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rDe?G>y

t3 T
g

National Survey of
Professional, Administrative,
Technical, and Clerical Pay,
March 1978
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
1978
Bulletin 2004

V

5




National Survey of
Professional, Administrative,
Technical, and Clerical Pay,
March 1978
U.S. Department of Labor,
Ray Marshall, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Julius Shiskin, Commissioner

October 1978
Bulletin 2004




For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402
Stock Number 029-001-02243-3




Preface
This bulletin summarizes the
administrative, technical, and
information, relating to March
industries throughout the United

results o f the Bureau’ s annual salary survey o f selected professional,
clerical occupations in private industry. The nationwide salary
1978, is representative o f establishments in a broad spectrum o f
States, except Alaska and Hawaii.

The results o f this survey are used for a number o f purposes, including general economic analysis and
wage and salary administration by private and public employers. One important use is to provide the
basis for setting Federal white-collar salaries under the provisions o f the Federal Pay Comparability Act
o f 1970. Under this act, the President has designated the Secretary o f Labor, the Director o f the Office
o f Management and Budget, and the Chairman o f the U.S. Civil Service Commission to serve jointly as
his agent for the purpose o f setting pay for Federal white-collar employees. The agent is responsible for
translating the survey findings into recommendations to the President as to the appropriate adjustments
needed in Federal pay rates to make them comparable with private enterprise pay rates for the same
levels o f work. The President’s agent also determines the industrial, geographic, establishment-size, and
occupational coverage o f the survey. The role o f the Bureau o f Labor Statistics in the pay-setting process
is limited to conducting the survey and advising on the feasibility o f proposed survey changes. It should
be emphasized that this survey, like any other salary survey, does not provide mechanical answers to pay
policy questions.
The occupations studied span a wide range o f duties and responsibilities. The occupations selected
were judged to be (a) surveyable in industry within the framework o f a broad survey design, (b )
representative o f occupational groups which are numerically important in industry as well as in the
Federal service, and (c) essentially o f the same nature in both the Federal and private sectors.
Occupational definitions used in the collection o f the salary data (appendix C) reflect duties and
responsibilities in private industry; however, they are also designed to be translatable to specific General
Schedule grades applying to Federal employees. Thus, the definitions o f some occupations and work
levels were limited to specific elements that could be classified uniformly among establishments. The
Bureau o f Labor Statistics and the Civil Service Commission worked jointly in the preparation o f the
definitions. The Civil Service Commission is responsible for ensuring that each work level definition
incorporates the work characteristics necessary to determine a specific grade under the General
Schedule; BLS’ primary concern is that the definitions are in terms readily recognizable in private
enterprise.
The survey could not have been conducted without the cooperation o f the many firms whose salary
data provide the basis for the statistical information presented in this bulletin. The Bureau, on its own
behalf and on behalf o f the other Federal agencies that aided in planning the survey, wishes to express
appreciation for the cooperation it has received.
This study was conducted in the Bureau’ s Office o f Wages and Industrial Relations by the Division o f
Occupational Wage Structures. The analysis in this bulletin was prepared by Philip M. Doyle and Felice
Porter. Field work for the survey was directed by the Bureau’s Assistant Regional Commissioners for
Operations. Material in this publication is in the public domain and may be reproduced without
permission o f the Federal Government. Please credit the Bureau o f Labor Statistics and cite National
Survey o f Professional, Administrative, Technical, and Clerical Pay, March 1978, Bulletin 2004.




in

Contents
Page
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................................
Characteristics o f the s u rv ey ........................................................................................................................................
Changes in salary levels ..............................................................................................................................................
Average salaries, March 1978 .....................................................................................................................................

1
1
1
3
6
7
7

Salary levels in metropolitan a rea s..................................................................
Salary levels in large establishm ents............................................................................................................................
Salary distributions ..................................................................................................................
Pay differences by in d u s t r y .................................................................................................................................. ... .

10

Average standard weekly hours

..................................................................................................................................

10

1. Percent increases in average salaries, 1961-78, by occupation and g r o u p .......................................................
2. Percent increases in average salaries, 1961-78, by work level c a t e g o r y ..........................................................

2
3
7

Text tables:

3. Distribution o f work levels by degree o f salary d is p e rs io n ............................................. ..............................
Reference tables:
Average salaries:
1. United States
.....................................................................................................................................
2. Metropolitan a r e a s ...............................................................................................................................
3. Establishments employing 2,500workers or m o r e ................................................................................

12
14
16

Employment distribution by salary:
4. Professional and administrativeoccu pation s.........................................................................................

lg

5. Technical support occupations.............................................................................................................

24

6 . Clerical o c c u p a tio n s ............................................................................................................................
7. Occupational employment distribution: By industry division ......................................................................
8 . Relative salary levels: Occupation by industry division ...............................................................................

26
28
29

9. Average weekly hours: Occupation by industry d iv is io n ............................................................................ .

30

Charts:
1. Increases in average salaries for selected occupational groups, 1961 to 1978 .................................................
2. Salaries in professional and technical occupations, March 1978 ...................................................................
3. Salaries in administrative and clerical occupations, March 1978 ...................................................................
4. Relative employment in selected occupational groups by industry division, March 1978

...........................

Appendixes:
A. Scope and method o f s u r v e y .........................................................................................................................
B. Survey changes in 1978
C. Occupational d e fin itio n s ....................

4
8
9
1\

3\
35
35

D. Comparison o f salaries in private industry with salaries o f Federal employees
under the General S ch ed u le......................................................................................................................




IV

62

Professional, Administrative, Technical, and Clerical Pay, March 1978

from one for messengers to eight each for chemists and
engineers. Most occupations have more than one work level;
some occupations are purposely defined, however, to cover
specific bands o f levels which are not intended to represent

Sum m ary

Average salaries o f workers in the occupations covered
by this survey rose 7.9 percent from March 1977 to March
1978, the second largest annual increase recorded since the
survey began in 1960. Increases for 8 o f the 12 profes­
sional, administrative, and technical support occupations
surveyed ranged from 7.8 to 9.1 percent; the average

all workers in those occupations.
The survey is designed to permit separate presentation o f
data for metropolitan areas. These include the 276 Stand­
ard Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States,

increase was 8.3 percent. The average o f the increases for
the clerical occupations surveyed was 7.4 percent; the
increases ranged from 6.0 to 9.7 percent.1

except Alaska and Hawaii, as revised through June 1977 by
the U.S. Office o f Management and Budget. Establishments

Average monthly salaries for the 78 occupational levels
varied from $552 for clerks engaged in routine filing to

workers and nine-tenths o f the professional, administrative,
clerical, and supervisory employees within the scope o f the

in metropolitan areas employed over four-fifths o f all the

$4,317 for the highest level in the attorney series. For most
o f the occupations, salary levels in metropolitan areas and
in large establishments were higher than the average for all
establishments within the full scope o f the survey. Salary
levels and reported average standard weekly hours were
generally lower in finance industries than in other major

survey. Nine-tenths o f the employees in the occupations
chosen for study were employed in metropolitan areas.
Selected occupations included more than 1,533,000
employees, or almost one-fifth o f the estimated employ­
ment in professional, administrative, clerical, and related
occupations in establishments within the scope o f the
survey. Employment in the occupations varied widely,
reflecting not only actual differences among occupations,
but also differences in the range o f duties and responsi­
bilities covered by the occupational definitions. Among

industry divisions represented in the survey.

Characteristics o f the survey

professional and administrative occupations, the eight levels
o f engineers included 381,811 employees, whereas each o f

This survey, the 19th in an annual series, provides
nationwide salary averages and distributions for 78 work

three other occupational categories (chief accountants, job
analysts, and directors o f personnel) included fewer than
4,000 employees. Accounting clerks and secretaries made
up nearly three-fifths o f the 729,720 employees in the

level categories covering 19 occupations. It relates to
establishments in all areas o f the United States, except
Alaska and Hawaii, in the following industries: Mining;
construction; manufacturing; transportation, communica­
tions, electric, gas, and sanitary services; wholesale trade;
retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and selected
services. The minimum size o f the establishments surveyed
is either 100 or 250 employees depending on the industry.2
Occupational definitions in this study permit employees
to be classified by duties and responsibilities into appro­
priate work levels—designated by Roman numerals, with
level I as the lowest. Specific job factors determining
classification , however, vary from occupation to
occupation.

clerical occupations studied. Selected drafting occupations
had aggregate employment o f 77,498; five engineering
technician levels together had 90,778; and the six computer
operator levels, 57,356.
Although approximately one-half o f all employees in the
occupations studied were women, they were concentrated
in clerical positions. Women filled 90 percent or more o f
each level o f key entry, operators, secretaries, file clerks,
and typists. A percent distribution o f women employees by
occupation and work level is shown in appendix A.

The number o f work levels in each occupation ranges

R esu lts o f the March 1977 survey were presented in National
Survey o f Professional, Administrative, Technical, and Clerical Pay,
March 1977, Bulletin 1980 (Bureau o f Labor Statistics, 1977).

Changes in salary levels

Text table 1 presents increases in average salaries that

2For a full description o f the scope o f the 1978 survey, see
appendix A.




occurred between annual survey periods since 1961 for

1

T e x t table 1.

Percent increases in average salaries, 1961-78, by occupation and group
1961
to
1962

1962
to
1963

1963
to
1964

1964
to
1965

1965
to
1966

..........

2.9

3.0

3.1

3.1

3.3

Professional, adm inistrative, and
technical support2 ..............................
Accountants
................................
A uditors ........................................
Chief accountants .........................
A tto rneys .....................................
Buyers
..........................................
Job analysts
................................
D irectors of personnel ..................
Chemists ........................................
E n g in e e r s ........................................
-E n g in e e rin g technicians ...............
Drafters5 ........................................
....................
Com puter operators
C lerical2 ....................................................
A ccounting clerks .........................
File clerks .....................................
Key entry operators ....................
M e ss e n g e rs.....................................
Secretaries .....................................
S te n o g ra p h e rs.................................
T ypists ..........................................

3.0
2.8
2.9
2.6
3.2
(4 )
1.4
3.7
3.9
2.6
(4 )
3.2
<)
4
2.8
3.0
(3 )
(3 )
2.6
(4 )
(3)
2.5

3.3
3.3
3.6
2.8
4.6
(4 )
2.6
3.0
3.8
4.4
2.9
3.6
<)
4
2.6
2.5
2.6
2.5
2.8
(4 )
2.5
2.6

3.4
2.8
3.1
4.8
3.3
<)
4
3.5
4.6
3.3
2.9
3.6
2.6
(4 )
2.7
2.8
3.1
2.7
2.3
(4 )
2.4
2.6

3.7
3.5
3.9
3.9
4.2
(4 )
4.3
3.5
3.9
3.2
2.3
(3)
(4 )
2.4
2.2
t2.2
2.3
3.0
(4 )
2.3
2.5

3.6
3.8
3.8
3.3
4.0
(3)
5.4
3.6
4.8
3.7
2.8
1.5
<>
4
3.0
3.0
2.9
3.7
2.8
(4 )
2.9
2.6

1971
to
19 721

1972
to
1973

Occupation and group

A ll survey occupations2

1970
to
1971
A ll survey occupations2 ............
Professional, adm inistrative, and
technical support2 ................................
A c c o u n t a n t s .....................................
A uditors ..........................................
Chief accountants ...........................
A ttorneys ........................................
B u y e r s ................................................
Job analysts .....................................
Directors of personnel ....................
Chemists ..........................................
E n g in e e rs ..........................................
Engineering technicians .................
Drafters5 ..........................................
Com puter o p e r a t o r s .........................
Clerical2 .......................................................
Accounting clerks ...........................
File clerks ........................................
Key entry operators
......................
M e ss e n g e rs........................................
Secretaries
.....................................
Stenographers
................................
T ypists .............................................

1968
to
1969

1969
to
1970

4.5

5.4

5.7

6.2

4.2
4.6
4.8
5.1
3.2
4.2
3.4
3.8
4.4
4.3
3.7
3.5
(4 )
4.8
3.3
5.1
5.2
5.4
(3)
4.6
5.4

5.5
5.7
5.5
5.5
5.3
4.9
7.0
5.4
5.1
5.4
5.1
5.3
(4 )
5.3
4.7
6.8
4.9
6.2
4.6
4.9
5.8

5.8
7.0
7.2
5.8
(3)
6.6
2.1
5.4
6.5
6.2
5.8
5.8
(4 )
5.5
4.7
5.5
5.3
6.7
5.3
5.9
5.7

6.2
6.7
7.0
n 7.1
7.1
6.1
4.1
7.4
5.9
5.5
6.3
4.9
(4 )
6.2
6.2
5.5
6.4
6.3
6.4
5.8
6.0

1973
to
1974

1974
to
1975

1975
to
1976

1976
to
1977

1977
to
1978

6.6

5.8

5.4

6.4

9.0

7.0

6.9

7.9

6.7
6.7
7.0
9.1
5.0
7.0
7.7
8.0
5.5
5.7
6.5
5.6
(4 )
6.5
6.0
6.1
7.0
6.7
6.6
7.5
6.1

5.5
5.6
5.5
3.9
6.1
6.3
6.8
3.9
5.1
5.2
5.1
7.2
(4 )
6.1
6.0
5.5
6.8
6.3
6.1
6.4
5.7

5.4
4.9
5.2
5.8
6.3
5.0
5.2
7.5
3.7
5.1
4.7
6.2
(4 )
5.4
4.6
5.9
5.4
5.1
5.1
5.2
4.0

6.3
6.1
5.2
7.2
5.8
6.0
6.1
7.2
7.1
5.4
6.0
6.7
(3)
6.4
6.9
5.4
7.3
5.6
(3)
6.5
6.7

8.3
9.8
6.8
8.6
7.6
9.2
7.5
6.1
10.1
8.4
9.0
8.0
(4 )
9.6
7.7
9.6
9.9
10.1
(4 )
11.6
9.9

6.7
6.4
5.5
6.6
6.1
6.7
6.0
7.8
6.6
6.8
8.1
7.4
(3 )
7.3
7.2
6.4
7.6
7.4
(3 )
8.0
7.1

7.1
7.8
6.8
10.5
5.4
7.0
6.5
9.1
7.0

8.3
8.3
8.2
8.0
9.1
7.8
7.2
10.0
9.0
9.0
7.1
7.1
8.5
7.4
6.2
9.7
7.1
6.0
6.5
8.2
8.0

Survey data did not represent a 12-month period
due to change in survey timing. Data have been prorated
to represent a 12-month interval.
2 Data for 1 administrative occupation (managers
of office services, last surveyed in 1968), 1 clerical super­
visory occupation (keypunch supervisors, surveyed from
1970 to 1976), and 3 clerical occupations (bookkeepingmachine operators, last surveyed in 1964, and switch­
board operators and tabulating-machine operators, last




1967
1966
to
to
19 6 7 1 1968

,.6 .4

7.2
6.0
5.4
6.6
6.9
5.5
5.9
7.5
6.4
7.9
6.2

survey in 1970), not shown above, are included in the allsurvey and the broad occupational group averages for the
periods during which they were surveyed.
^ Comparable data not available for both years.
N ot surveyed.
Includes drafter-tracers.
NOTE:

2

For method of computation, see Appendix A.

each survey occupation.3 Also shown are average percent
changes for the two broad occupational groups covered by
the survey (the professional, administrative, and technical
support group; and the clerical group) and the average
percent change for the two groups combined.
The 7.9-percent increase in white-collar salaries in the
year ending March 1978 was the second largest recorded

T e x t table 2.

G roup C
(GS grades
11-15)

2.8
2.7
2.7
2.2
2.9
4.5
5.1
5.5
6.2

2.6
4.0
2.6
3.3
3.7
4.8
5.8
6.5
6.3

3.5
3.7
3.5
4.2
4.2
4.1
4.7
5.9
6.4

1976 71 . . . .
1971-721 . . .
1972-73 ____
1973-74 ____
1974-75 ____
1975-76 . . . .
1 9 7 6 7 7 ____
1977-78 ____

6.2
6.3
5.5
6.2
9.1
7.6
6.9
7.5

6.3
5.2
4.4
5.7
8.6
6.4
6.3
8.0

6.2
5.6
5.7
6.2
8.8
6.5
7.7
8.8

1961-78 ____

support occupations were up 8.3 percent. For the second

dominant in the early years o f the survey (1962-71) but
was reversed for 1973-76.
surveyed, the smallest

increases were for messengers, at 6.0 percent, and account­
ing clerks, at 6.2 percent. Showing the largest increases
were directors o f personnel, at 10.0 percent, and file clerks,
at 9.7 percent.
To show changes in salaries since 1961 for different
levels o f work, occupational classifications were grouped
into three broad categories based on the Federal whitecollar grading system (text table 2). Group A contains
survey classifications which equate to grades 1-4 o f the

139.4

141.0

153.2

1 Actual survey-to-survey increases have been prorated to a 12m onth period.
N O T E : For m ethod of com putation, see appendix A. For detail
on GS grades, see appendix D.

General Schedule; group B covers GS grades 5-10; and
group C, grades 11-15. (See appendix D, table D -l, for a
listing o f survey classifications that equate to each GS
grade.)
Average salaries increased more for the higher occupa­

professional and administrative group averaged 5.1 percent
over the 17-year period—less than the increases for the
technical support and clerical groups, both 5.3 percent; and
the experienced professional and administrative group, 5.6
percent.5

tional levels (group C) than for the two lower groups from
1961 through 1966, except for 1962-63. Between 1966 and
1969, however, the middle occupational levels (group B)
showed larger annual increases than did the lower or higher
levels. Between 1969 and 1971, the increases for all three

Average salaries, March 1978

groups were nearly identical, but since 1971, the middle
group has trailed the other two. Although salaries o f
occupational levels in group C show the largest cumulative
increase over the entire 1961-78 period, groups A and C
have increased in almost the same proportion between 1971

Average monthly salaries for the occupations studied
(table 1) ranged from $552 for file clerks I to $4,317 for
the top level o f attorneys. These extremes reflect the wide
range o f duties and responsibilities represented by the work
levels surveyed. Average salaries for workers in the various
occupational levels and a brief indication o f the duties and

and 1978—60.6 percent and 60.9 percent, respectively.
Another method o f examining salary trends is to
combine the data into the four occupational groups shown
in chart 1. Increases from 1977 to 1978 amounted to 8.8

4Work levels used to compute 1977-78 increases were: Clerical all clerical levels; technical support - all levels o f drafters,
engineering technicians, and computer operators; entry and develop­
mental professional and administrative - accountants I and II,
auditors I and II, attorneys I, job analysts II, chemists I and II, and
engineers I and II; experienced professional and administrative accountants III, IV , and V, auditors III and IV, chief accountants I,
II, III, and IV , attorneys II, III, IV, V, and VI, job analysts III and
IV, directors o f personnel I, II, III, and IV, chemists III, IV , V, V I,
VII, and V III, and engineers III, IV , V, V I, V II, and V III.
A few survey levels, not readily identifiable with any o f the four
occupational categories, were not used.
5Survey data for 1966-67 and 1971-72 did not represent a
12-month period due to changes in survey timing. Increases for
these years have been prorated to represent a 12-month period.

percent for the experienced professional and administrative
group; 7.7 percent for the entry and developmental
professional and administrative group; 8.0 percent for the
technical support group; and 7.5 percent for the clerical
group .4 For the first time since 1969, the clerical group
recorded the smallest percent change.
Increases in salaries for the entry and developmental

begin ning in 1965, data are for establishments in metropolitan
areas and nonmetropolitan counties; before 1965, data are for
metropolitan areas only. Establishments employing fewer than 250
workers were excluded before 1966.




G roup B
(GS grades
5-10)

1961-62 ____
1962-63 ____
1963-64 ____
1964-65 ____
1965-66 ____
1966-671 . . .
1967-68 ____
1968-69 ____
1969-70 . . . .

consecutive year, the rate o f increase for professional,
administrative, and technical support jobs exceeded the rate
o f increase for clerical jobs. This relationship was pre­

19 occupations

G roup A
(GS grades
1-4)

Period

since the series began. Clerical salaries were up 7.4 percent;
salaries o f the professional, administrative, and technical

Among the

Percent increases in average salaries, 1961-78,

by w ork level category

3

Chart 1. Increases in average salaries for selected occupational groups, 1961 to 1978
Percent increase
8 —

8

Entry and developmental professional and
administrative

6

---

8

---

6

---

8

---

6

---

Technical support

Clerical

Mean
increase
1961
to
1978

Mean
increase
1961
to
1966

Mean
increase
1966
to
1971

1971
to 1
1972

1973
to
1974

1972
to
1973

1 Data were adjusted to a 12-month period.




4

1974
to
1975

1975
to
1976

1976
to
1977

1977
to
1978

responsibilities these levels represent are summarized in the
following paragraphs.6
Among the five levels o f accountants surveyed, average
monthly salaries ranged from $1,065 for accountants I to
$2,275 for accountants V. Auditors in the four levels
defined for survey had average salaries ranging from $1,104
a month for auditors I to $ 1,924 for auditors IV . Level I in
both the accounting and auditing series included trainees
who had bachelor’ s degrees in accounting or the equivalent
in education and experience combined. For level III, the
most heavily populated group in both series, monthly
salaries averaged $1,510 for accountants and $1,563 for
auditors. Sixty-two percent o f the accountants and 38
percent o f the auditors were employed in manufacturing
industries. Large numbers o f auditors were also employed in
the finance, insurance, and real estate industries (34
percent) and in public utilities (15 percent).7
C h ie f a c c o u n ta n t s - su rveyed
separately from
accountants—include those who develop or adapt and direct
the accounting program for a company or an establishment
(plant) o f a company. Classification levels are determined
by the extent o f delegated authority and responsibility, the
technical complexity o f the accounting system, and, to a
lesser degree, the size o f the professional staff directed.
Chief accountants at level I, who have authority to adapt
the accounting system established at higher levels to meet
the needs o f an establishment with relatively few and stable
functions and work processes (directing one or two
accountants), averaged $1,963 a month. Chief accountants
IV ,8 who have authority to establish and maintain the

manufacturing industries employed about one-fourth, and
public utilities, one-sixth.9
Buyers averaged $1,074 a month at level I, which
includes those who purchase “ off-the-shelf’ and readily
available items and services from local sources. Buyers IV,
who purchase large amounts o f highly complex and
technical items, materials, or services, averaged $1,988 a
month. Manufacturing industries employed 82 percent o f
the buyers in the four levels.
In the personnel management field, four work levels o f
job analysts and five levels o f directors o f personnel were
studied.10 Job analysts II, the lowest level for which data
could be presented, averaged $1,170 compared with $1,885
for job analysts IV , who, under general supervision, analyze
and evaluate a variety o f the more difficult jobs and who
may participate in the development and installation o f
evaluation or compensation systems. Directors o f personnel
are limited by definition to those who have programs that
include, at a minimum, responsibility for administering a
job evaluation system, employment and placement func­
tions, and employee relations and services. Those who are
principal company representatives in contract negotiations
with labor unions are excluded. Provisions are made in the
definition for weighting various combinations o f duties and
responsibilities to determine the level. Among personnel
directors, average monthly salaries ranged from $1,736 for
level I to $3,403 for level IV .11 Manufacturing industries
employed 56 percent o f the job analysts and 73 percent o f
the directors o f personnel included in the study; the

a company with numerous and varied functions and work

finance, insurance, and real estate industries ranked next
with 29 percent o f the job analysts and 11 percent o f the
directors o f personnel.

processes (directing as many as 40 accountants), averaged
$3,325 a month. Over two-thirds o f the chief accountants

Chemists and engineers each are surveyed in eight levels.
Both series start with a professional trainee level, typically

who met the requirements o f the definitions for these four
levels were employed in manufacturing industries.

requiring a B.S. degree. The highest level surveyed involves

accounting program, subject togeneralpolicy guidelines, for

Attorneys are classified into survey levels based upon the
difficulty o f their assignments and their responsibilities.
Attorneys I, who include new law graduates with bar
membership and those performing work that is relatively
uncomplicated due to clearly applicable precedents and
well-established facts, averaged $1,474 a month. Attorneys
in the top level surveyed, level V I, averaged $4,317 a
month. These higher level attorneys deal with legal matters
o f major importance to their organization, and are usually
subordinate only to the general counsel or an immediate

either full responsibility over a very broad and highly
complex and diversified engineering or chemical program,

deputy in very large firms. Finance, insurance, and real

with several subordinates each directing large and important
segments o f the program, or individual research and
consultation in difficult problem areas where the chemist or
engineer is a recognized authority and where solutions
would represent a major scientific or technological
advance.12 Average monthly salaries ranged from $1,124
for chemists I to $3,930 for chemists V III, and from
$1,327 for engineers I to $3,509 for engineers V III.
Although at level I the average salaries o f engineers
exceeded those o f chemists by 18 percent, the salary

estate industries employed almost one-half o f the attorneys,

advantage o f engineers over chemists decreased steadily

Classification o f employees in the occupations and work levels
surveyed is based on factors detailed in the definitions in appendix
C.
Establishments primarily engaged in providing accounting and
auditing services are excluded from the survey.
8Although chief accountants V, directors o f personnel V, and
job analysts I were surveyed, as defined in appendix C, too few
establishments reported employees meeting requirements for these
levels to warrant presentation o f salary figures.




5

with each level, until at levels IV and V the average salaries
for both occupations were nearly equal, and at level V III
9The survey excludes establishments primarily offering legal
advice or legal services.
1 °See footnote 8.
11See footnote 8.
12
It is recognized in the definition that top positions o f some
companies with unusually extensive and complex engineering or
chemical programs are above that level.

the average salaries for chemists exceeded those for
engineers by 12 percent.
Level IV represents the largest group in each series; it

Computer operators, surveyed in six levels, are classified
on the basis o f responsibility for solving problems and
correcting equipment malfunctions, the degree o f var­

includes professional employees who are fully competent in

industries accounted for 91 percent o f all chemists and 74

iability o f their assignments, and the relative level o f
sophistication o f the equipment they operate. Computer
operators I whose work assignments consist o f on-the-job
training averaged $712 a month. Computer operators III,
the largest group surveyed, averaged $939. A t the highest

percent o f all engineers; the selected services, 6 and 13

level, computer operator V I, the average monthly salary

percent; and public utilities, 2 and 8 percent, respectively.
By definition, the five-level series for engineering

was $1,514; less than 2 percent o f the operators, however,

technicians

operators (keypunch operators) were distributed by in­
dustry in approximately similar proportions. Nearly two-

all technical aspects o f their assignments, work with
considerable independence, and, in some cases, supervise a
few professional and technical workers. Manufacturing

is limited

to

employees

providing

were at this level. Computer operators and key entry

semi-

professional technical support to engineers engaged in areas
such as research, design, development, testing, or manu­
facturing process improvement, and whose work pertains to
electrical, electronic, or mechanical components or equip­
ment. Technicians engaged primarily in production or
maintenance work are excluded. Engineering technicians I,
who perform simple routine tasks under close supervision
or from detailed procedures, averaged $872 a month.

fifths were employed in manufacturing, over one-fifth in
finance, insurance, and real estate, and one-tenth in both
public utilities and selected services.
Among the survey’s seven clerical jobs, secretary was the
most heavily populated. Average monthly salaries for
secretaries ranged from $817 at level I to $ 1,202 at level V.
Average salaries o f $819 and $918 were reported for
general and senior stenographers; $724 and $916 for
accounting clerks I and II; and $648 and $773 for the two

Engineering technicians V, the highest level surveyed,
averaged $1,559 a month. That level includes fully ex­
perienced technicians performing more complex assign­

levels o f typists. In 13 o f the 17 clerical work levels,
employment in manufacturing exceeded that in any o f the
nonmanufacturing divisions within the scope o f the survey;
highest employment totals in the other four levels were in
the finance, insurance, and real estate division. Women

ments involving responsibility for planning and conducting
a complete project o f relatively limited scope, or a portion
o f a larger and more diverse project in accordance with
objectives, requirements, and design approaches as outlined
by the supervisor or a professional engineer. Salaries for

constituted 90 percent or more o f the employees in 14 o f
the clerical work levels; men constituted more than one-half
in only 1 (messengers).

intermediate levels III and IV , at which a majority o f the
technicians surveyed are classified, averaged $1,172 and
$1,359, respectively. As might be expected, most o f the
percent) and in the selected services studied (14 percent),

Median monthly salaries (the amount below and above
which 50 percent o f the employees are found) for most
work levels were slightly lower than the weighted averages

with public utilities employing nearly all the rest (5

(means) cited above (i.e., salaries in the upper halves o f the

percent). Although the ratio o f such technicians to
engineers studied was about 1 to 4 in all manufacturing
industries, a ratio o f approximately 1 to 3 was found in

arrays affected averages more than salaries in the lower
halves). The mean was greater than the median by less than
2 percent for 34 o f the 78 work levels, from 2 to 4 percent
in 25 work levels, and from 4 to 6.5 percent in 17 levels. In

technicians as defined were employed in manufacturing (79

establishments manufacturing mechanical and electrical
equipment, 1 to 6 in public utilities, and 1 to 2 in research,

only two work levels, chemists I and computer operators
V I, was the median greater than the mean. The relative

development, and testing laboratories.
In the drafting field, the definitions used in the survey
cover four levels o f work—drafter-tracers, and drafters I, II,

difference between the mean and the median was generally
greater for the clerical work levels than for the professional,
administrative, and technical levels.

and III. Monthly salaries averaged $817 for drafter-tracers
and ranged from $937 to $1,408 among the three levels o f

Salary levels in m etropolitan areas

drafters. Drafter-tracers copy plans and drawings prepared
by others or prepare simple or repetitive drawings o f easily
visualized items. The three drafter levels, as defined, ranged

In most occupational levels, average salaries for em­

from employees preparing detail drawings o f single units or

ployees in metropolitan areas (table 2) were slightly higher

parts (level I) to those who, working in close support with

than average salaries for employees in all establishments

the design originator, plan the graphic presentation o f

within the full scope o f the survey (table 1). Only in 2 o f

complex items having distinctive design features, and either

the 78 work levels for which separate data could be

prepare or direct the preparation o f the drawings (level III).
The drafting employees were distributed by industry in

presented were average salaries more than 1.0 percent

about the same proportion as engineers, with 68 percent in

Employment in the survey occupations in metropolitan

manufacturing,

areas was about nine-tenths o f the

10 percent in public utilities, and

higher in metropolitan areas than in all areas combined.

14




total nationwide

employment reported in these occupations. The propor-

percent in the selected services studied.
6

Text table 3.

Distribution of work levels by degree of salary dispersion
Num ber of levels having degree of dispersion 1 o f—
Occupation

A ll occupations

Num ber
of
w ork
levels

Under
15
percent

15 and
under
20
percent

20 and
under
25
percent

25 and
under
30
percent

30
percent
and
over

22

22

7

.................................

78

1

26

A ccountants .......................................................
A udito rs
............................................................
Chief accountants .............................................
A tto rn e ys
..........................................................
..............................................................
Buyers
Job analysts .......................................................
D irectors of personnel ........................................
Chemists
............................................................
Engineers ............................................................
Engineering technicians ......................................
Drafters2 ............................................................
Com puter operators ...........................................
Clerical workers ..................................................

5
4
*4

_
—
1
-

3
1
2
1

—

—

—
—
—
—

1
1
5
8
2
—
1
1

6
4
3
4
8
8
5
4
6
17

2
2
1
4
3
2
1
2
3
—
2
—

—

1
—
1
1
—
2
1
—
3
2
11

—
—

—
—

—
—
—
—
1
1
5

1 Degree of dispersion equals the salary range of the m iddle 50
percent of employees in a w o rk level expressed as a percent of the

median salary fo r that level,
2 Includes drafter-tracers.

tions varied, however, among occupations and work levels.

the following tabulation (all-establishment average for each

Nearly all attorneys, for example, but only about four-

occupational level = 100 percent):

fifths o f the directors o f personnel and chief accountants,
were employed in metropolitan areas. In 70 o f the 78 work
levels, 85 percent or more o f the employment was in

Professional, administrative, and
technical

metropolitan areas. It is apparent, therefore, that for most
work levels, salaries in nonmetropolitan counties could have
little effect
combined.

upon

the

Clerical

Total num ber of levels .

averages for all establishments

57

17

95-99 p e r c e n t ....................
100-104 percent .............
105-109 percent .............
110-114 percent
.............
115 percent and over . . .

1
23
15
14
4

-

2
6
7
2

Salary levels in large establishments

As expected, the pay relatives were close to 100 for
those work levels where large establishments contributed
heavily to the total employment and, consequently, to the
all-establishment average.

Table 3 presents separate data for 74 occupational work
levels in large establishments—those with 2,500 employees
or more. Included are the proportions o f employees
working in large establishments and their salary levels
relative to the full survey averages.

Salary distributions

Large establishments accounted for 36 percent o f all
employees in the 74 occupational levels—ranging from 5
percent for directors o f personnel II to 70 percent for the
highest level o f engineering technicians studied. The pro­
portion was near
one-third for most professional,
administrative, and technical support occupations although

Percent distributions o f employees by monthly salary
are presented for the professional and administrative
occupations in table 4, for technical support occupations in
table 5, and for the clerical occupations in table 6 . Within
all 78 work levels, salary rates for the highest paid

for the numerically important engineer and engineering

employees were more than twice those o f the lowest paid

technician occupations the proportions were 53 and 52

employees. The absolute spread between highest and lowest

percent, respectively. The proportion was 27 percent for

paid workers within a given work level tended to widen

employees in the clerical occupations.

with each rise in work level for most occupations. But all

Salaries in large establishments expressed as a percent o f

occupations showed a substantial degree o f overlapping o f

the average for that work level in all establishments ranged

individual salaries between work levels. Ranges in salary

from 99 to 128 and averaged 106 for the 74 levels. Salary

rates o f employees in established pay grades or work levels

levels in large establishments exceeded all-establishment
averages by 5 percent or more in all but two o f the clerical

within salary structures o f individual firms also often
overlapped substantially.

levels, but in only 33 o f 57 nonclerical levels, as shown by

The middle 50 and 80 percent o f the salary range and




7

Chart 2. Salaries in professional and technical occupations, March 1978
Median monthly salaries and ranges within which fell 50 percent and 80 percent of employees
Occupation and level

0

$500

$1,000 $1,500

$2,000

Accountants I
III
IV
V
Auditors I
II
III
IV
Chief accountants |
II
III
IV
Attorneys I
II
III
IV
V
VI
Chemists 1
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
Engineers I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
Engineering
technicians

I
II
III
IV
V

Drafter-tracers
Drafters I
II
III
Computer I
operators II
III
IV
V
VI




8

$2,500

$3,000

$3,500 $4,000 $4,500

$5,000

$5,500

Chart 3. Salaries in administrative and clerical occupations, March 1978
Median monthly salaries and ranges within which fell 50 percent and 80 percent of employees
Occupation and level

0

Directors of
personnel

I
II
III
IV

Secretaries

|
II
III
IV
V

Accounting
clerks

$2,000

II
III
IV

Buyers

$1,000 $1,500

I
II
III
IV

Job analysts

$500

I
II

General
stenographers
Senior
stenographers

Key entry
operators

|
II

File clerks

I
II
III

Typists

I
II

Messengers




9

$2,500

$3,000

$3,500 $4,000

$4,500

$5,000

$5,500

the median salary for each occupational work level are
shown in charts 2 and 3. The charts point up occupational
pay relationships as well as the typically greater degree o f
salary dispersion associated with the higher work levels in

industry divisions. Where the finance industries contributed
a substantial proportion o f the total employment in an
occupation, the average salary for all industries combined
was lowered, and the relative levels in industries such as
manufacturing and public utilities tended to be well above
100 percent o f the all-industry level. For example, relative
pay levels for file clerks (110 percent o f the all-industry
level in manufacturing and 131 percent in public utilities)

each occupational series.
Expressing the salary range o f the middle 50 percent o f
employees in each work level as a percent o f the median
salary permits comparison o f salary ranges and eliminates
extremely low and high salaries from each comparison. As

reflected the influence o f lower salaries for the high

shown in text table 3, the degree o f dispersion ranged from
15 to 30 percent o f the median salary in 70 o f the 78 work

proportion (66 percent) o f these workers employed in the
finance industries. The finance industries, however, also
reported lower average standard weekly hours than the
other industries surveyed as shown in table 9.

levels. The degree o f dispersion tended to be greater in the
clerical occupations than in the other occupations studied.
Differences in salaries paid within work levels reflect a
variety o f factors other than duties and responsibilities.
These include salary structures within establishments which
provide for a range o f rates for each grade level; variations
in occupational employment among industries, as illus­
trated in table 7 and chart 4; and salary variations among
regions—particularly for clerical occupations.13 Clerical
employees usually are recruited locally while professional
and administrative positions tend to be recruited on a
broader regional or national basis.

Average standard w eekly hours

The length o f the standard workweek, on which the
regular straight-time salary is based, was obtained for
individual employees in the occupations studied. When
individual weekly hours were not available, particularly for
some higher level professional and administrative positions,
the predominant workweek o f the office work force was
used as the standard workweek. The distribution o f average
weekly hours (rounded to the nearest half hour) is
presented in table 9 for each occupation by major industry
division surveyed. Average weekly hours were lower in

Pay differences by industry

By combining the data for all levels o f work studied in

finance, insurance, and real estate (38 hours in most
occupations) than in the other industry divisions (39 or
39.5 hours). Average weekly hours have been stable over
the past decade.14

each occupation, relative salary levels in major industry
divisions may be compared to each other and to salary
levels in all industries combined (table 8).
Relative salary levels for the 12 professional, adminis­
trative, and technical support occupations tended to be
closest to the average for all industry divisions in manu­
facturing. However, manufacturing contributed more to
total employment than any other industry division for all
but 1 (attorney) o f the 12 occupations. Relative salary
levels in the mining and public utilities industry divisions
were generally the highest.

13

For analysis o f interarea pay differentials in clerical salaries,
see Area Wage Surveys: Metropolitan Areas, United States and
Regional Summaries, 1975, Bulletin 1850-89 (Bureau o f Labor
Statistics, 1977) and Wage Differences Among Metropolitan Areas,
i9 7 d j Summary 78-1 (Bureau o f Labor Statistics, 1978).
For information on scheduled weekly hours o f office workers
employed in metropolitan areas, see Area Wage Surveys, Selected
Metropolitan Areas, 1976, Bulletin 1900-81 (Bureau o f Labor Sta­
tistics, 1978).

For most occupations studied, relative salary levels were
lower in finance, insurance, and real estate than in other

Although only nationwide salary data are presented in this bulletin, salary data for clerical
and drafting occupations are available for each o f the metropolitan areas in which the Bureau
conducts area wage surveys. These area reports also include information on supplementary
benefits such as paid vacations, holidays, and health, insurance, and pension plans relating to
nonsupervisory office workers. A directory o f occupational wage surveys, which contains a
listing by State and area, is available at the Bureau’ s regional offices listed on the inside back
cover o f this bulletin.




10

Chart 4. Relative employment in selected occupational groups by industry division, March 1978
Percent
Occupational group

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

Accountants and
chief accountants

Auditors

Attorneys

Buyers

Directors of personnel
and job analysts

Chemists

Engineers

Engineering technicians
and drafters

Computer operators

Clerical employees
✓




Mining
and
construction

Manufacturing

11

Public
utilities

Finance,
Insurance,
and
real estate

Trade and
selected
services

100

Table 1. Average salaries: United States
(E m p lo y m e n t and average salaries fo r selected p ro fessio nal, ad m inistrative , te c h n ica l, and c le ric a l o cc u p a tio n s in p rivate in d u s try ,1 U n ite d S tates e x ce p t A la sk a and H aw aii, M a rch 1978)
A n n u a l salaries4

M o n th ly salaries4
O cc u p a tio n and level2

ACCOUNTANTS
ACCO UNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCO UNTANTS
ACCO UNTANTS
ACCO UNTANTS
A U D IT O R S
A U D IT O R S
A U D IT O R S
A U D IT O R S
CH I Eh
C H IE F
C H ItF
C H IE F

M id d le range5

M id d le range5
Mean

M edian

F irst
^quartile

T h ird
q u a rtile

Mean

M edian

F irs t
q u a rtile

T h ir d
q u a rtile

AND A U D IT O R S

I ..................................................................
II
...............................................................
III
............................................................
I V ...............................................................
V ..................................................................

I ..........................................................................
11 .......................................................................
III
....................................................................
I V .......................................................................

ACCOUNTANTS
ACCO UNTANTS
ACCO UNTANTS
ACCO UNTANTS

N um b er
of
em p lo yees3

I ..................................................
II
...............................................
III
............................................
I V ...............................................

9 ,6 5 8
1 7 ,1 5 6

S I , 065

$ 1 ,0 5 0
1 ,2 6 1

$950
1 ,1 4 3

$ 1 ,1 5 0

$ 1 2 ,7 8 5

$ 1 2 ,6 0 0

$ 1 1 ,4 0 0

$ 1 3 ,8 0 0

1 ,3 0 6

1 ,4 5 5

1 5 ,6 7 1

1 7 ,4 6 0

1 ,5 1 0

1 ,4 8 3

1 ,3 3 0

1 ,6 6 6

1 8 ,1 1 5

1 5 ,1 3 1
1 7 ,7 9 6

1 3 ,7 1 8

3 1 ,9 8 9

1 5 ,9 6 0

1 9 ,9 9 2
2 4 ,0 0 0

2 0 ,2 8 7

1 ,8 3 6

1 ,8 1 2

1 ,6 4 9

2 ,0 0 0

2 2 ,0 3 6

7 ,3 5 1

2 ,2 7 5

2 ,2 6 6

2 ,0 4 1

2 ,4 8 2

2 7 ,3 0 1

2 1 ,7 4 2
2 7 ,1 8 9

1 9 ,7 9 2
2 4 ,4 9 0

2 9 ,7 8 8

1 ,5 8 9

1 ,1 0 4

1 ,0 6 5

956

1 ,2 0 8

1 1 ,4 7 1

1 4 ,4 9 4

1 ,3 0 8

1 ,1 1 2

1 ,4 5 8

1 5 ,0 0 0

1 3 ,3 4 8

1 7 ,4 9 3

4 ,9 4 7

1 ,5 6 3

1 ,2 5 0
1 ,5 4 1

1 3 ,2 4 3
1 5 ,6 9 4

1 2 ,7 7 4

2 ,8 3 7

1 ,3 8 2

1 ,7 1 1

1 8 ,7 5 6

1 8 ,4 9 3

1 6 ,5 8 1

3 ,1 8 4

1 ,9 2 4

1 ,8 7 5

1 ,7 2 8

2 ,0 8 8

2 3 ,0 9 3

2 2 ,5 0 0

2 0 ,7 3 6

2 0 ,5 3 2
2 5 ,0 5 6

2 ,0 8 3

2 3 ,5 6 1

2 4 ,9 9 6

1 ,8 3 3

836

1 ,9 6 3

1 ,0 8 0

2 ,3 1 4

1 ,9 0 0
2 ,2 9 1

560

2 ,8 4 7

2 ,7 9 2

2 ,0 9 0
2 ,5 4 0

256

3 ,3 2 5

3 ,2 4 9

2 .9 5 0

2 7 ,7 6 9

2 2 ,8 0 0
2 7 ,4 8 9

2 1 ,9 9 1

2 ,5 0 0
3 ,0 5 8
3 ,6 4 9

3 4 ,1 6 0

3 3 ,5 0 0

3 0 ,4 8 0

3 6 ,6 9 6

3 9 ,8 9 5

3 8 ,9 8 4

3 5 ,4 0 0

4 3 ,7 8 2

2 5 ,0 7 9

3 0 ,0 0 0

ATTO RNEYS
ATTO RNEYS
ATTO RNEYS
ATTO RNEYS
ATTO RNEYS
ATTO RNEYS
ATTO RNEYS

1 .......................................................................
II
.....................................................................
III
..................................................................
I V ............................................................ ..
V .......................................................................
V I ....................................................................

1 ,4 9 8

1 ,4 7 4

1 ,4 5 8

1 ,2 5 0

1 ,6 6 5

1 7 ,6 9 3

1 7 ,4 9 3

1 4 ,9 9 4

1 9 ,9 8 0

2 ,5 4 8

1 ,8 0 9

1 ,7 7 7

1 ,5 8 3

1 .9 9 1

2 1 ,7 1 3

1 8 ,9 9 2

2 3 ,8 9 0

2 ,5 7 4

2 4 ,0 4 0

3 0 ,8 8 8

2 ,8 8 3

2 ,3 1 1

2 ,2 9 1

2 ,0 0 3

2 ,7 2 4

2 ,7 9 6

2 ,7 4 1

1 ,8 6 2

3 ,5 2 7

3 ,4 7 4

2 ,4 6 0
3 ,1 2 4

642

4 ,3 1 7

4 ,2 5 0

3 ,9 3 1

2 7 ,7 3 8

2 1 ,3 2 5
2 7 ,4 8 9

3 ,0 8 2

3 3 ,5 4 7

3 2 ,8 8 7

2 9 ,5 2 0

3 6 ,9 8 5

3 ,8 7 3
4 ,7 0 6

4 2 ,3 1 8

4 1 ,6 8 7

3 7 ,4 8 5

5 1 ,7 9 8

5 1 ,0 0 0

4 7 ,1 7 2

4 6 ,4 8 1
5 6 ,4 7 7

1 ,1 9 5

1 2 ,8 8 7
1 6 ,1 9 5

1 2 ,3 5 5
1 5 ,8 9 4

1 0 ,8 0 0

1 ,4 9 0
1 ,7 9 1

1 4 ,3 2 8

1 7 ,8 8 0

1 9 ,2 9 2
2 3 ,2 2 0

1 7 ,4 1 5

2 ,2 0 0

1 9 ,5 9 0
2 3 ,8 5 3

2 0 ,9 8 8

2 1 ,4 9 1
2 6 ,4 0 0

BUYERS
BUYERS
BUYERS
BUYERS
BUYERS

I ................................................................................
II
.............................................................................
III
..........................................................................
I V .............................................................................
PERSO NNEL

JO B
JO B
JO B

AN ALYSTS
ANALYSTS
AN ALYSTS

D IR E C T O R S
D IR E C T O R S
D IR E C T O R S
D IR E C T O R S

OF
OF
OF
OF

c h e m is t s

E N G IN E E R S
E N G IN E E R S
E N G IN E E R S
E N G IN E E R S
E N G IN E E R S
E N G IN E E R S
E N G IN E E R S
E N G IN E E R S

1 ,0 7 4
1 ,3 5 0

1 ,0 3 0
1 ,3 2 4

900
1 ,1 9 4

1 ,6 3 2

1 ,6 0 8

4 ,5 4 4

1 .9 8 8

1 ,9 3 5

1 ,4 5 1
1 .7 4 9

1 ,1 7 0
1 ,5 2 9

1 ,1 0 9

1 ,0 1 6

1 ,2 5 0

1 4 ,0 4 0

576

1 ,4 9 7

1 ,3 5 6

1 ,7 0 2

1 8 ,3 5 4

1 3 ,3 0 8
1 7 ,9 6 4

1 2 ,1 9 5
1 6 ,2 6 8

2 0 ,4 2 4

521

1 ,8 8 5

1 ,8 7 4

1 ,7 0 8

2 ,0 6 7

2 2 ,6 1 6

2 2 ,4 9 1

2 0 ,4 9 2

2 4 ,8 0 4

MANAGEMENT

II
................................. .. ........................
III
..........................................................
I V .............................................................
PERSO NNEL
PERSO N N EL
PERSO NNEL
PERSO N N EL

C H E M IS T S
C H E M IS T S
C H E M IS T S
C H E M IS T S
C H E M IS T S
C H E M IS T S
C H E M IS T S
C H E M IS T S

1 4 ,3 3 9

5 ,3 4 5
1 4 ,4 7 2
1 5 ,2 8 9

AND

I ....................................
I I .................................
III
..............................
I V .................................

339

1 5 ,0 0 0

937

1 ,7 3 6

1 ,9 7 4

1 ,9 1 6

2 ,3 9 0

2 0 ,8 3 3
2 6 ,2 4 5

2 0 ,1 9 6
2 4 ,9 9 0

1 8 ,4 8 0
2 2 ,9 9 1

2 3 ,6 9 1

2 ,1 8 7

1 ,6 8 3
2 ,0 8 3

1 ,5 4 0

1 ,8 7 9
895

2 ,6 8 3

2 ,5 9 1

2 ,2 9 5

2 ,9 5 3

3 2 ,2 0 1

3 1 ,0 8 8

2 7 ,5 4 0

3 5 ,4 3 2

286

3 ,4 0 3

3 ,3 0 2

3 ,0 5 5

3 ,7 0 8

4 0 ,8 3 5

3 9 ,6 2 6

3 6 ,6 6 5

4 4 ,4 9 6

1 ,1 2 4
1 ,3 6 1

1 ,1 3 5
1 ,3 4 1

1 3 ,4 9 2
1 6 ,3 3 7

1 3 ,6 1 5
1 6 ,0 9 4

1 1 ,5 8 5
1 4 ,2 2 0

1 ,6 0 3

965
1 ,1 8 5
1 ,4 5 8

1 ,2 6 9

1 ,6 2 1
1 ,9 6 1

1 9 ,4 5 3

1 9 ,2 4 0

1 7 ,4 9 3

1 5 ,2 2 2
1 8 ,0 2 4
2 1 ,3 0 0

1 ,7 8 3

2 ,1 3 2
2 ,5 8 0

2 3 ,5 3 2
2 8 ,4 9 4

2 3 ,3 0 4

2 1 ,3 9 1

2 5 ,5 9 0

2 8 ,2 8 9

2 5 ,5 9 0

2 ,9 9 9

3 3 ,1 1 0

3 2 ,5 8 0

3 0 ,0 5 0

3 0 ,9 6 0
3 5 ,9 8 6

2 8 ,6 7 7

E N G IN E E R S

I ..........................................................................
I I .......................................................................
....................................................................
III
I V ........................................................................
V ..........................................................................
V I .......................................................................
V II
....................................................................
v i i i
..................................................................
I .......................................................................
II
.....................................................................
III
..................................................................
I V ....................................................................
V .......................................................................
V I ....................................................................
V I I ..................................................................
V III
...............................................................

2 ,4 5 5
4 ,1 3 5
8 ,6 3 8
9 ,8 8 7

2 ,3 7 5

1 ,9 4 2
2 ,3 5 7

7 ,5 8 3
3 ,5 3 9

2 ,7 5 9

2 ,7 1 5

1 ,2 2 3

3 ,2 4 4

3 ,5 0 0

3 8 ,9 2 7

3 7 ,1 8 5

3 5 ,0 0 0

4 2 ,0 0 0

3 ,9 3 0

3 ,0 9 9
3 ,8 5 9

2 ,9 1 7

400

3 ,4 1 5

4 ,2 9 1

4 7 ,1 5 6

4 6 ,3 1 3

4 0 ,9 8 4

5 1 ,4 9 2
1 7 .0 9 7
1 8 ,9 6 0
2 2 ,0 2 0

1 6 ,6 3 3
3 2 ,0 4 3

1 ,3 2 7
1 ,4 6 4

1 ,3 1 6
1 ,4 5 0

1 ,2 2 5
1 ,3 4 8

1 ,4 2 5
1 ,5 8 0

1 5 ,9 2 8
1 7 ,5 6 7

1 5 ,7 9 4
1 7 ,4 0 0

1 4 ,7 0 0
1 6 ,1 7 0

8 1 ,4 9 5

1 ,6 6 5

2 0 ,1 9 4
2 3 ,9 7 2

1 8 ,1 8 3
2 1 ,6 0 0

2 ,3 3 3
2 ,6 8 9

2 ,1 2 1
2 ,4 3 3

2 ,1 8 5
2 ,5 3 5
2 ,9 1 1

1 9 ,9 8 0
2 3 ,7 9 0

8 1 ,5 2 0
3 9 ,2 5 4

1 ,9 8 3
2 ,3 1 5
2 ,6 5 7

1 ,5 1 5
1 ,8 0 0

1 ,8 3 5

1 1 3 ,5 0 9

1 ,6 8 3
1 ,9 9 8

2 8 ,0 0 1
3 2 ,2 6 4

2 7 ,7 8 0
3 1 ,8 8 7

2 5 ,4 5 2
2 9 ,1 9 8

2 6 ,2 2 0
30, 4 *0
3 4 ,9 3 4

1 3 ,6 7 2
3 ,6 8 5

3 ,0 4 3
3 ,5 0 9

3 ,0 0 5
3 ,4 5 0

3 ,2 9 1
3 ,7 5 8

3 6 ,5 2 0
4 2 ,1 0 4

3 6 ,0 5 6

3 ,1 7 2

3 3 ,2 8 8
3 8 ,0 6 2

3 9 ,4 9 2
4 5 f 101

See fo o tn o te s at end o f table.




2 ,1 3 2
2 ,5 0 4

1 ,5 0 2
1 ,7 7 5

12

2 ,7 7 4

4 1 ,4 0 0

Table 1. Average salaries: United States— Continued
(E m p lo y m e n t and average salaries fo r selected p ro fessio n al, ad m in istrative , te c h n ica l, and c le ric a l o cc u p a tio n s in p riv ate in d u s try ,1 U n ite d States e x ce p t A la sk a and H aw aii, M a rch 1978)
M o n th ly salaries4
O cc u p a tio n and level2

t e c h n ic a l

E N G IN E E R IN G
E N G IN E E R IN G
E N G IN E E R IN G
E N G IN E E R IN G
E N G IN E E R IN G

N u m b er
of
e m p lo yee s3

A n n u a l salaries4
M id d le range5

M id d le ranges
Mean

M edian

F irs t
q u a rtile

T h ird
q u a rtile

$765

Mean

M edian

F irst
q u a rtile

T h ird
q u a rtile

suppo rt

T E C H N IC IA N S
T E C H N IC IA N S
T E C H N IC IA N S
T E C H N IC IA N S
T E C H N IC IA N S

I .................................
II
..............................
III
............................
I V ...............................
V .................................

UKA FT E K - T
D RAFTERS
D RAFTERS
DRAFTERS

R A C E R S .............................................................
I ..........................................................................
I I ......................................................................
....................................................................
III

COM PUTER
COM PUTER
CO M PUTER
CO M PUTER
CO M PUTER
COM PUTER

O PERATO RS
O PERATO RS
O PERATO RS
O PERATO RS
O PERATO RS
O PERATO RS

I ..............................................
I I ............................................
III
.........................................
I V ............................................
V ...............................................
V I ............................................

4 ,AT A

$1 1 ,3 0 4

965

869

1 1 ,9 1 8

$ 1 0 ,0 1 1
1 1 ,5 7 5

$9 , 1 7 7

993

$942
1 ,0 8 6

$1 0 , 4 6 1

1 4 ,0 8 4

1 0 ,4 2 8

2 4 ,9 1 5

1 ,1 7 2

$872

1 ,1 6 4

$834

1 ,0 2 0

1 ,3 0 1

1 4 ,0 6 2

1 3 ,9 7 4

1 2 ,2 4 2

1 3 ,0 3 5
1 5 ,6 1 2

2 9 ,2 1 7
1 8 ,0 8 8

1 ,3 5 9
1 ,5 5 9

1 ,3 5 0

1 ,2 2 7

1 ,4 8 0

1 6 ,2 0 0

1 4 ,7 2 4

1 7 ,7 6 0

1 ,5 4 9

1 ,4 1 2

1 ,6 9 1

1 6 ,3 0 2
1 8 ,7 0 3

1 8 ,5 9 3

1 6 ,9 4 6

2 0 ,2 9 2

782

1 1 ,6 0 1

5 ,2 9 9
1 7 ,5 7 0

817

1 ,0 3 7

1 ,1 4 2

1 ,1 1 1

986

1 ,2 8 2

9 ,8 0 3
1 1 ,2 4 7
1 3 ,7 0 9

7 ,9 5 8

900

663
800

9 ,3 8 5

937

2 7 ,0 3 8

1 0 ,8 0 0
1 3 ,3 2 7

1 1 ,8 3 6

1 2 ,4 4 3
1 5 ,3 8 1

2 7 ,5 9 1

1 ,4 0 8

1 ,3 7 3

1 ,2 1 0

1 *5 5 6

1 6 ,9 0 2

1 6 ,4 7 6

1 4 ,5 2 0

1 8 ,6 6 6

8 ,2 3 2
1 0 ,0 1 6

7 ,5 0 8

9 ,3 3 3

8 ,6 9 7

1 0 ,9 4 9

9 ,6 9 6

1 2 ,2 1 0
1 2 ,5 1 4

5 ,3 2 8
7 ,1 1 1
2 4 ,7 2 5

967

712

686

626

778

8 ,5 4 6

863
939

835

725

1 ,0 1 7

912

808

1 ,0 4 3

1 0 ,3 5 2
1 1 ,2 7 4

9 ,5 9 6

1 5 ,4 1 3

1 ,1 4 5

1 ,1 1 6
1 ,2 9 7

1 ,1 4 2

1 5 ,6 9 1

1 3 ,3 9 0
1 5 ,5 6 4

1 5 ,3 0 0

1 ,3 0 8

1 ,2 7 5
1 ,4 5 6

1 1 ,8 3 6

3 ,6 6 6

1 3 ,7 0 4

1 7 ,4 6 7

1 ,1 1 3

1 ,5 1 4

1 ,5 2 3

1 ,3 6 5

1 ,6 3 3

1 8 ,1 7 3

1 8 ,2 7 1

1 6 ,3 8 5

1 9 ,5 9 5

9 0 ,5 1 1

724
916

685
875

591

809

7 ,0 9 1

9 ,7 0 7

1 ,0 4 9

8 ,6 8 2
1 0 ,9 8 6

8 ,2 2 0

747

1 0 ,5 0 0

8 ,9 6 8

1 2 ,5 9 2

552

534

486

586

6 ,6 2 1

6 ,4 0 3

5 ,8 3 4

1 3 ,4 2 1

660

619

547

721

7 ,9 1 4

7 ,4 2 8

6 ,5 7 0

8 ,6 5 5

4 ,1 9 1

841

791

675

986

1 0 ,0 9 5

9 ,4 8 9

8 ,0 9 7

1 1 ,8 3 6

8 ,5 4 6

9 ,4 1 1
1 1 ,2 4 1

986

1 3 ,7 3 7

C L E R IC A L
CLERKS,
CLERKS,
CLERKS,
CLERKS,
CLERKS,

A C C O U N T I N G I ...............................................
A C C O U N T I N G I I ............................................
F I L E I ...............................................................
F ILE
II
............................................................
F ILE III
..........................................................

7 4 ,0 5 5
3 0 ,3 8 4

KEY

EN TRY

OPERATORS

I ...............................................

6 4 ,1 1 2

712

666

KEY

EN TRY

OPERATORS

I I ............................................

4 2 ,4 3 5

842

810

M E S S E N G E R S ..........................................................................
S E C R E T A R I E S I ..................................................................
S E C R E T A R I E S I I ...............................................................
S E C R E T A R IE S I I I
.............................................................
S E C R E T A R I E S I V ...............................................................
S E C R E T A R I E S V ..................................................................
S T E N O G R A P H E R S , G E N E R A L .........................................
S T E N O G R A P H E R S , S E N I O R ............................................
T Y P I S T S I .............................................................................
T Y P IS T S II
..........................................................................

2 0 ,4 3 5
3 9 ,8 9 5

633
817

595
791

7 4 ,5 5 7

893

869

8 4 ,2 5 3
5 3 ,7 4 9
1 7 ,8 6 3
2 6 ,0 3 1
2 7 ,6 8 1

585
709

784
937

7 ,9 9 4

7 ,0 2 0

1 0 ,0 9 9

9 ,7 2 0

8 ,5 0 9

521

695

7 ,5 9 5

6 ,2 5 7

8 ,3 4 2

700
756

901
999

9 ,8 0 1

7 ,1 4 3
9 ,4 8 9

1 0 ,7 2 1

1 0 ,4 2 8

8 ,3 9 5
9 ,0 7 2

1 1 ,9 9 2

1 0 ,8 1 6

991

967

839

1 ,1 1 7

1 1 ,8 9 4

1 1 ,6 0 4

1 0 ,0 6 3

1 3 ,4 0 0

1 ,0 8 5
1 ,2 0 2
819

1 ,0 6 6
1 ,1 7 8

917

1 ,2 2 5
1 ,3 6 5

1 3 ,0 1 8
1 4 ,4 3 0

1 2 ,7 9 2
1 4 ,1 3 8

1 1 ,0 0 2
1 2 ,2 9 5

1 4 ,7 0 0

1 ,0 2 5

7 ,9 1 5
9 ,1 4 4

4 1 ,2 1 5

918
648

2 4 ,9 3 2

773

782
900
608
735

660

951

9 ,8 3 4

9 ,3 8 5

762
550

1 ,0 4 6
706

1 1 ,0 1 8

1 0 ,8 0 0
7 ,3 0 0

643

860

7 ,7 7 8
9 ,2 7 6

8 ,8 2 0

1 6 ,3 8 3
1 1 ,4 0 8
1 2 ,5 4 9

6 ,6 0 0

8 ,4 7 8

7 ,7 1 6

1 0 ,3 2 4

4 Salaries re p orted are standard salaries paid fo r standard w o rk schedules; i.e., the
straight-tim e salary corre sp on din g to th e e m p lo y e e 's no rm al w o rk sched ule ex clu d in g o v ertim e
hours. N o n p ro d u c tio n bonuses are e x clu d ed , b u t c o s t-o f-liv in g p aym e nts and in ce n tive earnings
are includ ed .
5 T h e m id d le range (in te rq u a rtile ) is the central p art o f the array e x clu d in g the upper
and low e r fo u rth s o f the e m p lo y e e d is trib u tio n .

1 F o r scope o f stu d y , see tab le A-1 in a p p en d ix A .

2 O cc u p a tio n a l d e fin itio n s appear in a p p en d ix C.
3 O ccu p atio n al e m p lo y m e n t estim ates relate to th e to tal in all estab lishm ents w ith in the
scope o f th e survey and n o t to th e n u m b e r a c tu a lly surveyed. F o r fu rth e r e x p la n a tio n , see
ap p end ix A .




7 ,0 3 2

13

Table 2. Average salaries: Metropolitan areas
(E m p lo y m e n t and .average salaries f o r selected p ro fessio nal, a d m in istrative , te c h n ica l, and c le ric a l o cc u p a tio n s in p riv ate in d u stry , m e tro p o lita n areas,1 U n ite d States e x ce p t A la s k a and H a w a ii,
M a rch 1978)
I
O cc u p a tio n and level2

ACCO UNTANTS
ACCO UNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCO UNTANTS
ACCO UNTANTS
ACCO UNTANTS
A U D IT O R S
A U D IT O R S
A U D IT O R S
A U D IT O R S
C H IE F
C H IE F
C H IE F
C H IE F

AND

M id d le range5

M id d le range5
Mean

M edian

Mean

M edian

F irst
q u artile

T h ird
q u a rtile

$952
1 ,1 4 5

$ 1 ,1 5 3

$ 1 2 ,8 2 7

1 ,4 7 1

1 5 ,7 5 7

$ 1 2 ,6 0 0
1 5 ,2 4 0

$ 1 1 ,4 2 9
1 3 ,7 4 5

1 ,3 3 3
1 ,6 4 9

1 ,6 7 1
2 ,0 0 8

1 8 ,2 1 4

1 7 ,8 8 0

1 5 ,9 9 4

2 0 ,0 5 4

2 2 ,0 8 3
2 7 ,3 2 6

2 1 ,7 4 2
2 7 ,1 8 0

1 9 ,7 9 2

2 4 ,0 9 0

2 4 ,4 9 0

2 9 ,9 8 1

1 2 ,7 6 1

F irst
q u a rtile

T h ird
q u a rtile

A U D IT O R S

I ..................................................................
II
...............................................................
III
.............................................................
I V ...............................................................
V ..................................................................

I ..........................................................................
I I .......................................................................
III
....................................................................
I V .......................................................................

ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCCUNTANTS
ACCO UNTANTS

A n n u a l salaries4

M o n th ly salaries4
N u m b er
of
em ployees3

I ..................................................
I I ...............................................
III
............................................
I V ...............................................

8 ,5 9 9

$ 1 ,0 6 9

$1 ,0 5 0

1 5 ,5 6 7

1 ,3 1 3

1 ,2 7 0

2 7 ,9 8 2

1 ,5 1 8

1 ,4 9 0

1 8 ,0 0 5

1 ,8 1 2

6 ,6 6 6

1 ,8 4 0
2 ,2 7 7

2 ,2 6 5

2 ,0 4 1

2 ,4 9 8

1 ,5 8 3

1 ,1 0 3

1 ,0 6 3

955

1 ,2 0 4

2 ,7 5 9

1 ,2 5 0
1. 5 4 T

1 ,1 1 2

1 ,4 5 8

4 ,6 8 5

1 ,3 1 0
1 ,5 6 8

1 3 ,2 3 3
1 5 ,7 1 9

1 ,3 9 5

1 ,7 2 4

1 8 ,8 2 1

1 5 ,0 0 0
1 8 ,5 6 4

3 ,1 0 5

1 ,9 2 5

1 ,8 7 5

1 ,7 3 1

2 ,0 8 8

2 3 ,0 9 5

2 2 ,5 0 0

618

1 ,9 7 5

1 ,9 5 8

1 ,8 2 8

2 ,1 3 0

2 3 ,6 9 8

2 3 ,4 9 1

2 ,4 9 9

2 7 ,8 9 5

2 7 ,3 0 0

2 5 ,0 7 9

3 ,1 1 5
3 ,7 6 4

3 4 ,1 5 9

3 3 ,4 8 7

2 9 ,9 8 8

3 7 ,3 8 0

3 9 ,9 2 9

3 8 ,9 8 4

3 5 ,2 5 6

4 5 ,1 7 2

1 7 ,7 9 3
2 1 ,7 1 4

1 5 ,3 0 0

1 9 ,9 8 0

2 1 ,3 4 1

1 8 ,9 9 2

2 3 ,7 0 8

2 7 ,4 8 9

3 0 ,9 8 8

869

2 ,3 2 5

480

2 ,8 4 7

2 ,2 7 5
2 ,7 9 1

2 ,0 9 0
2 ,4 9 9

216

3 ,3 2 7

3 ,2 4 9

2 ,9 3 8

1 ,4 5 7
2 ,5 1 6

1 ,4 8 3
1 ,8 0 9

1 ,4 7 5

1 ,2 7 5

1 ,6 6 5

1 ,7 7 8

1 ,5 8 3

2 ,8 3 0

2 ,3 1 5

2 ,2 9 1

1 ,9 7 6
2 ,5 8 2

2 ,6 5 4

2 ,7 9 8

2 ,0 1 2
2 ,4 5 7

1 ,8 2 5

3 ,5 3 0
4 ,3 1 7

1 1 ,4 6 0
1 3 ,3 4 8
1 6 ,7 4 0
2 0 ,7 7 3
2 1 ,9 3 6

$ 1 3 ,8 3 5
1 7 ,6 4 8

1 4 ,4 4 4
1 7 ,5 0 1
2 0 ,6 9 2
2 5 ,0 5 6
2 5 ,5 6 0
2 9 ,9 8 8

ATTO RNEYS
ATTO RNEYS
ATTO RNEYS
ATTO RNEYS
ATTCKN cYS
ATTO RNEYS
ATTO RNEYS

I .......................................................................
II
....................................................................
H I
..................................................................
I V ....................................................................
V .......................................................................
V I .....................................................................

642

2 ,7 4 9
3 ,4 9 9
4 ,2 5 0

3 ,1 2 9
3 ,9 3 1

3 ,0 8 2
3 ,8 7 5
4 ,7 0 6

1 7 ,7 0 0

2 7 ,7 7 7
3 3 ,5 7 3

3 2 ,9 8 7

2 4 ,1 4 1
2 9 ,4 8 8

4 2 ,3 6 0

4 1 ,9 8 3

3 7 ,5 5 4

3 6 ,9 8 5
4 6 ,5 0 0

5 1 ,7 9 8

5 1 ,0 0 0

4 7 ,1 7 2

5 6 ,4 7 7

BUYERS
BUYERS
BUYERS
BUYERS
BUYERS

I ................................................................................
II
.............................................................................
III
..........................................................................
I V .............................................................................
PERSO NNEL

JO B
JO B
JO B

AN ALYSTS
AN ALYSTS
AN ALYSTS

D IR E C T O R S
D IR E C T O R S
D IR E C T O R S
D IR E C T O R S

OF
OF
OF
OF

E N G IN E E R S
E N G IN E E R S
E N G IN E E R S
E N G IN E E R S
E N G IN E E R S
E N G IN E E R S
E N G IN E E R S
E N G IN E E R S

1 ,0 4 0

900

1 ,2 0 8

1 2 ,9 5 1

1 2 ,4 8 0

1 0 ,8 0 0

1 4 ,4 9 4

1 ,3 6 3

1 ,3 2 5

1 ,2 0 0

1 ,4 9 9

1 3 ,4 1 5

4 ,6 4 9

1 ,6 4 3

1 ,6 1 6

1 ,4 5 4

1 ,8 0 0

1 6 ,3 5 5
1 9 ,7 1 2

1 5 ,9 0 3
1 9 ,3 9 2

1 4 ,4 0 0
1 7 ,4 4 8

2 1 ,6 0 0

4 ,2 9 3

1 ,9 8 7

1 ,9 3 3

1 ,7 3 9

2 ,2 0 6

2 3 ,8 3 6

2 3 ,1 9 1

2 0 .8 7 2

2 6 ,4 7 2

305

1 ,1 8 5

1 ,0 4 5
1 ,3 5 6

1 2 ,5 4 0

1 5 ,0 1 6

1 ,7 1 0

1 4 ,2 2 5
1 8 ,3 6 9

1 3 ,3 9 5

1, 531
1 ,8 8 6

1 ,1 1 6
1 ,4 9 9

1 ,2 5 1

565

1 7 ,9 9 3

1 6 ,2 6 8

2 0 ,5 2 0

1 ,8 6 6

1 ,7 0 8

2 ,0 7 0

2 2 ,6 3 5

2 2 ,3 9 2

2 0 ,4 9 2

2 4 ,8 4 0

1 9 ,7 6 1

1 7 ,9 9 3
2 2 ,9 9 1

2 8 ,7 6 4

1 7 ,9 9 3

M ANAGEM ENT

11 ............................................................
III
.........................................................
I V .............................................................
PERSO NNEL
PERSO NNEL
PERSO NNEL
PERSO N N EL

I ....................................
I I .................................
III
..............................
IV .................................

500
682

1 ,6 4 7
2 ,0 8 5
2 ,6 2 4

1 ,9 1 6

1 ,9 1 6
2 ,3 9 7

2 0 ,1 8 0
2 6 ,3 1 6

2 ,6 9 5

2 ,2 9 5

2 ,9 5 7

3 ,3 8 1

3 ,3 0 2

3 ,0 3 3

3 ,6 8 2

3 2 .3 4 2
4 0 ,5 6 9

I ..........................................................................
I I .......................................................................
III
....................................................................
I V ........................................................................
V ..........................................................................
V I .......................................................................
V II
....................................................................
V III
..................................................................

2 .2 5 7
3 ,7 3 5

1 ,1 2 5

1 ,1 4 8

956

1 ,2 7 5

1 3 ,5 0 5

1 ,3 6 1

1 ,3 4 3

1 ,1 7 5

1 ,5 0 5

7 ,6 2 1

1 ,6 2 5

1 ,6 0 5

1 ,4 5 8

1 ,7 9 0

1 6 ,3 3 5
1 9 ,4 9 9

8 ,4 8 5

1 ,9 6 3

1 ,9 4 9

1 ,7 8 1

2 ,1 3 5

I .......................................................................
II
....................................................................
III
..................................................................
I V ....................................................................
V .......................................................................
V I ....................................................................
V II
..................................................................
V III
...............................................................

AND

1 ,5 4 1

1 ,6 8 2
2 ,1 9 3

1 ,4 9 9

795
259

C H E M IS T S
C H E M IS T S
C H E M IS T S
C H E M IS T S
C H E M IS T S
C H E M IS T S
C H E M IS T S
C H E M IS T S
C H E M IS T S

1 ,0 7 9

1 2 ,0 3 2

2 5 ,0 2 0
3 1 ,4 8 7

2 2 ,9 9 1

2 7 ,5 4 0

3 5 ,4 8 6

3 9 ,6 2 6

3 6 ,3 9 4

4 4 ,1 8 2

1 3 ,7 7 0
1 6 ,1 2 0

1 1 .4 7 1
1 4 ,0 9 4

1 5 ,3 0 0

1 9 ,2 6 0

1 7 ,4 9 3

2 1 ,4 8 0

2 3 ,5 5 2

2 3 ,3 9 1

2 1 ,3 7 7

2 5 ,6 1 5

2 8 ,3 8 1

E N G IN E E R S

6 ,6 4 8

2 ,3 6 5

2 ,3 4 1

2 ,1 2 3

2 ,7 2 4

2 ,5 0 4

3 3 ,3 0 0

2 8 ,0 9 3
3 2 ,6 8 7

3 0 ,9 0 0

2 ,7 7 5

2 ,5 7 5
3 ,0 0 7

2 5 ,4 7 2

3 ,0 6 2

3 0 ,0 5 0

3 6 ,0 8 6

1 ,1 1 4

3 ,1 1 7
3 ,8 5 9

2 ,9 5 3

3 ,4 9 9

3 9 ,0 3 4

3 7 ,4 0 1

3 5 ,4 3 2

4 1 ,9 8 3

371

3 ,2 5 3
3 ,9 4 9

3 ,4 2 5

4 ,2 7 2

4 7 ,3 8 3

4 6 ,3 1 3

4 1 ,1 0 0

5 1 ,2 6 6

1 4 ,9 5 0
2 9 ,0 7 6

1 ,3 3 0
1 ,4 6 8

1 ,3 2 0
1 ,4 5 5

1 ,2 2 5
1 ,3 5 0

1 ,4 2 5
1 ,5 8 5

1 5 ,9 5 8
1 7 ,6 1 8

1 5 ,8 4 0
1 7 ,4 6 0

1 4 ,7 0 0
1 6 ,2 0 0

7 4 ,0 5 7

1 ,6 9 2
2 ,0 0 9

1 ,6 7 3
1 ,9 9 9

1 ,5 2 4
1 ,8 1 4

1 ,8 4 5
2 ,1 9 9

2 0 ,3 0 6
2 4 ,1 1 3

2 0 ,0 7 4
2 3 ,9 9 0

1 8 ,2 9 3
2 1 ,7 6 8

1 7 ,1 0 0
1 9 ,0 2 0
22.14C
2 6 ,3 8 9

2 ,5 4 0
2 ,9 1 6

1 0 3 ,8 4 3
7 5 ,4 7 2
3 6 ,9 8 0
1 3 ,0 8 5
3 ,5 1 8

2 ,3 4 0

2 ,3 2 0

2 ,1 2 5

2 ,6 9 2

2 ,6 6 0
3 ,0 0 0

2 ,4 3 3

3 ,0 4 2
3 ,5 0 2

3 ,4 4 5

See fo o tn o te s a t end o f table.




1 8 ,0 6 0

14

2 ,7 7 3
3 ,1 6 7

2 8 ,0 7 6

2 7 ,8 4 0

2 5 ,5 0 0

3 0 ,4 8 0

3 ,2 8 5

3 2 ,3 0 9
3 6 ,5 0 1

3 1 ,9 2 0
3 6 ,0 0 0

2 9 ,1 9 8
3 3 ,2 7 3

3 4 ,9 8 6
3 9 ,4 1 8

3 ,7 5 0

4 2 ,0 2 5

4 1 ,3 4 0

3 8 ,0 0 4

4 5 ,0 0 0

Table 2. Average salaries: Metropolitan areas— Continued
(E m p lo y m e n t and average salaries fo r selected p ro fessio nal, ad m in istrative , te c h n ica l, and cle rica l o cc u p a tio n s in p riv ate in d u stry , m e tro p o lita n areas,1 U n ite d States e x ce p t A la sk a and H aw aii,
M arch 1978)
M o n th ly salaries4
N u m b er
e m p lo yee s3

T E C H N IC A L

I .................................
I I ...............................
III
............................
I V ...............................
V .................................

D R A F T E R - T R A C E R S ............................................................
D R A F T E R S I ..........................................................................
D R A F T E R S I I .......................................................................
D RAFTERS I I I
.....................................................................
O PERATO RS
O PERATO RS
O PERATO RS
O PERATO RS
O PERATO RS
O PERATO RS

Mean

M edian

F irs t
q u a rtile

M id d le range5

T h ird
q u a rtile

Mean

M edian

F irs t
q u a rtile

T h ird
q u a rtile

SUPPO RT

E N G IN E E R IN G T E C H N IC IA N S
E N G IN E E R IN G T E C H N IC IA N S
E N G IN E E R IN G T E C H N IC IA N S
E N G IN E E R IN G T E C H N IC IA N S
E N G IN E E R IN G T E C H N IC IA N S

CO M PUTER
COMPUTER
COM PUTER
CO M PUTER
COM PUTER
COM PUTER

A n n u a l salaries4
M id d le range5

O cc u p a tio n and level2

I ...............................................
I I ............................................
III
.........................................
I V .............................................
V ...............................................
V I ............................................

3 ,9 2 7

$877

$841

$760

$1 0 , 0 9 2

$9 , 1 2 5

$1 1 ,4 3 6

998

969

869

$953
1 ,0 8 6

$1 0 , 5 2 6

1 2 ,1 8 1
2 2 ,4 1 9

1 1 ,9 7 6

1 1 ,6 2 7

1 0 ,4 2 8

1 ,1 7 0

1 ,1 6 1

1 ,0 1 5

1 ,3 0 2

1 3 ,9 3 0

1 2 ,1 7 8

1 3 ,0 3 5
1 5 ,6 2 1

2 6 ,3 3 6

1 ,3 6 4

1 ,3 5 4

1 ,4 8 2

1 6 ,2 4 4

1 4 ,8 2 9

1 7 ,7 8 4

1 6 ,9 6 5

1 ,5 6 3

1 ,5 5 5

1 ,2 3 6
1 ,4 1 4

1 4 ,0 4 3
1 6 ,3 6 6

1 ,6 9 7

1 8 ,7 5 1

1 8 ,6 6 0

1 6 ,9 6 4

2 0 ,3 6 4

4 ,5 3 6

833
946

813
905

9 ,9 9 8

9 ,7 5 9
1 0 ,8 6 3

2 3 ,4 9 4

1 ,1 5 1

1 ,1 1 8

1 ,3 0 0

1 1 ,3 5 7
1 3 ,8 0 9

8 ,0 3 0
9 ,6 0 0

1 1 ,8 4 5

800
991

1 ,4 1 7

1 ,3 8 2

1 ,2 1 7

1 ,5 6 4

1 7 ,0 0 7

1 3 ,4 1 6
1 6 ,5 8 5

1 1 ,8 8 8
1 4 ,5 9 9

1 5 ,6 0 0

2 5 ,4 9 4
4 ,8 0 3

715
874

680
850

628
735

912
1 ,1 1 9

782
1 .0 2 1
1 ,0 4 3

8 ,5 8 0
1 0 ,4 8 7

941

988

1 ,2 7 3

1 ,3 0 3
1 ,5 0 9

1 ,2 9 5

1 ,1 3 4

1 ,4 4 4

1 5 ,6 3 2

1 5 ,5 3 8

1 3 ,6 0 9

1 7 ,3 2 8

1 ,4 8 8

1 ,3 6 6

1 ,6 3 3

1 8 ,1 0 3

1 7 ,8 5 3

1 6 ,3 9 2

1 9 ,5 9 5

726

690

920
549

878
525
619

595
750

1 5 ,2 5 5

6 ,3 7 5
2 2 ,7 6 1
1 3 ,9 8 5
3 ,3 8 7
896

1 ,1 4 7

669

808

987
1 ,0 5 9

1 1 ,2 8 7
1 3 ,7 6 7

1 2 ,7 0 3
1 8 ,7 7 0

8 ,1 6 0

7 ,5 3 7

9 .3 8 5

1 0 ,2 0 0
1 0 ,9 4 9

8 ,8 2 0
9 ,6 9 8

1 2 ,2 5 3
1 2 ,5 1 4

1 1 ,8 5 3

1 5 ,2 7 7

1 3 ,4 2 9

C L E R IC A L
CLERKS.
CLERKS.
CLERKS,
CLERKS.
CLERKS.

A C C O U N T I N G I ...............................................
A C C U U N T I N G I I ............................................
F I L E I ...............................................................
F ILE
II
............................................................
F ILE
III
..........................................................

7 9 ,7 2 1
6 7 ,7 9 5
2 5 ,7 0 3
1 2 ,3 0 8
3 ,8 6 9

KEY

EN TRY

OPERATORS

I ...............................................

5 8 ,1 7 8

KEY

EN TR Y

OPERATORS

I I ............................................

3 9 ,5 4 9

M E S S E N G E R S ..........................................................................
S E C R E T A R I E S I ..................................................................
S E C R E T A R IE S I I
...............................................................
............................................................
S E C R E T A R IE S I I I
S E C R E T A R I E S I V ...............................................................
S E C R E T A R I E S V ..................................................................
S T E N O G R A P H E R S . G E N E R A L ..........................................
S T E N O G R A P H E R S , S E N I O R ............................................
T Y P I S T S I .............................................................................
T Y P I S T S I I ..........................................................................

1 9 ,2 7 6
3 6 ,3 4 5

1
3
3
scope o f
a p p end ix

6 8 ,3 0 4
7 8 ,3 1 9
5 1 ,0 1 9
1 7 ,1 0 4
2 3 ,1 3 6

661
841
717
846
631

810

8 ,7 1 2

8 ,2 8 0

7 ,1 4 0

9 ,7 1 9

1 ,0 5 0
580

1 1 ,0 3 8
6 ,5 8 2

1 0 ,5 3 2
6 ,3 0 0

9 ,0 0 0
5 ,8 1 8

1 2 ,6 0 0

6 ,6 0 0

6 ,9 6 0
8 ,6 9 2

724

7 ,9 3 4

7 ,4 2 5

782
673
814

668
589

1 ,0 0 6
791

1 0 ,0 8 6

9 ,3 8 5

8 ,0 1 6

8 ,6 0 5

8 ,0 8 2

7 ,0 7 1

9 ,4 8 9

713

940

1 0 ,1 4 6

591
799

521

690

7 ,5 7 5

9 ,7 7 2
7 ,0 9 1

8 ,5 5 1
6 ,2 5 7

1 1 ,2 8 3
8 ,2 8 0

700

1 2 ,0 7 0

9 ,5 9 4

8 ,4 0 0

1 0 ,8 6 0

758

905
1 ,0 0 0

9 ,8 5 4

870

1 0 ,7 5 5

1 0 ,4 4 0

9 ,0 9 6

1 2 ,0 0 0

970

843

1 .1 2 0

1 1 ,9 4 8

1 1 ,6 4 5

1 ,0 7 5
1 ,1 8 2

921
1 ,0 3 4

1 4 .7 6 0

1 ,2 0 8
820

788

821
896
996
1 ,0 9 1

1 3 ,4 4 0

1 ,2 3 0

1 3 ,0 9 3

1 2 ,9 0 0

1 0 ,1 1 5
1 1 ,0 5 4

1 4 ,4 9 3

1 4 ,1 8 2

1 2 ,4 0 8

1 6 ,4 5 2

657

1 ,3 7 1
958

9 ,8 3 5

9 ,4 5 6

7 ,8 8 4

1 1 ,4 9 7

1 1 ,0 5 2

1 0 ,8 4 5

9 ,1 7 7

1 2 ,5 7 8

765

1 ,0 4 8

3 8 ,3 7 5

648

608

550

707

7 ,7 8 1

7 ,3 0 0

6 ,6 0 0

8 ,4 8 8

2 3 ,6 2 7

771

730

640

860

9 ,2 5 3

8 ,7 6 0

7 ,6 8 0

1 0 ,3 2 4

2 6 ,2 5 9

921

904

4 Salaries re p orted are standard salaries paid fo r standard w o rk schedules; i.e., the
straight-tim e salary c orre sp on d in g to th e e m p lo y e e 's no rm al w o rk schedule ex clu d in g overtim e
hours. N o n p ro d u c tio n bonuses are e x clu d ed , b u t co st-o f-liv in g p aym e nts and in ce n tive earnings
are includ ed .
5 T h e m id d le range (in te rq u a rtile ) is th e central p art o f the array e x clu d in g the up p er
and lo w e r fo u rth s o f the e m p lo y ee d is trib u tio n .

F o r scope o f stu d y , see tab le A-1 in a p p e n d ix A .
O cc u p a tio n a l d e fin itio n s appear in ap p e n d ix C.
O cc u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t estim ates relate to the to ta l in all estab lishm ents w ith in the
th e survey and n o t to the nu m b er a c tu a lly surveyed. F o r fu rth e r e x p la n a tio n , see
A.




485
550

15

Table 3. Average salaries: Establishments employing 2,500 workers or more
(E m p lo y m e n t and average m o n th ly salaries fo r selected pro fessio nal, ad m in istrative , te c h n ica l, and cle ric a l o cc u p a tio n s in p riv ate in d u s try ,1 in estab lishm ents em p lo y in g 2 ,5 0 0 w o rk e rs o r m o re,2
U n ite d States e x ce p t A la sk a and H aw aii, M a rch 1978)
Levels in estab lishm ents
em p lo y in g 2 ,5 0 0 w o rk e rs
o r m ore expressed as
percen t o f tho se in all
estab lishm ents c o m b in e d

M o n th ly salaries5

O cc u p a tio n and level3

ACCO UNTANTS
ACCO UNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCOUNTANTS
ACCO UNTANTS
ACCO UNTANTS

M id d le range6
Mean

M edian

F irst
q u a rtile

T h ird
q u a rtile

2 ,3 0 8

$ 1 ,1 8 1

$ 1 ,1 5 0

$ 1 ,0 5 5

$ 1 ,2 8 5

6 , 108
8 ,8 3 4

1 ,4 3 6
1 ,6 3 8

1 ,4 5 7
1 ,6 2 4

1 ,6 2 5
1 ,8 4 5

5 ,7 5 8

1 ,9 1 5

1 ,8 9 1

1 ,2 5 2
1 ,4 3 0
1 ,7 0 0

2 ,7 0 4

2 ,2 9 8

2 ,2 8 5

2 ,0 4 7

503

1 ,2 1 5

1 , 129
1 ,4 9 5

1 ,3 8 6
1 ,6 2 9

1 ,1 4 2
1 ,3 2 5

1 ,0 3 7
1 ,1 6 9

1 .6 0 0

1 ,3 9 0

1 ,5 6 2
1 ,8 5 0

1 ,2 6 0

1 ,9 4 5

1 ,9 0 0

1 ,6 8 4

150
91

3 ,2 1 2

3 ,1 5 7

2 ,6 7 4

3 ,3 3 7

3 ,2 5 0

ACCOUNTANTS
ACCO UNTANTS

E m p lo y m e n t

M ean
salaries

A U D IT O R S

I .....................................................................
I I ..................................................................
III
...............................................................
I V ..................................................................
V .....................................................................

I .............................................................................
I I ..........................................................................
.......................................................................
III
I V ..........................................................................

A U D IT O R S
A U D IT O R S
A U D IT O R S
A U D IT O R S

C H IE F
C H IE F

AN0

N u m b er
of
em p lo yee s4

III
...............................................
I V ..................................................

24
36
28

111
110
109

2 ,1 1 6

28

104

2 ,5 2 5

37

101

1 ,3 9 7

32
40

110
106

30

104

2 ,1 5 2

40

101

3 ,8 3 3
3 ,7 5 0

27
36

113

3 ,0 0 0

15

115
109

100

ATTO RNEYS
ATTO RNEYS
ATTO RNEYS
ATTO RNEYS
ATTO RNEYS
ATTO RNEYS
ATTO RNEYS

I ..........................................................................
II
.......................................................................
III
.....................................................................
I V .......................................................................
V ..........................................................................
V I .......................................................................

218
422

1 ,6 8 9
1 ,9 7 8

1 ,6 5 0
1 ,9 2 7

1 ,5 3 7
1 ,7 5 3

1 ,8 3 3
2 ,1 5 7

701
845

2 ,3 7 1

2 ,3 4 0

2 ,1 2 4

2 ,6 1 4

17
24

526

2 ,9 3 8
3 ,6 1 3

251

4 ,3 6 8

2 ,8 5 6

2 ,6 2 5

3 ,1 6 9

31

3 ,5 0 2
4 ,2 0 5

3 ,2 4 0

3 ,8 6 7

3 ,8 3 5

4 ,7 0 0

28
39

103
105
102
101

BUYERS
bUYERS
BUYERS
BUYERS
BUYERS

I ..................................................................................
II
................................................................................
III
.............................................................................
I V ...............................................................................
PERSO NNEL

JO B
JO B
JO B

AN ALYSTS
ANALYSTS
ANALYSTS

D IR E C T O R S
D IR E C T O R S
D IR E C T O R S

OF
OF
OF

E N G IN E E R S
E N G IN E E R S
E N G IN E E R S
E N G IN E E R S
tN G IN E E R S
E N G IN E E R S
E N G IN E E R S
E N G IN E E R S

1 ,2 6 9

1 ,2 5 7

1 ,0 8 2

1 ,4 4 5

18

1 ,4 6 8

1 ,4 2 9

1 ,2 7 4

1 ,6 2 5

23

109

4 ,8 6 5

1 ,7 1 8

1 ,6 9 0

1 ,4 9 5

1 ,8 9 8

2 ,7 7 5

2 ,0 1 3

1 ,9 5 0

1 ,7 4 2

2 ,2 7 0

32
61

101

l i e

105

M ANAGEMENT

I I ...............................................................
III
............................................................
IV ...............................................................

147

1 ,2 6 7

1 ,2 2 6

1 .0 8 1

1 .4 3 6

43

108

310

1 ,6 2 4

1 ,5 8 7

1 ,4 3 0

1 ,8 1 3

54

106

341

1 ,9 4 1

1 ,9 3 0

1 ,7 7 3

2 ,1 0 0

65

103

PERSO NNEL
PERSO NNEL
PERSO NNEL

97

2 ,7 8 9

2 ,4 2 5
2 ,6 6 0

3 ,4 1 6

5
18

128

3 ,0 7 9

2 ,8 3 8
3 ,0 8 0

3 ,2 2 7

161
115

3 ,6 1 8

3 ,5 0 2

3 ,2 2 5

4 ,0 2 5

40

106

449

1 ,2 6 3

1 ,2 5 0

1 ,3 7 0

18

112

1 ,4 6 2

1 ,5 2 1
1 ,7 7 7

1 ,5 1 7

1 ,3 6 5

1 ,6 8 8

1 ,7 5 5

1 ,9 5 1

35
29

112
110

2 ,0 8 6

2 ,0 7 5

1 ,6 0 0
1 ,8 9 9

2 .2 6 3

34

106
104

C H E M IS T S
C H E M IS T S
C H E M IS T S
C H E M IS T S
C H E M IS T S
C H E M IS T S
C H E M IS T S
C H E M IS T S

941
3 ,3 9 4

AND

I I ....................................
.................................
III
I V ....................................

115

E N G IN E E R S

I .............................................................................
II
..........................................................................
III
.......................................................................
I V ..........................................................................
V .............................................................................
V I ..........................................................................
V II
.......................................................................
I ..........................................................................
I I .......................................................................
III
.....................................................................
I V .......................................................................
V ..........................................................................
V I .......................................................................
V I I .....................................................................
V III
..................................................................

2 ,5 1 5
3 ,3 5 9
2 ,9 7 9

2 ,4 6 1

2 ,4 3 5

2 ,2 1 4

2 ,6 7 5

1 ,6 9 1

2 ,8 6 2

2 ,7 7 5

2 ,5 2 2

3 ,1 0 7

39
48

582

3 ,4 0 2

3 ,2 4 2

2 ,9 5 4

3 ,7 5 5

48

105

50
46

103
103

8 ,2 5 4

1 ,3 6 4

1 4 ,7 7 7

1 ,5 0 1
1 ,7 3 9

1 ,7 2 0

2 ,0 5 4
2 ,3 7 8

3 7 ,9 4 5
6 0 , 188
4 5 ,7 1 0

1 ,3 5 0
1 ,4 8 5

104

1 ,2 7 4

1 ,4 4 5

1 ,3 7 5
1 ,5 6 6

1 ,6 0 7
1 ,8 9 6

47

103

2 ,0 4 0

1 ,8 5 8
2 ,1 6 7

2 ,2 4 5
2 ,5 8 0

53
56

103

2 ,3 5 8

58

102

2 2 ,7 3 7
8 ,4 9 7

2 ,7 5 3
3 ,1 0 5

2 ,7 0 8

2 ,5 0 0

2 ,9 6 5

3 ,0 7 5

62

102
102

3 ,5 7 2

3 ,5 0 0

2 ,8 5 0
3 ,2 0 7

3 ,3 1 4

2 ,3 4 3

3 ,8 2 0

64

102

See fo o tn o te s at end o f table.




1 ,1 4 5

16

Table 3. Average salaries: Establishments employing 2,500 workers or more— Continued
(E m p lo y m e n t and average m o n th ly salaries fo r selected p ro fessio nal, ad m in istrative , te c h n ica l, and cle ric a l o cc u p a tio n s in p rivate in d u s try ,1 in estab lishm ents em p lo y in g 2 ,5 0 0 w o rk e rs o r m ore,2
U n ite d States ex ce p t A la sk a and H aw aii, M arch 1978)
Levels in establishm ents
em p lo y in g 2 ,5 0 0 w o rkers
o r m ore expressed as
percen t o f those in all
estab lishm ents com b in e d

M o n th ly salaries5
O cc u p a tio n and level1
3
2

T E C H N IC A L
E N G IN E E R IN G
E N G IN E E R IN G
E N G IN E E R IN G
E N G IN E E R IN G
E N G IN E E R IN G

O PERATO RS
O PERATO RS
OPERATO RS
O PERATO RS
O PERATO RS
O PERATO RS

M id d le range6
Mean

M edian

F irs t
q u a rtile

T h ird
q u a rtile

E m p lo y m e n t

Mean
salaries

SUPPO RT

T E C H N IC IA N S
T E C H N IC IA N S
T E C H N IC IA N S
T E C H N IC IA N S
T E C H N IC IA N S

I ....................................
I I .................................
III
..............................
I V .................................
V ....................................

D R A F T E R - T R A C E R S ...............................................................
D R A F T E R S I .............................................................................
D R A F T E R S I I ..........................................................................
DRAFTERS I I I
.......................................................................
COM PUTER
COMPUTER
COM PUTER
CO M PUTER
CO M PUTER
COM PUTER

N u m b er
of
em p lo yee s4

I ..................................................
I I ...............................................
III
............................................
I V ...............................................
V ..................................................
V I ...............................................

1 ,8 6 1
5 ,7 0 9

$960
1 ,0 6 3

* 800

$1 , 0 8 6

1 ,0 3 6

925

1 0 ,7 8 6

1 ,2 0 0

1 ,1 9 6

1 ,0 5 3

1 ,1 8 0
1 ,3 6 9

$ 906

62
61

108
107
102
102

1 6 ,2 6 3

1 ,3 9 1

1 ,3 9 6

1 ,2 7 0

1 ,5 1 2

63
56

1 2 ,5 7 7

1 ,5 7 0

1 ,5 6 6

1 ,6 2 0

1 ,7 1 0

70

101

I , 586

921

5 ,9 2 8
8 ,7 6 1

1 ,0 6 0

967
1 ,0 0 6

773
862

1 ,0 3 5
1 ,1 7 8

30
36

113
111

1 ,2 5 8

1 ,2 6 8

1 ,0 9 1

1 ,6 0 1

32

110

1 1 ,3 9 6

1 ,5 6 6

1 .6 9 1

1 ,3 1 0

1 ,7 0 7

61

110

1 ,2 1 3

799

776

683

882

23

112

2 ,2 1 6

970

1 ,0 2 1

860

1 ,0 5 1

31

112

6 ,0 1 1
5 ,5 0 5

1 , 166
1 ,3 9 2

26

1 ,6 7 7

67
61

113
109

1 ,0 6 0

1 ,0 6 1

917

1 ,2 5 0
1 ,3 6 9

1 ,2 2 0

1 ,0 7 3

1 ,7 3 3

1 ,3 6 1

652

1 ,5 0 6

1 ,6 7 7

1 ,2 1 0
1 ,3 6 1

1 ,6 3 5

1 5 ,0 0 5
1 5 ,6 0 7

867

856

695

1 ,0 0 6

17

120

1 ,0 6 6

1 ,0 3 8

869

1 ,2 1 8

21

116

2 ,3 5 7

616

511

677

8

111

2 ,7 8 2
1 ,9 2 5

552
673

888

881

21
66

113
105

18
29

36

105
99

C LE R IC A L
CLERKS,
CLERKS,
CLERKS,
CLERKS,
CLERKS,

A C C O U N T I N G I ..................................................
A C C O U N T I N G 11 ...............................................
F ILE
I ..................................................................
F ILE
I I ...............................................................
F ILE
III
............................................................

765

KEY

EN TRY

O PERATO RS

I ..................................................

1 1 ,8 0 0

ENTRY

O PERATO RS

I I ...............................................

1 2 ,6 3 6
5 ,0 6 8
1 1 ,0 9 0

976

25

122
111
108

750

990

28

108

825

1 ,0 9 5

32

1 ,1 9 8
1 ,3 6 7

35

108

31

111

2 9 ,2 7 2

1 ,0 6 6

1 ,0 3 7

915

1 6 ,5 2 6
5 ,3 6 5

1 ,2 0 6

1 ,1 9 0
1 ,3 3 8

1 ,0 6 6

822

109

1 ,3 6 7
856

1 ,1 8 0

1 ,6 9 2

30

112

1 1 ,0 1 5

951

963

695
792

990

1 2 ,8 8 0

1 ,0 8 3

62
67

106
106

9 ,3 2 1
1 0 ,2 8 7

715
826

673

586
652

806
969

23

775

61

110
107

1 F o r scope o f stu d y , see tab le A-1 in a p p en d ix A .
2 Includes data fro m 6 large com p anies th a t p ro v id e c o m p a n y w id e data n o t id e n tifie d
b y size o f establishm ent.
3 O cc u p a tio n a l d e fin itio n s appear in a p p en d ix C.
4 O cc u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t estim ates relate to th e to tal in all estab lishm ents w ith in
the scope o f the survey and n o t to the n u m b e r a c tu a lly surveyed. F o r fu rth e r e x p la n a tio n , see
a p p end ix A .




785

867

685
886

2 3 ,7 8 1

687
769
567

967

936

M E S S E N G E R S .............................................................................
S E C R E T A R I E S I .....................................................................
S E C R E T A R IE S I I
..................................................................
S E C R E T A R IE S I I I
...............................................................
S E C R E T A R I E S I V ..................................................................
S E C R E T A R I E S V .....................................................................
S T E N O G R A P H E R S , g e n e r a l ............................................
S T E N O G R A P H E R S , S E N I O R ...............................................
T Y P I S T S I ................................................................................
T Y P IS T S I I
.............................................................................

903
630

872

KEY

572
700

1 ,0 6 6
1 ,0 1 7
1 ,0 6 9

861
863

5 Salaries re p orted are standard salaries p aid f o r standard w o rk schedules; i.e., the
straight-tim e salary c o rre sp o n d in g to th e e m p lo y ee 's n o rm al w o rk sched ule ex clu d in g overtim e
hours. N o n p ro d u c tio n bonuses are e x clu d e d , b u t c o st-o f-liv in g p aym e nts and in ce n tive earn­
ings are includ ed .
6 T h e m id d le range (in te rq u a rtile ) is the central p art o f the array ex clu d in g th e up p er
and lo w e r fo u rth s o f the e m p lo y e e d is trib u tio n .

17

Table 4. Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations
(Percent d is trib u tio n o f em p lo y ee s in selected p ro fessio nal and a d m in istra tive o cc u p a tio n s b y m o n th ly salary. U n ite d S tates e x ce p t A la sk a and H a w a ii,1 M a rch 1978)

A cc o u n ta n ts

C h ie f acco un tants

A u d it o r s

M o n th ly salary
II

III

IV

1 .6

-

-

-

-

1 .2

-

-

-

~

3 .7
3 .4
1 .8
3 .6

(0 .9 )

_
~
-

5 .7
1 .9
6 .6
5 .5

1 .1
.3
2 .3
2 .5

-

_

~
-

~
-

-

“

1 0 .6
1 2 .4
1 2 .0
5 .4
5 .3

8 .6
5 .7
9 .6
8 .3
9 .6

4 .5
3 .7
3 .0
3 .1
1 .3

1
UNDER

$800

..................................

AND UNDER
AND U N D ER
AND UNDER
AND U N D E R

$825
$850
$875
$900

.......................

2 .2
3 .6
4 .7
2 .0

$900
$925
$950
$975

AND
AND
AND
AND

$925 . . . . • • • • • • • • •
$950 . . . .
$975 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
$ 1 , 0 0 0 . . .......................

5 .0
3 .9
6 .2
6 .4

•••••••••

1 1 .9
1 2 .3
1 3 .0
9 .7
5 .7

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

• ••••••••
• ••••••••
......................

$800
$825
$850
$875

$ 1 ,0 0 0
$ 1 ,0 5 0
$ 1 ,1 0 0
$ 1 ,1 5 0
$ 1 ,2 0 0

AND UNDER
AND UNDER
AND UNDER
AND UNDER
AND UNDER

$ 1 ,0 5 0
$ 1 ,1 0 0
$ 1 ,1 5 0
$ 1 ,2 0 0
$ 1 ,2 5 0

$ 1 ,2 5 0
$ 1 ,3 0 0
$ 1 ,3 5 0
$ 1 ,4 0 0
$ 1 ,4 5 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 ,3 0 0
$ 1 ,3 5 0
$ 1 ,4 0 0
$ 1 ,4 5 0
$ 1 ,5 0 0

$ 1 ,5 0 0
$ 1 ,5 5 0
$ 1 ,6 0 0
$ 1 ,6 5 0
$ 1 ,7 0 0

AND UNDER
AND UND ER
AND UNDER
AND UN D ER
AND U ND ER

$ 1 ,5 5 0
$ 1 ,6 0 0
$ 1 ,6 5 0
$ 1 ,7 0 0
$ 1 ,7 5 0

$ 1 ,7 5 0
$ 1 ,8 3 3
$ 1 ,8 5 0
$ 1 ,9 0 0
$ 1 ,9 5 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 ,8 0 0
$ 1 ,8 5 0
$ 1 ,9 0 0
$ 1 ,9 5 0
$ 2 ,0 0 0

$ 2 ,0 0 0
$ 2 ,0 5 0
$ 2 ,1 0 0
$ 2 ,1 5 0
$ 2 ,2 0 0

AND UNDER
AND UNDER
AND UNDER
AND UNDER
AND UNDER

$ 2 ,0 5 0
$ 2 ,1 0 0
$ 2 ,1 5 0
$ 2 ,2 0 0
$ 2 ,2 5 0

$ 2 ,2 5 0
$ 2 ,3 0 0
$ 2 ,3 5 0
$ 2 ,4 0 0
$ 2 ,4 5 0

AN D UNDER
AN 0 UNDER
AND UNDER
AND UNDER
AND UNDER

$ 2 ,3 0 0
$ 2 ,3 5 0
$ 2 ,4 0 0
$ 2 ,4 5 0
$ 2 ,5 0 0

$ 2 ,5 0 0
$ 2 ,6 0 0
$ 2 ,7 0 0
$ 2 ,8 0 0
$ 2 ,9 0 0

AND UNDER
AND UN D ER
AN D UNDER
AN D UNDER
AND UNDER

$ 2 ,6 0 0
$ 2 ,7 0 0
$ 2 ,8 0 0
$ 2 ,9 0 0
$ 3 ,0 0 0

$ 3 ,0 0 0
$ 3 ,1 0 0
$ 3 ,2 0 0
$ 3 ,3 0 0
$ 3 ,4 0 0

AND UNDER
AND UNDER
AND UNDER
AND UN O ER
AND UN D ER

$ 3 ,1 0 0
$ 3 ,2 0 0
$ 3 ,3 0 0
$ 3 ,4 0 0
$ 3 ,5 0 0

$ 3 ,5 0 0
$ 3 ,6 0 0
$ 3 ,7 0 0
$ 3 ,8 0 0
$ 3 ,9 0 0

AND UNO ER
AND UNDER
AND UNO ER
AND U NO ER
AN D U NO ER

$ 3 ,6 0 0
$ 3 ,7 0 0
$ 3 ,8 0 0
$ 3 ,9 0 0
$ 4 ,0 0 0

$ 4 ,0 0 0
$ 4 ,1 0 0
$ 4 ,2 0 0
$ 4 ,3 0 0
$ 4 ,4 0 0

AND UNDER
A N D U NO ER
AND UNDER
AN D UNO ER
AND UNDER

$ 4 ,1 0 0
$ 4 ,2 0 0
$ 4 ,3 0 0
$ 4 ,4 0 0
$ 4 ,5 0 0

•••••••••
• ••••••••

$ 4 ,5 0 0

AND

$ 4 ,6 0 0

TUTAL

NUM BER
AVERAGE

OF

UNDER

..............
.......................

• ••••••••

-

..............

EM PLO YEES

• ••••••••

-

_

_

(2 .5 )
1 .2
2 .2

-

4 .9
5 .4
1 0 .0
1 0 .7
1 0 .2

6 .2
8 .4
6 .9
8 .3
8 .9

-

-

(1 .7 )
1 .0
2 .0
3 .7

-

3 .6
3 .6
3 .1
5 .6
2 .0

7. 5
7 .0
5 .5
6 .0
3 .8

4 .8
4 .8
7 .2
8 .4
6 .8

(1 .9 )
1 .1
1 .4

1 .0
1 .1
(0 .7 )
-

3 .6
3 .4
2 .2
2 .5
1 .9

7 .9
8 .2
6 .5
6 .0
5 .7

1 .9
3 .5
2 .5
3 .5
4 .3

1 .3
(2 .3 )

5 .1
5 .1
2 .8
2 .1
2 .6

5 .7
4 .7
5 .8
6 .1
5 .2

2 .3
1 .4
1 .0
(3 .0 )

5 .6
6 .4
6 .6
6 .7
3 .7

-

-

-

-

(1 .3 )
1 .4
1 .9
3 .7
5 .8

_

8 .4
7 .3
5 .6
5 .9
5 .0

-

. . . . . . . . .

-

-

•••••••••

-

.......................

“

-

-

•••••••••
. . . . . . . . .

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

• ••••••••

-

-

-

-

II

III

IV

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

~

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

*

*

-

-

~
-

II

III

IV

-

-

_

-

-

-

(0 .3 )

-

-

1 .0
.7
. e
1 .5
5 .7

-

-

-

-

8 .6
5 .2
5 .7
4 .4
7 .4

4 .3
5 .4
6 .6
8 .1
9 .0

_

_
-

-

-

-

-

*

.8
.7
.9
2 .6
(0 .3 )

4 .2
1 .5
2 .2
1 .9
2 .6

9 .0
7 .9
6 .2
6 .4
6 .8

2
3
4
6
8

.5
.4
.1
.5
.2

1 .2
2 .8
7 .9
3 .5
3 .8

_

-

1 .9

*

-

-

1 .6
.9
.8
1 .9
1 .5

3
4
2
2
2

7 .0
8 .4
7 .2
7 .6
3 .8

1 .0
1 3 .9
1 3 .3
6 .9
1 0 .9

5 .3
.7
.7
2 .4
.8

_

-

-

-

-

-

.6
.2
.8
.8
.0

(3 .0 )
1 .5

_
-

2 .1
-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

(0 .8 )
-

1 .2
(3 .9 )
-

5 .5
7 .0
2 .9
5 .0
3 .4

3 .7
7 .1
2 .5
8 .9
2 .6

5 .6
7 .4
1 .9
1 0 .1
9 .0

1 .1
2 .7
2 .3
-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

3 .4
.8
3 .3
1 .3
.9

1 .2
.6
1 .7
2 .3

4 .1
7 .7
4 .8
3 .5
6 .8

2 .3
2 .0
7 .1
1 .4
5 .4

1 .2
.8
1 .2
1 .2

7 .6
6 .2
2 .4
3 .5
.5

7 .5
1 2 .9
7 .9
1 2 .0
9 .5

4 .3
2 .3
8 .2
1 2 .9

2 .2
.2
.6
1 .5
(0 .6 )

1 .8
4 .5
3 .2
2 .1
3 .6

5 .5
7 .8
1 2 .5
8 .2
4 .7
2 .3
3 .5
8 .2
3 .1
.4

-

-

7 .9
4 .9
4 .4
2 .3
1 .9

-

-

—
-

.8
1 .4
(1 .1 )
—

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1 .6
.8
.4
-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

~
-

-

(2 .0 )
-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1 .6
.7
.5
.5
2 .9

_

_

-

-

-

-

_

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.................

-

-

4 .1
( 0 .2 )
-

6 .3
1 .6
3 .9
-

..........

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1 .2

•••••••••

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.......................
• ••••••
• ••••••••
.......................

-

..........
.......................
• ••••••••

..........

—
*

*

1 0 0 .0

-

-

.4

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 7 ,1 5 6

3 1 ,9 8 9

2 0 ,2 8 7

7 ,3 5 1

1 ,5 8 9

2 ,8 3 7

4 ,9 4 7

3 ,1 8 4

836

1 ,0 8 0

560

256

$ 1 ,0 6 5

$ 1 ,3 0 6

$ 1 ,5 1 0

$ 1 ,8 3 6

$ 2 ,2 7 5

$ 1 , 104

$ 1 ,3 0 8

$ 1 ,5 6 3

$ 1 ,9 2 4

$ 1 ,9 6 3

$ 2 ,3 1 4

$ 2 ,8 4 7

$ 3 ,3 2 5

18

1 0 0 .0

*

9 ,6 5 8

..........

1 0 0 .0

-

See fo o tn o te s at end o f table.




1

*

-

. . . .

SALARY

-

................................. .......................

M O N THLY

3 .3
3 .4
1 .7
(3 .3 )

V

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

Table 4. Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations—
Continued
(Percent d is trib u tio n o f e m p lo yee s in selected pro fessio nal and a d m in istra tive o cc u p a tio n s b y m o n th ly salary, U n ite d S tates e x ce p t A la sk a and H a w a ii,1 M a rch 1978)
A tto rn e y s
M o n th ly salary
II

III

IV

V

3 .4

-

-

-

-

-

1
$975

AND

UNDER

$ 1 ,0 0 0

VI

$ 1 ,0 0 0
$ 1 , C 50
$ 1 , 100
$ 1 ,1 5 0
$ 1 ,2 0 0

AND
AN D
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 ,0 5 0
$ 1 ,1 0 0
$ 1 ,1 5 0
$ 1 ,2 0 0
$ 1 , 2 50

1. 7
2 .7

-

-

-

-

-

1 3 .0
5 .2

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

$ 1 ,2 5 0
$ 1 ,3 0 0
$ 1 ,3 5 0
$ 1 ,4 0 0
$ 1 ,4 5 0

AND

$ 1 ,3 0 0
$ 1 ,3 5 0
$ 1 ,9 0 0
$ 1 ,4 5 0
$ 1 ,5 0 0

2 .2
9 .1
4 .9
6 .3
7 .1

.3
1 .3
1 .7
2 .2
7 .0

-

-

AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

1 .7

*

$ 1 ,5 0 0
$ 1 ,5 5 0
$ 1 ,6 0 0
$ 1 ,6 5 0
$ 1 ,7 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 ,5 5 0
$ 1 ,6 0 0
$ 1 ,6 5 0
$ 1 ,7 0 0
$ 1 ,7 5 0

6 .2
7 .9
3 .9
5 .7
1 .5

8 .2
5 .4
4 .7
7 .2
7 .5

.1
.8
1 .2
2 .4
.8

-

$ 1 ,7 5 0
$ 1 ,8 0 0
$ 1 ,8 5 0
$ 1 ,9 0 0
$ 1 ,9 5 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 ,8 0 0
$ 1 ,8 5 0
$ 1 ,9 0 0
$ 1 ,9 5 0
$ 2 ,0 0 0

2 .0
1 .4
8 .3
2 .7

9 .0
8 .8
4 .7
3 .6
6 .4

1 .4
3 .5
5 .3
2 .5
3 .3

-

(1 .2 )
1 .1

$ 2 , OoO
$ 2 ,0 5 0
$ 2 ,1 0 0
$ 2 ,1 5 0
$ 2 ,2 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 ,0 5 0
$ 2 ,1 0 0
$ 2 ,1 5 0
$ 2 ,2 0 0
$ 2 ,2 5 0

1 .0
2 .3
1 0 .9 )
-

2 .5
4 .2
3 .3
4 .6
1 .0

4 .4
3 .8
4 .9
3 .4
5 .7

.8
1 .0
.6
2 .3
2 .0

$ 2 ,2 5 0
$ 2 ,3 0 0
$ 2 ,3 5 0
$ 2 ,4 0 0
$ 2 ,4 5 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 ,3 0 0
$ 2 ,3 5 0
$ 2 ,4 0 0
$ 2 ,4 5 0
$ 2 ,5 0 0

•
-

.4
2 .5
(3 .6 )
-

5 .9
5 .5
3 .5
5 .6
5 .6

2 .6
2 .2
3 .6
6 .9
6 .4

(1 .2 )

$ 2 ,5 0 0
$ 2 ,6 J0
$ 2 ,7 0 0
$ 2 ,8 0 0
$ 2 ,9 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UN0ER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 ,6 0 0
$ 2 ,7 0 0
$ 2 ,8 0 0
$ 2 ,9 0 0
$ 3 ,0 0 0

_

_

-

-

4 .8
7 .3
4 .9
3 .9
1 .6

8 .1
7 .7
8. 8
6 .6
7 .2

1 .0
2 .9
1 .3
3 .0
8 .2

1 .2
.3
.8
.8

$ 3 ,0 0 0
$ 3 ,1 0 0
$ 3 ,2 0 0
$ 3 ,3 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 3 ,1 0 0
$ 3 ,2 0 0
$ 3 ,3 0 0
$ 3 ,4 0 0

.6
.7
.2
.0

6 .9
4 .5
6 .3
1 0 .2

.3
.8
2 .0
.9

$ 3 ,4 0 0

AN O

UNDER

$ 3 ,5 0 0

$ 3 ,5 0 0
$ 3 ,6 0 0
$ 3 ,7 0 0
$ 3 ,8 0 0
$ 3 ,9 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 3 ,6 0 0
$ 3 ,7 0 0
$ 3 ,8 0 0
$ 3 ,9 0 0
$ 4 ,0 0 0

$ 4 ,0 0 0
$ 4 ,1 0 0
$ 4 ,2 0 0
$ 4 ,3 0 0
$ 4 ,4 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 4 ,1 0 0
$ 4 ,2 0 0
$ 4 ,3 0 0
$ 4 ,4 0 0
$ 4 ,5 0 0

$ 4 ,5 0 0
$ 4 ,6 0 0
$ 4 ,7 0 0
$ 4 ,8 0 0
$ 4 ,9 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
ANO

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
U NO ER

$ 4 ,6 0 0
$ 4 ,7 0 0
$ 4 ,8 0 0
$ 4 ,9 0 0
$ 5 ,0 0 0

$ 5 ,0 0 0
$5, 100
$ 5 ,2 0 0
$ 5 ,3 0 0
$ 5 ,4 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
U NO ER
UNDER

$ 5 ,1 0 0
$ 5 ,2 0 0
$ 5 ,3 0 0
$ 5 ,4 0 0
$ 5 ,5 0 0

$ 5 ,5 0 0
$ 5 ,6 0 0
$ 5 ,7 0 0
$ 5 ,8 0 0
$ 5 ,9 0 0

ANO
ANO
AND
ANO
AND

UNDER
UNO ER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 5 ,6 0 0
$ 5 ,7 0 0
$ 5 ,8 0 0
$ 5 ,9 0 0
$ 6 ,0 0 0

$ 6 ,0 0 0

AN D

O V E R ................. .

and

NUMBER

OF

-

-

-

-

“
_
-

2 .1
2 .0
1 .6
(0 .7 )

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

7
4
3
4

“

"
-

-

-

-

-

—

-

-

-

-

-

4 .1

6 .0

4 .7

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

2 .0
1 .5
1 .1
(2 .7 )
-

5 .2
7 .4
8 .6
4 .0
6 .3

2 .5
4 .5
1 .9
2 .8
5 .1

_

_

3 .2
5 .4
1 .0
1 .6
1 .4

1 6 .8
2 .5
2 .8
4 .2
1 3 .1

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_
_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
—

-

-

-

:

J,

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

*

-

.2

-

-

-

-

-

2 .3

-

—

-

.8
.5
1 .0
1 2 .3 )

3 .1
2 .0
8 .1
1 .2
2 .5

-

1 .4
1 .4
1 .4
1 .4
1 .9

_
-

-

—

—

—
-

"

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

-

1 0 0 .0

.8
1 .9
2 .0

1 0 0 .0

..

1 ,4 9 8

2 ,5 4 8

2 ,8 8 3

2 ,7 2 4

1 ,8 6 2

642

SALARY

$ 1 ,4 7 4

$ 1 ,8 0 9

$ 2 ,3 1 1

$ 2 ,7 9 6

$ 3 ,5 2 7

$ 4 ,3 1 7

EM PLO YEES

M O N TH LY

-

_

1 0 0 .0

TOTAL

AVERAGE

-

*

See fo o tn o te s at end o f table.




19

Table 4. Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations—
Continued
(Percent d is trib u tio n o f em p lo yee s in selected pro fessio nal and a d m in istra tive o cc u p a tio n s by m o n th ly salary, U n ite d States e x ce p t A la sk a and H a w a ii,1 M arch 1978)

B uyers
M o n th ly salary
i

II

III

IV

UNDER $ 7 2
$ 7 2 5 AND
$ 7 5 0 AND
$ 7 7 5 AND

5 ..........................................................
U N D E R $ 7 5 0 ..................................
U N D E R $ 7 7 5 ..................................
U N D E R $ 8 0 0 .................................

1 .2
1 .0
1 .5
2 .8

_

-

~

-

*

~

$800
$825
$850
$875

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$825
$850
$875
$900

..................................
..................................
..................................
..................................

1 .9
3 .9
5 .8
6 .5

-

-

$900
$925
$950
$975

AND
AND
ANU
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 9 2 5 ..................................
$ 9 5 0 ..................................
$ 9 7 5 ..................................
$ 1 , 0 0 0 ............................

5 .2
2 .6
5 .6
5 .7

-

-

“
-

-

(2 .8 )
1 .1
1. 1

~

( 1 .8 )
1 .1
3. 1

-

“
~
~
-

$ 1 ,0 0 0
$ 1 ,0 5 0
$ 1 ,1 0 0
$ 1 ,1 5 0
$ 1 ,2 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 ,0 5 0
$ 1 ,1 0 0
$ 1 ,1 5 0
$ 1 ,2 0 0
$ 1 ,2 5 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

1 0 .5
7 .9
8 .9
5 .6
6 .3

2 .6
9 .0
6 .9
7 .8
9 .6

$ 1 ,2 5 0
$ 1 ,3 0 0
$ 1 ,3 5 0
$ 1 ,9 0 0
$ 1 ,9 5 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 ,3 0 0
$ 1 ,3 5 0
$ 1 ,9 0 0
$ 1 ,9 5 0
$ 1 ,5 0 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

2 .3
3 .7
3 .2
1 .5
2 .8

9 .5
1 0 .5
7 .3
7 .1
6 .5

3 .9
9 .5
9 .9
6 .0
8 .3

( 1 .7 )
1 .0
2 .8

$ 1 ,5 0 0
$ 1 ,5 5 0
$ 1 ,6 0 0
$ 1 ,6 5 0
$ 1 ,7 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AN0
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 ,5 5 0
$ 1 ,6 0 0
$ 1 ,6 5 0
$ 1 ,7 0 0
$ 1 ,7 5 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

1 .3
1 .0
(2 .9 )
-

5 .6
9 .7
2 .9
2 .1
2 .1

8 .0
7 .2
9 .0
6 .6
6 .8

2 .8
2 .8
9 .2
9 .9
5 .7

$ 1 ,7 5 0
$ 1 ,8 0 0
$ 1 ,8 5 0
$ 1 ,9 0 0
$ 1 ,9 5 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 ,8 0 0
$ 1 ,8 5 0
$ 1 ,9 0 0
$ 1 ,9 5 0
$ 2 ,0 0 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

-

1 .7
(9 .9 )

-

5 .2
5 .9
3 .2
2 .9
3 .1

6 .5
6 .1
7 .3
6 .2
5 .1

$ 2 ,0 3 0
$ 2 ,0 5 0
$ 2 ,1 0 0
$ 2 ,1 5 0
$ 2 ,2 0 0

AND U N D ER
AND UNDER
AND U N 0ER
AND UNDER
AND UNDER

$ 2 ,0 5 0
$ 2 ,1 0 0
$ 2 ,1 5 0
$ 2 ,2 0 0
$ 2 ,2 5 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

-

-

~

~

1 .9
1 .6
1 .7
1 .0
1 .0

3 .7
5 .6
9 .2
9 .5
9 .5

$ 2 ,2 5 0
$ 2 ,3 0 0
$ 2 ,3 5 0
$ 2 ,9 0 0
$ 2 ,9 5 0

AND UNDER
AND UNDER
AND UNDER
AND UNDER
AN 0 UNDER

$ 2 ,3 0 0
$ 2 ,3 5 0
$ 2 ,9 0 0
$ 2 ,9 5 0
$ 2 ,5 0 0

.......................

-

-

(2 .7 )

2 .8

..........................

-

-

.......................

-

-

2 .6
2 .9

$ 2 ,5 0 0

AND

OF

..........................

“

“

..................................................

-

-

..........................................................

EM PLO YEES

M O N THLY

..................................

SALAR Y

. . . . . . . . . .

-

1 .6

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 00 .0

5 ,3 9 5

1 9 ,9 7 2

1 5 ,2 8 9

9 ,5 9 9

$ 1 ,0 7 9

$ 1 ,3 5 0

$ 1 ,6 3 2

$ 1 ,9 8 8

See fo o tn o te s a t end o f table.




2 .3

CO

NUM BER
AVERAGE

..........................

CO

TOTAL

OVER

~

-

20

Table 4. Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupationsContinued
(Percent d is trib u tio n o f em p lo yee s in selected professional and a d m in istra tive o cc u p a tio n s b y m o n th ly salary, U n ite d States e x ce p t A la sk a and H a w a ii,1 M arch 1978)

D ire c to rs o f personnel

J o b analysts
M o n th ly salary

UNDER
$900
$925
$950
$975

II

-

-

-

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$925
$950
$975
$ 1 ,0 0

..................................
..................................
..................................
0 ............................

-

-

-

-

1 .5
3 .8
4 .7
1 1 .5

_
( 1 .4 )
1 .6

-

-

_

-

-

-

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 ,0 5 0
$ 1 ,1 0 0
$ 1 ,1 5 0
$ 1 ,2 0 0
$ 1 ,2 5 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

8 .3
1 5 .9
1 4 .5
5 .0
7 .7

.7
3 .0

$ 1 ,2 5 0
$ 1 ,3 0 0
$ 1 ,3 5 3
$ 1, 400
$ 1 ,4 5 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 ,3 0 0
$ 1 ,3 5 0
$ 1 ,4 0 0
$ 1 ,4 5 0
$ 1 ,5 0 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

6 .2
2 .9
2 .1
2 .9
2 .1

6 .6
6 .4
1 2 .8
1 0 .8
6 .3

$ 1 , 500
$ 1 ,5 5 0
$ 1 ,6 0 0
$ 1 ,6 5 0
$ 1 ,7 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AN O
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 ,5 5 0
$1 , 6 0 0
$ 1 ,6 5 0
$ 1 ,7 0 0
$ 1 ,7 5 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

3. 5
.6
1 .8
.9
.6

7 .5
8 .0
4 .0
4 .3
6 .8

$ 1 ,7 5 0
$ 1 ,8 0 3
$ 1 ,8 5 0
$ 1 ,9 0 0
$ 1 ,9 5 0

AND
AN O
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 ,8 0 0
$ 1 ,8 5 0
$ 1 ,9 0 0
$ 1 ,9 5 0
$ 2 ,0 0 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

1 .2
(1 .2 )
-

3 .3
3 .3
3 .3
2 .1
1 .6

$ 2 ,0 0 0
$ 2 ,0 5 0
$ 2 ,1 0 0
$ 2 ,1 5 0
$ 2 ,2 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 ,0 5 0
$ 2 ,1 0 0
$ 2 ,1 5 0
$ 2 ,2 0 0
$ 2 ,2 5 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

-

-

$ 2 ,2 5 0
$ 2 ,3 0 0
$ 2 ,3 5 0
$ 2 ,4 0 0
$ 2 ,4 5 0

AND
AN D
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 ,3 0 0
$ 2 ,3 5 0
$ 2 ,4 0 0
$ 2 ,4 5 0
$ 2 ,5 0 0

.......................
.......................
......................
.......................
.......................

_

_

-

-

$ 2 ,5 0 0
$ 2 ,6 0 0
$ 2 ,7 0 0
$ 2 ,8 0 0
$ 2 ,9 0 0

AN D U N D E R
AND UNDER
AND U N D E R
AND UNDER
AND U N D ER

$ 2 ,6 0 0
$ 2 ,7 0 0
$ 2 ,8 0 0
$ 2 ,9 0 0
$ 3 ,0 0 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

-

_

-

-

$ 3 ,0 0 0
$ 3 ,1 0 0
$ 3 ,2 0 0
$ 3 ,3 0 0
$ 3 ,4 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 3 ,1 0 0
$ 3 ,2 0 0
$ 3 ,3 0 0
$ 3 ,4 0 0
$ 3 ,5 0 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

$ 3 ,5 0 0
$ 3 ,6 0 0
$ 3 ,7 0 0
$ 3 ,8 0 0
$ 3 ,9 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 3 ,6 0 0
$ 3 ,7 0 0
$ 3 ,8 0 0
$ 3 ,9 0 0
$ 4 ,0 0 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

-

-

-

-

-

*

*

$ 4 ,0 0 0
$ 4 ,1 0 0
$ 4 ,2 0 0
$ 4 ,3 0 0
$ 4 ,4 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
U NO ER
UNDER

* 4 ,1 0 0
$ 4 ,2 0 0
$ 4 ,3 0 0
$ 4 ,4 0 0
$ 4 ,5 0 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

_

_

_

-

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

$ 4 ,5 0 0
$ 4 ,6 0 0

AND
AND

UNDER
OVER

$ 4 ,6 0 0

.......................

_

-

_

_

-

*

”

*

TOTAL

NUM BER
AVERAGE

OF

_

-

EM PLO YEES

M O NTHLY

..................................

SALARY

.........................

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1 .1
1 .9

-

5 .2
6 .0
.6
3 .3
1 0 .0

8 .6
3 .2
1 3 .8
5 .9
2 .3

.5
-

-

-

3 .2
2 .4
3 .3

-

-

6 .7
7 .9
1 0 .2
5 .0
3 .8

3 .9
3 .4
3 .2
5 .1
5 .8

3 .1
2 .1
1 .5
8 .4
9 .7

(0 .1 )
2 .2
.2
.9
2 .6

_

7 .5
3 .8
5 .2
4 .8
1 .9

1 .9
9 .7
6 .3
.7
.1

7 .7
6 .4
3 .5
4 .3
2 .6

_

-

1 .8
.9
2 .2
4 .7

-

2 .3
2 .5
.8
.8
.6

.6
1 .0
-

2 .7
4 .9
7 .0
1 .4
3 .2

1 0 .3
3 .1
4 .2
2 .7
7 .6

2 .3
1 .5
.2

.3
1 .0
1 .9
1 1 .9 )

2 .1
(0 .4 )
-

3 .2
3 .4
4 .5
1 .5
2 .3

6 .6
7 .3
7 .4
6 .0
6 .7

3 .1
4 .5
1 .7
3 .1

3 .6
2 .0
2 .7
3 .8
3 .5

9 .8
8 .4
5 .9
1 4 .7
5 .2

.6
2 .6
.6
1 .9
(1 .1 )

7 .7
4 .9
3. 1
3 .1
4 .2

-

2 .8
4 .9
2. 1
2 .1
.7

-

.2
.1

-

-

*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

*

-

.7
.5
1 .0
.2
1 .2

-

(0 .4 )

-

-

-

-

-

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

-

-

*

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

-

*

-

1 0 0 .0

-

(0 .3 )
3 .1
1 .4
-

2 .1
.7
1 0 0 .0

339

576

521

937

1 ,8 7 9

895

286

$ 1 ,1 7 0

$ 1 ,5 2 9

$ 1 ,8 8 5

$ 1 ,7 3 6

$ 2 ,1 8 7

$ 2 ,6 8 3

$ 3 ,4 0 3

See footnotes at end of table.




.9
7 .3
4 .9
.1
1 .0
2 .9
4 .5

(2 .5 )
1 .0
.6
3 .3

-

1 0 0 .0

*

-

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

-

.

_

-

$ 1 ,0 0 0
$ 1 ,0 5 0
$ 1 ,1 0 0
$ 1 ,1 5 0
$ 1 ,2 0 0

.3
.9
-

IV

-

_
-

IV

1 .2

$900
AND
AND
AND
AND

III

i

III

II

21

Table 4. Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations—
Continued
(Percent d is trib u tio n o f em p lo yee s in selected p ro fessio n al and a d m in istra tive o cc u p a tio n s b y m o n th ly salary, U n ite d States e x ce p t A la sk a and H a w a ii,1 M a rch 1978)

C he m ists
M o n th ly salary
1

II

III

IV

V

$725
$750
$775

AND UNDER
AND UNDER
AND U N D ER

$750
$775
$800

..................................
..................................
..................................

1 .1
.5
2 .2

$800
$825
$850
$875

AN 0 UNDER
AND U N D E R
AND UNDER
AND U N O ER

$825
$850
$875
$900

..................................
..................................
..................................
..................................

2 .4
3 .2
5 .1
2 .0

$900
$925
$950
$975

AND
AND
AND
AND

$925
$950
$975
$ 1 ,0 0

..................................
..................................
..................................
0 ............................

4 .1
2 .4
3 .1
3 .8

(1 .6 )
1 .8
1 .7

8 .6
6 .5
7 .8
1 0 .3
9. 1

4 .9
3 .8
3 .5
9 .4
6 .7
7 .4
1 0 .0
8 .3
7 .9
6 .9

3 .5
3 .9
5 .1
5 .6
7 .8

(2 .1 )
1 .2

5 .6
4 .3
3 .*
3 .4
3 .5

8 .6
8 .6
8 .9
7 .5
7 .0

1 .6
3 .1
3 .0
4 .6
5 .6

1 .6
1 .9
(2 .4 )
-

5 .3
4 .6
4 .2
3 .3
3 .0
1 .6
1 .7
1 .2
(2 .7 )

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

_

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 , 0 5 0 .......................
$ 1 , 1 0 0 .......................
$ 1 , 1 5 0 .......................
$ 1 , 2 0 0 .......................
$ 1 , 2 5 0 .......................

$ 1 ,2 5 0
$ 1 ,3 0 0
$ 1 ,3 5 0
$ 1 ,4 0 0
$ 1 ,4 5 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 ,3 0 0
$ 1 ,3 5 0
$ 1 ,4 0 0
$ 1 ,4 5 0
$ 1 ,5 0 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

7 .6
6 .6
4 .0
3. 1
4. 7

$ 1 ,5 0 0
$ 1 ,5 5 0
$ 1 ,6 0 0
$ 1 ,6 5 0
$ 1 ,7 0 0

ANO UNDER
AND UNDER
AND UNDER
AN D UNDER
ANO UN D ER

$ 1 ,5 5 0
$ 1 ,6 0 0
$ 1 ,6 5 0
$ 1 ,7 0 0
$ 1 ,7 5 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

(2 .0 )
-

$ 1 ,7 5 0
$ 1 ,8 0 0
$ 1 ,8 5 0
$ 1 ,9 0 0
$ 1 ,9 5 0

ANO UNDER
AND UNDER
AND UNDER
AND UNDER
AND UNDER

$ 1 ,8 0 0
$ 1 ,8 5 0
$ 1 ,9 0 0
$ 1 ,9 5 0
$ 2 ,0 0 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

$ 2 ,0 0 0
$ 2 ,0 5 0
$ 2 ,1 0 0
$ 2 ,1 5 0
$ 2 ,2 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
U NO ER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 ,0 5 0
$ 2 ,1 0 0
$ 2 ,1 5 0
$ 2 ,2 0 0
$ 2 ,2 5 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

-

-

-

-

$ 2 ,2 5 0
$ 2 ,3 0 0
$ 2 ,3 5 0
$ 2 ,4 0 0
$ 2 ,4 5 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

U NO ER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 ,3 0 0
$ 2 ,3 5 0
$ 2 ,4 0 0
$ 2 ,4 5 0
$ 2 ,5 0 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.................... ..
.......................

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

*

-

-

(0 .5 )
1 .6
2 .3
1 .4

-

$ 2 ,5 0 0
$ 2 ,6 0 0
$ 2 ,7 0 0
$ 2 ,8 0 0
$ 2 ,9 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNO ER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 ,6 0 0
$ 2 ,7 0 0
$ 2 ,8 0 0
$ 2 ,9 0 0
$ 3 ,0 0 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

-

$ 3 ,0 0 0
$ 3 ,1 0 0
$ 3 ,2 0 0
$ 3 ,3 0 0
$ 3 ,4 3 0

AND
ANO
AND
AND
ANO

UNDER
U NO ER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 3 ,1 0 0
$ 3 ,2 0 0
$ 3 ,3 0 0
$ 3 ,4 0 0
$ 3 ,5 0 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

-

-

-

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNO ER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 3 ,6 0 0
$ 3 ,7 0 0
$ 3 ,8 0 0
$ 3 ,9 0 0
$ 4 ,0 0 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

-

-

-

-

-

-

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

U NO ER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 4 ,1 0 0
$ 4 ,2 0 0
$ 4 ,3 0 0
$ 4 ,4 0 0
$ 4 ,5 0 0

.......................

-

-

..........................

AND UNDER
AND UNDER
AND UNDER
AN D UNDER
AND U N D E R

$ 4 ,6 0 0
$ 4 ,7 0 0
$ 4 ,8 0 0
$ 4 ,9 0 0
$ 5 ,0 0 0

..........................

-

-

..........................

-

-

$ 5 ,0 0 0
$ 5 ,1 0 0
$ 5 ,2 0 0
$ 5 ,3 0 0
$ 5 ,4 0 0

AND UNDER
AND UND ER
AND UNDER
AND UNDER
ANO U N D ER

$ 5 ,1 0 0
$ 5 ,2 0 0
$ 5 ,3 0 0
$ 5 ,4 0 0
$ 5 ,5 0 0

$ 5 ,5 0 0
$ 5 ,6 0 0

AND
ANO

U N D E R $ 5 , 6 0 0 ..........................
O V E R ...................................................

TOTAL

..................................................................

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

_

_

NUMBER
AVERAGE

OF

EM PLO YEES

M O N TH LY

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6 .1
8 .1
7 .3
3 .0
9 .0

(3 .3 )
1 .2
2 .0
1 .8
3 .7

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

5 .4
6 .6
4 .4
6 .0
3 .2

4 .0
4 .7
5 .8
4 .6
6 .4

•

_

_

(2 .4 )
1 .0
1 .6
1 .5

_

-

-

-

2 .9
3 .4
1 .9
1 .4
1 .6

6 .6
5 .2
5 .3
5 .1
7 .4

3 .4
2 .7
2 .8
4 .2
5 .1

2 .2
1 1 .4 )
-

9 .4
7 .1
5 .5
3 .8
2 .9

1 2 .4
1 1 .3
1 1 .8
8 .1
7 .9

4 .4
5 .2
4 .7
3 .6
1 7 .6

(0 .5 )
1 .0

1 .4
1 .2
(1 .5 )
-

4 .4
5 .9
5 .3
2 .0
1 .9

1 1 .2
6 .1
4 .5
7 .6
6 .3

1 .3
1 .8
1 0 .3
2 .0
1 2 .5

1 .3
1 .1
(2 .0 )
-

4 .9
3 .4
3 .4
3 .3
1 .6

1 0 .3
2 .5
5 .5
5 .5
1 .8

1 .1
1 .0
1 .0
.9

9 .8
4 .0
1 0 .5
3 .0
4 .0

-

-

-

-

“

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

~
-

_
(0 .7 )
1 .0
1 .2
.4

-

-

-

-

•“
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1 .3
(2 .9 )

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

—

-

-

1 .3

“

*

1 .5

-

..........................

”

..........................

.7

*
-

..........................

-

..........................

“

“

..........................

-

-

-

-

..........................

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

..........................
-

-

*

-

-

“

“

-

-

-

*

“

..........................

.............................

-

-

-

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

—
-

1 0 0 .0

-

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

3 .0
.8
2 .8
.5
1 .3
1 .3
1 .3
.3
.3

1 0 0 .0

2 ,45$

4 ,1 3 5

8 ,6 3 8

9 ,8 8 7

7 ,5 8 3

3 ,5 3 9

1 ,2 2 3

400

$ 1 ,1 2 4

$ 1 ,3 6 1

$ 1 ,6 2 1

$ 1 ,9 6 1

$ 2 ,3 7 5

$ 2 ,7 5 9

$3 ,2 4 4

$ 3 ,9 3 0

See f o o tn o te s at end o f table.




-

-

-

..........................

..........................

-

-

-

_

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

~

..........................

.......................................

SALARY

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

$ 4 ,5 0 0
$ 4 ,6 0 0
$ 4 ,7 0 0
$ 4 ,8 0 0
$ 4 ,9 0 0

~

-

-

“

$ 4 ,0 0 0
$ 4 ,1 0 0
$ 4 ,2 0 0
$ 4 ,3 0 0
$ 4 ,4 0 0

-

-

-

*

$ 3 ,5 0 0
$ 3 ,6 0 0
$ 3 ,7 0 0
$ 3 ,8 0 0
$ 3 ,9 0 0

-

-

-

_

-

V III

V II

-

$ 1 ,0 0 0
$ 1 ,0 5 0
$ 1 ,1 0 0
$ 1 ,1 5 0
$ 1 ,2 0 0

-

VI

22

Table 4. Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations—
Continued
(Percent d is trib u tio n o f e m p lo yee s in selected pro fessio nal and a d m in istra tive o cc u p a tio n s b y m o n th ly salary. U n ite d States e x ce p t A la sk a and H a w a ii,' M arch 1978)

1
UNDEK

S i. 000

...

II

III

IV

V

VI

V II

V III

1 .0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

S I , 000
S i , 050
$ 1 ,1 0 0
S I , 150
S I ,200

AN0
AND
AND
AND
AND

U NO ER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
U N O ER

$1 , 0 5 0
$ 1 ,1 0 0
$ 1 ,1 5 0
$1 , 2 0 C
$ 1 ,2 5 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

1 .8
2 .6
4. 1
8 .0
1 3 .7

-

-

-

( 1 .4 1
1 .7
3 .0
4 .0

-

-

-

—
-

-

(1 .3 )

*

S I ,250
S I , 300
S I ,350
$ 1 ,4 0 0
$ 1 ,4 5 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNO ER
UNDER
UNDER
UNO ER
UNDER

$1 , 3 0 0
$ 1 ,3 5 0
$ 1 ,4 0 0
$ 1 ,4 5 0
$ 1 ,5 0 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

1 3 .3
1 3 .2
1 2 .3
9 .5
7 .9

6 .4
9 .0
1 2 .0
1 2 .0
1 1 .3

1 .8
2 .6
4 .1
5 .6
6 .9

-

-

-

-

*

(2 .4 )

$ 1 ,5 0 0
$ 1 ,5 5 0
$ 1 ,6 0 0
$ 1 ,6 5 0
$ 1 ,7 0 0

AND
AND
AN0
AND
AND

UNDER
U NO ER
UNDER
UNO ER
UNO ER

$ 1 ,5 5 0
$ 1 ,6 0 0
$1 , 6 5 0
$ 1 ,7 0 0
$ 1 ,7 5 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

5 .3
3 .7
1 .8
(1 .9 )

9 .3
8 .0
6 .8
5 .2
3 .8

8 .1
8 .5
8 .4
8 .2
7 .7

1 .5 ,
2 .4
3 .2
4 .3
5 .2

-

$ 1 ,7 5 0
$ 1 ,8 0 0
$ 1 ,8 5 0
$ 1 ,9 0 0
$ 1 ,9 5 0

AND
AN0
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
U NO ER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 ,8 0 0
$ 1 ,8 50
$ 1 ,9 0 0
$ 1 ,9 5 0
$ 2 ,0 0 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

-

2 .3
1 .7
(2 .2 )

6 .9
6 .7
5 .0
4 .4
3 .8

5 .6
6 .7
6 .5
7 .1
7 .2

(3 .1 )
1 .9
2 .0
3 .0
3 .4

-

$ 2 ,0 0 0
$ 2 ,0 5 0
$ 2 ,1 0 0
$ 2 ,1 5 0
$ 2 ,2 0 0

AND UNDER
AND U N O E R
AND UNDER
AND UN D ER
AND UNDER

$ 2 ,0 5 0
$ 2 ,1 0 0
$ 2 ,1 5 0
$ 2 ,2 0 0
$ 2 ,2 5 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

3 .1
2 .6
1 .6
1 .1
(1 .7 )

6 .8
6 .5
5 .5
5 .2
5 .1

4 .3
4 .9
5 .5
6 .6
6 .7

$ 2 ,2 5 0
$ 2 ,3 0 0
$ 2 ,3 5 0
$ 2 ,4 0 0
$ 2 ,4 5 0

AND U N O ER
AND UNDER
AND UNDER
AND UN O ER
AND U NO ER

$ 2 ,3 0 0
$ 2 ,3 5 0
$ 2 ,4 0 0
$ 2 ,4 5 0
$ 2 ,5 0 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

-

-

3 .8
3 .3
2 .9
2 .3
1 .9

$ 2 ,5 0 0
$ 2 ,6 0 0
$ 2 ,7 0 0
$ 2 ,8 0 0
$ 2 ,9 0 0

AND
AND
AN O
AND
ANO

UNO ER
UNDER
UNDER
U NO ER
UNDER

$ 2 ,6 0 0
$ 2 ,7 0 0
$ 2 ,8 0 0
$ 2 ,9 0 0
$ 3 ,0 0 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

_

-

-

-

~

-

2 .9
(1 .6 )
-

$ 3 ,0 0 0

AND

UNDER

$ 3 ,1 0 0

.......................

-

-

-

$ 3 ,1 0 0
$ 3 ,2 0 0
$ 3 ,3 0 0
$ 3 ,4 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
U NO ER
UNDER

$ 3 ,2 0 0
$ 3 ,3 0 0
$ 3 ,4 0 0
$ 3 ,5 0 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

-

-

-

-

-

-

*

*

*

$ 3 ,5 0 0
$ 3 ,6 0 0
$ 3 ,7 0 0
$ 3 ,8 0 0
$ 3 ,9 0 0

AN O
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
U NO ER
UNDER
UNOER

$ 3 ,6 0 0
$ 3 ,7 0 0
$ 3 ,8 0 0
$ 3 ,9 0 0
$ 4 ,0 0 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

—

-

-

$ 4 ,0 0 0
$ 4 ,1 0 0
$ 4 ,2 0 0
$ 4 ,3 0 0
$ 4 ,4 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNOER
UNOER
UNO ER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 4 ,1 0 0
$ 4 ,2 0 0
$ 4 ,3 0 0
$ 4 ,4 0 0
$ 4 ,5 0 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

$ 4 ,5 0 0
$ 4 ,6 0 0
$ 4 ,7 0 0
$ 4 ,8 0 0
$ 4 ,9 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 4 ,6 0 0
$ 4 ,7 0 0
$ 4 ,3 0 0
$ 4 ,9 0 0
$ 5 ,0 0 0

......................
......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

$ 5 ,0 0 0

AND

OVER

AVERAGE

OF

-

-

-

-

*

-

-

*

-

-

*
-

-

*

*
-

~
-

“
-

-

—

—

(2 .9 )
1 .4
1 .5
2 .1
2 .2

-

-

*

*

6 .4
6 .6
6 .4
5 .5
5 .3

3 .0
3 .9
4 .2
5 .3
5 .5

(2 .0 )
1 .1
•9
1 .3
2 .2

( C . 7)

8 .9
6 .8
5 .1
3 .0
2 .2

1 1 .3
1 1 .6
1 0 .3
8 .7
7 .1

4 .2
6 .1
9 .8
9 .7
1 1 .4

1 .0

5 .5

1 1 .0

5 .9

(1 .3 )
-

3 .8
3 .4

9 .0
8 .8
5 .6
4 .6

5 .6
8 .6
1 0 .7
8 .1

(2 .6 )
-

3 .1
3 .2
1 .7
1 .2
(3 .2 )

9 .0
8 .0
6 .4
4 .6
3 .0

-

-

-

-

-

-

4 .3
2 .3
1 .1
•9
1 .5

~

2 .1
1 .7

*

-

*
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

*

-

-

*

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

*

TOTAL

NUM BER

-

-

-

-

1 .1
1 .5
3 .6
3 .9
4 .2

1 .1
.9
.4
.3
.7
1 .8
1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

EM PLO YEES

M O N TH LY

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

..................................

1 6 ,6 3 3

3 2 ,0 4 3

8 1 ,4 9 5

1 1 3 ,5 0 9

8 1 ,5 2 0

3 9 ,2 5 4

1 3 ,6 7 2

3 ,6 8 5

.........................

4 1 ,3 2 7

$ 1 ,4 6 4

$ 1 ,6 8 3

$ 1 ,9 9 8

$ 2 ,3 3 3

$2 ,6 8 9

$ 3 ,0 4 3

$3 ,5 0 9

SALAR Y

these interva ls have been accu m u late d and are show n in the interval above o r b e lo w the
e x tre m e interval c o n ta in in g at least 1 p ercent. T h e percentages representing these em ­
p lo yee s are sho w n in parentheses. Because o f ro u n d in g , sum s o f in d iv id u a l item s m ay
n o t equal 100.

1 F o r scope o f stu d y , see tab le A-1 in a p p en d ix A .
N O T E : T o avo id sho w ing sm all p ro p o rtio n s o f em p lo yee s scattered at o r near
the extrem es o f the d is trib u tio n s f o r som e o ccu p atio n s. T h e percentages o f e m p lo yee s in




23

Table 5. Employment distribution by salary: Technical support occupations
(Percent d is trib u tio n o f em p lo yee s in selected tech n ica l su p p o rt o cc u p a tio n s by m o n th ly salary, U n ite d States ex ce p t A la sk a and H a w a ii,1 M arch 1978)
Engineering technicians
M o n th ly salary
i
U N D E R $ 5 2 5 ..........................................................
$ 5 2 5 A N D U N D E R $ 5 5 0 ..................................
$ 5 5 0 A N D U N D E R $ 5 7 5 ..................................
$ 5 7 5 A N D U N D E R $ 6 0 0 ..................................

-

II

III

-

-

(0 .7 )

IV

V

~

-

-

-

-

"
-

D raftertracers

D ra fte rs
1

II

III

-

-

-

2 .5
1 .4
3 .5
2 .2

(0 .7 )

5 .0
2 .9
9. 1
5 .9

1. 1
.9
2 .7
2 .1

-

-

*
~

$600
$625
$650
$675

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$625
$650
$675
$700

..................................
..................................
..................................
..................................

1 .5
1 .7
2 .1
4 .9

“

*

$700
$725
$750
$775

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$725
$750
$775
$800

..................................
.................................
..................................
..................................

3 .8
7 .6
5 .7
8 .7

(1 .9 )
1 .5
3 .0
3 .8

-

-

-

5 .5
6 .4
3 .6
5 .2

2 .9
3 .4
5 .0
6 .3

(1 .4 )
1 .0
1 .5

-

$800
$825
$850
$875

AN D
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$825
$850
$875
$900

..................................
..................................
..................................
..................................

9 .3
7 .3
8 .7
4 .8

3 .7
6 .2
6 .6
5 .2

(0 .9 )
1 .8
2 .0
2 .5

-

-

-

-

1 .6
2 .3
4 .5
2 .1

6 .1
5 .9
6 .2
6 .0

.8
1 .6
2 .7
2 .8

*
—

$900
$925
$950
$975

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 9 2 5 ..................................
$ 9 5 0 ..................................
$ 9 7 5 ..................................
$ 1 , 0 0 0 ............................

5 .6
3 .4
3 .5
3 .8

8 .5
5 .0
6 .4
5 .8

2 .6
3 .0
3 .6
5 .0

(1 .5 )
1. 1

-

5 .8
1 .7
5 .9
7 .8

6 .9
5 .4
4 .7
3 .9

3 .1
3 .2
4 .9
4 .5

(3 .0 )
1 .4

1 0 .7
9 .2
5 .6
4 .0
3 .9

8 .4
9 .8
8 .0
9 .3
9 .4

1 .6
3 .0
7 .1
6 .5
8 .1

-

5 .6
4 .2
1 .6
.9
1 .3

6 .1
5 .5
2 .9
4 .8
2 .4

9 .1
9 .9
1 0 .8
7 .6
6*4

2. 6
4 .4
5 .6
6 .0
7 .9

2 .7
2 .1
1 .0
1 .4
1 .0

8 .3
6 .0
7 .6
3 .7
2 .7

9 .4
1 1 .7
1 0 .6
9 .7
7 .6

3 .3
5 .6
8 .4
7 .8
1 1 .3

(1 .7 )

*

1 .8
1 .7
1 .2
1 .3
( 2 . 1)

5 .3
5 .3
4 .8
3 .9
2 .7

7 .0
8 .2
8 .1
5 .9
8 .1

(0 .8 )
-

1 .4
1 .2
.7
1 .1
(0 .8 )

6 .5
5 .3
4 .6
2 .1
1 .2

7 .3
8 .6
8 .8
8 .8
6 .1

-

-

~

-

2 .6
1 .4
(2 .7 )
~

6 .0
5 .0
3 .7
3 .7
2 .4

-

(2 .6 )

-

-

-

-

“

4 .7
3 .8
2 .5
2 .5
1 .7

1 .8
1 .1
1 .1
1 .2
1 .0

-

2 .4

-

$ 1 ,0 0 0
$ 1 ,0 5 0
$ 1 ,1 0 0
$ 1 ,1 5 0
$ 1 ,2 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 ,0 5 0
$ 1 ,1 0 0
$ 1 ,1 5 0
$ 1 ,2 0 0
$ 1 ,2 5 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

3 .0
2 .6
2 .1
3 .2
1 .8

$ 1 ,2 5 0
$ 1 ,3 0 0
$ 1 ,3 5 0
$ 1 ,4 0 0
$ 1 ,4 5 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 ,3 0 0
$ 1 ,3 5 0
$ 1 ,4 0 0
$ 1 ,4 5 0
$ 1 ,5 0 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

3 .0
(1 .2 )
-

$ 1 ,5 0 0
$ 1 ,5 5 0
$ 1 ,6 0 0
$ 1 ,6 5 0
$ 1 ,7 0 0

AND UNDER
AND UNDER
AND U N 0 E R
AND UNDER
AND UNDER

$ 1 ,5 5 0
$ 1 ,6 0 0
$ 1 ,6 5 0
$ 1 ,7 0 0
$ 1 ,7 5 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

-

$ 1 ,7 5 0
$ 1 ,8 0 0
$ 1 ,8 5 0
$ 1 ,9 0 0
$ 1 ,9 5 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 1 ,8 0 0
$ 1 ,8 5 0
$ 1 ,9 0 0
$ 1 ,9 5 0
$ 2 ,0 0 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

-

-

-

AND

O V E R .............. ..............................

T U rA L

NUM BER
AVERAGE

OF

..........................................................

EM PLO YEES

M O N THLY

. . ............................

SALAR Y

..........................

-

-

-

-

-

(2 .1 )
1 .8
2 .6

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

4 ,4 7 4

1 4 ,0 8 4

2 4 ,9 1 5

2 9 ,2 1 7

1 8 ,0 8 8

$872

$993

$ 1 ,1 7 2

$ 1 ,3 5 9

$ 1 ,5 5 9

1 0 0 .0

See fo o tn o te s at end o f table.




-

-

*

$ 2 ,0 0 0

-

24

-

~
“
-

-

-

-

4. 8

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

5 ,2 9 9

1 7 ,5 7 0

2 7 ,0 3 8

2 7 ,5 9 1

$817

$937

$ 1 ,1 4 2

$ 1 ,4 0 8

1 0 0 .0

Table 5. Employment distribution by salary: Technical support
occupations— Continued
(Percent d is trib u tio n o f em p lo yee s in selected tech n ica l su p p o rt o cc u p a tio n s b y m o n th ly salary. U n ite d States e x ce p t A la sk a and
H a w a ii,1 M a rch 1978)

C o m p u te r op erators
M o n th ly salary
1

II

III

IV

V

VI

$475

AND

UNDER

$500

............................

0 .3

0 .5

-

-

-

-

$500
$525
$550
$575

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER $ 5 2 5
UNDER $ 5 5 0
UNDER $ 5 7 5
UNDER $ 6 0 0

............................
............................
............................
............................

1 .5
3 .0
3 .3
6 .2

1 .1
.3
1 .4
2 .5

-

-

-

-

-

-

$600
$625
$650
$675

AND UNDER
AND U N D E R
AND UNDER
A N 0 UNDER

$625
$650
$675
$700

............................
............................
............................
............................

9 .4
9 .2
1 2 .0
1 1 .0

1 .8
2 .5
5 .0
5 .7

(2 .8 )
2 .1
2 .3

-

-

-

$700
$725
$750
$775

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UN0ER
UNDER
UNDER

$725
$750
$775
$600

............................
............................
............................
............................

9 .5
4 .8
3 .8
5 .9

4 .3
5 .8
4 .5
7 .9

2 .3
3 .4
4 .7
5 .0

—

-

-

(3 .1 )

*

$600
$825
$850
$675

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$625
$850
$875
$900

............................
............................
............................
............................

3 .1
2 .9
4 .4
1 .6

4 .6
4 .3
4 .0
3 .4

4 .8
5 .6
7 .5
6 .6

1 .6
2 .1
2 .7
2 .7

-

-

(0 .3 )
2 .4
1 .3

~

$900
$925
$950
$975

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 9 2 5 ............................
$ 9 5 0 ............................
$ 9 7 5 ............................
$ 1 , 0 0 0 .......................

1 .8
1 .4
.6
.7

3 .9
2 .5
2 .7
2 .7

5 .4
5 .3
5 .1
4 .7

3
3
3
4

1 1 .8
5 .1
7 .0
.6
.8

8 .1
7 .5
4 .1
3 .1
2 .7

$ 1 ,0 5 0
$ 1 ,1 0 0
$ 1 ,1 5 0
$ 1 ,2 0 0
$ 1 ,2 5 0

.................
..................
.................
..................
.................

1 .7
(1 .9 )
-

AND U N D ER
AND UNDER
AND UNDER
AND U N D ER
A N D UNDER

$ 1 ,3 0 0
$ 1 ,3 5 0
$ 1 ,4 0 0
$ 1 ,4 5 0
$ 1 ,5 0 0

.................
.................
..................
.................
.................

-

$ 1 ,5 0 0
$ 1 ,5 5 0
$ 1 ,6 0 0
$ 1 ,6 5 0
$ 1 ,7 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$1 , 5 5 0
$ 1 ,6 0 0
$ 1 ,6 5 0
$ 1 ,7 0 0
$ 1 ,7 5 0

.................
.................
.................
.................
.................

$ 1 ,7 5 0
$ 1 ,8 0 0
$ 1 ,8 5 0
$ 1 ,9 0 0
$ 1 ,9 5 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

U N D E R $ 1 , 8 0 0 ..................
U N D E R $ 1 , 8 5 0 .................
U N D E R $ 1 , 9 0 0 .................
U N D E R $ 1 , 9 5 0 .................
O V E R .......................................

TOTAL

....................................................

$ 1 ,0 0 0
$ 1 ,0 5 0
$ 1 ,1 0 0
$ 1 ,1 5 0
$ 1 ,2 0 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

$ 1 ,2 5 0
$ 1 ,3 0 0
$ 1 ,3 5 0
$ 1 ,4 0 0
$ 1 ,4 5 0

NUM BER
AVERAGE

OF

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

EM PLO YEES

M O N THLY

.................................

SALARY

....................

-

1 .7
(1 .3 )
-

1 .9
1 .3
1 .0
(2 .4 )

-

-

-

.5
.8
2 .0
2 .6

8 .7
1 0 .7
9 .6
8 .3
8 .6

4 .3
6 .9
5 .8
6 .8
1 0 .1

5 .1
5 .5

7 .2
8 .1
7 .7
7 .5
6 .9

7 .5
8 .3
1 2 .0
7 .0
7 .1
8 .3
1 5 .3
7 .6
6 .4
5 .8

3 .3
3 .3

1 .8
1 .3
.7
1 .1
(2 .2 )

3 .5
4 .8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1 .4
1 .0

1 0 0 .0

*

1 0 0 .0

3 .3

.7
.8

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

—

-

(4 .1 )

1 .3
1 .3

1 .6
5 .3
.9
1 .3
1 .6

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

.7

-

-

.7
.4
.6
.3

2 .8

5 ,3 2 8

7 ,1 1 1

2 4 ,7 2 5

1 5 ,4 1 3

3 ,6 6 6

1 ,1 1 3

$712

$86 3

$939

$ 1 ,1 4 5

$ 1 ,3 0 8

$ 1 ,5 1 4

have been accum ulate d and are show n in the interval above o r
b elo w the e x tre m e interval c o n ta in in g at least 1 p ercent. T h e
percentages representing these e m p lo yee s are show n in p aren­
theses. Because o f ro un ding , sum s o f in d iv id u a l item s m ay n o t
equal 100.

1 F o r scope o f stu d y , see table A-1 in ap p end ix A .
N O T E : T o avo id sho w ing sm all p ro p o rtio n s o f em p lo yees
scattered at o r near the extrem es o f the d is trib u tio n s fo r som e
o ccu p atio n s, th e percentages o f em p lo yee s in these intervals




~

25

Table 6. Employment distribution by salary: Clerical occupations
(Percent d is trib u tio n o f e m p lo yee s in selected cle rica l o ccup atio ns, b y m o n th ly salary, U n ite d States ex ce p t A la sk a and H a w a ii,1 M a rch 1978)

C lerks, acco un ting

K e y e n try op erato rs

C lerk s, file

Messengers

M o n th ly salary
i

II

II

III

1

II

0 .5
3 .5
1 4 .2
1 4 .5

_

_

_

0 .6
4 .1
5 .5

1 .0

(0 .1 )
1 .2
2 .4

1 3 .8
1 2 .6
9 .0
1 0 .8

7 .8
7 .7
1 0 .3
8 .0

.6
1 .5
2 .7
3 .7

5 .6
4 .1
8 .0
7 .8

2 .3
2 .5
3 .9
4 .2

6 .3
4 .1
3 .7
1 .8

7 .8
7 .4
5 .7
5 .7

5 .1
5 .0
5 .4
5 .6

8 .0
7 .7
7 .1
6 .2

4
3
5
4

.5
.7
.C
.7

7
4
5
5

5 .7
4 .7
5 .1
4 .3

4 .7
5 .3
4 .9
5 .1

1 .0
(4 .2 )

4 .8
3 .5
3 .7
4 .0

5 .7
5 .2
5 .9
3 .7

5 .5
4 .7
5 .1
3 .9

6
6
6
6

.0
.4
.0
.3

4 .1
3 .1
1 .8
1 .5

..................................
..................................
..................................
..................................

3 .3
2 .8
2 .7
2 .0

4 .7
4 .7
4 .8
3 .9

-

1 .0
.8
.8
1 .6

4 .7
3 .7
4 .2
3 .0

2 .7
2 .4
2 .1
1 .6

5 .3
6 .2
5 .0
4 .7

1 .1
1 .5
1 .8
1 .4

A N D U N D E R * 9 2 5 ..................................
A N D U N D E R * 9 5 0 ..................................
A N D U N D E R * 9 7 5 ..................................
A N D U N O E R * 1 , 0 0 0 .............................
0 A N D U N D E R * 1 , 0 5 0 .......................

1 .9
1 .1
2 .1
1 .9
3 .1

4 .5
3 .5
3 .3
3. 1
7 .1

_
-

.7
1 .3
.7
.9
1 .5

2 .5
2 .0
2 .6
2 .2
5 .0

2 .0
1 .4
1 .3
1 .0
1 .8

4 .4
3 .5
3 .6
2 .4
4 .0

.5
.8
1 .1
.7
1 .2

1 .7
1 .4
1 .0
(1 .8 )

6 .4
3. 1
3 .0
2 .2
2 .7

-

(4 .1 )
-

4 .2
3 .6
1 .2
5 .8
1 .8

1 .4
.9
1 .6
1 .2
(1 .4 )

3. 1
2 .1
2 .0
2 .2
1 .1

(2 .9 )
-

-

1 .5
(1 .0 )

~

1 .1
( 1 .8 )

_

AND
AND
AND
ANO

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
U NO ER

*425
*450
*475
*500

.................................
..................................
..................................
..................................

* 5 0 0 AND
* 5 2 5 AND
* 5 5 0 AND
* 5 7 5 AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

*525
$550
*575
*600

..................................
..................................
..................................
..................................

5
4
6
6

*600
*625
*650
*675

AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
U NO ER

*625
*650
*675
1700

..................................
..................................
..................................
..................................

7 .0
6 .2
7 .3
6 .0

*7GC
*725
*750
*775

AND
ANO
AND
AND

U NO ER
UNDER
UNDER
UNO ER

*725
*750
*775
*800

..................................
..................................
..................................
..................................

*800
*825
1850
*875

AND
ANO
AND
AND

UNDER
UNOER
UNDER
UNDER

*825
*850
*875
*900

*900
1925
*950
1975
* 1 ,0 0

*400
*425
*450
*475

1

* 1 ,0 5 0
* 1 ,1 0 0
* 1 ,1 5 0
* 1 ,2 0 0
* 1 ,2 5 0

AND UNDER
AND UNDER
AND UNDER
AND UNDER
AND UNDER

* 1 ,3 0 0
* 1 ,3 5 0
* 1 ,4 0 0
* 1 ,4 5 0

AND
AND
AND
AND

TOTAL

NUMBER
AVERAGE

OF

* 1 ,1 0 0
* 1 ,1 5 0
* 1 ,2 0 0
* 1 ,2 5 0
* 1 ,3 0 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

U N D E R * 1 , 3 5 0 .......................
U N D E R 1 1 , 4 0 0 .......................
U N D E R * 1 , 4 5 0 .......................
O V E R .............................................

.5
.3
.2
.7

_

-

-

_
(1 .7 )
1 .2

2 .3
1 .7
1 .0
2 .1

-

-

-

-

~
-

-

-

-

(1 .5 )
1 .8
1 .6

0 .3
1 .6
6 .5
9 .6
8 .5
9 .3
8 .5
7 .9
.8
.9
.7
.9

-

-

*

“

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

...............................

9 0 ,5 1 1

7 4 ,0 5 5

3 0 ,3 8 4

1 3 ,4 2 1

4 , 191

6 4 ,1 1 2

4 2 ,4 3 5

2 0 ,4 3 5

S A L A R Y .......................

*724

*916

*552

*660

*841

*712

*842

*633

...

EM PLO YEES

M O NTHLY

(0 .3 )
1 .1
2 .6

See footnotes at end of table.




Table 6. Employment distribution by salary: Clerical occupations— Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected clerical occupations, by m onthly salary. United States except Alaska and Hawaii,' March 1978)

Stenog-

Secretaries
M o n th ly salary
II

1

III

IV

general

V

_

_

_

_

-

U N D E R $ 4 5 0 ..........................................................
$ 4 5 0 A N D U N D E R $ 4 7 5 ..................................
$ 4 7 5 A N D U N O E R $ 5 0 0 ...................... ..

_
-

-

-

-

Ste no g ­
raphers,
senio r

_

T y p ists
II

i

_

0 .6
2 .3
5 .0

(0 .8 )

(0 .9 )
1 .3

8 .6
7 .9
1 1 .C
1 1 .0

1 .5
1 .9
3. 6
5 .7

4 .6
5 .3
5 .6
4 .3

1 .7
2 .4
3 .0
3 .9

8 .3
6 .8
6 .5
5 .4

6 .7
6 .3
7 .7
7 .7

4 .3
4 .5
4 .7
4 .0

4. 7
4 .C
2 .8
2 .0

5 .9
5 .7
6 .1
5 .5

—

-

(0 .9 )

-

1 .2
2 .6
3 .8
3 .7

_

—

-

-

-

-

$500
$525
$550
$575

AND U N D ER
AND UN D ER
AN D UNOER
AND U N D ER

$525
$550
$575
$600

.................... ..
. . . . . . . . . . . . .
..................................
..................................

1 1 .1 )
1 .4
1 .4
2 .1

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

(1 .5 )
1 .1

-

-

-

-

-

$600
$625
$65C
$675

AND UNDER
ANO U N D E R
AND UNDER
AND UN D ER

$625
$650
$675
$700

..................................
..................................
..................................
.................................

3 .1
4 .3
6 .0
6 .0

1 .5
2 .2
3 .8
4 .0

_

-

-

(2 .0 )
1 .6
1 .9

(1 .8 )
1 .2

-

$700
$725
$750
$775

AND
ANO
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$725
$750
$775
$800

..................................
..................................
..................................
..................................

6 .4
6 .2
7 .2
6 .4

4 .5
4 .8
5 .2
5 .1

2 .2
2 .8
3 .6
4 .0

1 .0
1 .7
2 .1
2 .2

(2 .3 )
1 .6

5 .6
5 .1
5 .4
4 .4

$800
$825
$850
$875

ANC
ANO
ANO
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$825
$350
$875
$900

..................................
..................................
..................................
..................................

6 .5
6 .2
5 .6
4 .5

5 .7
5 .8
6 .1
5 .3

4 .1
4 .6
5 .1
4 .4

2 .4
2 .5
3 .8
3 .0

1 .4
1 .5
3 .1
1 .4

4. 8
4 .1
2 .9
3 .5

4 .1
5 .5
5 .7
3. 7

1 .8
1 .6
1 .0
1 .5

4 .0
4. 1
3 v3
2 .7

$ 9 0 0 A N D U N D E R $ 9 2 5 ..................................
$ 9 2 5 A N D U N D E R $ 9 5 0 ..................................
$ 9 5 0 A N D U N D E R $ 9 7 5 ..................................
$ 9 7 5 A N D U N D E R $1 , 0 0 0 ............... ..
$ 1 , 0 0 0 A N D U N D E R $ 1 , 0 5 0 .......................

4 .6
3 .3
2 .2
1 .9
3 .8

5 .8
4 .6
4 .1
3 .9
5 .6

5 .0
5 .2
4 .9
4 .6
8 .7

4 .4
3 .7
4 .3
4 .7
8 .5

2 .5
3 .1
2 .2
2 .9
7 .2

4 .2
2 .9
4 .2
2 .9
4 .2

4 .3
4 .7
4 .6
3 .2
8 .9

.8
1 .4
.7
l.C
(3 .2 )

2 .4
2 .0
2 .2
2 .1
3 .5

$ 1 ,0 5 0
$ 1 ,1 0 0
$ 1 ,1 5 0
$ 1 ,2 0 0
$ 1 ,2 5 0

ANO UNDER
ANO UNDER
AND UN D ER
AND UNDER
AND U N D ER

$ 1 ,1 0 0
$ 1 ,1 5 0
$ 1 ,2 0 0
$ 1 ,2 5 0
$ 1 ,3 0 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

2 .5
2 .3
1 .3
1 .5
1 .0

5 .4
3 .5
2 .9
2 .1
1 .8

7 .8
6 .4
5 .6
4 .3
2 .5

8 .2
7 .1
8 .2
6 .7
5 .6

8 .2
8 .4
7 .2
8 .1
5 .6

3 .1
1 .4
1 .8
4 .4
2 .0

6 .8
4. 1
3 .4
2 .8
3 .7

-

1 .8
1 .3
1 .4
2 .2
( 1 .8 )

$ 1 ,3 0 0
$ 1 ,3 5 0
$ 1 ,4 0 0
$ 1 ,4 5 0
$ 1 ,5 0 0

ANO
AND
AND
AND
ANO

$ 1 ,3 5 0
$ 1 ,4 0 0
$ 1 ,4 5 0
$ 1 ,5 0 0
$ 1 ,5 5 0

.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................
.......................

(1 .1 )
-

1 .2
(2 .3 )

-

-

2 .2
2 .0
1 .4
1 .5
(1 .6 )

3 .9
3 .2
2 .5
1 .8
1 .7

6 .1
5 .7
4 .6
3 .9
2 .8

( 1 .1 )
-

1 .9
1 .2
(0 .6 )
-

$ 1 ,5 5 0
$ 1 ,6 0 0
$ 1 ,6 5 0
$ 1 ,7 0 0

A N D U N D E R $ 1 , 6 0 0 .......................
A N O U N D E R $ 1 , 6 5 0 .......................
A N D U N D E R $ 1 , 7 0 0 .......................
A N D O V E R ............................................

2 .8
2 .1
1 .8
3 .5

_

T JT A L

NUM BER

Ur

AVERAGE

'

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

..........................................................

EM PLO YEES

M O N THLY

.................................

SALARY

_

_

-

-

-

-

1 .4
(2 .4 )

-

-

-

-

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

3 9 ,8 9 5

7 4 ,5 5 7

$817

$893

*

1 0 0 .0

.........................

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

8 4 ,2 5 3

5 3 ,7 4 9

1 7 ,8 6 3

2 6 ,0 3 1

2 7 ,6 8 1

4 1 ,2 1 5

2 4 ,9 3 2

$991

$ 1 ,0 8 5

$ 1 ,2 0 2

$819

$918

$648

$773

F o r scope o f stu d y , see tab le A-1 in a p p en d ix A .

N O T E : T o av o id sho w ing sm all p ro p o rtio n s o f em p lo yee s scattered at o r near th e

interva ls have been a ccu m u late d and are show n in the interval above o r b elo w the extrem e
interval c o n ta in in g a t least 1 p ercent. T h e percentages representing these em p lo yee s are
show n in parentheses. Because o f ro un ding , sum s o f in d iv id u a l item s m ay n o t equal 100.

extrem es o f the d is trib u tio n s fo r som e o cc u p a tio n s, the percentages o f e m p lo yee s in these




-

-

27

Table 7. Occupational employment distribution: By industry division
(P erce nt d is trib u tio n o f em p lo y ee s in selected p ro fessio nal, ad m inistrative , te c h n ica l, and cle rica l o c c u p a tio n s1 b y in d u stry d iv isio n ,2 U n ite d States e x ce p t A la sk a and H aw aii, M a rch 1978)

O c c u p a tio n

P R O F E S S IO N A L

AND

Con­
stru ctio n

Manu­
factu rin g

P u b lic
u t ilit ie s 3

W holesale
trade

R eta il
trade

Finance,
insurance,
and real
estate

Se lected
se rvices4

A D M IN IS T R A T IV E

...............................................................................
A U D I T O R S .......................................................................................
C H I E F A C C O U N T A N T S ...............................................................
A T T O R N E Y S .....................................................................................
B U Y E R S .............................................................................................
J O B A N A L Y S T S ............................................................................
D I R E C T O R S O F P E R S O N N E L .................................................
C H E M I S T S .......................................................................................
E N G I N E E R S ....................................................................................
a c c o u n t a n t s

T E C H N IC A L

M in in g

I S )

( 5)

62

13

5

( 5)

( 5)

( 5)

6

34

( 5)

38
70

15

4

4

4

5

( 5 )
4

15)

( 5 )
(5 )

26

16

( 5)

(5)

48

( 5)

( 5 )

8

(5)

9

( 5 )

82
56

6

( 5)

( 5)

( 5)

8

(5)

(5 )

29

73
91

4

( 5)
( 5)

11
( 5)

( 5)

(5)
8

4
( 5)

( 5 )

( 5)

( 5 )

13

79

5

( 5)

( 5)

68

10

( 5 )

( 5)

10

7

5

15)
(5 )

( 5)

15 1
( 5)

( 5)
4

( 5 )

( 5)

(5 1

5
( 5)

39

( 5)

74

4
4
6

SUPPO RT

E N G I N E E R I N G T E C H N I C I A N S ...............................................
D R A F T E R S .......................................................................................
C O M P U T E R O P E R A T O R S ............................................................

(5>

( 5)

14

( 5)

14

26

10

C L E R IC A L
C L E R K S . A C C O U N T I N G ............................................................
C L E R K S , F i l e .............................................................................
............................................................
K E Y EN T R Y O PER A TO R S
M E S S E N G E R S ..................................................................................
S E C R E T A R I E S ...............................................................................
S T F N O G R A P H E R S ..........................................................................
T Y P I S T S .............................................................................................

( 5)

( 5)

41

14

15)

( 5)

( 5)

( 5)

18
38

10

15)

( 5)

10

( 5)

( 5)

31
50

( 5 )

( 5)

46

10
24

( 5 )

( 5)

39

9

9
( 5 )
11
4

13

16

( 5 )

( 5)

66

( 5)

8

21

11
6

6

42

6

4

23

5

5

(5 )
4

15

4

38

5

( 5)

4
L im ite d to engineering, a rch ite c tu ra l, and surveyin g services; c o m m e rc ia lly operated
research, d ev elo pm en t, and testing lab orato ries; c re d it re p o rtin g and c o lle c tio n agencies; c o m ­
p u te r and data processing services; m anagem ent, c o n su ltin g , and p u b lic re la tio n s services; and
n o n c o m m e rcia l e d u catio n al, s c ie n tific, and research org an izatio n s.
s Less than 4 percent.

* Ea ch o cc u p a tio n in clu d es th e w o rk levels show n in table 1.
2 F o r scope o f s tu d y , see tab le A-1 in a p p e n d ix A .
3 T ra n s p o rta tio n (excep t U.S. P ostal Service), c o m m u n ica tio n s, ele c tric, gas, and sani­
ta ry services.




6

28

Table 8. Relative salary levels: Occupation by industry division
(Relative salary levels fo r selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations1 by industry division,2 United States except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1978)
(Average salary fo r each o cc u p a tio n in all in du stries = 100)

O cc u p a tio n

P R O F E S S IO N A L

AND

Con­
stru ctio n

Manu­
factu rin g

P u b lic
u tilitie s 3

W holesale
trade

R eta il
trade

Finance,
insurance,
and real
estate

Selected
se rvices4

A D M IN IS T R A T IV E

A C C CUNT A N T S ...............................................................................
A U D I T O R S ........................................................................................
C H I E F A C C O U N T A N T S ...............................................................
A T T O R N E Y S .....................................................................................
B U Y E R S .............................................................................................
J O B A N A L Y S T S ............................................................................
D I R E C T O R S O F p e r s o n n e l .................................................
C H E M I S T S .......................................................................................
E N G I N E E R S .....................................................................................
T E C H N IC A L

M in in g

X 08

98

100

106

96

93

93

113
15)

105

105

97

92

15)

( 5)
97

( 5 )
105

( 5 )
98

(5 )

106

101
106

105
99

15)

( 5)
15)

112

102

98

100

<5 )

96

100
106

109

108

112

-

85

93
15)

109

( 5)
96

96

15)

117

97

100

97

15)

101
100

( 5)

( 5)

( 5)

-

95

108

101

100

103

( 5)

( 5)

( 5)

98

107

( 5)

SUPPO RT

E N G I N E E R I N G T E C H N I C I A N S ...............................................
D R A F T E R S .......................................................................................
C O M P U T E R O P E R A T O R S ............................................................

-

118

102

99

115

( 5 )

-

115

100

100

108

15)

96

(5 )

96

102

95

106

113

101

97

96

88

111

99

96

90

131

93

105

121

106
99

93
106

88

115

101
110

120

108
108

96

91

106
86

125

100

101

C L E R IC A L
C L E R K S , A C C O U N T I N G ..........................................................
C L E R K S , F I L E .............................................................................
K E Y EN TR Y O PER A TO R S ■............................................................
M E S S E N G F R S ..................................................................................
S E C R E T A R I E S ...............................................................................
S T E N O G R A P H E R S ..........................................................................
T Y P I S T S ..........................................................................................

108

102
92

98

90

92

116

98

103

111

100

88

90

100

97

91

103

107

108

106

93

82

91

108

103

105

121

100

100

88

100

4 L im ite d to engineering, a rch ite c tu ra l, and surveyin g services; c o m m e rc ia lly o p e r­
ated research, d evelo pm en t, and testing laboratories; advertising; c re d it re p o rtin g and c o lle c ­
tio n agencies; c o m p u te r and data processing services;
m anagem ent, co n su ltin g , and p u b lic
re la tio n s services; and n o n c o m m e rcia l e d u catio n al, sc ie n tific , and research o rg anizatio ns.
5 I n su ffic ie n t e m p lo y m e n t in 1 w o rk level o r m ore to w arrant separate p resentation
o f data.

1 Each o cc u p a tio n in clu d es the w o rk levels show n in tab le 1. In c o m p u tin g relative
salary levels fo r each o cc u p a tio n b y in d u stry d iv isio n , the to ta l e m p lo y m e n t in each w o rk
level in a ll in du stries surveyed was used as a c o n stan t em p lo y m e n t w eigh t to e lim in a te the
effe c t o f d iffe re n c e s in the p ro p o rtio n o f e m p lo y m e n t in v ario u s w o rk levels w ith in each
o ccu p atio n .
2 F o r scope o f stu d y , see tab le A-1 in ap p e n d ix A .
3 T ra n s p o rta tio n (e xcep t U .S . P ostal Service), c o m m u n ica tio n s, ele c tric, gas, and
san ita ry services.




29

Table 9. Average weekly hours: Occupation by industry division
(Average standard w e e k ly h o u rs' f o r em p lo y ee s in selected pro fessio nal, ad m in istrative , te c h n ica l, and cle rica l o cc u p a tio n s2 b y in d u stry d iv is io n ,3 U n ite d S tates e x ce p t A la sk a and H aw aii,
M a rch 1978)
____________________________________________________________________________________________________

O cc u p a tio n

3 9 .5

3 9 .5

3 9 .5

3 9 .5

3 9 .5

3 8 .0

3 9 .0
( 6)

4 0 .0
( 6)

3 9 .0

3 9 .0

( 6 )

3 9 .5

3 7 .5

4 0 .0

3 9 .5

( 6)

16)

3 9 .5

4 0 .0

3 8 .5

3 9 .5

3 9 .5

<6 1
3 8 .5

4 0 .0

3 9 .5

4 0 .0

P u b lic
u tilitie s 4

W holesale
trade

R eta il
trade

S elected
services5

A D M IN IS T R A T IV E

(6 )
4 0 .0

3 9 .5
<6 )
(6 )
3 9 .0

<6 )

3 9 .5

3 8 .0

3 8 .0

4 0 .0

3 9 .0

3 9 .5

-

3 9 .5
3 8 .0

<6 )
-

4 0 .0

4 0 .0

4 0 .0
( 6 )

( 6)

( 6)

( 6 )
( 6 )

3 8 .0

3 9 .5
4 0 .0

3 9 .5

( 6)

( 6 )

<61

3 9 .5

o

4 0 .0

00
ro

3 9 .5
4 0 .0

o

A C C O U N T A N T S ..........................................................
A U D I T O R S ....................................................
C H I E F A C C O U N T A N T S .......................................................
A T T O R N E Y S ..........................................................
B U Y E R S ..........................................................................................
J O B A N A L Y S T S .....................................................................
D I R E C T O R S OF P E R S O N N E L ....................................
C H E M I S T S .............................................................................
E N G I N E E R S .....................................................................
T E C H N IC A L

3 9 .5

Manu­
facturing

+

AND

Con­
stru ctio n

O
•
o

P R O F E S S IO N A L

F in an ce,
insurance,
and real
estate

M in in g

3 9 .0

SUPPO RT

E N G I N E E R I N G T E C H N I C I A N S ............................................
D R A F T E R S .....................................................................................
C O M P U T E R o p e r a t o r s .........................................................

<61

-

_

3 9 .5

4 0 .0

3 9 .5

4 0 .0

4 0 .0

4 0 .0

4 0 .0

4 0 .0

3 9 .0

( 6 )

3 9 .0

(6 )

4 0 .0

3 9 .5

3 9 .5

3 9 .5

3 9 .0

3 9 .5

3 9 .5

3 8 .0

3 9 .5

C L E R IC A L
C L E R K S . A C C O U N T I N G ................................. .. .....................
C L E R K S , F I L E ..........................................................................
K E Y E N TR Y O PER ATO R S
..........................................................
M E S S E N G E R S ...............................................................................
S E C R E T A R I E S ............................................................................
S T E N O G R A P H E R S .......................................................................
T Y P I S T S .......................................................................................

3 9 .5

3 9 .5

3 9 .5

3 9 .5

3 9 .5

3 8 .0

3 8 .5

4 0 .0

3 9 .5

3 9 .5

3 9 .5

3 9 .5

3 9 .5

3 8 .0

4 0 .0

3 9 .5

3 9 .5

3 9 .5
3 9 .0

3 9 .5
3 8 .5

3 9 .5

3 8 .0

3 9 .0
3 9 .5

3 9 .5

4 0 .0

3 9 .5

3 9 .0

3 9 .5

3 8 .0

3 8 .5

3 9 .5

3 9 .5
3 9 .0

3 9 .0
3 9 .0

3 9 .5

3 9 .0

4 0 .0

3 9 .5

4 0 .0

3 8 .0
3 8 .0

3 9 .0

4 0 .0

3 9 .5

3 9 .5

3 9 .0

3 9 .5

3 8 .0

3 9 .0

3 9 .5
3 9 .5

3 9 .5

1 Based o n the standard w o rk w e e k f o r w h ic h em p lo yee s receive th e ir regular
straight-tim e salary. If standard ho u rs w ere n o t available, the standard ho urs a p p lica b le f o r a
m a jo rity o f the o ffic e w o rk fo rc e in th e e s tab lish m en t w ere used. T h e average fo r each jo b
categ o ry was ro un de d to the nearest h a lf hour.
2 Ea ch o cc u p a tio n inclu d es the w o rk levels sho w n in tab le 1.
3 F o r scope o f stu d y , see tab le A -1 in a p p e n d ix A .
4 T ra n s p o rta tio n (e xcep t U .S . Postal Service), c o m m u n ica tio n s, ele c tric, gas, and
san ita ry services.




3 9 .5

5 L im ite d to engineering, a rch ite c tu ra l, and surveyin g services; c o m m e rc ia lly o p e r­
ated research, d ev elo pm en t, and testing lab oratories; advertising; c re d it re p o rtin g and c o lle c ­
tio n agencies; c o m p u te r and data processing services; m anagem ent, c o n su ltin g , and p u b lic
re la tio n s services; and n o n c o m m e rcia l e d u c a tio n a l, sc ie n tific , and research o rg anizatio ns.
6 In su ffic ie n t e m p lo y m e n t in 1 w o rk level o r m o re to w a rra n t separate p re senta tio n
o f data.

30

Appendix A. Scope and Method of Survey
Scope o f survey

o f the BLS job definitions which appear in appendix C. In
comparing actual duties and responsibilities o f employees

The survey relates to establishments in the United

with those enumerated in the survey definitions, extensive
use was made o f company occupational descriptions,
organization charts, and other personnel records.

States, except Alaska and Hawaii, in the following in­
dustries: Mining; construction; manufacturing; transporta­
tion, communications, electric, gas, and sanitary services
(except the U.S. Postal Service); wholesale trade; retail

Sam pling and estimating procedures

trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and selected
services. Excluded are establishments employing fewer than

The sampling frame from which the sample was drawn
for the 1978 survey was obtained by updating and
supplementing the sampling frame for the 1977 survey

the minimum number o f workers, as indicated for each
industry division in table A -l, at the time o f reference o f
the universe data (March 1976). The variable minimum
employment size, which was first adopted in the 1966
survey, approximates the minimum establishment size in
which the survey occupations are typically found. Smaller
establishments often do not assign workers the narrowly
defined job duties specified in the survey definitions.
Establishments within the scope o f the survey at the time
o f preparation o f the universe list are included even i f they
employed fewer than the specified minimum number o f
workers when visited for the survey. However, establish­

using information obtained from the Unemployment
Insurance reporting systems o f the 48 States within the
scope o f the survey. All establishments in the sampling
frame were stratified by industry group and by total
employment (size class).
The sample for the 1978 survey included approximately
3,930 establishments.3 The sample selected for the 1977
survey was retained for approximately one-half o f the
sampled strata (a sample o f new establishments within the
survey scope was also selected from these strata). An

ments found to be outside o f the industrial scope o f the
survey during the visit are excluded.

independent sample was selected from each o f the re­
maining strata. In each o f the independently sampled strata,

The estimated number o f establishments and the total
employment within the scope o f this survey, and within the

the sample size was approximately proportional to total
employment for the stratum. All samples were systematic
random samples.

sample actually studied, are shown for each major industry
division in table A -l. These estimates also are shown
separately for establishments employment 2,500 workers or

In combining the data, each establishment was weighted
according to the inverse o f its probability o f selection, so
that unbiased estimates o f universe totals were generated. I f

more and for those located in Standard Metropolitan
Statistical Areas (SM SA’s).1

data were not provided by a sample member, weights o f
responding sample establishments within the same stratum
were adjusted to account for the missing establishment. No

Tim e of survey and m ethod o f collection

adjustment was made for establishments which were de­
termined to be out o f business or out o f the scope o f the
survey at the time o f data collection. In the March 1978
survey, data were not available from about 12 percent o f
the sample members (representing 2,228,000 employees in
the total universe); an additional 3 percent (representing
444,000 employees) o f the sampled establishments were
either out o f business or out o f the scope o f the survey.

Data collection was planned so that the data would
reflect an average reference period o f March 1978. 2
Data were obtained by Bureau field economists who
visited a nationwide sample o f representative establishments
within the scope o f the survey between January and May.
Employees were classified according to occupation and
level, with the assistance o f company officials, on the basis
1The metropolitan area data relate to all 276 SMSA’ s (within the
48 States surveyed) as revised through June 1977 by the U.S. Office
o f Management and Budget. Earlier surveys represented SMSA’s
ranging in number from 188 for surveys before 1963 to 263 in the
1975 and 1976 surveys.
2The March payroll period has been used since the 1972 survey.
The 1967 and 1971 surveys had a June reference period for all
occupations. Before the 1967 study, the average reference period
was February for clerical and drafting jobs and March for all other
occupations. Until 1963, reports listed “ Winter” as the reference
period. From 1963 through 1966, the more specific designation
“ February-March” was used.




Nature of data collected and reported

Reported salaries are standard salaries paid for standard
work schedules, i.e., the straight-time salary corresponding
to the employee’ s normal work schedule excluding over3A few o f the largest employers, together employing
approximately 1,160,000 workers, gave data on a companywide
basis. These companies were eliminated from the universe to which
the procedure described applies. The sample count includes the
establishments o f these companies within the scope o f the survey.

31

Table A-1.

Number of establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied, by industry division, United States, March 1978
W ithin scope of survey
Minim um
empl oym ent
in establish­
ments w ithin
scope of
survey

Industry d iv is io n 1

U nited States—all industries34 ..................
5
M anufacturing .............................................................
Nonm anufacturing:
M ining ....................................................................
C o n s t r u c t io n ..........................................................
Transportation, com m unication, electric, gas,
and sanitary services
......................................
Wholesale trade .....................................................
..........................................................
Retail trade
Finance, insurance, and real e s t a t e .......................
Selected services6 ................................................
M etropolitan areas—all industries7

..........

M anufacturing .............................................................
Nonm anufacturing:
M ining
..................................................................
Construction
........................................................
Transportation, com m unication, electric, gas,
and sanitary services
......................................
Wholesale trade
..................................................
Retail trade
..........................................................
Finance, insurance, and real estate
....................
Selected services6
................................................
Establishm ents em ploying 2,500 workers
or more—all industries
.......................
M anufacturing

..........................................................

Workers in establishments

Workers in establishments
Number of
establish­
ments

Number of
establ ishments

Total

36,554

21,301,802

8,867,777

3,605

6,995,437

3,116,155

4 100-250

18,637

12,153,018

3,746,710

1,880

4,080,552

1,448,835

250
250

442
516

324,1 26
275,428

109,415
105,443

77
53

88,354
51,294

35,473
26,352

5100-250
100
250
100
100

3,534
3,589
3,296
5,377
1,163

2,562,859
765,475
2,736,508
2,031,302
453,086

1,244,169
422,739
887,859
1,971,103
380,339

436
228
394
392
145

1,203,988
56,447
809,793
535,107
169,902

641,853
35,221
270,931
520,779
136,711

29,284

17,709,780

8,074,257

2,970

6,423,677

2,972,254

4 100-250

13,376

9,245,862

3,214,976

1,408

3,626,224

1,345,965

250
250

244
473

172,561
248,829

74,194
101,772

39
42

47,713
38,034

5100-250
100
250
100
100

2,641
3,239
3,112
5,072
1,127

2,268,280
714,601
2,668,531
1,949,361
441,755

1,145,651
404,916
872,038
1,889,162
371,548

373
211
381
376
140

1,158,849
54,867
804,385
528,822
164,783

626,875
34,617
269,317
514,494
133,226

987

6,430,147

2,884,848

761

5,085,314

2,301,546

513

3,716,934

1,394,566

449

3,057,984

1,136,394

...

...

—
4 100-250

1 As defined in the 1972 e dition of the Standard In dustrial Classification Manual,
U.S. O ffice of Management and Budget.
in c lu d e s executive, adm inistrative, professional, supervisory, and clerical employees,
b u t excludes technicians, drafters, and sales personnel.
3 Establishm ents w ith total em ploym ent at or above the m inim um lim ita tio n
indicated in the first colum n; excludes Alaska and Hawaii.
4 M inim um em ploym ent size was 100 fo r chemical and allied products; petroleum
refining and related industries; m achinery, except electrical; electrical m achinery,
equipm ent, and supplies; transportation equipment; and instruments and related
products. M inim um size was 250 in all other manufacturing industries.
5 M inim um e m p loym ent size was 100 for railroad transportation;local and suburban




Studied

Professional,
administrative,
supervisory,
and clerica l1
2

Total

Professional ,
administrative,
supervisory,
and clerical2

-

23,132
24,628

transit; deep sea foreign and dom estic transportation; air transportation; com m unica­
tions, electric, gas, and sanitary services; and pipelines; and 250 fo r all other transporta­
tion industries. U.S. Postal Service is excluded fro m the survey.
6 Lim ited to engineering, architectural, and surveying services; com m ercially operated
research, developm ent, and testing laboratories; advertising; credit reporting and
collection agencies; com puter and data processing services; management, consulting, and
public relations services; and noncom m ercial educational, scientific, and research
organizations.
7Standard m etropolitan statistical areas in the United States, except Alaska and
Hawaii, as revised through June 1977 by the U.S. O ffice of Management and Budget.

time hours. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded, but
cost-of-living payments and incentive earnings are included.
Average salaries are for full-time employees for whom

within the scope o f the survey and not just for the
establishments actually studied. An occupational employ­
ment estimate was derived by multiplying the full-time
employment in the occupation in each sample establish­
ment by the establishment weight and then summing these
results.

salary data are available.
Data on year-to-year changes in average salaries are
subject to limitations which reflect the nature o f the data
collected. Changes in average salaries reflect not only

Employees whose salary data were not available were

general salary increases and merit or other increases given to
individuals while in the same work level category, but they

not taken into account in the estimates. Also not taken into
account were the few instances in which salary data were
available but there was no satisfactory basis for classifying

also may reflect other factors such as employee turnover,
expansions or reductions in the work force, and changes in
staffing patterns within establishments with different salary
levels. For example, an expansion in force may increase the
proportion o f employees at the minimum o f the salary

the employees by work level. In addition, survey
occupations were limited to employees meeting the specific
criteria in each survey definition and were not intended to
include all employees in each field o f work .6 For these
reasons, and because o f differences in occupational
structure among establishments, estimates o f occupational
employment obtained from the sample o f establishments
studied indicate only the relative importance o f the
occupations and levels as defined for the survey. These
qualifications o f the employment estimates do not mate­
rially affect the accuracy o f the earnings data.

range established for a work level, which would tend to
lower the average, whereas a reduction or a low turnover in
the work force may have the opposite effect. Similarly,
promotions o f employees to higher work levels o f profes­
sional and administrative occupations may affect the
average o f each level. The established salary ranges for such
occupations are relatively wide, and promoted employees,
who may have been paid the maximum o f the salary scale

Wherever possible, data were collected for men and
women separately. For clerical occupations in which both

for the lower level, are likely to be replaced by less
experienced employees who may be paid the minimum.

men and women are commonly employed, separate data by

Occupations most likely to reflect such changes in the
salary averages are the higher levels o f professional and

sex are available from the Bureau’s area wage survey
reports compiled by metropolitan area. Occupations and
work levels in which women accounted for 5 percent or

administrative occupations and single-incumbent positions
such as chief accountant and director o f personnel.4
Some

more o f the employment were distributed according to the
proportion o f women employees as follows:

companies had an established policy o f not

disclosing salary data for some o f their employees. Often

Women (percent)

Occupation and level

95 or more
. . . .
90-94 ...................

File clerks I and secretaries I and V
Accounting clerks I, file clerks I and II,
key entry operators I and II, secretaries
II, III, and IV, general stenographers,
and typists I and II
Senior stenographers
A ccounting clerks II
Job analysts II
Messengers
Buyers I
Job analysts III, chemists I, and com ­
puter operators 1
1
Accountants I and drafter-tracers
Com puter operators I
Accountants II, auditors I,job analysts
IV , chemists II, engineering technicians
I, and com puter operators III
A uditors II, attorneys I and 11, buyers II,
and directors of personnel I
Accountants III, chemists III, engineer­
ing technicians II, drafters I, and com ­
puter operators IV
Accountants IV, auditors III, attorneys
III, IV, and V , buyers III, directors of
personnel II and III, engineers I, en­
gineering technicians III, drafters 11, and
com puter operators V

this policy related to higher level positions because these
employees were considered part o f the management group
or were classified in categories which included only one
employee. In nearly all instances, however, information was
provided on the number o f such employees and the
85-89
80-84
60-64
45-49
40-44
35-39

data were available.
Occupational employment

counts generated by the

....................

5 - 9 ..........................

survey are estimates o f the total for all establishments
4

These types o f occupations also may be subject to greater
sampling error, as explained in the paragraph headed “ Estimates o f
sampling error.”
5Those with 5 percent and over were: Chief accountants I, II,
and I I I - 10, 6, and 9 percent, respectively; attorneys V and V I - 6
and 14 percent, respectively; directors o f personnel II, III, and
I V - 9 , 12, and 18 percent, respectively; and chemists V III- 9
percent.




...................

10-14

Comparisons between establishments that provided
salary data for each specific occupational level and those
that did not, indicate that the two classes o f establishments
did not differ materially in industries represented, employ­
ment, or salary levels for other jobs in this series for which

...................
...................
...................

15-19

for whom salary data were not available. In all but 9 o f the
78 occupational levels surveyed, the proportion o f em­
ployees for whom salary data were not available was less
than 5 percent.5

....................
...................
. . . . . . .
....................
....................
...................

30-34
25-29
20-24

appropriate occupational classification. It was thus possible
to estimate the proportion o f employees in each category

Conversion of salary rates

Salary data were collected from company records in
their most readily available form, i.e., weekly, biweekly,

33

78 surveyed occupational work levels, estimated relative
standard errors o f the average salaries were distributed as
follows: 53 were under 1 percent; 21 were 1 and under 2
percent; 3 were 2 and under 3 percent; and 1 was over 3

semimonthly, monthly, or annually. For the initial tabula­
tions, the salary data were first converted to a monthly
basis. The factors used to convert these data are as follows:
Payroll basis
Weekly ....................................................
B iw eekly ................................................
S e m im o n t h ly ..........................................
M o n th ly
................................................
Annual ....................................................

Conversion factor

percent.7 Standard errors measure the validity o f the band
within which the true average is likely to fall. For this

4.3450
2.1725
2.0000
1.0000
.0833

survey, there is a 70-percent chance that the true value o f a
salary rate lies within a band o f values defined by the
reported average plus and minus two standard errors.

All salaries were rounded to the nearest dollar. To obtain
annual salaries in tables 1 and 2 , average monthly salaries
(to the nearest penny) were multiplied by 12 and rounded

Methods of com putation of annual percent increases

to the nearest dollar.

The percent increases for each occupation in text table 1
were obtained by adding the aggregate salaries for each level
in each o f 2 successive years and dividing the later sum by

M ethod of determ ining mean, median,

the earlier sum. The resultant relative, less 100, is the

and quartile values

percent increase. T o eliminate the effects o f year-to-year
employment shifts, employment in the most recent year

The mean salary (average wage rate) for a specific
occupational level was obtained by dividing total wages for

was multiplied by the average salaries in both years.
Changes in the scope o f the survey and in occupational

that level by the total employment for the occupational

definitions were incorporated into the series as soon as two

level.

distributions o f employees by salary using $1 class intervals.

comparable periods were available. Increases for each o f the
two broad occupational groups (the professional, admin­

Annual values were obtained by multiplying monthly values

istrative, and technical support group; and the clerical

by 12 .

group) were obtained by averaging the increases o f the

Median and

quartile values were

derived from

occupations within the group. Increases for all survey
occupations combined were determined by averaging the

Estimates of sampling error

increases for the two broad occupational groups. Annual
increases were then linked to obtain changes that have

The survey procedure yields estimates with widely
varying sampling errors, depending on the frequency with

occurred since this series was begun and to compute average
annual rates o f increase for each occupation and group and

which the job occurs and the dispersion o f salaries. For the

for all occupations combined.
Year-to-year percent increases for each group specified
in text table 2 and chart 1 were determined by adding
average salaries for all occupations in the group for 2
consecutive years, dividing the later sum by the earlier sum,
shifting the decimal two places to the right, and subtracting
100. Changes in the scope o f the survey or in occupational
definitions were incorporated into the series as soon as

Engineers, for example, are defined to classify employees
engaged in engineering work within a band o f eight levels, starting
with inexperienced engineering graduates and excluding only those
within certain fields o f specialization or in positions above those
covered by level V III. In contrast, occupations such as chief
accountants and directors o f personnel are defined to include only
those with responsibility for a specified program and with duties
and responsibilities as indicated for each o f the more limited
number o f work levels selected for study.
7Job analysts II at 3.75 percent.




comparable data for 2 consecutive periods were available.
The 17-year trends in text table 2 were obtained by linking
changes for the individual periods.

34

Appendix B. Survey Changes in 1978
to facilitate classification and better relate the definitions

Changes in occupational definitions

to duties and responsibilities as they exist in private
industry. Evaluation o f survey data and collection ex­
perience revealed that the revised definitions had little
effect on matches made in the previous survey and did not
affect comparisons o f data for trend purposes.

Minor revisions were made to the definitions o f buyers
and keypunch operators, and the title o f the latter was
changed to “ key entry operators.” The revisions were made




35

Appendix C. Occupational Definitions

The primary purpose o f preparing job definitions for the Bureau’s wage surveys is to assist
its field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations, or levels within occupations, work­
ers who are employed under a variety o f payroll titles and different work arrangements from
establishment to establishment and from area to area. This permits the grouping o f occupa­
tional wage rates representing comparable job content. To secure comparability o f job
content, some occupations and work levels are defined to include only those workers meet­
ing specific criteria as to training, job functions, and responsibilities. Because o f this empha­
sis on interestablishment and interarea comparability o f occupational content, the Bureau’s
occupational definitions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establish­
ments or those prepared for other purposes. Also see note referring to the definitions for the
drafting and clerical occupations at the end o f this appendix.

Accountants and Auditors
Ad visin g op erating o ffic ia ls on accoun ting m atters;
and
R eco m m en d in g im provem en ts, adaptations, or revi­
sions in the accoun ting system and procedures.

ACCOUNTANT

Performs professional accounting work requiring knowl­
edge o f the theory and practice o f recording, classifying,

(Entry and developmental level positions provide opportu­
nity to develop ability to perform professional duties such

examining, and analyzing the data and records o f financial
transactions. The work generally requires a bachelor’s de­

as those enumerated above.)

gree in accounting or, in rare instances, equivalent experi­

In addition to such professional work, most accountants

ence and education combined. Positions covered by this
definition are characterized by the inclusion o f work that is
analytical, creative, evaluative, and advisory in nature. The
work draws upon and requires a thorough knowledge o f the

are hlso responsible for assuring the proper recording and
documentation o f transactions in the accounts. They, there­
fore, frequently direct nonprofessional personnel in the ac­
tual day-to-day maintenance o f books o f accounts, the ac­
cumulation o f cost or other comparable data, the prepara­
tion o f standard reports and statements, and similar work.
(Positions involving such supervisory work but not includ­
ing professional duties as described above are not included
in this description.)

fundamental doctrines, theories, principles, and terminolo­
gy o f accountancy, and often entails some understanding o f
such related fields as business law, statistics, and general
management. (See also chief accountant.)
Professional responsibilities in accountant positions
above the entry and developmental levels include several

Excluded are accountants whose principal o r sole duties
consist o f designing or improving accounting systems or

such duties as:

other nonoperating staff work, e.g., financial analysis, fi­

A n a ly zin g the e ffe c ts o f transactions upon account
relationships;
E valuating alternative means o f treating transactions;
Planning the m anner in w h ich account structures
should be d eveloped or m o d ifie d ;
Assuring the adequacy o f the accounting system as
the basis fo r rep ortin g to m anagem ent;
Considering the need fo r n ew or changed con trols;
P ro jectin g accounting data to show the e ffe c ts o f p ro ­
posed plans on capital investm ents, in com e, cash p osi­
tio n , and overall financial c o n d itio n ;
In terpretin g the m eaning o f accounting records, re­
ports, and statem ents;




nancial forecasting, tax advising, etc. (The criteria that fol­
low for distinguishing among the several levels o f work are
inappropriate for such jobs.) Note, however, that profes­
sional accountant positions with responsibility for record­
ing or reporting accounting data relative to taxes are in­
cluded, as are operating or cost accountants whose work
includes, but is not limited to, improvement o f the account­
ing system.
Some accountants use electronic data processing equip­
ment to process, record, and report accounting data. In

36

some such cases the machine unit is a subordinate segment
o f the accounting system; in others it is a separate entity or
is attached to some other organization. In either instance,

problems. Is expected to be competent in the application o f
standard procedures and requirements to routine transac­
tions, to raise questions about unusual or questionable
items, and to suggest solutions. (Terminal positions are ex­
cluded.)

provided that the primary responsibility o f the position is
professional accounting work o f the type otherwise includ­
ed, the use o f data processing equipment o f any type does
not o f itself exclude a position from the accountant de­

Direction received. Work is reviewed closely to verify its

scription nor does it change its level.

general accuracy and coverage o f unusual problems, to in­
sure conformance with required procedures and special in­
structions, and to assure professional growth. Progress is
evaluated in terms o f ability to apply professional knowl­
edge to basic accounting problems in the day-to-day opera­
tions o f an established accounting system.

A cco u nta n t I

General characteristics. At this beginning professional level,
the accountant learns to apply the principles, theories, and
concepts o f accounting to a specific system. The position is
distinguishable from nonprofessional positions by the vari­
ety o f assignments; rate and scope o f development expected
o f the incumbent; and the existence, implicit or explicit, o f

Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs a variety o f
accounting tasks, e.g., prepares routine working papers,
schedules, exhibits, and summaries indicating the extent o f
the examination and presenting and supporting findings and
recommendations. Examines a variety o f accounting docu­

a planned training program designed to give the entering
accountant practical experience. (Terminal positions are ex­

ments to verify accuracy o f computations and to ascertain
that all transactions are properly supported, are in accor­

cluded.)

dance with pertinent policies and procedures, and are classi­
Direction received. Works under close supervision o f an ex­

fied and recorded according to acceptable accounting stan­
dards.

perienced accountant whose guidance is directed primarily
to the development o f the trainee’s professional ability and
to the evaluation o f advancement potential. Limits o f as­
signments are clearly defined, methods o f procedure are

Responsibility fo r the direction o f others. Usually none,
although sometimes responsible for supervision o f a few

specified, and kinds o f items to be noted and referred to

clerks.

supervisor are identified.
A cco u nta n t III

Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs a variety o f
accounting tasks such as: Examining a variety o f financial

General characteristics. Performs professional operating or
cost accounting work requiring the standardized application

statements for completeness, internal accuracy, and con­
formance with uniform accounting classifications or other

o f well-established accounting principles, theories, con­

specific accounting requirements; reconciling reports and
financial data with financial statements already on file, and
pointing out apparent inconsistencies or errors; carrying out
assigned steps in an accounting analysis, such as computing

cepts, and practices. Receives detailed instructions con­
cerning the overall accounting system and its objectives, the
policies and procedures under which it is operated, and the
nature o f changes in the system or its operation. Character­
istically, the accounting system or assigned segment is sta­
ble and well established (i.e., the basic chart o f accounts,
classifications, the nature o f the cost accounting system,
the report requirements, and the procedures are changed
infrequently).
Depending upon the workload involved, the accountant
may have such assignments as supervision o f the day-to-day
operation of: (a) The entire system o f a subordinate estab­

standard ratios; assembling and summarizing accounting
literature on a given subject; preparing relatively simple fi­
nancial statements not involving problems o f analysis or
presentation; and preparing charts, tables, and other exhib­
its to be used in reports. In addition to such work, may also
perform some nonprofessional tasks for training purposes.
Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Usually none.

lishment, or (b )a major segment (e.g., general accounting;
A cco u nta n t II

cost accounting; or financial statements and reports) o f a

General characteristics. At this continuing developmental

somewhat larger system, or (c )in a very large and complex
system, may be assigned to a relatively narrow and special­

level the professional accountant makes practical applica­

ized segment dealing with some problem, function, or por­

tions o f technical accounting practices and concepts be­

tion o f work which is itself o f the level o f difficulty charac­

yond the mere application o f detailed rules and instruc­

teristic o f this level.

tions. Assignments are designed to expand practical experi­
ence and to develop professional judgment in the applica­

Direction received. A higher level professional accountant

tion o f basic accounting techniques to simple professional

normally is available to furnish advice and assistance as




37

needed. Work is reviewed for technical accuracy, adequacy
o f professional judgment, and compliance with instructions
through spot checks, appraisal o f results, subsequent pro­
cessing, analysis o f reports and statements, and other appro­

(e.g., employing several thousand persons) subordiante es­
tablishment which in other respects has an accounting sys­
tem o f the complexity that characterizes level III.

priate means.

Direction received. A higher level accountant normally is
available to furnish advice and assistance as needed. Work is

Typical duties and responsibilities. The primary responsibil­
ity o f most positions at this level is to assure that the as­

reviewed by spot checks and appraisal o f results for ade­
quacy o f professional judgment, compliance with instruc­
tions, and overall accuracy and quality.

signed day-to-day operations are carried out in accordance
with established accounting principles, policies, and objec­
tives. The accountant performs such professional work as:
Developing nonstandard reports and statements (e.g., those
containing cash forecasts reflecting the interrelations o f ac­
counting, cost budgeting, or comparable information); in­

Typical duties and responsibilities. As at level III, a primary
characteristic o f most positions at this level is the responsi­
bility o f operating an accounting system or major segment
o f a system in the intended manner.

terpreting and pointing out trends or deviations from stan­

The accountant IV exercises professional judgment in
making frequent appropriate recommendations for: New

dards; projecting data into the future; predicting the effects
o f changes in operating programs; or identifying manage­
ment informational needs, and refining account structures

accounts; revisions in the account structure; new types o f
ledgers; revisions in reporting system or subsidiary records;

or reports accordingly.

changes in instructions regarding the use o f accounts; new

Within the limits o f delegated responsibility, makes dayto-day decisions concerning the accounting treatment o f

or refined account classifications or definitions; etc. Also

financial transactions. Is expected to recommend solutions
to complex problems and propose changes in the account­
ing system for approval at higher levels. Such recommenda­

treatment o f financial transactions and is expected to rec­
ommend solutions to complex problems beyond incum­

makes day-to-day

decisions concerning the accounting

bent’s scope o f responsibility.

tions are derived from personal knowledge o f the applica­
Responsibility fo r direction o f others. Accounting staff su­

tion o f well-established principles and practices.

pervised, i f any, may include professional accountants.
Responsibility fo r the direction o f others. In most instances
is responsible for supervision o f a subordinate nonprofes­

A cco u nta n t V

sional staff.

A cco u n ta n t IV

General characteristics. Performs professional operating or
cost accounting work which is o f greater than average pro­

General characteristics. Performs professional operating or

ence o f unusual and novel problems or the unusual magni­

cost accounting work which requires the application o f
well-established accounting principles, theories, concepts,
and practices to a wide variety o f difficult problems. Re­
ceives instructions concerning the objectives and operation
o f the overall accounting system. A t this level, compared
with level III, the accounting system or assigned segment is
more complex, i.e., (a) is relatively unstable, (b ) must ad­
just to new or changing company operations, (c ) serves or­
ganizations o f unusually large size, o r (d ) is complicated by

tude or impact o f the accounting program. Typically this
level o f difficulty arises from (a) the large size o f the ac­
counting and operating organization, (b ) the atypical nature

the need to provide and coordinate separate or specialized

ing an unusually novel and complex accounting system, or

accounting treatment and reporting (e.g., cost accounting

(b ) the entire accounting system o f a large (e.g., employing

using standard cost, process cost, and job order techniques)

several thousand persons) subordinate establishment which
in other respects has an accounting system o f the complexi­

fessional difficulty and responsibility because o f the pres­

o f the accounting problems encountered, or (c ) the unusu­
ally great involvement in accounting systems design and
development.
Examples o f assignments characteristic o f this level are
the supervision o f the day-to-day operation of: (a ) The en­
tire accounting system o f a subordinate establishment hav­

for different operations or divisions o f the company.
Depending upon the workload and degree o f coordina­

ty that characterizes level IV , or (c ) the entire accounting
system o f a company or corporation that has a relatively

tion involved, the accountant IV may have such assign­
ments as the supervision o f the day-to-day operation o f : (a)

stable and conventional accounting system and employs
several thousand persons and has a few subordinate estab­
lishments which include accounting units, or (d ) a major

The entire accounting system o f a subordinate establish­
ment, or (b ) a major segment (e.g., general accounting; cost
accounting; or financial statements and reports) o f an ac­
counting system serving a -larger and more complex estab­

segment o f an accounting system that substantially exceeds
the characteristics described in any one o f the preceding

lishment, or (c ) the entire accounting system o f a large

examples.




38

Direction received. An accountant o f higher level normally
is available to furnish advice and assistance as needed. Work

normally do not require or permit professional audit work
to be performed.)

is reviewed for adequacy o f professional judgment, compli­
ance with instructions, and overall quality.
A u d ito r I

Typical duties and responsibilities. The work is character­
ized by its unusual difficulty or responsibility. Accountants

General characteristics. As a trainee auditor at the entering

V typically are directly concerned on a relatively continu­

professional level, performs a variety o f routine assign­

ous basis with what the nature o f the accounting system

ments. Typically, the trainee is rotated through a variety o f

should be, with the devising or revising o f the operating

tasks under a planned training program designed to provide

accounting policies and procedures that are necessary, and

practical experience in applying the principles, theories, and

with the managerial as well as the accounting meaning o f

concepts o f accounting and auditing to specific situations.

the reports and statements for which they are responsible.

(Terminal positions are excluded.)

Accountants V are necessarily deeply involved in funda­
mental and complex accounting matters and in the manage­

Direction received. Works under close supervision o f an ex­

rial problems that are affected.

perienced auditor whose guidance is directed primarily to
the development o f the trainee’s professional ability and to
the evaluation o f advancement potential. Limits o f assign­

Responsibility fo r the direction o f others. Accounting staff
supervised generally includes professional accountants.

ments are clearly defined, methods o f procedure are speci­
fied, and kinds o f items to be noted and referred to super­
visor are identified.

A U D ITO R

Typical duties and responsibilities. Assists in making audits
by performing such tasks as: Verification o f the accuracy o f
the balances in various records; examination o f a variety o f
types o f documents and vouchers for accuracy o f computa­
tions; checking transactions to assure they are properly doc­
umented and have been recorded in accordance with cor­
rect accounting classifications; verifying the count o f inven­
tories; preparing detailed statements, schedules, and stan­

Performs professional auditing work requiring a bache­
lor’s degree in accounting or, in rare instances, equivalent
experience and education combined. Audits the financial
records and practices o f a company, or o f divisions or com­
ponents o f the company, to appraise systematically and
verify the accounting accuracy o f records and reports and
to assure the consistent application o f accepted accounting

dard audit working papers; counting cash and other assets;

principles. Evaluates the adequacy o f the accounting system

preparing simple reconciliations; and similar functions.

and internal financial controls. Makes appropriate recom­
mendations for improvement as necessary. To the extent
A u d ito r II

determined necessary, examines the transactions entering
into the balance sheet and the transactions entering into

General characteristics. At this continuing developmental

income, expense, and cost accounts. Determines:

level the professional auditor serves as a junior member o f
The existence o f recorded assets (including the obser­
vation o f the taking o f physical inventories) and the all-

an audit team, independently performing selected portions
o f the audit which are limited in scope and complexity.
Auditors at this level typically have acquired knowledge o f
company operations, policies, and procedures. (Terminal
positions are excluded.)

inclusiveness o f record ed liabilities;

The accuracy o f financial statements or reports and
the fairness o f presentation o f facts therein;
The propriety or legality of transactions;
The degree o f compliance with established policies
and procedures concerning financial transactions.

Direction received. Detailed instructions are furnished and
the work is reviewed to the extent necessary to verify its

Excluded are positions which do not require full profes­
sional accounting training because the work is confined on
a relatively permanent basis to repetitive examinations o f a

general accuracy and coverage o f unusual problems, to in­
sure conformance with required procedures and special in­

limited area o f company operations and accounting pro­

structions, and to assure the auditor’s professional growth.

cesses, e.g., only accounts payable and receivable; demur­
rage records and related functions, or station operations

brought to the attention o f a superior. Progress is evaluated

Any technical problems not covered by instructions are

only o f a railroad company; branch offices which do not

in terms o f ability to apply professional knowledge to basic
auditing situations.

engage in the full range o f banking and accounting activities
o f the main bank; warehouse operations only o f a mail
order company; checking transactions to determine wheth­
er or not they conform to prescribed routines or proce­

Typical duties and responsibilities. Applies knowledge o f
accounting theory and audit practices to a variety o f rela­

dures. (Examinations o f such a repetitive or limited nature

tively simple professional problems in audit assignments,




39

accounts receivable and accounts payable; or, the analysis
and verification o f assets and reserves; or, the inspection
and evaluation o f accounting controls and procedures.

including such tasks as: The verification o f reports against
source accounts and records to determine their reliability;
reconciliation o f bank and other accounts and verifying the
detail o f recorded transactions; detailed examinations o f
cash receipts and disbursement vouchers, payroll records,
requisitions, work orders, receiving reports, and other ac­

A u d ito r IV

counting documents to ascertain that transactions are prop­

General characterisitcs. Auditors at this level are experi­

erly supported and are recorded correctly from an account­

enced professionals who apply a thorough knowledge o f
accounting principles and theory in connection with a vari­

ing or regulatory standpoint; or preparing working papers,
schedules, and summaries.

ety o f audits. Work at this level is characterized by the
audit o f organizations and accounting processes which are
complex and difficult because o f such factors as: Presence
o f new or changed programs and accounting systems; exis­

A u d ito r III

tence o f major specialized accounting functions (e.g., cost

General characteristics. Work at this level consists o f the

accounting, inventory accounting, sales accounting), in ad­

audit o f operations and accounting processes that are rela­

dition to general accounting; need to consider extensive and

tively stable, well-established, and typical o f the industry.
The audits primarily involve the collection and analysis o f

complicated regulatory requirements; lack o f or difficulty
in obtaining information; and other similar factors. Typical­

readily available findings; there is previous audit experience
that is directly applicable; the audit reports are normally

ly, a variety o f different assignments are encountered over a

prepared in a prescribed format using a standard method o f
presentation; and few if any major problems are anticipat­

period o f time, e.g., 1 year. The audit reports prepared are

ed. The work performed requires the application o f sub­
stantial knowledge o f accounting principles and practices,
e.g., bases for distinguishing among capital maintenance and

tions violated, recommend remedial actions, and contain
analyses o f items o f special importance or interest to com­
pany management.

operating expenses; accruing reserves for taxes; and other
accounting considerations o f an equivalent nature.

Direction received. Within an established audit program, has

comprehensive, explain irregularities, cite rules or regula­

responsibility for independently planning and executing au­
Typical duties and responsibilities. The auditor examines

dits. Unusually difficult problems are discussed with the

transactions and verifies accounts; observes and evaluates
accounting procedures and internal controls; prepares audit
working papers and submits an audit report in the required

supervisor who also reviews completed assignments for ad­
herence to principles and standards and the soundness o f
conclusions.

pattern containing recommendations for needed changes or
Typical duties and responsibilities. Auditors at this level
have full responsibility for planning the audit, including

improvements. Usually is responsible for selecting the de­
tailed audit methods to follow, choosing the audit sample

determination o f the aspects to emphasize, methods to be
used, development o f nonstandard or specialized audit aids
such as questionnaires, etc., where previous audit experi­
ence and plans are o f limited applicability.
Included in the scope o f work that characterizes this
level are such functions as: Evaluation o f methods used for
determining depreciation rates o f equipment; evaluation o f
assets where original costs are unknown; evaluation o f the

and its size, determining the extent to which discrepancies
need to be investigated, and deciding the depth o f the anal­
yses required to support reported findings and conclusions.
Examples o f assignments involving work at this level:
As a team leader or working alone, independently
conducts audits o f the complete accounts and related
operations o f smaller or less complex companies (e.g.,
involving a centralized accounting system with few or no
subordinate, subsidiary, or branch accounting records)
or o f comparable segments o f larger companies.
As a member o f an audit team, independently accom­
plishes varied audit assignments o f the above described
characteristics, typically major segments o f complete au­
dits, or assignments otherwise limited in scope o f larger
and more complex companies (e.g., complex in that the
accounting system entails cost, inventory, and compara­
ble specialized systems integrated with the general ac­
counting system).

reliability o f accounting and reporting systems; analysis o f
cost accounting systems and cost reports to evaluate the
basis for cost and price setting; evaluation o f accounting
procurement and supply management records, controls, and
procedures; and many others.
Examples o f assignments involving work at this level:
As a team leader or working alone, independently
plans and conducts audits o f the complete accounts and
related operations o f relatively large and complex com­
panies (e.g., complex in that the accounting system en­
tails cost, inventory, and comparable specialized ac­
counting systems integrated with the general accounting
system) or o f company branch, subsidiary, or affiliated
organizations which are individually o f comparable size
and complexity.

Illustrative o f such assignments are the audit and initial
review o f the accounting treatment and validity o f re­
porting o f overhead expenses in a large manufacturing or
maintenance organization (e.g., major repair yard o f a rail­
road); or, the checking, verification, and balancing o f all




40

nonaccounting functions. (Positions o f such breadth are

As a member o f an audit team, independently plans
and accomplishes audit assignments that constitute ma­
jor segments of audits o f very large and complex organi­
zations, for example, those with financial responsibilities
so great as to involve specialized subordinate, subsidiary,
or affiliate accounting systems that are complete in
themselves.

sometimes titled comptroller, budget and accounting mana­
ger, financial manager, etc.)
Some positions responsible for supervising general ac­
counting and one or more other major accounting activities
but which do not fully meet all o f the responsibilities o f a
chief accountant specified above may be covered by the

N O T E : Excluded from level IV are auditors who, as
team leaders or working alone, conduct complete audits o f

descriptions for accountant.
Chief accountant jobs which meet the characteristics de­

very large and complex organizations, for example, those

scribed are classified by level o f w ork 1 according to

with financial responsibilities so great as to involve special­
ized subordinate, subsidiary, or affiliate accounting systems
that are complete in themselves; or are team members as­

(a) authority and responsibility and (b ) technical complex­
ity, using the table accompanying the definitions which fo l­
low.

signed to major segments o f audits o f even larger or more
complex organizations.

A u th o rity and responsibility

AR-1. The accounting system (i.e., accounts, procedures,

C H IEF A C C O U N T A N T

and reports to be used) has been prescribed in considerable
detail by higher levels in the company or organization. The

As the top technical expert in accounting, is responsible
for directing the accounting program for a company or for
an establishment o f a company. The minimum accounting

chief accountant has final, unreviewed authority within the
prescribed system, to expand it to fit the particular needs

program includes: ( 1) General accounting (assets, liabilities,

o f the organization served, e.g., in the following or compar­

income, expense, and capital accounts, including responsi­

able ways:

bility for profit and loss and balance sheet statements); and

Provides greater detail in accounts and reports or fi­
nancial statements;
Establishes additional accounting controls, accounts,
subaccounts, and subsidiary records; and
Provides special or interim reports and statements
needed by the manager responsible for the day-to-day
operations o f the organization served.

( 2 ) at least one other major accounting activity, typically
tax accounting, cost accounting, property accounting, or
sales accounting. It may also include such other activities as
payroll and timekeeping, and mechanical or electronic data
processing operations which are an adjunct o f the account­
ing system. (Responsibility for an internal audit program is

This degree o f authority is typically found at a plant or

typically not included.)
The responsibilities o f the chief accountant include all o f

similar subordinate establishment.

the following:

AR-2. The basic accounting system is prescribed in broad
outline rather than in specific detail. While certain major
financial reports, overall accounts, and general policies are

1. On own responsibility, developing or adapting or
revising an accounting system to meet the needs o f the
organization;
2. Supervising, either directly or through subordinate
supervisors, the operation o f the system with full man­
agement responsibility for the quality and quantity o f
work performed, training and development o f subordi­
nates, work scheduling and review, coordination with
other parts o f the organization served, etc.;
3. Providing, directly or through an official such as a
comptroller, advisory services to the top management
officials o f the organization served as to:
a. The status o f financial resources and the finan­
cial trends or results o f operations as revealed by ac­
counting data, and selecting a manner o f presentation
that is meaningful to management;
b. Methods for improving operations as suggested
by an expert knowledge o f accounting, e.g., proposals
for improving cost control, property management,
credit and collection, tax reduction, or similar pro­
grams.

required by the basic system, the chief accountant has
broad latitude and authority to decide the specific meth­
ods, procedures, accounts, reports, etc., to be used within
the organizational segment served. Approval must be se­
cured from higher levels only for those changes which
would basically affect the broad requirements prescribed by
such higher levels. Typical responsibilities include:
Evaluating and taking final action on recommenda­
tions proposed by subordinate establishments for
changes in aspects o f the accounting system or activities
not prescribed by higher authority;
Extending cost accounting operations to areas not
previously covered;
Changing from one cost accounting method to anoth­
er;
Expanding the utilization o f computers within the
accounting process; and
Preparing accounting reports and statements reflect­
ing the events and progress o f the entire organization for

Excluded are positions with responsibility for the ac­
counting program i f they also include (as a major part o f
the jo b ) responsibility for budgeting; work measurement;

1Insufficient data were obtained for level V to warrant presenta­
tion o f average salaries.

organization, methods, and procedures studies; or similar




41

Table C-1.

Criteria for matching chief accountants by level
A u th o rity
and
respo nsibility1

Technical
co m p le x ity 1

1

AR-1

TC-1

O nly one or two professional accountants, who do not exceed the accountant III job
definition.

II

AR-1

TC-2

A b o u t 5 to 10 professional accountants, w ith at least one or tw o m atching the
accountant IV job definition.

A R -2

TC-1

A b o u t 5 to 10 professional accountants. Most of these m atch the accountant III job
definition, but one or tw o may match the accountant IV job definition.

A R -3

TC-1

O nly one or two professional accountants, w ho do not exceed the accountant IV job
definition.

AR-1

TC-3

A b o u t 15 to 20 professional accountants. A t least one or two match the accountant V
job definition.

A R -2

TC-2

A b o u t 15 to 20 professional accountants. Many of these match the accountant IV job
definition, but some may m atch the accountant V job definition.

A R -3

TC-1

A b o u t 5 to 10 professional accountants. Most of these match the accountant III job
definition, but one or tw o may match as high as accountant V .

A R -2

TC-3

A b o u t 25 to 40 professional accountants. M any of these match the accountant V job
definition, but several may exceed that level.

A R -3

TC-2

A b o u t 15 to 20 professional accountants. M ost of these match the accountant IV job
definition, but several may match the accountant V and one or tw o may exceed that
level.

A R -3

TC-3

A b o u t 25 to 40 professional accountants. M any of these match the accountant V job
definition, but several may exceed that level.

Level

Subordinate professional accounting staff
A1. » . ' •

p. - , - '

or

or

III
or

or

IV
or

V

1 A R - 1 , -2, and -3 and T C - 1 , -2, and -3 are e x p la in e d in th e a c c o m p a n y in g te x t.

which incumbent is responsible; often consolidating data
submitted by subordinate segments.

the company’s accounting system suggested by subordi­
nate units; and
Taking final action on all technical accounting mat­
ters.

This degree o f authority is most typically found at inter­
mediate organizational levels such as regional offices, or

Characteristically, participates extensively in broad com­
pany management processes by providing accounting ad­
vice, interpretations, or recommendations based on data ac­
cumulated in the accounting system and on professional
judgment and experience.

division or subsidiary headquarters. It is also found in some
company level situations where the authority o f the chief
accountant is less extensive than is described in AR-3. More
rarely it is found in plant level chief accountants who have
been delegated more authority than usual for such positions
as described in AR-1.

Technical com plexity

AR-3.

Has complete responsibility for establishing and

maintaining the framework for the basic accounting system

TC-1.

used in the company, subject only to general policy guid­

serves has relatively few functions, products, work pro­

ance and control from a higher level company official re­

cesses, etc., and these tend to be stable and unchanging.

sponsible for general financial management. Typical respon­
sibilities include:

The accounting system operates in accordance with wellestablished principles and practices or those o f equivalent
difficulty which are typical o f that industry.

Determining the basic characteristics of the com­
pany’s accounting system and the specific accounts to be
used;
Devising and preparing accounting reports and state­
ments required to meet management’s needs for data;
Establishing basic accounting policies, interpretations,
and procedures;
Reviewing and taking action on proposed revisions to




The organization which the accounting program

TC-2. The organization which the accounting program
serves has a relatively large number o f functions, products,
work processes, etc., which require substantial and frequent
adaptations o f the basic system to meet management needs
(e.g., adoption o f new accounts, subaccounts, and subsidi­

42

ary records; revision o f instructions for the use o f accounts;
improvement or expansion o f methods for accumulating
and reporting cost data in connection with new or changed
work processes).

TC-3.

Provide for the solution o f problems for which no
clear precedents exist; or
Provide for the development or extension o f account­
ing theories and practices to deal with problems to
which these theories and practices have not previously
been applied.

The organization which the accounting program

Subordinate staff

serves puts a heavy demand on the accounting organization
fo r specialized and extensive adaptations o f the basic sys­
tem to meet management needs. Such demands arise be­
cause the functions, products, work processes, etc., o f the
organization are very numerous, diverse, unique, or special­
ized, or there are other comparable complexities. Conse­
quently, the accounting system, to a considerable degree, is

In table C-l the number o f professional accountants su­
pervised is recognized to be a relatively crude criterion for
distinguishing between various levels. It is to be considered
less important in the matching process than the other crite­
ria. In addition to the staff o f professional accountants in

developed well beyond established principles and account­

the system for which the chief accountant is responsible,
there are clerical, machine operation, bookkeeping, and re­

ing practices in order to:

lated personnel.

Attorneys
ATTO RN EY

Attorney jobs which meet the above definition are to be
classified in accordance with table C-2 and the definitions

Performs consultation and advisory work and carries out

which follow.

the legal processes necessary to effect the rights, privileges,
and obligations o f the company. The work performed re­
quires completion o f law school with an LL.B. degree (or
the equivalent) and admission to the bar. Responsibilities or
functions include one o r more o f the follow ing or compar­
able duties:

D ifficu lty

D -l. Legal questions are characterized by: Facts that are
well established; clearly applicable legal precedents; and
matters not o f substantial importance to the organization.
(Usually relatively limited sums o f money, e.g., a few thous­

Preparing and reviewing various legal instruments and
documents, such as contracts, leases, licenses, purchases,
sales, real estate, etc.;
Acting as agent o f the company in its transactions;
Examining material (e.g., advertisements, publica­
tions, etc.) for legal implications; advising officials of
proposed legislation which might affect the company;
Applying for patents, copyrights, or registration of
company’s products, processes, devices, and trademarks;
Advising whether to initiate or defend lawsuits;
Conducting pre-trial preparations; defending the com­
pany in lawsuits; and
Advising officials on tax matters, government regula­
tions, and/or corporate rights.

and dollars, are involved.)
Examples o f D -l work:
Legal investigation, negotiation, and research prepara­
tory to defending the organization in potential or actual
lawsuits involving alleged negligence where the facts can
be firmly established and there are precedent cases di­
rectly applicable to the situation.
Searching case reports, legal documents, periodicals,
textbooks, and other legal references, and preparing
draft opinions on employee compensation or benefit
questions when there is a substantial amount o f clearly
applicable statutory, regulatory, and case material.
Drawing up contracts and other legal documents in
connection with real property transactions requiring the
development o f detailed information but not involving
serious questions regarding titles to property or other
major factual or legal issues.

Excluded from this definition are:
Patent work which requires professional training in
addition to legal training (typically a degree in engineer­
ing or in a science);
Claims examining, claims investigating, or similar
work fo r which professional legal training and bar mem­
bership is not essential;
Attorneys, frequently titled “ general counsel” (and
their immediate full associates or deputies), who serve as
company officers or the equivalent and are responsible
for participating in the overall management and formula­
tion o f policy for the company in addition to directing
its legal work. (The duties and responsibilities o f such
positions exceed level V I as described below.)




'

D-2. Legal work is regularly difficult by reason o f one or
more o f the following: The absence o f clear and directly
applicable legal precedents; the different possible interpre­
tations that can be placed on the facts, the laws, or the
precedents involved; the substantial importance o f the legal
matters to the organization (e.g., sums as large as $100,000
are generally directly or indirectly involved); the matter is
being strongly pressed or contested in formal proceedings
43

Table C-2.

Criteria for matching attorneys by level
D iffic u lty
of legal w o rk 1

Level

R esponsibility
of jo b 1

T his is the entry level. The duties and
responsibilities after initial orientation
and training are those described in D-1
and R-1.

1

Experience required
Com pletion of law school w ith an L L B . or J.D. degree plus admission to the bar.

D-1

R-2

D-2

R-1

D-2

R-2

D-3

R-1

D-2

R-3

D-3

R-2

V

D-3

R-3

Extensive professional experience at the "D -3 " level.

VI

D-3

R-4

Extensive professional experience at the "D -3 " and " R - 3 " levels.

II

Su fficien t professional experience (at least 1 year, usually more) at the "D -1 ” level
to assure competence as an attorney.

or

III

A t least 1 year, usually more, o f professional experience at the " D -2 " level.

or

IV

Extensive professional experience at the "D -2 " or a higher level.

or

1 D -1, -2, -3 a n d R -1 , -2, -3, and -4 are e x p la in e d in th e a c c o m p a n y in g te x t.

Preparing and presenting a case before an appellate
court where the case is highly important to the future
operation o f the organization and is vigorously contested
by very distinguished (e.g., having a broad regional or
national reputation) legal talent.
Serving as the principal counsel to the officers and
staff o f an insurance company on the legal problems in
the sale, underwriting, and administration o f group con­
tracts involving nationwide or multistate coverages and
laws.
Performing the principal legal work in a nonroutine
major revision o f the company’s charter or in effectuat­
ing new major financing steps.

or in negotiations by the individuals, corporations, or gov­
ernment agencies involved.
Examples o f D-2 work:
Advising on the legal implications o f advertising rep­
resentations when the facts supporting the representa­
tions and the applicable precedent cases are subject to
different interpretations.
Reviewing and advising on the implications o f new or
revised laws affecting the organization.
Presenting the organization’s defense in court in a
negligence lawsuit which is strongly pressed by counsel
for an organized group.
Providing legal counsel on tax questions complicated
by the absence of precedent decisions that are directly
applicable to the organization’s situation.

R esponsibility

D-3. Legal work is typically complex and difficult because
o f one or more o f the following: The questions are unique
and require a high order o f original and creative legal en­
deavor for their solution; the questions require extensive
research and analysis and the obtaining and evaluation o f

R-1. Responsibility for final action is usually limited to
matters covered by legal precedents and in which little devi­
ation from standard practice is involved. Any decisions or
actions having a significant bearing on the organization’s
business are reviewed. (Is given guidance in the initial stages

expert testimony regarding controversial issues in a scientif­

o f assignment, e.g., in planning and organizing legal research

ic, financial, corporate organization, engineering, or other
highly technical area; the legal matter is o f critical impor­

and studies. Assignments are then carried out with moder­
ate independence although guidance is generally available

tance to the organization and is being vigorously pressed or

and is sought from time to time on problem points.)

contested (e.g., sums such as $1 million or more are general­
ly directly or indirectly involved).

R-2. Usually works independently in investigating the facts,
searching legal precedents, defining the legal and factual

Examples o f D-3 work:
Advising on the legal aspects and implications of Fed­
eral antitrust laws to projected greatly expanded market­
ing operations involving joint ventures with several other
organizations.
Planning legal strategy and representing a utility com­
pany in raie or government franchise cases involving a
geographic area including parts or all o f several States.




issues, drafting necessary legal documents, and developing
conclusions and recommendations. Decisions having an im­
portant bearing on the organization’s business are reviewed.
(Receives information from supervisor regarding unusual
circumstances or important policy considerations pertaining
to a legal problem. I f trials are involved, may receive guid44

ance from a supervisor regarding presentation, line o f ap­
proach, possible line o f opposition to be encountered, etc.
In the case o f nonroutine written presentations the final
product is reviewed carefully, but primarily for overall
soundness o f legal reasoning and consistency with organiza­
tion policy. Some (but not all) attorneys make assignments
to one or more lower level attorneys, aids, or clerks.)

ing completed briefs, opinions, contracts, or other legal
products. To carry out assignments, represents the organiza­
tion at conferences, hearings, or trials and personally con­
fers and negotiates with top attorneys and top-ranking o ffi­
cials in private companies or in government agencies. On
various aspects o f assigned work may give advice directly
and personally to corporation officers and top level manag­
ers, or may work through the general counsel o f the com­

R-3. Carries out assignments independently and makes final

pany in advising officers. (Generally receives no preliminary

legal determinations in matters o f substantial importance to

instruction on legal problems. On matters requiring the con­

the organization. Such determinations are subject to review

centrated efforts o f several attorneys or other specialists, is
responsible for directing, coordinating, and reviewing the

only for consistency with company policy, possible prece­
dent effect, and overall effectiveness. To carry out assign­

work o f the attorneys involved.)

ments, deals regularly with company officers and top level

OR

management officials and confers or negotiates regularly
with senior attorneys and officials in other companies or in
government agencies on various aspects o f assigned work.
(Receives little or no preliminary instruction on legal prob­

As a primary responsibility, directs the work o f a staff o f
attorneys, one, but usually more, o f whom regularly per­
form D-3 legal work. With respect to the work directed,
gives advice directly to corporation officers and top mana­

lems and a minimum o f technical legal supervision. May
assign and review work o f a few attorneys, but this is not a
primary responsibility.)

gerial officers, or may give such advice through the general
counsel. (Receives guidance as to organization policy but
no technical supervision or assistance except when request­
ing advice from, or briefing by, the general counsel on the

R-4. Carries out assignments which entail independently
planning investigations and negotiations on legal problems

overall approach to the most difficult, novel, or important
legal questions. Usually reports to the general counsel or

o f the highest importance to the organization and develop­

deputy.)

Buyers
N O T E : Some buyers are responsible for the purchasing

BUYER

o f a variety o f items and materials. When the variety in­
Purchases materials, supplies, equipment, and services

cludes items and work described at more than one o f the

(e.g., utilities, maintenance, and repair). In some instances

following levels, the position should be considered to equal
the highest level that characterizes at least a substantial

items are o f types that must be specially designed, pro­
duced, or modified by the vendor in accordance with draw­
ings or engineering specifications.

portion o f the buyer’s time.

Solicits bids, analyzes quotations received, and selects or
recommends supplier. May interview prospective vendors.
Purchases items and services at the most favorable price
consistent with quality, quantity, specification require­
ments, and other factors. Prepares or supervises preparation
o f purchase orders from requisitions. May expedite delivery
and visit vendors’ offices and plants.
Normally, purchases are unreviewed when they are con­
sistent with past experience, and are in conformance with

Excluded are:
a. Buyers of items for direct sale, either wholesale or
retail;
b. Brokers and dealers buying for clients or for in­
vestment purposes;
c. Positions that specifically require professional edu­
cation and qualifications in a physical science or in en­
gineering (e.g., chemist, mechanical engineer);
d. Buyers who specialize in purchasing a single or a
few related items o f highly variable quality such as raw
cotton or wool, tobacco, cattle, or leather for shoe up­
pers, etc. Expert personal knowledge o f the item is re­
quired to judge the relative value o f the goods offered
and to decide the quantity, quality, and price o f each
purchase in terms of its probable effect on the organiza­
tion’s profit and competitive status;
e. Buyers whose principal responsibility is the super­
vision of other buyers or the management, direction, or
supervision o f a purchasing program;
f. Persons predominantly concerned with contract or
subcontract adminsitration;
g. Persons whose major duties consist o f ordering,

established rules and policies. Proposed purchase transac­
tions that deviate from the usual or from past experience in
terms o f prices, quality o f items, quantities, etc., or that
may set precedents for future purchases, are reviewed by
higher authority prior to final action.
In addition to the work described above, some (but not
all) buyers direct the work o f one or a few clerks who
perform routine aspects o f the work. As a secondary and
subsidiary duty, some buyers may also sell or dispose o f
surplus, salvage, or used materials, equipment, or supplies.




45

reordering, or requisitioning items under existing con­
Transactions usually require dealing with manufacturers.
tracts; and
The number o f potential vendors is likely to be small and
h.
Positions restricted to clerical functions or to pur­
price differentials often reflect important factors (quality,
chase expediting work.
delivery dates and places, etc.) that are difficult to evaluate.
Buyer I

The quantities purchased o f any item or service may be
large.
Many o f the purchases involve one or more o f such com­

Purchases “ off-the-shelf’ types o f readily available, com­
monly used materials, supplies, tools, furniture, services,
etc.

plications as: Specifications that detail, in technical terms,
th£ required physical, chemical, electrical, or other compar­

Transactions usually involve local retailers, wholesalers,

able properties; special testing prior to acceptance; grouping

jobbers, and manufacturers’ sales representatives.

o f items for lot bidding and awards; specialized processing,

Quantities purchased are generally small amounts, e.g.,
those available from local sources.

packing, or packaging requirements; export packs; overseas
port differentials; etc.
Is expected to keep abreast o f market and product devel­

Examples o f items purchased include: Common statio­
nery and office supplies; standard types o f office furniture

opments. May be required to locate new sources o f supply.
Some positions may involve assisting in the training or
supervising o f lower level buyers or clerks.

and fixtures; standard nuts, bolts, sjrews; janitorial and
common building maintenance supplies; and common
building maintenance or common utility services or office
machine repair services.

Examples o f items purchased include: Castings; special
extruded shapes o f normal size and material; special formula
paints; electric motors o f special shape or speeds; production
equipment; special packaging o f items; and raw materials in

Buyer II

Purchases “ off-the-shelf’ types o f standard, generally
available technical items, materials, and services.

substantial quantities or with special characteristics.

Trans­

actions may involve occasional modification o f standard and

Buyer IV

common usage items, materials, and services, and include a
Purchases highly complex and technical items, materials,

few stipulations about unusual packing, marking, shipping,
etc.

or services, usually those specially designed and manufac­

Transactions usually involve dealing directly with manu­
facturers, distributors, jobbers, etc.

tured exclusively for the purchaser.
Transactions require dealing with manufacturers and o f­

Quantities o f items and materials purchased may be rel­
atively large, particularly in the case o f contracts for con­
tinuing supply over a period o f time.
May be responsible for locating or promoting possible

ten involve persuading potential vendors to undertake the
manufacturing o f custom-designed items according to com­
plex and rigid specifications.
Quantities o f items and materials purchased are often
large in order to satisfy the requirements for an entire large
organization for an extended period o f time. Complex
schedules o f delivery are often involved. Buyer determines
appropriate quantities to be contracted for at any given

new sources o f supply. Usually is expected to keep abreast
o f market trends, changes in business practices in the as­
signed markets, new or altered types o f materials entering
the market, etc.
Examples o f items purchased include: Industrial types o f
handtools; standard electronic parts, components and com­
ponent test instruments; electric motors; gasoline service
station equipment; PBX or other specialized telephone serv­
ices; special purpose printing services; and routine purchases
o f common raw materials such as standard grades and sizes

period o f time.
Transactions are often complicated by the presence o f
one or more such matters as inclusion of: Requirements for
spare parts, preproduction samples and testing, or technical

o f steel bars, rods, and angles.

literature; or patent and royalty provisions.
Keeps abreast o f market and product developments. De­

Also included at this level are buyers o f materials o f the

velops new sources o f supply.
In addition to the work described above, a few positions

types described for buyer I when the quantities purchased

may also require supervision over a few lower level buyers

are large so that local sources o f supply are generally inade­

or clerks. (N o position is included in this level solely be­

quate and the buyer must deal directly with manufacturers
on a broader than local scale.

cause supervisory duties are performed.)
Examples o f items purchased include: Special purpose
high cost machine tools and production facilities; specialized

Buyer III

condensers, boilers, and turbines; raw materials o f critically
important characteristics or quality; parts, subassemblies,

Purchases items, materials, or services o f a technical and

components, etc., specially designed and made to order (e.g.,

specialized nature. The items, while o f a common general

communications equipment for installation in aircraft being

type, are usually made, altered, or customized to meet the

manufactured; component assemblies for missiles and rock­

user’s specific needs and specifications.

ets, and motor vehicle frames).




46

N O TE : Excluded are buying positions above level IV.
Some buyers above level IV make purchases in such unusu­
ally large quantities that they can affect the market price o f
a commodity or produce other significant effects on the
industry or trade concerned. Others may purchase items o f
either ( 1) extraordinary technical complexity, e.g., involv­
ing the outermost limits o f science or engineering, or

(2 ) unusually high individual or unit value. Such buyers o f­
ten persuade suppliers to expand their plants or convert
facilities to the production o f new items or services. These
types o f buying functions are often performed by program
managers or company officials who have primary responsi­
bilities other than buying.

Personnel Management
JO B A N A L Y S T

Performs work involved in collecting, analyzing, and de­
veloping occupational data relative to jobs, job qualifica­
tions, and worker characteristics as a basis for compensating
employees in a fair, equitable, and uniform manner. Per­
forms such duties as studying and analyzing jobs and pre­
paring descriptions o f duties and responsibilities and o f the
physical and mental requirements needed by workers; eval­
uating jobs and determining appropriate wage or salary lev­
els in accordance with their difficulty and responsibility;
independently conducting or participating with representa­
tives o f other companies in conducting compensation sur­
veys within a locality or labor market area; assisting in ad­
ministering merit rating programs; reviewing changes in
wages and salaries indicated by surveys and recommending
changes in pay scales; and auditing individual jobs to check
the propriety o f evaluations and to apply current job classi­
fications. (Positions also responsible for supplying manage­
ment with a high technical level o f advice regarding the
solution o f broad personnel management problems should
be excluded.)

Job A nalyst I

As a trainee, performs work in designated areas and o f
limited occupational scope. Receives immediate supervision
in assignments designed to provide training in the applica­
tion o f established methods and techniques o f job analysis.
Studies the least difficult jobs and prepares reports for re­
view by a job analyst o f higher level.2

Job A nalyst II

Studies, describes, and evaluates jobs in accordance with
established procedures. Is usually assigned to the simpler
kinds o f both wage and salaried jobs in the establishment.
Works independently on such assignments but is limited by
defined area o f assignment and instructions o f superior.

or participate in conducting surveys o f broad compensation
areas. May assist in developing survey methods and plans.
Receives general supervision but responsibility for final ac­
tion is limited.

Job A nalyst IV

Analyzes and evaluates a variety o f jobs in accordance
with established evaluation systems and procedures, and is
given assignments which regularly include responsibility for
the more difficult kinds o f jobs. ( “ More difficult” means
jobs which consist o f hard-to-understand work processes;
e.g., professional, scientific, administrative, or technical; or
jobs in new or emerging occupational fields; or jobs which
are being established as part o f the creation o f new organi­
zations; or where other special considerations o f these types
apply.) Receives general supervision, but responsibility for
final action is limited. May participate in the development
and installation o f evaluation or compensation systems,
which may include those for merit rating programs. May
plan survey methods and conduct or direct wage surveys
within a broad compensation area.
2 Insufficient data were obtained for level I to warrant presenta­
tion o f average salaries.

D IR EC TO R O F P E R S O N N E L

Directs a personnel management program for a company
or a segment o f a company. Serves top management o ffi­
cials o f the organization as the source o f advice and assis­
tance on personnel management matters and problems gen­
erally; is typically consulted on the personnel implications
o f planned changes in management policy or program, the
effects on the organization o f economic or market trends,
product or production method changes, etc.; represents
management in contacts with other companies, trade asso­
ciations, government agencies, etc., dealing primarily with
personnel management matters.
Typically the director o f personnel for a company re­
ports to a company officer in charge o f industrial relations

Job A nalyst III

and personnel management activities or an officer o f similar
level. Below the company level the director o f personnel

Analyzes and evaluates a variety o f wage and salaried

typically reports to a company officer or a high manage­

jobs in accordance with established evaluation systems and

ment official who has responsibility for the operation o f a

procedures. May conduct wage surveys within the locality

plant, establishment, or other segment o f the company.




overseeing cafeteria operations, recreational programs,
industrial health and safety programs, etc.).

For a job to be covered by this definition, the personnel
management program must include responsibility for all
three o f the following functions:

In addition, positions covered by this definition may,
but do not necessarily, include responsibilities in the fo l­

1. Administering a job evaluation system: i.e., a sys­
tem in which there are established procedures by which
jobs are analyzed and evaluated on the basis o f their
duties, responsibilities, and qualification requirements in
order to provide a foundation for equitable compensa­
tion. Typically, such a system includes the use o f one or
more sets o f job evaluation factors and the preparation
o f formal job descriptions. It may also include such re­
lated functions as wage and salary surveys or merit rating
system administration. The job evaluation system(s)
does not necessarily cover all jobs in the organization,
but does cover a substantial portion of the organization.
2. Employment and placement function: i.e., recruit­
ing actively for at least some kinds of workers through a
variety of sources (e.g., schools or colleges, employment
agencies, professional societies, etc.); evaluating appli­
cants against demands o f particular jobs by use o f such
techniques as job analysis to determine requirements,
interviews, written tests o f aptitude, knowledge, or skill,
reference checks, experience evaluations, etc.; recom­
mending selections and job placements to management,
etc.
3. Employee relations and services function: i.e.,
functions designed to maintain employees’ morale and
productivity at a high level (for example, administering a
formal or informal grievance procedure; identifying and
recommending solutions for personnel problems such as
absenteeism, high turnover, low productivity, etc.; ad­
ministration o f beneficial suggestions system, retirement,
pension, or insurance plans, merit rating system, etc.;
Table C-3.

lowing areas:
Employee training and development;
Labor relations activities which are confined mainly
to the administration, interpretation, and application o f
those aspects o f labor union contracts that are essential­
ly o f the type described under (3 ) above. May also parti­
cipate in bargaining o f a subordinate nature, e.g., to ne­
gotiate detailed settlement o f such matters as specific
rates, job classifications, work rules, hiring or layoff pro­
cedures, etc., within the broad terms o f a general agree­
ment reached at higher levels, or to supply advice and
information on technical points to the company’s princi­
pal representative.
Equal employment opportunity (EEO);
Reporting under the Occupational Safety and Health
A ct (OSHA).
Excluded are positions in which responsibility for actual
contract negotiation.with labor unions as the principal com­
pany representative is a significant aspect o f the job, i.e., a
responsibility which serves as a primary basis for qualifica­
tion requirements and compensation.
Director o f personnel jobs which meet the above defini­
tion are classified by level o f work3 in accordance with the
criteria shown in table C-3.
3Insufficient data were obtained for level V to warrant presenta­
tion o f average salaries.

Criteria for matching directors o f personnel by level
"D evelopm ent level"
personnel program 1
2
3

"O perations level"
personnel program 1
Num ber of employees in
w o rk force serviced

250-750 ....................................
1 000-5,000 ..............................
6 000-12 00 0 ............................
15,000-25,000 ..........................

"T y p e A "
organization
serviced3
1
II
III
IV

II
III
IV
V

Num ber of employees in
w ork force serviced

"T y p e B "
organization
serviced4

250-750 .......................................
1,000-5,000 ................................
6,000-12,000 ..............................
15,000-25,000 ............................

1 "O perations level” personnel program —d ir e c t o r o f p e rso n n e l
s e rv icin g an o r g a n iz a tio n a l s e g m en t (e.g., a p la n t) o f a c o m p a n y ,
w h e re th e b a s ic p e rs o n n e l p ro g ra m p o lic ie s , p la n s, o b je c tiv e s , e tc .,
are e s ta b lis h e d a t c o m p a n y h e a d q u a rte rs o r at s o m e o th e r higher
level b etw e en th e p la n t and th e c o m p a n y h e a d q u a rte rs level. T h e
p e rs o n n e l d ir e c t o r 's r e s p o n s ib ilit y is t o p u t these in to o p e r a tio n at
lo ca l m a n a g e m e n t needs.

" Developm ent level” personnel program —e ith er:

(a) D ir e c to r o f p e rs o n n e l s e rv ic in g an e n tire c o m p a n y (w ith
o r w it h o u t s u b o r d in a t e e s ta b lis h m e n ts) w h e re th e p e rs o n n e l d i­
re c to r p la y s an im p o r t a n t ro le in e s ta b lis h m e n t o f b a sic p e r­
so n n e l p o lic ie s , pla n s, o b je c tiv e s , e tc ., f o r th e c o m p a n y s u b je c t
t o p o lic y d ir e c t io n and c o n t r o l fr o m c o m p a n y o ffic e rs , or (b)
d ir e c t o r o f p e rs o n n e l s e rv ic in g an in te rm e d ia te o r g a n iz a tio n b e ­
lo w th e c o m p a n y level, e.g., a d iv is io n o r a s u b s id ia ry , t o w h ic h a
r e la tiv e ly c o m p le te d e le g a tio n o f p e rs o n n e l p ro g ra m p la n n in g
a nd d e v e lo p m e n t r e s p o n s ib ilit y is m a d e. In th is s itu a tio n o n ly
b a sic p o lic y d ir e c t io n is given b y th e p a re n t c o m p a n y and lo cal
o ffic e rs . T h e d ir e c t o r o f p e rs o n n e l has e s s e n tia lly th e sam e d e ­

II
III
IV
V

III
IV
V

w o rk f o r c e o f 8 5 0 e m p lo y e e s s h o u ld be m a tc h e d w ith level 1 if it is
1
a p e rs o n n e l p ro g ra m o p e r a t io n s level jo b w h e re th e n a tu re o f th e
o r g a n iz a tio n se rv ic e d seem s to fa ll s lig h tly b e lo w th e d e f in it io n fo r
t y p e B. H o w e v e r, th e sam e jo b s h o u ld be m a tc h e d w ith level I if th e
n a tu re o f th e o r g a n iz a t io n s ervice d c le a r ly fa lls w ell w it h in th e d e fi­
n itio n f o r t y p e A .

gree o f la t it u d e a n d r e s p o n s ib ilit y f o r e s ta b lis h m e n t o f b asic p e r ­
so n n e l p o lic ie s , pla n s, o b je c tiv e s , e tc ., as d e sc rib e d a b o v e in (a).

3 "T y p e A " organization serviced—m o st jo b s s ervice d d o n o t
p re s e n t p a r t ic u la r ly d if f ic u lt o r u n u su a l r e c r u it m e n t, jo b e v a lu a tio n ,




"T y p e B"
organization
serviced4

o r t ra in in g p r o b le m s b e c a u s e th e jo b s c o n s is t o f re la t iv e ly easy-tou n d e rs ta n d w o rk p ro cesse s, a n d an a d e q u a te la b o r s u p p ly is a v a il­
able. T h e s e c o n d it io n s are m o s t lik e ly t o be f o u n d in o r g a n iz a tio n s
in w h ic h th e w o rk f o r c e a n d o r g a n iz a tio n a l s tr u c t u re are re la tiv e ly
stable.
4 "T yp e B ” organization serviced—a s u b sta n tia l p r o p o r t io n o f
th e jo b s p re s e n t d if f ic u lt r e c r u it m e n t, jo b e v a lu a tio n , o r t ra in in g
p r o b le m s b e c a u se th e jo b s : C o n s is t o f h a rd -to -u n d e rs ta n d w o rk p r o ­
cesses (e.g., p r o fe s s io n a l, s c ie n tific , a d m in is tra tiv e , o r t e c h n ic a l) ;
have h a rd -to -m a tc h s k ill r e q u ir e m e n ts ; are in new o r e m e rg in g o c c u ­
p a tio n s ; o r are e x t re m e ly h a rd to f ill. T h e s e c o n d it io n s are m o st
lik e ly to b e f o u n d in o r g a n iz a t io n s in w h ic h th e w o rk fo r c e , o r g a n i­
z a tio n a l s tr u c tu re , w o rk p ro c e s se s o r f u n c t io n s , e tc ., a re c o m p li­
c a te d o r u n sta b le .
N O T E : T h e r e are gaps b e tw e e n d iff e r e n t degrees o f all th ree
e le m e n ts used t o d e te rm in e jo b level m a tc h e s . T h e s e gaps have been
p ro v id e d p u r p o s e ly to a llo w r o o m f o r ju d g m e n t in g e ttin g t h e best
o v e ra ll jo b level m a tc h f o r ea ch jo b . T h u s , a jo b w h ic h service s a

th e lo ca l le vel, in s u ch a m a n n e r as to m o st e ffe c tiv e ly serve the

2

"T y p e A "
organization
serviced3

48

Chemists and Engineers
Direction received. Supervisor establishes the nature and
extent o f analysis required, specifies methods and criteria
on new types o f assignments, and reviews work for thor­
oughness o f application o f methods and accuracy o f results.

C H E M IS T

Performs professional work in research, development, in­
terpretation, and analysis to determine the composition,
molecular structure, and properties o f substances; to devel­
op or investigate new materials and processes; and to inves­
tigate the transformations which substances undergo. Work

ety o f standardized methods, tests, and procedures. In ac­

typically requires a B.S. degree in chemistry or the equiva­
lent in appropriate and substantial college level study o f
chemistry plus experience.

cordance with specific instructions may carry out proposed
and less common ones. Is expected to detect problems in
using standardized procedures because o f the condition o f

Typical duties and responsibilities. Carries out a wide vari­

the sample, difficulties with the equipment, etc. Recom­
mends modifications o f procedures, e.g., extending or cur­

Chem ist I

tailing the analysis or using alternate procedures, based on
knowledge o f the problem and pertinent available litera­

General characteristics. This is the entry level o f profes­

ture. Conducts specified phases o f research projects as an

sional work requiring a bachelor’s degree in chemistry and
no experience, or the equivalent o f a degree in appropriate

assistant to an experienced chemist.

education and experience. Performs assignments designed
to develop professional capabilities and to provide experi­
ence in the application o f training in chemistry as it relates
to the company’s programs. May also receive formal class­
room or seminar type training. (Terminal positions are ex­
cluded.)

Responsibility fo r the direction o f others. May be assisted
by a few aids or technicians.

Chem ist III

Direction received. Works under close supervision. Receives

General characteristics. Performs a broad range o f chemical

specific and detailed instructions as to required tasks and
results expected. Work is checked during progress, and is

tests and procedures utilized in the laboratory, using judg­
ment in the independent evaluation, selection, and adapta­
tion o f standard methods and techniques. May carry
through a complete series o f tests on a product in its differ­

reviewed for accuracy upon completion.
Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs a variety o f

ent process stages. Some assignments require a specialized

routine tasks that are planned to provide experience and
familiarization with the chemistry staff, methods, practices,

knowledge o f one or two common categories o f related
substances. Performance at this level requires developmen­
tal experience in a professional position, or equivalent grad­

and programs o f the company. The work includes a variety
o f routine qualitative and quantitative analyses; physical
tests to determine properties such as viscosity, tensile

uate level education.

strength, and melting point; and assisting more experienced
chemists to gain additional knowledge through personal ob­
servation and discussion.

Direction received. On routine work, supervision is very
general. Assistance is furnished on unusual problems and
work is reviewed for application o f sound professional judg­
ment.

Responsibility fo r the direction o f others. Usually none.

Typical duties and responsibilities. In accordance with in­
structions as to the nature o f the problem, selects standard
methods, tests or procedures; when necessary, develops or
works out alternate or modified methods with supervisor’s

Chem ist II

General characteristics. At this continuing developmental
level, performs routine chemical work requiring selection
and application o f general and specialized methods, tech­

concurrence. Assists in research by analyzing samples or

niques, and instruments commonly used in the laboratory,
and the ability to carry out instructions when less common

cause (a) standard methods are inapplicable, (b ) analytical
findings must be interpreted in terms o f compliance or non-

or proposed methods or procedures are necessary. Requires
work experience acquired in an entry level position, or ap­

compliance with standards, or (c ) specialized and advanced
equipment and techniques must be adapted.

testing new procedures that require specialized training be­

propriate graduate level study. For training and develop­
is typical o f a higher level. (Terminal positions are exclud­

Responsibility fo r the direction o f others. May supervise or
coordinate the work o f a few technicians or aids, and be

ed.)

assisted by lower level chemists.

mental purposes, assignments may include some work that




49

supervised is comparable to that described for chemist IV.
(2 ) As individual researcher or worker, carries out projects
requiring development o f new or highly modified scientific
techniques and procedures,-extensive knowledge o f special­

Chem ist IV

General characteristics. As a fully competent chemist in all
conventional aspects o f the subject matter or the functional
area o f the assignments, plans and conducts work requiring
(a) mastery o f specialized techniques or ingenuity in select­

ty, and knowledge o f related scientific fields.

ing and evaluating approaches to unforeseen or novel prob­

Responsibility fo r the direction o f others. Supervises, co­
ordinates, and reviews the work o f a small staff o f chemists

lems, and (b ) ability to apply a research approach to the
solution o f a wide variety o f problems and to assimilate the

and technicians engaged in varied research and development
projects, or a larger group performing routine analytical
work. Estimates personnel needs and schedules and assigns

details and significance o f chemical and physical analyses,
procedures, and tests. Requires sufficient professional ex­
perience to assure competence as a fully trained worker; or,

work to meet completion date. Or, as individual researcher
or worker, may be assisted on projects by other chemists or
technicians.

for positions primarily o f a research nature, completion o f
all requirements for a doctoral degree may be substituted
for experience.

Chem ist VI

Direction received. Independently performs most assign­
ments with instructions as to the general results expected.
Receives technical guidance on unusual or complex prob­

General characteristics. Performs work requiring leadership
and expert knowledge in a specialized field, product, or

lems and supervisory approval on proposed plans for pro­

process. Formulates and conducts a systematic attack on a

jects.

problem area o f considerable scope and complexity which
must be approached through a series o f complete and con­
ceptually related studies, or a number o f projects o f lesser
scope. The problems are complex because they are difficult
to define and require unconventional or novel approaches
or have other difficult features. Maintains liaison with indi­
viduals and units within and outside the organization, with

Typical duties and responsibilities. Conducts laboratory as­
signments requiring the determination and evaluation o f al­
ternative procedures and the sequence o f performing them.
Performs complex, exacting, unusual analytical assignments
requiring specialized knowledge o f techniques or products.
Interprets results, prepares reports, and may provide techni­

responsibility for acting independently on technical matters
pertaining to the field. Work at this level usually requires
extensive progressive experience including work comparable
to chemist V.

cal advice in specialized area.
Responsibility fo r the direction o f others. May supervise a
small staff o f chemists and technicians.

Direction received. Supervision received is essentially ad­
ministrative, with assignments given in terms o f broad gen­
Chem ist V

eral objectives and limits.

General characteristics. Participates in planning laboratory
programs on the basis o f specialized knowledge o f problems

Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both o f the fo l­
lowing: (1 ) In a supervisory capacity (a) plans, develops,

and methods and probable value o f results. May serve as an
expert in a narrow specialty (e.g., class o f chemical com­
pounds, or a class o f products), making recommendations
and conclusions which serve as the basis for undertaking or

coordinates, and directs a number o f large and important
projects or a project o f major scope and importance, or
(b ) is responsible for the entire chemical program o f a com­
pany, when the program is o f limited complexity and

rejecting important projects. Development o f the knowl­

scope. Activities supervised are o f such a scope that they

edge and expertise required for this level o f work usually

require a few (3 to 5) subordinate supervisors or team lead­

reflects progressive experience through chemist IV.

ers with at least one in a position comparable to level V.
(2 ) As individual researcher or worker determines, con­

Direction received. Supervision and guidance relate largely

ceives, plans, and conducts projects o f major importance to

to overall objectives, critical issues, new concepts, and poli­
cy matters. Consults with supervisor concerning unusual

nuity in adapting, extending, and synthesizing existing the­

the company. Applies a high degree o f originality and inge­

problems and developments.

ory, principles, and techniques into original combinations
and configurations. May serve as a consultant to other
chemists in specialty.

Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both o f the fol­
lowing: (1 ) In a supervisory capacity, plans, organizes, and
directs assigned laboratory programs. Independently defines
scope and critical elements o f the projects and selects ap­

Responsibility fo r the direction o f others. Plans, organizes,
and supervises the work o f a staff o f chemists and techni­

proaches to be taken. A substantial portion o f the work

cians. Evaluates progress o f the staff and results obtained,




50

and recommends major changes to achieve overall objec­
tives. Or, as individual worker or researcher, may be assisted
on individual projects by other chemists or technicians.

in positions comparable to chemist V I; or, as individual
researcher and consultant, may be assisted on individual

Chem ist VII

Chem ist VIII

General characteristics. Makes decisions and recommenda­

General characteristics. Makes decisions and recommenda­

tions that are recognized as authoritative and have an im­

tions that are authoritative and have a far-reaching impact

portant impact on extensive chemical activities. Initiates
and maintains extensive contacts with key chemists and

on extensive chemical and related activities o f the com­
pany. Negotiates critical and controversial issues with top

officials o f other organizations and companies, requiring

level chemists and officers o f other organizations and com­

skill in persuasion and negotiation o f critical issues. At this

panies. Individuals at this level have demonstrated a high

level individuals will have demonstrated creativity, fore­
sight, and mature judgment in anticipating and solving un­

degree o f creativity, foresight, and mature judgment in
planning, organizing, and guiding extensive chemical pro­

precedented chemical problems, determining program ob­

grams and activities o f outstanding novelty and importance.

projects by other chemists and technicians.

jectives and requirements, organizing programs and pro­
jects, and developing standards and guides for diverse chem­

Direction received. Receives general administrative direc­
tion.

ical activities.
Direction received. Receives general administrative direc­
tion.

Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both o f the fo l­
lowing: (1 ) In a supervisory capacity is responsible for
(a) the entire chemical program o f a company which is o f

Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both o f the fo l­
lowing: (1 ) In a supervisory capacity is responsible for
(a) an important segment o f a chemical program o f a com­

moderate scope, or (b ) an important segment o f a chemical
program o f a company with very extensive and highly diver­

pany with extensive and diversified scientific requirements,
or (b ) the entire chemical program o f a company where the

complexity and scope that they are o f critical importance
to overall operations and include problems o f extraordinary

sified scientific requirements, where programs are o f such

program is more limited in scope. The overall chemical pro­

difficulty that have resisted solution. Decides the kind and

gram contains critical problems the solution o f which re­
quires major technological advances and opens the way for

extent o f chemical programs needed to accomplish the ob­
jectives o f the company, for choosing the scientific ap­

extensive related development. Makes authoritative techni­

proaches, for planning and organizing facilities and pro­

cal recommendations concerning the scientific objectives

grams, and for interpreting results. (2 ) As individual re­

and levels o f work which will be most profitable in light o f

searcher and consultant formulates and guides the attack on

company requirements and scientific and industrial trends
and developments. Recommends facilities, personnel, and

problems o f exceptional difficulty and marked importance
to the company and/or industry. Problems are character­

funds required. (2 ) As individual researcher and consultant,

ized by the lack o f scientific precedents and source materi­

selects problems for research to further the company’s ob­

als, or the lack o f success o f prior research and analysis so

jectives. Conceives and plans investigations in which the
phenomena and principles are not adequately understood,
and where few or contradictory scientific precedents or re­
sults are available for reference. Outstanding creativity and
mature judgment are required to devise hypotheses and

that their solution would represent an advance o f great sig­
nificance and importance. Performs advisory and consulting
work for the company as a recognized authority for broad
program areas o f considerable novelty and importance. Has
made contributions such as new products or techniques,
development o f processes, etc., which are regarded as major
advances in the field.

techniques o f experimentation and to interpret results. As a
leader and authority in the company, in a broad area o f
specialization, or in a narrow but intensely specialized one,
advises the head o f a large laboratory or company officials
on complex aspects o f extremely broad and important pro­

Responsibility fo r the direction o f others. Supervises several
subordinate supervisors or team leaders some o f whose posi­
tions are comparable to chemist V II, or individual re­

grams. Has responsibility for exploring, evaluating, and jus­

searchers some o f whose positions are comparable to chem­

tifying proposed and current programs and projects and

ist V II and sometimes chemist V III. As an individual re­

furnishing advice on unusually complex and novel problems

searcher and consultant may be assisted on individual proj­

in the specialty field. Typically will have contributed inno­

ects by other chemists or technicians.

vations (e.g., techniques, products, procedures) which are

N O T E : Individuals in charge o f a company’s chemical

regarded as significant advances in the field.

program may match any o f several o f the survey job levels,
depending on the size and complexity o f chemical pro­
grams. Excluded from the definition are: (1 ) Chemists in

Responsibility fo r the direction o f others. Directs several
subordinate supervisors or team leaders, some o f whom are




51

charge o f programs so extensive and complex (e.g., consist­
ing o f highly diversified or unusually novel products and
procedures) that one or more subordinate supervisory
chemists are performing at level V III; (2 ) individuals whose

rying out a sequence o f related engineering tasks. Limited

decisions have direct and substantial effect on setting policy
for the organization (included, however, are supervisors de­

entry level position, or appropriate graduate level study.

exercise o f judgment is required on details o f work and in
making preliminary selections and adaptations o f engineer­
ing alternatives. Requires work experience acquired in an

ciding the “ kind and extent o f chemical programs” within

For training and developmental purposes, assignments may
include some work that is typical o f a higher level. (Termi­

broad guidelines set at higher levels); (3 ) individual re­

nal positions are excluded.)

searchers and consultants who are recognized as national
and/or international authorities and scientific leaders in

Direction received. Supervisor screens assignments for unus­

very broad areas o f scientific interest and investigation.

ual or difficult problems and selects techniques and proce­
dures to be applied on nonroutine work. Receives close
supervision on new aspects o f assignments.

EN G IN EER

Typical duties and responsibilities. Using prescribed meth­
ods, performs specific and limited portions o f a broader
assignment o f an experienced engineer. Applies standard
practices and techniques in specific situations, adjusts and
correlates data, recognizes discrepancies in results, and fol­
lows operations through a series o f related detailed steps or
processes.

Performs professional work in research, development,
design, testing, analysis, production, construction, maint­
enance, operation, planning, survey, estimating, application,
or standardization o f engineering facilities, systems, struc­
tures, processes, equipment devices, or materials requiring
knowledge o f the science and art by which materials, natu­
ral resources, and power are made useful. Work typically
requires a B.S. degree in engineering or the equivalent in
combined education and experience. ( Excluded are: Safety

Responsibility fo r the direction o f others. May be assisted
by a few aids or technicians.

engineers, industrial engineers, quality control engineers,
sales engineers, and engineers whose primary responsibility
is to be in charge o f nonprofessional maintenance work.)

Engineer III

General characteristics. Independently evaluates, selects,

Engineer I

and applies standard engineering techniques, procedures,
and criteria, using judgment in making minor adaptations
and modifications. Assignments have clear and specified ob­

General characteristics. This is the entry level o f profes­
sional work requiring a bachelor’s degree in engineering and

jectives and require the investigation o f a limited number o f

no experience, or the equivalent o f a degree in appropriate

variables. Performance at this level requires developmental

education and experience. Performs assignments designed
to develop professional work knowledges and abilities. May
also receive formal classroom or seminar-type training.

experience in a professional position, or equivalent graduate
level education.

(Terminal positions are excluded.)

Direction received. Receives instructions on specific assign­
ment objectives, complex features, and possible solutions.

Direction received. Works under close supervision. Receives

Assistance is furnished on unusual problems and work is
reviewed for application o f sound professional judgment.

specific and detailed instructions as to required tasks and
results expected. Work is checked during progress and is
reviewed for accuracy upon completion.

Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs work which
involves conventional types o f plans, investigations, surveys,

Typical duties and responsibilities. Performs a variety o f

structures, or equipment with relatively few complex fea­

routine tasks that are planned to provide experience and

tures for which there are precedents. Assignments usually
include one or more o f the following: Equipment design

familiarization with the engineering staff, methods, prac­
tices, and programs o f the company.

and development, test o f materials, preparation o f specifica­
tions, process study, research investigations, report prepara­

Responsibility fo r the direction o f others. Usually none.

tion, and other activities o f limited scope requiring knowl­

Engineer II

edge o f principles and techniques commonly employed in
the specific narrow area o f assignments.

General characteristics. At this continuing developmental

Responsibility fo r the direction o f others. May supervise or

level, performs routine engineering work requiring applica­

coordinate the work o f drafters, technicians, and others

tion o f standard techniques, procedures, and criteria in car­

who assist in specific assignments.




52

General characteristics. As a fully competent engineer in all
conventional aspects o f the subject matter or the functional
area o f the assignments, plans and conducts work requiring
judgment in the independent evaluation, selection, and sub­
stantial adaptation and modification o f standard tech­

dinates, and directs a large and important engineering pro­
ject or a number o f small projects with many complex fea­
tures. A substantial portion o f the work supervised is com­
parable to that described for engineer IV. (2 ) As individual
researcher or worker carries out complex or novel assign­
ments requiring the development o f new or improved tech­
niques and procedures. Work is expected to result in the

niques, procedures, and criteria. Devises new approaches to

development o f new or refined equipment, materials, pro­

problems encountered. Requires sufficient professional ex­
perience to assure competence as a fully trained worker; or,

cesses, products, and/or scientific methods. (3 ) As staff

Engineer IV

specialist develops and evaluates plans and criteria for a
variety o f projects and activities to be carried out by others.
Assesses the feasibility and soundness o f proposed engineer­

for positions primarily o f a research nature, completion o f
all requirements for a doctoral degree may be substituted
for experience.

ing evaluation tests, products, or equipment when necessary
data are insufficient or confirmation by testing is advisable.

Direction received. Independently performs most assign­

Usually performs as a staff advisor and consultant as to a

ments with instructions as to the general results expected.
Receives technical guidance on unusual or complex prob­
lems and supervisory approval on proposed plans for pro­
jects.

technical specialty, a type o f facility or equipment, or a
program function.
Responsibility fo r the direction o f others. Supervises, coor­
dinates, and reviews the work o f a small staff o f engineers
and technicians; estimates personnel needs and schedules
and assigns work to meet completion date. Or, as individual
researcher or staff specialist may be assisted on projects by

Typical duties and responsibilities. Plans, schedules, con­
ducts, or coordinates detailed phases o f the engineering
work in a part o f a major project or in a total project o f
moderate scope. Performs work which involves convention­

other engineers or technicians.

al engineering practice but may include a variety o f com­
plex features such as conflicting design requirements, un­

Engineer VI

suitability o f standard materials, and difficult coordination
requirements. Work requires a broad knowledge o f prece­

General characteristics. Has full technical responsibility for
interpreting, organizing, executing, and coordinating assign­

dents in the specialty area and a good knowledge o f princi­
ples and practices o f related specialties.

ments. Plans and develops engineering projects concerned
with unique or controversial problems which have an im­

Responsibility fo r the direction o f others. May supervise a

portant effect on major company programs. This involves

few engineers or technicians on assigned work.

exploration o f subject area, definition o f scope and selec­
tion o f problems for investigation, and development o f nov­
el concepts and approaches. Maintains liaison with individu­
als and units within or outside the organization, with re­

Engineer V

General characteristics. Applies intensive and diversified

sponsibility for acting independently on technical matters

knowledge o f engineering principles and practices in broad
areas o f assignments and related fields. Makes decisions in­
dependently on engineering problems and methods, and
represents the organization in conferences to resolve impor­

pertaining to own field. Work at this level usually requires
extensive progressive experience including work comparable
to engineer V.

tant questions and to plan and coordinate work. Requires
the use o f advanced techniques and the modification and
extension o f theories, precepts, and practices o f own field
and related sciences and disciplines. The knowledge and
expertise required for this level o f work usually result from
progressive experience, including work comparable to engi­

Direction received. Supervision received is essentially ad­
ministrative, with assignments given in terms o f broad gen­
eral objectives and limits.

neer IV.

coordinates, and directs a number o f large and important
projects or a project o f major scope and importance, or

Typical duties and responsibilities. One or more o f the fol­
lowing: (1 ) In a supervisory capacity (a) plans, develops,’

Direction received. Supervision and guidance relate largely

(b) is responsible for the entire engineering program o f a

to overall objectives, critical issues, new concepts, and poli­

company when the program is o f limited complexity and

cy matters. Consults with supervisor concerning unusual

scope. Extent o f responsibilities generally requires a few (3
to 5) subordinate supervisors or team leaders with at least

problems and developments.

one in a position comparable to level V. (2 ) As individual
Typical duties and responsibilities. One or more o f the fo l­

researcher or worker conceives, plans, and conducts re­

lowing: (1 ) In a supervisory capacity plans, develops, coor­

search in problem areas o f considerable scope and com­




53

plexity. The problems must be approached through a series
o f complete and conceptually related studies, are difficult
to define, require unconventional or novel approaches, and

funds required to carry out programs which are directly
related with and directed toward fulfillment o f overall com­
pany objectives. (2 ) As individual researcher and consultant

require sophisticated research techniques. Available guides
and precedents contain critical gaps, are only partially relat­

is a recognized leader and authority in the company in a

ed to the problem, or may be largely lacking due to the

specialized field. Selects research problems to further the

broad area o f specialization or in a narrow but intensely

novel character o f the project. A t this level, the individual

company’s objectives. Conceives and plans investigations o f

researcher generally will have contributed inventions, new

broad areas o f considerable novelty and importance for

designs, or techniques which are o f material significance in

which engineering precedents are lacking in areas critical to

the solution o f important problems. (3) As a staff specialist
serves as the technical specialist for the organization (divi­
sion or company) in the application o f advanced theories,

associates and others, with a high degree o f reliance placed
on the incumbent’s scientific interpretations and advice.

the overall engineering program. Is consulted extensively by

Typically, will have contributed inventions, new designs, or
techniques which are regarded as major advances in the
field.

concepts, principles, and processes for an assigned area o f
responsibility (i.e., subject matter, function, type o f facility
or equipment, or product). Keeps abreast o f new scientific
methods and developments affecting the organization for
the purpose o f recommending changes in emphasis o f pro­

Responsibility fo r the direction o f others. Directs several
subordinate supervisors or team leaders, some o f whom are

grams or new programs warranted by such developments.

in positions comparable to engineer V I; or, as individual
researcher and consultant, may be assisted on individual
projects by other engineers and technicians.

Responsibility fo r the direction o f others. Plans, organizes,
and supervises the work o f a staff o f engineers and techni­
cians. Evaluates progress o f the staff and results obtained,
and recommends major changes to achieve overall objec­
tives. Or, as individual researcher or staff specialist may be

Engineer VIII

assisted on individual projects by other engineers or techni­

General characteristics. Makes decisions and recommenda­

cians.

tions that are recognized as authoritative and have a farreaching impact on extensive engineering and related activi­

Engineer VII

ties o f the company. Negotiates critical and controversial
issues with top level engineers and officers o f other organi­

General characteristics. Makes decisions and recommenda­
tions that are recognized as authoritative and have an im­

zations and companies. Individuals at this level demonstrate
a high degree o f creativity, foresight, and mature judgment

portant impact on extensive engineering activities. Initiates

in planning, organizing, and guiding extensive engineering

and maintains extensive contacts with key engineers and

programs and activities o f outstanding novelty and impor­
tance.

officials o f other organizations and companies, requiring
skill in persuasion and negotiation o f critical issues. At this
level individuals will have demonstrated creativity, fore­
sight, and mature engineering judgment in anticipating and
solving unprecedented engineering problems, determining
program objectives and requirements, organizing programs
and projects and developing standards and guides for di­
verse engineering activities.

Direction received. Receives general administrative direc­
tion.
Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both o f the fo l­
lowing: (1 ) In a supervisory capacity is responsible for
(a) an important segment o f a very extensive and highly
diversified engineering program o f a company, or (b ) the

Direction received. Receives general administrative direc­

entire engineering program o f a company when the program

tion.

is o f moderate scope. The programs are o f such complexity
and scope that they are o f critical importance to overall
objectives, include problems o f extraordinary difficulty

Typical duties and responsibilities. One or both o f the fol­
lowing: (1 ) In a supervisory capacity is responsible for

that often have resisted solution, and consist o f several

(a) an important segment o f the engineering program o f a
company with extensive and diversified engineering require­

segments requiring subordinate supervisors. Is responsible

ments, or (b ) the entire engineering program o f a company

programs needed to accomplish the objectives o f the com­

when it is more limited in scope. The overall engineering
program contains critical problems the solution o f which

pany, for choosing the scientific approaches, for planning

for deciding the kind and extent o f engineering and related

and organizing facilities and programs, and for interpreting

requires major technological advances and opens the way

results. (2 ) As individual researcher and consultant formu­

for extensive related development. Extent o f responsibili­
ties generally requires several subordinate organizational

lates and guides the attack on problems o f exceptional diffi­

segments or teams. Recommends facilities, personnel, and

Problems are characterized by their lack o f scientific prece­




culty and marked importance to the company or industry.

54

dents and source material, or lack o f success o f prior re­

N O T E : Individuals in charge o f a company’s engineering
program may match any o f several o f the survey job levels
depending on the size and complexity o f engineering pro­
grams. Excluded from the definition are: (1 ) Engineers in
charge o f programs so extensive and complex (e.g., consis­
ting o f research and development on a variety o f complex
products or systems with numerous novel components) that

search and analysis so that their solution would represent
an advance o f great significance and importance. Performs
advisory and consulting work for the company as a recog­
nized authority for broad program areas or in an intensely
specialized area o f considerable novelty and importance.

one or more subordinate supervisory engineers are perform­
ing at level V III; (2 ) individuals whose decisions have direct
and substantial effect on setting policy for the organization

Responsibility fo r the direction o f others. Supervises several
subordinate supervisors or team leaders some o f whose posi­

(included, however, are supervisors deciding the “ kind and

tions are comparable to engineer V II, or individual research­
ers some o f whose positions are comparable to engineer V II

extent o f engineering and related programs” within broad

and sometimes engineer V III. As an individual researcher
and consultant may be assisted on individual projects by
other engineers or technicians.

and consultants who are recognized as national and/or in­

guidelines set at higher levels); (3 ) individual researchers
ternational authorities and scientific leaders in very broad
areas o f scientific interest and investigation.

Technical Support
also be reviewed in process. Performs, at this level, one or a
combination o f such typical duties as:

E N G IN E E R IN G TEC H N IC IA N

To be covered by these definitions, employees must

Assembles or constructs simple or standard equip­
ment or parts. May service or repair simple instruments
or equipment;
Conducts a variety o f standardized tests; may prepare
test specimens; sets up and operates standard test equip­
ment; records test data;
Extracts engineering data from various prescribed
sources; processes the data following well-defined meth­
ods; presents the data in prescribed form.

meet all o f the following criteria: (1 ) Provides semiprofes­
sional technical support for engineers working in such areas
as research, design, development, testing, or manufacturing
process improvement. (2 ) Work pertains to electrical, elec­
tronic, or mechanical components or equipment. (3 ) Re­
quired to have some knowledge o f science or engineering.
(Excludes production or maintenance workers, quality con­
trol testers, craft workers, drafters, designers, and engi­
neers.)

Engineering Technician III

Performs assignments that are not completely standard­

Engineering Technician I

ized or prescribed. Selects or adapts standard procedures or
Performs simple routine tasks under close supervision or

equipment. Receives initial instructions, equipment require­
ments, and advice from supervisor or engineer; technical
adequacy o f completed work is checked. Performs, at this
level, one or a combination o f such typical duties as:

from detailed procedures. Work is checked in process or on
completion. Performs, at this level, one or a combination o f
such typical duties as:
Assembles or installs equipment or parts requiring
simple wiring, soldering, or connecting;
Performs simple or routine tasks or tests such as ten­
sile or hardness tests; operates and adjusts simple test
equipment; records test data;
Gathers and maintains specified records o f engineer­
ing data such as tests, drawings, etc.; performs computa­
tions by substituting numbers in specified formulas;
plots data and draws simple curves and graphs.

Constructs components, subunits, or simple models
or adapts standard equipment. May troubleshoot and
correct malfunctions;
Conducts various tests or experiments which may re­
quire minor modifications in test setups or procedures;
selects, sets up, and operates standard test equipment
and records test data;
Extracts and compiles a variety o f engineering data;
processes or computes data using specified formulas and
procedures. Performs routine analysis to check applica­
bility, accuracy, and reasonableness o f data.

Engineering Technician II

Performs standardized or prescribed assignments involv­
ing a sequence o f related operations. Follows standard work

Engineering Technician IV
I

methods or explicit instructions; technical adequacy o f rou­

Performs nonroutine assignments o f substantial variety

tine work is reviewed on completion; nonroutine work may

and complexity. Receives objectives and technical advice




55

Prepares simple or repetitive drawings o f easily visualized
items. Work is closely supervised during progress.

from supervisor or engineer; work is reviewed for technical
adequacy. May be assisted by lower level technicians. Per­
forms, at this level, one or a combination o f such typical
duties as:

Drafter I

W orks on lim ited segm ent o f d e velo p m en t p ro ject;
constructs exp erim en ta l or p ro to ty p e m od els to m eet
engineering requ irem ents; conducts tests or exp erim ents;
records and evaluates data and reports findings;
C onducts tests or exp erim ents requiring selection and
adaptation o r m o d ifica tio n o f test equ ip m en t and test
procedures; record s data; analyzes data and prepares test

Prepares detail drawings o f single units or parts for engi­
neering, construction, manufacturing, or repair purposes.
Types o f drawings prepared include isometric projections
(depicting three dimensions in accurate scale) and sectional
views to clarify positioning o f components and convey
needed information. Consolidates details from a number o f

rep orts;
C om piles and com pu tes a variety o f engineering data;
m ay analyze test and design data; d evelops or prepares
schem atics, designs, sp ecifications, parts lists, or makes
recom m en d ation s regarding these item s. M ay review de­
signs or sp ecifications fo r adequacy.

sources and adjusts or transposes scale as required. Suggest­
ed methods o f approach, applicable precedents, and advice
on source materials are given with initial assignments. In­
structions are less complete when assignments recur. Work
may be spot checked during progress.

Engineering Technician V
Drafter il

Performs nonroutine and complex assignments involving
responsibility for planning and conducting a complete pro­

Performs nonroutine and complex drafting assignments

ject o f relatively limited scope or a portion o f a larger and
more diverse project. Selects and adapts plans, techniques,
designs, or layouts. May coordinate portions o f overall as­

that require the application o f most o f the standardized
drawing techniques regularly used. Duties typically involve
such work as: Prepares working drawings o f subassemblies
with irregular shapes, multiple functions, and precise posi­
tional relationships between components; prepares architec­
tural drawings for construction o f a building including de­

signments; reviews, analyzes, and integrates the technical
work o f others. Supervisor or professional engineer outlines
objectives, requirements, and design approaches; completed
work is reviewed for technical adequacy and satisfaction o f
requirements. May be assisted by lower level technicians.
Performs, at this level, one or a combination o f such typical

tail drawings o f foundations, wall sections, floor plans, and
roof. Uses accepted formulas and manuals in making neces­
sary computations to determine quantities o f materials to
be used, load capacities, strengths, stresses, etc. Receives
initial instructions, requirements, and advice from supervi­

duties as:
Designs, develops, and constructs m ajor units, de­
vices, or equ ip m en t; conducts tests or exp erim en ts; ana­
lyzes results and redesigns or m od ifies equ ip m en t to im ­
prove p erform a n ce; rep orts results;
Plans or assists in planning tests to evaluate equ ip­
m ent perform an ce. D eterm ines test requirem ents, equ ip ­
m ent m o d ifica tio n , and test procedures; condu cts tests,
analyzes and evaluates data, and prepares reports on
findings and recom m en d ation s;
R eview s and analyzes a variety o f engineering data to
d eterm ine requirem ents to m eet engineering ob jectives;
m ay calculate design data; prepares layou ts, detailed
sp ecifications, parts lists, estim ates, procedures, etc. M ay
check and analyze drawings or equipm en t to determ ine
adequacy o f drawings and design.

sor. Completed work is checked for technical adequacy.

Drafter III

Plans the graphic presentation o f complex items having
distinctive design features that differ significantly from es­
tablished drafting precedents. Works in close support with
the design originator, and may recommend minor design
changes. Analyzes the effect o f each change on the details
o f form, function, and positional relationships o f compo­
nents and parts. Works with a minimum o f supervisory as­
sistance. Completed work is reviewed by design originator
for consistency with prior engineering determinations. May
either prepare drawings, or direct their preparation by low­

DR AFTERS

er level drafters.
Drafter-tracer
CO M PU TER O P ER ATO R

Copies plans and drawings prepared by others by placing
tracing cloth or paper over drawings and tracing with pen or

Monitors and operates the control console o f a digital

pencil. (Does not include tracing limited to plans primarily

computer, in accordance with operating instructions, to

consisting o f straight lines and a large scale not requiring

process data. Work is characterized by the following:

close delineation.)




Studies op erating instructions
m ent setup n eed ed;

AND/OR

56

to determ in e eq u ip ­

structions or error conditions, applies standard operating or
corrective procedure. Refers problems which do not re­

Loads equ ip m en t w ith required item s (tapes, cards,
paper, e tc .);
Switches necessary au xiliary equipm en t in to system ;
Starts and operates com p u ter;
R esponds to operating instructions and com p u ter
ou tput instructions;
R eview s error messages and makes correction s during
op eration or refers problem s;
Maintains op eratin g record.

spond to preplanned procedures.
Com puter O perator IV

Work assignments are characterized by the frequent in­
troduction o f new programs, applications, and procedures
(i.e., situations which require the operator to adapt to a

May test-run new or modified programs and assist in
modifying systems or programs. Included within the scope

variety o f problems) executed by serial processing. Selects

o f this definition are fully qualified computer operators,

from a variety o f standard setup and operating procedures.

trainees working to become fully qualified operators, and

In response to computer output instructions or error condi­

lead operators providing technical assistance to lower level

tions, deviates from standard procedures i f standard proce­

operators.

dures do not provide a solution. Then refers problems or
aborts program.
OR
Work assignments are characterized by the frequent in­

Com puter Operator I

troduction o f new programs, applications, and procedures
Work assignments consist o f on-the-job training (some­

(i.e., situations which require the operator to adapt to a

times augmented by classroom training). Operator is provid­
ed detailed written or oral guidance before and during as­

variety o f problems) executed by multiprocessing. In re­

signments and is under close personal supervision.

applies standard operating or corrective procedure. Refers
problems which do not respond to preplanned procedure.

sponse to computer output instructions or error conditions,

Com puter Operator II

OR
Work assignments are established production runs, (i.e.,
programs which present few operating problems) executed

Work assignments typically are established production
runs (i.e., programs which present few operating problems)

by multiprocessing. Selects from a variety o f standard setup
and operating procedures. In response to computer output
instructions or error conditions, deviates from standard pro­
cedures i f standard procedures do not provide a solution.
Then refers problems or aborts program.

executed by serial processing (i.e., one program is processed
at a time). In response to computer output instructions or
error conditions, applies standard operating or corrective
procedure. Refers problems which do not respond to pre­
planned procedure.
Com puter O perator III

Com puter O perator V

Work assignments are characterized by the frequent in­

Work assignments are characterized by the frequent test­

troduction o f new programs, applications, and procedures
(i.e., situations which require the operator to adapt to a

ing and introduction o f new programs, applications, and

variety o f problems) executed by serial processing. In re­
sponse to computer output instructions or error conditions,
applies standard operating or corrective procedure. Refers

adapt to a variety o f problems). In responding to computer
output instructions and error conditions or to avoid loss o f
information or to conserve computer time, operator devi­

problems which do not respond to preplanned procedure.

ates from standard procedures or aborts program. Such ac­
tions may materially alter the computer unit’s production
plans. Advises programmers and subject-matter experts on
setup techniques.

procedures (i.e., situations which require the operator to

OR
Work assignments typically are established production
runs (i.e., programs which present few operating problems)
executed by serial processing. Selects from a variety o f stan­
dard setup and operating procedures. In response to com­

Com puter Operator VI

puter output instructions or error conditions, deviates from
standard procedures if standard procedures do not provide

In addition to level V characteristics, assignments at this
level require a knowledge o f program language, computer

a solution. Then refers or aborts program.

features, and software systems to assist in: (1 ) Maintaining,

OR

modifying, and developing operating systems or programs;

Work assignments are established production runs (i.e.,
programs which present few operating problems) executed

(2) developing operating instructions and techniques to cov­

by multiprocessing (i.e., simultaneous processing o f two or
more programs). In response to computer output in­

er problem situations; (3 ) switching to emergency backup




procedures.

57

Clerical
Clerk, File I

C L E R K , A C C O U N T IN G

Performs one or more accounting clerical tasks such as

Performs routine filing o f material that has already been

posting to registers and ledgers; reconciling bank accounts;

classified or which is easily classified in a simple serial classi­

verifying the internal consistency, completeness, and math­

fication system (e.g., alphabetical, chronological, or numeri­

ematical accuracy o f accounting documents; assigning pre­

cal). As requested, locates readily available material in files

scribed accounting distribution codes; examining and veri­

and forwards material; may fill out withdrawal charge. May

fying for clerical accuracy various types o f reports, lists,
calculations, postings, etc.; or preparing simple (or assisting

perform simple clerical and manual tasks required to main­
tain and service files.

in preparing more complicated) journal vouchers. May work
in either a manual or automated accounting system.
The work requires a knowledge o f clerical methods and

Clerk, File II

office practices and procedures which relates to the clerical
processing and recording o f transactions and accounting in­

Sorts, codes, and files unclassified material by simple
(subject-matter) headings or partly classified material by
finer subheadings. Prepares simple related index and cross-

formation. With experience, the worker typically becomes
familiar with the bookkeeping and accounting terms and

reference aids. As requested, locates clearly identified ma­
terial in files and forwards material. May perform related
clerical tasks required to maintain and service files.

procedures used in the assigned work, but is not required to
have a knowledge o f the formal principles o f bookkeeping
and accounting.
Positions are classified into levels on the basis o f the

Clerk, File III

following definitions.

Classifies and indexes file material such as correspon­

Clerk, A cco u nting I

dence, reports, technical documents, etc., in an established
filing system containing a number o f varied subject matter

Under close supervision, following detailed instructions

files. May also file this material. May keep records o f vari­

and standardized procedures, performs one or more routine

ous types in conjunction with the files. May lead a small
group o f lower level file clerks.

accounting clerical operations, such as posting to ledgers,
cards, or worksheets where identification o f items and loca­
tions o f postings are clearly indicated; checking accuracy

K EY EN TR Y OPERATOR

and completeness o f standardized and repetitive records or

(Keypunch Operator)

accounting documents; and coding documents using a few
Operates keyboard-controlled data entry device such as
keypunch machine or key-operated magnetic tape or disc
encoder to transcribe data into a form suitable for computer

prescribed accounting codes.

Clerk, A cco u nting II

processing. Work requires skill in operating an alphanumeric
keyboard and an understanding o f transcribing procedures
and relevant data entry equipment.

Under general supervision, performs accounting clerical
operations which require the application o f experience and
judgment, for example, clerically processing complicated or
nonrepetitive accounting transactions, selecting among a

Positions are classified into levels on the basis o f the
following definitions.
Key E n try Operator I

substantial variety o f prescribed accounting codes and clas­
sifications, or tracing transactions through previous ac­

Work is routine and repetitive. Under close supervision

counting actions to determine source o f discrepancies. May
be assisted by one or more accounting clerks I.

or following specific procedures or detailed instructions,
works from various standardized source documents which
have been coded and require little or no selecting, coding, or
interpreting o f data to be entered.

Refers to supervisor

problems arising from erroneous items, codes, or missing

C L E R K , FILE

information
Files, classifies, and retrieves material in an established

Key En try O perator II

filing system. May perform clerical and manual tasks re­
quired to maintain files. Positions are classified into levels

Work requires the application o f experience and judg­
ment in selecting procedures to be followed and in searching

on the basis o f the following definitions.




58

for, interpreting, selecting, or coding items to be entered

Table C-4.

from a variety o f source documents. On occasion may also
perform some routine work as described for level I.

Criteria fo r matching secretaries by level

Level of secretary's
supervisor

Level of secretary's
responsibility
LR-1

N O T E : Excluded are operators above level II using the
key entry controls to access, read, and evaluate the substance
o f specific records to take substantive actions, or to make
entries requiring a similar level o f knowledge.

L S - 1 .............................................
L S - 2 .............................................
L S - 3 .............................................
L S - 4 .............................................

LR -2

I
II
III
IV

II
III
IV
V

M ESSENGER

Performs various routine duties such as running errands,

tant, skilled technician, or expert. (N O T E : Many
companies assign stenographers, rather than secre­
taries as described above, to this level o f supervi­
sory or nonsupervisory worker.)

operating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers,
opening and distributing mail, and other minor clerical
work. Excluded are positions that require operation o f a
motor vehicle as a significant duty.

LS-2 a. Secretary to an executive or managerial person
whose responsibility is not equivalent to one o f
the specific level situations in the definition for
LS-3, but whose organizational unit normally
numbers at least several dozen employees and is
usually divided into organizational segments which
are often, in turn, further subdivided. In some
companies, this level includes a wide range o f orga­
nizational echelons; in others, only one or two; or
b. Secretary to the head o f an individual plant, fac­
tory, etc., (or other equivalent level o f official)
that employes, in all, fewer than 5,000 persons.

SECRETARY

Assigned as a personal secretary, normally to one indi­
vidual. Maintains a close and highly responsive relationship
to the day-to-day activities o f the supervisor. Works fairly
independently, receiving a minimum o f detailed supervision
and guidance. Performs varied clerical and secretarial duties
requiring a knowledge o f office routine and understanding
o f the organization, programs, and procedures related to
the work o f the supervisor.

LS-3 a. Secretary to a corporate officer (other than chair­
man o f the board or president) o f a company that
employs, in all, over 100 but fewer than 5,000
persons; or
b. Secretary to the head (immediately below the o ffi­
cer level) o f either a major corporatewide func­
tional activity (e.g., marketing, research, opera­
tions, industrial relations, etc.) or a major geo­
graphic or organizational segment (e.g., a regional
headquarters; a major division) o f a company that
employs, in all, over 5,000 but fewer than 25,000
persons; or
c. Secretary to the head o f an individual plant, fac­
tory, etc., (or other equivalent level o f official)
that employs, in all, over 5,000 persons; or
d. Secretary to the head o f a large and important
organizational segment (e.g., a middle management
supervisor o f an organizational segment often in­
volving as many as several hundred persons) o f a
company that employs, in all, over 25,000 per­
sons.

Exclusions. Not all positions that are titled “ secretary” pos­
sess the above characteristics. Examples o f positions which
are excluded from the definition are as follows:
a. Positions which do not meet the “ personal” secretary
concept described above;
b. Stenographers not fully trained in secretarial-type du­
ties;
c. Stenographers serving as office assistants to a group
o f professional, technical, or managerial persons;
d. Assistant-type positions which entail more difficult or
more responsible technical, administrative, or super­
visory duties which are not typical o f secretarial
work, e.g., administrative assistant, or executive assis­
tant;
e. Positions which do not fit any o f the situations listed
in the section below titled “ Level o f Secretary’ s Su­
pervisor,” e.g., secretary to the president o f a com­
pany that employes, in all, over 5,000 persons;
f. Trainees.

LS-4 a. Secretary to the chairman of the board or presi­
dent o f a company that employs, in all, over 100
but fewer than 5,000 persons; or
b. Secretary to a corporate officer (other than the
chairman o f the board or president) o f a company
that employs, in all, over 5,000 but fewer than
25,000 persons; or
c. Secretary to the head, immediately below the cor­
porate officer level, o f a major segment or subsidi­
ary of a company that employs, in all, over 25,000
persons.

Secretary jobs which meet the required characteristics
are matched at one o f the five levels according to (a) the
level o f the secretary’s supervisor within the company’s or­
ganizational structure and (b ) the level o f the secretary’s
responsibility. Table C-4 indicates the level o f the secretary
for each combination o f the factors.
Leval of Secretary's Supervisor (LS)

i

LS-1 a. Secretary to the supervisor or head o f a small or­
ganizational unit (e.g., fewer than about 25 or 30
persons); or
b. Secretary to a nonsupervisory staff specialist, pro­
fessional employee, administrative officer or assis


N O T E : The term “ corporate officer” used in the above
LS definitions refers to those officials who have a signifi­
cant corporatewide policymaking role with regard to major
59

N O T E : This job is distinguished from that o f a secretary
in that a secretary normally works in a confidential rela­
tionship with only one manager or executive and performs
more responsible and discretionary tasks.

company activities. The title “ vice president,” though nor­
mally indicative o f this role, does not in all cases identify
such positions. Vice presidents whose primary responsibili­
ty is to act personally on individual cases or transactions
(e.g., approve or deny individual loan or credit actions; ad­
minister individual trust accounts; directly supervise a cleri­
cal staff) are not considered to be “ corporate officers” for

Stenographer, General

purposes o f applying the definition.

Dictation involves a normal routine vocabulary. May
maintain files, keep simple records, or perform other rela­
tively routine clerical tasks.

Level of Secretary's Responsibility (LR )

This factor evaluates the nature o f the work relationship

Stenographer, Senior

between the secretary and the supervisor, and the extent to
which the secretary is expected to exercise initiative and

Dictation involves a varied technical or specialized vo­

judgment. Secretaries should be matched at LR-1 or LR-2
described below according to their level o f responsibility.

cabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on scientific re­
search. May also set up and maintain files, keep records,
etc.

LR-1. Performs varied secretarial duties including or com­

OR
Performs stenographic duties requiring significantly
greater independence and responsibility than stenographer,

parable to most o f the following:
a. Answers telephone, greets personal callers, and opens
incoming mail.
b. Answers telephone requests which have standard an­
swers. May reply to requests by sending a form letter.
c. Reviews correspondence, memoranda, and reports
prepared by others for the supervisor’s signature to
assure procedural and typographic accuracy.
d. Maintains supervisor’s calendar and makes appoint­
ments as instructed.
e. Types, takes and transcribes dictation, and files.

general, as evidenced by the following: Work requires a high
degree o f stenographic speed and accuracy; a thorough
working knowledge o f general business and office proce­
dure and o f the specific business operations, organizations,
policies, procedures, files, workflow, etc. Uses this knowl­
edge in performing stenographic duties and responsible cler­
ical tasks such as maintaining follow-up files; assembling
material for reports, memoranda, and letters; composing
simple letters from general instructions; reading and routing
incoming mail; answering routine questions, etc.

LR-2. Performs duties under LR-1 and, in addition, per­
forms tasks requiring greater judgment, initiative, and
knowledge o f office functions including or comparable to

T Y P IS T

most o f the following:
a. Screens telephone and personal callers, determining
which can be handled by the supervisor’s subordi.
nates or other offices.
b. Answers requests which require a detailed knowledge
o f office procedures or collection o f information
from files or other offices. May sign routine corre­
spondence in own or supervisor’s name.
c. Compiles or assists in compiling periodic reports on
the basis o f general instructions.
d. Schedules tentative appointments without prior clear­
ance. Assembles necessary background material for
scheduled meetings. Makes arrangements for meetings
and conferences.
e. Explains supervisor’s requirements to other employ­
ees in supervisor’s unit. (Also types, takes dictation,
and files.)

Uses a typewriter to make copies o f various materials or
to make out bills after calculations have been made by
another person. May include typing o f stencils, mats, or
similar materials for use in duplicating processes. May do
clerical work involving little special training, such as keep­
ing simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting and
distributing incoming mail.

T yp ist I

Performs one o r more o f the follow ing: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; or routine typing o f forms, in­
surance policies, etc.; or setting up simple standard tabula­
tions; or copying more complex tables already set up and
spaced properly.

STENOG RAPHER

Primary duty is to take dictation using shorthand, and to

T yp ist II

transcribe the dictation. May also type from written copy.
May operate from a stenographic pool. May occasionally

Performs one or more o f the follow ing: Typing material
in final form when it involves combining material from sev-

transcribe from voice recordings.




60

eral sources; or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabica­
tion, punctuation, etc., o f technical or unusual words or
foreign language material; or planning layout and typing o f

complicated statistical tables to maintain uniformity and
balance in spacing. May type routine form letters, varying
details to suit circumstances.

NOTE: The occupational titles and definitions for drafter-tracer, messenger, and stenographer are the
same as those used in the Bureau’s program o f occupational wage surveys in metropolitan areas. The
occupations listed below have the same definition in both the national and area surveys; however, the level
designations differ as shown:
National Survey of
Professional, Adm inistrative. Technical, and
Clerical Pay

Occupation

Drafter .................................................................. .....................

Clerk, accounting ................................................. .....................
Clerk, file .............................................................. .....................

Key entry o p e r a t o r ............................................... .....................
Secretary1 .............................................................. .....................

T y p i s t ..................................................................... .....................

Occupational
Wage Surveys in
M etropolitan
Areas

1
II
III
1
II
1
II
III
1
II
1
II
III
IV
V
1
II

C
B
A
B
A
C
B
A
B
A
E
D
C
B
A
B
A

1 T h is 5-level d e f in it io n f o r s e c re ta ry w as in tr o d u c e d in th e area s u rv e y s in c a le n d a r y e a r 1 9 7 7 .




61

Appendix D. Comparison of Salaries in Private Industry with Salaries of
Federal Employees Underthe General Schedule

prepared the occupational work level definitions used in
the survey. Definitions were graded by the Commission
according to standards established for each grade level.
Table D-l shows the surveyed jobs grouped by work levels
equivalent to General Schedule grade levels.

The survey was designed to provide a basis for com­
paring salaries under the General Schedule classification and
pay system with salaries in private enterprise. T o assure
collection o f pay data for work levels equivalent to the
General Schedule grade levels, the Civil Service Com­
mission, in cooperation with the Bureau o f Labor Statistics,




62

Table D-1.

Comparison of average annual salaries in private industry with salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule

O ccup ation and level
surveyed by B L S 1

Average
annual
salaries
in private
industry,2
March 1978

Salary rates fo r Federal em ployees under the General Schedule, M arch 19 783

Grade4

Steps6

Average,5
March
1978

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Clerks, file 1 ...................................................
M e ss e n g e rs.....................................................

$6,621
7,595

GS 1

$6,405

$6,219

$6,426

$6,633

$6,840

$7,047

$7,254

$7,461

$7,668

$7,875

$8,082

Clerks, file I I ...................................................
Key entry operators 1 ...................................
T yp ists 1 ........................................................

7,914
8,546
7,778

GS 2

7,249

7,035

7,270

7,505

7,740

7,975

8,210

8,445

8,680

8,915

9,150

Clerks, accounting 1 ......................................
Clerks, file III ................................................
D ra fte r-tra ce rs................................................
Engineering technicians 1 ..............................
Key entry operators II .................................
Stenographers, general .................................
T yp ists I I ........................................................

8,682
10,095
9,803
10,461
10,099
9,834
9,276

GS 3

8,524

7,930

8,194

8,458

8,722

8,986

9,250

9,514

9,778

10,042

10,306

Clerks, accounting II ...................................
Com puter operators 1 ...................................
Drafters 1 ........................................................
Engineering technicians II ............................
Secretaries 1 ...................................................
Stenographers, s e n i o r ...................................

10,986
8,546
11,247
11,918
9,801
11,018

GS 4

9,918

8,902

9,199

9,496

9,793

10,090

10,387

10,684

10,981

11,278

11,575

A cco u n ta n ts 1 ................................................
A u d ito rs t .....................................................
Buyers 1 ..........................................................
Chem ists 1 .....................................................
C om puter operators II .................................
Drafters II .....................................................
Engineers 1 .....................................................
Engineering technicians III .........................
Secretaries 1 1 ...................................................

12,785
13,243
12,887
13,492
10,352
13,709
15,928
14,062
10,721

GS 5

11,321

9,959

10,291

10,623

10,955

11,287

11,619

11,951

12,283

12,615

12,947

Com puter operators I I I .................................
Secretaries III ................................................

11,274
11,894

GS 6

12,782

11,101

11,471

11,841

12,211

12,581

12,951

13,321

13,691

14,061

14,431

See footno tes at end of table.




Table D-1.

Comparison of average annual salaries in private industry with salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule—Continued

Occupation and level
surveyed by B L S 1

Average
annual
salaries
in private
industry,2
March 1978

Salary rates fo r Federal employees under the General Schedule, M arch 19783

Graded

Average,5
March
1978

Steps6
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

A cco unta nts II ..............................................
A u d ito rs II ......................................................
Buyers II ........................................................
Chem ists I I ......................................................
Com puter operators I V .................................
Drafters I I I ......................................................
Engineers II ...................................................
Engineering technicians IV ..........................
Jo b analysts I I .................................................
Secretaries I V .................................................

$15,671
15,694
16,195
16,337
13,737
16,902
17,567
16,302
14,040
13,018

GS 7

$13,946

$12,336

$12,747

$13,158

$13,569

$1 3,980

$14,391

$14,802

$15,213

$15,624

$16,035

Com puter operators V .................................
Secretaries V ...................................................

15,691
14,430

GS 8

15,847

13,662

14,117

14,572

15,027

15,482

15,937

16,392

16,847

17,302

17,757

A cco untants I I I ..............................................
A tto rneys 1 ......................................................
A u d ito rs III ...................................................
Buyers I I I ........................................................
Chem ists III ...................................................
Com puter operators V I .................................
Engineers I I I ...................................................
Engineering technicians V ............................
Job analysts II1 ..............................................

18,115
17,693
18,756
19,590
19,453
18,173
20,194
18,703
18,354

GS 9

16,924

15,090

15,593

16,096

16,599

17,102

17,605

18,108

18,611

19,114

19,617

A ccountants I V ..............................................
A tto rn e ys II ...................................................
A u d ito rs IV ...................................................
Buyers I V ........................................................
Chem ists I V ...................................................
Chief accountants 1 ......................................
Directors of personnel 1 ...............................
Engineers I V ...................................................
Jo b analysts I V ..............................................

22,036
21,713
23,093
23,853
23,532
23,561
20,833
23,972
22,616

GS 11

20,563

18,258

18,867

19,476

20,085

20,694

21,303

21,912

22,521

23,130

23,739

A cco untants V ..............................................
A tto rneys III .................................................
Chem ists V ......................................................
Chief accountants I I ......................................
D irectors of personnel I I ...............................
Engineers V ...................................................

27,301
27,738
28,494
27,769
26,245
28,001

GS 12

21,883

22,612

23,341

24,070

24,799

25,528

26,257

26,986

27,715

28,444

24,762

See footno tes at end of table.




v.

Table D-1.

Comparison of average annual salaries in private industry with salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule—Continued
Average
annual
salaries
in private
industry,2
March 1978

O ccup ation and level
surveyed by B L S 1

Salary rates fo r Federal employees under the General Schedule, M arch 19783

Grade4

Steps6

Average,5
March
1978

1

2

3

4

5

7

6

8

9

10

A ttorneys IV ................................................
Chemists VI ...................................................
Chief accountants III ...................................
Directors o f personnel III ............................
Engineers V I ...................................................

G S 13

$29,755

$26,022

$26,889

$27,756

$28,623

$29,490

$30,357

$31,224

$32,091

$32,958

$33,825

A tto rneys V ...................................................
Chem ists V I I ...................................................
C hie f accountants IV ...................................
D irectors of personnel IV ............................
Engineers VII ................................................

05
C1
J

$33,547
33,110
34,160
32,201
32,264
42,318
38,927
39,895
40,835
36,520

GS 14

35,087

30,750

31,775

32,800

33,825

34,850

35,875

36,900

37,925

38,950

39,975

A tto rneys VI ................................................
Chem ists VIII ................................................
Engineers V I I I ................................................

51,798
47,156
42,104

GS 15

41,800

36,171

37,377

38,583

39,789

40,995

42,201

43,407

44,613

45,819

47,025

1 F o r de fin itio n s, see appendix C.
2 Survey findings, as sum m arized in table 1 of this bulletin. Fo r scope of survey, see
appendix A .
3Salary rates in effect in March 1978, reference date of the B L S survey, as
established by Executive Order 12010 issued under authority of Section 5305 of title 5,
U.S. Code.
C o rre s p o n d in g grades in the General Schedule were supplied by the U.S. C ivil
Service Com m ission.
5 Mean salary of all General Schedule employees in each grade as of March 3 1 ,1 9 7 8 .




N ot lim ited to Federal employees in occupations surveyed by B LS.
6Section 5335 of title 5 of the U.S. Code provides fo r within-grade increases on
condition that the em ployee's w ork is o f an acceptable level of competence as defined
by the head of the agency. Fo r employees w ho meet this co ndition, the service
requirements are 52 calendar weeks each for advancement to salary rates 2, 3, and 4; 104
weeks each for advancement to salary rates 5, 6, and 7; and 156 weeks each for
advancement to salary rates 8, 9, and 10. Section 5336 provides that an additional
within-grade increase may be granted w ith in any period of 52 weeks in recognition of
high quality perform ance above that o rd in arily found in the type of position concerned.

Under Section 5303 of title 5 of the U.S. Code, higher m inim um rates (but not exceeding the m axim um
salary rate prescribed in the General Schedule fo r the grade or level) and a corresponding new salary range
may be established fo r positions or occupations under certain conditions. The conditions include a finding
that the Governm ent's recruitm ent or retention of well qualified persons is sig nificantly handicapped
because the salary rates in private industry are substantially above the salary rates of the statutory pay
schedules. As of March 1978, special, higher salary ranges were authorized fo r professional engineers at
the entry grades (GS-5 and GS-7), and at GS-9. Inform ation on special salary rates, including the occupations
and the areas to which they apply, may be obtained from the U.S. C iv il Service Com m ission, Washington,
D.C. 20415, or its regional offices.

☆

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1978

0 -2 7 5 -3 2 7




Keep up to date with:

M A JO R
COLLECTIVE

BARGAMMG

AGREEMENTS

The Bureau of Labor Statistics has published a series of 16 bulletins dealing with key
issues in collective bargaining. The bulletins are based on analysis of about 1800 major
agreements and show how negotiators in different industries handle specific problems.
The studies are complete with illustrative clauses identified by the company and union
signatories, and detailed tabulations on the prevalence of clauses.
ORDER
T it le

FO RM
( C h e c k P u b lic a t io n D e s ire d )

Ma/or Collective Bargaining Agreements
— Grievance Procedures
_ Severance Pay and Layoff Benefit Plans
_ Supplemental Unemployment Benefit Plans and
Wage-Employment Guarantees
_
Deferred Wage Increase and Escalator Clauses
_ Management Rights and Union-Management Cooperation
_ Arbitration Procedures
_ Training and Retraining Provisions
_ Subcontracting
_ Paid Vacation and Holiday Provisions
_ Plant Movement. Transfer, and Relocation Allowances
_ Seniority in Promotion and Transfer Provisions
_ Administration of Negotiated Pension. Health, and
Insurance Plans
_
Layoff. Recall, and Worksharing Procedures
_ Administration of Seniority
_
Hours. Overtime and Weekend Work
_ Safety and Health Provisions

B u lle tin
Num ber

D a te o f
P u b lic a tio n

P r ic e

1425-1
1425-2

1964
1965

$ 1 45
1 80

1425-3
1425-4
1425-5
1425-6
1425-7
1425-8
1425-9
1425-10
1425-1 1

1965
1966
1966
1966
1969
1969
1969
1969
1970

1 80
1 10
1 35
2 40
1 05
1 10
1 90
1 55
1 25

1425-12
1425-13
1425-14
1425-15
1425-16

1970
1972
1972
1974
1976

1 00
1 75
1 25
1 45
1.30

Total for all 16 Bulletins

To order, check the bulletins wanted
above, and mail the list with payment, to
your nearest Bureau of Labor Statistics regional office
MAKE CHECK PAYABLE TO
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$23 50

R e g io n a l O f f ic e
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s
U .S . D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r

1603 Federal Building. Boston. Mass 02203
1515 Broadway. New York. N Y 10036
3535 Market Street. Philadelphia. Pa 19101
1371 Peachtree Street. N E . Atlanta. Ga 30309
230 S Dearborn Street, Chicago. Ill 60604
911 Walnut Street Kansas City. Mo 64106
555 Griffin Square Building. Dallas, Texas 75202
450 Golden Gate Ave . San Francisco. Calif 94102




Bureau of Labor Statistics
Regional Offices

R e g io n I

1603 JFK Federal B uilding
G overnm ent Center
Boston Mass 02203
Phone (617) 223-6761

R e g io n IV

1371 Peachtree Street. NE
Atlanta. Ga 30309
Phone: (404) 881-4418
R e g io n V

R e g io n II

S uite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York N Y 10036
Phone <212) 399-5405
R e g io n III

3535 M arket Street
P O Box 13309
Philadelphia. Pa 19101
Phone: (215)596-1154




9th Floor
Federal O ffice B uilding
230 S Dearborn Street
Chicago. Ill 60604
Phone: (312) 353-1880

R e g io n s VII and VIII*

911 Walnut S treet
Kansas City. Mo 64106
Phone: (816) 374-2481
R e g io n s IX and X**

450 G olden Gate Avenue
Box 36017
San Francisco. Calif 94102
Phone: (415) 556-4678

R e g io n VI

Second Floor
555 G riffin Square B uilding
Dallas. Tex 75202
Phone: (214) 749-3516

* Regions VII and VII are serviced
by Kansas City
"Regions IX and X are serviced
by San Francisco


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102