.

Characteristically, participates extensively in broad com­
pany management processes by providing accounting ad­
vice, interpretations, or recommendations based on data ac­
cumulated in the accounting system and on professional
judgment and experience.
Technical com plexity

AR-3. Has complete responsibility for establishing and
maintaining the framework for the basic accounting system
used in the company, subject only to general policy guid­
ance and control from a higher level company official re­
sponsible for general financial management. Typical respon­
sibilities include:

TC-1. The organization which the accounting program
serves has relatively few functions, products, work proc­
esses, etc., and these tend to be stable and unchanging.
The accounting system operates in accordance with wellestablished principles and practices or those of equivalent
difficulty which are typical of that industry.

Determining the basic characteristics of the com­
pany’s accounting system and the specific accounts to be
used;
Devising and preparing accounting reports and state­
ments required to meet management’s needs for data;
Establishing basic accounting policies, interpretations,
and procedures;
Reviewing and taking action on proposed revisions to




TC-2. The organization which the accounting program
serves has a relatively large number of functions, products,
work processes, etc., which require substantial and frequent
adaptations of the basic system to meet management needs
(e.g., adoption of new accounts, subaccounts, and subsidi46

Provide for the solution of problems for which no
clear precedents exist; or
Provide for the development or extension of account­
ing theories and practices to deal with problems to
which these theories and practices have not previously
been applied.

ary records; revision of instructions for the use of accounts;
improvement or expansion of methods for accumulating
and reporting cost data in connection with new or changed
work processes).

TC-3. The organization which the accounting program
serves puts a heavy demand on the accounting organization
for specialized and extensive adaptations of the basic sys­
tem to meet management needs. Such demands arise be­
cause the functions, products, work processes, etc., of the
organization are very numerous, diverse, unique, or special­
ized, or there are other comparable complexities. Conse­
quently, the accounting system, to a considerable degree, is
developed well beyond established principles and account­
ing practices in order to:

Subordinate staff

In table C-l the number of professional accountants su­
pervised is recognized to be a relatively crude criterion for
distinguishing between various levels. It is to be considered
less important in the matching process than the other crite­
ria. In addition to the staff of professional accountants in
the system for which the chief accountant is responsible,
there are clerical, machine operation, bookkeeping, and re­
lated personnel.

Attorneys
Attorney jobs which meet the above definition are to be
classified in accordance with table C-2 and the definitions
which follow.

ATTORNEY

Performs consultation and advisory work and carries out
the legal processes necessary to effect the rights, privileges,
and obligations of the company. The work performed re­
quires completion of law school with an LL.B. degree (or
the equivalent) and admission to the bar. Responsibilities or
functions include one or more o f the following or compar­
able duties:

D ifficu lty

D-l. Legal questions are characterized by: Facts that are
well established; clearly applicable legal precedents; and
matters not of substantial importance to the organization.
(Usually relatively limited sums of money, e.g., a few
thousand dollars, are involved.)

Preparing and reviewing various legal instruments and
documents, such as contracts, leases, licenses, purchases,
sales, real estate, etc.;
Acting as agent of the company in its transactions;
Examining material (e.g., advertisements, publica­
tions, etc.) for legal implications; advising officials of
proposed legislation which might affect the company;
Applying for patents, copyrights, or registration of
company’s products, processes, devices, and trademarks;
Advising whether to initiate or defend lawsuits;
Conducting pre-trial preparations; defending the com­
pany in lawsuits; and
Advising officials on tax matters, government regula­
tions, and/or corporate rights.

Examples o f D-l work:
Legal investigation, negotiation, and research prepara­
tory to defending the organization in potential or actual
lawsuits involving alleged negligence where the facts can
be firmly established and there are precedent cases di­
rectly applicable to the situation.
Searching case reports, legal documents, periodicals,
textbooks, and other legal references, and preparing
draft opinions on employee compensation or benefit
questions when there is a substantial amount of clearly
applicable statutory, regulatory, and case material.
Drawing up contracts and other legal documents in
connection with real property transactions requiring the
development of detailed information but not involving
serious questions regarding titles to property or other
major factual or legal issues.

Excluded from this definition are:
Patent work which requires professional training in
addition to legal training (typically a degree in engineer­
ing or in a science);
Claims examining, claims investigating, or similar
work for which professional legal training and bar mem­
bership is not essential;
Attorneys, frequently titled “general counsel” (and
their immediate full associates or deputies), who serve as
company officers or the equivalent and are responsible
for participating in the overall management and formula­
tion of policy for the company in addition to directing
its legal work. (The duties and responsibilities of such
positions exceed level VI as described below.)




D-2. Legal work is regularly difficult by reason of one or
more of the following: The absence of clear and directly
applicable legal precedents; the different possible interpre­
tations that can be placed on the facts, the laws, or the
precedents involved; the substantial importance of the legal
matters to the organization (e.g., sums as large as $100,000
are generally directly or indirectly involved); the matter is
being strongly pressed or contested in formal proceedings
47

Table C-2.

Criteria fo r matching attorneys by level
D iffic u lty
o f legal w o r k 1

Level

R es p o n s ib ility
o f jo b 1

T h is is th e e n tr y level. T h e du ties and
resp o n s ib ilitie s a fte r in itia l o rie n ta tio n
and tra in in g a re th o se described in D-1

1

E x p e rie n c e req u ire d

C o m p le tio n o f la w school w ith an L L B . o r J .D . degree plus adm ission t o th e bar.

and R -1 .
D-1

II

R -2

S u ffic ie n t professional e x p e rie n c e (a t least 1 y e a r, usually m o re ) a t th e " D - 1 " level
to assure c o m p e te n c e as an a tto r n e y .

or
D -2

R-1

D -2

R -2

D -3

R-1

D -2

R -3

D -3

R -2

V

D -3

R -3

E xten s iv e professional e x p e rie n c e a t th e " D - 3 " level.

VI

D -3

R -4

E xten s iv e professional e x p e rie n c e a t th e " D - 3 " and " R - 3 ” levels.

III

A t least 1 y e a r, usually m o re , o f professional e xp e rien ce a t th e " D - 2 " level.

or

IV

E x ten s iv e professional e x p e rie n c e a t th e " D - 2 " o r a higher level.

or

1 D-1, -2, -3 and R-1, -2, -3, and -4 are explained in the accompanying text.

Preparing and presenting a case before an appellate
court where the case is highly important to the future
operation of the organization and is vigorously contested
by very distinguished (e.g., having a broad regional or
national reputation) legal talent.
Serving as the principal counsel to the officers and
staff of an insurance company on the legal problems in
the sale, underwriting, and administration of group con­
tracts involving nationwide or multistate coverages and
laws.
Performing the principal legal work in a nonroutine
major revision of the company’s charter or in effectuat­
ing new major financing steps.

or in negotiations by the individuals, corporations, or gov­
ernment agencies involved.
Examples o f D-2 work:
Advising on the legal implications of advertising rep­
resentations when the facts supporting the representa­
tions and the applicable precedent cases are subject to
different interpretations.
Reviewing and advising on the implications of new or
revised laws affecting the organization.
Presenting the organization’s defense in court in a
negligence lawsuit which is strongly pressed by counsel
for an organized group.
Providing legal counsel on tax questions complicated
by the absence of precedent decisions that are directly
applicable to the organization’s situation.

Responsibility

D-3. Legal work is typically complex and difficult because
of one or more of the following: The questions are unique
and require a high order of original and creative legal en­
deavor for their solution; the questions require extensive
research and analysis and the obtaining and evaluation of
expert testimony regarding controversial issues in a scientif­
ic, financial, corporate organization, engineering, or other
highly technical area; the legal matter is of critical impor­
tance to the organization and is being vigorously pressed or
contested (e.g., sums such as $1 million or more are general­
ly directly or indirectly involved).

R-1. Responsibility for final action is usually limited to
matters covered by legal precedents and in which little devi­
ation from standard practice is involved. Any decisions or
actions having a significant bearing on the organization’s
business are reviewed. (Is given guidance in the initial stages
of assignment, e.g., in planning and organizing legal research
and studies. Assignments are then carried out with moder­
ate independence although guidance is generally available
and is sought from time to time on problem points.)
R-2. Usually works independently in investigating the facts,
searching legal precedents, defining the legal and factual
issues, drafting necessary legal documents, and developing
conclusions and recommendations. Decisions having an im­
portant bearing on the organization’s business are reviewed.
(Receives information from supervisor regarding unusual
circumstances or important policy considerations pertaining
to a legal problem. If trials are involved, may receive guid-

Examples o f D-3 work:
Advising on the legal aspects and implications of Fed­
eral antitrust laws to projected greatly expanded market­
ing operations involving joint ventures with several other
organizations.
Planning legal strategy and representing a utility com­
pany in rate or government franchise cases involving a
geographic area including parts or all of several States.




48

ance from a supervisor regarding presentation, line of ap­
proach, possible line of opposition to be encountered, etc.
In the case of nonroutine written presentations the final
product is reviewed carefully, but primarily for overall
soundness of legal reasoning and consistency with organiza­
tion policy. Some (but not all) attorneys make assignments
to one or more lower level attorneys, aids, or clerks.)

ing completed briefs, opinions, contracts, or other legal
products. To carry out assignments, represents the organiza­
tion at conferences, hearings, or trials and personally con­
fers and negotiates with top attorneys and top-ranking offi­
cials in private companies or in government agencies. On
various aspects of assigned work may give advice directly
and personally to corporation officers and top level manag­
ers, or may work through the general counsel of the com­
pany in advising officers. (Generally receives no preliminary
instruction on legal problems. On matters requiring the con­
centrated efforts of several attorneys or other specialists, is
responsible for directing, coordinating, and reviewing the
work of the attorneys involved.)
OR
As a primary responsibility, directs the work of a staff of
attorneys, one, but usually more, of whom regularly per­
form D-3 legal work. With respect to the work directed,
gives advice directly to corporation officers and top mana­
gerial officers, or may give such advice through the general
counsel. (Receives guidance as to organization policy but
no technical supervision or assistance except when request­
ing advice from, or briefing by, the general counsel on the
overall approach to the most difficult, novel, or important
legal questions. Usually reports to the general counsel or
deputy.)

R-3. Carries out assignments independently and makes final
legal determinations in matters of substantial importance to
the organization. Such determinations are subject to review
only for consistency with company policy, possible prece­
dent effect, and overall effectiveness. To carry out assign­
ments, deals regularly with company officers and top level
management officials and confers or negotiates regularly
with senior attorneys and officials in other companies or in
government agencies on various aspects of assigned work.
(Receives little or no preliminary instruction on legal prob­
lems and a minimum of technical legal supervision. May
assign and review work of a few attorneys, but this is not a
primary responsibility.)
R-4. Carries out assignments which entail independently
planning investigations and negotiations on legal problems
of the highest importance to the organization and develop­

Buyers
NOTE: Some buyers are responsible for the purchasing
of a variety of items and materials. When the variety in­
cludes items and work described at more than one of the
following levels, the position should be considered to equal
the highest level that characterizes at least a substantial
portion of the buyer’s time.

BUYER

Purchases materials, supplies, equipment, and services
(e.g., utilities, maintenance, and repair). In some instances
items are of types that must be specially designed, pro­
duced, or modified by the vendor in accordance with draw­
ings or engineering specifications.
Solicits bids, analyzes quotations received, and selects or
recommends supplier. May interview prospective vendors.
Purchases items and services at the most favorable price
consistent with quality, quantity, specification require­
ments, and other factors. Prepares or supervises preparation
of purchase orders from requisitions. May expedite delivery
and visit vendors’ offices and plants.
Normally, purchases are unreviewed when they are con­
sistent with past experience, and are in conformance with
established rules and policies. Proposed purchase transac­
tions that deviate from the usual or from past experience in
terms of prices, quality of items, quantities, etc., or that
may set precedents for future purchases, are reviewed by
higher authority prior to final action.
In addition to the work described above, some (but not
all) buyers direct the work of one or a few clerks who
perform routine aspects of the work. As a secondary and
subsidiary duty, some buyers may also sell or dispose of
surplus, salvage, or used materials, equipment, or supplies.




Excluded are:
a. Buyers of items for direct sale, either wholesale or
retail;
b. Brokers and dealers buying for clients or for in­
vestment purposes;
c. Positions that specifically require professional edu­
cation and qualifications in a physical science or in en­
gineering (e.g., chemist, mechanical engineer);
d. Buyers who specialize in purchasing a single or a
few related items of highly variable quality such as raw
cotton or wool, tobacco, cattle, or leather for shoe up­
pers, etc. Expert personal knowledge of the item is re­
quired to judge the relative value of the goods offered
and to decide the quantity, quality, and price of each
purchase in terms of its probable effect on the organiza­
tion’s profit and competitive status;
e. Buyers whose principal responsibility is the super­
vision of other buyers or the management, direction, or
supervision of a purchasing program;
f. Persons predominantly concerned with contract or
subcontract administration;
g. Persons whose major duties consist of ordering,
49

reordering, or requisitioning items under existing con­
Transactions usually require dealing with manufacturers.
tracts; and
The number of potential vendors is likely to be small and
h.
Positions restricted to clerical functions or to pur­
price differentials often reflect important factors (quality,
chase expediting work.
delivery dates and places, etc.) that are difficult to evaluate.
Buyer I
The quantities purchased of any item or service may be
large.
Purchases “off-the-shelf’ types of readily available, com­
Many of the purchases involve one or more of such com­
monly used materials, supplies, tools, furniture, services,
plications as: Specifications that detail, in technical terms,
etc.
thg required physical, chemical, electrical, or other compar­
Transactions usually involve local retailers, wholesalers,
able properties; special testing prior to acceptance; grouping
jobbers, and manufacturers’ sales representatives.
of items for lot bidding and awards; specialized processing,
Quantities purchased are generally small amounts, e.g.,
packing, or packaging requirements; export packs; overseas
those available from local sources.
port differentials; etc.
Examples of items purchased include: Common station­
Is expected to keep abreast of market and product devel­
ery and office supplies; standard types of office furniture
opments. May be required to locate new sources of supply.
and fixtures; standard nuts, bolts, sjrews; janitorial and
Some positions may involve assisting in the training or
common building maintenance supplies; and common
supervising of lower level buyers or clerks.
building maintenance or common utility services or office
Examples of items purchased include: Castings; special
machine repair services.
extruded shapes of normal size and material; special formula
paints; electric motors of special shape or speeds; production
Buyer II
equipment; special packaging of items; and raw materials in
Purchases “off-the-shelf’ types of standard, generally
substantial quantities or with special characteristics.
available technical items, materials, and services. Trans­
actions may involve occasional modification of standard and
Buyer IV
common usage items, materials, and services, and include a
Purchases highly complex and technical items, materials,
few stipulations about unusual packing, marking, shipping,
or services, usually those specially designed and manufac­
etc.
tured exclusively for the purchaser.
Transactions usually involve dealing directly with manu­
Transactions require dealing with manufacturers and of­
facturers, distributors, jobbers, etc.
ten involve persuading potential vendors to undertake the
Quantities of items and materials purchased may be rel­
manufacturing of custom-designed items according to com­
atively large, particularly in the case of contracts for con­
plex and rigid specifications.
tinuing supply over a period of time.
Quantities of items and materials purchased are often
May be responsible for locating or promoting possible
large in order to satisfy the requirements for an entire large
new sources of supply. Usually is expected to keep abreast
organization for an extended period of time. Complex
of market trends, changes in business practices in the as­
schedules of delivery are often involved. Buyer determines
signed markets, new or altered types of materials entering
appropriate quantities to be contracted for at any given
the market, etc.
period of time.
Examples of items purchased include: Industrial types of
Transactions are often complicated by the presence of
handtools; standard electronic parts, components and com­
one or more such matters as inclusion of: Requirements for
ponent test instruments; electric motors; gasoline service
spare parts, preproduction samples and testing, or technical
station equipment; PBX or other specialized telephone serv­
literature; or patent and royalty provisions.
ices; special purpose printing services; and routine purchases
Keeps abreast of market and product developments. De­
of common raw materials such as standard grades and sizes
velops new sources of supply.
of steel bars, rods, and angles.
In addition to the work described above, a few positions
Also included at this level are buyers of materials of the
may also require supervision over a few lower level buyers
types described for buyer I when the quantities purchased
or clerks. (No position is included in this level solely be­
are large so that local sources of supply are generally inade­
cause supervisory duties are performed.)
quate and the buyer must deal directly with manufacturers
Examples of items purchased include: Special purpose
on a broader than local scale.
high cost machine tools and production facilities; specialized
Buyer III
condensers, boilers, and turbines; raw materials of critically
important characteristics or quality; parts, subassemblies,
Purchases items, materials, or services of a technical and
components, etc., specially designed and made to order (e.g.,
specialized nature. The items, while of a common general
communications equipment for installation in aircraft being
type, are usually made, altered, or customized to meet the
manufactured; component assemblies for missiles and rock­
user’s specific needs and specifications.
ets, and motor vehicle frames).




50

NOTE: Excluded are buying positions above level IV.
Some buyers above level IV make purchases in such unusu­
ally large quantities that they can affect the market price of
a commodity or produce other significant effects on the
industry or trade concerned. Others may purchase items of
either (1) extraordinary technical complexity, e.g., involv­
ing the outermost limits of science or engineering, or

(2) unusually high individual or unit value. Such buyers of­
ten persuade suppliers to expand their plants or convert
facilities to the production of new items or services. These
types of buying functions are often performed by program
managers or company officials who have primary responsi­
bilities other than buying.

Personnel Management
or participate in conducting surveys of broad compensation
areas. May assist in developing survey methods and plans.
Receives general supervision but responsibility for final ac­
tion is limited.

JOB A N A L Y S T

Performs work involved in collecting, analyzing, and de­
veloping occupational data relative to jobs, job qualifica­
tions, and worker characteristics as a basis for compensating
employees in a fair, equitable, and uniform manner. Per­
forms such duties as studying and analyzing jobs and pre­
paring descriptions of duties and responsibilities and of the
physical and mental requirements needed by workers; eval­
uating jobs and determining appropriate wage or salary lev­
els in accordance with their difficulty and responsibility;
independently conducting or participating with representa­
tives of other companies in conducting compensation sur­
veys within a locality or labor market area; assisting in ad­
ministering merit rating programs; reviewing changes in
wages and salaries indicated by surveys and recommending
changes in pay scales; and auditing individual jobs to check
the propriety of evaluations and to apply current job classi­
fications. (Positions also responsible for supplying manage­
ment with a high technical level of advice regarding the
solution of broad personnel management problems should
be excluded.)

Job Analyst IV

Analyzes and evaluates a variety of jobs in accordance
with established evaluation systems and procedures, and is
given assignments which regularly include responsibility for
the more difficult kinds of jobs. (“More difficult” means
jobs which consist of hard-to-understand work processes;
e.g., professional, scientific, administrative, or technical; or
jobs in new or emerging occupational fields; or jobs which
are being established as part of the creation of new organi­
zations; or where other special considerations of these types
apply.) Receives general supervision, but responsibility for
final action is limited. May participate in the development
and installation of evaluation or compensation systems,
which may include those for merit rating programs. May
plan survey methods and conduct or direct wage surveys
within a broad compensation area.

Job Analyst I

D IR E C T O R O F P E R S O N N E L

As a trainee, performs work in designated areas and of
limited occupational scope. Receives immediate supervision
in assignments designed to provide training in the applica­
tion of established methods and techniques of job analysis.
Studies the least difficult jobs and prepares reports for re­
view by a job analyst of higher level.2

Directs a personnel management program for a company
or a segment of a company. Serves top management offi­
cials of the organization as the source of advice and assis­
tance on personnel management matters and problems gen­
erally; is typically consulted on the personnel implications
of planned changes in management policy or program, the
effects on the organization of economic or market trends,
product or production method changes, etc.; represents
management in contacts with other companies, trade asso­
ciations, government agencies, etc., dealing primarily with
personnel management matters.
Typically the director of personnel for a company re­
ports to a company officer in charge of industrial relations
and personnel management activities or an officer of similar
level. Below the company level the director of personnel
typically reports to a company officer or a high manage­
ment official who has responsibility for the operation of a
plant, establishment, or other segment of the company.

Job Analyst II

Studies, describes, and evaluates jobs in accordance with
established procedures. Is usually assigned to the simpler
kinds of both wage and salaried jobs in the establishment.
Works independently on such assignments but is limited by
defined area of assignment and instructions of superior.
Job Analyst I II

Analyzes and evaluates a variety of wage and salaried
jobs in accordance with established evaluation systems and
procedures. May conduct wage surveys within the locality



2 Insufficient data were obtained for level I to warrant presenta­
tion of average salaries.
51

overseeing cafeteria operations, recreational programs,
industrial health and safety programs, etc.).
In addition, positions covered by this definition may,
but do not necessarily, include responsibilities in the fol­
lowing areas:

For a job to be covered by this definition, the personnel
management program must include responsibility for all
three of the following functions:
1. Administering a job evaluation system: i.e., a sys­
tem in which there are established procedures by which
jobs are analyzed and evaluated on the basis of their
duties, responsibilities, and qualification requirements in
order to provide a foundation for equitable compensa­
tion. Typically, such a system includes the use of one or
more sets of job evaluation factors and the preparation
of formal job descriptions. It may also include such re­
lated functions as wage and salary surveys or merit rating
system administration. The job evaluation system(s)
does not necessarily cover all jobs in the organization,
but does cover a substantial portion of the organization.
2. Employment and placement function: i.e., recruit­
ing actively for at least some kinds of workers through a
variety of sources (e.g., schools or colleges, employment
agencies, professional societies, etc.); evaluating appli­
cants against demands of particular jobs by use of such
techniques as job analysis to determine requirements,
interviews, written tests of aptitude, knowledge, or skill,
reference checks, experience evaluations, etc.; recom­
mending selections and job placements to management,
etc.
3. Employee relations and services function: i.e.,
functions designed to maintain employees’ morale and
productivity at a high level (for example, administering a
formal or informal grievance procedure; identifying and
recommending solutions for personnel problems such as
absenteeism, high turnover, low productivity, etc.; ad­
ministration of beneficial suggestions system, retirement,
pension, or insurance plans, merit rating system, etc.;
Table C-3.

Employee training and development;
Labor relations activities which are confined mainly
to the administration, interpretation, and application of
those aspects of labor union contracts that are essential­
ly of the type described under (3) above. May also par­
ticipate in bargaining of a subordinate nature, e.g., to ne­
gotiate detailed settlement of such matters as specific
rates, job classifications, work rules, hiring or layoff pro­
cedures, etc., within the broad terms of a general agree­
ment reached at higher levels, or to supply advice and
information on technical points to the company’s princi­
pal representative.
Equal employment opportunity (EEO);
Reporting under the Occupational Safety and Health
A ct (OSHA).
Excluded are positions in which responsibility for actual
contract negotiation.with labor unions as the principal com­
pany representative is a significant aspect of the job, i.e., a
responsibility which serves as a primary basis for qualifica­
tion requirements and compensation.
Director of personnel jobs which meet the above defini­
tion are classified by level of work3 in accordance with the
criteria shown in table C-3.
3 Insufficient data were obtained for level V to warrant presenta­
tion of average salaries.

Criteria fo r matching directors o f personnel by level
" D e v e lo p m e n t level"

" O p e ra tio n s level"
personnel p ro g ra m 1
N u m b e r o f e m p lo y e e s in
w o r k fo rc e serviced

2 5 0 - 7 5 0 ...............................................
1 ,0 0 0 - 5 ,0 0 0 ......................................
6 ,0 0 0 - 1 2 ,0 0 0 ....................................
1 5 ,0 0 0 - 2 5 ,0 0 0 .................................

"Type A "
o rg a n iza tio n
serviced3
I
II
III
IV

personnel p ro g ra m 13
2
N u m b e r o f e m p loyees in
w o rk fo rc e serviced

" T y p e B"
o rg a n iz a tio n
serviced4
II
III
IV
V

2 5 0 - 7 5 0 .................................................
1 ,0 0 0 - 5 ,0 0 0 .........................................
6 ,0 0 0 - 1 2 ,0 0 0 ......................................
1 5 ,0 0 0 - 2 5 ,0 0 0 ....................................

1 “ Operations le v e l" personnel program —director of personnel
servicing an organizational segment (e.g., a plant) of a company,
where the basic personnel program policies, plans, objectives, etc.,
are established at company headquarters or at some other higher
level between the plant and the company headquarters level. The
personnel director's responsibility is to put these into operation at
the local level, in such a manner as to most effectively serve the
local management needs.
2 “ D evelopm ent level " personnel program —e ith e r :
(a) Director of personnel servicing an entire company (with
or w ith o u t subordinate establishments) where the personnel di­
rector plays an im portant role in establishment of basic per­
sonnel policies, plans, objectives, etc., fo r the company subject
to policy direction and control from company officers, or (b)
director o f personnel servicing an intermediate organization be­
low the company level, e.g., a division or a subsidiary, to which a
relatively complete delegation of personnel program planning
and developm ent responsibility is made. In this situation only
basic policy direction is given by the parent company and local
officers. The director o f personnel has essentially the same de­
gree o f latitude and responsibility fo r establishment of basic per­
sonnel policies, plans, objectives, etc., as described above in (a).
3 " Type A " organization serviced—most jobs serviced do not
present particularly d iffic u lt or unusual recruitm ent, job evaluation.




"Type A "
o rg a n iz a tio n
serviced3

" T y p e B"
o rg a n iz a tio n
serviced4

II

III
IV
V

III
IV
V

or training problems because the jobs consist of relatively easy-tounderstand w ork processes, and an adequate labor supply is avail­
able. These conditions are m ost likely to be found in organizations
in which the w ork force and organizational structure are relatively
stable.
4
"T yp e B " organization serviced—a substantial proportion of
the jobs present d iffic u lt recruitm ent, job evaluation, or training
problems because the jobs: Consist of hard-to-understand w ork pro­
cesses (e.g., professional, scientific, administrative, or technical);
have hard-to-m atch skill requirements; are in new or emerging occu­
pations; or are extrem ely hard to fill. These conditions are most
likely to be found in organizations in which the w ork force, organi­
zational structure, w ork processes or functions, etc., are com pli­
cated or unstable.
N O T E : There are gaps between differen t degrees o f all three
elements used to determ ine job level matches. These gaps have been
provided purposely to allow room fo r judgm ent in getting the best
overall job level match for each job. Thus, a job which services a
w ork force of 8 5 0 employees should be matched w ith level II if it is
a personnel program operations level job where the nature of the
organization serviced seems to fall slightly below the definition for
type B. However, the same job should be matched w ith level I if the
nature of the organization serviced clearly falls well w ithin the d efi­
nition fo r type A.

52

Chemists and Engineers
Direction received. Supervisor establishes the nature and
extent of analysis required, specifies methods and criteria
on new types of assignments, and reviews work for thor­
oughness of application of methods and accuracy of results.

C H E M IS T

Performs professional work in research, development, in­
terpretation, and analysis to determine the composition,
molecular structure, and properties of substances; to devel­
op or investigate new materials and processes; and to inves­
tigate the transformations which substances undergo. Work
typically requires a B.S. degree in chemistry or the equiva­
lent in appropriate and substantial college level study of
chemistry plus experience.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Carries out a wide vari­
ety of standardized methods, tests, and procedures. In ac­
cordance with specific instructions may carry out proposed
and less common ones. Is expected to detect problems in
using standardized procedures because of the condition of
the sample, difficulties with the equipment, etc. Recom­
mends modifications of procedures, e.g., extending or cur­
tailing the analysis or using alternate procedures, based on
knowledge of the problem and pertinent available litera­
ture. Conducts specified phases of research projects as an
assistant to an experienced chemist.

Chemist I

General characteristics. This is the entry level of profes­
sional work requiring a bachelor’s degree in chemistry and
no experience, or the equivalent of a degree in appropriate
education and experience. Performs assignments designed
to develop professional capabilities and to provide experi­
ence in the application of training in chemistry as it relates
to the company’s programs. May also receive formal class­
room or seminar type training. (Terminal positions are ex­
cluded.)

Responsibility for the direction o f others. May be assisted
by a few aids or technicians.

Chemist I II

Direction received. Works under close supervision. Receives
specific and detailed instructions as to required tasks and
results expected. Work is checked during progress, and is
reviewed for accuracy upon completion.

General characteristics. Performs a broad range of chemical
tests and procedures utilized in the laboratory, using judg­
ment in the independent evaluation, selection, and adapta­
tion of standard methods and techniques. May carry
through a complete series of tests on a product in its differ­
ent process stages. Some assignments require a specialized
knowledge of one or two common categories of related
substances. Performance at this level requires developmen­
tal experience in a professional position, or equivalent grad­
uate level education.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs a variety of
routine tasks that are planned to provide experience and
familiarization with the chemistry staff, methods, practices,
and programs of the company. The work includes a variety
of routine qualitative and quantitative analyses; physical
tests to determine properties such as viscosity, tensile
strength, and melting point; and assisting more experienced
chemists to gain additional knowledge through personal ob­
servation and discussion.

Direction received. On routine work, supervision is very
general. Assistance is furnished on unusual problems and
work is reviewed for application of sound professional judg­
ment.

Responsibility for the direction o f others. Usually none.

Typical duties and responsibilities. In accordance with in­
structions as to the nature of the problem, selects standard
methods, tests or procedures; when necessary, develops or
works out alternate or modified methods with supervisor’s
concurrence. Assists in research by analyzing samples or
testing new procedures that require specialized training be­
cause (a) standard methods are inapplicable, (b) analytical
findings must be interpreted in terms of compliance or noncompliance with standards, or (c) specialized and advanced
equipment and techniques must be adapted.

Chemist II

General characteristics. At this continuing developmental
level, performs routine chemical work requiring selection
and application of general and specialized methods, tech­
niques, and instruments commonly used in the laboratory,
and the ability to carry out instructions when less common
or proposed methods or procedures are necessary. Requires
work experience acquired in an entry level position, or ap­
propriate graduate level study. For training and develop­
mental purposes, assignments may include some work that
is typical of a higher level. (Terminal positions are exclud­
ed.)



Responsibility for the direction o f others. May supervise or
coordinate the work of a few technicians or aids, and be
assisted by lower level chemists.
53

supervised is comparable to that described for chemist IV.
(2) As individual researcher or worker, carries out projects
requiring development of new or highly modified scientific
techniques and procedures, extensive knowledge of special­
ty, and knowledge of related scientific fields.

Chemist IV

General characteristics. As a fully competent chemist in all
conventional aspects of the subject matter or the functional
area of the assignments, plans and conducts work requiring
(a) mastery of specialized techniques or ingenuity in select­
ing and evaluating approaches to unforeseen or novel prob­
lems, and (b) ability to apply a research approach to the
solution of a wide variety of problems and to assimilate the
details and significance of chemical and physical analyses,
procedures, and tests. Requires sufficient professional ex­
perience to assure competence as a fully trained worker; or,
for positions primarily of a research nature, completion of
all requirements for a doctoral degree may be substituted
for experience.

Responsibility for the direction o f others. Supervises, co­
ordinates, and reviews the work of a small staff of chemists
and technicians engaged in varied research and development
projects, or a larger group performing routine analytical
work. Estimates personnel needs and schedules and assigns
work to meet completion date. Or, as individual researcher
or worker, may be assisted on projects by other chemists or
technicians.
Chemist V I

Direction received. Independently performs most assign­
ments with instructions as to the general results expected.
Receives technical guidance on unusual or complex prob­
lems and supervisory approval on proposed plans for proj­
ects.

General characteristics. Performs work requiring leadership
and expert knowledge in a specialized field, product, or
process. Formulates and conducts a systematic attack on a
problem area of considerable scope and complexity which
must be approached through a series of complete and con­
ceptually related studies, or a number of projects of lesser
scope. The problems are complex because they are difficult
to define and require unconventional or novel approaches
or have other difficult features. Maintains liaison with indi­
viduals and units within and outside the organization, with
responsibility for acting independently on technical matters
pertaining to the field. Work at this level usually requires
extensive progressive experience including work comparable
to chemist V.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Conducts laboratory as­
signments requiring the determination and evaluation of al­
ternative procedures and the sequence of performing them.
Performs complex, exacting, unusual analytical assignments
requiring specialized knowledge of techniques or products.
Interprets results, prepares reports, and may provide techni­
cal advice in specialized area.
Responsibility for the direction o f others. May supervise a
small staff of chemists and technicians.

Direction received. Supervision received is essentially ad­
ministrative, with assignments given in terms of broad gen­
eral objectives and limits.

Chemist V

General characteristics. Participates in planning laboratory
programs on the basis of specialized knowledge of problems
and methods and probable value of results. May serve as an
expert in a narrow specialty (e.g., class of chemical com­
pounds, or a class of products), making recommendations
and conclusions which serve as the basis for undertaking or
rejecting important projects. Development of the knowl­
edge and expertise required for this level of work usually
reflects progressive experience through chemist IV.

Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the fol­
lowing: ( l) I n a supervisory capacity (a) plans, develops,
coordinates, and directs a number of large and important
projects or a project of major scope and importance, or
(b) is responsible for the entire chemical program of a com­
pany, when the program is of limited complexity and
scope. Activities supervised are of such a scope that they
require a few (3 to 5) subordinate supervisors or team lead­
ers with at least one in a position comparable to level V.
(2) As individual researcher or worker determines, con­
ceives, plans, and conducts projects of major importance to
the company. Applies a high degree of originality and inge­
nuity in adapting, extending, and synthesizing existing the­
ory, principles, and techniques into original combinations
and configurations. May serve as a consultant to other
chemists in specialty.

Direction received. Supervision and guidance relate largely
to overall objectives, critical issues, new concepts, and poli­
cy matters. Consults with supervisor concerning unusual
problems and developments.
Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the fol­
lowing: (1) In a supervisory capacity, plans, organizes, and
directs assigned laboratory programs. Independently defines
scope and critical elements of the projects and selects ap­
proaches to be taken. A substantial portion of the work



Responsibility for the direction o f others. Plans, organizes,
and supervises the work of a staff of chemists and techni­
cians. Evaluates progress of the staff and results obtained,
54

and recommends major changes to achieve overall objec­
tives. Or, as individual worker or researcher, may be assisted
on individual projects by other chemists or technicians.

in positions comparable to chemist VI; or, as individual
researcher and consultant, may be assisted on individual
projects by other chemists and technicians.

Chemist V I I

Chemist V I I I

General characteristics. Makes decisions and recommenda­
tions that are recognized as authoritative and have an im­
portant impact on extensive chemical activities. Initiates
and maintains extensive contacts with key chemists and
officials of other organizations and companies, requiring
skill in persuasion and negotiation of critical issues. At this
level individuals will have demonstrated creativity, fore­
sight, and mature judgment in anticipating and solving un­
precedented chemical problems, determining program ob­
jectives and requirements, organizing programs and pro­
jects, and developing standards and guides for diverse chem­
ical activities.

General characteristics. Makes decisions and recommenda­
tions that are authoritative and have a far-reaching impact
on extensive chemical and related activities of the com­
pany. Negotiates critical and controversial issues with top
level chemists and officers of other organizations and com­
panies. Individuals at this level have demonstrated a high
degree of creativity, foresight, and mature judgment in
planning, organizing, and guiding extensive chemical pro­
grams and activities of outstanding novelty and importance.
Direction received. Receives general administrative direc­
tion.

Direction received. Receives general administrative direc­
tion.

Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the fol­
lowing: ( l) I n a supervisory capacity is responsible for
(a) the entire chemical program of a company which is of
moderate scope, or (b) an important segment of a chemical
program of a company with very extensive and highly diver­
sified scientific requirements, where programs are of such
complexity and scope that they are of critical importance
to overall operations and include problems of extraordinary
difficulty that have resisted solution. Decides the kind and
extent of chemical programs needed to accomplish the ob­
jectives of the company, for choosing the scientific ap­
proaches, for planning and organizing facilities and pro­
grams, and for interpreting results. (2) As individual re­
searcher and consultant formulates and guides the attack on
problems of exceptional difficulty and marked importance
to the company and/or industry. Problems are character­
ized by the lack of scientific precedents and source materi­
als, or the lack of success of prior research and analysis so
that their solution would represent an advance of great sig­
nificance and importance. Performs advisory and consulting
work for the company as a recognized authority for broad
program areas of considerable novelty and importance. Has
made contributions such as new products or techniques,
development of processes, etc., which are regarded as major
advances in the field.

Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the fol­
lowing: (1) In a supervisory capacity is responsible for
(a) an important segment of a chemical program of a com­
pany with extensive and diversified scientific requirements,
or (b) the entire chemical program of a company where the
program is more limited in scope. The overall chemical pro­
gram contains critical problems the solution of which re­
quires major technological advances and opens the way for
extensive related development. Makes authoritative techni­
cal recommendations concerning the scientific objectives
and levels of work which will be most profitable in light of
company requirements and scientific and industrial trends
and developments. Recommends facilities, personnel, and
funds required. (2) As individual researcher and consultant,
selects problems for research to further the company’s ob­
jectives. Conceives and plans investigations in which the
phenomena and principles are not adequately understood,
and where few or contradictory scientific precedents or re­
sults are available for reference. Outstanding creativity and
mature judgment are required to devise hypotheses and
techniques of experimentation and to interpret results. As a
leader and authority in the company, in a broad area of
specialization, or in a narrow but intensely specialized one,
advises the head of a large laboratory or company officials
on complex aspects of extremely broad and important pro­
grams. Has responsibility for exploring, evaluating, and jus­
tifying proposed and current programs and projects and
furnishing advice on unusually complex and novel problems
in the specialty field. Typically will have contributed inno­
vations (e.g., techniques, products, procedures) which are
regarded as significant advances in the field.

Responsibility for the direction o f others. Supervises several
subordinate supervisors or team leaders some of whose posi­
tions are comparable to chemist VII, or individual re­
searchers some of whose positions are comparable to chem­
ist VII and sometimes chemist VIII. As an individual re­
searcher and consultant may be assisted on individual proj­
ects by other chemists or technicians.
NOTE: Individuals in charge of a company’s chemical
program may match any of several of the survey job levels,
depending on the size and complexity of chemical pro­
grams. Excluded from the definition are: (1) Chemists in

Responsibility for the direction o f others. Directs several
subordinate supervisors or team leaders, some of whom are




55

rying out a sequence of related engineering tasks. Limited
exercise of judgment is required on details of work and in
making preliminary selections and adaptations of engineer­
ing alternatives. Requires work experience acquired in an
entry level position, or appropriate graduate level study.
For training and developmental purposes, assignments may
include some work that is typical of a higher level. (Termi­
nal positions are excluded.)

charge of programs so extensive and complex (e.g., consist­
ing of highly diversified or unusually novel products and
procedures) that one or more subordinate supervisory
chemists are performing at level VIII; (2) individuals whose
decisions have direct and substantial effect on setting policy
for the organization (included, however, are supervisors de­
ciding the “kind and extent of chemical programs” within
broad guidelines set at higher levels); (3) individual re­
searchers and consultants who are recognized as national
and/or international authorities and scientific leaders in
very broad areas of scientific interest and investigation.

Direction received. Supervisor screens assignments for unus­
ual or difficult problems and selects techniques and proce­
dures to be applied on nonroutine work. Receives close
supervision on new aspects of assignments.

E N G IN E E R

Typical duties and responsibilities. Using prescribed meth­
ods, performs specific and limited portions of a broader
assignment of an experienced engineer. Applies standard
practices and techniques in specific situations, adjusts and
correlates data, recognizes discrepancies in results, and fol­
lows operations through a series of related detailed steps or
processes.

Performs professional work in research, development,
design, testing, analysis, production, construction, mainte­
nance, operation, planning, survey, estimating, application,
or standardization of engineering facilities, systems, struc­
tures, processes, equipment devices, or materials requiring
knowledge of the science and art by which materials, natu­
ral resources, and power are made useful. Work typically
requires a B.S. degree in engineering or the equivalent in
combined education and experience. (Excluded are: Safety
engineers, industrial engineers, quality control engineers,
sales engineers, and engineers whose primary responsibility
is to be in charge of nonprofessional maintenance work.)

Responsibility for the direction o f others. May be assisted
by a few aids or technicians.
Engineer III

General characteristics. Independently evaluates, selects,
and applies standard engineering techniques, procedures,
and criteria, using judgment in making minor adaptations
and modifications. Assignments have clear and specified ob­
jectives and require the investigation of a limited number of
variables. Performance at this level requires developmental
experience in a professional position, or equivalent graduate
level education.

Engineer I

General characteristics. This is the entry level of profes­
sional work requiring a bachelor’s degree in engineering and
no experience, or the equivalent of a degree in appropriate
education and experience. Performs assignments designed
to develop professional work knowledge and abilities. May
also receive formal classroom or seminar-type training.
(Terminal positions are excluded.)

Direction received. Receives instructions on specific assign­
ment objectives, complex features, and possible solutions.
Assistance is furnished on unusual problems and work is
reviewed for application of sound professional judgment.

Direction received. Works under close supervision. Receives
specific and detailed instructions as to required tasks and
results expected. Work is checked during progress and is
reviewed for accuracy upon completion.

Engineer II

Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs work which
involves conventional types of plans, investigations, surveys,
structures, or equipment with relatively few complex fea­
tures for which there are precedents. Assignments usually
include one or more of the following: Equipment design
and development, test of materials, preparation of specifica­
tions, process study, research investigations, report prepara­
tion, and other activities of limited scope requiring knowl­
edge of principles and techniques commonly employed in
the specific narrow area of assignments.

General characteristics. At this continuing developmental
level, performs routine engineering work requiring applica­
tion of standard techniques, procedures, and criteria in car­

Responsibility for the direction o f others. May supervise or
coordinate the work of drafters, technicians, and others
who assist in specific assignments.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs a variety of
routine tasks that are planned to provide experience and
familiarization with the engineering staff, methods, prac­
tices, and programs of the company.
Responsibility for the direction o f others. Usually none.




56

dinates, and directs a large and important engineering proj­
ect or a number of small projects with many complex fea­
tures. A substantial portion of the work supervised is com­
parable to that described for engineer IV. (2) As individual
researcher or worker carries out complex or novel assign­
ments requiring the development of new or improved tech­
niques and procedures. Work is expected to result in the
development of new or refined equipment, materials, proc­
esses, products, and/or scientific methods. (3) As staff
specialist develops and evaluates plans and criteria for a
variety of projects and activities to be carried out by others.
Assesses the feasibility and soundness of proposed engineer­
ing evaluation tests, products, or equipment when necessary
data are insufficient or confirmation by testing is advisable.
Usually performs as a staff advisor and consultant as to a
technical specialty, a type of facility or equipment, or a
program function.

Engineer IV

General characteristics. As a fully competent engineer in all
conventional aspects of the subject matter or the functional
area of the assignments, plans and conducts work requiring
judgment in the independent evaluation, selection, and sub­
stantial adaptation and modification of standard tech­
niques, procedures, and criteria. Devises new approaches to
problems encountered. Requires sufficient professional ex­
perience to assure competence as a fully trained worker; or,
for positions primarily of a research nature, completion of
all requirements for a doctoral degree may be substituted
for experience.
Direction received. Independently performs most assign­
ments with instructions as to the general results expected.
Receives technical guidance on unusual or complex prob­
lems and supervisory approval on proposed plans for proj­
ects.

Responsibility for the direction o f others. Supervises, coor­
dinates, and reviews the work of a small staff of engineers
and technicians; estimates personnel needs and schedules
and assigns work to meet completion date. Or, as individual
researcher or staff specialist may be assisted on projects by
other engineers or technicians.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Plans, schedules, con­
ducts, or coordinates detailed phases of the engineering
work in a part of a major project or in a total project of
moderate scope. Performs work which involves convention­
al engineering practice but may include a variety of com­
plex features such as conflicting design requirements, un­
suitability of standard materials, and difficult coordination
requirements. Work requires a broad knowledge of prece­
dents in the specialty area and a good knowledge of princi­
ples and practices of related specialties.

Engineer V I

General characteristics. Has full technical responsibility for
interpreting, organizing, executing, and coordinating assign­
ments. Plans and develops engineering projects concerned
with unique or controversial problems which have an im­
portant effect on major company programs. This involves
exploration of subject area, definition of scope and selec­
tion of problems for investigation, and development of nov­
el concepts and approaches. Maintains liaison with individu­
als and units within or outside the organization, with re­
sponsibility for acting independently on technical matters
pertaining to own field. Work at this level usually requires
extensive progressive experience including work comparable
to engineer V.

Responsibility for the direction o f others. May supervise a
few engineers or technicians on assigned work.
Engineer V

General characteristics. Applies intensive and diversified
knowledge of engineering principles and practices in broad
areas of assignments and related fields. Makes decisions in­
dependently on engineering problems and methods, and
represents the organization in conferences to resolve impor­
tant questions and to plan and coordinate work. Requires
the use of advanced techniques and the modification and
extension of theories, precepts, and practices of own field
and related sciences and disciplines. The knowledge and
expertise required for this level of work usually result from
progressive experience, including work comparable to engi­
neer IV.

Direction received. Supervision received is essentially ad­
ministrative, with assignments given in terms of broad gen­
eral objectives and limits.
Typical duties and responsibilities. One or more of the fol­
lowing: (1) In a supervisory capacity (a) plans, develops,
coordinates, and directs a number of large and important
projects or a project of major scope and importance, or
(b) is responsible for the entire engineering program of a
company when the program is of limited complexity and
scope. Extent of responsibilities generally requires a few (3
to 5) subordinate supervisors or team leaders with at least
one in a position comparable to level V. (2) As individual
researcher or worker conceives, plans, and conducts re­
search in problem areas of considerable scope and com-

Direction received. Supervision and guidance relate largely
to overall objectives, critical issues, new concepts, and poli­
cy matters. Consults with supervisor concerning unusual
problems and developments.
Typical duties and responsibilities. One or more of the fol­
lowing: (1) In a supervisory capacity plans, develops, coor­




57

funds required to carry out programs which are directly
related with and directed toward fulfillment of overall com­
pany objectives. (2) As individual researcher and consultant
is a recognized leader and authority in the company in a
broad area of specialization or in a narrow but intensely
specialized field. Selects research problems to further the
company’s objectives. Conceives and plans investigations of
broad areas of considerable novelty and importance for
which engineering precedents are lacking in areas critical to
the overall engineering program. Is consulted extensively by
associates and others, with a high degree of reliance placed
on the incumbent’s scientific interpretations and advice.
Typically, will have contributed inventions, new designs, or
techniques which are regarded as major advances in the
field.

plexity. The problems must be approached through a series
of complete and conceptually related studies, are difficult
to define, require unconventional or novel approaches, and
require sophisticated research techniques. Available guides
and precedents contain critical gaps, are only partially relat­
ed to the problem, or may be largely lacking due to the
novel character of the project. At this level, the individual
researcher generally will have contributed inventions, new
designs, or techniques which are of material significance in
the solution of important problems. (3) As a staff specialist
serves as the technical specialist for the organization (divi­
sion or company) in the application of advanced theories,
concepts, principles, and processes for an assigned area of
responsibility (i.e., subject matter, function, type of facility
or equipment, or product). Keeps abreast of new scientific
methods and developments affecting the organization for
the purpose of recommending changes in emphasis of pro­
grams or new programs warranted by such developments.

Responsibility for the direction o f others. Directs several
subordinate supervisors or team leaders, some of whom are
in positions comparable to engineer VI; or, as individual
researcher and consultant, may be assisted on individual
projects by other engineers and technicians.

Responsibility for the direction o f others. Plans, organizes,
and supervises the work of a staff of engineers and techni­
cians. Evaluates progress of the staff and results obtained,
and recommends major changes to achieve overall objec­
tives. Or, as individual researcher or staff specialist may be
assisted on individual projects by other engineers or techni­
cians.

Engineer V I I I

General characteristics. Makes decisions and recommenda­
tions that are recognized as authoritative and have a farreaching impact on extensive engineering and related activi­
ties of the company. Negotiates critical and controversial
issues with top level engineers and officers of other organi­
zations and companies. Individuals at this level demonstrate
a high degree of creativity, foresight, and mature judgment
in planning, organizing, and guiding extensive engineering
programs and activities of outstanding novelty and impor­
tance.

Engineer V II

General characteristics. Makes decisions and recommenda­
tions that are recognized as authoritative and have an im­
portant impact on extensive engineering activities. Initiates
and maintains extensive contacts with key engineers and
officials of other organizations and companies, requiring
skill in persuasion and negotiation of critical issues. At this
level individuals will have demonstrated creativity, fore­
sight, and mature engineering judgment in anticipating and
solving unprecedented engineering problems, determining
program objectives and requirements, organizing programs
and projects and developing standards and guides for di­
verse engineering activities.

Direction received. Receives general administrative direc­
tion.
Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the fol­
lowing: ( l ) I n a supervisory capacity is responsible for
(a) an important segment of a very extensive and highly
diversified engineering program of a company, or (b) the
entire engineering program of a company when the program
is of moderate scope. The programs are of such complexity
and scope that they are of critical importance to overall
objectives, include problems of extraordinary difficulty
that often have resisted solution, and consist of several
segments requiring subordinate supervisors. Is responsible
for deciding the kind and extent of engineering and related
programs needed to accomplish the objectives of the com­
pany, for choosing the scientific approaches, for planning
and organizing facilities and programs, and for interpreting
results. (2) As individual researcher and consultant formu­
lates and guides the attack on problems of exceptional diffi­
culty and marked importance to the company or industry.
Problems are characterized by their lack of scientific prece­

Direction received. Receives general administrative direc­
tion.
Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both of the fol­
lowing: (1) In a supervisory capacity is responsible for
(a) an important segment of the engineering program of a
company with extensive and diversified engineering require­
ments, or (b) the entire engineering program of a company
when it is more limited in scope. The overall engineering
program contains critical problems the solution of which
requires major technological advances and opens the way
for extensive related development. Extent of responsibili­
ties generally requires several subordinate organizational
segments or teams. Recommends facilities, personnel, and




58

dents and source material, or lack of success of prior re­
search and analysis so that their solution would represent
an advance of great significance and importance. Performs
advisory and consulting work for the company as a recog­
nized authority for broad program areas or in an intensely
specialized area of considerable novelty and importance.

NOTE: Individuals in charge of a company’s engineering
program may match any of several of the survey job levels
depending on the size and complexity of engineering pro­
grams. Excluded from the definition are: (1) Engineers in
charge of programs so extensive and complex (e.g., consist­
ing of research and development on a variety of complex
products or systems with numerous novel components) that
one or more subordinate supervisory engineers are perform­
ing at level VIII; (2) individuals whose decisions have direct
and substantial effect on setting policy for the organization
(included, however, are supervisors deciding the “kind and
extent of engineering and related programs” within broad
guidelines set at higher levels); (3) individual researchers
and consultants who are recognized as national and/or in­
ternational authorities and scientific leaders in very broad
areas of scientific interest and investigation.

Responsibility fo r the direction o f others. Supervises several
subordinate supervisors or team leaders some of whose posi­
tions are comparable to engineer VII, or individual research­
ers some of whose positions are comparable to engineer VII
and sometimes engineer VIII. As an individual researcher
and consultant may be assisted on individual projects by
other engineers or technicians.

Technical Support
also be reviewed in process. Performs, at this level, one or a
combination of such typical duties as:

E N G IN E E R IN G T E C H N IC IA N

To be covered by these definitions, employees must
meet all of the following criteria: (1) Provides semiprofes­
sional technical support for engineers working in such areas
as research, design, development, testing, or manufacturing
process improvement. (2) Work pertains to electrical, elec­
tronic, or mechanical components or equipment. (3) Re­
quired to have some knowledge of science or engineering.
{Excludes production or maintenance workers, quality con­
trol testers, craft workers, drafters, designers, and engi­
neers.)

Assembles or constructs simple or standard equip­
ment or parts. May service or repair simple instruments
or equipment;
Conducts a variety of standardized tests; may prepare
test specimens; sets up and operates standard test equip­
ment; records test data;
Extracts engineering data from various prescribed
sources; processes the data following well-defined meth­
ods; presents the data in prescribed form.
Engineering Technician III

Performs assignments that are not completely standard­
ized or prescribed. Selects or adapts standard procedures or
equipment. Receives initial instructions, equipment require­
ments, and advice from supervisor or engineer; technical
adequacy of completed work is checked. Performs, at this
level, one or a combination of such typical duties as:

Engineering Technician I

Performs simple routine tasks under close supervision or
from detailed procedures. Work is checked in process or on
completion. Performs, at this level, one or a combination of
such typical duties as:
Assembles or installs equipment or parts requiring
simple wiring, soldering, or connecting;
Performs simple or routine tasks or tests such as ten­
sile or hardness tests; operates and adjusts simple test
equipment; records test data;
Gathers and maintains specified records of engineer­
ing data such as tests, drawings, etc.; performs computa­
tions by substituting numbers in specified formulas;
plots data and draws simple curves and graphs.

Constructs components, subunits, or simple models
or adapts standard equipment. May troubleshoot and
correct malfunctions;
Conducts various tests or experiments which may re­
quire minor modifications in test setups or procedures;
selects, sets up, and operates standard test equipment
and records test data;
Extracts and compiles a variety of engineering data;
processes or computes data using specified formulas and
procedures. Performs routine analysis to check applica­
bility, accuracy, and reasonableness of data.

Engineering Technician II

Performs standardized or prescribed assignments involv­
ing a sequence of related operations. Follows standard work
methods or explicit instructions; technical adequacy of rou­
tine work is reviewed on completion; nonroutine work may




Engineering Technician IV

Performs nonroutine assignments of substantial variety
and complexity. Receives objectives and technical advice
59

from supervisor or engineer; work is reviewed for technical
adequacy. May be assisted by lower level technicians. Per­
forms, at this level, one or a combination of such typical
duties as:

The following are excluded when they constitute the
primary purpose of the job :
Design work requiring the technical knowledge,
skill, and ability to conceive or originate designs;
Illustrating work requiring artistic ability;
Work involving the preparation of charts, dia­
grams, room arrangements, floor plans, etc.;
Cartographic work involving the preparation of
maps or plats and related materials and drawings of
geological structures; and
Supervisory work involving the management of a
drafting program or the supervision of drafters when
either constitutes the primary purpose of the job.

Works on limited segment of development project;
constructs experimental or prototype models to meet
engineering requirements; conducts tests or experiments;
records and evaluates data and reports findings;
Conducts tests or experiments requiring selection and
adaptation or modification of test equipment and test
procedures; records data; analyzes data and prepares test
reports;
Compiles and computes a variety of engineering data;
may analyze test and design data; develops or prepares
schematics, designs, specifications, parts lists, or makes
recommendations regarding these items. May review de­
signs or specifications for adequacy.

Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the
following definitions.
D rafter I

Working under close supervision, traces or copies
finished drawings, making clearly indicated revisions. Uses
appropriate templates to draw curved lines. Assignments are
designed to develop increasing skill in various drafting
techniques. Work is spot checked during progress and
reviewed upon completion.

Engineering Technician V

Performs nonroutine and complex assignments involving
responsibility for planning and conducting a complete proj­
ect of relatively limited scope or a portion of a larger and
more diverse project. Selects and adapts plans, techniques,
designs, or layouts. May coordinate portions of overall as­
signments; reviews, analyzes, and integrates the technical
work of others. Supervisor or professional engineer outlines
objectives, requirements, and design approaches; completed
work is reviewed for technical adequacy and satisfaction of
requirements. May be assisted by lower level technicians.
Performs, at this level, one or a combination of such typical
duties as:

NOTE: Exclude drafters performing elementary tasks
while receiving training in the most basic drafting methods.
D rafter II

Prepares drawings of simple, easily visualized parts or
equipment from sketches or marked-up prints. Selects
appropriate templates and other equipment needed to
complete assignments. Drawings fit familiar patterns and
present few technical problems. Supervisor provides de­
tailed instructions on new assignments, gives guidance when
questions arise, and reviews completed work for accuracy.

Designs, develops, and constructs major units, de­
vices, or equipment; conducts tests or experiments; ana­
lyzes results and redesigns or modifies equipment to im­
prove performance; reports results;
Plans or assists in planning tests to evaluate equip­
ment performance. Determines test requirements, equip­
ment modification, and test procedures; conducts tests,
analyzes and evaluates data, and prepares reports on
findings and recommendations;
Reviews and analyzes a variety of engineering data to
determine requirements to meet engineering objectives;
may calculate design data; prepares layouts, detailed
specifications, parts lists, estimates, procedures, etc. May
check and analyze drawings or equipment to determine
adequacy of drawings and design.

D rafter 111

Prepares various drawings of parts and assemblies,
including sectional profiles, irregular or reverse curves,
hidden lines, and small or intricate details. Work requires
use of most of the conventional drafting techniques and a
working knowledge of the terms and procedures of the
industry. Familiar or recurring work is assigned in general
terms; unfamiliar assignments include information on
methods, procedures, sources of information, and prece­
dents to be followed. Simple revisions to existing drawings
may be assigned with a verbal explanation of the desired
results; more complex revisions are produced from sketches
which clearly depict the desired product.

DRAFTER

Performs drafting work requiring knowledge and skill in
drafting methods, procedures, and techniques. Prepares
drawings of structures, mechanical and electrical equip­
ment, piping and duct systems, and similar equipment,
systems, and assemblies. Drawings are used to communicate
engineering ideas, designs, and information in support of
engineering functions. Uses recognized systems of symbols,
legends, shadings, and lines having specific meaning in
drawings.




Drafter IV

Prepares complete sets of complex drawings which
include multiple views, detail drawings, and assembly
drawings. Drawings include complex design features that
require considerable drafting skill to visualize and portray.
Assignments regularly require the use of mathematical

60

formulas to compute weights, load capacities, dimensions,
quantities of materials, etc. Working from sketches and
verbal information supplied by an engineer or designer,
determines the most appropriate views, detail drawings, and
supplementary information needed to complete assign­
ments. Selects required information from precedents,
manufacturer’s catalogues, and technical guides. Independ­
ently resolves most of the problems encountered. Super­
visor or designer may suggest methods of approach or
provide advice on unusually difficult problems.

Com puter Operator I

Work assignments consist of on-the-job training (some­
times augmented by classroom training). Operator is pro­
vided detailed written or oral guidance before and during
assignments and is under close personal supervision.
Com puter O perator II

Work assignments typically are established production
runs (i.e., programs which present few operating problems)
executed by serial processing (i.e., one program is processed
at a time). In response to computer output instructions or
error conditions, applies standard operating or corrective
procedure. Refers problems which do not respond to
preplanned procedure.

NOTE: Exclude drafters performing work of similar
difficulty to that described at this level but who provide
support for a variety of organizations which have widely
differing functions or requirements.

Com puter O perator I I I

Work assignments are characterized by the frequent
introduction of new programs, applications, and procedures
(i.e., situations which require the operator to adapt to a
variety of problems) executed by serial processing. In
response to computer output instructions or error condi­
tions, applies standard operating or corrective procedure.
Refers problems which do not respond to preplanned
procedure.
OR
Work assignments typically are established production
runs (i.e., programs which present few operating problems)
executed by serial processing. Selects from a variety of
standard setup and operating procedures. In response to
computer output instructions or error conditions, deviates
from standard procedures if standard procedures do not
provide a solution. Then refers or aborts program.

D rafter V

Works closely with design originators, preparing draw­
ings of unusual, complex, or original designs which require
a high degree of precision. Performs unusually difficult
assignments requiring considerable initiative, resource­
fulness, and drafting expertise. Assures that anticipated
problems in manufacture, assembly, installation, and opera­
tion are resolved by the drawings produced. Exercises
independent judgment in selecting and interpreting data
based on a knowledge of the design intent. Although
working primarily as a drafter, may occasionally perform
engineering design work in interpreting general designs
prepared by others or in completing missing design details.
May provide advice and guidance to lower level drafters or
serve as coordinator and planner for large and complex
drafting projects.

OR
Work assignments are established production runs (i.e.,
programs which present few operating problems) executed
by multiprocessing (i.e., simultaneous processing of two or
more programs). In response to computer output instruc­
tions or error conditions, applies standard operating or
corrective procedure. Refers problems which do not re­
spond to preplanned procedures.

COM PUTER O PERATO R

Monitors and operates the control console of a digital
computer, in accordance with operating instructions, to
process data. Work is characterized by the following:
Studies operating instructions to determine equip­
ment setup needed;
Loads equipment with required items (tapes, cards,
paper, etc.);
Switches necessary auxiliary equipment into system;
Starts and operates computer;
Responds to operating instructions and computer
output instructions;
Reviews error messages and makes corrections during
operation or refers problems;
Maintains operating record.

Com puter Operator IV

Work assignments are characterized by the frequent
introduction of new programs, applications, and procedures
(i.e., situations which require the operator to adapt to a
variety of problems) executed by serial processing. Selects
from a variety of standard setup and operating procedures.
In response to computer output instructions or error
conditions, deviates from standard procedures if standard
procedures do not provide a solution. Then refers problems
or aborts program.
OR

May test-run new or modified programs and assist in
modifying systems or programs. Included within the scope
of this definition are fully qualified computer operators,
trainees working to become fully qualified operators, and
lead operators providing technical assistance to lower level
operators.




Work assignments are characterized by the frequent
introduction of new programs, applications, and procedures
(i.e., situations which require the operator to adapt to a

61

variety of problems) executed by multiprocessing. In
response to computer output instructions or error condi­
tions, applies standard operating or corrective procedure.
Refers problems which do not respond to preplanned
procedure.
OR

procedures (i.e., situations which require the operator to
adapt to a variety of problems). In responding to computer
output instructions and error conditions or to avoid loss of
information or to conserve computer time, operator de­
viates from standard procedures or aborts program. Such
actions may materially alter the computer unit’s production
plans. Advises programmers and subject-matter experts on
setup techniques.

Work assignments are established production runs, (i.e.,
programs which present few operating problems) executed
by multiprocessing. Selects from a variety of standard setup
and operating procedures. In response to computer output
instructions or error conditions, deviates from standard
procedures if standard procedures do not provide a solu­
tion. Then refers problems or aborts program.

Com puter O perator V I

In addition to level V characteristics, assignments at this
level require a knowledge of program language, computer
features, and software systems to assist in: (1) Maintaining,
modifying, and developing operating systems or programs;
(2) developing operating instructions and techniques to
cover problem situations; (3) switching to emergency
backup procedures.4

Com puter O perator V

Work assignments are characterized by the frequent
testing and introduction of new programs, applications, and

Clerical
Accounting Clerk II

A C C O U N T IN G C L E R K

Performs one or more routine accounting clerical opera­
tions, such as: Examining, verifying, and correcting
accounting transactions to ensure completeness and
accuracy of data and proper identification of accounts, and
checking that expenditures will not exceed obligations in
specified accounts; totaling, balancing, and reconciling
collection vouchers; posting data to transaction sheets
where employee identifies proper accounts and items to be
posted; and coding documents in accordance with a chart
(listing) of accounts. Employee follows specific and de­
tailed accounting procedures. Completed work is reviewed
for accuracy and compliance with procedures.

Performs one or more accounting tasks, such as posting
to registers and ledgers; balancing and reconciling accounts;
verifying the internal consistency, completeness, and
mathematical accuracy of accounting documents; assigning
prescribed accounting distribution codes; examining and
verifying the clerical accuracy of various types o f reports,
lists, calculations, postings, etc.; preparing journal vouchers;
or making entries or adjustments to accounts.
Levels I and II require a basic knowledge of routine
clerical methods and office practices and procedures as they
relate to the clerical processing and recording transactions
and accounting information. Levels III and IV require
a knowledge and understanding of the established and
standardized bookkeeping and accounting procedures and
techniques used in an accounting system, or a segment of
an accounting system, where there are few variations in the
types of transactions handled. In addition, some jobs at
each level may require a basic knowledge and understanding
of the terminology, codes, and processes used in an
automated accounting system.

Accounting Clerk I II

Uses a knowledge of double entry bookkeeping in
performing one or more of the following: Posts actions to
journals, identifying subsidiary accounts affected and debit
and credit entries to be made and assigning proper codes;
reviews computer printouts against manually maintained
journals, detecting and correcting erroneous postings, and
preparing documents to adjust accounting classifications
and other data; or reviews lists of transactions rejected by
an automated system, determining reasons for rejections,
and preparing necessary correcting material. On routine
assignments, employee selects and applies established pro­
cedures and techniques. Detailed instructions are provided
for difficult or unusual assignments. Completed work and
methods used are reviewed for technical accuracy.

Accounting Clerk I

Performs very simple and routine accounting clerical
operations, for example, recognizing and comparing easily
identified numbers and codes on similar and repetitive
accounting documents, verifying mathematical accuracy,
and identifying discrepancies and bringing them to the
supervisor’s attention. Supervisor gives clear and detailed
instructions for specific assignments. Employee refers to
supervisor all matters not covered by instructions. Work is
closely controlled and reviewed in detail for accuracy,
adequacy, and adherence to instructions.



Accounting Clerk IV

Maintains journals or subsidiary ledgers of an accounting
system and balances and reconciles accounts. Typical duties
include one or both of the following: Reviews invoices and
4Insufficient data were obtained for level VI to warrant presen­
tation of average salaries.
62

encoder to transcribe data into a form suitable for
computer processing. Work requires skill in operating an
alphanumeric keyboard and an understanding of trans­
cribing procedures and relevant data entry equipment.
Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the
following definitions.

statements (verifying information, ensuring sufficient funds
have been obligated, and if questionable, resolving with the
submitting unit, determining accounts involved, coding
transactions, and processing material through data process­
ing for application in the accounting system); and/or
analyzes and reconciles computer printouts with operating
unit reports (contacting units and researching causes of
discrepancies, and taking action to ensure that accounts
balance). Employee resolves problems in recurring assign­
ments in accordance with previous training and experience.
Supervisor provides suggestions for handling unusual or
nonrecurring transactions. Conformance with requirements
and technical soundness of completed work are reviewed by
the supervisor or are controlled by mechanisms built into
the accounting system.

Key Entry Operator I

Work is routine and repetitive. Under close supervision
or following specific procedures or detailed instructions,
works from various standardized source documents which
have been coded and require little or no selecting, coding,
or interpreting of data to be entered. Refers to supervisor
problems arising from erroneous items, codes, or missing
information.

NOTE: Excluded from level IV are positions responsible
for maintaining either a general ledger or a general ledger in
combination with subsidiary accounts.

Key Entry O perator II

Work requires the application of experience and judg­
ment in selecting procedures to be followed and in
searching for, interpreting, selecting, or coding items to be
entered from a variety of source documents. On occasion
may also perform some routine work as described for level

F IL E C L E R K

Files, classifies, and retrieves material in an established
filing system. May perform clerical and manual tasks
required to maintain files. Positions are classified into levels
on the basis of the following definitions.

I.

NOTE: Excluded are operators above level II using the
key entry controls to access, read, and evaluate the
substance of specific records to take substantive actions, or
to make entries requiring a similar level of knowledge.

File Clerk I

Performs routine filing of material that has already been
classified or which is easily classified in a simple serial
classification system (e.g., alphabetical, chronological, or
numerical). As requested, locates readily available material
in files and forwards material; may fill out withdrawal
charge. May perform simple clerical and manual tasks
required to maintain and service files.

M ESSEN G ER

Performs various routine duties such as running errands,
operating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers,
opening and distributing mail, and other minor clerical
work. Excluded are positions that require operation of a
motor vehicle as a significant duty.

File Clerk II

Sorts, codes, and files unclassified material by simple
(subject-matter) headings or partly classified material by
finer subheadings. Prepares simple related index and crossreference aids. As requested, locates clearly identified
material in files and forwards material. May perform related
clerical tasks required to maintain and service files.

P E R S O N N E L C L E R K (E M P L O Y M E N T )

Personnel clerks (employment) provide clerical and
technical support to personnel professionals or managers in
matters relating to recruiting, hiring, transfer, change in pay
status, and termination of company employees. At the
lower levels, clerks primarily provide basic information to
current and prospective employees, maintain personnel
records and information listings, and prepare and process
papers on personnel actions. At the higher levels, clerks
(often titled personnel assistants or specialists) may per­
form limited aspects of a personnel professional’s work,
e.g., interviewing candidates, recommending placements,
and preparing personnel reports. Final decisions on person­
nel actions are made by personnel professionals or man­
agers. Some clerks may perform a limited amount of work
in other specialties, such as benefits, compensation, or
employee relations. Typing may be required at any level.

File Clerk I I I

Classifies and indexes file material such as corres­
pondence, reports, technical documents, etc., in an estab­
lished filing system containing a number of varied subject
matter files. May also file this material. May keep records of
various types in conjunction with the files. May lead a small
group of lower level file clerks.
KEY E N TR Y OPERATOR

Operates keyboard-controlled data entry device such as
keypunch machine or key-operated magnetic tape or disc




63

managers on availability of applicants and status of hiring
actions; may verify employment dates and places supplied
on job applications; may maintain assigned personnel
records; may administer typing and stenography tests.
Completes routine assignments independently. Detailed
guidance is available for situations which deviate from
established precedents. Clerks are relied upon to alert
higher level clerks or supervisor to such situations. Work
may be spot checked periodically.

Excluded are:
Clerks who primarily compute and process payrolls or
compute and/or respond to questions on company
benefits or retirement claims;
Workers responsible for maintaining and safeguarding
personnel record files for a company;
Workers whose duties do not require a knowledge of
the company’s personnel rules and procedures, such as
receptionists, messengers, typists, or stenographers;
Workers in developmental personnel professional po­
sitions, generally requiring a college degree or equivalent
administrative experience; and
Workers who are primarily compensated for duties
outside the employment specialty, such as benefits,
compensation, or employee relations.

Personnel Clerk (Em ploym ent) I I I
Type A

Serves as a clerical expert in independently processing
the most complicated types of personnel actions, e.g.,
temporary employment, rehires, and dismissals, and in
providing information when it is necessary to consolidate
data from a number o f sources, often with short deadlines.
Screens applications for obvious rejections. Resolves con­
flicts in computer listings or other sources of employee
information. Locates lost documents or reconstructs infor­
mation using a number of sources. May check references of
applicants when information in addition to dates and places
of past work is needed and judgment is required to ask
follow-up questions. May provide guidance to lower level
clerks. Supervisory review is similar to level II.

Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the
following definitions. The work described is essentially at a
responsible clerical level at the low levels and progresses to
a staff assistant or technician level. At Level III, which is
transitional, both types of work are described. Jobs which
match either type of work described at Level III, or which
are combinations of the two, can be matched.
Personnel Clerk (E m p loym ent) I

Performs routine tasks while receiving training and
gaining experience in applying company personnel proce­
dures and policies. Provides employment information and
appropriate forms to applicants or employees on types of
jobs being filled, procedures to follow, and sources of
additional information. Ensures that the proper company
forms are completed for name changes, locator informa­
tion, applications, etc. Reviews completed forms for signa­
tures, proper entries, etc. May maintain assigned segments
of company personnel records, posting such items as dates
of promotion, transfer, and hire; rates of pay; or personal
data. (If this information is computerized, skill in coding or
entering information may be needed as a minor duty.) May
answer outside inquiries for simple factual information,
such as verification of dates of employment in response to
credit checks on employees. Some receptionist or other
clerical duties may be performed.
Detailed company rules and procedures are available for
all aspects of the assignment. Guidance and assistance on
unusual questions are available at all times. Work is spot
checked, often on a daily basis.

AND/OR
Type B

Performs routine personnel assignments beyond the
clerical level, such as: Orienting new employees to company
programs, facilities, rules on time and attendance, and leave
policies; computing basic statistical information for reports
on manpower profiles, EEO progress and accomplishments,
hiring activities, attendance and leave profiles, turnover,
etc.; and screening applicants, rejecting those who do not
qualify for available openings for clear cut reasons, referring
others to appropriate employment interviewer. Guidance is
provided on possible sources of information, methods of
work, and types of reports needed. Completed written
work receives close technical review from higher level
personnel office employees; other work may be checked
occasionally.
Personnel Clerk (E m p loym ent) IV

Performs work in support of personnel professionals
which requires a good working knowledge of personnel
procedures, guides, and precedents. In representative assign­
ments: Interviews applicants, obtains references, and
recommends placement of applicants in a few well-defined
occupations (trades or clerical) within a stable organization
or unit; conducts postplacement or exit interviews to
identify job adjustment problems or reasons for leaving the
company; performs routine statistical analyses related to
manpower, EEO, hiring, or other employment concerns,
e.g., compares one set of data to another set as instructed;

Personnel Clerk (Em ploym ent) II

Examines and/or processes personnel action documents,
ensuring that all information is complete and consistent and
determines whether further discussion with applicants or
employees is needed or whether personnel information
must be checked against additional files or listings. Must
select the most appropriate precedent, rule, or procedure as
a basis for action from a number of alternatives. Responds
to questions from applicants, employees, or managers when
such information is readily available or can be obtained
from file material or manuals. May provide information to




64

and requisitions applicants through employment agencies
for clerical or similar level jobs. At this level assistants
typically have a range of personal contacts within and
outside the company and with applicants, and must be
tactful and articulate. May perform some clerical work in
addition to the above duties. Supervisor reviews completed
work against stated objectives.

Table C-4.

Leve l

Level o f secretary's
supervisor

L S - 1 ..........................................................
L S - 2 ..........................................................
L S - 3 ..........................................................
L S - 4 ..........................................................

Workers at this level perform duties similar to level IV,
but are responsible for more complicated cases and work
with greater independence. Performs limited aspects of
professional personnel work dealing with a variety of
occupations common to the company which are clear-cut
and stable in employment requirements. Typical duties
include: Researching recruitment sources, such as employ­
ment agencies or State manpower offices, and advising
managers on the availability of candidates in common
occupations; screening and selecting employees for a few
routine, nonpermanent jobs, such as summer employment;
or answering inquiries on a controversial issue, such as a
hiring or promotion freeze. These duties often require
considerable skill and diplomacy in communications. Other
typical duties may include: Surveying managers for future
h irin g requirements; developing newspaper vacancy
announcements or explaining job requirements to employ­
ment agencies for administrative or professional positions;
or reviewing the effect of corporate personnel procedural
changes on local employment programs (e.g., automation of
records, new affirmative action goals). May incidently
perform some clerical duties. Supervisory review is similar
to level IV.

o f

s e c r e t a r y ' s

r e s p o n s i b i l i t y

L R - 1

Personnel Clerk (E m p loym ent) V

L R - 2

II
III
IV
I V

V

visory duties which are not typical of secretarial
work, e.g., administrative assistant, or execu tive assis­
tant;
e. Positions which do not fit any o f the situations listed
in the section below titled “Level o f Secretary’s Su­
pervisor,” e.g., secretary to the president of a com­
pany that employes, in all, over 5,000 persons;
f. Trainees.
Secretary jobs which meet the required characteristics
are matched at one of the five levels according to (a) the
level of the secretary’s supervisor within the company’s or­
ganizational structure and (b) the level of the secretary’s
responsibility. Table C-4 indicates the level of the secretary
for each combination of the factors.
Level o f Secretary's Supervisor (LS)

LS-1 a. Secretary to the supervisor or head of a small or­
ganizational unit (e.g., fewer than about 25 or 30
persons); or
b. Secretary to a nonsupervisory staff specialist, pro­
fessional employee, administrative officer or assis­
tant, skilled technician, or expert. {NOTE: Many
companies assign stenographers, rather than secre­
taries as described above, to this level of supervi­
sory or nonsupervisory worker.)

SECRETARY

LS-2 a. Secretary to an executive or managerial person
whose responsibility is not equivalent to one of
the specific level situations in the definition for
LS-3, but whose organizational unit normally
numbers at least several dozen employees and is
usually divided into organizational segments which
are often, in turn, further subdivided. In some
companies, this level includes a wide range of orga­
nizational echelons; in others, only one or two; or
b. Secretary to the head of an individual plant, fac­
tory, etc., (or other equivalent level of official)
that employes, in all, fewer than 5,000 persons.

Assigned as a personal secretary, normally to one indi­
vidual. Maintains a close and highly responsive relationship
to the day-to-day activities of the supervisor. Works fairly
independently, receiving a minimum of detailed supervision
and guidance. Performs varied clerical and secretarial duties
requiring a knowledge of office routine and understanding
of the organization, programs, and procedures related to
the work of the supervisor.
Exclusions. Not all positions that are titled “secretary” pos­
sess the above characteristics. Examples of positions which
are excluded from the definition are as follows:

LS-3 a. Secretary to a corporate officer (other than chair­
man of the board or president) of a company that
employs, in all, over 100 but fewer than 5,000
persons; or
b. Secretary to the head (immediately below the offi­
cer level) of either a major corporatewide func­
tional activity (e.g., marketing, research, opera­
tions, industrial relations, etc.) or a major geo­
graphic or organizational segment (e.g., a regional
headquarters; a major division) of a company that
employs, in all, over 5,000 but fewer than 25,000
persons; or

a. Positions which do not meet the “personal” secretary
concept described above;
b. Stenographers not fully trained in secretarial-type du­
ties;
c. Stenographers serving as office assistants to a group
of professional, technical, or managerial persons;
d. Assistant-type positions which entail more difficult or
more responsible technical, administrative, or super-




Criteria fo r matching secretaries by level

65

a. Screens telephone and personal callers, determining
which can be handled by the supervisor’s subordi­
nates or other offices.
b. Answers requests which require a detailed knowledge
of office procedures or collection of information
from files or other offices. May sign routine corre­
spondence in own or supervisor’s name.
c. Compiles or assists in compiling periodic reports on
the basis of general instructions.
d. Schedules tentative appointments without prior clear­
ance. Assembles necessary background material for
scheduled meetings. Makes arrangements for meetings
and conferences.
e. Explains supervisor’s requirements to other employ­
ees in supervisor’s unit. (Also types, takes dictation,
and files.)

c. Secretary to the head of an individual plant, fac­
tory, etc., (or other equivalent level of official)
that employs, in all, over 5,000 persons; or
d. Secretary to the head of a large and important
organizational segment (e.g., a middle management
supervisor of an organizational segment often in­
volving as many as several hundred persons) of a
company that employs, in all, over 25,000 per­
sons.
LS-4 a. Secretary to the chairman of the board or presi­
dent of a company that employs, in all, over 100
but fewer than 5,000 persons; or
b. Secretary to a corporate officer (other than the
chairman of the board or president) of a company
that employs, in all, over 5,000 but fewer than
25,000 persons; or
c. Secretary to the head, immediately below the cor­
porate officer level, of a major segment or subsidi­
ary of a company that employs, in all, over 25,000
persons.

STENOGRAPHER

NOTE: The term “corporate officer” used in the above
LS definitions refers to those officials who have a signifi­
cant corporatewide policymaking role with regard to major
company activities. The title “vice president,” though nor­
mally indicative of this role, does not in all cases identify
such positions. Vice presidents whose primary responsibili­
ty is to act personally on individual cases or transactions
(e.g., approve or deny individual loan or credit actions; ad­
minister individual trust accounts; directly supervise a cleri­
cal staff) are not considered to be “corporate officers” for
purposes of applying the definition.

Primary duty is to take dictation using shorthand, and to
transcribe the dictation. May also type from written copy.
May operate from a stenographic pool. May occasionally
transcribe from voice recordings.
NOTE: This job is distinguished from that of a secretary
in that a secretary normally works in a confidential rela­
tionship with only one manager or executive and performs
more responsible and discretionary tasks.
Stenographer, General

Level o f Secretary's Responsibility (L R )

Dictation involves a normal routine vocabulary. May
maintain files, keep simple records, or perform other rela­
tively routine clerical tasks.

This factor evaluates the nature of the work relationship
between the secretary and the supervisor, and the extent to
which the secretary is expected to exercise initiative and
judgment. Secretaries should be matched at LR-1 or LR-2
described below according to their level of responsibility.

Stenographer, Senior

Dictation involves a varied technical or specialized vo­
cabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on scientific re­
search. May also set up and maintain files, keep records,
etc.
OR

LR-1. Performs varied secretarial duties including or com­
parable to most of the following:
a. Answers telephone, greets personal callers, and opens
incoming mail.
b. Answers telephone requests which have standard an­
swers. May reply to requests by sending a form letter.
c. Reviews correspondence, memoranda, and reports
prepared by others for the supervisor’s signature to
assure procedural and typographic accuracy.
d. Maintains supervisor’s calendar and makes appoint­
ments as instructed.
e. Types, takes and transcribes dictation, and files.

Performs stenographic duties requiring significantly
greater independence and responsibility than stenographer,
general, as evidenced by the following: Work requires a high
degree of stenographic speed and accuracy; a thorough
working knowledge of general business and office proce­
dure and of the specific business operations, organizations,
policies, procedures, files, workflow, etc. Uses this knowl­
edge in performing stenographic duties and responsible cler­
ical tasks such as maintaining follow-up files; assembling
material for reports, memoranda, and letters; composing
simple letters from general instructions; reading and routing
incoming mail; answering routine questions, etc.

LR-2. Performs duties under LR-1 and, in addition, per­
forms tasks requiring greater judgment, initiative, and
knowledge of office functions including or comparable to
most of the following:




66

T Y P IS T

surance policies, etc.; or setting up simple standard tabula­
tions; or copying more complex tables already set up and
spaced properly.

Uses a typewriter to make copies of various materials or
to make out bills after calculations have been made by
another person. May include typing of stencils, mats, or
similar materials for use in duplicating processes. May do
clerical work involving little special training, such as keep­
ing simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting and
distributing incoming mail.

T ypist II

Performs one or more o f the following: Typing material
in final form when it involves combining material from sev­
eral sources; or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabica­
tion, punctuation, etc., of technical or unusual words or
foreign language material; or planning layout and typing of
complicated statistical tables to maintain uniformity and
balance in spacing. May type routine form letters, varying
details to suit circumstances.

Typist I

Performs one or more o f the following: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; or routine typing of forms, in­

NOTE: The occupational titles and definitions for messenger and stenographer are the same as those used
in the Bureau’s program of occupational wage surveys in metropolitan areas.1 The occupations listed below
have the same definition in both the national and area surveys; however, the level designations differ as
shown:
National Survey o f
Professional, Adm inis­
trative, Technical, and
Clerical Pay

D ra fte r1

File clerk

Key entry operator
Secretary1..................

Typist

Occupational
Wage Su rveys in
M etro po litan
Areas

I
II
III
IV
V
I
II
III
I
II
I
II
III
IV
V
I
II

Occupation

E
D
C
B
A
C
B
A
B
A
E
D
C
B
A
B
A

1 The 5-level d efin ition fo r drafter was introduced in the area surveys in calendar year 1979 and the 5-level d e fin itio n
fo r secretary, in 1 9 77. Three years are required to bring new jo b definitions in to all areas covered by the program.




67

A ppendix D. Comparison o f
Salaries in Private Industry with
Salaries o f Federal Employees
Under the General Schedule

The survey was designed to provide a basis for com­
paring salaries under the General Schedule classification and
pay system with salaries in private enterprise. To assure
collection of pay data for work levels equivalent to the
General Schedule grade levels, the Office of Personnel
Management (OPM), in cooperation with the Bureau of




Labor Statistics, prepared the occupational work level
definitions used in the survey. Definitions were graded by
OPM according to standards established for each grade
level. Table D-l shows the surveyed jobs grouped by work
levels equivalent to General Schedule grade levels.

68

Ta b le D-1.

C o m p a riso n o f average annual salaries in private industry w ith salary rates fo r Federal em ployees under the General Schedule

Occupation and level
surveyed by B LS 1

Average
annual
salary
in private
industry,2
March 1979

Salary rates fo r Federal employees under the General Schedule, March 1 9 7 9 and October 1 9 7 9 3

Grade4

Average,5
March 1979
and
October
1979

Step6
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

File clerks 1 .......................................................................
Messengers .......................................................................

$7,063
8,1 1 2

GS 1

$ 6 ,6 9 4
(7 ,3 4 8 )

$6,561
(7 ,2 1 0 )

$ 6 ,7 8 0
(7 ,4 5 0 )

$ 6 ,9 9 9
(7 ,6 9 0 )

$7 ,2 1 8
(7 ,9 3 0 )

$ 7 ,4 3 7
(8 .1 7 0 )

$ 7 ,6 5 6
(8 ,4 1 0 )

$ 7 ,8 7 5
(8 ,6 5 0 )

$ 8 ,0 9 4
(8 ,8 9 0 )

$8 ,313
(8 ,9 0 2 )

$8 ,5 3 2
(9 ,126 )

Accou nting clerks 1 .......................................................
D rafters 1 .........................................................................
File clerks II ....................................................................
Key en try operators 1 ..................................................
Typists 1 ...........................................................................

8,2 48
9,3 9 5
8 ,2 6 5
9 ,0 9 4
8,398

GS 2

7 ,6 3 0
(8 ,3 3 3 )

7 ,4 2 2
(8 ,1 2 8 )

7 ,6 6 9
(8 ,3 9 9 )

7 ,9 1 6
(8 ,6 7 0 )

8 ,1 6 3
(8 ,9 0 2 )

8 ,4 1 0
(9 ,0 0 2 )

8 ,6 57
(9 ,2 6 7 )

8 ,9 0 4
(9 ,5 3 2 )

9,151
(9 ,7 9 7 )

9,3 98
(1 0 ,0 6 2 )

9 ,6 4 5
(1 0 ,3 2 7 )

A ccounting clerks 1 .....................................................
1
D rafter II .........................................................................
Engineering technicians 1 ...........................................
File clerks I I I ....................................................................
Key entry operators II ................................................
Personnel clerks 1 ..........................................................
Stenographers, g e n eral..................................................
Typists I I ............................................................................

9 ,5 5 5
10 ,715
10,825
10,483
10,833
8 ,9 7 9
10,931
10,125

GS 3

8 ,9 9 8
(9 ,6 2 7 )

8 ,3 6 6
(8 ,9 5 2 )

8 ,6 4 5
(9 ,2 5 0 )

8 ,9 2 4
'(9 ,548 )

9 ,2 0 3
(9 ,8 4 6 )

9 ,4 8 2
(1 0 ,1 4 4 )

9,761
(1 0 ,4 4 2 )

10 ,0 4 0
(1 0 ,7 4 0 )

10,319
10,598
(1 1 ,0 3 8 ) (1 1 ,3 3 6 )

10,877
(1 1 ,6 3 4 )

A ccounting clerks I I I .....................................................
C o m p u ter operators 1 ..................................................
D rafters I I 1 .......................................................................
Engineering technicians I I ...........................................
Personnel clerk I I ............................................................
Secretaries 1 .......................................................................
Stenographers, senior ..................................................

11,367
9,198
12,835
12,690
10,683
10,354
12,458

GS 4

10,460
(1 1 ,1 9 3 )

9,391
(1 0 ,0 4 9 )

9 ,7 0 4
(1 0 ,3 8 4 )

10,017
(1 0 ,7 1 9 )

1 0 ,3 3 0
(1 1 ,0 5 4 )

10,643
(1 1 ,3 8 9 )

10 ,956
(1 1 ,7 2 4 )

11,269
(1 2 ,0 5 9 )

11 ,582
(1 2 ,3 9 4 )

11,895
(1 2 ,7 2 9 )

12,208
(1 3 ,0 6 4 )

Accounting clerks I V .....................................................
Accountants 1 .................................................................
Auditors 1 .........................................................................
Buyers 1 ..............................................................................
Chemists 1 .........................................................................
C om pu ter operators I I ..................................................
Drafters IV .......................................................................
Engineers 1 .........................................................................
Engineering technicians I I 1 ........................................
Personnel clerks III .......................................................
Secretaries I I ....................................................................

13,606
13,595
13,482
13,859
14,455
10,875
15,307
17,345
15,094
12,060
11,375

GS 5

11,935
(1 2 ,7 7 3 )

10,507
(1 1 ,2 4 3 )

10,857
(1 1 ,6 1 8 )

11 ,207
(1 1 ,9 9 3 )

11 ,557
(1 2 ,3 6 8 )

11 ,907
(1 2 ,7 4 3 )

12,257
(1 3 ,1 1 8 )

12 ,6 0 7
12,957
(1 3 ,4 9 3 ) (1 3 ,8 6 8 )

13 ,3 0 7
(1 4 ,2 4 3 )

13,657
(1 4 ,6 1 8 )

C om puter operators I I 1 ................................................
Personnel clerks IV .......................................................
Secretaries I I 1 .................................................................

12,013
14,298
12,861

GS 6

13,498
(1 4 ,4 4 5 )

11,712
(1 2 ,5 3 1 )

12 ,102
(1 2 ,9 4 9 )

12,492
(1 3 ,3 6 7 )

12 ,882
(1 3 ,7 8 5 )

13 ,272
(1 4 ,2 0 3 )

13 ,662
(1 4 ,6 2 1 )

14,052
14,442
(1 5 ,0 3 9 ) (1 5 ,4 5 7 )

14 ,832
(1 5 ,8 7 5 )

15,222
(1 6 ,2 9 3 )

See fo o tn o te s a t end o f ta b le .




T a b le D-1.

C o m p a riso n o f average annual salaries in private industry w ith salary rates fo r Federal em ployees under the General Schedule— C o n tin u e d

Occupation and level
surveyed by B LS 1

Average
annual
salary
in private
industry,3
March 1979

Salary rates fo r Federal employees under th e General Schedule, March 1 9 7 9 and October 1 9 7 9 3

Grade4

Average,5
March 19 79
and
October
1979

Step6
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Accountants II ................................................................
Auditors I I ..........................................................................
Buyers I I ............................................................................
Chemists II .......................................................................
C om pu ter operators I V ................................................
D rafters V ..........................................................................
Engineers I I .......................................................................
Engineering technicians I V ...........................................
Job analysts I I ..................................................................
Personnel clerks V ..........................................................
Public accountants 1........................................................
Secretaries I V ....................................................................

$ 1 6 ,7 0 6
16 ,493
17 ,107
17,365
14,921
19,269
19 ,026
17 ,624
15 ,333
16,518
13 ,939
14,075

GS 7

$ 1 4 ,7 3 6
(1 5 ,7 6 6 )

$ 1 4 ,0 1 4
(1 3 ,9 2 5 )

$ 1 3 ,4 4 8
(1 4 ,3 8 9 )

$ 1 3 ,8 8 2
(1 4 ,8 5 3 )

$ 1 4 ,3 1 6
(1 5 ,3 1 7 )

$ 1 4 ,7 5 0
(1 5 ,7 8 1 )

$ 1 5 ,1 8 4 $ 1 5 ,6 1 8 $ 1 6 ,0 5 2
(1 6 ,2 4 5 ) (1 6 ,7 0 9 ) (1 7 ,1 7 3 )

$ 1 6 ,4 8 6
(1 7 ,6 3 7 )

$ 1 6 ,9 2 0
(1 8 ,1 0 1 )

C om pu ter operators V ...................................................
Secretaries V ....................................................................

16,975
15,693

GS 8

1 6 ,734
(1 7 ,9 0 7 )

14 ,4 1 4
(1 5 ,4 2 3 )

14 ,8 9 4
(1 5 ,3 9 7 )

15,374
(1 6 ,4 5 1 )

1 5 ,8 5 4
(1 6 ,9 6 5 )

16 ,334
(1 7 ,4 7 9 )

1 6 ,8 1 4
(1 7 ,9 9 3 )

1 7 ,294
(1 8 ,5 0 7 )

1 7 ,7 7 4
(1 9 ,0 2 1 )

1 8 ,2 5 4
(1 9 ,5 3 5 )

18 ,734
(2 0 ,0 4 9 )

Accountants I I I ...............................................................
A ttorneys 1 . ....................................................................
A uditors I I I .......................................................................
Buyers III ..........................................................................
Chemists I I 1 .......................................................................
Engineers III .....................................................................
Engineering technicians V ...........................................
Job analysts III ...............................................................
Public accountants I I ................................. ...................

19,468
18 ,740
2 0 ,3 0 3
2 1 ,2 0 0
2 1 ,0 2 5
21,931
2 0 ,2 2 2
20 ,1 0 6
15,817

GS 9

17 ,869
(1 9 ,1 1 9 )

1 5 ,9 2 0
(1 7 ,0 3 5 )

16,451
(1 7 ,6 0 3 )

16 ,982
(1 8 ,1 7 1 )

17 ,513
(1 8 ,7 3 9 )

18 ,044
(1 9 ,3 0 7 )

18,575
(1 9 ,8 7 5 )

19 ,106
(2 0 ,4 4 3 )

19,637
(2 1 ,0 1 1 )

2 0 ,1 6 8
(2 1 ,5 7 9 )

20 ,699
(2 2 ,1 4 7 )

Accountants I V ...............................................................
A ttorneys I I .......................................................................
A uditors I V .......................................................................
Buyers I V ............................................................................
Chemists I V .......................................................................
C hief accountants 1 ........................................................
Directors o f personnel 1 ................................................
Engineers IV ....................................................................
Job analysts IV ...............................................................
Public accountants I I I ....................................................

2 4 ,0 4 5
2 3 ,4 6 8
2 4 ,7 0 0
2 5 ,5 0 6
2 5 ,459
2 5 ,4 5 7
2 2 ,9 9 6
25 ,989
24 ,231
1 9 ,174

GS11

2 1 ,6 9 7
(2 3 ,2 1 5 )

19,263
(2 0 ,6 1 1 )

20 ,5 4 7
1 9 ,9 0 5
(2 1 ,2 9 8 ) (2 1 ,9 8 5 )

2 1 ,1 8 9
(2 2 ,6 7 2 )

21,831
(2 3 ,3 5 9 )

2 2 ,4 7 3
(2 4 ,0 4 6 )

2 3 ,1 1 5
(2 4 ,7 3 3 )

2 3 ,7 5 7
(2 5 ,4 2 0 )

2 4 ,3 9 9
(2 6 ,1 0 7 )

25,041
(2 6 ,7 9 4 )

Accountants V ..................................................................
A ttorneys I I I ...........................................................................
Chemists V ................................................................................
C hief accountants I I ........................................................
Directors o f personnel I I ..............................................
Engineers V ..............................................................................
Public accountants I V ...................................................

2 9 ,7 4 4
29 ,644
3 0 ,8 2 8
2 9 ,6 0 4
27,981
3 0 ,4 7 2
2 4 ,1 8 3

GS 12

2 6 ,1 5 6
(2 7 ,9 8 4 )

2 3 ,0 8 7
(2 4 ,7 0 3 )

2 3 ,857
24 ,627
(2 5 ,5 2 6 ) (2 6 ,3 4 9 )

2 5 ,3 9 7
(2 7 ,1 7 2 )

2 6 ,1 6 7
(2 7 ,9 9 5 )

2 6 ,9 3 7
(2 8 ,8 1 8 )

27 ,7 0 7
2 8 ,4 7 7
(2 9 ,6 4 1 ) (3 0 ,4 6 4 )

29 ,247
(3 1 ,2 8 7 )

30,017
(3 2 ,1 1 0 )

See fo o tn o te s a t end o f ta b le .




T ab le D-1.

C om pa riso n o f average annual salaries in private industry w ith salary rates fo r Federal em ployees under the General Schedule— C o n tin u e d

Average
annual
salary
in private
industry,3
March 1979

Occupation and level
surveyed by B L S 1

Salary rates fo r Federal employees under the General Schedule, March 1 9 7 9 and October 1 9 7 9 3

Grade4

Average, s
March 19 79
and
October
19 79

Step6
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

A ttorneys I V ....................................................................
Chemists V I .......................................................................
C hief accountants I I I .....................................................
Directors o f personnel I I I .............................................
Engineers V I ....................................................................

$3 7,80 7
35 ,232
36,561
3 4 ,2 8 5
34,801

GS 13

$ 3 1 ,4 4 0
(3 3 ,6 4 1 )

$ 2 7 ,4 5 3
(2 9 ,3 7 5 )

$ 2 8 ,3 6 8
(3 0 ,3 5 4 )

$ 2 9 ,2 8 3
(3 1 ,3 3 3 )

$ 3 0 ,1 9 8
(3 2 ,3 1 2 )

$ 3 1,11 3
(3 3 ,2 9 1 )

$ 3 2 ,0 2 8
(3 4 ,2 7 0 )

$3 2,94 3
(3 5 ,2 4 9 )

$ 3 3 ,8 5 8
(3 6 ,2 2 8 )

$3 4,77 3
(3 7,20 7)

$3 5,68 8
(3 8,18 6)

A ttorneys V ......................................................................
Chemists V I I ....................................................................
C hief accountants I V .....................................................
Directors of personnel I V .............................................
Engineers V I I ....................................................................

4 5 ,5 9 9
42,016
4 5 ,2 7 4
4 3 ,9 3 3
3 9 ,3 4 0

GS 14

3 7 ,1 1 2
(3 9 ,7 1 1 )

3 2 ,4 4 2
(3 4 ,7 1 3 )

3 3 ,5 2 3
(3 5 ,8 7 0 )

3 4 ,6 0 4
(3 7 ,0 2 7 )

3 5 ,6 8 5
(3 8 ,1 8 4 )

3 6 ,7 6 6
(3 9 ,3 4 1 )

3 7 ,8 4 7
(4 0 ,4 9 8 )

3 8 ,9 2 8
(4 1 ,6 5 5 )

4 0 ,0 0 9
(4 2 ,8 1 2 )

4 1 ,0 9 0
(4 3,96 9)

42,171
(4 5 ,1 2 6 )

A ttorneys V I ....................................................................
Chemists V I I I ....................................................................
Engineers V I I I .................................................................

56 ,964
48,961
45,221

GS 1 5 7

4 3 ,9 4 8
(4 6 ,8 8 7 )

3 8 ,1 6 0
(4 0 ,8 3 2 )

3 9 ,4 3 2
(4 2 ,1 9 3 )

4 0 ,7 0 4
(4 3 ,5 5 4 )

4 1 ,9 7 6
(4 4 ,9 1 5 )

4 3 ,2 4 8
(4 6 ,2 7 6 )

4 4 ,5 2 0
(4 7 ,6 3 7 )

4 5 ,7 9 2
(4 8 ,9 9 8 )

4 7 ,0 6 4
(5 0 ,3 5 9 )

4 8 ,336
(5 1 ,7 2 0 )

4 9 ,6 0 8
(5 3 ,0 8 1 )

1 For definitions, see appendix C.
3 Survey findings, as summarized in table 1 of this bulletin. For scope o f survey, see
appendix A.
3 General Schedule rates in effect in March 1979, the reference date o f the P A TC survey,
are shown on th e first line fo r each grade. Rates as adjusted in October 1 9 7 9 are shown in
parentheses.
4 Corresponding grades in the General Schedule were supplied by the O ffice o f Personnel
Managem ent.
5 Mean salary o f all General Schedule employees in each grade as o f March 31 , 1979. N o t
lim ited to Federal em ployees In occupations surveyed by BLS. October 19 79 averages
are shown in parentheses.




6
Section 5 3 3 5 of title 5 o f the U.S. Code provides fo r within-grade increases on
condition th at the employee's w ork is of an acceptable level o f competence as defined by
the head o f the agency. For employees who m eet this condition, the service requirements
are 52 calendar weeks each fo r advancement to salary rates 2, 3, and 4; 104 weeks each for
advancement to salary rates 5, 6 , and 7; and 156 weeks each fo r advancement to salary rates
8, 9, and 10. Section 5336 provides th at an additional within-grade increase may be granted
w ithin any period o f 52 weeks in recognition o f high quality performance above that
ordinarily found in the type o f position concerned.
7The rate o f pay fo r employees at some steps is lim ited by section 5308 o f title 5 of the
U.S. Code to the rate fo r level V o f the Executive Schedule.

Under Section 5303 of title 5 of the U.S. Code, higher minimum rates (but not exceeding the
maximum salary rate prescribed in the General Schedule for the grade or level) and a corresponding
new salary range may be established for positions or occupations under certain conditions. The
conditions include a finding that the Government’s recruitment or retention of well qualified
persons is significantly handicapped because the salary rates in private industry are substantially
above the salary rates of the statutory pay schedules. As of March 1979, special, higher salary ranges
were authorized for professional engineers at the entry grades (GS-5 and GS-7), and at GS-9.
Information on special salary rates, including the occupations and the areas to which they apply,
may be obtained from the Office of Personnel Management, Washington, D.C. 20415, or its regional
offices.




24 Hour CPI Mailgram Service
Consumer Price Index data now are available by mailgram within 24 hours of the CPI release. The new service
is being offered by the Bureau of Labor Statistics through
the National Technical Information Service of the U.S.
Department of Commerce.
The CPI MAILGRAM service provides unadjusted and
seasonally adjusted data both for the All Urban Consumers

C O N SU M E R

P R I C E

A V ER A GE

I N D E X

( 1 9 6 7

FOR

ALL

URBAN

(CPI-U) and for the Urban Wage Earners and Clerical
Workers (CPI-W) Indexes as shown on the CPI-U sample
page below. The unadjusted data include the current
month’s index and the percent changes from 12 months
ago and one month ago. The seasonally adjusted data are
the percent changes from one month ago.

C O N S U M E R S

( C P I - U ) :

U N AD J
GROUP

I N D E X
MAY
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A D J U S T E D .

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Characteristics of
Major Collective
Bargaining
Agreements,
July 1,1976
For the labor relations practitioner and student—
A handy statistical reference on 1570 of the largest col­
lective bargaining agreements in the United States.
More than 80 tables dealing with agreement
characteristics:
• Union security, management rights, and related
provisions
• Wages and wage-related clauses
• Hours, overtime, and premium pay
• Paid and unpaid leave
• Seniority and seniority-related provisions
• Job security arrangements

m

• Dispute settlement procedures
All data are derived from a broad review of agreements
currently on file with the Bureau of Labor Statistics
covering at least 1,000 workers and in effect on July 1,
1976, or later.
Bulletin 2013 reports the results of negotiations
involving some of the largest companies and unions in
the United States.

Fill out and mail this coupon to
BLS Regional Office nearest you or
Superintendent of Documents,
U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, D.C. 20402.
Make checks payable to
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Please s e n d __________copies of Characteristics of Major Collective Bargaining
Agreements, July 1, 1976, Bulletin 2013 N o.029-001-22086-7, price $2.75.
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N a m e ___________________________________________________________________
A d d r e s s ____________________________________________ ____________________
City, State, and Zip Code ______________________________ ____________________

*

U.

S.

GOVERNMENT P R IN T IN G O F F IC E

:

1979

0 -

303-1+32

Bureau of Labor Statistics
Regional Offices

Region I

1603 JFK Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass 02203
Phone: (617) 223-6761

Region IV

1371 Peachtree Street, NE.
Atlanta. Ga 30309
Phone: (404) 881-4418
Region V

Region II

Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York, N Y 10036
Phone: (212) 944-3121
Region III

3535 Market Street
P O Box 13309
Philadelphia. Pa 19101
Phone: (215) 596-1154




9th Floor
Federal Office Building
230 S Dearborn Street
Chicago. III. 60604
Phone: (312) 353-1880

Regions VII and VIII*

911 Walnut Street
Kansas City, Mo 64106
Phone: (816) 374-2481
Regions IX and X**

450 Golden Gate Avenue
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: (415) 556-4678

Region VI

Second Floor
555 Griffin Square Building
Dallas. Tex 75202
Phone: (214) 767-6971

* Regions VII and VIII are serviced
by Kansas City
“ Regions IX and X are serviced
by San Francisco


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102