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National Survey of
Professional, Administrative,
Technical, and Clerical Pay,
March 1976




National Survey of
Professional, Administrative,
Technical, and Clerical Pay,
March 1976
U.S. Department of Labor
W. J. Usery, Jr., Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Julius Shiskin, Commissioner
1976
Bulletin 1931

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Preface
This bulletin summarizes the results of the Bureau’s annual salary survey of selected profes­
sional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry. The nationwide
salary information, relating to March 1976, is representative of establishments in a broad spectrum
of industries throughout the United States, except Alaska and Hawaii.
The results of this survey are used for a number of purposes, including general economic anal­
ysis and wage and salary administration by private and public employers. One important use is to
provide the basis for setting Federal white-collar salaries under the provisions of the Federal Pay
Comparability Act of 1970. Under this act, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget
and the Chairman of the U.S. Civil Service Commission, who jointly serve as the President’s agent
for the purpose of setting pay for Federal white-collar employees, are responsible for translating
the survey findings into recommendations to the President as to the appropriate adjustments
needed in Federal pay rates to make them comparable with private enterprise pay rates for the
same levels of work. The President’s agent also determines the industrial, geographic, establish­
ment-size and occupational coverage of the survey. The role of the Bureau of Labor Statistics in
the pay-setting process is limited to conducting the survey and advising on the feasibility of pro­
posed survey changes. It should be emphasized that this survey, like any other salary survey, does
not provide mechanical answers to pay policy questions.
The occupations studied span a wide range of duties and responsibilities. The occupations
selected were judged to be (a) surveyable in industry within the framework of a broad survey de­
sign, (b) representative of occupational groups which are numerically important in industry as well
as in the Federal service, and (c) essentially of the same nature in both the Federal and private
sectors.
Occupational definitions used in the collection of the salary data (appendix C) reflect duties
and responsibilities in private industry; however, they are also designed to be translatable to spe­
cific General Schedule grades applying to Federal employees. Thus, the definitions of some occupa­
tions and work levels were limited to specific elements that could be classified uniformly among
establishments. The Bureau of Labor Statistics and the Civil Service Commission collaborated in
the preparation of the definitions.
The scope of the survey, in terms of industrial, geographic, and minimum establishment-size
coverage, remained the same as in March 1975. At the request of the President’s agent, the indus­
trial and establishment-size coverage of the survey was expanded on a test basis. The test results
are discussed in appendix E.
The survey could not have been conducted without the cooperation of the many firms whose
salary data provide the basis for the statistical information presented in this bulletin. The Bureau,
on its own behalf and on behalf of the other Federal agencies that collaborated in planning the
survey, wishes to express appreciation for the cooperation it has received.
This study was conducted in the Bureau’s Office of Wages and Industrial Relations by the Divi­
sion of Occupational Wage Structures. The analysis in this bulletin was prepared by Daniel A.
Boston and Felice Porter. Field work for the survey was directed by the Bureau’s Assistant
Regional Commissioners, Division of Operations.
Material in this publication is in the public domain and may be reproduced without permission
of the Federal Government. Please credit the Bureau of Labor Statistics and cite the name and
number of the publication.




iii

Contents
Page

1
1
1

11

Text tables:
1.
Percent increases in average salaries, 1961-76, by occupation and group ...........................................................
2.
Percent increases in average salaries, 1961-76, by work level ca te g o ry ................................................................
3.
Distribution of work levels by degree of salary dispersion.....................................................................................

2
3
11

m vo r- t-

Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................................
Characteristics of the su rv ey .........................................................................................................................................................
Changes in salary levels .................................................................................................................................................................
Average salaries, March 1976
Salary levels in metropolitan areas
Salary levels in large establishments
Salary distributions.......................
Pay differences by industry
Average standard weekly h o u r s ....................................................................................................................................................

Reference tables:
Average salaries:
1.
United S ta tes.................................................................................................................................................... 12
2.
Metropolitan a r e a s .......................................................................................................................................... 14
3.
Establishments employing 2,500 workers or m o re....................................................................................... 16
Employment distribution by salary:
4.
Professional and administrative occupations................................................................................................. 18
5.
Technical support occupations and keypunch supervisors............................................................................ 24
6.
Clerical occupations ....................................................................................................................................... 26
7.
8.
9.
Charts:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Occupational employment distribution: By industry division ............................................................................. 28
Relative salary levels: Occupation by industry division......................................................................................... 29
Average weekly hours: Occupation by industry division....................................................................................... 30

Increases in average salaries for selected occupational groups, 1961 to 1976 .......................................................
Salaries in professional and technical occupations, March 1976 ..........................................................................
Salaries in administrative and clerical occupations, March 1976 ................................................................. . . .
Relative employment in selected occupational groups by industry division, March 1976 .................................

4
8
9
10

Appendixes:
A.
Scope and method of survey..................................................................................................................................... 31
B.
Survey changes in 1976 ............................................................................................................................................. 35
C.
Occupational definitions ............................................................................................................................................. 36
D.
Comparison of average annual salaries in private industry with corresponding salary rates for Federal employees
under the General Schedule, March 1976 ......................................................................................................... 63
E.
Test to expand survey sc o p e ........................................................................................................................................ 66




iv

Professional, Administrative, Technical, and Clerical Pay
The number of work levels in each occupation ranges
from one for messengers to eight each for chemists and
engineers. Most occupations have more than one work level;
some occupations are purposely defined, however, to cover
specific bands of levels which are not intended to represent
all workers in those occupations.
The survey is designed to permit separate presentation of
data for metropolitan areas. These include the 263 Stand­
ard Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States,
except Alaska and Hawaii, as revised through April 1974 by
the U.S. Office of Management and Budget. Establishments
in metropolitan areas employed over four-fifths of all the
workers and nine-tenths of the professional, administra­
tive, clerical, and related employees within the scope of the
survey. Ninety percent of the employees in the occupations
chosen for study were employed in metropolitan areas.
Selected occupations included more than 1,524,000 em­
ployees, or one-fifth of the estimated employment in pro­
fessional, administrative, clerical, and related occupations in
establishments within the scope of the survey. Employment
in the occupations varied widely, reflecting not only actual
differences among occupations, but also differences in the
range of duties and responsibilities covered by the occupa­
tional definitions. Among professional and administrative
occupations, the eight levels of engineers included 395,485
employees, whereas each of four other occupational cate­
gories (chief accountants, job analysts, directors of per­
sonnel, and keypunch supervisors) included fewer than
5,000 employees. Accounting clerks and secretaries made
up over one-half of the 723,442 employees in the clerical
occupations studied. Selected drafting occupations had
aggregate employment of 82,704; five engineering techni­
cian levels together had 86,431.
Although approximately one-half of all employees in
the occupations studied were women, they worked largely
in clerical positions. Women filled more than 90 percent of
the jobs at each level of file clerks, keypunch operators,
secretaries, stenographers, and typists. A percent distribu­
tion of women employees by occupation and level is shown
in appendix A.

Summary

Average salaries of workers in the occupations covered
by this survey rose 7.0 percent from March 1975 to March
1976, the second largest annual increase recorded since the
survey was begun in 1960. Increases for 8 of the 11 profes­
sional, administrative, and technical support occupations
surveyed ranged from 6.0 to 7.4 percent; the average in­
crease was 6.7 percent. The average of the increases for
clerical and clerical supervisory occupations surveyed was
7.3 percent; the increases ranged from 6.4 to 8.0 percent.1
Average monthly salaries for the 82 occupational levels
varied from $490 for clerks engaged in routine filing to
$3,646 for the highest level in the attorney series. For most
of the occupations, salary levels in metropolitan areas and
in large establishments were higher than the average for all
establishments within the full scope of the survey. Salary
levels in finance and retail trade industries generally were
lower than in othqj major industry divisions represented in
the survey. Reported average standard weekly hours also
were generally lower in the finance industries.
Characteristics of the survey

This survey, the 17th in an annual series, provides
nationwide salary averages and distributions for 82 work
level categories covering 20 occupations. It relates to estab­
lishments in all areas of the United States, except Alaska
and Hawaii, in the following industries: Manufacturing;
transportation, communication, electric, gas, and sanitary
services; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance,
and real estate; engineering and architectural services; and
research, development, and testing laboratories operated on
a commercial basis.2 The minimum sizes of establishments
surveyed are: 250 employees in manufacturing and retail
trade; and 100 employees in all other industry divisions.
Occupational definitions in this study permit employees
to be classified by duties and responsibilities into appro­
priate work levels—
designated by Roman numerals, with
level I as the lowest. Specific job factors determining classi­
fication, however, vary from occupation to occupation.

R e su lts o f the March 1975 survey were presented in National
Survey o f Professional, Administrative, Technical, and Clerical Pay,
March 1975, Bulletin 1891 (Bureau o f Labor Statistics, 1975).

Changes in salary levels

2

Text table 1 presents increases in average salaries that
occurred between annual surveys since 1961 for each

For a full description o f the scope o f the 1976 survey, see
appendix A.




1

survey occupation .3 Also shown are average percent
changes for the two broad occupational groups covered by
the survey (the professional, administrative, and technical
support group; and the clerical and clerical supervisory
group) and the average percent change for the two groups
combined.
The 7.0-percent increase in white-collar salaries in the
year ending March 1976 was the second largest recorded
since the series was begun. It was exceeded only by last
year’s 9.0-percent increase. Clerical and clerical supervisory
salaries were up 7.3 percent; salaries of the professional,
administrative, and technical support occupations were up
6.7 percent. For the fifth consecutive year, the rate of in­

crease for clerical jobs met or exceeded the rate of increase
for professional, administrative, and technical support jobs.
Of the 18 occupations for which 1975-76 increases
could be computed, all but one (directors of personnel)
advanced at lower rates than in the previous year. The
smallest increase was for auditors at 5.5 percent; the largest
increases were for engineering technicians at 8.1 percent
and for stenographers at 8.0 percent.
o

Beginning in 1965, data are for establishments in metropolitan
areas and nonmetropolitan counties; before 1965, data are for
metropolitan areas only. Establishments employing fewer than
250 workers were excluded before 1966.

Text table 1. Percent increases in average salaries, 1961-76, by occupation and group

Occupation and group

All survey occupations2 . . .
Professional, administrative, and
technical support2 .......................
A c c o u n ta n ts ..........................
A uditors....................................
Chief accountants.....................
A tto rn eys..................................
B u y ers.......................................
Job analysts...............................
Directors of personnel.............
Chemists . , ...............................
Engineers..................................
Engineering technicians..........
Drafters7 ..................................
Clerical and clerical supervisory2 . . .
Accounting clerks.....................
File clerks..................................
Keypunch operators................
Keypunch supervisors.............
Messengers ...............................
Secretaries..................................
Stenographers..........................
Typists.......................................

1961
to
1962

1962
to
1963

1963
to
1964

1964
to
1965

1965
to
1966

1966

2.9

3.0

3.1

3.1

3.3

4.5

3.0
2.8
2.9
2.6
3.2

3.3
3.3
3.6
2.8
4.6

3.4
2.8
3.1
4.8
3.3

3.7
3.5
3.9
3.9
4.2

3.6
3.8
3.8
3.3
4.0

( 5)
1.4
3.7
3.9
2.6

( 5)
2.6
3.0
3.8
4.4
2.9
3.6

( 5)
3.5
4.6
3.3
2.9
3.6
2.6

( 5)
4.3
3.5
3.9
3.2
2.3

( 5)
( 5)
( S)
2.6

2.6
2.5
2.6
2.5

2.7
2.8
3.1
2.7

( 5)
2.8

( 5)
( 3)
2.5

( 5)
2.5
2.6

( S)
3.2
2.8
3.0

1967
to
t0 1
1967 1968

1973
to
1974

1974
to
1975

5.4

6.4

9.0

7.0

5.1

5.5
5.6
5.5
3.9
6.1
6.3
6.8
3.9
5.1
5.2
5.1
7.2

5.4
4.9
5.2
5.8
6.3
5.0
5.2
7.5
3.7
5.1
4.7
6.2

6.3
8.3
6.1 * 9.8
5.2
6.8
7.2
8.6
5.8
7.6
9.2
6.0
6.1
7.5
7.2
6.1
7.1
10.1
5.4
8.4
6.0
9.0
6.7
8.0

6.7
6.4
5.5
6.6
6.1
6.7
6.0
7.8
6.6
6.8
8.1
7.4

5.2
5.3
5.1
5.5

6.1
6.0
5.5
6.8
6.1
6.3
6.1
6.4
5.7

5.4
4.6
5.9
5.4
8.2
5.1
5.1
5.2
4.0

6.4
6.9
5.4
7.3
6.2
5.6

9.6
7.7
9.6
9.9
8.7
10.1

7.3
7.2
6.4
7.6
7.5
7.4

5.1
4.7
6 5.2
6 5.5

( 3)
6.5
6.7

( 5)
11.6
9.9

( 3)
8.0
7.1

( 5)
5.4
5.0

1968
to
1969

1969
to
1970

1970
to
1971

5.4

5.7

6.2

6.6

5.8

( 3)

5.5
5.7
5.5
5.5
5.3
4.9
7.0
5.4
5.1
5.4
5.1
5.3

5.8
7.0
7.2
5.8

( 5)
5.4
3.6
4.8
3.7
2.8
1.5

4.2
4.6
4.8
5.1
3.2
4.2
3.4
3.8
4.4
4.3
3.7
3.5

(3)
6.6
2.1
5.4
6.5
6.2
5.8
5.8

6.2
6.7
7.0
7.1
7.1
6.1
4.1
7.4
5.9
5.5
6.3
4.9

6.7
6.7
7.0
9.1
5.0
7.0
7.7
8.0
5.5
5.7
6.5
5.6

2.4
2.2
2.2
2.3

3.0
3.0
2.9
3.7

4.8
3.3
5.1
5.2

5.3
4.7
6.8
4.9

5.5
4.7
5.5
5.3

6.2
6.2
5.5
6.4

( 5)
2.3

( 5)
3.0

( 5)
2.8

( 5)
5.4

( 5)
2.4
2.6

( 5)
2.3
2.5

( 5)
2.9
2.6

( 5)
4.6
5.4

( 5)
6.2
4.6
4.9
5.8

( S)
6.7
5.3
5.9
5.7

( 5)
6.3
6.4
5.8
6.0

6.5
6.0
6.1
7.0
6.1
6.7
6.6
7.5
6.1

Purvey data did not represent a 12-month period due to a change
in survey timing. Data have been prorated to represent a 12-month
interval.
2
Data for 1 administrative occupation (managers of office services,
last surveyed in 1968), and 3 clerical occupations (bookkeeping machine
operators, last surveyed in 1964, and switchboard operators and tabulating-machine operators, last surveyed in 1970), not shown above,
are included in the averages for the periods during which they were
surveyed.




1971

2

Average
annual
1975 rate of
increase,
to
1961
1976
to
1976

1972
to
to 1
1972 1973

(4)
( 5)
4.9
5.4
5.3
5.0
6 5.1
(4)

( 5)
5.3

3 Comparable data not available for both years.
4 Comparison over this period was not possible because of changes
in the definition of the occupation.
5 Not surveyed.
6 Average annual rate of increase from 1962 to 1976.
7Includes drafter-tracers.

NOTE:

For method of computation, see appendix A.

Text table 2. Percent increases in average salaries, 1961-76, by work level category

W ork level category

Group A (GS grades 1-4
in appendix D ) ...............................
Group B (GS grades 5-10
in appendix D ) ..........................
Group C (GS grades 11-15
in appendix D ) ...............................

1961
to
1962

1962
to
1963

1963
to
1964

1964
to
1965

1965
to
1966

1966
to
1967

1967
to
1968

1968
to
1969

1969
to
1970

1970
to
1971

1971
to
1972

1972
to
1973

1973
to
1974

1974
to
1975

1975
to
1976

1961
to
1976

2.8

2.7

2.7

2.2

2.9

4.5

5.1

5.5

6.2

6.2

6.3

5.5

6.2

9.1

7.6

108.3

2.6

4.0

2.6

3.3

3.7

4.8

5.8

6.5

6.3

6.3

5.2

4.4

5.7

8.6

6.4

109.9

3.5

3.7

3.5

4.2

4.2

4.1

4.7

5.9

6.4

6.2

5.6

5.7

6.2

8.8

6.5

116.1

A ctu al survey-to-survey increases have been prorated to a 12month period.

NOTE:

Among the five levels of a cco u n ta n ts surveyed, average
monthly salaries ranged from $955 for accountants I to
$1,951 for accountants V. A u d ito r s in the four levels de­
fined for survey had average salaries ranging from $981
a month for auditors I to $1,663 for auditors IV. Level I in
both the accounting and auditing series included trainees
who had bachelor’s degrees in accounting or the equivalent
in education and experience combined. For level III, the
most heavily populated group in both series, monthly
salaries averaged $1,286 for accountants and $ 1,339 for
auditors. Sixty-six percent of the accountants and 37 per­
cent of the auditors were employed in manufacturing indus­
tries. Other industry divisions which had large numbers of
auditors were finance, insurance, and real estate (33 per­
cent); and public utilities (14 percent).7
C h ie f a cc o u n ta n ts —
surveyed separately from account­
ants—
include those who develop or adapt and direct the
accounting program for a company or an establishment
(plant) of a company. Classification levels are determined
by the extent of delegated authority and responsibility,
the technical complexity of the accounting system, and, to

To show changes in salaries since 1961 for different
levels of work, occupational classifications were grouped
into the three broad categories described in text table 2 .
Average salaries increased more for the higher occupa­
tional levels (group C) than for the two lower groups from
1961 through 1966, except for the 1962-63 period. Be­
tween 1966 and 1969, however, the middle occupational
levels (group B) showed larger annual increases than did the
lower or higher levels. Between 1969 and 1971, the in­
creases for all three groups were nearly identical, but since
1971 the middle group has trailed the other two. Although
occupational levels in group C show the largest cumulative
increase over the entire 1961-76 period, salaries of occupa­
tional levels in group A have increased the most (39.8 per­
cent) between 1971 and 1976.
Another method of examining salary trends is to com­
bine the data into the four occupational groups shown in
chart 1. Increases from 1975 to 1976 amounted to 6.6 per­
cent for the experienced professional and administrative
group; 5.6 percent for the entry and developmental profes­
sional and administrative group; 7.8 percent for the techni­
cal support group; and 7.3 percent for the clerical group .4
The entry and developmental professional and administra­
tive group continued the pattern shown since 1970 of re­
cording the smallest percent change.
Increases in salaries for both the technical support and
entry and developmental professional and administrative
groups over the 15-year period averaged 5.0 percent— less
than the 5.1 percent shown by the clerical group and the
5.3 percent shown by the experienced professional and ad­
ministrative group .5

4Work levels used to compute 1975-76 increases were:
Clerical— clerical levels except secretaries.
All
Technical support-A ll levels o f drafters and engineering
technicians.
Entry and developmental professional and administrative—
Accountants I and II; auditors I and II; attorneys I; job
analysts II; chemists I and II; and engineers I and II.
Experienced professional and administrative-Accountants
III, IV, V; auditors III and IV; chief accountants I, II, III,
and IV; attorneys II, III, IV, V, and VI; job analysts III
and IV; directors o f personnel I, II, III, and IV; chemists
III, IV, V, VI, VII, and VIII; and engineers III, IV, V, VI,
VII, and VIII.
A few survey levels, not readily identifiable with any o f the 4
occupational categories, were not used.
5Survey data for 1966-67 and 1971-72 did not represent a
12-month period due to changes in survey timing. Increases for
these years have been prorated to represent a 12-month period.

Average salaries, March 1976

Average monthly salaries for the occupations studied
(table 1) ranged from $490 for file clerks I to $3,646 for
the top level of attorneys surveyed. These extremes reflect
the wide range of duties and responsibilities represented
by the work levels surveyed. Average salaries for occupa­
tional levels and a brief indication of the duties and re­
sponsibilities they represent are summarized in the follow­
ing paragraphs.6




For method of computation, see appendix A.

6Classification o f employees in the occupations and work
levels surveyed is based on factors detailed in the definitions in
appendix C.
n
Establishments primarily engaged in providing accounting and
auditing services are excluded from the survey.

3

Chart 1

Increases in Average Salaries for Selected Occupational Groups,
1961 to 1976

Percent increase
8
Experienced professional and administrative

6

5.3

4

J
Entry and developmental professional and
administrative

5.0

Technical support

5.0

Clerical

5.1

Mean
Mean
Mean
increase increase increase
1961
1961
1966
to
to
to
1976
1966
1971

1971
to
1972'

1972
to
1973

'Data were adjusted to a 12-month period.




4

1973
to
1974

1974
to
1975

1975
to
1976

tion with labor unions as the principal company representa­
tive are excluded. Provisions are made in the definition for
weighting various combinations of duties and responsibili­
ties to determine the level. Among personnel directors with
job functions as specified for the four levels of responsibil­
ity, average monthly salaries ranged from $1,517 for level I
to $2,755 for level IV .11 Manufacturing industries em­
ployed 66 percent of the job analysts and 71 percent of the
directors of personnel included in the study; the finance, in­
surance, and real estate industries ranked next with 20 per­
cent of the job analysts and 11 percent of the directors of
personnel.
C h em ists and engineers each are surveyed in eight levels.
Both series start with a professional trainee level, typically
requiring a B.S. degree. The highest level surveyed involves
either full responsibility over a very broad and highly com­
plex and diversified engineering or chemical program, with
several subordinates each directing large and important seg­
ments of the program; or individual research and consulta­
tion in difficult problem areas where the chemist or engi­
neer is a recognized authority and where solutions would
represent a major scientific or technological advance.12
Average monthly salaries ranged from $1,040 for chemists I
to $3,394 for chemists VIII, and from $1,160 for engineers
I to $3,020 for engineers VIII. Although at level I the aver­
age salaries of engineers exceeded those of chemists by 12
percent, the salary advantage of engineers over chemists de­
creased steadily with each level, until at level V the average
salaries for both occupations were nearly equal, and at level
VIII the average salaries for chemists exceeded those for
engineers by 12 percent.
Level IV, the largest group in each series, includes pro­
fessional employees who are fully competent in all techni­
cal aspects of their assignments, work with considerable in­
dependence, and in some cases, supervise a few professional
and technical workers. Manufacturing industries accounted
for over 95 percent of all chemists and 71 percent of all en­
gineers; the surveyed engineering and scientific services, 3
and 16 percent; and public utilities, 1 and 12 percent, re­
spectively.
By definition, the five-level series for engineering tech­
nicians is limited to employees providing semiprofessional
technical support to engineers engaged in areas such as re­
search, design, development, testing, or manufacturing
process improvement, and whose work pertains to elec­
trical, electronic, or mechanical components or equipment.
Technicians engaged primarily in production or mainte­
nance work are excluded. Engineering technicians I, who
perform simple routine tasks under close supervision, or
from detailed procedures, averaged $756 a month. Engi­
neering technicians V, the highest level surveyed, averaged

a lesser degree, the size of the professional staff directed.
Chief accountants at level I, who have authority to adapt
the accounting system established at higher levels to meet
the needs of an establishment with relatively few and stable
functions and work processes (directing one or two ac­
countants), average $1,705 a month. Chief accountants
IV ,8 who have authority to establish and maintain the
accounting program, subject to general policy guidelines,
for a company with numerous and varied functions and
work processes (directing as many as 40 accountants),
averaged $2,827 a month. Over two-thirds of the chief
accountants who met the requirements of the definitions
for these four levels were employed in manufacturing indus­
tries.
A tto r n e y s are classified into survey levels based upon the
difficulty of their assignments and their responsibilities.
Attorneys I, which includes new law graduates with bar
membership and those performing work that is relatively
uncomplicated due to clearly applicable precedents and
well-established facts, averaged $1,285 a month. Attorneys
in the top level surveyed, level VI, averaged $3,646 a month.
These attorneys deal with legal matters of major impor­
tance to their organization, and are usually subordinate
only to the general counsel or an immediate deputy in very
large firms. Finance, insurance, and real estate industries
employed about four-tenths of the attorneys; manufactur­
ing industries employed about three-tenths; and public
utilities, two-tenths .9
B u yers averaged $978 a month at level I, which includes
those who purchase “off-the-shelf’ and readily available
items and services from local sources. Buyers IV, who pur­
chase large amounts of highly complex and technical items,
materials, or services, averaged $1,673 a month. Manu­
facturing industries employed 86 percent of the buyers in
the four levels.
In the personnel management field, four work levels
of jo b an alysts and five levels of d ire cto rs o f p erso n n el
were studied.10 Job analysts II, the lowest level for which
data could be presented, averaged $1,130 compared with
$1,596 for job analysts IV, who, under general supervision,
analyze and evaluate a variety of the more difficult jobs and
who may participate in the development and installation of
evaluation or compensation systems. Directors of personnel
are limited by definition to those who have programs that
include, at a minimum, responsibility for administering a
job evaluation system, employment and placement func­
tions, and employee relations and services functions. Those
with significant responsibility for actual contract negotia-

Q

Although chief accountants V, directors o f personnel V, job
analysts I, and keypunch supervisors V were surveyed, as defined
in appendix C, too fee employees in each occupational level met
requirements for the level to warrant presentation o f salary figures.

11 See footnote 8.
11

It is recognized in the definition that top positions o f some
companies with unusually extensive and complex engineering or
chemical programs are above that level.

9The survey excluded establishments primarily offering legal
advice or legal services.
10 See footnote 8.




5

of employees supervised.13 Keypunch supervisors I, who
are responsible for the day-to-day supervision of fewer than
20 operators performing routine keypunching operations,
averaged $829 a month. At level IV, the highest level for
which data could be presented, keypunch supervisors aver­
aged $1,241.
Among the survey’s 17 clerical jo b s , average monthly
salaries for secretaries, the most heavily populated clerical
occupation studied, ranged from $741 at level I to $1,029
at level V. Average salaries of $706 and $788 were reported
for general and senior stenographers; $637 and $805 for
accounting clerks I and II; and the two levels of typists
averaged $569 and $665. Generally, average salaries for
clerical workers were highest in public utilities and manu­
facturing industries and lowest in the finance, insurance,
and real estate, and retail trade divisions. Employment in
manufacturing exceeded that in any of the nonmanufac­
turing divisions within the scope of the survey in 11 of the
17 clerical work levels; highest employment totals in the
other 6 levels were in the finance, insurance, and real estate
division. Women constituted 95 percent or more of the em­
ployees in 13 of the clerical work levels; men constituted
one-half or more in only one (messenger).
Median monthly salaries (the amount below and above
which 50 percent of the employees are found) for most
work levels were slightly lower than the weighted averages
(means) cited above (i. e., salaries in the upper halves of the
arrays affected averages more than salaries in the lower
halves). The relative difference between the mean and the
median was less than 3 percent for 54 of the 82 work levels,
from 3 to 5 percent in 21 work levels, and from 5 to 7 per­
cent in the other 7 levels.

$1,341 a month. That level includes fully experienced tech­
nicians performing more complex assignments involving
responsibility for planning and conducting a complete
project of relatively limited scope, or a portion of a larger
and more diverse project in accordance with objectives,
requirements, and design approaches as outlined by the
supervisor or a professional engineer. Salaries for intermedi­
ate levels III and IV, at which a majority of the technicians
surveyed were classified, averaged $ 1,022 and $1,182 re­
spectively. As might be expected, most of the technicians as
defined were employed in manufacturing (75 percent)
and in the scientific services industries studied (18 percent),
with public utilities employing nearly all the rest (7 per­
cent). Although the ratio of such technicians to engineers
studied was about 1 to 4 in all manufacturing industries,
a ratio of approximately 1 to 3 was found in establishments
manufacturing mechanical and electrical equipment, 1 to
8 in public utilities, and 1 to 2 in research, development,
and testing laboratories.
In the d ra ftin g f ie l d , the definitions used in the survey
cover four levels of work—
drafter-tracers, and drafters I,
II, and III. Monthly salaries averaged $698 for draftertracers and ranged from $814 to $1,274 among the three
levels of drafters. Drafter-tracers copy plans and drawings
prepared by others or prepare simple or repetitive drawings
of easily visualized items. The three drafter levels as defined
ranged from employees preparing detail drawings of single
units or parts (level 1) to those who, working in close sup­
port with the design originator, plan the graphic presenta­
tion of complex items having distinctive design features,
and either prepare or direct the preparation of the drawings
(level III). The drafting employees were distributed by in­
dustry in about the same proportion as engineers, with 67
percent in manufacturing, 9 percent in public utilities, and
22 percent in the selected engineering and scientific services
studied.
C o m p u te r o p era to rs , last surveyed in 1974, were in­
cluded this year. Computer operators I whose work assign­
ments consist of on-the-job training averaged $647 a month.
Computer operators III, the largest group surveyed, aver­
aged $847. At the highest level, computer operator VI, the
average monthly salary was $1,254; less than 2 percent of
the operators, however, were at this level. Computer opera­
tors are classified on the basis of responsibility for solving
problems and equipment malfunctions, the degree of vari­
ability of their assignments, and the relative level of sophisti­
cation of the equipment they operate. Computer operators,
keypunch supervisors, and keypunch operators were dis­
tributed by industry in approximately similar proportions.
Nearly seven-tenths were employed in manufacturing and
the finance, insurance, and real estate industries; virtually
all of the remainder were distributed among the public
utilities, wholesale, and retail trade industries.
K e yp u n ch supervisors are classified on the basis of com­
binations of three elements—
level of supervisory responsi­
bility, difficulty of keypunch work supervised, and number



Salary levels in metropolitan areas

In most occupational levels, average salaries for em­
ployees in metropolitan areas (table 2) were slightly higher
than average salaries for employees in all establishments
within the full scope of the survey (table 1). Only in 1 of
the 82 work levels for which separate data could be pre­
sented were average salaries more than 1.5 percent higher
in metropolitan areas than in all areas combined. Employ­
ment in the survey occupations in metropolitan areas was
about nine-tenths of the total nationwide employment re­
ported in these occupations. The proportions varied, how­
ever, among occupations and work levels. Nearly all
attorneys, for example, but only four-fifths of all buyers
and directors of personnel, were employed in metropolitan
areas. In 71 of the 82 work levels, 85 percent or more of
the employment was in metropolitan areas. It is apparent,
therefore, that for most work levels, salaries in nonmetro­
politan counties could have little effect upon the averages
for all establishments combined.

13 See footnote 8.

6

The middle 50 and 80 percent of the salary range, and
the median salary for each occupational work level, have
been charted (charts 2 and 3). The charts point up occupa­
tional pay relationships as well as the typically greater de­
gree of salary dispersion associated with the higher work
levels in each occupational series.
Expressing the salary range of the middle 50 percent of
employees in each work level as a percent of the median
salary permits comparison of salary ranges and eliminates
extremely low and high salaries from each comparison. As
shown in text table 3, the degree of dispersion ranged from
15 to 30 percent of the median salary in 75 of the 82 work
levels. The degree of dispersion tended to be greater in the
clerical and keypunch supervisory occupations than in the
other occupations studied.
Differences in salaries paid within work levels reflect a
variety of factors other than duties and responsibilities.
These include salary structures within establishments which
provide for a range of rates for each grade level; variations
in occupational employment among industries, as illus­
trated in table 7 and chart 4; and salary variations among
regions—
particularly for clerical occupations.14 Clerical
employees usually are recruited locally while professional
and administrative positions tend to be recruited on a
broader regional or national basis.

Salary levels in large establishments

Separate data are presented for 77 occupational work
levels in establishments with 2,500 employees or more
(table 3). Comparisons between employment and relative
salary levels in these establishments and the full survey also
are presented. Establishments employing 2,500 workers or
more employed over one-third of the professional, admin­
istrative, supervisory, and clerical workers within the scope
of the survey, and almost two-fifths of the workers in the
selected occupations studied. In the 77 occupational work
levels shown in table 3, large establishments accounted for
varying proportions of employment, ranging from 7 to 76
percent (directors of personnel I and engineering techni­
cians V, respectively). The range was from 12 to 44 percent
for clerical and clerical supervisory jobs, and from 7 to 76
percent for nonclerical jobs.
Salary levels in large establishments, expressed as a per­
cent of levels in all establishments combined, ranged from
99 to 127. Salary averages in large establishments exceeded
the all-establishment averages by 5 percent or more in all
clerical and clerical supervisory occupational levels, but in
only 33 of 57 nonclerical levels, as shown by the following
tabulation (all-establishment average for each occupational
level = 100 percent):
Professional, ad ministra tive, and
technical

Clerical,
clerical
supervisory

Total number of levels . .

57
1
23
17
16

The survey is planned to permit publication of national
survey estimates by level of work. By combining the data
for all levels of work studied in each occupation, relative
salary levels in major industry divisions may be compared
to each other and to salary levels in all industries combined
(table 8).
Relative salary levels for the 12 professional, adminis­
trative, and technical support occupations tended to be
closest to the average for all industry divisions in manu­
facturing, which contributed more to total employment
than any other industry division for all but one (attorneys)
of the 12 occupations. Relative salary levels in the public
utilities industry division were generally the highest.
For most occupations studied, relative salary levels were
lower in retail trade and in finance, insurance, and real
estate than in other industry divisions. Where retail trade
and the finance industries contributed a substantial propor­
tion of the total employment, the average salary in the
occupation for all industries combined was lowered, and
the relative levels in industries such as manufacturing and
public utilities tended to be well above 100 percent of the
all-industry level. For example, relative pay levels for file

20

95-99 percent ...........................
100-104 percent..............................
105-109 p ercent..............................
110 percent and o ver................ .. .

Pay differences by industry

—
—
5
15

As expected, the pay relatives were smallest for those
work levels where large establishments contributed heavily
to the total employment and, consequently, to the all­
establishment average.
Salary distributions

Percent distributions of employees by monthly salary
are presented fpr the professional and administrative occu­
pations in table 4, for technical support occupations and
keypunch supervisors in table 5, and for employees in cleri­
cal occupations in table 6. Within all 82 work levels, salary
rates for the highest paid employees were more than twice
those of the lowest paid employees. The absolute spread
between highest and lowest paid workers within a given
work level tended to widen with each rise in work level for
most occupations. All occupations showed a substantial
degree of overlapping of individual salaries between work
levels. Ranges in salary rates of employees in established
pay grades or work levels within salary structures of indi­
vidual firms also often overlapped substantially.



14For analysis o f interarea pay differentials in clerical salaries,
see Area Wage Surveys: Metropolitan Areas, United States and
Regional Summaries, 1973-74, Bulletin 1795-29 (Bureau o f Labor
Statistics, 1976).

7

Chart 2

Salaries in Professional and Technical Occupations, March 1976
Median Monthly Salaries and Ranges Within Which Fell 50 Percent and 80 Percent of Employees
OCCUPATION
AND LEVEL

$500

Accountants I

■■■Ml
hi

$ 1,000

$ 1,500

$2,000

1.500

$3,000

$ 3,500

$4,000

$4,500

rwrm
■ — ..—

i m

IV
l l l l llillB jlM
BMMMllBI l

m

Auditors I
II
III
IV
Chief accountants I
II
III
IV
Attorneys I
II
III
IV
V
VI
Chemists I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
Engineers I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII

FIR S T D ECILE j

m
I

T

VIII
Engineering technicians I
II
III
IV
V
Drafter-tracers
Drafters I
II
III
Computer operators I
II
III
IV
V
VI




M ED IA N

FIRST QU A R TILE

8

\

N IN TH DECILE

TH IR D QUARTILE

Chart 3

Salaries in Administrative and Clerical Occupations, March 1976
Median Monthly Salaries and Ranges Within Which Fell 50 Percent and 80 Percent of Employees

OCCUPATION
AND LEVEL

0

$500

$ 1,000

$ 1,500

Directors of personnel I
II
III
IV

$ 2,000

$2,500

Job analyst II
III
IV

Clerks, accounting I
II

l~~M

i

m am
—

m
i■ —

Stenographers,
general
Stenographers,
senior
Keypunch operators I
II
Clerks, file I
If
III
Typists I
II
Messengers




M E D IA N

F IR S T Q U A R T IL E

Keypunch supervisors I
II
III
IV
Secretaries I
II
III
IV
V

$3,500

$4,000

sz-m m zzzm m m
F IR S T D E C IL E |

Buyers I
II
III
IV

$3,000

9

\

N IN T H D E C IL E

T H IR D Q U A R T IL E

$4,500

Chart 4

Relative Employment in Selected Occupational Groups
by Industry Division, March 1976

OCCUPATIONAL
GROUP

Accountants and
chief accountants

Auditors

Attorneys

Buyers

Directors of personnel
and job analysts

Engineers

Engineering technicians
and drafters
Computer operators and
keypunch supervisors

Clerical employees




Manufacturing

Public utilities

Finance, insurance,
and real estate

Trade and
selected services

T e x t table 3.

Distribution o f w o rk levels b y degree o f salary dispersion
Num ber of levels having degree of dispersion1 o f—

Num ber
of
w o rk
levels

Occupation

15
and
under
20
percent

20
and
under
25
percent

25
and
under
30
percent

30
percent
and
over
7

All o c c u p a tio n s ......................................................

82

16

34

25

Accountants .............................................................................
A u d ito r s .......................................................................................
Chief accountants ...................................................................
A t t o r n e y s ...................................................................................
B u y e rs ..........................................................................................
Job a n a ly s ts ................................................................................
Directors of p e rs o n n e l............................................................
C h em ists.......................................................................................
E n g in e e r s ...................................................................................
Engineering te c h n ic ia n s .........................................................
Drafters2 ...................................................................................
Com puter o p e r a to r s ...............................................................
Keypunch su p e rv is o rs ............................................................
Clerical workers ......................................................................

5
4
4
6
4
3
4
8
8
5
4
6
4
17

2

2
3
1
6
3
2
3
5
3
3

1
1

3

3
5
1
1
1

2
1

1
1
1

1
3
3
1
12

1
2
4

1 Degree of dispersion equals the salary range of the middle
5 0 percent of employees in a w o rk level expressed as a percent
of the median salary fo r that level.
2 Includes drafter-tracers.

clerks (1 0 8 p e rcen t o f th e all-in d u stry lev el in m a n u fa ctu r­

tio n s, th e p red o m in a n t w o r k w e e k o f th e o ffic e w o r k fo rce

in g and 1 4 9 p ercen t in p u b lic u tilitie s ) r e fle c te d th e in ­

w as u sed as th e standard w o r k w e e k . T he d istrib u tio n o f

flu e n c e o f lo w e r salaries fo r th e h igh p r o p o r tio n (6 4 p er­

average w e e k ly h o u rs (r o u n d e d to th e n earest h a lf-h o u r)

c e n t) o f all-in d u stry e m p lo y m e n t in c lu d e d in th e fin an ce

is

in d u stries. T he fin a n ce in d u stries, h o w e v e r , also rep orted

in d u stry

lo w e r average standard w e e k ly h o u r s th an th e o th e r in d u s­

lo w e r in fin a n c e , in su ran ce, and real e sta te (3 8 h o u r s in

tries su rv ey ed , as sh o w n in tab le 9 .

m o s t o c c u p a tio n s) th an in th e o th e r in d u str y d iv isio n s (3 9

p resen ted in tab le 9

for ea ch o c c u p a tio n

b y m ajor

d iv isio n su rveyed . A verage w e e k ly h o u rs w ere

or 3 9 .5 h o u r s). A verage w e e k ly h o u r s have b e e n stab le over

Average standard weekly hours

th e p a st d e c a d e .1 5
T h e le n g th o f th e standard w o r k w e e k , on w h ic h th e
regular straigh t-tim e salary is b ased , w a s o b ta in e d for in d i­
vid u al

e m p lo y e e s

in

th e

o c c u p a tio n s

stu d ie d .

15For information on scheduled weekly hours o f office workers
employed in metropolitan areas, see A r e a Wage S u rv e y s, S e le c te d
M e tr o p o lita n A re a s, 1 9 7 3 -7 4 , Bulletin 1795-28 (Bureau o f Labor
Statistics, 1975).

W hen

in d ivid u al w e e k ly h o u rs w ere n o t availab le, p articu larly
fo r so m e h ig h er lev el p r o fe ssio n a l and a d m in istrative p o s i­

A lth o u g h o n ly n a tio n w id e salary d a ta are p resen ted in th is b u lle tin , clerical and
d raftin g o c c u p a tio n salary d ata are available fo r ea ch o f th e m e tr o p o lita n areas in
w h ic h th e B ureau c o n d u c ts area w age su rveys. T h ese area rep o rts also in c lu d e in fo r m a ­
tio n o n su p p lem en ta ry b e n e fits su ch as paid v a ca tio n s, h o lid a y s, and h e a lth , in su ran ce,
and p e n sio n plan s relatin g to n o n su p erv iso ry o ffic e w ork ers. A d ir e c to r y o f o c c u p a ­
tio n a l w age su rveys, w h ich c o n ta in s a listin g b y S tate and area, is available at th e
B u rea u ’s region al o ffic e s liste d o n th e in sid e b ack co v er o f th is b u lle tin .




11

Table 1. Average salaries: United States
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry,1
United States except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1976)
Monthly salaries4
Occupation and level2

of
employees 3

Annual salaries4

Middle range5
Mean

First
quartile

Third
quartile

Middle range5
Mean

Median

First
quartile

Third
quartile

Accountants and auditors
I -------------------------II------------------------III-----------------------IV------------------------V -------------------------

5, 636
15,559
31,603
20,498
7,423

$ 955
1,117
1,286
1,562
1,951

$ 934
1,083
1,2 60
1,543
1,916

$ 869
975
1, 125
1,405
1,726

$1,033
1,250
1,416
1,703
2, 144

$11,453
13,394
15,428
18,738
23,402

$11,210
12,995
15,120
18,522
22,991

$10,428
11,695
13,500
16,860
20,717

$12,395
15,000
16,993
20,433
25,730

I ---------------------------II ---------------------------III---------------------------IV ---------------------------

1,428
2,756
5,304
3, 529

981
1, 119
1,339
1,663

950
1,075
1,302
1,635

850
950
1, 166
1,478

1,083
1,225
1,458
1,825

11,769
13,427
16,059
19,952

11,400
12,895
15,629
19,620

10, 196
11,395
13,987
17,736

12,996
14,700
17,493
21,900

552
1, 132
742
340

1,705
1,897
2,345
2,827

' 1,673
1,851
2,291
2,791

1,515
1,692
2,071
2,492

1,833
2,042
2,580
3,000

20,460
22,753
28, 136
33,916

20,074
22,212
27,489
33,487

18,180
20,305
24,852
29,904

21,996
24,506
30,964
36,000

740
1,565
1,916
1,948
1, 133
62 5

1,285
1, 556
2,018
2,486
3,026
3, 646

1,250
1,500
1,974
2,457
2,918
3, 595

1,125
1,375
1,766
2, 166
2,667
3,214

1,416
1,697
2,232
2,761
3,333
3,998

15,413
18,667
24,205
29,828
36,308
43,747

15,000
18,000
23,691
29,488
35,021
43, 140

13,495
16, 500
21, 192
25,990
32,000
38,568

16,993
20,364
26,784
33, 137
39,996
47,981

4,222
12,480
13,726
5,010

978
1, 184
1,427
1,673

956
1, 166
1,400
1,621

845
1,030
1,240
1,458

1, 100
1,304
1,577
1,837

11,732
14,200
17,122
20,075

11,471
13,994
16,800
19,452

10,140
12,360
14,874
17,496

13,200
15, 642
18,927
22,047

274
576
484

1, 130
1,341
1,596

1, 116
1,325
1,605

991
1, 166
1,392

1,214
1,529
1,791

13,559
16,091
19,142

13,395
15,900
19,266

11,895
13,994
16,704

14,569
18,353
21,491

1,163
1,735
1,079
271

1, 517
1,810
2,238
2,755

1,488
1,740
2, 132
2,596

1,347
1, 552
1,905
2,374

1,680
1,975
2,420
3, 075

18,193
21,720
26, 845
33,060

17,861
20,880
25, 590
31, 157

16,163
18, 623
22,860
28,489

20, 160
23,700
29,040
36,900

Accountants
Accountants
Accountants
Accountants
Accountants
Auditors
Auditors
Auditors
Auditors
Chief
Chief
Chief
Chief

accountants
accountants
accountants
accountants

I -------------------II ------------------III -----------------I V -------------------

Attorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys

I ---------------------------II--------------------------III-------------------------IV -------------------------V -------------------------VI -------------------------Buyers

Buyers
Buyers
Buyers
Buyers

I -----------------------------II ----------------------------III ---------------------------IV ----------------------------Personnel m a n a g e m e n t

Job analysts II-----------------------Job analysts III----------------------Job analysts I V -----------------------Directors
Directors
Directors
Directors

of
of
of
of

personnel
personnel
personnel
personnel

I -------------II-------------III ------------I V --------------

Chemists and engineers
Chemists
Chemists
Chemists
Chemists
Chemists
Chemists
Chemists
Chemists

I ---------------------------II --------------------------III -------------------------I V --------------------------V --------------------------V I --------------------------VII -------------------------VIII -------------------------

1,2 84
3,337
8, 538
9,699
7, 555
4, 104
1,477
412

1,040
1, 174
1,383
1,703
2,009
2,406
2,797
3,394

1,037
1, 180
1,374
1,694
1,977
2,357
2,725
3,296

950
1,066
1,233
1,524
1,783
2,164
2,424
2,990

1, 130
1,270
1,525
1,864
2, 194
2, 600
3, 040
3, 670

12,473
14,077
16,589
20,429
24,099
28, 868
33,559
40,723

12,445
14,160
16,493
20,330
23,724
28,289
32,700
39,552

11,395
12,795
14,794
18,293
21,391
25,966
29,088
35, 880

13,560
15,240
18,300
22,373
26, 322
31,200
36,485
44,040

Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers

I ---------------------------II -------------------------III -------------------------IV -------------------------V -------------------------VI ------------------------VII ----------------------VIII -----------------------

11,648
29,235
82,307
119,970
85,907
44,284
17,608
4, 526

1, 160
1,266
1,457
1,730
2,007
2,312
2,571
3,020

1,151
1,2 50
1,438
1,708
1,994
2,280
2,500
2,920

1,075
1, 151
1,310
1,558
1,811
2,033
2,250
2,640

1,250
1,360
1, 595
1,891
2, 185
2,541
2,832
3,2 80

13,918
15,184
17,482
20,749
24,082
27,737
30,850
36,236

13,817
14,994
17,258
20,496
23,927
27,360
30,000
35,040

12,900
13,817
15,720
18,693
21,732
24,390
27,000
31,685

14,994
16, 320
19,140
22,692
26,220
30,488
33,984
39,366

3,005
12,355
23,869
28,795
18,407

756
904
1,022
1, 182
1,341

747
875
1,000
1,173
1,320

642
7 82
900
1,055
1,224

850
992
1, 132
1,293
1,447

9,064
10,841
12,258
14,178
16,086

8,960
10,500
12,000
14,078
15,840

7,704
9,387
10,796
12,656
14,688

10,199
11,903
13,585
15,517
17,364

Technical support
Engineering
Engineering
Engineering
Engineering
Engineering

technicians
technicians
technicians
technicians
technicians

I ------------II ------------III-----------IV -----------V ------------

See footnotes at end of table.




12

Table 1. Average salaries: United States —Continued
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry,1
United States except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1976)
Monthly salaries4
Number
of
employees 3

Occupation and level1
2

Annual salaries4

Middle range5
Mean

Median

First
quartile

Third
quartile

Middle : ange5
r
Mean

Median

First
quartile

Third
quartile

Technical support— -Continued
Drafter-tracers ----------------------Drafters I ----------------------------Drafters II ---------------------------Drafters III----------------------------

4,281
17,602
29,395
31,426

$ 698
814
1,003
1,274

$ 680
782
07^
1,21/

$570
695
860
1,065

$ 826
912
1, 115
1,416

$8, 369
9,763
12,029
15,288

$8, 160
9,385
11,700
14,599

$6, 841
8,342
10,320
12,780

$9,907
10,949
13,379
16,998

I ----------------II----------------III----------------I V ---------------V ----------------V I ----------------

2,783
8, 172
21,718
13,617
2,647
777

647
732
847
991
1, 127
1,2 54

62 5
713
830
964
1, 118
1,243

565
630
725
858
973
1, 125

716
817
937
1, 108
1,250
1,356

7, 761
8, 774
10, 162
11,881
13,523
15,038

7, 500
8, 551
9,959
11,563
13,410
14,916

6, 778
7, 560
8, 700
10,296
11,681
13,500

8, 594
9, 810
11,246
13,291
15,003
16,268

892
1,970
1,2 54
298

829
956
1,068
1,241

804
910
1,056
1,200

743
805
886
1,083

895
1,080
1,206
1,390

9,939
11,470
12,815
14,883

9, 646
10,920
12,668
14,400

8,916
9,666
10,637
12,995

10,741
12,960
14,469
16,680

91,001
74,328
25, 685
17,556
6,448
55,404
44,358
21,257
43,660
64,553
69,748
43,981
13,752
32,578
39,135
46,214
33,784

637
805
490
554
684
639
735
557
741
804
868
954
1,029
706
788
• 569
665

600
767
465
516
639
601
702
521
723
782
845
933
1,010
679
766
541
635

521
656
424
460
539
526
625
464
634
685
743
810
869
580
670
478
558

713
902
52 5
606
800
704
812
610
819
904
978
1,086
1, 166
814
890
628
740

7, 636
9,652
5, 875
6, 637
8,205
7, 660
8, 811
6, 676
8,882
9, 641
10,413
11,442
12,342
8,472
9,445
6, 827
7,975

7,200
9,204
5, 579
6, 192
7, 665
7,212
8,424
6,257
8, 676
9,384
10,140
11,200
12, 120
8, 148
9, 191
6,497
7, 620

6,257
7,873
5,084
5, 520
6,465
6,309
7, 500
5, 573
7,612
8,220
8,916
9,720
10,428
6,960
8,040
5,735
6, 696

8, 551
10,819
6,299
7,267
9, 600
8,447
9,740
7,320
9,823
10,848
11,739
13,035
13,992
9,768
10,680
7, 537
8, 880

Computer
Computer
Computer
Co mp ut er
Computer
Computer

operators
operators
operators
operators
operators
operators

Clerical supervisory
Keypunch
Keypunch
Keypunch
Keypunch

supervisors
supervisors
supervisors
supervisors

I --------------II -------------III-------------IV --------------

Clerical
Clerks, accounting I------------------Clerks, accounting II----------------Clerks, file I -------------------------Clerks, file II--------------------------- —
Clerks, file III -------- - —
Keypunch operators I ----------------Keypunch operators II----------------Messengers --------------------------Secretaries I -------------------------Secretaries II ------------------------Secretaries III -----------------------Secretaries I V ------------------------Secretaries V ------------------------Stenographers, general --------------Stenographers, senior----------------Typists I -----------------------------Typists II------------------------------

1 For scope of study, see table in appendix A.
2 Occupational definitions appear in appendix C.
3 Occupational em pl oy me nt estimates relate to the total in all establish­
ments within the scope of the survey and not to the n u m b e r actually surveyed.
For further explanation, see appendix A.
4 Salaries reported are standard salaries paid for standard w o r k sched­




ules; i.e., the straight-time salary corresponding to the employee's normal
w o r k schedule excluding overtime hours. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded,
but cost-of-living payments and incentive earnings are included.
5
The middle range (interquartile) is the central part of the array ex­
cluding the upper and lower fourths of the employee distribution.

The survey wa s designed to collect data on nonproduction cash bonuses and
to develop average bonuses by occupational level. Because of the high nonre­
sponse rate, which m a y have introduced an unknown bias into the data collected
and the large sampling errors associated with the bonus information reported,
the r e s u l t s

w ere

c o n s id e r e d u n p u b lis h a b le .

13

Table 2. Average salaries: Metropolitan areas
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry, metropolitan a r e a s ,1
United States except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1976)
Monthly salaries4
Occupation and level2

Number
of
employees3

Annual salaries4
Middle range5

Mean

Median

First
quartile

Third
quartile

Middle range5
Mean

Median

First
quartile

Third
quartile

A c c ountant s a n d audito r s
I -------------------------II-------------------------III ------------------------I V -------------------------V --------------------------

5,064
14,027
26,970
17,732
6,746

$957
1, 124
1,300
1,565
1,956

$934
1,089
1,275
1,549
1,918

$860
978
1, 135
1,400
1,730

$1,040
1,2 63
1,436
1,708
2,160

$11,477
13,488
15,591
18,777
23,467

$11,210
13,063
15,300
18,593
23,016

$10,317
11,732
13,620
16,800
20,760

$12,475
15,155
17,231
20,492
25,922

I -----------------------------II ----------------------------III ---------------------------I V ----- ■ -----------------------

1,384
2,558
4,984
3,340

983
1, 123
1,343
1,665

950
1,077
1,308
1,638

850
950
1, 166
1,478

1,083
1,235
1,464
1,828

11,789
13,467
16,106
19,969

11,400
12,921
15,694
19,650

10,196
11,395
13,992
17, 736

12,996
14,820
17,568
21,935

I --------------------II -------------------III -------------------IV --------------------

464
937
644
332

1,731
1,904
2,348
2,831

1,701
1, 851
2,274
2,791

1,515
1,708
2,049
2,492

1,868
2,041
2,596
3,050

20,771
22,847
28, 176
33,962

20,413
22,212
27,289
33,487

18,180
20,492
24,590
29,904

22,418
24,490
31,154
36, 600

726
1,519
1,878
1,864
1, 125
62 5

1,284
1,554
2, 019
2,486
3, 027
3, 646

1,250
1,499
1,974
2,450
2,918
3, 595

1, 116
1,374
1,764
2, 165
2,666
3,214

1,416
1, 682
2,232
2,751
3,333
3,998

15,407
18,643
24,226
29,830
36,318
43,747

14,994
17,993
23,691
29,400
35,021
43,140

13,395
16,493
21,173
25,982
31,987
38,568

16,993
20,184
26, 789
33,012
39,996
47,981

3,296
9, 811
11,621
4,788

992
1, 198
1,437
1,677

970
1, 180
1,408
1,624

857
1,034
1,250
1,458

1, 116
1,329
1,600
1,847

11,900
14,373
17,243
20,117

11,640
14,160
16,893
19,492

10,284
12,410
14,994
17,496

13,395
15,944
19,200
22,160

2 60
545
475

1, 114
1,352
1,600

1, 104
1,335
1,611

981
1, 175
1,395

1,204
1,529
1,795

13,358
16,213
19,192

13,245
16,020
19,336

11,770
14,094
16,743

14,443
18,353
21,540

782
1,399
963
240

1,522
1,827
2,229
2,783

1,459
1,749
2, 124
2,637

1,350
1,600
1,899
2,352

1,666
1,975
2,395
3, 165

18,256
21,915
2 6, 744
33,387

17,502
20,992
25,490
31,649

16,200
19,200
22,791
28,219

19,992
23,700
28, 740
37,985

Accountants
Accountants
Accountants
Accountants
Accountants
Auditors
Auditors
Auditors
Auditors
Chief
Chief
Chief
Chief

accountants
accountants
accountants
accountants

Attorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys

I ----------------------------II ---------------------------III --------------------------I V ---------------------------V ----------------------------VI ---------------------------Buyers

Buyers
Buyers
Buyers
Buyers

I ------------------------------II -----------------------------III -----------------------------IV ----------------------------Personnel m a n a g e m e n t

Job analysts II -------------------------Job 'ualysts III ------------------------Job c-nalysts IV ------------------------Directors
Directors
Directors
Directors

of
of
of
of

personnel
personnel
personnel
personnel

I ---------------II --------------III -------------I V ---------------

Chemists, and engineers
Chemists
Chemists
Chemists
Chemists
Chemists
Chemists
Chemists
Chemists

I ----------------------------II----------------------------III ---------------------------IV ----- ---------------------V ----------------------------VI --------------------------VII --------------------------VIII --------------------------

1,142
3,081
7, 127
8,335
6, 517
3, 664
1,364
374

1,048
1, 179
1,398
1,709
2,011
2,422
2,801
3,427

1,036
1, 183
1,388
1,699
1,978
2,366
2,72 6
3,403

955
1,071
1,250
1,529
1,783
2, 167
2,440
3,000

1, 150
1,274
1,541
1,870
2,200
2,630
3, 034
3, 707

12,565
14,147
16,768
20,497
24, 125
29,058
33,601
41,124

12,432
14,194
16,656
20,392
23,741
28,392
32,718
40,836

11,460
12,847
14,994
18,353
21,391
26, 004
29,280
36, 000

13,800
15,294
18,498
22,440
26,400
31,560
36,408
44,482

Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers

I ---------------------------II ---------------------------III---------------------------I V ---------------------------V ---------------------------V I ---------------------------V I I --------------------------VIII --------------------------

10,462
25,929
73,446
108,147
79,445
41,353
16,838
4,250

1, 164
1,273
1,469
1,739
2,014
2,320
2,574
3,020

1, 155
1,252
1,450
1,720
2,000
2,289
2,500
2,916

1,080
1, 157
1,324
1,566
1,818
2,039
2,250
2,637

1,250
1,371
1,608
1,902
2, 196
2,550
2,833
3,282

13,965
15,276
17,623
20,865
24,164
27,834
30,878
36,232

13,860
15,022
17,400
20,642
24,000
27,468
30,000
34,992

12,960
13,884
15,888
18,792
21,816
24,470
27,000
31,639

15,000
16,452
19,292
22,818
26,352
30,600
33,996
39,384

2,729
10,615
20,574
25, 688
17,641

750
901
1,024
1, 190
1,344

739
870
1,003
1, 179
1,320

642
782
899
1,066
1,225

836
980
1, 134
1,304
1,450

8,995
10,801
12,285
14,274
16,121

8, 864
10,440
12,034
14,144
15,840

7,704
9,385
10,788
12,792
14,703

10,037
11,760
13,608
15,642
17,400

Technical support
Engineering
Engineering
Engineering
Engineering
Engineering

technicians
technicians
technicians
technicians
technicians

I
II
III
IV
V

------------------------ - -----------------------

See footnotes at end of table.




14

Table 2. Average salaries: Metropolitan areas —Continued
(Employment and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry, metropolitan areas, 1
United States except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1976)
Monthly salaries4
Occupation and level2

Number
of
employees3

Annual salaries4
Middle range5

Mean

Median

First
quartile

Third
quartile

Middle range5
Mean

Median

First
quartile

Third
quartile

Technical support— Continued
Drafter-tracer s ------------------------Drafters I ----------------------------Drafters II-----------------------------Drafters III--------------------------

3, 867
14, 826
24,504
28,465

$702
824
1,016
1,291

$ 683
785
980
1,233

$570
695
869
1,074

$826
935
1, 145
1,434

$8,419
9,881
12,183
15,483

$8, 192
9,420
11,759
14,796

$6, 841
8,342
10,428
12,891

$9,914
11,220
13,740
17,206

Computer
Computer
Computer
Computer
Computer
Computer

2, 581
7, 105
19,536
12,615
2,500
718

649
737
851
995
1, 131
1,266

62 5
717
832
9 67
1, 122
1,247

565
630
727
860
970
1, 131

717
82 8
939
1,115
1,255
1,380

7,777
8, 840
10,202
11,940
13,568
15,181

7,500
8, 603
9,985
11,600
13,470
14,964

6, 778
7,560
8, 725
10,324
11,640
13,575

8, 603
9,936
11,2 62
13,380
15,060
16, 560

755
1,891
1,208
290

841
955
1,071
1,246

820
912
1,056
1,202

750
803
887
1,090

912
1,074
1,208
1,390

10,086
11,450
12,841
14,946

9,840
10,949
12,668
14,419

9,000
9, 637
10, 646
13,080

10,949
12,891
14,494
16,680

79,980
66,695
22,242
16,423
6, 027
47,650
40,910
20,211
39,379
59,536
63,719
40,740
12,776
28, 655
36, 187
42,274
31, 179

643
808
486
552
678
650
741
557
747
808
875
963
1,037
712
792
573
667

608
771
458
514
62 8
610
708
521
727
785
853
941
1,018
682
770
543
639

524
659
417
459
536
535
629
464
643
688
750
82 3
871
587
673
478
558

721
908
518
600
786
717
820
610
82 5
912
985
1,093
1, 173
820
893
630
743

7,706
9,695
5,830
6, 615
8, 131
7,796
8, 888
6, 679
8,953
9, 693
10,492
11,555
12,434
8, 544
9,498
6, 866
7,999

7,300
9,253
5,496
6, 173
7, 537
7,320
8,499
6,257
8,727
9,420
10,240
11,295
12,222
8, 186
9,240
6, 518
7, 665

6,289
7,908
5,005
5, 510
6,431
6,424
7, 547
5, 569
7, 716
8,256
9,000
9,876
10,454
7,039
8, 082
5, 735
6, 696

8, 655
10,897
6,216
7,200
9,437
8, 603
9, 840
7,320
9,900
10,949
11,815
13, 120
14,078
9, 836
10,716
7,560
8,916

operators
operators
operators
operators
operators
operators

I ------------------II-----------------III ----------------I V ----------------V -----------------V I -----------------

Clerical supervisory
Keypunch
Keypunch
Keypunch
Keypunch

supervisors
supervisors
supervisors
supervisors

I ----------------II---------------III --------------IV ---------------

Clerical
Clerks, accounting I -------------------Clerks, accounting II------------------Clerks, file I --------------------------Clerks, file II -------------------------Clerks, file III ----------------------Keypunch operators I ------------------Keypunch operators II------------------Messengers ----------------------------Secretaries I --------------------------Secretaries II--------------------------Secretaries III ------------------------Secretaries I V -------------------------Secretaries V -------------------------Stenographers, general ----------------Stenographers, senior -----------------Typists I ------------------------------Typists II ------------------------------

1 For scope of study, see table in appendix A.
2 Occupational definitions appear in appendix C.
3 Occupational employ me nt estimates relate to the total in all establish­
ments within the scope of the survey and not to the n u m b e r actually surveyed.
For further explanation, see appendix A.
4 Salaries reported are standard salaries paid for standard wo rk sched­




ules; i.e., the straight-time salary corresponding to the employee's no rm al
w o r k schedule excluding overtime hours. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded,
but cost-of-living payments and incentive earnings are included.
5
The middle range (interquartile) is the central part of the array ex­
cluding the upper and lower fourths of the employee distribution.

15

Table 3. Average salaries: Establishments employing 2,500 workers or more
(E mp lo ym en t and average monthly salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry1 in establishments
employing 2, 500 workers or more, 2 United States except Alaska and Hawaii, M a r c h 1976)
Monthly salaries5
Occupation and level 3

Number
of
employees 4

Middle range 6
Mean

Median

First
quartile

Third
quartile

Levels in establishments
employing 2, 500 workers
or m o r e expressed as
percent of those in all
establishments combined
Employment

Mean
salaries

Accountants and auditors
I---------------------II--------------------III -------------------IV -------------------V ---------------------

1, 780
5, 705
8, 909
5, 571
2, 946

$ 1, 028
1, 245
1. 395
1, 627
1, 991

$ 1, 003
1, 250
1, 375
1, 608
1, 959

$917
1 095
,
1 233
,
1, 450
1, 749

$ 1, 117
1, 397
1, 560
1, 800
2, 196

32
37
28
27
40

108
111
108
104
102

I -----------------------II-----------------------III----------------------I V -----------------------

516
1, 100
1, 681
1, 282

1, 093
1, 228
1, 423
1, 687

1, 059
1, 170
1, 383
1, 649

950
1, 017
1,200
1, 474

1, 225
1, 416
1, 590
1, 858

36
40
32
36

111
110
106
101

Chief accountants III-------------Chief accountants IV --------------

236
131

2, 449
2, 804

2, 350
2, 834

2, 060
2, 499

2, 752
3, 050

32
39

104
99

199
538
673
808
528
345

1, 499
1, 707
2, 145
2, 653
3, 085
3, 689

1, 500
1, 667
2, 099
2, 582
3, 018
3, 552

1, 300
1, 499
1, 900
2, 299
2, 693
3, 207

1, 650
1, 912
2, 3 80
2, 916
3, 355
4, 050

27
34
35
41
47
55

117
no
106
107
102
101

803
3, 079
4, 916
3, 251

1, 147
1, 292
1, 493
1, 677

1, 164
1, 266
1, 464
1, 622

1, 000
1, 105
1, 306
1, 455

1, 275
1, 456
1 666
,
- 1, 850

19
25
36
65

117
109
105
100

Job analysts II-------------------Job analysts III------------------Job analysts I V --------------------

139
334
332

1, 140
1, 422
1, 643

1, 100
1, 416
1, 666

1, 000
1, 210
1, 441

1, 269
1, 587
1, 821

51
58
69

101
106
103

Directors of personnel II---------Directors of personnel III--------Directors of personnel I V ---------

115
174
93

2, 290
2, 649
3, 009

2, 350
2, 650
2, 999

1, 810
2, 258
2, 700

2, 767
3, 029
3, 292

7
16
34

127
118
109

I -----------------------II----------------------III----------------------I V ----------------------V ----------------------V I ----------------------VII----------------------

326
1, 169
2, 802
3, 677
2, 755
1, 834
515

I, 121
1, 258
1, 490
1, 802
2, 127
2, 505
3, 003

1, 125
1, 250
1, 483
1, 790
2, 105
2, 465
2, 940

1, 030
1, 135
1, 333
1, 635
1, 891
2, 274
2, 640

1, 208
1, 366
1, 647
1, 953
2, 320
2, 688
3, 216

25
35
33
38
36
45
35

108
107
108
106
106
104
107

Engineers I ----------------------Engineers II----------------------Engineers III---------------------Engineers I V ---------------------Engineers V ---------------------Engineers V I ---------------------Engineers VII--------------------E ngineers VIII--------------------

5, 342
14, 168
43, 018
69,190
50, 450
24, 350
11, 776
3, 335

1, 193
1, 299
1,517
1, 791
2, 052
2, 364
2, 587
3, 046

1, 180
1, 276
1, 503
1, 775
2, 038
2, 335
2, 520
2, 943

1, 110
1, 175
1, 366
1, 620
1, 868
2, 100
2, 253
2, 650

1, 265
1, 395
1, 665
1, 954
2, 224
2, 591
2, 850
3, 319

46
48
52
58
59
55
67
74

103
103
104
104
102
102
101
101

1, 642
5, 304
11, 163
15, 700
13, 915

833
983
1, 061
1, 199
1, 353

817
956
1, 069
1, 197
1. 333

741
867
919
1, 076
1, 232

915
1, 105
1, 182
1, 309
1, 466

55
43
47
55
76

no
109
104
101 •
101

Accountants
Accountants
Accountants
Accountants
Accountants
Auditors
Auditors
Auditors
Auditors

Attorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys

I ----------------------II----------------------III ---------------------IV ---------------------V ----------------------V I ---------------------Buyers

Buyers
Buyers
Buyers
Buyers

I -------------------------II-------------------------III -----------------------IV-------------------------Personnel m a n a g e m e n t

Chemists and engineers
Chemists
Chemists
Chemists
Chemists
Chemists
Chemists
Chemists

Technical support
Engineering
Engineering
Engineering
Engineering
Engineering

technicians
technicians
technicians
technicians
technicians

I --------I I -------III-------IV -------V --------

See footnotes at end of table.




16

Table 3. Average salaries: Establishments employing 2,500 workers or more—Continued
(Employment and average monthly salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry1 in establishments
employing 2, 500 workers or more, 1 United States except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1976)
2
Monthly salaries 5

Occupation and level3

Number
of
employees 4

Middle range 6
Mean

Median
First
quartile

Third
quartile

Levels in establishments
employing 2, 500 workers
or more expressed as
percent of those in all
establishments combined
Employment

Mean
salaries

Technical support— Continued
D rafter-tracers--------------------------------Drafters I ------------------------------------------Drafters I I -----------------------------------------Drafters III---------------------------------------Computer
Computer
Computer
Computer
Computer
Computer

operators
operators
operators
operators
operators
operators

I ----------------------I I ---------------------I I I --------------------IV---------------------V ----------------------VI----------------------

1,
4,
8,
13,

543
382
291
108

$812
947
1, 105
1, 418

$ 826
945
1, 089
1, 346

$ 717
812
947
1, 166

$ 874
1, 060
1, 238
1,682

36
25
28
42

116
116
110
111

2,
5,
5,
1,

816
351
827
233
424
538

715
814
936
1, 083
1, 167
1, 272

716
808
908
1, 057
1, 149
1, 250

624
713
826
950
1, 017
1, 161

1,
1,
1,
1,

786
910
030
196
264
345

29
29
27
38
54
69

111
111
111
109
104
101

418
384
132

1, 121
1, 219
1, 320

1, 093
1, 221
1, 245

900
1, 046
1, 110

1, 316
1, 391
1, 530

21
31
44

117
114
106

17, 280
17, 372
2, 962
3, 553
2, 263
12,715
12, 268
6, 062
13, 112
23, 552
25, 954
15, 831
4, 460
11, 396
14, 224
9, 691
11, 402

746
926
565
646
779
762
828
615
813
885
945
1, 058
1, 155
765
840
645
728

730
889
521
598
765
730
802
569
7 82
862
928
1, 043
1, 140
750
835
610
691

600
746
469
517
617
615
694
500
700
760
808
921
1, 017
645
700
532
591

862
1, 111
613
723
906
897
966
703
912
994
1, 063
1, 185
1, 290
865
960
737
828

19
23
12
20
35
23
28
29
30
36
37
36
32
35
36
21
34

117
115
115
117
114
119
113
110
110
110
109
111
112
108
107
113
109

Clerical supervisory
Keypunch supervisors II------------------Keypunch supervisors III-----------------Keypunch supervisors I V -----------------Clerical
Clerks, accounting I ------------------------Clerks, accounting I I -----------------------Clerks, file I ------------------------------------Clerks, file II ----------------------------------Clerks, file I I I ---------------------------------Keypunch operators I -----------------------Keypunch operators I I ----------------------Messengers --------------------------------------Secretaries I -------------------------------------Secretaries II------------------------------------Secretaries III----------------------------------Secretaries I V ----------------------------------Secretaries V ------------------------------------Stenographers, general--------------------Stenographers, senior ---------------------Typists I -------------------------------------------Typists II -------------------------------------------

1 For scope of study, see table in appendix A.
2 Includes data from 6 large companies that provide companywide data
not identified by size of establishment.
3 Occupational definitions appear in appendix C.
4 Occupational employment estimates relate to the total in all establish­
ments within the scope of the survey and not to the number actually surveyed.
For further explanation, see appendix A„




17

5 Salaries reported are standard salaries paid for standard work
schedules; i„ e. , the straight-time salary corresponding to the employee's
normal work schedule excluding overtime hours. Nonproduction bonuses are
excluded, but cost-of-living payments and incentive earnings are included,
6 The middle range (interquartile) is the central part of the array
excluding the upper and lower fourths of the employee distribution.

Table 4. Employment distribution by salary*- Professional and administrative occupations
(P ercen t distribution of em ployees in selected p ro fe ssio n a l and adm inistrative occupations by m onthly salary, United States except
A laska and H a w a ii,1 M arch 1976)
Accountants

Auditors

Chief accountants

Monthly salary
I

II

III

IV

-

-

V

_

Under $700 --------------------------------------------------------$700 and under $725 -----------------------------------------$72 5 and under $750 -----------------------------------------$750 and under $775 ------------------------------------------

1.4
2 .5
1.2
2 .7

-

-

$775
$800
$82 5
$850

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$800
$825
$850
$875

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.9
2 .8
6.4
8.1

(2.1)
1.0
3 .0
2 .9

_
-

_
_

-

$875
$900
$925
$950

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$900
$925
$950
$975

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.7
7 .6
10.0
6.6

2 .4
4 .4
5.3
4 .4

(1.4)
1.0
.8
1.1

$975 and under $1,000 -------------------------------------$ 1,000 and under $1,050 ----------------------------------$ 1,050 and under $ 1,100 --------------------------------$ 1, 100 and under $ 1, 1 5 0 -----------------------------------

6.3
12.3
8.3
4 .6

5.4
11.5
11.5
7 .8

2. 1
5.7
8.5
8.6

$ 1,150
$1,200
$1,250
$ 1,300

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 1,200 ----------------------------------$1,250 ----------------------------------$ 1,300 ----------------------------------$ 1 ,3 5 0 ------------------------------------

4 .3
1.2
1.1
(2.1)

7.5
5.5
4. 8
4.2

8.3
9.9
8.2
10.0

2.3
4. 1
5.2
4 .7

$ 1,350
$1,400
$ 1,450
$ 1,500

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$1,400
-------------------$1,450 ---------------------------------$ 1,500 --------------------------------$ 1,550 -----------------------------------

_

4 .7
3.0
6.0
1.1

6.1
7.2
5. 1
3 .6

$ 1,550
$ 1,600
$ 1,650
$ 1,700

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 1,600 ----------------------------------$ 1,650 --------------------------------$1,700 --------------------------------$1,750 ---------------------------------

(1.4)

$1,750
$ 1,800
$1,850
$ 1,900

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 1,800
$ 1,850
$1,900
$1,950

$1,950
$2,000
$2,050
$2,100

and
and
and
and

tinder
under
under
under

$2,000 --------------------------------$2,050 --------------------------------$2,100 ----------------------------------$2,150 -----------------------------------

$2,150
$2,200
$2,250
$2,300

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
tinder

$2,200
$2,250
$2,300
$2,350

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

$2,350
$2,400
$2,450
$2, 500

and
and
and
and

under
tinder
tinder
tinder

$2,400 ---------------------------------$2,450 ----------------------------------$2,500 --------------------------------$2,600 ---------------------------------

_

_

_
_
-

_
-

$2,600
$2,700
$ 2,800
$2,900

and
and
and
and

tinder
under
tinder
tinder

$2,700 ----------------------------------$2,800 --------------------------------$ 2 ,9 0 0 ----------------------------------$ 3 ,0 0 0 ------------------------------------

$3,000
$3, 100
$ 3,200
$ 3,300

and
and
and
and

tinder
tinder
tinder
tinder

$3, 100 -------------------------------$3,200 ----------------------------------$3,300 --------------------------------$3,400 -----------------------------------

$3,400
$3,500
$3, 600
$3,700

and
and
and
and

under
under
tinder
under

$3, 500
$3,600
$3,700
$3,800

$3, 800
$ 3,900
$4, 000
$4,100

and
and
and
and

tinder $ 3,900 --------------------------------under $4,000 --------------------------------tinder $4, 1 0 0 ----------------------------------over--------------------------------------------------

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.............. — - -

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

_
-

_
_
-

_

-

_
-

_

_

-

_
-

_
-

-

-

4 .9
9 .0
5. 8
4 .4

3 .8
8.5
3 .9
4.2

(1.3)
1.0
1.0

_
(0.8)
1.2

_
_
_
-

10.9
4. 1
10. 8
7.2

6.2
9.2
10.0
9 .3

.5
3 .0
5.3
8.9

-

2.2
1.9
1.8
2. 1

7. 6
5 .6
4 .2
4 .9

5.8
8.8
9 .5
8.4

(1.5)
1.4
2. 1
3 .6

1.7
1.4
2 .3
.1

3 .4
2 .0
3.2
1.2

9.7
7.3
6.3
5. 6

3.2
4 .2
6.1
6.6

_
_
_

(2.4)

5.0
3.3
3.1
2 .8

7.0
5 .8
6.2
6.9

_
_
-

6.4
5.3
4 .5
4 .3

-

4 .7
3 .3
3 .0
3. 1

_
_
"

1.9
1.5
1.7
2. 1

-

_

-

-

-

_

_

_

_
-

_
-

-

_

_

_
-

_

1.6
1.2
1.2
(2.0)
_
-

-

_
-

_
_
_

_

-

-

_

_
_

(1.7)
2 .4
2 .0
2.7

-

_

_
_

4 .7
4. 6
6 .4
4 .2

_

-

IV

-

_
_

-

-

III

_
_
_
-

"

_

II

0 .6
1.0
3 .6
4 .3

_

-

I

_

_
-

_
"

;

_

_

_

-

-

_
-

1.7
(1.8)
-

_

-

_
_
_

_
-

-

_

-

-

_
_

_
_
_

_
_

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_
-

_
_

_
_

_
_
_

_
_

"

-

-

-

-

_
_
_

.

_
_

_
_
_

_
_

-

-

-

-

-

10. 1
8 .8
9 .3
8.8

(1.4)
2 .6
2 .7
3 .4

1.3
_
4 .5
-

_
_

_
_

_
_

_

_

-

"

-

1.7
2 .0
1. 1
1.7

7.7
7.7
5.7
3.9

4 .0
6. 1
8. 1
7 .6

6.9
.4
6.7
14.7

_
5.9
3 .0
2.1

2 .4

1.4
1.3
2 .9
(1.6)

4 .3
3 .0
1.9
1.5

7.3
11.1
6. 1
7. 1

7.4
4 .2
10. 1
9 .8

1.0
1.3
(3.8)

5.3
5.4
4 .0
5.5

_
_
-

_

_
-

_
-

_
_

_
_

_
_
-

_
_

-

_

_

_
_

_
_
_

_

"

_
_

-

_

_
_

IV

_
_
_
-

-

_

_
_

III

-

_

-

-

II

_
_
_

_

-

I

-

-

-

_
_
-

_
_
_
-

_

_
_

-

4 .8
1.5
9o 8
7.9

.3
.1
.8
1.3

_
_

5. 1
4 .7
5.4
.2

3 .4
10.2
8.0
10. 6

.3
2 .6
5.4
3. 1

_

2 .3
2 .0
1.4
1.2

1.3
3 .4
_
3 .6

1.2
7. 1
4 .9
4 .9

5.0
3. 1
5. 1
2.7

_
(1.5)
2 .4
-

.9
1.6
(2.8)

4 .5
2 .0
.5
.7

.9
2.9
2 .6
.9

8.6
3 .8
8.9
4 .3

.9
.9
2 .6
.9

.7
1.3
(-5)

1.6
.4
.4
2 .3

.8
7.0
4 .7
6.2

10.9
1.8
5.0
1.8

6.6
3.2
2 .7
1.5

14.7
7.1
15.0
4 .7

.4
3 .8
.8
.5

7 .6
3. 8
4 .7
4 .4

1.9
_
1.8
-

1.2
2 .9
.3
.6

_

.6
.6
1.5
1.8

_
_
_
-

_

_

_

_
_

_
_

_
_

"

-

-

_

-

.5
.4
.2
.7

_

_

_
_

_
_

_
_

1.1
_
_

-

-

-

-

"

"

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

_

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

_
_
_
-

_
_
-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

_
_

_

_
_

_
_
_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

.3

_

-

_
_

_
_

_
_
_
_

_

_

_

-

_
_
_
-

-

-

_
_

-

_

-

T o t a l ---------------------------------------------------------

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Number of employees-----------------------------------------

5, 636

15,559

31,603

20,498

7,423

1,428

2,756

5,304

3, 529

552

1, 132

742

340

Average monthly sa la ry -------------------------------------

$955

$1, 117

$1,286

$1,562

$1,951

$981

$1,119

|
$1,339

$1,663

$1,705

$1,897

$2,345

$2, 827

See footnotes at end of table.




18

100.0

Table 4. Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations —Continued
(Pe rcent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by monthly salary, United States except
Alaska and Hawaii, 1 March 1976)

See footnotes at end of table.




19

Table 4. Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations —Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by monthly salary, United States except
Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1976)

See footnotes at end of table.




20

Table 4. Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations —Continued
( P e r i erit d i s t r i b u t i o i of employees
Ala.s k.-a a n d H a w a i i , 1 March 1976)

in selected professional and administrative occupations by monthly salary, United States except

Job analysts

Directors of personnel

M m th ly s a l a r y

I

hi

rv

_
-

II

_
"

I

_

50 --------------under $775
under S 800
under $ 82 5 ■

h 5
.4

$82 5
$850
$ 87 5
$900

under
under
under
under

2 .6
.4
.7
4 .0

(0.5)
2 .6

_
-

5. 5
5. 1
6.6
9. 1

1.2
2. 1
4. 5
1.6

_
(1.7)

9.1
11.7
n .3
9 .5

3. 6
4 .5
11.1
9.7

1.2
1.0
2. 5
7.0

i
;
1
'

and
and
and
and

$850
$87 5
$900
$92 5

.4

---------------------------

$925 and under $950 -------$9 50 and under $97 5 -------$975 and under $ 1 , 0 0 0 —
$ 1,000 and under $ 1,050 ■
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 1, 100 —
$1,150 ■
$ 1,200$1,250

$1,250
$1,300
$1,350
$1,400

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 1 , 3 0 0 ---$1,350 $1,400 $1,450 •

5. 5
1.1
3.3
1.5

5.9
10. 8
3. 8
4.9

1.2
6.2
4. 5
6.2

$ 1,45 0
$ 1, 500
$ 1,5 50
$ 1,60 0

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 1,5 00 ■
$ 1, 550 $1,600
$ 1,650 -

5. 5
1.5
1.1
2.2

5.7
6.1
5.2
3. 5

$
$
$
$

1,650
1, 700
1,750
1, 800

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 1,700
$ 1,750
$ 1,800
$ 1,8 50

$ 1,850
$ 1,9 00
$1,950
$2,000

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$1,900 ■
$1,950
$2,000 ■
$2,050 ■

$2,050
$2 , 100
$2 , 150
$2,200

and
and
and
and

vender
under
under
under

$2,100$2, 150 $2,200 $2,250 -

$ 2 , 2 50
$2,300
$2,350
$2,400

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$2,300
$2,350
$2,400
$2,450

—
-

$2,450
$2 , 500
$2,600
$2,700

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$2,500
$2,600
$ 2 , 7 00
$2,800

-

$2,800
$2,900
$3,000
$3, 100

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$2,900 ■
$3,000 ■
$3,100
$3,200 -

$3,200
$3,300
$ 3, 4 0 0
$3,500

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$3,300
$3,400
$3,500 $3,600

$3, 600
$3,700
$3,800
$3,900

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$3,700 ■
$3,800
$3,900 $4,000

;

-------------

$ 4 , 0 0 0 and under $4, 100 ■
$4, 100 and under $ 4 , 2 0 0 $ 4 , 2 0 0 and over
-------Total -----------------Number of employees •
Average monthly salary -

!

_
_
_

l
i
|

1
[

-

_

-

_
_
_

_
_
(1.8)

1

I
_

j

:
.
_
_

!

-

:

3.9
8.0
3 .8
4. 8

0. 6
2 .6
1.4

8.3
6.4
6.0
7. 6

16.4
3.3
2 .4
.3

9.9
9 .9
6.2
9. 8

2 .9
2. 6
3.9
4 .4

4. 5
2 .9
1.4
2.3

3.7
2 .7
.2
-

3 .0
.7
5.0
3.4

6.4
2 .4
1.9
2 .5

1.0
1.0
.8
1.4

1.5
1.2
(2.0)

2 .0
.6
1.4
.9

4 .4
15.4
4. 8
4 .4

(i.o)
-

_
-

1.7
1.6
1.2
.9

8.5
2 .2
1.8
2 .3

2. 6
3 .0
7 .4
4 .8

_
-

_
-

.7
2. 1
1.2
3. 1

1.6
4.2
3 .4
4.2

9.2
5.9
2 .6
7.0

_
"

_
-

_
-

(1.4)

.9
3 .0
3 .0
.3

2 .6
8.5
4. 1
4 .4

_
-

_
-

.3
2 .4
(1.3)

5. 5
3 .0
1.5
1.8

"

-

-

-

!

:

_
-

_
-

6.1
4. 6
6.7
3 .8

_
-

|
;

4 .8
7. 6
5.0
6.2

_
-

-

1.6
3 .5
1.8
4.2

-

i

:
!
|

_
-

_
i
i

2.2
1.1
.4
2.2

-

-

-

!
;
|
!

1
-

_
j

;
-

_
!

-

j
;

_
_
_

j
;
|
!

(2.3)
-

1
!

;
i

_
_
-

4.2
2 .8
2 .4
1.0

|

1

1

i
0.9

■
-

_
_
-

-

1.1
5 .8
5 .8
5.2

I

-

iv

4 .6
2 .2
4 .9 .
1 4 .5 '

-

I

i

i ________ :_________[
_

.

!
j

_
.
-

!

!

_
_

_
1
j

-

_
-

.
_
_
0.7
f

!

3 .0
.4
_
-

i

1.5
.4
5.9
5.5

_
.7
2.2

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

1

576

484

1,163

1,735

1,079

271

$1,130
! __________________ l
_

$1,341

$1, 596

$1, 810

$2,238

$2,755

100.0
274

See footnotes at end of table.




-

_

$ 1,050
$ 1, 100
$ 1, 150
$1,200

1

_

!
1

_

-

Under $7
$7 50 and
$77 5 and
$800 and

III

ii

21

1,517

;
$
J___________________ L

100.0

100.0

Table 4. Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations —Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional and administrative occupations by monthly salary, United States except
Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1976)
Chem ists
Monthly salary
I

II

III

Under $725 ----------------------------------$72 5 and under $7 50 -------------------$750 and under $775 ------------------$77 5 and under $800 --------------------

1.6
.2
7.7
.2

-

-

$800
$82 5
$850
$875

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$82 5 --------------------$850 -------------------$875 ------------------$900 -------------------

1.0
1.8
.2
2 .9

(3.1)
1.0
1.6

$900
$92 5
$950
$975

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$925 ------------------$950 ------------------$975 -----------------$ 1 ,0 0 0 ----------------

5.5
4 .4
9 .0
7.2

.5
3 .2
1.5
3.9

(1.3)
1.0

IV

V

VI

VII

:

:

-

VIII
-

_

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_
_

_
_
-

-

-

.

_
-

_
_
_

-

-

_
-

_
_

_

_
_

_

-

"

-

-

(3.0)
1.6
3 .0
3 .5

_

_

_

_
_

(0.6)

-

-

_
_
_

_
_

-

-

-

_
_

_
_

-

_
_
_

$ 1,000
$ 1,050
$ 1,100
$ 1,150

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 1,050 ----------$ 1,100 ----------$ 1,150 ---------$ 1,200 -------------

11.8
14.6
7 .9
6.4

8. 1
9 .4
10.0
14.3

3. 1
4 .0
5. 1
6.1

$ 1 ,2 0 0
$ 1 ,2 5 0
$ 1 ,3 0 0
$ 1 ,3 5 0

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 1 ,2 5 0 ----------$ 1 ,3 0 0 ------------$ 1 ,3 5 0 ------------$ 1 ,4 0 0 -------------

7.3
4 .2
1.6
4 .0

14.0
10.0
6. 6
4 .3

7 .0
8 .8
9 .5
9 .3

$ 1 ,4 0 0
$ 1,450
$ 1 ,5 0 0
$ 1,550

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 1 ,4 5 0
$ 1,500
$ 1 ,5 5 0
$ 1,600

.5

2 .5
1.6
2 .8
(1.4)

8.9
7 .6
6.9
5 .6

5.2
5 .4
7 .3
6. 6

1.0
1.1
2 .0
2 .3

$ 1,600
$ 1,650
$ 1 ,7 0 0
$ 1 ,7 5 0

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 1,650
$ 1 ,7 0 0
$1 ,7 5 0
$ 1 ,8 0 0

-

-

4 .3
3 .4
2 .3
2 .5

7 .4
8.0
8.4
7 .5

4 .0
4 .2
6.7
5.3

(2.3)

-

-

$ 1,800
$ 1,850
$ 1 ,9 0 0
$ 1 ,9 5 0

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 1,850 -----------------------------$ 1,900 -----------------------------$ 1 ,9 5 0 -----------------------------$ 2 ,0 0 0 ------------------------------

_

_

_
-

-

6.0
5.0
4 .9
3 .7

6. 6
7 .0
5.2
7.3

1.0
2 .8
1.6
4. 1

1.2
.1
.7

_
_
_

-

1.0
(2.2)
-

$ 2 ,0 0 0
$ 2 ,0 5 0
$2, 100
$2 , 150

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 2 ,0 5 0 ----------------------------$2, 100 ----------------------------$2, 1 5 0 ------------------------------$ 2 ,2 0 0 -------------------------------

_
-

_
-

3. 6
2 .7
2 .4
1.5

5.9
6.4
5.3
4 .4

2 .7
5 .4
4. 1
7 .0

1.1
.9
1.2
1.7

_
_
_

-

_
-

$ 2 ,2 0 0
$ 2 ,2 5 0
$ 2 ,3 0 0
$ 2 ,3 5 0

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 2 ,2 5 0 ------------------------------$ 2 ,3 0 0 -----------------------------$ 2 ,3 5 0 -----------------------------$ 2 ,4 0 0 -------------------------------

_
_

_
_

_
-

(3.5)
-

"

5. 5
6.0
6.4
5 .4

4 .8
1.4
4 .0
4 .9

_
_

-

4 .2
3 .3
3.2
2 .8

-

$ 2 ,4 0 0
$ 2 ,4 5 0
$ 2 ,5 0 0
$ 2 ,6 0 0

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 2 ,4 5 0
$ 2 ,5 0 0
$ 2 ,6 0 0
$ 2 ,7 0 0

_

_

-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

2 .3
1.6
2 .6
1.7

6.5
5.3
8. 7
5. 5

4 .9
4 .5
8. 6
8.3

(1.9)
1.9
.7
5. 1

$ 2 ,7 0 0
$ 2 ,8 0 0
$ 2 ,9 0 0
$ 3 ,0 0 0

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$2 ,8 0 0
$2 ,9 0 0
$ 3 ,0 0 0
$ 3 ,1 0 0

_
_
_

_
_

_
_

_
_

1.1

(1.1)

7.2
3 .5
2 .4
1,9

7.2
7.2
6.7
8 .5

2 .7
8 .3
5 .6
9 .5

$ 3 ,1 0 0
$ 3 ,2 0 0
$ 3 ,3 0 0
$ 3,400

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$3,2 0 0
$ 3 ,3 0 0
$ 3 ,4 0 0
$ 3 ,5 0 0

1.5
(3.4)

5.0
3. 1
2.2
2 .3

8.3
6.3
1.9
10.7

$ 3 ,5 0 0
$ 3 ,6 0 0
$ 3 ,7 0 0
$ 3 ,8 0 0

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$3 ,6 0 0
$3 ,7 0 0
$3 ,8 0 0
$ 3 ,9 0 0

1.6
.6
1.6
.8

6 .6
5. 6
4 .9
6. 1

$ 3 ,9 0 0
$ 4 ,0 0 0
$ 4 ,1 0 0
$ 4 ,2 0 0

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 4 ,0 0 0
$ 4 ,1 0 0
$ 4 ,2 0 0
$ 4 ,3 0 0

2 .4
(2.3)

1.7
2 .2
1.7
1.7

$ 4 ,3 0 0
$ 4 ,4 0 0
$ 4 ,5 0 0
$4 , 600

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 4 ,4 0 0
$ 4 ,5 0 0
$4 ,6 0 0
$ 4 , 700

$ 4 ,7 0 0
$ 4 ,8 0 0
$ 4 ,9 0 0
$ 5, 000

and
and
and
and

under $4,8 0 0
under $4,9 0 0
under $ 5 ,0 0 0
o v e r --------------

_
_
-

_
_
_
-

_
_

_
-

-

_

1.0

_
_
_

-

-

-

-

_
_

_
_

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
_

_
_
_

_
_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

"

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

"
-

-

-

-

_
_

•

-

_

_

_

_
_
_

-

-

.5
.7
2
110
-

-

-

-

-

-

.7
.5
.7
2 .4

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

-

1,284

3,337

8,538

9, 699

7,555

4, 104

1,477

412

A verage m onthly salary

$1 ,0 4 0

$1, 174

$ 1 ,383

$1,7 0 3

$2 ,0 0 9

$ 2 ,4 0 6

$2,797

$ 3 ,3 9 4

Total
Number of em ployees

See footnotes at end of table.




22

100.0

Table 4. Employment distribution by salary: Professional and administrative occupations —Continued
(Percent distribution of em ployees in selected p ro fe ssio n a l and adm inistrative occupations by monthly salary, United States except
Alaska and Hawaii, 1 M arch 1976)
Engineers
Monthly salary
I

II

III

V

IV

VI

VII

VIII

_
_

_
_

_
_

Under $900 ---------------------------------------------- $900 and under $92 5 -----------------------------------$92 5 and under $950 -----------------------------------$950 and under $975 -----------------------------------

1.2
1.9
1.3
2. 1

_
_
(1.7)

_
_
-

-

-

-

-

-

$975 and under $ 1 ,0 0 0 -------------------------------$ 1,000 and under $ 1,050 ----------------------------$ 1,050 and under $ 1, 100 ---------------------------$1, 100 and under $1, 150 ---------------------

3 .4
8 .6
14.1
15. 1

1.4
3 .3
6. 1
10.7

_
(1.4)
1.7
2 .3

_
_
_
"

_
_
_
-

_
_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

$ 1, 150
$1 ,2 0 0
$ 1,250
$ 1 ,3 0 0

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 1,200 ----------------------------$ 1 ,2 5 0 ------------------------------$ 1,300 -----------------------------$ 1 ,3 5 0 ----------------------------

16. 1
11.8
10.5
6.7

12.7
14.3
11.4
10.9

3 .7
5 .8
7 .6
9 .9

_
(1.4)
1.3
2. 1

_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_

_
_

-

-

-

-

$ 1 ,3 5 0
$ 1 ,4 0 0
$ 1,450
$ 1,500

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 1 ,4 0 0
---- ------ ----- $ 1 ,4 5 0 ----------------------------$ 1,500 ----------------------------$1 ,5 5 0 -----------------------

3. 1
1.8
1.3
( i.o )

9 .0
5. 8
4 .4
3 .0

10.0
9 .4
8.8
8.0

2 .8
3 .9
5 .0
7. 1

_
_
(2.2)
1.6

_
_
_

_
_

_
_
_

$ 1,550
$ 1,600
$ 1, 650
$ 1, 700

and
and
and
and

under
under
tinder
under

$ 1,600 ---------------------------$ 1,650 ----------------------------$ 1 ,7 0 0 ----------------------------$ 1 ,7 5 0 -----------------------------

_
_
_

6.9
5. 5
5. 1
4. 6

7. 6
8.2
8. 5
8.2

2.2
2 .7
4 .0
5. 1

_
_
(2. 1)
1.6

_
_

_
_

-

2 .0
1.1
1.2
( i.o )

-

-

$ 1,750
$ 1,800
$ 1,850
$ 1 ,9 0 0

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 1,800 ----------------------------$ 1,850 ----------------------------$ 1,900 ---------------------------$ 1 ,9 5 0 -----------------------------

_
_
-

_
_
_
-

2 .9
2 .9
1.8
(1.6)

7 .4
6 .7
5 .5
5, 1

5.7
6 .4
7.3
7 .0

1.7
1.9
3 .6

_
_
_
(2.4)

-

$ 1,950
$ 2 ,0 0 0
$ 2 ,0 5 0
$2, 100

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 2 ,0 0 0 -----------------------------$ 2 ,0 5 0 -----------------------------$ 2 ,1 0 0 ----------------------------$2, 1 5 0 ------------------------------

_
_
-

_
_
_

_
-

4 .5
3 .5
3. 1
3 .3

$2, 150
$ 2 ,2 0 0
$ 2 ,2 5 0
$ 2 ,3 0 0

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 2 ,2 0 0
$ 2 ,2 5 0
$ 2 ,3 0 0
$ 2 ,3 5 0

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

_
"

_
-

_
"

1.4
1.3
(2.0)

$ 2 ,3 5 0
$ 2 ,4 0 0
$ 2 ,4 5 0
$ 2 ,5 0 0

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 2 ,4 0 0 -----------------------------$ 2 ,4 5 0 ----------------------------$ 2 ,5 0 0 -----------------------------$ 2 ,6 0 0 -----------------------------

_
-

_
_
-

_
- .
-

$ 2 ,6 0 0
$ 2 ,7 0 0
$ 2 ,8 0 0
$ 2 ,9 0 0

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 2 ,7 0 0
$ 2 ,8 0 0
$ 2 ,9 0 0
$ 3 ,0 0 0

_

_
-

_
-

$ 3 ,0 0 0
$ 3 ,1 0 0
$ 3 ,2 0 0
$ 3 ,3 0 0

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 3 ,1 0 0 ---------------------------$ 3 ,2 0 0 -----------------------------$ 3 ,3 0 0 --------------------------$ 3 ,4 0 0 ----------------------------

$ 3 ,4 0 0
$ 3 ,5 0 0
$ 3 ,6 0 0
$ 3 ,7 0 0

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 3 ,5 0 0 ----------------------------$ 3 ,6 0 0 -----------------------------$ 3 ,7 0 0 ----------------------------$ 3 ,8 0 0 -----------------------------

$ 3 ,8 0 0
$ 3 ,9 0 0
$ 4 ,0 0 0
$ 4 ,1 0 0
$4 ,2 0 0

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
over

$ 3 ,9 0 0 ----------------------------$ 4 ,0 0 0 ---------------------------$ 4 ,1 0 0 ---------------------------$ 4 ,2 0 0 ----------------------------------------------------------------------

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-

"

_
-

_
_

|

1

!

-

I
|

|
!
1

_
i

1.2
2. 1
3 .9
4 .9

5.2
5 .4
5. 1
5.3

4 .6
5.2
5.2

2 .6
2 .2
1.8
2 .0

4 .9
4 .7
5 .0
7 .0

4 .9
5 .8
4 .3
7 .4

5.9
4 .7
3 .9
2 .9

8.0
7 .7
5.7
5. 8

8 .8
9.1
8. 1
8.9

4 .7
3 .2
2 .3
1.8

•7 .8
6.3
6. 1
3 .9

5.3
5.3
4. 1
3 .3

i
!

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

“

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

_

-

_

_

-

_
_
-

-

'

-

"
.
-

_

|

_
_
-

"

_
-

_
"

_
(3.9)
1. 1
1.1
2 .0
2 .5
10.2

1.3
(2.4)
-

_
!

_
-

-

5,1

1.4
(2.3)

-

_
-

_
_
_

5. 6
5.9
4 .7
4. 6

1.1
(1.3)

!
j

7.0
6.9
7. 1
5.9

_
_

_
_
_
-

j
|

3. 6
3 .3
2 .7
2.1
1.1
1. 1
1.8
1.0
3 .4

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

1

100.0

100.0

100.0

Number of em ployees ------------------------------------

11,648

29,235

82,307

119,970

85,907

1

44,284

17,608

4, 526

A verage m onthly salary

$1, 160

$ 1 ,2 6 6

$1,457

$ 1 ,7 3 0

$2,312

$2,571

$ 3,020

-------------------------------

1 F or scope of study,

see table in appendix A .

NOTE: To avoid showing sm all p roportion s of em ployees scattered at or
near the extrem es of the distributions fo r som e occupations, the percentages




23

j

$ 2,007

of em ployees in these intervals have been accum ulated and are shown in the
interval above or below the extrem e interval containing at least 1 p ercen t.
The p ercentages representing these em ployees are shown in parentheses.
Because of rounding, sums of individual item s m ay not equal 100.

Table 5. Employment distribution by salary: Technical support occupations and keypunch supervisors
(Percent distriDution of employees in selected technical support occupations and keypunch supervisors by monthly salary, United States except
Alaska and Hawaii1, March 197 6)
Engineering Technicians

DrafterT racers

Monthly Salary
II

I
Under $450---------------------------------------------$450 and under $475-----------------------------$475 and under $500------------------------------

_
(0. 3)
1. 0

_

.

$500
$525
$550
$575

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$525----------------------------$550----------------------------$575----------------------------$600-----------------------------

4.
2.
4.
3.

0
7
9
8

_
-

-

$600
$625
$650
$675

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$625----------------------------$650----------------------------$675----------------------------$700-----------------------------

2.
6.
8.
6.

7
7
0
1

_
(2.2)
2. 3
3. 7

-

$700
$725
$750
$775

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$725----------------------------$750----------------------------$775----------------------------$800------------------------------

5. 9
4.8
7. 0
6. 7

2.
4.
7.
7.

2
9
1
5

$800
$825
$850
$875

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$825----------------------------$850----------------------------$875-----------------------------$900------------------------------

5.
5.
2.
6.

0
8
1
0

6.
6.
6.
7.

8
4
6
4

3. 8
4.8
4.8
5. 0

$900
$925
$950
$975

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$925-----------------------------$950-----------------------------$975----------------------------$ 1, 000--------------------------

3.
1.
2.
2.

5
5
6
1

4.
5.
3.
5.

7
6
7
2

5.
5.
7.
5.

2. 7
2. 2
1. 7
.4
-

5.
3.
5.
3.
2.

1
5
1
0
9

10.4
9. 9
7. 3
7. 9
5. 1

2. 7
1.2
(.4)
-

4. 2
1. 9
2. 0
1. 0
( .8 )

$ 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,
SI,
$ 1,

000
050
100
150
200

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,

050 --------------------1 0 0 --------------------150 --------------------200 --------------------250 ---------------------

$ 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,

2 50
300
350
400
450

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,

300
350
400
450
500

$ 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,

500
550
600
650
700

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,

550---------------------600 -------------------650 --------------------700 -------------------7 50 ---------------------

$ 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,

7 50
800
8 50
900
950

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,
$2,

800
8 50
900
950
000

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

$2, 000 and under $2, 050 --------------------$ 2, 050 and over------------------------------------Total

_
-

_

(0.
1.
2.
2.

_

-

_
-

-

V

IV

III

-

_
-

Drafters
I

II

_

III

_

_

0.2

-

-

7. 0
5. 2
6.8
5. 7

-

1. 6
1. 1
4. 3

2.
.
2.
2.

0
4
5
4

_
-

.
-

1
9
5
5

(2.6)

.
-

-

_
-

-

4.
4.
3.
4.

8
0
5
6

7. 1
7 .4
7. 0
5. 2

1.
2.
2.
3.

7
6
9
3

_
-

_
-

3.
10.
5.
3.

5
3
6
1

4 .8
5. 1
5. 3
3. 7

4.
5.
5.
5.

0
6
5
3

_
(2.0)
1. 1
1. 3

(1.4)

1. 7
1. 7
1. 0
1.4

3. 9
2. 6
3. 1
2 .8

6. 6
5.2
4 .8
5. 9

1. 4
1.4
2. 3
3 .9

(2.0)
-

4. 6
3. 3
2. 6
1. 9
(2.6)

9.2
7.7
5. 3
4 .8
5. 1

8. 5
7.8
8.8
7. 4
8. 1

3. 9
2 .6
1. 7
1.2
. 6

7.
7.
5.
4.
4.

1. 0
(.9)

2. 0
2.2
1.4
1. 5
1. 5

3
5
5
1
0

2.
4.
5.
7.
10.

0
2
9
5
7

8. 8
8.8
4. 3
4. 4
3. 5

11.
12.
10.
9.
5.

8
0
2
6
5

1. 7
(1.8)

5.
5.
3.
3.
1.

3
2
6
1
0

8.
9.
11.
11.
11.

-

-

4.
3.
5.
5.

1. 9
2. 0
3. 6
4.2

_

-

*

1
6
7
9

_
(2.0)
1. 7

6
5
5
9

5.
4.
7.
3.

-

9)
4
2
1

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

.

_

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

1.8
1. 3
1. 2
1. 6
1.2

-

-

-

-

-

.8
1. 0

-

-

_

_

-

-

(i. o)

,
-

_

_

_

3
1
4
4
3

_

-------------------------------------------

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

Number of employees ---------------------------

3, 005

12, 355

23, 869

28, 795

18, 407

4, 281

17, 602

29, 395

31, 426

Average monthly s a la r y -----------------------

$756

$904

$1, 022

$1, 182

$1, 341

$698

$814

$1, 003

$1, 274

See footnotes at end of table.




24

Table 5. Employment distribution by salary: Technical support occupations and keypunch supervisors —Conti: jed
(Percent distribution of employees in selected technical support occupations and keypunch supervisors by monthly salary, United States
except Alaska and Hawaii1 March 1976)
,
Computer Operators
Monthly Salary

I

II

III

Under $ 450 ---------------$450 and under $47 5 ■
$47 5 and under $500 ■

1. 1
2. 0
3. 4

0. 5
1. 5
. 9

$ 500
$ 525
$ 550
$ 57 5

7.2
6. 3
9. 9
4. 5

2.
2.
3.
4.

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 52 5 $ 550 ■
$ 57 5 •
5600 •

$600 and
$62 5 and
$650 and
$675 and

under
under
under
under

$62 5
$ 650
$67 5
$700

$700
$ 725
$7 50
$ 775

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$800 and
$825 and
$8 50 and
$87 5 and
$ 900 and
$92 5 and
$950 and
$ 97 5 and

3
3
9
1

IV
-

Keypunch Supervisors
V

-

VI

I

II

in

IV

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

2. 1

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

9
0
8
6

_

(2.5)
1. 7

.
3.
7.
5.

(0. 9)
3. 2
2 .8

0. 7
1. 1
.6

-

2.
6.
7.
7.

0
1
3
8

1.
1.
8.
4.

9
4
0
1

.9
2. 3
2. 3
3. 1

1. 3
-

14.
10.
7.
5.

9
0
0
1

7. 1
5. 6
8. 8
9.2

2.
2.
4.
4.

$ 725 ---« 750
$775 ---$800 ----

7.
2.
4.
4.

5
5
9
1

7.
5.
6.
5.

7
9
1
4

5. 9
4. 5
6.8
6 .4

.
2.
2.
3.

9
8
5
0

_

_

(0.5)
1. 4
.3

-

under
under
under
under

$82 5
$850
$87 5
$ 900

2.
2.
.
1.

0
1
6
7

4.
3.
4.
3.

2
7
2
9

5.
5.
6.
5.

9
9
1
7

3.8
6. 3
6.2
5. 9

1. 9
3 .4
1. 7
3. 6

0.
1.
.
.

8
7
9
3

16.
3.
11.
2.

5
8
1
1

5. 0
6.2
7. 2
7. 3

4. 3
2. 6
6. 7
2 .4

under
under
under
under

$ 92 5 —
$950 —
$ 97 5 —
$ 1, 000— -

(3. 1)
-

3.
1.
1.
1.

7
8
7
3

6.
3.
4.
3.

1
9
3
1

5.
5.
4.
4.

6.
2.
3.
4.

0
5
7
5

.
1.
2.
.

3
4
3
5

4.
2.
5.
3.

1
8
6
1

6.
1.
6.
4.

2
9
8
7

3. 6
2 .4
5. 0
3. 3

1. 8
(2.2)

4.
3.
2.
1.
1.

4
4
6
9
6

8. 9
8. 0
7.2
5. 7
3. 9

8 .6
8.2
11. 9
9.7
6. 9

4.
7.
10.
10.
12.

4
5
9
7
1

1. 6
.9
. 6
1. 3
.3

5.
6.
2.
6.
1.

3
8
9
1
2

2 .9
2. 2
1. 5
(3. 1
)
-

6.
4.
4.
1.
2.

7
9
3
3
0

9.8
10.4
3. 7
5.8
4. 9

2. 5
(.9)

-

1. 9
2.8
1. 1
. 7
1. 5

4. 5
2. 9
4.2
3. 7
3. 1

5.
4.
6.
.
5.

0
7
4
7
7

-

2.
.
.
1.
.

5
9
7
0
9

2. 8
3. 0
3. 1
1. 3
(1.5)

1. 0
1.2
(1.5)

7.
1.
2.
2.
1.

4
0
7
0
3

■
•
■
■

■
■
■
-

$ 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,

000
050
100
150
200

and
and
and
and
and

under $ 1, 050under $ 1, 100under $ 1, 150under $ 1, 200under ? 1, 2 50-

$ 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,

250
300
3 50
400
450

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
unde r

c 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,

3003504004 50500-

$ 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,

500
550
600
650
700

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,

5506006507007 50-

$ 1, 7 50 and under $ 1, 800$ 1, 800 and over —

_

-

-

5
7
9
2

-

_

(1.4)
1. 0
1. 0
1. 3

"

.
-

-

1. 1
(1.4)

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

7
9
7
4

-

(2.0)
-

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

7.
11.
8.
5.
3.

8
3
5
7
3

-

-

_

_
-

.3
4.
1.
1.
2.

0
3
0
3

11.4
11. 4
11. 7
4. 7
10. 7

2. 0
. 7

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

Number of employees----------

2, 783

8, 172

21, 718

13, 617

2, 647

777

892

1, 970

1, 254

2 98

Average monthly salary------

$647

$732

$847

$991

$1, 127

$1, 254

$82 9

$956

$1, 068

$1, 241

1 For scope of study,

see table in appendix A.

NOTE: To avoid showing small proportions of employees scattered at
or near the extremes of the distributions for some occupations the percent­




25

ages of employees in
the interval above or
cent. The percentages
Because of rounding,

100. 0

these intervals have been accumulated and are shown in
below the extreme interval containing at least 1 per­
representing these employees are shown in parentheses.
sums of individual items may not equal 100.

Table 6. Employment distribution by salary: Clerical occupations
(Percent distribution of employees in selected clerical occupations

by monthly salary, United States except Alaska and Hawaii, 1 March 1976)

Clerks, accounting

Clerks, file

Keypunch operators

Monthly salary

Messengers
I

Under $350 — ------ - ----------------$350 and under $375 ----------------------------------------$37 5 and under $400 ----------------------------------------$400 and under $425 ------------------------------------------

II

I

.

„

(0.3)
1.5
2. 1

-

II

III

I

II

_

0.3
1.6
9.2
14. 3

_

2 .8
6. 3

0.3
2. 6

_
(0.5)
1.2

_
_
-

(1.0)
3 .4
4 .7

10.2
11. 6
11.9
10.9

3 .6
4 .5
4 .7
5. 1

2 .4
4 .0
7.7
8.4

_
_
(2.2)
2 .2

8. 1
12.0
11.3
10.4

-

-

$425
$450
$47 5
$500

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$450
$475
$500
$525

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3 .3
5.2
6.0
7.3

(1.2)
1.4

16.6
12.3
11.4
9.3

$52 5
$550
$575
$600

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$550
$575
$600
$625

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

7 .8
9.2
6.7
6.8

2.1
3 .4
4. 8
4 .3

5.6
4 .4
4 .3
2 .8

7.7
6.0
6. 1
4 .5

8 .6
5 .8
5.7
5.4

8.7
9.2
6.7
7 .4

3 .5
4. 5
6.5
6. 1

7.9
8.4
5.7
4. 6

$62 5
$650
$67 5
$700

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$650
$675
$700
$725

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.3
5 .8
4 .5
3.9

5.7
6.5
6.4
5.2

1.8
.8
1.1
(4.2)

4 .0
3 .6
2 .7
1.9

5 .8
5.3
4 .2
2 .7

6.9
6.8
4 .4
3 .9

8. 1
7 .8
8.1
6.9

3 .4
3. 5
2 .6
2 .2

$72 5
$750
$77 5
$800

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$7 50
$77 5
$800
$825

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2 .8
2 .6
2 .3
1.7

5.0
5. 1
5.4
5.0

_

2. 1
1. 1
1.0
(5.6)

4 .7
3.7
2 .3
3. 6

3.2
2.2
2 .3
1.9

6.4
4. 8
5.0
4 .7

1.8
1.4
1. 1
1.1

$82 5
$850
$875
$900

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$850
$875
$900
$925

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2 .9
1.4
1.5
1„4

4 .5
4. 1
4 .4
2.7

2 .7
3 .0
2 .5
!.4

1.7
1.3
1.5
.7

3.3
2 .5
2 .7
1.1

$925 and under $950 -----------------------------------------$950 and under $975 -----------------------------------------$975 and under $1,000 -------------------------------------$1,000 and under $1,050 ----------------------------------

1.2
.5
.5
1.6

3 •2
2 .2
1.8
3 .0

• .7
1.2
.5
1.3

1.8
1.6
1.8
3.2

.
_
_

$ 1,050
$ 1,100
$1,150
$1,200

.7
1.1
(.9)

2 .7
3.7
2 .7
1.9

1.5
1.2
(.6)

2 .7
1.3
(1.3)

_

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 1 ,1 0 0 ---------------------------------$ 1 , 1 5 0 ---------------------------------$1,200 ---------------------------------$1,250 ----------------------------------

$1,250 and under $1,300 ---------------------------------$1,300 and over -------------------------------------------------

_
-

-

-

_

_

_
_

_
-

-

-

_

_

j

!
!

_
_
-

-

.7
1.2
1.0
2 .5

_
_
_
"

_
-

3.2
1.5
(1.8)
-

_

_

_

_

_

-

1.1
1.5

-

-

-

-

-

-

1. 1
.4 •
1.1
(2.8)

_

_
_
-

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Number of em ployees-----------------------------------------

91,001

74,328

25,685

17,556

6,448

55,404

44,358

21,257

Average monthly sa la r y -------------------------------------

$637

$805

$490

$554

$684

$639

$735

$557

Total ---------------------------------------------------------

I

See footnotes at end of table.




26

Table 6. Employment distribution by salary: Clerical occupations —Continued
(Percent distribution of employees in selected clerical occupations

by monthly salary, United States except Alaska and Hawaii,1 March 1976)
Secretaries

Monthly salary
I
Under $375 ----------- - ------------------------------------$37 5 and under $400 --------------------------------------$400 and under $42 5 ----------------------------------------$425 and under $450 -----------------------------------------

II

III

_

_

_

-

-

IV

V

Stenographers,
general

Stenographers,
senior

Typists
I

II

0.4
1.0
4. 1
7. 1

0 .4
1.8

-

.
-

-

-

"

(0.9)
1.9

_
_
-

-

2 .9
3.3
4 .4
4 .5

(2.1)
1.2
1.8

9. 1
11.7
10.2
9.5

2 .0
4 .0
7. 1
6. 8

_

_

$450
$47 5
$500
$52 5

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$475
$500
$52 5
$550

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

(1.4)
1.5
2 .4
3 .5

.
(1.8)
1.3

_
(1.1)

_
-

$550
$575
$600
$62 5

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$57 5
$600
$62 5
$650

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.9
4 .4
5.3
5.2

2.7
2 .5
3.9
4 .4

1.3
1.5
1.7
2 .7

(1.9)
1.5
1.3

(0.8)
1.6

6.0
5. 6
7.2
6.3

2 .5
3 .0
3.7
4. 8

8.6
6.7
5. 5
4 .5

8.4
8.5
7.9
6.9

$650
$675
$700
$72 5

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$67 5 ---------------------------------------$700 ----------------------------------------$725 ---------------------------- -----------$7 50------------------------------------------

7 .8
7.2
7.5
6.4

5.9
6. 1
6.9
6.4

3.9
3.9
4 .7
5. 1

2.3
2 .3
2.7
2.9

2.2
1.6
2 .0
2 .4

6.2
5.7
5. 6
4.9

7. 1
5.2
6.9
6. 8

3.7
3.2
2.7
1.8

7.3
6. 1
4 .6
4 .9

$750
$775
$800
$82 5

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$775 ----------------------------------------$800 ----------------------------------------$82 5 ---------------------------------------$850------------------------------------------

7.7
5.9
5. 8
4 .0

6.4
5. 5
6.0
5.7

6.4
7.2
6.0
5. 5

3 .8
4. 1
4 .3
5.9

2 .4
2. 1
2 .8
4. 6

3. 6
4.3
3 .6
3 .8

6. 5
6.0
5.2
4 .7

2 .5
1.9
1.2
1.1

3.2
3. 8
3.3
2.3

$850
$875
$900
$925

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$875
$900
$92 5
$950

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.0
2.7
1.8
1.8

4 .3
4 .0
3.9
3.9

5.4
4 .9
5.2
4 .4

5.2
3.9
5.6
6. 1

3. 6
3.3
4.7
4 .0

2 .9
2. 1
2.1
1.2

5.2
4 .3
3.5
2 .8

(3.5)

1.5
1.5
1.0
.9

$950 and under $975 ----------------------------------------$975 and under $1,000 ------------------------------------$1,000 and under $1,050 -------------------------------$ 1,050 and under $ 1 ,1 0 0 ---------------------------------

1.5
1.9
2.9
1.9

3.0
2 .4
4. 1
2.7

3 .6
3. 6
6.2
4 .4

4 .4
4 .5
7.4
6.9

4 .9
4. 6
9.3
7. 6

1.7
.9
3. 1
3.2

3.3
2.2
4 .0
3 .4

_
_
-

1.2
(1.4)

2. 1
1.4
.9
1.0

4 .0
2 .3
2 .2
1.1

5.7
4. 5
3. 6
3. 1

7.9
7.2
4. 6
3. 6

1.5
(.5)

2 .0
1.5
(.5)

_
_

(.6)

1.3
(.4)

2 .0
1.4
1.2
(1.4)

3. 1
2 .7
1.8
1.2

_

1.0
2.2

$ 1,100
$1, 150
$1,200
$1,250

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 1 ,1 5 0 --------------------------------$1,200 --------------------------------$1,250 --------------------------------$1,300 ---------------------------------

$1,300
$1,350
$1,400
$1,450

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$1,350
$1,400
$1,450
$1,500

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

$ 1,500 and under $1,550 --------------------------------$ 1,550 and over ------------------------------------------------

-

-

_
-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

_
_

.

-

_
-

.8
.8
1.6
1.9
(1.0)

_

-

-

_
_
_

_
_

_
_

_
_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

Total --------------------------------------------------------

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Number of employees ---------------------------------------

43,660

64,553

69,748

43,981

13,752

32,578

39, 135

46,214

33,784

Average monthly salary ------------------------------------

$ 741

$804

$868

$954

$1,029

$706

$788

$569

$665

1 For scope of study, see table in appendix A.
NOTE: To avoid showing small proportions of employees scattered at or
near the extremes of the distributions for some occupations, the percentages




of employees in these intervals have been accumulated and are shown in the
interval above or below the extreme interval containing at least 1 percent,,
The percentages representing these employees are shown in parentheses. Be­
cause of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal 100.

27

Table 7. Occupational employment distribution: By industry division
(Percent distribution of employees in selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations 1 by industry division, 2 United States except
Alaska and Hawaii, March 1976)

Occupation

Manu­
facturing

Public
utilities 3

Whole sale
trade

Retail
trade

Finance,
insurance,
and real
estate

Selected
services 4

Professional and administrative
Accountants ------------------------------------------------------------------Auditors -----------------------------------------------------------------------Chief accountants---------------------------------------------------------Attorneys ----------------------------------------------------------------------Buyers ---------------------------------------------------------------------------Job analysts -----------------------------------------------------------------Directors of personnel------------------------------------------------Chem ists-----------------------------------------------------------------------Engineers-----------------------------------------------------------------------

66
37
69
31
86
66
71
95
71

11
14
5
20
6
6
5
(5)
12

75
67
43

7
9
12

Q
(5)
9

33

12

14

40
19
43
33
52
47
35

13
6
11
12
9
20
11

10
7
13
9
7
7
5

6
7
10

P
(!)

(5)
7
(!)
(5)

5
9
4
4

0
()
()
(5)
4
4

4

9
33
8
41
(5
)
20
11

0
(5)

P
(5)

(5)
16

(5)
28

P

18
22
(5)

33

(5)

19
64
24
36
23
20
43

(5)
5

P
(5)

P

Technical support
Engineering technicians ----------------------------------------------D rafters------------------------------------------------------------------------Computer operators -----------------------------------------------------

P

(5
)
6

Clerical supervisory
Keypunch supervisors --------------------------------------------------Clerical
Clerks, accounting-------------------------------------------------------Clerks, file ------------------------------------------------------------------Keypunch operators ----------------------------------------------------Messengers -----------------------------------------------------------------Secretaries-------------------------------------------------------------------Stenographers --------------------------------------------------------------Typists----------------------------------------------------------------------------

1 Each occupation includes the work levels shown in table 10
2 For scope of study, see table in appendix A.
3 Transportation (limited to railroad, local and suburban passenger,
deep sea water, and air transportation industries), communication, elec­




16
4
9
6
4
(5
)
4

P)
(5
4
4
5
(5)

tric, gas, and sanitary services.
4 Engineering and architectural services; and commercially operated
research, development, and testing laboratories only.
5 Less than 4 percent.

28

Table 8. Relative salary levels: Occupation by industry division
(Relative salary levels for selected professional, administrative, technical,
and Hawaii, March 1976)

and clerical occupations1 by industry division, 2 United States except Alaska

(Average salary for each occupation in all industries - 100)
Occupation

Manu­
facturing

Public
utilities 3

Wholesale
trade

!

F inance,
insurance,
and
real estate

Retail
trade

|

Selected
services 4

Professional and administrative
Accountants----------------------------------------Auditors -------------------------------------------Chief accountants ----------------------------Attorneys—-----------------------------------------Buyers-----------------------------------------------Job analysts--------------------------------------Directors of personnel---------------------Chem ists-------------------------------------------Engineers-------------------------------------------

101
106
101
107
100
103
100
100
99

105
107
103
103
108
1 10
105

98
(5
)
(5
)

95
93
101
100
107
(5
)
95
(!)
(5
)

98
100
103

114
106
113

(5
)
93
96

(5
)
102
96

(5
)
82
91

104
99
100

103

126

98

92

90

106

88
106
95
93
92
96
103

88
91
88
90
90
83
90

103
116
106
98
103
99
101

0)
(5

96
100
94
1 12

( 5)

1
1

96
92
96
93
(5
)
85
99
(5
)
(5
)

|

|
1

98
119
(5
)
(5
)
95
108
105
110
99

j
f
I
{
1

Technical support
Engineering technicians------------------D rafters--------------------------------------------Computer operators ------------------------Clerical supervisory
Keypunch supervisors-----------------------

Clerks, accounting---------------------------Clerks, f i l e --------------------------------------Keypunch operators--------------------------Messengers --------------------------------------Secretaries---------------------------------------Stenographers ----------------------------------Typists -----------------------------------------------

i

|

Clerical
104
108
103
103
102
101
106

123
149
124
128
113
114
119

95
106
96
98
99
101
101

|
|
1

_
1 Each occupation includes the work levels shown in table 1. In com­
puting relative salary levels for each occupation by industry division, the
total employment in each work level in all industries surveyed was used as
a constant employment weight to eliminate the effect of differences in the
proportion of employment in various work levels within each occupation.
2 For scope of study, see table in appendix A.
3 Transportation (limited to railroad, local and suburban passenger,




_

_

_

_

|

_

_

_ L_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

deep sea water, and air transportation industries) , communication, electric,
gas, and sanitary services.
4 Engineering and architectural services; and commercially operated
research, development, and testing laboratories only.
5 Insufficient employment in 1 work level or more to warrant separate
presentation of data.
#

29

_

_

Table 9. Average weekly hours: Occupation by industry division
(Average standard weekly hours 1 for employees in selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations2 by industry division,3 United States
except Alaska and Hawaii, March 1976)

Occupation

Manu­
facturing

Public
utilities 4

Wholesale
trade

Retail
trade

Finance,
insurance,
and real
estate

Selected
services 5

Professional and administrative
Accountants
---------------------------------Auditors
---------------------------------------Chief accountants --------------------------Attorneys ---------------------------------------Buyers -------------------------------------------Job analysts ----------------------------------Directors of personnel -----------------Chemists ---------------------------------------Engineers ---------------------------------------

(6
)

38. 0
38. 0
38. 5
38. 0
(6)
37. 5
38. 5
(6)
(6)

39. 5
39. 0
(6)
(6)
40. 0
39. 5
40. 0
39. 0
39. 5

(6
)
39. 5
39. 5

(6
)
38. 5
39. 5

(6)
38. 5
38. 0

39. 5
40. 0
39. 5

39. 0

39. 0

39. 0

3 8. 0

39. 5

39.
39.
39.
3 8.
3 8.
39.
3 8.

39.
39.
39.
3 8.
3 8.
39.
39.

39.
3 8.
39.
39.
39.
39.
39.

3 8.
38.
3 8.
38.
38.
38.
37.

39.
39.
39.
39.
39.
39.
39.

5
0
5
5
0
5
0
5
0

39. 5
39. 5
39. 0
39. 0
39. 5
39. 5
(6)
(6)
39. 0

39. 0
39. 0
39. 5
39. 0
(6)
(6)
39. 5
(6)
(6)

39. 0
39. 0
40. 0
38. 0
38. 5
(6)
40. 0

40. 0
39. 5
39. 5

39. 5
39. 5
39. 0

39. 5

39.
39.
39.
39.
39.
39.
39.

39.
39.
39.
38.
40.
39.
40.
39.
40.

0

Technical support
Engineering technicians -------Drafters
------------------------------Computer operators -----------Clerical supervisory
Keypunch supervisors

----------

Clerical
Clerks, accounting --------------Clerks, file ---------------------------Keypunch operators -------------Messengers -------------------------Secretaries --------------------------Stenographers ----------------------Typists ----------------------------------

5
5
5
0
5
5
5

0
0
5
5
5
5
5

1 Based on the standard workweek for which employees receive their
regular straight-time salary. If standard hours were not available, the standard
hours applicable for a majority of the office work force in the establishment
were used. The average for each job category was rounded to the nearest half
hour.
2 Each occupation includes the work levels shown in table 1.
3 F o h scope of study, see table in appendix A.




5
0
5
5
5
5
0

5
0
0
0
0
0
5

0
0
0
0
0
0
5

0
0
5
0
5
5
5

Transportation (limited to railroad, local and suburban passenger,
deep sea water, and air transportation industries), communication, electric,
gas, and sanitary services.
5 Engineering and architectural services; and commercially operated re­
search, development, and testing laboratories only.
6 Insufficient employment in 1 work level or more to warrant separate
presentation of data.

30

Appendix A.

Scope and Method of Survey

Scope of survey

In

co m p a rin g

actu al

d u tie s and resp o n sib ilitie s o f e m ­

p lo y e e s w ith th o se in th e survey d e fin itio n s, e x te n siv e use
T he survey relates to e sta b lish m e n ts in th e U n ite d S ta te s,
e x c e p t A lask a and H aw aii, in th e
M anu factu rin g;

tr a n sp o r ta tio n ,

w as m ad e o f c o m p a n y o c c u p a tio n a l d esc r ip tio n s, organ iza­
tio n ch arts, and o th e r p erso n n el record s.

fo llo w in g in d u stries:

c o m m u n ic a tio n ,

e le c tr ic ,

gas, and sanitary services; w h o le sa le trade; retail trade; fi­
n a n ce, in su ran ce, and real e sta te ; en g in eerin g and a r c h ite c ­
tural services; and c o m m e r c ia lly o p era ted research, d e v e lo p ­
m e n t, and te stin g la b o ra to ries. E x c lu d e d are esta b lish m e n ts

b y lo c a tio n , in d u str y , and size o f e m p lo y m e n t. F rom th is

as in d ic a te d in th e a c c o m p a n y in g tab le for each in d u stry
o f referen ce

u n iverse, a n a tio n w id e sam ple o f a b o u t 3 ,0 0 0 e sta b lish ­

o f th e u niverse d ata

m e n ts (n o t c o m p a n ie s) w a s se le c te d s y s te m a tic a lly .3 E ach

(gen era lly , first q u arter o f 1 9 7 3 ). T he variable m in im u m
e m p lo y m e n t size, w h ic h w a s first a d o p te d in th e 1 9 6 6 sur­
v ey , m ore n early eq u a liz e s th e w h ite -c o lla r e m p lo y m e n t o f
T he e stim a te d n u m b er o f e sta b lish m e n ts and th e to ta l

m e n t w a s w e ig h te d accord in g to its p r o b a b ility o f se le c tio n ,
so th at u n b ia sed e stim a te s w ere g en era ted . T o illu strate th e

sam ple a ctu a lly stu d ie d , are sh o w n fo r ea ch m ajor in d u stry
d ivision in tab le A - l. T h ese e stim a te s also are sh o w n sep a ­
rately for esta b lish m e n ts e m p lo y in g 2 ,5 0 0 w ork ers or m ore
lo c a te d

in

Stan d ard M etro p o lita n

in g on th e e m p lo y m e n t size o f th e in d u str y . W ithin ea ch in ­
m e n ts w a s in c lu d e d . In co m b in in g th e data, each e sta b lish ­

e m p lo y m e n t w ith in th e sc o p e o f th is su rvey, and w ith in th e

th o se

in d u stry w a s sam p led sep a ra tely , th e sam p lin g rates d e p e n d ­
d u stry , a greater p r o p o r tio n o f large th an o f sm all e sta b lish ­

esta b lish m e n ts am o n g th e variou s in d u str y d iv isio n s.

and

T he sam p lin g p ro ced u res called for th e d eta iled str a tifi­
c a tio n o f all#esta b lish m e n ts w ith in th e sco p e o f th e survey

e m p lo y in g few er th an th e m in im u m n u m b er o f w o rk ers,
d iv isio n , at th e tim e

Sampling and estimating procedures

p ro cess, w h ere o n e esta b lish m e n t o u t o f fou r w as se le c te d ,
it w as given a w e ig h t o f 4 , th u s rep resen tin g it s e lf p lu s three
o th ers. I f d ata w ere n o t available for th e original sam ple

S ta tistica l

m em b er, an altern ate o f th e sam e original p r o b a b ility o f

areas (S M S A ’s ) .1

s e le c tio n w a s c h o se n in th e sam e in d u stry -size cla ssific a tio n .
W here there w a s n o su ita b le su b stitu te for th e original

Timing of survey and method of collection

sam ple m em b er, a d d itio n a l w e ig h t w as assigned to th e re­
m ain in g m em b ers in th e sam e sam p lin g ce ll.

D ata c o lle c tio n w as p lan n ed so th a t th e d ata w o u ld re­
fle c t an average referen ce p erio d o f M arch 1 9 7 6 .2

Nature of data collected and reported

D ata w ere o b ta in e d b y B ureau fie ld e c o n o m is ts w h o
v isited a n a tio n w id e sam p le o f rep resen tative esta b lish m e n ts

R e p o r te d salaries are standard salaries paid for standard

w ith in th e sc o p e o f th e survey b e tw e e n Jan u ary and M ay.
E m p lo y e e s w ere c la ssified

a cco rd in g to

w o rk sc h e d u le s, i.e ., th e straigh t-tim e salary co rresp o n d in g

o c c u p a tio n and

lev e l, w ith th e assistan ce o f c o m p a n y o ffic ia ls,.o n th e basis

to the e m p lo y e e ’s n orm al w o rk sch ed u le e x c lu d in g o ver­

o f th e B LS jo b d e fin itio n s w h ic h appear in a p p e n d ix C.

tim e h o u rs. N o n p r o d u c tio n b o n u se s are e x c lu d e d , b u t c o stof-livin g

p a y m e n ts and in c e n tiv e earnings are in c lu d e d .

Average

salaries are fo r fu ll-tim e e m p lo y e e s for w h o m

salary d ata are available.
lrThe metropolitan area data in the 1976 survey, as in 1975,
relate to all 263 SMSA’s (within the 48 States surveyed) as re­
vised through April 1974 by the U. S. Office o f Management and
Budget. Earlier surveys represented SMSA’s ranging in numbers
from 188 in those before 1963 to 261 in the 1973 and 1974 sur­
veys.

D a ta o n y e a r-to -y ea r ch an ges in average salaries are Sub­
je c t to lim ita tio n s w h ic h r e fle c t th e natu re o f th e d ata c o l­
le c te d . C h an ges in average salaries r e fle c t n o t o n ly general
salary in creases and m erit or o th e r in creases given to in d i­
viduals w h ile in th e sam e w o rk lev el c a te g o r y , b u t th e y also

2

The March payroll period has been used since the 1972 survey.
The 1967 through 1971 surveys had a June reference period for all
occupations. Before the 1967 study, the average reference period
was February for clerical and drafting jobs, and March for all other
occupations. Until 1963, reports listed “Winter” as the reference
period. From 1963 through 1966, the more specific designation
“February-March” was used.




3A few o f the largest employers, together employing approx­
imately 1,160,000 workers, gave data on a companywide basis.
These companies were eliminated from the universe to which the
procedure described applies. The sample count includes the es­
tablishments o f these companies within the scope o f the survey.

31

Table A-1. Number of establishments and workers within scop^ of survey1 and number studied, by industry division, March 1976

Industry division

Minimum
employment
in establishments
in scope of
survey

United States—all
industries 1--------------------------------Manufacturing -------------------------------------Nonmanufa ctu rin g:
Transportation, 3 communica­
tion, electric, gas, and
sanitary services ------------------------Wholesale trade-----------------------------Retail trade ------------------------------------Finance, insurance, and
real estate -------------------------------------Services:
Engineering and architec­
tural services; and com­
mercially operated research,
development, and testing
laboratories only----------------------Metropolitan areas—all
industries 4--------------------------------Manufacturing -------------------------------------Nonmanufa ctu rin g:
Transportation, 3 communication,
electric, gas, and sanitary
services ---------------------------------------Wholesale trade-----------------------------Retail trade ------------------------------------Finance, insurance, and
real estate ------------------------------------Services:
Engineering and architec­
tural services; and com­
mercially operated research,
/ development, and testing
laboratories only --------------------Establishments employing 2, 500
workers or more—all industries ------Manufacturing --------------------------------------

Workers in
establishments
Professional,
administrative,
Total
supervisory,
and clerical

Number of
estab­
lishments

Number of
estab­
lishments

Workers in
establishments
Professional,
administrative,
Total
supervisory,
and clerical1
2

29, 376

18, 556, 084

7, 611, 812

3, 021

6, 441, 878

2^847, 429

250

14, 167

11, 014, 39.3

3, 437, 310

1, 676

3, 958, 303

1, 395, 596

100
100
250

3, 147
3, 837
2, 927

2, 213, 239
761, 950
2, 530, 338

1, 124, 243
399, 822
732, 043

357
215
300

1, 082, 886
51, 889
691, 719

575, 193
31, 282
222,509

100

4, 794

1, 768, 805

1, 711, 974

381

535, 437

531, 468

100

504

267, 359

206, 420

92

121, 644

91, 381

22, 655

15, 365, 615

250

9, 236

8,242,121

100
100
250

2, 192
3, 459
2, 812

2, 001,859
706, 114
2, 466, 199

100

4, 464

100

|

6, 867, 480

2, 526

5, 957, 762

2, 713, 185

2, 875, 349

1, 261

3,517,006

1, 284, 055

1, 042, 994
385, 900
717, 757

315
206
294

1, 061, 687
50, 565
686, 884

565, 321
30,951
221, 803

1, 69.1, 607

1, 646, 073

363

527, 857

525, 029

492

257, 715

199,407

87

113, 763

86, 026

-

952

6, 180, 444

2, 711, 501

697

4, 781, 863

2 ,116,043

-

493

3, 705, 237

1, 376, 380

413

2, 988, 804

1, 083, 568

-

1 Establishments with total employment at or above the minimum lim i­
tation indicated in the first column, in the United States except Alaska and
Hawaii.
2 Includes executive, administrative, professional, supervisory, and
clerical employees, but excludes technicians, drafters, and sales personnel.
3 Limited to railroad, local and suburban passenger, deep sea water




Studied

Within scope of survey1

32

j
1

(foreign and domestic), and air transportation industries as defined in the
1967 edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual.
4
Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States, except
Alaska and Hawaii, as revised through April 1974 by the U .S. Office of
Management and Budget.

m ay reflect o th e r fa cto rs su ch as e m p lo y e e tu rn over, e x p a n ­

ea ch sam ple e sta b lish m e n t in p r o p o r tio n to th e n u m b er o f

sio n s or r e d u c tio n s in th e w o rk fo r c e , and ch an ges in s t a ff­

e sta b lish m e n ts it rep resen ted w ith in th e sco p e o f the su rvey.

d iffe r e n t salary

F or e x a m p le , i f th e sam p le esta b lish m e n t w as se le c te d from

lev els. F or e x a m p le , an e x p a n sio n in force m a y in crease th e

in g p attern s w ith in

e sta b lish m e n ts w ith

a group o f fou r e sta b lish m e n ts w ith sim ilar e m p lo y m e n t in

p r o p o r tio n

th e

o f e m p lo y e e s at th e m in im u m o f th e salary

sam e in d u stry

and region , ea ch

fu ll-tim e e m p lo y e e

range e sta b lish ed for a w o rk le v e l, w h ic h w o u ld te n d to

fo u n d w a s c o u n te d as fou r e m p lo y e e s in c o m p ilin g e m ­

lo w e r th e average, w h erea s a red u c tio n or a lo w tu rn over in

p lo y m e n t e stim a te s fo r th e o c c u p a tio n .

the w o rk force m ay have th e o p p o site e ff e c t. S im ilarly,

E m p lo y e e s w h o se salary d ata w ere n o t available w ere

p r o m o tio n s o f e m p lo y e e s to h igh er w o rk lev els o f p r o fe s­

n o t tak en in to a c c o u n t in th e e stim a te s. A lso n o t tak en in to

sion al and ad m in istrative o c c u p a tio n s m ay a ffe c t th e aver­

a c c o u n t w ere th e few in sta n c e s in w h ic h salary d ata w ere

age o f each lev el. T he e sta b lish e d salary ranges for su ch

available b u t there w as n o sa tisfa c to r y basis for c la ssify in g

o c c u p a tio n s are relatively w id e , and p r o m o te d e m p lo y e e s ,

th e e m p lo y e e s b y w o r k lev el. In a d d itio n , survey o c c u p a ­

w h o m ay have b een paid th e m a x im u m o f th e salary scale

tio n s w ere lim ite d to e m p lo y e e s m e e tin g th e sp e c ific cri­

for th e lo w e r le v e l, are lik e ly to be rep laced b y le ss e x p e r i­

teria in ea ch survey d e fin itio n and w ere n o t in te n d e d to in ­

e n c e d e m p lo y e e s w h o m a y be paid the m in im u m . O ccu p a ­

clu d e

tio n s m o s t lik e ly to r e fle c t su ch ch an ges in th e salary aver­

reason s, and b eca u se o f d iffe r e n c e s in o c c u p a tio n a l stru c­

ages are the h igh er lev els o f p r o fessio n a l and ad m in istra­

ture a m on g e sta b lish m e n ts, e stim a te s o f o c c u p a tio n a l e m ­

tive o c c u p a tio n s and sin g le-in cu m b en t p o sitio n s su ch as

p lo y m e n t

c h ie f a c c o u n ta n t and d irecto r o f p e r so n n e l.4

stu d ied in d ica te o n ly the relative im p o rta n ce o f th e o c c u p a ­

A bout

all e m p lo y e e s in ea ch

o b ta in e d

from

field

th e

o f w o r k .6 F or these

sam p le o f esta b lish m e n ts

10 p ercen t o f th e e sta b lish m e n ts w h ic h w ere

tio n s and lev els as d e fin e d for th e su rvey. T h ese q u a lifica ­

asked to su p p ly d ata w o u ld n o t d o so. T h ese c o rresp o n d ed

tio n s o f th e e m p lo y m e n t e stim a te s d o n o t m a terially a ffe c t

to an e stim a te d to ta l in th e universe stu d ied o f a p p r o x i­

th e accu racy o f th e earnings data.

m a te ly 2 ,1 7 5 ,0 0 0 w ork ers. T he n o n c o o p e r a tin g u n its w ere
replaced

by

o th ers

in

th e

sam e

W herever p o ssib le , d ata w ere c o lle c te d

in d u str y -siz e -lo c a tio n

for m en and

w o m e n sep a ra tely . I f id e n tific a tio n b y se x w as n o t p o ssib le,

classes. I f all sim ilar u n its w ere already in th e sam p le,

all w ork ers w ere rep orted as th e se x p r ed o m in a n t in the

w e ig h ts o f the in c lu d e d e sta b lish m e n ts w ere in creased to

o c c u p a tio n . In p r o fe ssio n a l, ad m in istrative, and tech n ica l

a c c o u n t for the m issin g u n its.

su p p o rt o c c u p a tio n s, m en w ere su ffic ie n tly p red o m in a n t

S o m e co m p a n ies had an e sta b lish ed p o lic y o f n o t d is­

to p reclu d e p r esen ta tio n o f separate d ata b y sex . F or cleri­

c lo sin g salary d ata for so m e o f th eir e m p lo y e e s . O ften th is

cal

p o lic y related to h igh er level p o sitio n s , b eca u se th ese e m ­

c o m m o n ly e m p lo y e d , separate data b y se x are available

o c c u p a tio n s

in

w h ic h

b o th

m en

and

w om en

are

p lo y e e s w ere co n sid ered part o f the m a n a g em en t group or

from th e B u reau ’s area w age survey rep orts c o m p ile d b y

w ere classified in ca teg o ries w h ic h in c lu d e d o n ly on e e m ­

m e tr o p o lita n area. O c c u p a tio n s and w o rk lev els in w h ic h

p lo y e e . In n early all in sta n c e s, h o w e v e r , in fo r m a tio n w as

w o m e n a c c o u n te d for 5 p ercen t or m ore o f th e e m p lo y ­

p rovid ed on the n u m b er o f such e m p lo y e e s and the ap p ro­

m ent

priate o c c u p a tio n a l c la ssific a tio n . It w as th u s p o ssib le to

w o m e n e m p lo y e e s as fo llo w s:

estim a te the p ro p o rtio n o f e m p lo y e e s in each c a te g o r y for

Women (percent)

w h o m salary data w ere n o t available. In all b u t 3 o f th e 8 2
for w h o m salary d ata w ere n o t available w as less th an 5 per­
c e n t .5
b e tw e e n

esta b lish m e n ts

th at

d istrib u ted

acco rd in g to

th e p r o p o r tio n

of

Occupation and level

95 or m o r e ..................File clerks I and II, all levels of key­
punch operators, secretaries, stenog­
raphers, and typists
90-94 ............................. Accounting clerks I and file clerks
III
85-89 ............................. Keypunch supervisors I, II, and III
80-84 ............................. Accounting clerks II
75-79 ............................. Keypunch supervisors IV
50-54 ............................. Job analysts II
4 5 -49 ............................. Messengers
30-34 ............................. Buyers I and drafter-tracers
25-29 ............................. Accountants I, job analysts III , and
com puter operators II

o c c u p a tio n a l levels su rveyed , th e p ro p o rtio n o f e m p lo y e e s

C om p arison s

w ere

p rovid ed

salary data for each sp e c ific o c c u p a tio n a l lev el and th o se
n o t d o in g so in d ic a te d th at the tw o classes o f esta b lish ­
m en ts did n o t d iffer m a teria lly in in d u stries rep resen ted ,
e m p lo y m e n t, or salary lev els for o th e r jo b s in th is series for
w h ich d ata w ere available.
O ccu p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t e stim a te s relate to th e to ta l
in all esta b lish m e n ts w ith in th e sc o p e o f th e survey and n o t
the n u m b er a ctu ally su rveyed . E stim a tes w ere derived b y
w eig h tin g fu ll-tim e e m p lo y e e s in th e o c c u p a tio n s stu d ied in

E ngineers, for example, are defined to classify employees
engaged in engineering work within a band o f eight levels, starting
with inexperienced engineering graduates and excluding only
those within certain fields o f specialization or in positions above
those covered by level VIII. In contrast, occupations such as chief
accountants and directors o f personnel are defined to include only
those with responsibility for a specified program and with duties
and responsibilities as indicated for each o f the more limited number
o f work levels selected for study.

4

These types o f occupations also may be subject to greater
sampling error, as explained in the paragraph headed “Estimates
o f sampling error.”
SThose with 5 percent and over were: Directors o f personnel
I V - 15 percent; chief accountants II— percent; directors o f per­
6
sonnel III— percent.
6




33

Women (percent) —
Continued

Occupation and level—
Continued

p lied b y 4 .3 4 5 to o b ta in m o n th ly valu es and b y 5 2 .1 4 to
o b ta in annual valu es. A n n u al valu es fo r o th e r th an drafters

20-24 ! .......................... Accountants II, auditors I, chemists
I, engineering technicians I, com­
puter operators I and III
I, job
analysts IV ,
1 5 - 1 9 ............................. A ttorneys
chemists II, and engineering tech­
nicians II
1 0 - 1 4 ............................. Accountants I II , auditors II, at­
torneys II, buyers II, chemists III ,
com puter operators IV , and drafters

and

clerical

o c c u p a tio n s

w ere o b ta in e d b y m u ltip ly in g

m o n th ly valu es b y 12.

Estimates of sampling error
T he survey p roced u re y ie ld s e stim a te s w ith w id e ly vary­
in g sam p lin g errors, d ep e n d in g o n th e fr e q u e n c y w ith w h ic h

I

th e jo b o ccu rs and th e d isp ersion o f salaries. T h u s, for th e

5 - 9 ................................... Auditors 111, chief accountants I,
attorneys I II , directors of per­
sonnel I and II, engineers I, en­
gineering technicians III , drafters
II, and com puter operators V
and V I.

82

su rveyed o c c u p a tio n a l w o rk le v e ls, relative sam p lin g

errors o f th e average salaries w ere d istrib u ted as fo llo w s:
4 7 w ere u n d er 2 p e r c e n t; 2 3 w ere 2 and u n d er 4 p e r c e n t;
8 w ere 4 and u n d er 6 p e r c e n t; and 4 w ere 6 p e r c e n t and
o v e r .7 S am p lin g errors m easu re th e v a lid ity o f th e b an d
w ith in w h ic h th e true average is lik e ly to fall. T h u s, for an
o c c u p a tio n w ith a sam p le average m o n th ly salary o f $ 1 ,0 0 0

Conversion of salary rates

and sam p lin g error o f 4 p e r c e n t, th e ch a n c e s are 19 o u t o f
2 0 th a t th e true average lie s w ith in th e b an d o f $ 9 6 0 to

Salary d ata w ere c o lle c te d from c o m p a n y record s in

$ 1 ,0 4 0 .

th eir m o s t read ily available fo rm , i.e ., w e e k ly , b iw e e k ly ,
se m im o n th ly , m o n th ly , or an n u a lly . F o r th e in itia l ta b u la ­

Methods of computation o f annual percent increases

tio n s, th e salary d ata w ere first c o n v e r te d to a w e e k ly basis
fo r clerical and d raftin g o c c u p a tio n s and to a m o n th ly basis

T he p e rcen t in creases fo r e a c h o c c u p a tio n in te x t ta b le 1

fo r all o th ers. T h e fa cto rs u sed to c o n v e r t th ese d ata w ere

w ere o b ta in e d b y ad d in g th e aggregate salaries fo r e a c h le v e l

as fo llo w s:

in e a c h o f tw o su ccessive yea rs (e m p lo y m e n t in th e m o s t

Conversion factors
To monthly
To weekly
basis
basis

Payroll basis

recen t y ea r, to e lim in a te th e e ff e c ts o f y e a r-to -y ea r e m p lo y ­
m e n t sh ifts, m u ltip lie d b y th e average salaries in b o th y e a r s)
and d ivid in g th e la ter su m b y th e earlier su m . T h e resu ltan t

W e e k ly ...................................

1.0000

4 .3 4 5 0

relative, less 1 0 0 , is th e p e rcen t in crease. C han ges in th e

B iw e e k ly ................................

.5 0 0 0

2.1 7 2 5

sc o p e o f th e survey and in o c c u p a tio n a l d e fin itio n s w ere

S e m im o n th ly .......................

.46 02

2 .0 0 0 0

in c o r p o r a te d in to th e series as so o n as tw o com p arab le

M o n t h ly ................................

.2301

1.0000

p erio d s w ere available. In creases for ea ch o f th e tw o broad

A n n u a l...................................

.01 92

.08 33

o c c u p a tio n a l grou p s w ere o b ta in e d b y averaging th e in ­
creases o f th e o c c u p a tio n s w ith in th e grou p . In creases for
all survey o c c u p a tio n s w ere d ete r m in e d b y averaging th e

A ll salaries w ere ro u n d ed to th e n earest d ollar. A verage

in crea ses for th e tw o b road o c c u p a tio n a l grou p s. A n n u al

m o n th ly salaries in ta b les 1, 2 , and 3 and annual salaries in

in creases w ere th e n lin k e d t o o b ta in ch an ges th a t have

ta b les 1 and 2 fo r clerical and d ra ftin g o c c u p a tio n s are d e ­

o ccu rred sin ce th is series w a s b eg u n and to c o m p u te average

rived from average w e e k ly salaries ( t o th e n earest p e n n y ) b y

annual rates o f in crease fo r ea ch o c c u p a tio n and grou p and

use o f th e fa cto rs 4 .3 4 5 and 5 2 .1 4 , r e sp e c tiv e ly , and ro u n d ­

fo r all o c c u p a tio n s c o m b in e d .

in g th e resu lts. T o o b ta in annual salaries fo r all o th e r o c c u ­

Y ea r-to -y ea r p e r c e n t in creases for e a c h grou p sp e c ifie d

p a tio n s in ta b les 1 and 2 , average m o n th ly salaries ( t o the

in te x t tab le 2 and ch art 1 w ere d e term in ed b y ad d in g aver­

n ea rest p e n n y ) are m u ltip lie d b y 12 and r o u n d ed to th e

age salaries for all o c c u p a tio n s in th e grou p for 2 c o n s e c u ­

n ea rest dollar.

tive y ea rs, and d ivid in g th e later su m b y th e earlier su m ,
and su b tra ctin g 1 0 0 . C han ges in th e sc o p e o f th e su rvey or
in

Method of determining median and quartile values

o c c u p a tio n a l

d e fin itio n s

w ere in c o r p o r a te d in t o

th e

series as so o n as com p arab le d ata for 2 c o n se c u tiv e p erio d s
w ere available. T h e 15-year tren d s in te x t tab le 2 w ere o b ­

M ed ian and quartile valu es w ere derived from d istrib u ­
tio n s

o f e m p lo y e e s

by

salary u sip g $1

ta in ed b y lin k in g ch an ges fo r th e in d ivid u al p erio d s.

class in tervals.

W eek ly salary class in tervals w ere u sed fo r d rafters and

7The 6 percent and over group included: Drafter-tracers-8.6
percent; chemists 1 -7 .1 percent; drafters 1 -6 .4 percent; engineer­
ing technicians 1 -6 .3 percent.

clerical o c c u p a tio n s a n d m o n th ly -salary class in tervals w ere
u sed for all o th e r o c c u p a tio n s. W eek ly valu es w ere m u lti­




34

Appendix B.

Survey Changes in 1976

Changes in occupational coverage

a n a ly sts, k e y p u n c h sup ervisors, and d irecto rs o f p erson n el
to fa c ilita te cla ssific a tio n and b e tte r relate th e d e fin itio n s

T w o jo b s , a 6-level c o m p u te r o p era to r jo b and a 5-level

to d u ties and resp o n sib ilitie s as th e y e x is t in private in d u s­

secretary jo b , la st su rveyed in 1 9 7 4 , w ere ad d ed to th e sur­

try. E valu ation o f su rvey d ata and c o lle c tio n ex p e r ie n c e re­

vey. T he d e fin itio n s appear in a p p e n d ix C.

v ea led

Changes in occupational definitions

revised d e fin itio n s h ad little e ff e c t on

a ffe c t co m p a riso n s o f d ata for tren d p u rp o ses.

M in or revision s w ere m ad e to th e d e fin itio n s o f jo b




th a t th e

m a tc h e s m ad e in th e p reviou s su rvey and did n o t ad versely

35

Appendix C.

Occupational Definitions

T he p rim ary p u rp o se o f p reparing jo b d e fin itio n s for th e B u reau ’s w age su rveys is to assist
its field s t a ff in c la ssify in g in to ap p rop riate o c c u p a tio n s, or lev els w ith in o c c u p a tio n s, w ork ers
w h o are e m p lo y e d u n d er a va riety o f p a y ro ll title s and d iffe r e n t w o r k arran gem en ts from
esta b lish m e n t to e sta b lish m e n t and from area to area. T h is p erm its th e gro u p in g o f o c c u p a ­
tio n a l w age rates rep resen tin g com p arab le jo b c o n te n t. T o secu re co m p a r a b ility o f jo b c o n ­
te n t, so m e o c c u p a tio n s and w o r k lev els are d e fin e d to in c lu d e o n ly th o s e w ork ers m e e tin g
sp e c ific criteria as to train in g, jo b fu n c tio n s , and re sp o n sib ilitie s. B ecau se o f th is em p h asis o n
in te r e sta b lish m e n t and interarea co m p a r a b ility o f o c c u p a tio n a l c o n te n t, th e B u reau ’s o c c u p a ­
tio n a l d e fin itio n s m a y d iffer sig n ific a n tly fro m th o s e in u se in in d iv id u a l esta b lish m e n ts or
th o se prepared for o th e r p u rp o ses. A lso see n o te referring to th e d e fin itio n s for th e d raftin g
and clerical o c c u p a tio n s at th e en d o f th is a p p e n d ix .

Accountants and Auditors
A C C O U N TA N T

A d visin g op eratin g o ffic ia ls o n a c c o u n tin g m atters;
and
R e c o m m e n d in g im p r o v e m e n ts, a d a p ta tio n s, or re­
v isio n s in th e a c c o u n tin g sy ste m and p ro ced u res.

P erform s p r o fe ssio n a l a c c o u n tin g w o rk requiring k n o w l­
ed ge o f th e th e o r y and p ra ctice o f record in g, cla ssify in g ,
e x a m in in g , and an a ly zin g th e data and records o f fin an cial

(E n tr y and d e v e lo p m e n ta l lev el p o s itio n s p rovid e o p p o r ­

tra n sa ctio n s. T he w o rk g en erally requires a b a c h e lo r ’s d e ­

tu n ity

gree in a c c o u n tin g o r, in rare in sta n c e s, e q u iv a len t e x p e r i­

su ch as th o s e e n u m era ted a b o v e .)

to d e v e lo p a b ility to p erfo rm p r o fe ssio n a l d u tie s

en c e and e d u c a tio n c o m b in e d . P o sitio n s co v ered b y this

In addition to su ch p r o fe ssio n a l w o r k , m o s t a c c o u n ta n ts

d e fin itio n are ch a ra cterized b y the in c lu sio n o f w o r k th at is

are also resp o n sib le fo r assuring th e p rop er record ing and

a n a ly tica l, crea tiv e, e v a lu a tiv e , and ad visory in n atu re. T h e

d o c u m e n ta tio n o f tra n sa ctio n s in th e a c c o u n ts. T h e y , th e r e ­

w o rk draws upon and requires a th o r o u g h k n o w le d g e o f the

fo r e , fr e q u e n tly d irect n o n -p r o fe ssio n a l p e r so n n e l in th e

fu n d a m e n ta l d o c tr in e s, th e o r ie s, p rin cip les, and te r m in o l­

actu al d a y -to -d a y m a in te n a n c e o f b o o k s o f a c c o u n ts , the

o g y o f a c c o u n ta n c y , and o ft e n e n ta ils so m e u n d erstan d in g

a c c u m u la tio n o f c o st or o th e r com p arab le d a ta , th e prep a­

o f su c h related field s as b u sin ess la w , sta tistic s, and general

ration o f standard rep orts and sta te m e n ts, and sim ilar w o r k .

m a n a g em en t. (S e e also c h ie f a c c o u n ta n t.)

(P o sitio n s

P r o fe s s io n a l

r esp o n sib ilities

in

a c c o u n ta n t

p o sitio n s

in v o lv in g su ch su p ervisory w o r k b u t n o t in ­

clu d in g p r o fe ssio n a l d u tie s as d escrib ed a b ove are n o t in ­

a b ove th e e n tr y and d e v e lo p m e n ta l lev els in clu d e several

c lu d ed in th is d e sc r ip tio n .)

su ch d u tie s as:

Excluded are a c c o u n ta n ts w h o se principal or sole d u tie s
c o n sist o f d esign in g or im p rovin g a c c o u n tin g sy ste m s or

A n a ly z in g th e e ffe c ts o f tran saction s u p o n a c c o u n t

o th e r n o n o p e r a tin g s ta ff w o r k , e .g ., fin a n cia l a n a ly sis, fi­

rela tio n sh ip s;

n an cial fo r e c a stin g , ta x advisin g, e tc . (T h e criteria that fo l­

E valu atin g altern ative m ean s o f treatin g tra n sa ctio n s;
P lan n in g th e m an n er in w h ic h a c c o u n t stru ctu res
sh o u ld be d e v e lo p e d or m o d ifie d ;
A ssu rin g th e a d eq u a cy o f th e a c c o u n tin g sy ste m as
th e basis fo r rep ortin g to m a n agem en t;
C on sid erin g th e n eed for n e w or ch an ged c o n tro ls;
P rojectin g a c c o u n tin g data to sh o w th e e ffe c ts o f p ro­
p o se d p lan s o n cap ital in v e stm e n ts, in c o m e , cash p o si­
tio n , and overall fin a n cia l c o n d itio n ;
In terp retin g th e m ean in g o f a c c o u n tin g record s, re­
p o rts, and sta te m e n ts;

lo w fo r d istin g u ish in g a m o n g th e several lev els o f w o r k are




in ap p rop riate for su ch jo b s .) N o te , h o w e v e r , th a t p r o fe s­
sio n a l a c c o u n ta n t p o s itio n s w ith resp o n sib ility for reco rd ­
ing or rep ortin g a c c o u n tin g d ata relative to ta x e s are in ­
c lu d e d , as are o p era tin g or c o s t a c c o u n ta n ts w h o se w o rk
in c lu d e s, b u t is n o t lim ite d to , im p r o v e m e n t o f th e a c c o u n t­
ing sy s te m .
S o m e a c c o u n ta n ts use e le c tr o n ic d ata p ro cessin g e q u ip ­
m e n t to p r o c e ss, reco rd , and rep ort a c c o u n tin g d ata. In

36

p ro b lem s. Is e x p e c te d to be c o m p e te n t in th e a p p lic a tio n o f

so m e su ch cases th e m a ch in e u n it is a su b ord in ate seg m en t
o f th e a c c o u n tin g sy ste m ; in o th ers it is a separate e n tity or

standard p ro ced u res and req u irem en ts to ro u tin e tran sac­

is a tta ch ed to so m e o th er o r g a n iz a tio n . In eith er in sta n c e ,

tio n s, to

p ro v id ed th a t th e p rim ary r e sp o n s ib ility o f th e p o sitio n is

ite m s, and to su ggest s o lu tio n s . (T erm in a l p o s itio n s are e x ­

p r o fe ssio n a l a c c o u n tin g w o rk o f th e ty p e o th e r w ise in ­

c lu d e d .)

raise q u e stio n s a b o u t u n u su al or q u e stio n a b le

c lu d e d , th e use o f data p ro cessin g e q u ip m e n t o f an y ty p e
d o e s n o t o f it s e lf e x c lu d e a p o s itio n fro m the a c c o u n ta n t

D irection received. W ork is rev ie w ed c lo s e ly to v e r ify its

d esc r ip tio n n or d o e s it ch an ge its lev e l.

general accu ra cy and coverage o f u n u su al p r o b le m s, to in ­
sure c o n fo r m a n c e w ith required p ro ced u res and sp ecial in ­
str u c tio n s, and to assure p r o fe ssio n a l g r o w th . P rogress is

Accountant I

evalu ated in term s o f a b ility to ap p ly p r o fe ssio n a l k n o w l­
ed ge to b a sic a c c o u n tin g p r o b le m s in th e d a y -to -d a y o p era­

General characteristics. A t th is b e g in n in g p r o fe ssio n a l lev el,

tio n s o f an esta b lish e d a c c o u n tin g sy s te m .

th e a c c o u n ta n t learns to a p p ly th e p rin cip les, th e o r ie s, and
c o n c e p ts o f a c c o u n tin g to a sp e c ific sy s te m . T h e p o s itio n is

Typical duties and responsibilities. P erfo rm s a variety o f

d istin gu ish ab le fro m n o n p r o fe s sio n a l p o sitio n s b y th e vari­
e ty o f a ssign m en ts; rate and sc o p e o f d e v e lo p m e n t e x p e c te d

a c c o u n tin g ta sk s, e .g ., p repares ro u tin e w o rk in g pap ers,
sc h e d u le s, e x h ib its , and su m m aries in d ica tin g th e e x te n t o f

o f th e in c u m b e n t; and th e e x is te n c e , im p lic it or e x p lic it, o f

th e exU ln in a tio n an d p resen tin g and su p p o rtin g fin d in gs

a p la n n ed training p rogram d esign ed to give th e en terin g

and r e c o m m e n d a tio n s. E x a m in e s a v a riety o f a c c o u n tin g

a c c o u n ta n t p ractical e x p e r ie n c e . (T erm in a l p o sitio n s are e x ­

d o c u m e n ts to v erify accu ra cy o f c o m p u ta tio n s and to ascer­

c lu d e d .)

tain th a t all tra n sa ctio n s are p r o p e r ly su p p o r te d , are in
a cco rd a n ce w ith p e r tin e n t p o lic ie s and p ro ced u res, and are

Direction received. W orks und er c lo se su p ervision o f an e x ­

cla ssified and r eco rd ed a ccord in g to a ccep ta b le a c c o u n tin g

p erien ce d a c c o u n ta n t w h o se g u id an ce is d irected p rim arily

stan d ard s.

to th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f th e tr a in e e ’s p r o fe ssio n a l a b ility and
to th e ev a lu a tio n o f a d v a n cem en t p o te n tia l. L im its o f

R espon sibility fo r the direction o f others. U su a lly n o n e ,

assign m en ts are clearly d e fin e d , m e th o d s o f p roced u re are

a lth o u g h so m e tim e s resp o n sib le for su p erv isio n o f a fe w

sp e c ifie d , and k in d s o f ite m s to be n o te d and referred to

clerks.

su p ervisor are id e n tifie d .

Accountant III

Typical duties and responsibilities. P erform s a v ariety o f
a c c o u n tin g task s su ch as: E x a m in in g a v a riety o f fin an cial

General characteristics. P erform s p r o fe ssio n a l o p era tin g or

sta te m e n ts for c o m p le te n e ss , in tern al a ccu ra cy , and c o n ­

c o st a c c o u n tin g w o rk requiring th e stan d ard ized a p p lic a tio n

fo rm a n ce w ith u n ifo rm a c c o u n tin g cla ssific a tio n s or o th er

o f w e ll-e sta b lish e d

sp e c ific a c c o u n tin g req u irem en ts; r e c o n c ilin g rep orts and

a c c o u n tin g

p rin cip les, th e o r ie s, c o n ­

c e p ts, and p r a c tic e s. R e c e iv e s d e ta ile d in str u c tio n s c o n c e r n ­

fin an cial d ata w ith fin a n cia l sta te m e n ts alread y on file , and

ing th e overall a c c o u n tin g sy s te m and its o b je c tiv e s, th e

p o in tin g o u t ap p aren t in c o n s iste n c ie s or errors; carrying o u t

p o lic ie s and p ro ced u res u n d er w h ic h it is o p e r a te d , and th e

assigned ste p s in an a c c o u n tin g a n a ly sis, su c h as c o m p u tin g

nature o f ch an ges in th e s y s te m or its o p e r a tio n . C haracter­

standard ratios; assem b lin g and su m m arizin g a c c o u n tin g lit­

istic a lly , th e a c c o u n tin g sy s te m or assign ed se g m e n t is
stab le and w e ll esta b lish e d ( i.e ., th e b a sic chart o f a c c o u n ts,

erature o n a given su b ject; preparing rela tiv ely sim p le fi­
n an cial sta te m e n ts n o t in v o lv in g p r o b le m s o f analysis or

cla ssific a tio n s, th e n atu re o f th e c o s t a c c o u n tin g sy ste m ,

p r e se n ta tio n ; and prep arin g ch arts, ta b les, and o th e r e x ­

th e rep o rt req u ir e m e n ts, and th e p ro ced u res are ch an ged

h ib its to b e u sed in rep orts. In a d d itio n to su c h w o r k , m a y

in fr e q u e n tly ).

also p erfo rm so m e n o n p r o fe s sio n a l tasks for train in g p u r­

D e p e n d in g u p o n th e w o r k lo a d in v o lv e d , th e a c c o u n ta n t

p o se s.

m a y h ave su ch a ssig n m en ts as su p erv isio n o f th e day-to-day

operation of: (a ) T h e en tire sy s te m o f a su b o rd in a te e sta b ­

R espon sibility fo r direction o f others. U su a lly n o n e .

lish m e n t, or ( b ) a m ajor se g m e n t (e .g ., gen eral a c c o u n tin g ;
c o st a c c o u n tin g ; or fin a n c ia l sta te m e n ts and rep o rts) o f a

Accountant II

so m e w h a t larger sy s te m , or (c ) in a very large and c o m p le x

General characteristics. A t th is c o n tin u in g d e v e lo p m e n ta l

iz e d se g m e n t d ealin g w ith so m e p r o b le m , fu n c tio n , o r p o r ­

sy s te m , m a y b e assign ed to a rela tiv ely n arrow and sp ecia l­
lev el th e p r o fe ssio n a l a c c o u n ta n t m a k es p ractical a p p lica­

tio n o f w o r k w h ic h is it s e lf o f th e le v e l o f d iffic u lty charac­

tio n s o f te c h n ic a l a c c o u n tin g p r a c tic e s and c o n c e p ts b e ­

teristic o f th is lev el.

y o n d th e m ere a p p lic a tio n o f d e ta ile d rules and in stru c­
tio n s. A ssig n m en ts are d esig n ed to ex p a n d p ractical e x p e r i­

D irection received. A h igh er le v e l p r o fe ssio n a l a c c o u n ta n t

en c e and to d e v e lo p p r o fe ssio n a l ju d g m e n t in th e ap p lica ­

n o r m a lly is available to fu rn ish ad vice and assistan ce as

tio n o f b a sic a c c o u n tin g te c h n iq u e s t o sim p le p r o fe ssio n a l

n e e d e d . W ork is r ev ie w ed fo r te c h n ic a l a ccu ra cy , a d eq u a cy




37

of professional judgment, and compliance with instructions
through spot checks, appraisal of results, subsequent pro­
cessing, analysis of reports and statements, and other appro­
priate means.

D ire ctio n rece ive d . A higher level accountant normally is

available to furnish advice and assistance as needed. Work is
reviewed by spot checks and appraisal of results for ade­
quacy of professional judgment, compliance with instruc­
tions, and overall accuracy and quality.

T yp ica l d u tie s an d respon sibilities. The primary responsi­
bility of most positions at this level is to assure that the
assigned day-to-day operations are carried out in accor­
dance with established accounting principles, policies, and
objectives. The accountant performs such professional work
as: Developing nonstandard reports and statements (e.g.,
those containing cash forecasts reflecting the interrelations
of accounting, cost budgeting, or comparable information);
interpreting and pointing out trends or deviations from
standards; projecting data into the future; predicting the
effects of changes in operating programs; or identifying
management informational needs, and refining account
structures or reports accordingly.
Within the limits of delegated responsibility, makes dayto-day decisions concerning the accounting treatment of
financial transactions. Is expected to recommend solutions
to complex problems and propose changes in the account­
ing system for approval at higher levels. Such recommenda­
tions are derived from personal knowledge of the applica­
tion of well-established principles and practices.

T yp ica l d u tie s a n d respon sibilities. As at level III, a primary
characteristic of most positions at this level is the responsi­
bility of operating an accounting system or major segment
of a system in the intended manner.
The accountant IV exercises professional judgment in
making frequent appropriate recommendations for: New
accounts; revisions in the account structure; new types of
ledgers; revisions in reporting system or subsidiary records;
changes in instructions regarding the use of accounts; new
or refined account classifications or definitions; etc. Also
makes day-to-day decisions concerning the accounting
treatment of financial transactions and is expected to
recommend solutions to complex problems beyond incum­
bent’s scope of responsibility.
R e sp o n sib ility f o r d ire c tio n o f oth ers. Accounting staff

supervised, if any, may include professional accountants.

Accountant V

R e sp o n sib ility f o r th e d ire c tio n o f oth ers. In most instances

is responsible for supervision of a subordinate nonprofes­
sional staff.

G eneral characteristics. Performs professional operating or

cost accounting work which is of greater than average pro­
fessional difficulty and responsibility because of the pres­
ence of unusual and novel problems or the unusual magni­
tude or impact of the accounting program. Typically this
level of difficulty arises from (a) the large size of the ac­
counting and operating organization, (b) the atypical na­
ture of the accounting problems encountered, or (c) the
unusually great involvement in accounting systems design
and development.
Examples of assignments characteristic of this level are
the supervision of the d a y -to -d a y o p era tio n of: (a) The en­
tire accounting system of a subordinate establishment
having an unusually novel and complex accounting system,
or (b) the entire accounting system of a large (e.g., employ­
ing several thousand persons) subordinate establishment
which in other respects has an accounting system of the
complexity that characterizes level IV, or (c) the entire ac­
counting system of a company or corporation that has a
relatively stable and conventional accounting system and
employs several thousand persons and has a few subordi­
nate establishments which include accounting units, or (d) a
major segment of an accounting system that substantially
exceeds the characteristics described in any one of the pre­
ceding examples.

Accountant IV
G eneral characteristics. Performs professional operating or

cost accounting work which requires the application of
well-established accounting principles, theories, concepts,
and practices to a wide variety of difficult problems. Re­
ceives instructions concerning the objectives and operation
of the overall accounting system. At this level, compared
with level III, the accounting system or assigned segment is
more complex, i.e., (a) is relatively unstable, (b) must ad­
just to new or changing company operations, (c) serves or­
ganizations of unusually large size, o r (d) is complicated by
the need to provide and coordinate separate or specialized
accounting treatment and reporting (e.g., cost accounting
using standard cost, process cost, and job order techniques)
for different operations or divisions of the company.
Depending upon the workload and degree of coordina­
tion involved, the accountant IV may have such assign­
ments as the supervision of the d a y -to -d a y o p era tio n of:
(a) The entire accounting system of a subordinate establish­
ment, or (b) a major segment (e.g., general accounting; cost
accounting; or financial statements and reports) of an ac­
counting system serving a larger and more complex estab­
lishment, or (c) the entire accounting system of a large
(e.g., employing several thousand persons) subordinate es­
tablishment which in other respects has an accounting
system of the complexity that characterizes level III.



D ire ctio n received. An accountant of higher level normally

is available to furnish advice and assistance as needed. Work
is reviewed for adequacy of professional judgment, com­
pliance with instructions, and overall quality.
38

ments. Typically, the trainee is rotated through a variety of
tasks under a planned training program designed to provide
practical experience in applying the principles, theories, and
concepts of accounting and auditing to specific situations.
(Terminal positions are excluded.)

T yp ica l d u ties an d respon sibilities. The work is character­
ized by its unusual difficulty or responsibility. Accountants
V typically are directly concerned on a relatively continu­
ous basis with what the nature of the accounting system
should be, with the devising or revising of the operating
accounting policies and procedures that are necessary, and
with the managerial as well as the accounting meaning of
the reports and statements for which they are responsible.
Accountants V are necessarily deeply involved in funda­
mental and complex accounting matters and in the mana­
gerial problems that are affected.

D ire ctio n received. Works under close supervision of an ex­

perienced auditor whose guidance is directed primarily to
the development of the trainee’s professional ability and to
the evaluation of advancement potential. Limits of assign­
ments are clearly defined, methods of procedure are speci­
fied, and kinds of items to be noted and referred to super­
visor are identified.

R e sp o n sib ility f o r th e d ire ctio n o f oth ers. Accounting staff

supervised generally includes professional accountants.

T yp ica l d u tie s an d respon sibilities. Assists in making audits
by performing such tasks as: Verification of the accuracy of
the balances in various records; examination of a variety of
types of documents and vouchers for accuracy of computa­
tions; checking transactions to assure they are properly doc­
umented and have been recorded in accordance with cor­
rect accounting classifications; verifying the count of inven­
tories; preparing detailed statements, schedules, and stan­
dard audit working papers; counting cash and other assets;
preparing simple reconciliations; and similar functions.

A U D IT O R

Performs professional auditing work requiring a bache­
lor’s degree in accounting or, in rare instances, equivalent
experience and education combined. Audits the financial
records and practices of a company, or of divisions or com­
ponents of the company, to appraise systematically and
verify the accounting accuracy of records and reports and
to assure the consistent application of accepted accounting
principles. Evaluates the adequacy of the accounting system
and internal financial controls. Makes appropriate recom­
mendations for improvement as necessary. To the extent
determined necessary, examines the transactions entering
into the balance sheet and the transactions entering into
income, expense, and cost accounts. Determines:

Auditor II
G eneral ch aracteristics. At this continuing developmental
level the professional auditor serves as a junior member of
an audit team, independently performing selected portions
of the audit which are limited in scope and complexity.
Auditors at this level typically have acquired knowledge of
company operations, policies, and procedures. (Terminal
positions are excluded.)

The existence of recorded assets (including the obser­
vation of the taking of physical inventories) and the allinclusiveness of recorded liabilities;
The accuracy of financial statements or reports and
the fairness of presentation of facts therein;
The propriety or legality of transactions;
The degree of compliance with established policies
and procedures concerning financial transactions.

D ire ctio n received. Detailed instructions are furnished and

the work is reviewed to the extent necessary to verify its
general accuracy and coverage of unusual problems, to in­
sure conformance with required procedures and special in­
structions, and to assure the auditor’s professional growth.
Any technical problems not covered by instructions are
brought to the attention of a superior. Progress is evaluated
in terms of ability to apply professional knowledge to basic
auditing situations.

E x c lu d ed are positions which do not require full profes­

sional accounting training because the work is confined on
a relatively permanent basis to repetitive examinations of a
limited area of company operations and accounting proces­
ses, e.g., only accounts payable and receivable; demurrage
records and related functions, or station operations only of
a railroad company; branch offices which do not engage in
the full range of banking and accounting activities of the
main bank; warehouse operations only of a mail order com­
pany; checking transactions to determine whether or not
they conform to prescribed routines or procedures. (Exami­
nations of such a repetitive or limited nature normally do
not require or permit professional audit work to be per­
formed.)

T yp ica l d u tie s an d responsibilities. Applies knowledge of
acco u n tin g th e o ry and audit practices to a variety of rela­

tively simple professional problems in audit assignments,
including such tasks as: The verification of reports against
source accounts and records to determine their reliability;
reconciliation of bank and other accounts and verifying the
detail of recorded transactions; detailed examinations of
cash receipts and disbursement vouchers, payroll records,
requisitions, work orders, receiving reports, and other
accounting documents to ascertain that transactions are
properly supported and are recorded correctly from an ac­

Auditor I
G eneral characteristics. As a trainee auditor at the entering
professional level, performs a variety of routine assign­



39

counting or regulatory standpoint; or preparing working
papers, schedules, and summaries.

receivable and accounts payable; or, the analysis and verifi­
cation of assets and reserves; or, the inspection and evalua­
tion of accounting controls and procedures.

Auditor III
Auditor IV
G eneral characteristics. Work at this level consists of the

audit of operations and accounting processes that are rela­
tively stable, well-established, and typical of the industry.
The audits primarily involve the collection and analysis of
readily available findings; there is previous audit experience
that is directly applicable; the audit reports are normally
prepared in a prescribed format using a standard method of
presentation; and few if any major problems are antici­
pated. The work performed requires the a p p lica tio n of sub­
stantial knowledges of accounting principles and practices,
e.g., bases for distinguishing among capital maintenance and
operating expenses; accruing reserves for taxes; and other
accounting considerations of an equivalent nature.

G eneral ch aracteristics . Auditors at this level are experi­
enced professionals who apply a thorough knowledge of
accounting principles and theory in connection with a vari­
e ty of audits. Work at this level is characterized by the
audit of organizations and accounting processes which are
complex and difficult because of such factors as: Presence
of new or changed programs and accounting systems; exis­
tence of major specialized accounting functions (e.g., cost
accounting, inventory accounting, sales accounting), in
addition to general accounting; need to consider extensive
and complicated regulatory requirements; lack of or diffi­
culty in obtaining information; and other similar factors.
Typically, a variety of different assignments are encoun­
tered over a period of time, e.g., 1 year. The audit reports
prepared are comprehensive, explain irregularities, cite rules
or regulations violated, recommend remedial actions, and
contain analyses of items of special importance or interest
to company management.

D irectio n received. Work is normally within an established

audit program and supervision is provided by a higher level
auditor who outlines and discusses assignments. Work is
spot-checked in progress. Completed assignments are re­
viewed for adequacy of coverage, soundness of judgment,
compliance with professional standards, and adherence to
policies.

D ire ctio n received. Within an established audit program, has

responsibility for independently planning and executing
audits. Unusually difficult problems are discussed with the
supervisor who also reviews completed assignments for ad­
herence to principles and standards and the soundness of
conclusions.

T yp ica l d u tie s an d responsibilities. The auditor examines

transactions and verifies accounts; observes and evaluates
accounting procedures and internal controls; prepares audit
working papers and submits an audit report in the required
pattern containing recommendations for needed changes or
improvements. Usually is responsible for selecting the de­
tailed audit methods to follow, choosing the audit sample
and its size, determining the extent to which discrepancies
need to be investigated, and deciding the depth of the
analyses required to support reported findings and conclu­
sions.
Examples of assignments involving work at this level:

T yp ica l d u tie s an d responsibilities. Auditors at this level
have full responsibility for planning the audit, including
determination of the aspects to emphasize, methods to be
used, development of nonstandard or specialized audit aids
such as questionnaires, etc., w h ere p re vio u s a u d it ex p eri­
en ce a n d plans are o f lim ite d a p p lica b ility.

Included in the scope of work that characterizes this
level are such functions as: Evaluation of methods used for
determining depreciation rates of equipment; evaluation of
assets where original costs are unknown; evaluation of the
reliability of accounting and reporting systems; analysis of
cost accounting systems and cost reports to evaluate the
basis for cost and price setting; evaluation of accounting
procurement and supply management records, controls, and
procedures; and many others.
Examples of assignments involving work at this level:

As a team leader or working alone, independently
conducts audits of the complete accounts and related
operations of smaller or less complex companies (e.g.,
involving a centralized accounting system with few or no
subordinate, subsidiary, or branch accounting records)
or of comparable segments of larger companies.
As a member of an audit team, independently accom­
plishes varied audit assignments of the above described
characteristics, typically major segments of complete
audits, or assignments otherwise limited in scope of
larger and more complex companies (e.g., complex in
that the accounting system entails cost, inventory, and
comparable specialized sy ste m s integrated with the gen­
eral accounting system).

As a team leader or working alone, independently
plans and conducts audits of the complete accounts and
related operations of relatively large and complex com­
panies (e.g., complex in that the accounting system en­
tails cost, inventory, and comparable specialized ac­
counting sy ste m s integrated with the general accounting
system) or of company branch, subsidiary, or affiliated
organizations which are individually of comparable size
and complexity.

Illustrative of such assignments are the audit and initial
review of the accounting treatment and validity of report­
ing of overhead expenses in a large manufacturing or main­
tenance organization (e.g., major repair yard of a railroad);
or, the checking, verification, and balancing of all accounts




40

0 As a member of an audit team, independently plans
and accomplishes audit assignments that constitute
major segments of audits of very large and complex
organizations, for example, those with financial responsi­
bilities so great as to involve specialized subordinate,
subsidiary, or affiliate accounting systems that are com­
plete in themselves.

sometimes titled comptroller, budget and accounting mana­
ger, financial manager, etc.)
Some positions responsible for supervising general
accounting and one or more other major accounting activi­
ties but which do n o t fully meet all of the responsibilities
of a chief accountant specified above may be covered by
the descriptions for accountant.
Chief accountant jobs which meet the characteristics
described are classified by level of work1 according to
(a) authority and responsibility and (b) technical complex­
ity, using the table accompanying the definitions which
follow.

N O T E : E x c lu d ed from level IV are auditors who, as
team leaders or working alone, conduct c o m p le te audits of
very large and complex organizations, for example, those
with financial responsibilities so great as to involve special­
ized subordinate, subsidiary, or affiliate accounting systems
that are complete in themselves; or are team members
assigned to major segments of audits of even larger or more
complex organizations.

Authority and Responsibility
A R -L The accounting system (i.e., accounts, procedures,

C HIEF A C C O U N TA N T

and reports to be used) has been prescribed in considerable
detail by higher levels in the company or organization. The
chief accountant has final, unreviewed authority within the
prescribed system, to expand it to fit the particular needs
of the organization served, e.g., in the following or compar­
able ways:

As the top technical expert in accounting, is responsible
for directing the accounting program for a company or for
an establishment of a company. The minimum accounting
program includes: (1) General accounting (assets, liabilities,
income, expense, and capital accounts, including responsi­
bility for profit and loss and balance sheet statements); an d
(2) at least one other m a jo r accounting activity, typically
tax accounting, cost accounting, property accounting, or
sales accounting. It may also include such other activities as
payroll and timekeeping, and mechanical or electronic data
processing operations which are an adjunct of the account­
ing system. (Responsibility for an internal audit program is
typically n o t included.)
The responsibilities of the chief accountant include all of
the following:

Provides greater detail in accounts and reports or
financial statements;
Establishes additional accounting controls, accounts,
subaccounts, and subsidiary records; and
Provides special or interim reports and statements
needed by the manager responsible for the day-to-day
operations of the organization served.
This degree of authority is typically found at a plant or
similar subordinate establishment.
A R -2 . The basic accounting system is prescribed in broad

1. On own responsibility, developing or adapting or
revising an accounting system to meet the needs of the
organization;
2. Supervising, either directly or through subordinate
supervisors, the operation of the system with full man­
agement responsibility for the quality and quantity of
work performed, training and development of subordin­
ates, work scheduling and review, coordination with
other parts of the organization served, etc.;
3. Providing, directly or through an official such as a
comptroller, advisory services to the top management
officials of the organization served as to:
a. The status of financial resources and the finan­
cial trends or results of operations as revealed by
accounting data, and selecting a manner of presenta­
tion that is meaningful to management;
b. Methods for improving operations as suggested
by an expert knowledge of accounting, e.g., proposals
for improving cost control, property management,
credit and collection, tax reduction, or similar pro­
grams.

outline rather than in specific detail. While certain major
financial reports, overall accounts, and general policies are
required by the basic system, the chief accountant has
broad latitude and a u th o rity to decide the specific meth­
ods, procedures, accounts, reports, etc., to be used within
the organizational segment served. Approval must be se­
cured from higher levels only for those changes which
would basically affect the broad requirements prescribed by
such higher levels. Typical responsibilities include:
Evaluating and taking final action on recommenda­
tions proposed by subordinate establishments for
changes in aspects of the accounting system or activities
not prescribed by higher authority;
Extending cost accounting operations to areas not
previously covered;
Changing from one cost accounting method to
another;
Expanding the utilization of computers within the
accounting process; and
Preparing accounting reports and statements reflect­
ing the events and progress of the entire organization for
which incumbent is responsible; often consolidating data
submitted by subordinate segments.

E x clu d ed are positions with responsibility for the
accounting program i f they also include (as a major part of
the job) responsibility for budgeting; work measurement;
organization, methods, and procedures studies; or similar
nonaccounting functions. (Positions of such breadth are




1 Insufficient data were obtained for level V to warrant presen­
tation o f average salaries.
41

Table C-1.

Criteria for matching chief accountants by level

Level

A u th o rity
and
responsibility1

Technical
c o m p le x ity 1

1

AR-1

TC-1

O nly one or tw o professional accountants, who do not exceed
the accountant III job d e fin ition .

II

AR-1

TC -2

A b o u t 5 to 10 professional accountants, w ith at least one or
tw o matching the accountant IV job defin ition .

A R -2

TC-1

A bo ut 5 to 10 professional accountants. Most of these match
the accountant III jo b d e fin itio n , but one or tw o may match
the accountant IV job d e fin itio n .

A R -3

TC-1

O nly one or tw o professional accountants, who do not exceed
the accountant IV job d e fin itio n .

AR-1

TC -3

A bo ut 15 to 2 0 professional accountants. A t least one or tw o
match the accountant V job d e fin ition .

A R -2

TC -2

A b o u t 15 to 2 0 professional accountants. Many of these match
the accountant IV job defin itio n , bu t some may match the
accountant V job d e fin itio n .

A R -3

TC-1

A bo ut 5 to 10 professional accountants. Most of these match
the accountant II I job d e fin itio n , but one or tw o m ay match as
high as accountant V .

A R -2

TC -3

A b o u t 25 to 4 0 professional accountants. Many of these match
the accountant V job d e fin itio n , but several may exceed that
level.

A R -3

TC -2

A b o u t 15 to 2 0 professional accountants. Most of these match
the accountant IV jo b d e fin itio n , bu t several may match the
accountant V and one or tw o may exceed th at level.

A R -3

TC -3

A b o u t 25 to 4 0 professional accountants. Many of these match
the accountant V job defin itio n , but several may exceed that
level.

Subordinate professional accounting staff

or

or

III
or

or

IV

or

V

1 A R -1,

-2, a n d

-3

and

T C -1,

-2, an d

-3

are

ex p la in e d

in t h e

acco m p a n y in g

This degree of authority is most typically found at inter­
mediate organizational levels such as regional offices, or
division or subsidiary headquarters. It is also found in some
company level situations where the authority of the chief
accountant is less extensive than is described in A R -3 . More
rarely it is found in plant level chief accountants who have
been delegated more authority than usual for such positions
as described in A R -1 .

R ev iew in g and tak in g a c tio n o n p r o p o se d revision s to
th e c o m p a n y ’s a c c o u n tin g sy ste m su g g ested b y su b o rd in ­
ate u n its; and
T ak in g fin a l a c tio n o n all te c h n ic a l a c c o u n tin g m a t­
ters.

Characteristically, participates extensively in broad com­
pany management processes by providing accounting ad­
vice, interpretations, or recommendations based on data
accumulated in the accounting system and on professional
judgment and experience.

A R -3 . Has complete responsibility for establishing and

maintaining the framework for the basic accounting system
used in the company, subject only to general policy guid­
ance and control from a higher level company official re­
sponsible for general financial management. Typical respon­
sibilities include:

Technical Complexity
TC-1. The organization which the accounting program
serves has relatively few functions, products, work pro­
cesses, etc., and these tend to be stable and unchanging.
The accounting system operates in accordance with wellestablished principles and practices or those of equivalent
difficulty which are typical of that industry.

D eterm in in g th e b asic ch aracteristics o f th e c o m ­
p a n y ’s a c c o u n tin g sy ste m and th e sp e c ific a c c o u n ts to be
u sed ;
D evisin g and preparing a c c o u n tin g rep o rts and sta te ­
m e n ts req u ired to m e e t m a n a g e m e n t’s n eed s for data;
E sta b lish in g b asic a c c o u n tin g p o lic ie s , in te r p r e ta tio n s,
and p roced u res;




text.

42

developed well beyond established principles and ac­
counting practices in order to:

TC-2. The organization which the accounting program
serves has a relatively large number of functions, products,
work processes, etc., which require substantial and frequent
adaptations of the basic system to meet management needs
(e.g., adoption of new accounts, subaccounts, and subsi­
diary records; revision of instructions for the use of ac­
counts; improvement or expansion of methods for accumu­
lating and reporting cost data in connection with new or
changed work processes).

Provide for the solution of problems for which no
clear precedents exist; or
Provide for the development or extension of account­
ing theories and practices to deal with problems to
which these theories and practices have not previously
been applied.
Subordinate Staff

In table C-l the number of professional accountants
supervised is recognized to be a relatively crude criterion
for distinguishing between various levels. It is to be con­
sidered less important in the matching process than the
other criteria. In addition to the staff of professional ac­
countants in the system for which the chief accountant is
responsible, there are clerical, machine operation, book­
keeping, and related personnel.

TC-3. The organization which the accounting program
serves puts a h eavy d e m a n d on th e a cco u n tin g organ ization
f o r sp ecia lized and ex ten siv e a d a p ta tio n s of the basic sys­
tem to meet management needs. Such demands arise be­
cause the functions, products, work processes, etc., of the
organization are very numerous, diverse, unique, or special­
ized, or there are other comparable complexities. Conse­
quently, the accounting system, to a considerable degree, is

Attorneys
its legal work. (The duties and responsibilities of such
positions exceed level VI as described below.)

A TT O R N E Y

Performs consultation and advisory work and carries out
the legal processes necessary to effect the rights, privileges,
and obligations of the company. The work performed re­
quires completion of law school with an LL.B. degree (or
the equivalent) and admission to the bar .R e s p o n sib ilitie s o r

Attorney jobs which meet the above definition are to be
classified and coded in accordance with table C-2 and the
definitions which follow.

fu n ctio n s include o n e o r m o re o f th e fo llo w in g or co m p a r­
able d u ties:

Difficulty

Preparing and reviewing various legal instruments and
documents, such as contracts, leases, licenses, purchases,
sales, real estate, etc.;
Acting as agent of the company in its transactions;
Examining material (e.g., advertisements, publica­
tions, etc.) for legal implications; advising officials of
proposed legislation which might affect the company;
Applying for patents, copyrights, or registration of
company’s products, processes, devices, and trademarks;
Advising whether to initiate or defend lawsuits;
Conducting pre-trial preparations; defending the com­
pany in lawsuits; and
Advising officials on tax matters, government regula­
tions, and/or corporate rights.

D -l. Legal questions are characterized by: Facts that are
well established; clearly applicable legal precedents; and

matters not of substantial importance to the organization.
(Usually relatively limited sums of money, e.g., a few
thousand dollars, are involved.)
E x a m p les o f D - l w o rk :

Legal investigation, negotiation, and research prepara­
tory to defending the organization in potential or actual
lawsuits involving alleged negligence where the facts can
be firmly established and there are precedent cases dir­
ectly applicable to the situation.
Searching case reports, legal documents, periodicals,
textbooks, and other legal references, and preparing
draft opinions on employee compensation or benefit
questions when there is a substantial amount of clearly
applicable statutory, regulatory, and case material.
Drawing up contracts and other legal documents in
connection with real property transactions requiring the
development of detailed information but n o t involving
serious questions regarding titles to property or other
major factual or legal issues.

E x clu d ed from this definition are:

Patent work which requires professional training in
addition to legal training (typically a degree in engineer­
ing or in a science);
Claims examining, claims investigating, or similar
w o rk fo r w hich profession al legal training and bar m em ­
bership is n o t essential;

Attorneys, frequently titled “general counsel” (and
their immediate full associates or deputies), who serve as
company officers or the equivalent and are responsible
for participating in the overall management and formula­
tion of policy for the company in addition to directing



D -2. Legal work is regularly difficult by reason of one or

more of the following: The absence of clear and directly
43

Table C-2.

Criteria for matching attorneys by level
D iffic u lty
of legal w o rk 1

Level

Responsibility
of jo b 1

Experience required

This is the entry level. The duties and
responsibilities after initial orientation and
training are those described in D-1 and R-1.

1

II

Completion of law school w ith an LL .B . or J.D . degree plus
admission to the bar.

D-1

R -2

S ufficient professional experience (at least 1 year, usually
more) at the " D -1 " level to assure competence as an attorney.

D-2

R-1

D -2

R-2

D -3 ,

R-1

D -2

R-3

D-3

R -2

V

D-3

R-3

Extensive professional experience at the " D -3 " level.

VI

D-3

R -4

Extensive professional experience at the " D -3 " and " R -3 "
levels.

or

III

A t least 1 year, usually m ore, of professional experience at the
" D -2 " level.

or

IV

Extensive professional experience at the " D -2 " or a higher
level.

or

1 D - 1 , D -2 , D -3 an d

R - 1 , R -2, R -3, an d

R -4 are ex p la in e d

in t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g t e x t .

applicable legal precedents; the different possible interpre­
tations that can be placed on the facts, the laws, or the
precedents involved; the substantial importance of the legal
matters to the organization (e.g., sums as large as $100,000
are generally directly or indirectly involved); the matter is
being strongly pressed or contested in formal proceedings
or in negotiations by the individuals, corporations, or gov­
ernment agencies involved.

E x a m p les o f D -3 w o rk :
A d visin g o n th e legal a sp ects and im p lic a tio n s o f F e d ­
eral a n titru st law s to p ro jected greatly ex p a n d e d m a rk et­
in g o p e r a tio n s in v o lv in g jo in t v en tu res w ith several o th e r
o rg a n iza tio n s.
P lan n in g legal stra teg y and rep resen tin g a u tility c o m ­
p a n y in rate or g o v e r n m e n t fran ch ise cases in volvin g a
geo g ra p h ic area in clu d in g p arts or all o f several S ta tes.
Preparing and p resen tin g a case b efo re an a p p ella te
co u rt w h ere th e case is h ig h ly im p o r ta n t to th e fu tu re
o p e r a tio n o f th e o rg a n iza tio n and is v ig o r o u sly c o n te s te d
b y v ery d istin g u ish ed (e .g ., h aving a broad region al or
n a tio n a l r e p u ta tio n ) legal ta le n t.
Serving as th e p rin cip al c o u n se l to th e o ffic e r s and
sta ff o f an in su ran ce c o m p a n y o n th e legal p ro b lem s in
th e sale, u n d erw ritin g , and a d m in istra tio n o f grou p c o n ­
tracts in volvin g n a tio n w id e or m u ltista te coverages and
law s.
P erform in g th e p rin cip a l legal w o rk in a n o n r o u tin e
m ajor revision o f th e c o m p a n y ’s ch arter or in e ffe c tu a t­
ing n e w m ajor fin a n cin g step s.

E x a m p les o f D -2 w o rk :
A d visin g o n th e legal im p lic a tio n s o f advertising
rep resen ta tio n s w h e n th e fa c ts su p p o rtin g th e rep resen ­
ta tio n s and th e a p p licab le p r e c e d e n t cases are su b ject to
d iffe r e n t in te r p r e ta tio n s.
R e v iew in g and advising o n th e im p lic a tio n s o f n e w or
revised law s a ffe c tin g th e o rg a n iza tio n .
P resen tin g th e o r g a n iz a tio n ’s d e fe n se in co u rt in a
n e g lig e n c e la w su it w h ic h is str o n g ly pressed b y co u n se l
fo r an org a n ized grou p .
P rovid in g legal c o u n se l o n tax q u e stio n s c o m p lic a te d
b y th e a b se n c e o f p r e c e d e n t d e c isio n s th at are d ir e c tly
a p p lica b le to th e o r g a n iz a tio n ’s situ a tio n .

Responsibility
R -1. Responsibility for final action is usually limited to
matters covered by legal precedents and in which little
deviation from standard practice is involved. Any decisions
or actions having a significant bearing on the organization’s
business are reviewed. (Is given guidance in the initial stages
of assignment, e.g., in planning and organizing legal research
and studies. Assignments are then carried out with moder­
ate independence although guidance is generally available
and is sought from time to time on problem points.)

D -3 . Legal work is typically complex and difficult because

of one or more of the following: The questions are unique
and require a high order of original and creative legal en­
deavor for their solution; the questions require extensive
research and analysis and the obtaining and evaluation of
expert testimony regarding controversial issues in a scientif­
ic, financial, corporate organization, engineering, or other
highly technical area; the legal matter is of critical impor­
tance to the organization and is being vigorously pressed or
contested (e.g., sums such as $1 million or more are gen­
erally directly or indirectly involved).



R -2 . Usually

works independently in investigating the
facts, searching legal precedents, defining the legal and fact-

44

ual issu es, d raftin g th e n ecessa ry legal d o c u m e n ts, and

R-4. Carries o u t assign m en ts w h ic h en ta il in d e p e n d e n tly

d ev elo p in g

p lan n in g in v e stig a tio n s and n e g o tia tio n s o n legal p rob lem s

c o n c lu sio n s and r e c o m m e n d a tio n s . D e c isio n s

h aving an im p o r ta n t b earing o n th e o rg a n iz a tio n ’s b u sin ess

o f th e h ig h est im p o r ta n c e to th e o rg a n iza tio n and d e v e lo p ­

are r ev ie w ed . (R e c e iv e s in fo r m a tio n fro m su p ervisor regard­

ing c o m p le te d b riefs, o p in io n s, c o n tr a c ts, or o th er legal

in g u n u su al circ u m sta n ces or im p o r ta n t p o lic y co n sid era ­

p r o d u c ts. T o carry o u t assig n m en ts, rep resen ts th e organ iza­

tio n s p erta in in g t o a legal p r o b le m . I f trials are in v o lv ed ,

tio n at c o n fe r e n c e s , hearin gs, or trials and p erso n a lly c o n ­

m ay

receive

gu id a n ce

fro m

a su p ervisor regarding p re­

fers and n e g o tia te s w ith

to p

a tto r n e y s and top -ran k in g

se n ta tio n , lin e o f a p p ro a ch , p o ss ib le lin e o f o p p o sitio n to

o ffic ia ls in p rivate c o m p a n ie s or in g o v e r n m e n t a g en cies. O n

b e e n c o u n te r e d , e tc . In th e case o f n o n r o u tin e w r itte n p re­

variou s asp ects o f assign ed w o r k m a y give ad vice d ir e c tly

se n ta tio n s th e fin a l p r o d u c t is rev ie w ed c a r e fu lly , b u t pri­

and p e r so n a lly to co r p o r a tio n o ffic e r s and to p lev el m an a­

m arily fo r overall so u n d n e ss o f legal reason in g and c o n sis­

gers, or m a y w o r k th ro u g h th e general c o u n se l o f th e c o m ­

te n c y w ith o rg a n iza tio n p o lic y . S o m e (b u t n o t all) a tto r ­

p a n y in ad vising o ffic e r s. (G en era lly receives n o p relim in ary

neys

in str u c tio n o n legal p ro b lem s. O n m atters requiring th e c o n ­

m a k e assign m en ts to o n e or m ore lo w er lev el a tto r­

n e y s, aid s, or c ler k s.)

cen tra ted e ffo r ts o f several a tto r n e y s or o th e r sp ecia lists, is

R-3. Carries o u t assig n m en ts in d e p e n d e n tly and m ak es

w o rk o f th e a tto r n e y s in v o lv e d .)

resp o n sib le for d irectin g , c o o r d in a tin g , an d review in g th e

OR

fin al legal d e te r m in a tio n s in m a tte r s o f su b sta n tia l im p o r ­
ta n c e to th e o rg a n iza tio n . S u c h d e te r m in a tio n s are su b ject

A s a p rim ary r e sp o n sib ility , d irects th e w o rk o f a s t a ff o f

to review o n ly fo r c o n s is te n c y w ith c o m p a n y p o lic y , p o s ­

a tto r n e y s, o n e , b u t u su a lly m o r e , o f w h o m regularly per­

sib le p r e c e d e n t e ff e c t, and overall e ffe c tiv e n e s s. T o carry

fo rm D -3 legal w o r k . W ith r esp ect to th e w o r k d ir e c te d ,

o u t a ssig n m en ts, d eals regu larly w ith c o m p a n y o ffic e r s and

gives ad vice d ir e c tly to co r p o r a tio n o ffic e r s and to p m an a­

to p lev el m a n a g em en t o ffic ia ls and c o n fe r s or n e g o tia te s

gerial o ffic e r s, or m a y give su ch advice th ro u g h th e general

regularly w ith sen ior a tto r n e y s and o ffic ia ls in o th e r c o m ­

c o u n se l. (R e c e iv e s gu id an ce as t o o r g a n iz a tio n p o lic y b u t

p an ies or in g o v e r n m e n t ag en cies o n variou s a sp ects o f

n o te c h n ic a l su p ervision or a ssistan ce e x c e p t w h e n req u est­

assign ed w o r k . (R e c e iv e s little or n o p relim in ary in str u c tio n

in g advice fr o m , or b riefin g b y , th e gen eral c o u n se l o n th e

o n legal p ro b lem s and a m in im u m o f te c h n ic a l legal super­

overall a p p ro a ch to th e m o s t d iffic u lt, n o v e l, or im p o r ta n t

v isio n . M ay assign and review w o rk o f a fe w a tto r n e y s, b u t

legal q u e stio n s. U su a lly rep orts to th e gen eral c o u n se l or

th is is n o t a p rim ary r e sp o n s ib ility .)

d e p u ty .)

Buyers
BUYER

p erform r o u tin e a sp ects o f th e w o r k . A s a se c o n d a r y and
su b sid iary d u ty , so m e b u y ers m a y also sell or d isp o se o f
surplus, salvage, or u sed m aterials, e q u ip m e n t, or su p p lies.

P urch ases m aterials, su p p lies, e q u ip m e n t, and services
(e .g ., u tilitie s , m a in te n a n c e , and repair). In so m e in sta n ces
ite m s are o f ty p e s th a t m u st b e sp e c ia lly d esig n ed , p r o ­

NOTE: S o m e b u y ers are resp o n sib le for th e pu rch asin g

d u c e d , or m o d ifie d b y th e v en d o r in acco rd a n ce w ith draw ­

o f a va riety o f ite m s an d m a teria ls. W hen th e va riety in ­
clu d es ite m s an d w o rk d escrib ed at m o r e th an o n e o f th e

in gs or en gin eerin g sp e c ific a tio n s.

fo llo w in g le v e ls, th e p o s itio n sh o u ld b e co n sid e r e d to eq u al

S o lic its b id s, a n a ly z e s q u o ta tio n s r eceiv ed , and se le c ts or
r e c o m m e n d s su p p lier. M ay in te r v ie w p r o sp e c tiv e ven d ors.

th e h ig h est le v e l th a t ch aracterizes at le a st a su b sta n tia l

P u rch ases ite m s and services at th e m o s t favorab le price

p o r tio n o f th e b u y e r ’s tim e .

c o n siste n t

w ith

q u a lity ,

q u a n tity , s p e c ific a tio n

req u ire­

m e n ts, and o th e r fa c to r s. Prepares or su p ervises p rep aration

Excluded are:

o f p u rch ase orders fro m r e q u isitio n s. M ay e x p e d ite d elivery

a. B u yers o f ite m s fo r d irect sale, e ith e r w h o le sa le or
retail;
b. B rok ers and dealers b u y in g fo r clie n ts o r fo r in ­
v e stm e n t p u rp oses;
c. P o sitio n s th at sp e c ific a lly req u ire p ro fessio n a l
e d u c a tio n and q u a lific a tio n s in a p h y sic a l sc ie n c e or in
en gin eerin g (e .g ., c h e m ist, m ech a n ica l en g in eer);
d . B u yers w h o sp e c ia liz e in pu rch asin g a single or a
fe w related ite m s o f h ig h ly variable q u a lity su c h as raw
c o tt o n or w o o l, to b a c c o , c a ttle , or lea th er fo r sh o e
u p p ers, e tc . E x p e r t p erson al k n o w le d g e o f th e ite m is
required to. ju d ge th e relative valu e o f th e g o o d s o ffe r e d
and to d e c id e th e q u a n tity , q u a lity , and price o f ea ch

and visit v e n d o r s’ o ffic e s an d p la n ts.
N o r m a lly , p u rch ases are u n rev iew ed w h e n th e y are c o n ­
siste n t w ith p a st e x p e r ie n c e , and are in c o n fo r m a n c e w ith
esta b lish ed rules and p o lic ie s . P ro p o sed p u rch ase trans­
a c tio n s th a t d ev ia te fro m th e u su al or fr o m p ast ex p e r ie n c e
in term s o f p rices, q u a lity o f ite m s, q u a n titie s, e tc ., or th a t
m a y se t p r e c e d e n ts for fu tu re p u rch a ses, are rev ie w ed b y
h igh er a u th o r ity p rior to final a c tio n .
In a d d itio n to th e w ork d escrib ed a b o v e , so m e (b u t n o t
all) b u y ers d irect th e w o rk o f o n e or a fe w clerks w h o




45

ty p e , are u su a lly m a d e , a ltered , or c u s to m iz e d to m e e t th e

p u rch ase in term s o f its p ro b a b le e ff e c t o n th e organiza­
t io n ’s p r o fit and c o m p e titiv e sta tu s;
e. B u yers w h o se p rin cip al r e sp o n sib ility is th e su per­
v isio n o f o th er b u y ers or th e m a n a g em en t, d ir e c tio n , or
su p erv isio n o f a pu rch asin g program ;
f. P erson s p r e d o m in a n tly co n cern ed w ith co n tr a c t or
su b c o n tr a c t a d m in istra tio n ;
g. P erso n s w h o se m ajor d u tie s co n sist o f orderin g,
reord erin g, or req u isitio n in g ite m s un d er e x is tin g c o n ­
tracts; and
h . P o sitio n s restricted t o cler ica l fu n c tio n s or to pur­
ch ase e x p e d itin g w ork .

u ser’s s p e c ific n e e d s and s p e c ific a tio n s.
T ra n sa ctio n s u su a lly require d ealin g w ith m a n u fa ctu rers.
T h e n u m b er o f p o te n tia l v en d o rs is lik e ly t o b e sm a ll and
p rice d iffe r e n tia ls o fte n r e fle c t im p o r ta n t fa c to r s (q u a lity ,
d eliv ery d a tes an d p la c e s , e t c .) th a t are d iffic u lt to ev a lu a te.
T h e q u a n titie s p u rch ased o f a n y ite m or service m a y b e
large.
M any o f th e p u rch ases in v o lv e o n e or m o r e o f su c h c o m ­
p lic a tio n s as: S p e c ific a tio n s th a t d e ta il, in te c h n ic a l term s,
th e req u ired p h y sic a l, c h e m ic a l, e lec trica l, or o th e r co m p a r­
able p ro p erties; sp ecial te stin g prior to a c c e p ta n c e ; grou p in g

Buyer I

o f ite m s for lo t b id d in g and aw ards; sp ecia lized p ro cessin g ,
p a ck in g , or p ack agin g req u irem en ts; e x p o r t p ack s; overseas

P u rch ases “ o ff-th e -s h e lf” ty p e s o f rea d ily availab le, c o m ­

p o rt d iffe r e n tia ls; e tc .

m o n ly u sed m aterials, su p p lie s, t o o ls , fu rn itu re, services,

Is e x p e c te d

e tc .
T ra n sa ctio n s u su a lly in v o lv e lo c a l retailers, w h o lesa lers,

S o m e p o s itio n s m a y in v o lv e assisting in th e training or

Q u a n titie s p u rch ased are g en era lly sm all a m o u n ts, e .g .,

su p ervisin g o f lo w e r le v e l b u y ers or clerk s.

th o s e available fr o m lo c a l so u rces.

Exam ples o f ite m s p u rch ased in c lu d e : C astings; sp ecia l

Exam ples o f ite m s p u rch ased in clu d e: C o m m o n s ta tio n ­

e x tr u d e d sh ap es o f n o rm a l size and m aterial; sp ecia l fo r m ­

ery and o ff ic e su p p lies; stan d ard ty p e s o f o ffic e fu rn itu re

ula p ain ts; e le c tr ic m o to r s o f sp ecia l sh ap e or sp e e d s; sp ecia l

and fix tu res; stan d ard n u ts, b o lts , screw s; ja n ito ria l and
b u ild in g

m a in te n a n c e

k e e p abreast o f m ark et and p r o d u c t

su p p ly .

jo b b e r s, an d m a n u fa ctu rers’ sales rep resen tatives.

com m on

to

d e v e lo p m e n ts. M ay be req u ired to lo c a te n e w so u rces o f

su p p lies;

and

p ack agin g

com m on

of

item s;

and

raw

m aterials

in

su b sta n tia l

q u a n titie s.

b u ild in g m a in te n a n c e or c o m m o n u tility services.

Buyer IV

Buyer II
P urch ases “ o f f - t h e - s h e lf ’ ty p e s o f stan d ard , gen erally

P urch ases h ig h ly c o m p le x and te c h n ic a l ite m s, m aterials,

available te c h n ic a l ite m s, m aterials, and services.

or services, u su a lly th o se sp e c ia lly d esig n ed and m a n u fa c ­

T ra n sa ctio n s u su a lly in v o lv e d ealin g d ir e c tly w ith m a n u ­

tu red e x c lu s iv e ly fo r th e p u rch aser.

factu rers, d istrib u to rs, jo b b e r s, e tc .

T ra n sa ctio n s

Q u a n titie s o f ite m s an d m aterials p u rch ased m a y b e rela­

require d ealin g w ith m an u factu rers and

o ft e n in v o lv e p ersu ad in g p o te n tia l ven d ors to u n d ertak e th e

tiv e ly large, p articu larly in th e case o f c o n tr a c ts for c o n ­

m a n u fa ctu rin g o f c u sto m -d e sig n e d ite m s a ccord in g to c o m ­

tin u in g su p p ly over a p erio d o f tim e.

p le x an d rigid s p e c ific a tio n s.

M ay b e r e sp o n sib le fo r lo c a tin g or p r o m o tin g p o ssib le

Q u a n tities o f ite m s and m aterials p u rch ased are o fte n

n e w so u rces o f su p p ly . U su a lly is e x p e c te d to k e e p abreast

large in o rd er to sa tisfy th e req u irem en ts for an en tire large

o f m a rk et tren d s, ch an ges in b u sin ess p ra ctices in th e as­

o rg a n iza tio n fo r an e x te n d e d p erio d

sign ed m a rk ets, n e w or altered ty p e s o f m aterials en terin g

sch ed u les o f d eliv ery are o ft e n in v o lv e d . B u yer d e te r m in e s

th e m a rk et, e tc .

o f tim e . C o m p le x

ap p rop riate q u a n titie s to be c o n tr a c te d fo r at a n y given

Exam ples o f ite m s p u rch ased in clu d e: In d u strial ty p e s o f

p erio d o f tim e .

h a n d to o ls; e le c tr o n ic tu b e and c o m p o n e n t te s t in stru m en ts;

T ra n sa ctio n s are o ft e n c o m p lic a te d b y th e p resen ce o f

stan d ard e le c tr o n ic parts and c o m p o n e n ts; e le c tr ic m o to r s;

o n e or m o re su c h m a tters as in c lu sio n o f: R e q u ir e m e n ts for

g a so lin e service sta tio n e q u ip m e n t; P B X or o th e r sp ecia lized

spare p arts, p r e p r o d u c tio n sam p les and te stin g , or te c h n ic a l

te le p h o n e services; and r o u tin e p u rch ases o f c o m m o n raw

literatu re; or p a te n t and r o y a lty p r o v isio n s.

m aterials su c h as standard grades and sizes o f ste e l bars,

K eep s abreast o f m a rk et and p r o d u c t d e v e lo p m e n ts.

ro d s, an d an gles.

D e v e lo p s n e w so u r c e s o f su p p ly .

A lso in c lu d e d at th is lev el are b u y ers o f m aterials o f th e

In a d d itio n to th e w o r k d escrib ed a b o v e , a fe w p o sitio n s

ty p e s d escrib ed fo r b u y e r I w h e n th e q u a n titie s p u rch ased

m a y also require su p erv isio n o ver a fe w lo w e r le v e l b u y ers

are large so th a t lo c a l so u rces o f su p p ly are g en era lly in a d e ­

or clerk s. (N o p o s itio n is in c lu d e d in th is le v e l solely b e ­

q u a te and th e b u y er m u st d eal d ir e c tly w ith m an u factu rers

cau se su p erv iso ry d u tie s are p e r fo r m e d .)

o n a broad er th a n lo c a l sca le.

Exam ples o f ite m s p u rch a sed in c lu d e : S p e c ia l p u rp ose
h ig h

co st

m a ch in e to o ls and p r o d u c tio n fa c ilitie s; raw

m aterials o f c r itica lly im p o r ta n t ch aracteristics or q u a lity ;

Buyer III

p arts, su b a ssem b lies, c o m p o n e n ts , e tc ., sp e c ia lly d esign ed
and m a d e to ord er (e .g ., c o m m u n ic a tio n s e q u ip m e n t fo r

P u rch ases ite m s, m a teria ls, or services o f a te c h n ic a l and

in sta lla tio n

sp e c ia liz e d n a tu r e . T he ite m s , w h ile o f a c o m m o n gen eral




46

in

aircraft

b e in g

m a n u fa c tu r e d ; c o m p o n e n t

a ssem b lies

for

item s o f eith er ( 1 ) ex traord in ary tec h n ic a l c o m p le x ity , e .g .,

m issiles and ro ck ets; an d m o to r v eh icle

in v o lv in g th e o u te r m o st lim its o f sc ie n c e or en gin eerin g, or

fram es).

(2 ) u n u su a lly h igh in d ivid u al or u n it v alu e. S u c h b u y ers
o fte n p ersuade su p p liers to ex p a n d their p la n ts or con vert

NOTE: Excluded are b u y in g p o sitio n s a b ove lev el IV .
in su ch

fa c ilitie s to th e p r o d u c tio n o f n e w ite m s or services. T h ese

u n u su a lly large q u a n titie s th a t th e y can a ffe c t th e m ark et
p rice o f a c o m m o d ity or p ro d u ce o th e r sig n ifica n t e ffe c ts

ty p e s o f b u y in g fu n c tio n s are o fte n p erfo rm ed b y program
m anagers or c o m p a n y o ffic ia ls w h o h ave prim ary resp o n si­

o n th e in d u stry or trade co n c e r n e d . O th ers m a y purchase

b ilitie s o th er th an b u y in g .

Som e

b u y ers

ab ove

lev el

IV

m ak e

p u rch ases

Personnel Management
p roced u res. M ay c o n d u c t w age su rveys w ith in th e lo c a lity

JOB A N A LY S T

or p a rticip a te in c o n d u c tin g su rveys o f b road c o m p e n s a tio n
areas. M ay assist in d e v e lo p in g su rvey m e th o d s and plans.

P erform s w o rk in v o lv e d in c o lle c tin g , an a ly zin g , and
d ev elo p in g o c c u p a tio n a l d ata relative to jo b s , jo b q u a lifica ­

R e c e iv e s general su p ervision b u t r e sp o n sib ility

tio n s, and w ork er ch a ra cteristics as a basis fo r co m p e n sa tin g

a c tio n is lim ite d .

for final

e m p lo y e e s in a fair, e q u ita b le , and u n ifo r m m an n er. P er­
form s su ch d u tie s as stu d y in g and an a ly zin g jo b s and p re­

Job Analyst IV

paring d e sc r ip tio n s o f d u tie s and r e sp o n sib ilitie s an d o f th e
p h y sica l

b y w orkers;

A n a ly z e s and ev a lu a tes a variety o f jo b s in a ccord an ce

evalu atin g jo b s am i d eterm in in g ap p rop riate w age or salary

and

m e n ta l

req u irem en ts

needed

w ith esta b lish ed ev a lu a tio n sy s te m s and p ro ced u res, and is

lev els in a cco rd a n ce w ith th eir d iffic u lty and r e sp o n sib ility ;

g iven assig n m en ts w h ic h regularly in c lu d e re sp o n sib ility for

in d e p e n d e n tly c o n d u c tin g or p articip atin g w ith rep resen ta­

th e m o re d iffic u lt k in d s o f jo b s . ( “ M ore d if fic u lt” m ean s

tives o f o th er co m p a n ies in c o n d u c tin g c o m p e n s a tio n sur­

jo b s w h ic h c o n sist o f h a rd -to-u n d erstan d w o rk p ro cesses;

v ey s w ith in a lo c a lity or lab or m a rk et area; assistin g in

e .g ., p r o fe ssio n a l, s c ie n tific , a d m in istra tiv e, or te c h n ic a l; o r

a d m in isterin g m erit rating p rogram s; rev ie w in g ch an ges in

jo b s in n e w or em ergin g o c c u p a tio n a l field s; or jo b s w h ic h

w ages and salaries in d ic a te d b y su rveys and reco m m en d in g

are b ein g e sta b lish ed as part o f th e c rea tio n o f n ew organi­

ch an ges in p a y scales; and au d itin g in d iv id u a l jo b s to c h e c k

za tio n s; or w h ere o th e r sp ecia l co n sid e r a tio n s o f th ese ty p e s

th e p r o p r ie ty o f e v a lu a tio n s and to a p p ly cu rren t jo b classi­

a p p ly .) R e c e iv e s gen eral su p erv isio n , b u t re sp o n sib ility for

fic a tio n s. (P o sitio n s also resp o n sib le fo r su p p ly in g m a n a g e­

fin al a c tio n is lim ite d . M ay p a rticip a te in th e d e v e lo p m e n t

m e n t w ith a h igh te c h n ic a l lev e l o f ad vice regarding th e

and in sta lla tio n o f e v a lu a tio n or c o m p e n s a tio n sy stem s,

so lu tio n o f b road p erso n n el m a n a g em en t p ro b lem s sh o u ld

w h ic h m a y

b e e x c lu d e d .)

in c lu d e th o se fo r m e r it rating p rogram s. M ay

plan survey m e th o d s and c o n d u c t or d irect w age surveys
w ith in a b road c o m p e n s a tio n area.

Job Analyst I
DIRECTOR OF PERSONNEL
A s a tra in ee, p erfo rm s w o r k in d esig n a ted areas and o f
lim ite d o c c u p a tio n a l sc o p e . R e c e iv e s im m e d ia te su p ervision

D ir e c ts a p e r so n n e l m a n a g em en t program fo r a c o m p a n y

in a ssign m en ts d esig n ed to p ro v id e training in th e ap p lica ­

or a se g m e n t o f a c o m p a n y . S erves to p m a n a g em en t o ff i­

tio n o f e sta b lish e d m e th o d s an d te c h n iq u e s o f jo b an alysis.

cials o f th e o rg a n iza tio n as th e sou rce o f ad vice and assis­

S tu d ie s th e lea st d iffic u lt jo b s and p repares rep orts fo r re­

ta n ce

v iew b y a job a n a ly st o f h igh er lev el.

on

p e r so n n e l m a n a g em en t m a tters and p ro b lem s

gen erally; is ty p ic a lly c o n su lte d o n th e p e r so n n e l im p lica ­
tio n s o f p la n n e d ch an ges in m a n a g em en t p o lic y or program ,
th e e ffe c ts o n

Job Analyst II

th e o r g a n iz a tio n o f e c o n o m ic or m ark et

tren d s, p r o d u c t o r p r o d u c tio n m e th o d ch a n g es, e tc .; re­
p resen ts m a n a g e m e n t in c o n ta c ts w ith o th e r co m p a n ies,

S tu d ie s, d escrib es, and ev a lu a tes jo b s in a cco rd a n ce w ith

trade a sso c ia tio n s, g o v e r n m e n t a g en cies, e tc ., d ealin g pri­

estab lish ed p ro ced u res. Is u su a lly assign ed to th e sim p ler

m arily w ith p e r so n n e l m a n a g em en t m a tters.

k in d s o f b o th w a g e and salaried jo b s in th e esta b lish m e n t.

T y p ic a lly

W orks in d e p e n d e n tly o n su ch assig n m en ts b u t is lim ite d b y

th e

d irecto r

o f p e r so n n e l fo r a c o m p a n y

rep orts t o a c o m p a n y o ffic e r in charge o f in d u strial rela­

d e fin e d area o f a ssig n m en t and in str u c tio n s o f su p erior.

tio n s an d p e r so n n e l m a n a g e m e n t a c tiv itie s or an o ffic e r o f
sim ilar lev el. B e lo w th e c o m p a n y lev el th e d irecto r o f p er­

Job Analyst III

so n n e l ty p ic a lly rep o rts to a c o m p a n y o ffic e r or a h igh
m a n a g em en t o ffic ia l w h o has re sp o n sib ility for th e op era­

A n a ly z e s and evalu ates a v a riety o f w age and salaried

tio n o f a p la n t, e sta b lish m e n t, or o th e r seg m en t o f th e c o m ­

pany.

jo b s in a cc o r d a n c e w ith esta b lish e d e v a lu a tio n sy s te m s and




47

F o r a job to b e cov ered b y th is d e fin itio n , th e p e r so n n e l

e tc .; ov erseein g ca feteria o p e r a tio n s, recrea tio n a l p ro ­
gram s, in d u strial h ea lth and sa fe ty p rogram s, e tc .).

m a n a g em en t program m ust include r e sp o n sib ility for all

three o f th e fo llo w in g fu n c tio n s:

In a d d itio n , p o s itio n s co v ered b y th is d e fin itio n m a y ,
b u t d o n o t n ecessa rily , in c lu d e r e sp o n sib ilitie s in the
fo llo w in g areas:

1. Adm inistering a job evaluation system : i.e ., a
sy ste m in w h ic h there are e sta b lish ed p ro ced u res b y
w h ic h jo b s are an a ly zed and evalu ated o n th e basis o f
th eir d u tie s, r e sp o n sib ilitie s, and q u a lific a tio n require­
m en ts in ord er to p ro v id e a fo u n d a tio n fo r eq u ita b le
c o m p e n s a tio n . T y p ic a lly , su ch a sy ste m in c lu d e s th e use
o f o n e or m o r e sets o f jo b e v a lu a tio n fa cto rs and th e
p rep aration o f form al jo b d e sc r ip tio n s. It may also in ­
c lu d e su ch related fu n c tio n s as w age and salary su rveys
or m erit rating sy ste m a d m in istra tio n . T h e jo b eval­
u a tio n s y s te m (s ) d o e s n o t n ecessa rily cover all jo b s in
th e o rg a n iza tio n , b u t d o e s cover a su b sta n tia l p o r tio n o f
th e org a n iza tio n .
2 . E m ploym en t and placem ent function: i.e ., re­
cru itin g a c tiv e ly for at lea st so m e k in d s o f w ork ers
th r o u g h a variety o f so u r c e s (e .g ., sc h o o ls or co lle g e s,
e m p lo y m e n t a g en cies, p r o fe ssio n a l so c ie tie s, e tc .); eval­
u atin g a p p lica n ts against d em a n d s o f particu lar jo b s b y
u se o f su ch te c h n iq u e s as jo b an alysis to d e te r m in e re­
q u ir e m e n ts, in terv iew s, w r itte n te sts o f a p titu d e , k n o w ­
le d g e , or sk ill, referen ce c h e c k s, e x p e r ie n c e ev a lu a tio n s,
e tc .; r e c o m m e n d in g s e le c tio n s and jo b p la c e m e n ts to
m a n a g e m e n t, e tc .

E m ployee training and developm ent;
Labor relations activities mw h ic h are c o n fin e d m a in ly
to th e a d m in istr a tio n , in te r p r e ta tio n , and a p p lica tio n o f
th o s e a sp ects o f lab or u n io n c o n tr a c ts th at are essen ­
tia lly o f th e ty p e d escrib ed u n d er (3 ) a b o v e. M ay also
p a rticip a te in bargaining o f a su b o rd in a te n atu re, e .g ., to
n e g o tia te d e ta ile d s e ttle m e n t o f su ch m atters as sp e c ific
rates, jo b c la s sific a tio n s, w ork rules, hiring or la y o f f
p ro ced u res, e tc ., w ith in th e broad term s o f a gen eral
a greem en t rea ch ed at high er levels, or to su p p ly ad vice
and in fo r m a tio n o n te c h n ic a l p o in ts to the c o m p a n y ’s
p rin cip al rep resen ta tiv e.

Equal em ploym en t o p p o rtu n ity (EEO);
Reporting under the Occupational Safety and Health
A c t (OSHA).
Excluded are p o s itio n s in w h ic h re sp o n sib ility for actu a l
c o n tr a c t n e g o tia tio n w ith la b o r u n io n s as th e p rin cip a l c o m ­
p a n y rep resen ta tiv e is a sig n ific a n t a s p e c ||p f th e jo b , i.e ., a
r e sp o n sib ility w h ic h serves as a p rim ary basis fo r q u a lifi­
c a tio n req u irem en ts and c o m p e n s a tio n .

3 . E m ployee relations and services fun ction : i.e .,
fu n c tio n s d esig n ed to m a in ta in e m p lo y e e s ’ m orale and
p r o d u c tiv ity at a h igh level (fo r e x a m p le , a d m in isterin g a
fo rm a l or in fo r m a l grievan ce p ro ced u re; id e n tify in g and
r e c o m m e n d in g s o lu tio n s fo r p e r so n n e l p ro b lem s su c h as
a b se n te e ism , h igh tu rn over, lo w p r o d u c tiv ity , e tc .;
a d m in istr a tio n o f b e n e fic ia l su g g estio n s sy s te m , retire­
m e n t, p e n sio n , or in su ran ce p lan s, m erit rating sy s te m ,

Table C-3.

2 Insufficient data were obtained for level V to warrant presen­
tation o f average salaries.

“ Operations level”
personnel program 1
“ Type A ”
organization
serviced3
1
II
III
IV

II
III
IV
V

1 " O p e r a t i o n s l e v e l " p e r s o n n e l p r o g r a m —d i r e c t o r
personnel
the

m a n n e r as to

program

co m p an y

p o licie s,

p lan s, o b je c tiv e s ,

headqu arters

level.

T h e

o f

are

personnel

“ Type A "
organization
serviced3

"T yp e B“
organization
serviced4

II
III
IV
V

III
IV
V
-

2 5 0 -7 5 0 ......................................
1 ,0 0 0 -5 ,0 0 0 ..............................
6 ,0 0 0 -1 2 ,0 0 0 ............................
1 5 ,0 0 0 -2 5 ,0 0 0 .........................

personnel

etc.,

“ Developm ent level"
personnel program 2

N um ber of employees in
w ork force serviced

"T y p e B“
organization
serviced4

2 5 0 -7 5 0 ......................................
1 ,0 0 0 -5 ,0 0 0 ..............................
6 ,0 0 0 -1 2 ,0 0 0 ............................
1 5 ,0 0 0 -2 5 ,0 0 0 .........................

p la n t an d

th e criteria sh o w n in ta b le C -3.

Criteria for matching directors of personnel by level

N um ber of employees in
w o rk force serviced

b asic

D ir e c to r o f p erso n n el jo b s w h ic h m e e t th e a b ove d e fi­
n itio n are cla ssifie d b y le v e l o f w o r k 1 in a c co rd a n ce w ith
2

se rvicin g an

esta b lish ed

d ir e c t o r 's

o rg a n iza tio n a l s e g m e n t

at co m p a n y

re sp o n sib ility

headqu arters

is t o

put

or

th ese

(e .g ., a p la n t)
at som e

in to

o th er

o p era tion

o f a co m p a n y , w h ere the
h igh er

at

th e

level b e t w e e n

lo ca l

th e

l e v e l , in s u c h

a

m o s t e f fe c t iv e ly se rv e t h e lo ca l m a n a g e m e n t n e e d s.

2 " D e v e lo p m e n t l e v e l " p e r s o n n e l p r o g r a m —e i t h e r :
(a)
an

D ire cto r

im p o rta n t

con trol

from

d iv isio n

or

In

th is

a

o f

personnel

ro le

in

co m p an y

o ffic e rs,

su b sid ia ry ,

situ atio n

o n ly

se rvic in g

e sta b lish m en t

to

or

w h ic h

a

an

o f

e n tire

b asic

(b)

d irecto r

re sp o n sib ility

p ro b lem s

because

the

c o n d itio n s are m o s t lik e ly to

jo b s

co n sist

be fou n d

sk ill

th e

jo b s:

re q u ire m e n ts;

N O T E :

e m p lo y e e s
seem s

to

se rviced

There
to

allo w

sh o u ld

fall

jo b s

of

are

in

new

th e w o rk

or

be

slig h tly

for

the

c le a r ly fa lls w e ll w ith in




w ith

o b je c tiv e s,
an

d o

not

easy-to -u n d erstan d
in w h i c h

p ro p o rtio n

w ork

present

level

d e fin itio n

for

the

co m p an y

o rg an izatio n

su b jec t to

b elo w

the

p o licy

th e w o rk
o f

w o rk

force and

II
for

if

it

is a

and

or
an

unusual
ad eq u ate

su p p ly

a

is m a d e .

has e ssen tia lly th e
above

recru itm en t, jo b
lab o r

and

e .g .,

in ( a ) .

ev a lu a tio n ,

or

is a v a i l a b l e . T h e s e

o rg a n iza tio n a l s tru c tu re are rela tiv ely stab le.

or

are

e x tre m ely

e v a lu a tio n , o r tra in in g p r o b le m s

hard

personnel

to

A .

fill.

T h ese

co n d itio n s

are

p ro c e s s e s o r fu n c tio n s , e tc ., a re c o m p lic a te d
to d e te rm in e jo b

level m a t c h

program

o p eration s

m

48

level jo b

m ost

lik e ly

to

be

w h ere

be m atch ed

w ith

th e

n atu re

level

fou n d

in

o r u n sta b le .

lev el m a t c h e s . T h e s e g a p s h a v e b e e n

fo r ea ch jo b . T h u s, a jo b w h ic h

B. H o w e v e r, th e sa m e jo b sh o u ld

for ty p e

d ifficu lt

th e jo b s p re se n t d iffic u lt re c ru itm e n t, jo b

th e b e s t o verall jo b

typ e

level,

p la n n in g a n d d e v e lo p m e n t re sp o n sib ility

local o ffic e r s . T h e d ir e c to r o f p e rs o n n e l

processes,

d ire ctio n

co m p an y

p r o c e s s e s (e.g., p r o f e s s io n a l, s c ie n t if ic , a d m in is tr a tiv e , o r t e c h n ic a l) ; h a v e h a r d - t o - m a tc h

o ccu p a tio n s;

g ettin g

th e d e fin itio n

and

p a rtic u la rly

d i f f e r e n t d e g r e e s o f all t h r e e e l e m e n t s u s e d
in

e tc.,

in term e d ia te

o f personnel program

th e paren t co m p a n y

se rvic ed

su b sta n tial

em e rg in g

ju d g m en t

m atch ed
b elo w

p lan s,

se rv ic in g

fo rc e , o rg a n iza tio n a l stru ctu re , w o r k

are gaps b etw een
room

personnel

by

re la tiv e ly

C o n sist o f h ard -to -u n d erstan d

o r g a n i z a t i o n s in w h i c h

p u rp o se ly

is g i v e n

in o r g a n i z a t i o n s

4 " T y p e B " o r g a n i z a t io n s e r v ic e d —a
because

or w it h o u t su b o rd in a te esta b lish m e n ts) w h e r e th e p erso n n el d ire cto r p la y s

fo r e s ta b lis h m e n t o f b asic p e rs o n n e l p o lic ie s , p la n s, o b je c tiv e s , e tc ., as d e s c r ib e d

3 " T y p e A " o r g a n i z a t io n s e r v ic e d —m o s t
tra in in g

o f

(w ith

p o licie s,

re la tiv e ly c o m p le te d e le g a tio n

b asic p o lic y d ir e c tio n

sa m e d e g re e o f la titu d e an d

co m p an y

personnel

se rvices a w o r k
of

the

p ro v id e d

force of 850

o rg a n iza tio n

se rvic ed

I if t h e n a t u r e o f t h e o r g a n i z a t io n

Chemists and Engineers
D ire ctio n received. S u p ervisor esta b lish e s th e n atu re and

CHEMIST

e x te n t o f an alysis req u ired , sp e c ifie s m e th o d s and criteria
on

P erfo rm s p r o fe ssio n a l w o r k in research, d e v e lo p m e n t,

new

ty p e s

of

a ssig n m en ts,

and

review s w o r k

for

in te r p r e ta tio n , and a n a ly sis to d e te r m in e th e c o m p o s itio n ,

th o r o u g h n e ss o f a p p lic a tio n o f m e th o d s and a ccu racy o f

m o le c u la r stru ctu re, and p ro p e r tie s o f su b sta n ces; to d e ­

resu lts.

v e lo p or in v estig a te n e w m aterials and p r o cesses; and to
in v e stig a te th e tra n sfo r m a tio n s w h ic h su b sta n ces u n d erg o .

T ypical d u tie s a n d responsibilities.

W ork ty p ic a lly requ ires a B .S . d egree in c h e m istr y or th e

Carries o u t a w id e

va riety o f sta n d a rd ized m e th o d s, te s ts, and p ro ced u res. In

e q u iv a len t in ap p rop riate and su b sta n tia l c o lle g e le v e l stu d y

acco rd a n ce w ith s p e c ific in str u c tio n s m a y carry o u t p r o ­

o f c h e m istr y p lu s e x p e r ie n c e .

p o se d and less c o m m o n o n e s. Is e x p e c te d to d e te c t p ro b ­
lem s in u sin g stan d ard ized p ro ced u res b eca u se o f th e c o n ­

Chemist I

d itio n o f th e sa m p le , d iffic u ltie s w ith th e e q u ip m e n t, e tc .
R e c o m m e n d s m o d ific a tio n s o f p r o c e d u r e s, e .g ., e x te n d in g

G eneral characteristics.

T h is is th e en tr y le v e l o f p r o ­

or cu rtailin g th e a n alysis or usin g a ltern a te p ro ced u res,

fe s sio n a l w o r k requiring a b a c h e lo r ’s d egree in ch e m istr y

b ased o n k n o w le d g e o f th e p r o b le m and p e r tin e n t available

and n o e x p e r ie n c e , or th e e q u iv a len t o f a d egree in a p p ro ­

literatu re. C o n d u cts sp e c ifie d p h ases o f research p ro jects as

priate e d u c a tio n and e x p e r ie n c e . P erfo rm s a ssig n m en ts d e ­

an assistan t to an e x p e r ie n c e d c h e m ist.

sign ed to d e v e lo p p r o fe ssio n a l c a p a b ilitie s and to p ro v id e
e x p e r ie n c e in th e a p p lica tio n o f train in g in c h e m istr y as it

R e sp o n sib ility f o r th e d ire ctio n o f others. M ay b e assisted

relates to th e c o m p a n y ’s p rogram s. M ay also receive form al

b y a fe w aids or tec h n ic ia n s.

cla ssro o m or sem inar ty p e training. (T erm in al p o s itio n s are
e x c lu d e d .)

Chemist III

D irectio n received. W orks u n d er clo se su p erv isio n . R e c e iv e s

G eneral characteristics. P erform s a b road range o f ch em ica l

sp e c ific and d eta iled in str u c tio n s as to req u ired tasks and

te sts and p ro ced u res u tiliz e d in th e la b o r a to r y , u sin g ju d g ­

resu lts e x p e c te d . W ork is c h e c k e d d uring p rogress, and is

m e n t in th e in d e p e n d e n t ev a u la tio n , se le c tio n , and ad ap ta­

review ed fo r a ccu racy u p o n c o m p le tio n .

tio n

T yp ica l d u ties a n d responsibilities. P erfo rm s a va riety o f
fa m ilia riza tio n w ith th e c h e m istr y sta ff, m e th o d s , p ra ctices,

and

te c h n iq u e s.

M ay

carry

su b sta n ces. P erfo rm a n ce at th is lev el requires d e v e lo p m e n ­
tal e x p e r ie n c e in a p r o fe ssio n a l p o s itio n , or eq u iv a len t

o f ro u tin e q u a lita tiv e and q u a n tita tiv e an alyses; p h y sica l
d eterm in e

m e th o d s

k n o w le d g e o f o n e or tw o c o m m o n c a teg o ries o f related

and p rogram s o f th e c o m p a n y . T h e w o rk in c lu d e s a variety
to

standard

en t p rocess stages. S o m e assign m en ts require a sp ecia lized

ro u tin e tasks th a t are p la n n e d to p ro v id e e x p e r ie n c e and

te sts

of

th rou gh a c o m p le te series o f te sts o n a p ro d u ct in its d iffer­

graduate lev el e d u c a tio n .

p ro p erties su ch as v is c o s ity , ten sile

stren g th , and m e ltin g p o in t; and assistin g m ore ex p e r ie n c e d

D irectio n received. O n ro u tin e w o r k , su p erv isio n is very

c h e m ists to gain a d d itio n a l k n o w le d g e th ro u g h p erson al o b ­

general. A ssista n c e is fu rn ish ed o n u n u su al p ro b lem s and

serv a tio n and d iscu ssio n .

w o r k is review ed fo r a p p lic a tio n o f so u n d p r o fe ssio n a l ju d g ­
m en t.

R e sp o n sib ility f o r th e d ire ctio n o f others. U su a lly n o n e .

T yp ica l d u tie s a n d respon sibilities.

In a cco rd a n ce w ith

Chemist II

in str u c tio n s as to th e n atu re o f th e p r o b le m , se le c ts stan ­

G eneral characteristics. A t th is c o n tin u in g d e v e lo p m e n ta l

d e v e lo p s or w o rk s o u t a ltern a te or m o d ifie d m e th o d s w ith

le v e l, p erfo rm s ro u tin e c h e m ic a l w o r k requiring se le c tio n

su p ervisor’s c o n c u r r e n c e . A ssists in research b y an a ly zin g

dard

m eth o d s,

te sts

or

p ro ced u res;

w hen

n ecessa ry ,

and a p p lic a tio n o f gen eral and sp e c ia liz e d m e th o d s , te c h ­

sam p les or te stin g n e w p ro ced u res th a t require sp ecia lized

n iq u e s, an d in str u m e n ts c o m m o n ly u sed in th e la b o r a to r y ,

training b e c a u se (a ) standard m e th o d s are in a p p lic a b le , (b )

and th e a b ility to carry o u t in str u c tio n s w h e n less c o m m o n

an a ly tica l fin d in g s m u st b e in te r p r e te d in term s o f c o m ­

or p r o p o se d m e th o d s or p ro ced u res are n ecessa ry . R eq u ires

p lia n ce or n o n c o m p lia n c e w ith stan d ard s, or (c ) sp ecia lized

w o rk e x p e r ie n c e acq u ired in an e n tr y le v e l p o s itio n , or

and ad van ced e q u ip m e n t and te c h n iq u e s m u st b e a d a p ted .

ap p rop riate grad u ate lev el stu d y . F o r train in g and d e v e lo p ­
m e n ta l p u rp o ses, a ssig n m en ts m a y in c lu d e so m e w o rk th a t

R e sp o n sib ility f o r th e d ire c tio n o f oth ers. M ay sup ervise or

is ty p ic a l o f a h igh er lev el. (T erm in a l p o s itio n s are e x ­

c o o r d in a te th e w o r k o f a fe w te c h n ic ia n s or aid s, and b e

c lu d e d .)

assisted b y lo w e r le v e l c h e m ists.




49

Chemist IV

je c ts req u irin g d e v e lo p m e n t o f n e w

o r h ig h ly m o d ifie d

s c ie n tific te c h n iq u e s and p ro c e d u r e s, e x te n s iv e k n o w le d g e

G eneral characteristics. A s a fu lly c o m p e te n t c h e m ist in all

o f sp e c ia lty , and k n o w le d g e o f related sc ie n tific field s.

c o n v e n tio n a l a sp ects o f th e su b ject m a tter or th e fu n c tio n a l
area o f th e a ssig n m en ts, p lan s and c o n d u c ts w o r k requiring

R e sp o n sib ility

(a ) m a stery o f sp e c ia liz e d te c h n iq u e s or in g e n u ity in se le c t­

f o r th e d ire c tio n

o f oth ers.

S u p ervises,

c o o r d in a te s, a n d review s th e w o r k o f a sm all s t a ff o f

in g and ev a lu a tin g ap p ro a ch es to u n fo r e se e n or n o v e l p ro b ­

c h e m ists and te c h n ic ia n s en gaged in varied research and

le m s, and (b ) a b ility to a p p ly a research ap p ro a ch to th e

d e v e lo p m e n t p r o je c ts, or a larger grou p p erfo rm in g ro u tin e

s o lu tio n o f a w id e v a riety o f p r o b le m s and to assim ilate th e

a n a ly tic a l w o r k . E stim a te s p e r so n n e l n e e d s and sch ed u les

d eta ils and sig n ifica n ce o f c h e m ic a l and p h y sica l a n alyses,

and assigns w o r k to m e e t c o m p le tio n d a te . O r, as in d iv id u a l

p r o c e d u r e s, and te s ts. R eq u ires su ffic ie n t p r o fe ssio n a l e x ­

research er or w o r k e r , m a y b e assisted o n p ro jects b y o th e r

p e r ie n c e t o assure c o m p e te n c e as a fu lly train ed w ork er; or,

ch e m ists or te c h n ic ia n s.

for p o s itio n s p rim arily o f a research n a tu re, c o m p le tio n o f
all req u irem en ts fo r a d o c to r a l d egree m a y b e su b stitu te d

Chemist V I

for e x p e r ie n c e .

D ire ctio n received. I n d e p e n d e n tly p erfo rm s m o s t assign­

G eneral ch aracteristics. P erfo rm s w o r k requiring lead ersh ip

m e n ts w ith in str u c tio n s as to th e gen eral resu lts e x p e c te d .

and e x p e r t k n o w le d g e in a sp e c ia liz e d fie ld , p r o d u c t, or

R e c e iv e s te c h n ic a l g u id a n ce o n u n u su a l or c o m p le x p ro b ­

p ro cess. F o r m u la te s an d c o n d u c ts a s y s te m a tic a tta c k o n a

le m s an d su p ervisory ap p roval o n p r o p o se d p lan s for p r o ­

p r o b le m area o f c o n sid era b le sc o p e and c o m p le x ity w h ic h

je c ts .

m u st b e a p p r o a c h e d th r o u g h a series o f c o m p le te an d c o n ­
c e p tu a lly rela ted stu d ie s, o r a n u m b er o f p ro jects o f lesser

T yp ica l d u tie s a n d respon sibilities. C o n d u c ts la b o ra to ry as­

s c o p e . T h e p r o b le m s are c o m p le x b e c a u se th e y are d iffic u lt

sig n m e n ts req u irin g th e d e te r m in a tio n and e v a lu a tio n o f al­

to d e fin e an d req u ire u n c o n v e n tio n a l or n o v e l ap p ro a ch es

tern a tiv e p ro ced u res and th e se q u e n c e o f p erfo rm in g th em .

or h ave o th e r d iffic u lt fe a tu r e s. M ain tain s lia iso n w ith in d i­

P erfo rm s c o m p le x , e x a c tin g , u n u su a l a n a ly tica l assign m en ts

vid u als and u n its w ith in and o u ts id e th e o rg a n iz a tio n , w ith

req u irin g sp e c ia liz e d k n o w le d g e o f te c h n iq u e s or p r o d u c ts.

r e sp o n s ib ility fo r a c tin g in d e p e n d e n tly o n te c h n ic a l m a tters

In terp rets resu lts, prepares rep o rts, and m a y p ro v id e te c h n i­

p erta in in g t o th e fie ld . W ork at th is le v e l u su a lly requ ires
e x te n siv e p rogressive e x p e r ie n c e in c lu d in g w o rk com p arab le

cal ad vice in sp e c ia liz e d area.

to c h e m ist V .

R e sp o n sib ility f o r th e d ire c tio n o f o th ers. M ay supervise a
D ir e c tio n

sm all s t a ff o f c h e m ists and te c h n ic ia n s.

received.

S u p erv isio n

receiv ed

is

e sse n tia lly

a d m in istra tiv e, w ith assig n m en ts g iv en in term s o f broad
gen eral o b je c tiv e s and lim its.

Chemist V
T yp ica l d u tie s a n d respon sibilities. O n e or b o th o f th e
G eneral characteristics. P a rtic ip a tes in p lan n in g la b o ra to ry

fo llo w in g : ( 1 ) In a su p erv iso ry c a p a c ity (a ) p la n s, d e v e lo p s,

p rogram s o n th e b asis o f sp e c ia liz e d k n o w le d g e o f p ro b lem s

c o o r d in a te s, and d irects a n u m b er o f large and im p o r ta n t

and m e th o d s and p rob ab le valu e o f resu lts. M ay serve as an

p ro jects o r a p r o je c t o f m ajor sc o p e and im p o r ta n c e , or (b )

e x p e r t in a n arrow sp e c ia lty (e .g ., class o f ch e m ic a l c o m ­

is re sp o n sib le fo r th e e n tire ch e m ic a l program o f a c o m ­

p o u n d s, or a class o f p r o d u c ts ), m ak in g r e c o m m e n d a tio n s

p a n y , w h e n th e program is o f lim ite d c o m p le x ity and

and c o n c lu s io n s w h ic h serve as th e basis fo r u n d erta k in g or

sc o p e . A c tiv itie s su p ervised are o f su c h a sc o p e th a t th e y

rejectin g im p o r ta n t p ro jects. D e v e lo p m e n t o f th e k n o w ­

require a fe w (3 to 5 ) su b o rd in a te su p ervisors or tea m

le d g e and e x p e r tise req u ired for th is le v e l o f w o r k u su a lly

lead ers w ith at le a st o n e in a p o s itio n com p arab le to lev el

r e fle c ts p rogressive e x p e r ie n c e th ro u g h c h e m ist IV .

V . (2 ) A s in d iv id u a l researcher or w o rk er d e te r m in e s, c o n ­
ce iv e s, p la n s, an d c o n d u c ts project^ o f m ajor im p o rta n ce to

D irectio n received. S u p erv isio n and gu id an ce relates largely

th e c o m p a n y . A p p lie s a h ig h d egree o f o rig in a lity and in ­

to

c o n c e p ts , and

g e n u ity in a d a p tin g , e x te n d in g , and sy n th e siz in g e x istin g

p o lic y m a tters. C on su lts w ith su p ervisor c o n c e r n in g u n u su a l

th e o r y , p rin cip les, and te c h n iq u e s in to origin al c o m b in a ­

overall o b je c tiv e s, critica l issu e s, n e w

p r o b le m s and d e v e lo p m e n ts.

tio n s and c o n fig u r a tio n s. M ay serve as a c o n su lta n t to o th er
c h e m ists in sp e c ia lty .

T yp ica l d u ties a n d respon sibilities. O ne or b o th o f th e
fo llo w in g : ( 1 ) In a su p ervisory c a p a c ity , p lan s, o rg a n izes,
and d irects assign ed la b o r a to r y program s. In d e p e n d e n tly

R e sp o n sib ility f o r th e d ire ctio n o f oth ers. P lan s, o rg a n izes,

d e fin e s sc o p e an d critica l e le m e n ts o f th e p r o je c ts and

and

se le c ts ap p ro a ch es to be ta k e n . A su b sta n tia l p o r tio n o f th e

te c h n ic ia n s.

w o r k su p ervised is co m p a ra b le to th a t d escrib ed for c h e m ist

o b ta in e d , and r e c o m m e n d s m ajor ch an ges to ach ieve overall

IV . (2 ) A s in d iv id u a l research er or w o rk er, carries o u t p r o ­

o b je c tiv e s. O r, as in d iv id u a l w o rk er or researcher, m a y be




50

su p ervises

th e

w o rk

of

a s t a ff o f

c h e m ists

and

E valu ates p rogress o f th e s t a ff and results

assisted o n in d ivid u al p rojects b y o th e r ch em ists or te c h ­

researcher and c o n su lta n t, m a y be a ssisted o n in d ivid u al

n ician s.

p ro jects b y o th e r c h e m ists and te c h n ic ia n s.

Chemist V II

Chemist V III
G eneral characteristics. M akes d e c isio n s and reco m m en d a ­

G eneral characteristics. M akes d e c is io n s and r e c o m m e n d a ­
tio n s th a t are r eco g n iz ed

as a u th o rita tiv e and have an

tio n s th at are a u th o rita tiv e and h ave a far-reaching im p a ct

im p o rta n t im p a c t o n e x te n siv e ch e m ic a l a c tiv itie s. In itia tes

o n e x te n siv e ch e m ic a l and related a c tiv itie s o f th e c o m ­

and m a in ta in s e x te n s iv e c o n ta c ts w ith k e y c h e m ists and

p a n y . N e g o tia te s critica l and co n tro v ersia l issu es w ith to p

o ffic ia ls o f o th e r o rg a n iza tio n s and c o m p a n ie s, requiring

le v e l

sk ill in p ersu a sio n and n e g o tia tio n o f critical issu es. A t th is

c o m p a n ie s. In d ivid u als at th is le v e l have d e m o n str a te d a

le v e l in d ivid u als w ill h ave d em o n str a te d c r e a tiv ity , fo r e ­

h ig h d egree o f c r e a tiv ity , fo resig h t, and m atu re ju d g m e n t in

c h e m ists

and

o ffic e r s

o f o th e r o rg a n iza tio n s and

sigh t, and m atu re ju d g m e n t in a n tic ip a tin g and solvin g

p la n n in g , organ izin g, and gu id in g e x te n siv e c h em ica l p r o ­

u n p r e c e d e n te d

gram s and a c tiv itie s o f o u tsta n d in g n o v e lty and im p o r ta n c e .

c h em ica l p ro b lem s, d eterm in in g program

o b je c tiv e s and req u irem en ts, organ izin g p rogram s and p r o ­
je c ts ,

and

d ev elo p in g

standards

and g u id es for diverse

D ire ctio n received. R e c e iv e s gen eral a d m in istrative d irec­

ch em ica l a ctiv ities.

tio n .

D irectio n received. R e c e iv e s gen eral ad m in istrative d irec­

T yp ica l d u tie s a n d responsibilities. O ne or b o th o f th e

tio n .

fo llo w in g : ( 1 ) In a su p ervisory c a p a c ity is resp o n sib le for
(a ) th e en tire c h em ica l program o f a c o m p a n y w h ic h is o f

T yp ica l d u ties an d respon sibilities. O n e or b o th o f th e

m o d era te sc o p e , or (b ) an im p o r ta n t se g m e n t o f a ch em ica l

fo llo w in g : ( 1 ) In a su p erv iso ry c a p a c ity is resp o n sib le for

program o f a c o m p a n y w ith very e x te n siv e and h ig h ly

(a ) an im p o r ta n t se g m e n t o f a c h em ica l program

d iversified s c ie n tific req u irem en ts, w h ere program s are o f

of a

c o m p a n y w ith e x te n siv e an d d iv ersified sc ie n tific require­

su ch

m e n ts, or (b ) th e en tire ch e m ic a l p rogram o f a c o m p a n y

im p o r ta n c e to overall o p e r a tio n s an d in clu d e p ro b lem s o f

w h ere th e program is m ore lim ite d in sc o p e . T h e overall

ex tra o rd in a ry d iffic u lty th a t h ave resisted s o lu tio n . D e c id e s

ch em ica l p rogram c o n ta in s critical p r o b le m s th e s o lu tio n o f

th e

w h ic h requires m ajor te c h n o lo g ic a l ad van ces an d o p e n s th e

a c c o m p lish th e o b je c tiv e s o f th e c o m p a n y , fo r c h o o sin g th e

w a y for e x te n siv e related d e v e lo p m e n t. M akes a u th o rita tiv e

s c ie n tific a p p ro a ch es, fo r p la n n in g and organ izin g fa c ilitie s

te c h n ic a l re c o m m e n d a tio n s c o n c e r n in g th e sc ie n tific o b je c ­

and program s, and fo r in terp retin g resu lts. (2 ) A s in d iv i­

c o m p le x ity

k in d

an d

an d

e x te n t

sc o p e

th a t

th e y

are

of

critical

o f c h e m ic a l p rogram s n e e d e d to

tives and lev els o f w o r k w h ic h w ill b e m o s t p r o fita b le in

d ual researcher and c o n su lta n t fo r m u la te s and g u id es th e

lig h t o f c o m p a n y req u irem en ts and s c ie n tific an d in d u strial

a tta c k o n p r o b le m s o f e x c e p tio n a l d iffic u lty and m ark ed

trends

im p o r ta n c e to th e c o m p a n y a n d /o r in d u stry . P ro b lem s are

and

d e v e lo p m e n ts.

R ecom m en d s

fa c ilitie s, p er­

so n n e l, and fu n d s req u ired . (2 ) A s in d iv id u a l researcher

ch aracterized

and c o n su lta n t, se le c ts p ro b lem s for research to further th e

sou rce m aterials, or th e la c k o f su ccess o f p rior research and

by

th e

la c k

o f sc ie n tific p r e c e d e n ts and

c o m p a n y ’s o b je c tiv e s. C o n ceiv es and p lan s in v e stig a tio n s in

an alysis so th a t th eir so lu tio n w o u ld rep resen t an advance

w h ic h th e p h e n o m e n a and p rin cip les are n o t a d eq u a tely

o f great sig n ifica n ce and im p o r ta n c e . P erform s ad v iso ry and

u n d e r sto o d ,

and

w h ere

fe w

or c o n tr a d ic to r y sc ie n tific

c o n su ltin g w o r k fo r th e c o m p a n y as a re c o g n iz e d a u th o r ity

p re c e d e n ts or resu lts are availab le for refe r e n c e . O u tsta n d ­

for

in g crea tiv ity and m atu re ju d g m e n t are req u ired to d evise

im p o r ta n c e . H as m a d e c o n tr ib u tio n s su c h as n e w p ro d u cts

h y p o th e s e s

and

te c h n iq u e s

of

e x p e r im e n ta tio n

and to

b road

program

areas

of

co n sid era b le

n o v e lty

and

or te c h n iq u e s, d e v e lo p m e n t o f p r o c e sse s, e tc ., w h ic h are

in terp ret resu lts. A s a lead er and a u th o r ity in th e c o m p a n y ,

regarded as m ajor ad van ces in th e field .

in a b road area o f sp e c ia liz a tio n , or in a narrow b u t in ­
te n s e ly sp ecia lized o n e , advises th e h ead o f a large lab ora­

R e sp o n sib ility f o r th e d ire ctio n o f others. S u p ervises several

to r y or c o m p a n y o ffic ia ls o n c o m p le x a sp ects o f e x tr e m e ly
broad and im p o r ta n t p rogram s. Has resp o n sib ility fo r e x ­

su b ord in ate supervisors or tea m

p lorin g, evalu atin g, and ju s tify in g p r o p o se d and current

p o sitio n s are com p arab le

to

lead ers so m e o f w h o se

ch e m ist V II, or in d ivid u al

program s and p ro jects and fu rn ish in g ad vice o n u n u su a lly

researchers so m e

c o m p le x and n o v el p ro b lem s in th e sp e c ia lty field . T y p ic a l­

ch em ist V II and so m e tim e s ch e m ist V III. A s an in d ivid u al

ly w ill have c o n tr ib u te d in n o v a tio n s (e .g ., te c h n iq u e s, p ro d ­

researcher and c o n su lta n t m a y be assisted o n in d ivid u al

u c ts, p ro ced u res) w h ic h are regarded as sign ifican t advances

p rojects b y o th er c h e m ists or tech n icia n s.

o f w h o se p o sitio n s are com p arab le to

in th e field .

N OTE:
R e sp o n sib ility f o r th e d ire ctio n o f others. D irects several

In d ivid u als in charge o f a c o m p a n y ’s ch em ica l

program m a y m a tc h a n y o f several o f th e su rvey jo b lev els,

su b o rd in a te su pervisors or team lead ers, so m e o f w h o m are

d ep en d in g o n th e size and c o m p le x ity o f c h em ica l p r o ­

in p o sitio n s com p arab le to c h e m ist V I; or, as in d ivid u al

gram s. E x c lu d e d fro m lev el V III are c h e m ists in charge o f




51

programs so extensive and complex (e.g., consisting of
highly diversified or unusually novel products and proce­
dures) that one or more subordinate supervisory chemists
are performing at level VIII. Also excluded from level VIII
are individual researchers and consultants who are recog­
nized as national and/or international authorities and
scientific leaders in very broad areas of scientific interest
and investigation.

in an entry level position, or appropriate graduate level
study. For training and developmental purposes, assign­
ments may include some work that is typical of a higher
level. (Terminal positions are excluded.)
received. Supervisor screens assignments for
unusual or difficult problems and selects techniques and
procedures to be applied on nonroutine work. Receives
close supervision on new aspects of assignments.

D ire ctio n

ENG INEER

T yp ica l d u tie s an d respon sibilities. Using prescribed
methods, performs specific and limited portions of a
broader assignment of an experienced engineer. Applies
standard practices and techniques in specific situations,
adjusts and correlates data, recognizes discrepancies in
results, and follows operations through a series of related
detailed steps or processes.

Performs professional work in research, development,
design, testing, analysis, production, construction, mainten­
ance, operation, planning, survey, estimating, application,
or standardization of engineering facilities, systems, struc­
tures, processes, equipment devices, or materials requiring
knowledge of the science and art by which materials,
natural resources, and power are made useful. Work
typically requires a B.S. degree in engineering or the
equivalent in combined education and experience. (E x ­
clu d ed are: Safety engineers, industrial engineers, quality
control engineers, sales engineers, and engineers whose
primary responsibility is to be in charge of nonprofessional
maintenance work.)

R e sp o n sib ility f o r th e d ire c tio n o f others. May be assisted

by a few aids or technicians.
Engineer III
G eneral characteristics. Independently evaluates, selects,

and applies standard engineering techniques, procedures,
and criteria, using judgment in making minor adaptations
and modifications. Assignments have clear and specified
objectives and require the investigation of a limited number
of variables. Performance at this level requires develop­
mental experience in a professional position, or equivalent
graduate level education.

Engineer I

This is the entry level of pro­
fessional work requiring a bachelor’s degree in engineering
and no experience, or the equivalent of a degree in
appropriate education and experience. Performs assign­
ments designed to develop professional work knowledges
and abilities. May also receive formal classroom or seminar
type training. (Terminal positions are excluded.)

G eneral characteristics.

D ire ctio n received. Receives instructions on specific assign­

ment objectives, complex features, and possible solutions.
Assistance is furnished on unusual problems and work is
reviewed for application of sound professional judgment.

D irectio n received . Works under close supervision. Receives

specific and detailed instructions as to required tasks and
results expected. Work is checked during progress and is
reviewed for accuracy upon completion.

T yp ica l d u tie s an d responsibilities. Performs work which
involves conventional types of plans, investigations, surveys,
structures, or equipment with relatively few complex
features for which there are precedents. Assignments
usually include one or more of the following: Equipment
design and development, test of materials, preparation of
specifications, process study, research investigations, report
preparation, and other activities of limited scope requiring
knowledge of principles and techniques commonly em­
ployed in the specific narrow area of assignments.

T yp ica l d u ties an d responsibilities. Performs a variety of
routine tasks that are planned to provide experience and
familiarization with the engineering staff, methods, prac­
tices, and programs of the company.
R e sp o n sib ility f o r th e d ire ctio n o f oth ers. Usually none.

Engineer II

R e sp o n sib ility f o r th e d ire ctio n o f oth ers. May supervise or

coordinate the work of drafters, technicians, and others
who assist in specific assignments.

G eneral characteristics. At this continuing developmental

level, performs routine engineering work requiring applica­
tion of standard techniques, procedures, and criteria in
carrying out a sequence of related engineering tasks.
Limited exercise of judgment is required on details of work
and in making preliminary selections and adaptations of
engineering alternatives. Requires work experience acquired



Engineer IV
G en eral characteristics. As a fully competent engineer in all

conventional aspects of the subject matter or the functional
52

area of the assignments, plans and conducts work requiring
judgment in the independent evaluation, selection, and
substantial adaptation and modification of standard tech­
niques, procedures, and criteria. Devises new approaches to
problems encountered. Requires sufficient professional
experience to assure competence as a fully trained worker;
or, for positions primarily of a research nature, completion
of all requirements for a doctoral degree may be substituted
for experience.

novel assignments requiring the development of new or
improved techniques and procedures. Work is expected to
result in the development of new or refined equipment,
materials, processes, products, and/or scientific methods.
(3) As staff specialist develops and evaluates plans and
criteria for a variety of projects and activities to be carried
out by others. Assesses the feasibility and soundness of
proposed engineering evaluation tests, products, or equip­
ment when necessary data are insufficient or .confirmation
by testing is advisable. Usually performs as a staff advisor
and consultant as to a technical specialty, a type of facility
or equipment, or a program function.

D irectio n received. Independently performs most assign­

ments with instructions as to the general results expected.
Receives technical guidance on unusual or complex prob­
lems and supervisory approval on proposed plans for
projects.

f o r th e d ire ctio n o f others. Supervises,
coordinates, and reviews the work of a small staff of
engineers and technicians; estimates personnel needs and
schedules and assigns work to meet completion date. Or, as
individual research or staff specialist may be assisted on
projects by other engineers or technicians.

R e sp o n sib ility

T yp ica l d u ties an d respon sibilities. Plans, schedules, con­
ducts, or coordinates detailed phases of the engineering
work in a part of a major project or in a total project of
moderate scope. Performs work which involves conven­
tional engineering practice but may include a variety of
complex features such as conflicting design requirements,
unsuitability of standard materials, and difficult coordina­
tion requirements. Work requires a broad knowledge of
precedents in the specialty area and a good knowledge of
principles and practices of related specialties.

Engineer VI
G eneral characteristics. Has full technical responsibility for
interpreting, organizing, executing, and coordinating assign­
ments. Plans and develops engineering projects concerned
with unique or controversial problems which have an
important effect on major company programs. This involves
exploration of subject area, definition of scope and
selection of problems for investigation, and development of
novel concepts and approaches. Maintains liaison with
individuals and units within or outside the organization,
with responsibility for acting independently on technical
matters pertaining to own field. Work at this level usually
requires extensive progressive experience including work
comparable to engineer V.

R e sp o n sib ility f o r th e d ire c tio n o f oth ers. May supervise a

few engineers or technicians on assigned work.
Engineer V
G eneral characteristics. Applies intensive and diversified

knowledge of engineering principles and practices in broad
areas of assignments and related fields. Makes decisions
independently on engineering problems and methods, and
represents the organization in conferences to resolve impor­
tant questions and to plan and coordinate work. Requires
the use of advanced techniques and the modification and
extension of theories, precepts, and practices of own field
and related sciences and disciplines. The knowledge and
expertise required for this level of work usually result from
progressive experience, including work comparable to
engineer IV.

received. Supervision received is essentially
administrative, with assignments given in terms of broad
general objectives and limits.

D ire ctio n

T yp ica l d u tie s a n d responsibilities. One or more of the
following: (1) In a supervisory capacity (a ) plans, develops,
coordinates, and directs a number of large and important
projects or a project of major scope and importance, or
(b) is responsible for the entire engineering program of a
company when the program is of limited complexity and
scope. Extent of responsibilities generally requires a few (3
to 5) subordinate supervisors or team leaders with at least
one in a position comparable to level V. (2) As individual
researcher or worker conceives, plans, and conducts re­
search in problem areas of considerable scope and complex­
ity. The problems must be approached through a series of
complete and conceptually related studies, are difficult to
define, require unconventional or novel approaches, and
require sophisticated research techniques. Available guides
and precedents contain critical gaps, are only partially

D irectio n received. Supervision and guidance relate largely

to overall objectives, critical issues, new concepts, and
policy matters. Consults with supervisor concerning unusual
problems and developments.
T yp ica l d u ties an d responsibilities. One or more of the
following: (1) In a supervisory capacity plans, develops,
coordinates, and directs a large and important engineering
project or a number of small projects with many complex
features. A substantial portion of the work supervised is
comparable to that described for engineer IV. (2) As
individual researcher or worker carries out complex or



53

specialized field. Selects research problems to further the
company’s objectives. Conceives and plans investigations of
broad areas of considerable novelty and importance for
which engineering precedents are lacking in areas critical to
the overall engineering program. Is consulted extensively by
associates and others, with a high degree of reliance placed
on the incumbent’s scientific interpretations and advice.
Typically, will have contributed inventions, new designs, or
techniques which are regarded as major advances in the
field.

related to the problem, or may be largely lacking due to the
novel character of the project. At this level, the individual
researcher generally will have contributed inventions, new
designs, or techniques which are of material significance in
the solution of important problems. (3) As a staff specialist
serves as the technical specialist for the organization
(division or company) in the application of advanced
theories, concepts, principles, and processes for an assigned
area of responsibility (i.e., subject matter, function, type of
facility or equipment, or product). Keeps abreast of new
scientific methods and developments affecting the organiza­
tion for the purpose of recommending changes in emphasis
of programs or new programs warranted by such develop­
ments.

R e sp o n sib ility f o r th e d ire ctio n o f others. Directs several

subordinate supervisors or team leaders, some of whom are
in positions comparable to engineer VI; or, as individual
researcher and consultant, may be assisted on individual
projects by other engineers and technicians.

R e sp o n sib ility f o r th e d ire c tio n o f oth ers. Plans, organizes,

and supervises the work of a staff of engineers and
technicians. Evaluates progress of the staff and results
obtained, and recommends major changes to achieve overall
objectives. Or, as individual researcher or staff specialist
may be assisted on individual projects by other engineers or
technicians.

Engineer V III
G eneral characteristics. Makes decisions and recommenda­

tions that are recognized as authoritative and have a farreaching impact on extensive engineering and related activ­
ities of the company. Negotiates critical and controversial
issues with top level engineers and officers of other organi­
zations and companies. Individuals at this level demonstrate
a high degree of creativity, foresight, and mature judgment
in planning, organizing, and guiding extensive engineering
programs and activities of outstanding novelty and impor­
tance.

Engineer V II
G eneral characteristics. Makes decisions and recommenda­

tions that are recognized as authoritative and have an im­
portant impact on extensive engineering activities. Initiates
and maintains extensive contacts with key engineers and
officials of other organizations and companies, requiring
skill in persuasion and negotiation of critical issues. At this
level individuals will have demonstrated creativity, fore­
sight, and mature engineering judgment in anticipating and
solving unprecedented engineering problems, determining
program objectives and requirements, organizing programs
and projects, and developing standards and guides for di­
verse engineering activities.

D ire ctio n received. Receives general administrative direc­

tion.
T yp ica l d u tie s an d respon sibilities. One or both of the fol­
lowing: (1) In a supervisory capacity is responsible for (a)
an important segment of a very extensive and highly diversi­
fied engineering program of a company, or (b) the entire
engineering program of a company when the program is of
moderate scope. The programs are of such complexity and
scope that they are of critical importance to overall objec­
tives, include problems of extraordinary difficulty that
often have resisted solution, and consist of several segments
requiring subordinate supervisors. Is responsible for de­
ciding the kind and extent of engineering and related pro­
grams needed to accomplish the objectives of the company,
for choosing the scientific approaches, for planning and or­
ganizing facilities and programs, and for interpreting results.
(2) As individual researcher and consultant formulates and
guides the attack on problems of exceptional difficulty and
marked importance to the company or industry. Problems
are characterized by their lack of scientific precedents and
source material, or lack of success of prior research and
analysis so that their solution would represent an advance
of great significance and importance. Performs advisory and
consulting work for the company as a recognized authority
for broad program areas or in an intensely specialized area
of considerable novelty and importance.

D irectio n received. Receives general administrative direc­

tion.
T yp ica l d u ties an d respon sibilities. One or both of the fol­
lowing: (1) In a supervisory capacity is responsible for (a)
an important segment of the engineering program of a
co m p an y w ith extensive and diversified engineering
requirements, or (b) the entire engineering program of a
company when it is more limited in scope. The overall engi­
neering program contains critical problems the solution of
which requires major technological advances and opens the
way for extensive related development. Extent of responsi­
bilities generally requires several subordinate organizational
segments or teams. Recommends facilities, personnel, and
funds required to carry out programs which are directly
related with and directed toward fulfillment of overall com­
pany objectives. (2) As individual researcher and consultant
is a recognized leader and authority in the company in a
broad area of specialization or in a narrow but intensely



54

depending on the size and complexity of engineering pro­
grams. E x c lu d e d from level VIII are engineers in charge of
programs so extensive and complex (e.g., consisting of re­
search and development on a variety of complex products
or systems with numerous novel components) that one or
more subordinate supervisory engineers are performing at
level VIII. A lso e x c lu d e d from level VIII are individual re­
searchers and consultants who are recognized as national
and/or international authorities and scientific leaders in
very broad areas of scientific interest and investigation.

R e sp o n sib ility f o r th e d ire ctio n o f oth ers. Supervises several

subordinate supervisors or team leaders some of whose posi­
tions are comparable to engineer VII, or individual re­
searchers some of whose positions are comparable to engi­
neer VII and sometimes engineer VIII. As an individual
researcher and consultant may be assisted on individual pro­
jects by other engineers or technicians.
N O T E : Individuals in charge of a company’s engineering
program may match any of several of the survey job levels

Technical Support
Extracts engineering data from various prescribed
sources; processes the data following well-defined
methods; presents the data in prescribed form.

E N G IN EE R IN G T E C H N IC IA N

To be covered by these definitions, employees must
meet all of the following criteria: (a) Provides semiprofes­
sional technical support for engineers working in such areas
as research, design, development, testing, or manufacturing
process improvement. (2) Work pertains to electrical, elec­
tronic, or mechanical components or equipment. (3) Re­
quired to have some knowledge of science or engineering.
{E xclu des production or maintenance workers, quality con­
trol testers, craft workers, drafters, designers, and engi­
neers.)

Engineering Technician III

Performs assignments that are not completely standard­
ized or prescribed. Selects or adapts standard procedures or
equipment. Receives initial instructions, equipment require­
ments, and advice from supervisor or engineer; technical
adequacy of completed work is checked. Performs, at this
level, one or a combination of such typical duties as:
Constructs components, subunits, or simple models
or adapts standard equipment. May troubleshoot and
correct malfunctions.
Conducts various tests or experiments which may re­
quire minor modifications in test setups or procedures;
selects, sets up, and operates standard test equipment
and records test data.
Extracts and compiles a variety of engineering data;
processes or computes data using specified formulas and
procedures. -Performs routine analysis to check applica­
bility, accuracy, and reasonableness of data.

Engineering Technician I

Performs simple routine tasks under close supervision or
from detailed procedures. Work is checked in process or on
completion. Performs, at this level, one or a combination of
such typical duties as:
Assembles or installs equipment or parts requiring
simple wiring, soldering, or connecting.
Performs simple or routine tasks or tests such as ten­
sile or hardness tests; operates and adjusts simple test
equipment; records test data.
Gathers and maintains specified records of engineer­
ing data such as tests, drawings, etc.; performs computa­
tions by substituting numbers in specified formulas;
plots data and draws simple curves and graphs.

Engineering Technician IV

Performs nonroutine assignments of substantial variety
and complexity. Receives objectives and technical advice
from supervisor or engineer; work is reviewed for technical
adequacy. May be assisted by lower level technicians. Per­
forms, at this level, one or a combination of such typical
duties as:

Engineering Technician II

Performs standardized or prescribed assignments involv­
ing a sequence of related operations. Follows standard work
methods or explicit instructions; technical adequacy of rou­
tine work is reviewed on completion; nonroutine work may
also be reviewed in process. Performs, at this level, one or a
combination of such typical duties as:

Works on limited segment of development project;
constructs experimental or prototype models to meet
engineering requirements; conducts tests or experiments;
records and evaluates data and reports findings.
Conducts tests or experiments requiring selection and
adaptation or modification of test equipment and test
procedures; records data; analyzes data and prepares test
reports.
Compiles and computes a variety of engineering data;
may analyze test and design data; develops or prepares
schematics, designs, specifications, parts lists, or makes
recommendations regarding these items. May review de­
signs or specifications for adequacy.

Assembles or constructs simple or standard equip­
ment or parts. May service or repair simple instruments
or equipment.
Conducts a variety of standardized tests; may prepare
test specimens; sets up and operates standard test equip­
ment; records test data.



55

Engineering Technician V

Drafter II

Performs nonroutine and complex assignments involving
responsibility for planning and conducting a complete pro­
ject of relatively limited scope or a portion of a larger and
more diverse project. Selects and adapts plans, techniques,
designs, or layouts. May coordinate portions of overall as­
signments; reviews, analyzes, and integrates the technical
work of others. Supervisor or professional engineer outlines
objectives, requirements, and design approaches; completed
work is reviewed for technical adequacy and satisfaction of
requirements. May be assisted by lower level technicians.
Performs, at this level, one or a combination of such typical
duties as:

Performs nonroutine and complex drafting assignments
that require the application of most of the standardized
drawing techniques regularly used. Duties typically involve
such work as: Prepares working drawings of subassemblies
with irregular shapes, multiple functions, and precise posi­
tional relationships between components; prepares architec­
tural drawings for construction of a building including de­
tail drawings of foundations, wall sections, floor plans, and
roof. Uses accepted formulas and manuals in making neces­
sary computations to determine quantities of materials to
be used, load capacities, strengths, stresses, etc. Receives
initial instructions, requirements, and advice from super­
visor. Completed work is checked for technical adequacy.

Designs, develops, and constructs major units, de­
vices, or equipment; conducts tests or experiments; ana­
lyzes results and redesigns or modifies equipment to im­
prove performance; reports results.
Plans or assists in planning tests to evaluate equip­
ment performance. Determines test requirements, equip­
ment modification, and test procedures; conducts tests,
analyzes and evaluates data, and prepares reports on
findings and recommendations.
Reviews and analyzes a variety of engineering data to
determine requirements to meet engineering objectives;
may calculate design data; prepares layouts, detailed
specifications, parts lists, estimates, procedures, etc. May
check and analyze drawings or equipment to determine
adequacy of drawings and design.

Drafter III

D R A FTER S

Plans the graphic presentation of complex items having
distinctive design features that differ significantly from es­
tablished drafting precedents. Works in close support with
the design originator, and may recommend minor design
changes. Analyzes the effect of each change on the details
of form, function, and positional relationships of compo­
nents and parts. Works with a minimum of supervisory
assistance. Completed work is reviewed by design originator
for consistency with prior engineering determinations. May
either prepare drawings, or direct their preparation by
lower level drafters.

Drafter-tracer

COMPUTER OPERATOR

Copies plans and drawings prepared by others by placing
tracing cloth or paper over drawings and tracing with pen or
pencil. (Does not include tracing limited to plans primarily
consisting of straight lines and a large scale not requiring
close delineation.)

Monitors and operates the control console of a digital
computer, in accordance with operating instructions, to
process data. Work is characterized by the following:
Studies operating instructions to determine equip­
ment setup needed;
Loads equipment with required items (tapes, cards,
paper, etc.);
Switches necessary auxiliary equipment into system;
Starts and operates computer;
Responds to operating instructions and computer
output instructions;
Reviews error messages and makes corrections during
operation or refers problems;
Maintains operating record.

A N D /O R

Prepares simple or repetitive drawings of easily visualized
items. Work is closely supervised during progress.
Drafter I

May test-run new or modified programs and assist in
modifying systems or programs. Included within the scope
of this definition are fully qualified computer operators,
trainees working to become fully qualified operators, and
lead operators providing tech n ical assistance to lower level
operators.

Prepares detail drawings of single units or parts for en­
gineering, construction, manufacturing, or repair purposes.
Types of drawings prepared include isometric projections
(depicting three dimensions in accurate scale) and sectional
views to clarify positioning or components and convey
needed information. Consolidates details from a number of
sources and adjusts or transposes scale as required. Sug­
gested methods of approach, applicable precedents, and
advice on source materials are given with initial assign­
ments. Instructions are less complete when assignments
recur. Work may be spot checked during progress.



Computer Operator I

Work assignments consist of on-the-job training (some­
times augmented by classroom training). Operator is pro­
56

from a variety of standard setup and operating procedures.
In response to computer output instructions or error
conditions, deviates from standard procedures if standard
procedures do not provide a solution. Then refers problems
or aborts program.

vided detailed written or oral guidance before and during
assignments and is under close personal supervision.
Computer Operator II

Work assignments typically are established production
runs (i.e., programs which present few operating problems)
executed by serial processing (i.e., one program is processed
at a time). In response to computer output instructions or
error conditions, applies standard operating or corrective
procedure. Refers problems which do not respond to
preplanned procedure.

OR

Work assignments are characterized by the frequent
introduction of new programs, applications, and procedures
(i.e., situations which require the operator to adapt to a
variety of problems) executed by multiprocessing. In
response to computer output instructions or error condi­
tions, applies standard operating or corrective procedure.
Refers problems which do not respond to preplanned
procedure.

Computer Operator 111

OR

Work assignments are characterized by the frequent
introduction of new programs, applications, and procedures
(i.e., situations which require the operating to adapt to a
variety of problems) executed by serial processing. In
response to computer output instructions or error condi­
tions, applies standard operating or corrective procedure.
Refers problems which do not respond to preplanned
procedure.

Work assignments are established production runs, (i.e.,
programs which present few operating problems) executed
by multiprocessing. Selects from a variety of standard setup
and operating procedures. In response to computer output
instructions or error conditions, deviates from standard
procedures if standard procedures do not provide a solu­
tion. Then refers problems or aborts program.

OR

Work assignments typically are established production
runs (i.e., programs which present few operating problems)
executed by serial processing. Selects from a variety of
standard setup and operating procedures. In response to
computer output instructions or error conditions, deviates
from standard procedures if standard procedures do not
provide a solution. Then refers problems or aborts program.

Computer Operator V

Work assignments are characterized by the frequent
testing and introduction of new programs, applications, and
procedures (i.e., situations which require the operator to
adapt to a variety of problems). In responding to computer
output instructions and error conditions or to avoid loss of
information or to conserve computer time, operator de­
viates from standard procedures or aborts program. Such
actions may materially alter the computer unit’s production
plans. Advises programmers and subject-matter experts on
setup techniques.

OR

Work assignments are established production runs (i.e.,
programs which present few operating problems) executed
by multiprocessing (i.e., simultaneous processing of two or
more programs). In. response to computer output instruc­
tions or error conditions, applies standard operating or
corrective procedure. Refers problems which do not re­
spond to preplanned procedures.

Computer Operator V I

In addition to level V characteristics, assignments at this
level require a knowledge of program language, computer
features, and software systems to assist in: (1) Maintaining,
modifying, and developing operating systems or programs;
(2) developing operating instructions and techniques to
cover problem situations; (3) switching to emergency
backup procedures.

Computer Operator IV

Work assignments are characterized by the frequent
introduction of new programs, applications, and procedures
(i.e., situations which require the operator to adapt to a
variety of problems) executed by serial processing. Selects




57

Clerical Supervisory
tions which otherwise meet the requirements of this defini­
tion, but include both of the following responsibilities:

KEYPUNCH SUPERVISOR (D A T A E N T R Y
SUPERVISOR)

1. Responsibility
throughout three
shifts;
2. Responsibility
frequent, abrupt,
and assignments.

Supervises three or more keypunch operators who
keypunch or verify cards or tape for computer or tabulating
machine processing. May also, as an incidental responsi­
bility, supervise the operation of other types of punching
machines such as reproducers or gang punches.
E x c lu d ed are: (a) Positions also responsible for supervis­
ing the operation of equipment such as computers, tabu­
lating machines, or other kinds of office machines; (b) posi­
tions responsible for supervising clerical work not directly
related to the keypunch function; (c) working supervisors,
group leaders, or other overseers with more limited super­
visory responsibility than is described below; and (d) posiTable C-4.

for supervising activities carried on
shifts, or through two fully staffed
for supervising activities subject to
and unexpected changes in deadlines

Keypunch supervisory positions are classified in five
levels (I through V) on the basis of combinations of three
elements—
level and kind of supervisory responsibility,
difficulty of keypunch work supervised, and number of
employees supervised. In table C-4 two levels of supervision
are described and each is followed by a brief chart that
shows the level of keypunch supervisor for each combina­
tion of the other two elements.

Criteria for matching keypunch supervisors by level
Level and kind of supervisory responsibility
Lower

Upper

Is responsible fo r the day-to-day operations and flo w of w o rk
when the organization of the w o rk , assignment o f employees to
positions, the jo b types and levels, instructions and procedures,
etc., are prescribed by higher a u th o rity . W ithin this prescribed
fram ew o rk, assigns w o rk to individual employees; instructs em ­
ployees in specific tasks and procedures; insures w o rk meets
established standards of quality; checks attendance; keeps pro­
duction records; provides inform ation to higher levels fo r use in
budgeting, planning of personnel changes, adjusting to variations
in the w o rkload , etc.; reports problems to a higher level supervisor.
{ E x c lu d e positions in which keypunching rather than supervisory
responsibility is the most significant fu nction .)

In addition to being responsible fo r the functions o f the lower
level o f supervisory responsibility, plans and establishes the or­
ganization and flo w of w ork; plans changes to m eet both shortand long-term w orkload trends and changes; selects employees and
assigns th e m to positions; assigns and reviews w o rk of
subordinates; initiates recommendations or form al actions such as
requests fo r staff, job evaluation actions, prom otions, etc.;
approves absences and vacation schedules; recommends disci­
plinary actions; in some positions, assists programmers, project
planners, or other technical specialists in designing card layouts
and detailed punching instructions.

D iffic u lty of keypunch w o rk
supervised

D iffic u lty of keypunch w o rk
supervised

N um ber of
employees
supervised

Less d iffic u lt1

Less d iffic u lt1

More d iffic u lt2

Level o f keypunch supervisor

Level of keypunch supervisor
3 - 1 5 ............................
2 0 -4 0 .........................
5 0 -1 0 0 .......................

1
II
III

and

from

re q u ire

v a rio u s
little

or

stan d ard ized
no

- W ork

for,

N O T E :
m ore

If

d ifficu lt

p e rfo rm in g
least t w o

the

m ore

such

w o r k . M a y tra in

k eyp u n ch

w o rk,

o p e r a t o r s in u n i t s w i t h

co d in g

item s

in c lu d e

re p e titiv e . U n d e r c lo se su p e rv isio n

or fo llo w in g sp e cific p ro c e d u re s or in stru ctio n s,
p ro ce d u res w h ic h

o f data

a

total

be

k eyp u n ch

b o th

sign ifica n t

to

B L S

"m o re

p ro p o rtio n

3

or

4

c o d e d , fo llo w s sp e cifie d

to

be

recorded.

C lass B

K eyp u n ch

from

a

v a rie ty

o f

d o cu m en ts.

( T h i s l e v e l is t h e s a m e a s t h e

d ifficu lt"

and

"less d iffic u lt"

o f th e k eyp u n ch
at

least
3

25
such

o r m o re op erato rs.

58

p re scrib e d

o f

o p era to rs

th e
in

B L S

O n

o ccasio n

C lass A

w o r k , cla ssifica tio n

op erators w o rk

p ercent

in d e t a i l

e r r o n e o u s item s,

O p e ra to r.)

o p era to rs.

e m p lo y e e s,

have been

R e fe rs t o su p e r v is o r p r o b le m s arisin g fr o m

o f e x p e r i e n c e a n d j u d g m e n t in s e l e c t i n g p r o c e d u r e s t o

keyp u n ch ed

sign ifica n t w h e n
o f

III
IV
V

have been

req u ires th e a p p lic a tio n

is c o n s i d e r e d

u n its w ith

a total o f 1 3




in te rp re tin g

in e x p e rien ced

that a

d ifficu lt w o rk
in

or

activitie s

p ro v id e d

o p era to rs

or

- W ork

in te rp re tin g , se le ctin g ,

ro u tin e k e y p u n c h

and

( T h i s l e v e l is t h e s a m e a s t h e

2 M o re d if f ic u lt k e y p u n c h w o rk
se a rch in g

is r o u t i n e

so u rce d o c u m e n ts w h ic h

s e le ctin g , c o d in g ,

c o d e s , o r m issin g in fo rm a tio n .

II
III
IV

II
III
IV

1 Less d if f ic u lt k e y p u n c h w o r k
w o rks

More d iffic u lt2

a t th is level. T h e

o p era to rs
u n its

w ith

w o rk
a

total

at
of

m ay

K eyp u n ch

sh o u ld

be

be fo llo w e d
also

p erfo rm

5

level,
to

12

in

som e

O p e ra to r.)

on

th e

b a sis o f

nu m ber o f keyp u n ch
th is

and

th e

o p era to rs

p r o v id e d t h e r e a r e a t
e m p lo y e e s, and 4 su ch

Clerical
C LERK, A CC O U NTIN G

Clerk, File I

Performs one or more accounting clerical tasks such as
posting to registers and ledgers; reconciling bank accounts;
verifying the internal consistency, completeness, and math­
ematical accuracy of accounting documents; assigning pre­
scribed accounting distribution codes; examining and veri­
fying for clerical accuracy various types of reports, lists,
calculations, postings, etc.; or preparing simple (or assisting
in preparing more complicated) journal vouchers. May work
in either a manual or automated accounting system.
The work requires a knowledge of clerical methods and
office practices and procedures which relates to the clerical
processing and recording of transactions and accounting
information. With experience, the worker typically be­
comes familiar with the bookkeeping and accounting terms
and procedures used in the assigned work, but is not
required to have a knowledge of the formal principles of
bookkeeping and accounting.
Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the
following definitions.

Performs routine filing of material that has already been
classified or which is easily classified in a simple serial
classification system (e.g., alphabetical, chronological, or
numerical). As requested, locates readily available material
in files and forwards material; may fill out withdrawal
charge. May perform simple clerical and manual tasks
required to maintain and service files.
Clerk, File II

Sorts, codes, and files unclassified material by simple
(subject-matter) headings or partly classified material by
finer subheadings. Prepares simple related index and crossreference aids. As requested, locates clearly identified
material in files and forwards material. May perform related
clerical tasks required to maintain and service files.
Clerk, File Ml

Classifies and indexes file material such as corres­
pondence, reports, technical documents, etc., in an estab­
lished filing system containing a number of varied subject
matter files. May also file this material. May keep records of
various types in conjunction with the files. May lead a small
group of lower level file clerks.

Clerk, Accounting I

Under close supervision, following detailed instructions
and standardized procedures, performs one or more routine
accounting clerical operations, such as posting to ledgers,
cards, or worksheets where identification of items and
locations of postings are clearly indicated; checking accu­
racy and completeness of standardized and repetitive
records or accounting documents; and coding documents
using a few prescribed acounting codes.

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR

Operates a keypunch machine to record or verify
alphabetic and/or numeric data on tabulating cards or on
tape.
Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the
following definitions.

Clerk, Accounting II

Under general supervision, performs accounting clerical
operations which require the application of experience and
judgment, for example, clerically processing complicated or
nonrepetitive accounting transactions, selecting among a
substantial variety of prescribed accounting codes and
classifications, or tracing transactions through previous
accounting actions to determine source of discrepancies.
May be assisted by one or more accounting clerks I.

Keypunch Operator I

Work is routine and repetitive. Under close supervision
or following specific procedures or instructions, works from
various standardized source documents which have been
coded, and follows specified procedures which have been
prescribed in detail and require little or no selecting,
coding, or interpreting of data to be recorded. Refers to
supervisor problems arising from erroneous items, codes, or
missing information.

C LER K, FILE

Files, classifies, and retrieves material in an established
filing system. May perform clerical and manual tasks
required to maintain files. Positions are classified into levels
on the basis of the following definitions.




Keypunch Operator II

Work requires the application of experience and judg­
ment in selecting procedures to be followed and in
59

secretaries as d escrib ed a b o v e , to th is level o f
su p ervisory or n o n su p ervisory w o rk er.)

searching for, interpreting, selecting, or coding items to be
keypunched from a variety of source documents. On
occasion may also perform some routine keypunch work.
May train inexperienced keypunch operators.

L S-2

MESSENGER

Performs various routine duties such as running errands,
operating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers,
opening and distributing mail, and other minor clerical
work. E x c lu d ed are positions that require operation of a
motor vehicle as a significant duty.

a. S ecretary t o an e x e c u tiv e or m anagerial p erson
w h o se r esp o n sib ility is n o t eq u iv a len t t o o n e o f
th e sp e c ific level situ a tio n s in th e d e fin itio n for
L S-3, b u t w h o se org a n iza tio n a l u n it n o rm ally
nu m b ers at lea st several d o z e n e m p lo y e e s and is
u su a lly d ivid ed in to org a n iza tio n a l se g m en ts w h ic h
are o fte n , in turn, fu rth er su b d iv id ed . In so m e
co m p a n ie s, th is level in c lu d e s a w id e range o f
o r gan ization al e c h e lo n s; in o th e r s, o n ly o n e * o r
tw o ; or
b. S ecretary to th e h ead o f an in d ivid u al p lan t,
fa c to r y , e tc ., (o r o th e r eq u iv a len t lev e l o f o ffic ia l)
th at e m p lo y s, in all, fe w er th an 5 ,0 0 0 p erson s.

SEC R ETA RY

L S-3

Assigned as a personal secretary, normally to one
individual. Maintains a close and highly responsive relation­
ship to the day-to-day activities of the supervisor. Works
fairly independently, receiving a minimum of detailed
supervision and guidance. Performs varied clerical and
secretarial duties requiring a knowledge of office routine
and understanding of the organization, programs, and
procedures related to the work of the supervisor.

a. S ecretary to a corp orate o ffice r (o th e r than
chairm an o f th e board or p r e sid e n t) o f a c o m p a n y
th a t e m p lo y s, in all, over 1 0 0 b u t fe w er th an
5 .0 0 0 p erson s; or
b. S ecretary to th e head (im m e d ia te ly b e lo w the
o ffic e r le v e l) o f eith er a m ajor c o rp o ra tew id e
fu n c tio n a l a c tiv ity (e .g ., m ark etin g, research , o p er­
a tio n s, in d u strial r ela tio n s, e tc .) or a m ajor g e o ­
graphic or o r g a n iza tio n a l se g m en t (e .g ., a regional
head q u arters; a m ajor d iv isio n ) o f a c o m p a n y th a t
e m p lo y s, in all, over 5 ,0 0 0 b u t fe w er th an 2 5 ,0 0 0
p erson s; or

E xclusions. Not all positions that are titled “secretary”
possess the above characteristics. E x a m p les of positions

c. S ecretary to th e h ead o f an in d ivid u al p la n t, fa c­
to r y , e tc ., (or o th er eq u iv a len t level o f o ffic ia l)
th at e m p lo y s, in all, over 5 ,0 0 0 p erson s; or

which are excluded from the definition are as follows:
a. P o sitio n s w h ic h d o n o t m e e t th e “ p e r so n a l” secretary
c o n c e p t d escrib ed ab o v e;
b. S ten ograp h ers n o t fu lly train ed in secretarial-typ e
du ties;
c. S ten ograp h ers serving as o ffic e assistan ts to a group
o f p r o fe ssio n a l, te c h n ic a l, or m anagerial p erson s;
d. A ssista n t-ty p e p o s itio n s w h ic h e n ta il m ore d iffic u lt or
m ore resp o n sib le te c h n ic a l, ad m in istrative, or supervi­
sory d u tie s w h ic h are n o t ty p ic a l o f secretarial w ork ,
e .g ., a d m in istrative a ssistan t, or e x e c u tiv e assistant;
e. P o sitio n s w h ic h d o n o t fit an y o f th e situ a tio n s listed
in th e s e c tio n b e lo w title d “ L evel o f S e c re ta ry ’s
S u p erv iso r,” e .g ., secretary to th e p resid en t o f a
c o m p a n y th at e m p lo y s, in all, over 5 ,0 0 0 person s;
f. T rainees.

d. S ecretary to th e h ead o f a large and im p o r ta n t
org a n iza tio n a l se g m en t (e .g ., a m id d le m a n a g em en t
su p ervisor o f an org a n iza tio n a l se g m en t o fte n
in v o lv in g as m an y as several h u n d red p e r so n s) o f a
c o m p a n y th at e m p lo y s, in all, over 2 5 ,0 0 0 p er­
son s.
L S-4

a. S ecretary t o th e chairm an o f th e b oard or presi­
d e n t o f a c o m p a n y th at e m p lo y s, in all, o ver 1 00
b u t few er th a n 5 ,0 0 0 p ersons; or
b. S ecretary to a c orp orate o ffic e r (o th e r th an th e
chairm an o f th e board or p r e sid e n t) o f a c o m p a n y
th a t e m p lo y s, in all, over 5 ,0 0 0 b u t few er than
2 5 .0 0 0 p erson s; or

Secretary jobs which meet the required characteristics
are matched at one of the five levels according to (a) the
level of the secretary’s supervisor within the company’s
organizational structure and (b) the level of the secretary’s
responsibility. Table C-5 indicates the level of the secretary
for each combination of the factors.

c. S ecreta ry to th e h ead , im m e d ia te ly b e lo w th e
c o rp o ra te o ffic e r lev el, o f a m ajor seg m en t or
su b sid iary o f a c o m p a n y th at e m p lo y s, in all, over
2 5 .0 0 0 p erson s.

Level of Secretary's Supervisor (LS)

N O T E : The term “corporate officer” used in the above
L S definitions refers to those officials who have a signifi­

L S-1

a. S ecretary to th e su p ervisor or head o f a sm all or­
g a n iz a tio n a l u n it (e .g ., fe w er th an a b o u t 25 or 3 0

cant corporatewide policymaking role with regard to major
company activities. The title “vice president,” though
normally indicative of this role, does not in all cases
identify such positions. Vice presidents whose primary
responsibility is to act personally on individual cases or
transactions (e.g., approve or deny individual loan or credit

persons); or
b. S ecretary to a n o n su p erv iso ry s ta ff sp ec ia list,
p r o fe ssio n a l e m p lo y e e , a d m in istrative o ffic e r or
a ssistan t, sk illed te c h n ic ia n , or e x p e rt. ( N O T E :
M any c o m p a n ie s assign sten ograp h ers, rather th an




60

actions; administer individual trust accounts; directly super­
vise a clerical staff) are not considered to be “corporate
officers” for purposes of applying the definition.

e. E x p la in s su p ervisor’s req u irem en ts to o th er e m p lo y ­
ees in su p ervisor’s u n it. (A lso ty p e s, tak es d ic ta tio n ,
and file s.)

Level of Secretary's Responsibility (L R )
STENOGRAPHER

This factor evaluates the nature of the work relationship
between the secretary and the supervisor, and the extent to
which the secretary is expected to exercise initiative and
judgment. Secretaries should be matched at L R -1 or L R -2
described below according to their level of responsibility.

Primary duty is to take dictation using shorthand, and to
transcribe the dictation. May also type from written copy.
May operate from a stenographic pool. May occasionally
transcribe from voice recordings.

L R -1. Performs varied secretarial duties including or com­

N O T E : This job is distinguished from that of a secretary in

parable to most of the following:

that a secretary normally works in a confidential relation­
ship with only one manager or executive and performs
more responsible and discretionary tasks.

a. A n sw ers te le p h o n e , greets p erson al callers, and op en s
in c o m in g m ail.
b. A n sw ers te le p h o n e req u ests w h ic h have standard
answ ers. M ay rep ly to req u ests b y sen d in g a form
letter.

Stenographer, General

c. R e v iew s c o rr esp o n d e n c e, m em oran d a, and rep orts
prepared b y o th ers fo r th e su p erv iso r’s signatu re to
assure p roced u ral and ty p o g r a p h ic accu racy.

Dictation involves a normal routine vocabulary. May
maintain files, keep simple records, or perform other rela­
tively routine clerical tasks.

d. M aintains su p ervisor’s calend ar and m ak es a p p o in t­
m e n ts as in str u c te d .

Stenographer, Senior

e . T y p e s, ta k e s and tran scrib es d ic ta tio n , and files.

Dictation involves a varied technical or specialized vo­
cabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on scientific re­
search. May also set up and maintain files, keep records,
etc.

L R -2. Performs duties under L R -1 and, in a d d itio n , per­

forms tasks requiring greater judgment, initiative, and
knowledge of office functions including or comparable to
most of the following:

OR

Performs stenographic duties requiring significantly
greater independence and responsibility than stenographer,
general, as evidenced by the following: Work requires a high
degree of stenographic speed and accuracy; a thorough
working knowledge of general business and office proce­
dure and of the specific business operations, organizations,
policies, procedures, files, workflow, etc. Uses this knowl­
edge in performing stenographic duties and responsible
clerical tasks such as maintaining follow-up files; assembling
material for reports, memorandums, and letters; composing
simple letters from general instructions; reading and routing
incoming mail; answering routine questions, etc.

a. S creen s te le p h o n e and p erson al callers, d eterm in in g
w h ic h can b e h a n d led b y th e su p ervisor’s su b o rd in a tes
or o th e r o ffic e s.
b. A n sw ers req u ests w h ic h require a d e ta ile d k n o w led g e
o f o ffic e p ro ced u res or c o lle c tio n o f in fo r m a tio n
from file s or o th e r o ffic e s. M a y sign r o u tin e corre­
sp o n d e n c e in o w n or su p ervisor’s n am e.
c. C o m p ile s or assists in c o m p ilin g p e r io d ic rep orts on
th e basis o f general in str u c tio n s.
d. S c h e d u les te n ta tiv e a p p o in tm e n ts w ith o u t prior clear­
a n ce. A sse m b les n ecessary b ack grou n d m aterial for
sc h e d u le d m e etin g s. M akes arran gem ents for m eetin g s
and c o n fe re n c es.

Table C-5.

TYPIST

Criteria for matching secretaries by level

Level of secretary's
supervisor

LR-1
L S -1 ..................................................
L S -2 ..................................................
L S -3 ..................................................
L S -4 ..................................................




Uses a typewriter to make copies of various materials or
to make out bills after calculations have been made by
another person. May include typing of stencils, mats, or
similar materials for use in duplicating processes. May do
clerical work involving little special training, such as keep­
ing simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting and
distributing incoming mail.

Level of secretary's
responsibility
LR -2

I
II
III
IV

II
III
IV
V

61

Typist I

Typist II

Performs o n e o r m o re o f th e fo llo w in g : Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; or routine typing of forms,
insurance policies, etc.; or setting up simple standard
tabulations; or copying more complex tables already set up
and spaced properly.

Performs o n e o r m o re o f th e fo llo w in g : Typing material
in final form when it involves combining material from sev­
eral sources; or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabica­
tion, punctuation, etc., of technical or unusual words or
foreign language material; or planning layout and typing of
complicated statistical tables to maintain uniformity and
balance in spacing. May type routine form letters, varying
details to suit circumstances.

NOTE: The occupational titles and definitions for drafter-tracers, messengers, and stenographers are the
same as those used in the Bureau’s program of occupational wage surveys in metropolitan areas. The
occupations listed below have the same definition in both the national and area surveys; however, the level
designations differ as shown:
National Survey of
Professional, A dm inistrative, Technical, and
Clerical Pay

Occupational
Wage Surveys in
M etropolitan
Areas

1
II
III
1
II
1
II
III

C
B
A
B
A
C
B
A

Keypunch o p e r a t o r ....................... ........................................

1
II

B
A

Typist ................................................ ........................................

1
II

B
A

Occupation

'

D r a fte r ................................................ ........................................

C lerk, ac c o u n tin g ............................ ........................................
C lerk, f i l e ........................................... ........................................




62

Appendix D. Comparison of Average Annual Salaries in Private
Industry with Corresponding Salary Rates for Federal Employees
Under the General Schedule, March 1976
The survey was designed to provide a basis for compar­
ing salaries under the General Schedule classification and
pay system with salaries in private enterprise. To assure col­
lection of pay data for work levels equivalent to the Gen­
eral Schedule grade levels, the Civil Service Commission,
in cooperation with the Bureau of Labor Statistics, pre­




pared the occupational work level definitions used in the
survey. Definitions were graded by the Commission accord­
ing to standards established for each grade level. Table D-l
shows the surveyed jobs grouped by work levels equivalent
to General Schedule grade levels.

63

Table D-1. Comparison of average annual salaries in private industry with salary rates for Federal employees
under the General Schedule, March 1976
Occupation and level
surveyed by BLS1

Average
annual
salaries
in private
industry2

Salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule3
Annual rates and steps6
Grade4 Average

$5, 875
6 , 676

GS 1

$5, 658

$5, 559

$5, 744

$5, 92 9

$6, 114

$6, 299

$6, 484

$6, 669

$6, 854

$7, 039

$7, 224

Clerks, file I I ----------------Keypunch operators I ----T ypists I -------------------------

6, 637
7, 660
6, 827

GS 2

6, 487

6 , 296

6, 506

6, 716

6 , 926

7, 136

7, 346

7, 556

7, 766

7, 976

8, 186

Clerks, accounting I ------------------------------Clerks, file I I I ----------------------------------------Drafter-tracers -------------------------------------Engineering technicians I ---------------------Keypunch operators I I ----------------------------Keypunch supervisors I --------------------------Stenographers, general--------------------------T ypists H -------------------------------------------------

7,
8,
8,
9,
8,
9,
8,
7,

GS 3

7, 617

7, 102

7, 339

7, 576

7, 813

8, 050

8, 287

8, 524

8, 761

8, 998

9, 235

205
369
064
811
939
472
975

Clerks, accounting I I ------------------------------Computer operators I ------------------------------Drafters I ------------------------------------------------Engineering technicians I I ---------------------Keypunch supervisors I I -------------------------Secretaries I -------------------------------------------Stenographers, senior ----------------------------

9,
7,
9,
10,
11,
8,
9,

652
761
763
841
470
882
445

GS 4

8, 881

7, 976

8, 242

8, 508

8, 774

9, 040

9, 306

9, 572

9, 838

10, 104

10, 370

Accountants I ----------------------------Auditors I ----------------------------------Buyers I -------------------------------------Chemists I ---------------------------------Computer operators I I --------------Drafters I I ----------------------------------Engineers I --------------------------------Engineering technicians I I I ------Keypunch supervisors III----------Secretaries I I ------------------------------

11, 453
11, 769
11, 732
12,473
8, 774
12, 029
13, 918
12, 258
12, 815
9, 641

GS 5

10, 139

8, 925

9, 22 3

9, 521

9, 819

10, 117

10, 415

10, 713

11, 309

11, 607

Computer operators III —
Keypunch supervisors IV
Secretaries III ---------------

10, 162

GS 6

11, 411

9, 946

10, 278

10, 610

10, 942

11, 274

11, 606

11, 938

12, 270

12, 602

12, 934

Accountants II------------------------Auditors II ----------------------------Buyers I I --------------------------------Chemists II ---------------------------Computer operators I V --------Drafters III----------------------------Engineers I I ---------------------------Engineering technicians IV---Job analysts I I -----------------------Secretaries I V ------------------------

13, 394
13, 427
14, 200
14, 077
11, 881
15, 288
15, 184
14, 178
13, 559
11, 442

GS 7

12, 429

11, 046

11, 414

11, 782

12, 150

12, 518

12 , 886

13, 254

13, 622

13, 990

14,358

Computer operators V -----Secretaries V -------------------

13, 523
12, 342

GS 8

14, 145

12 , 222

12, 629

13, 036

13, 443

13, 850

14, 257

14, 664

15, 071

15, 478

15, 885

Accountants I I I ----------------Attorneys I ---------------------Auditors III-----------------------Buyers III ------------------------Chemists III---------------------Computer operators VI —
Engineers III--------------------Engineering technicians V
Job analysts H I ----------------

15,
15,
16,
17,
16,
15,
17,
16,
16,

14, 829

15, 278

Clerks, file I
Messengers -

56
*3

14, 883
10, 413

428
413
059
122
589
038
482
086
091

15, 037

See footnotes at end of table.




64

16, 625

17, 523

Table D-1. Comparison of average annual salaries in private industry with salary rates for Federal employees
under the General Schedule, March 1976—Continued
Occupation and level
surveyed by BLS1

Average
annual
salaries
in private
industry2

Salary rates for Federal employees under the General Schedule3
Grade4 A

Annual rate s and steps6

5
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Accountants IV ----------------------------------------Attorneys II ---------------------------------------------Auditors I V ----------------------------------------------Buyers I V ------------------------------------------------Chemists IV -------------------------------------------Chief accountants I --------------------------------Directors of personnel I -----------------------Engineers IV ------------------------------------------Job analysts IV ----------------------------------------

$18,
18,
19,
20,
20,
20,
18,
20,
19,

738
667
952
075
429
460
193
749
142

GS 11

$18,288

Accountants V -----------------------------------------Attorneys III -------------------------------------------Chemists V ----------------------------------------------Chief accountants I I --------------------------------Directors of personnel I I -----------------------Engineers V --------------------------------------------

23,
24,
24,
22,
21,
24,

402
205
099
753
720
082

GS 12

21, 848

19, 386

20, 032

20, 678

21, 324

21, 970

22,616

23, 262

23,908

24, 554

25, 200

Attorneys IV ------------------------ -------------------Chemists VI -------------------------------------------Chief accountants III-------------------------------Directors of personnel III ---------------------Engineers VI ------------------------------------------

29,
28,
28,
26,
27,

828
868
136
845
737

GS 13

26, 009

22,906

23, 670

24, 434

25, 198

25, 962

26, 726

27, 490

28, 254

29, 018

29, 782

Attorneys V ---------------------------------------------Chemists V I I -------------------------------------------Chief accountants IV ------------------------------Directors of personnel IV ---------------------Engineers VII ------------------------------------------

36,
33,
33,
33,
30,

308
559
916
060
850

GS 14

30, 541

26, 861

27, 756

28, 651

29, 546

30, 441

31, 336

32, 231

33, 126

34, 021

34, 916

Attorneys VI -------------------------------------------Chemists VIII -----------------------------------------Engineers VIII -----------------------------------------

43, 747
40, 723
36, 236

GS 15

35, 636

31, 309

32, 353

33, 397

34, 441

35, 485

36, 529

37, 573

38, 6177 39, 6617 40, 7057

$16, 255 $16, 797 $17, 339 $17, 881 $18, 423 $18, 965 $19, 507 $2 0, 049 $20, 591 $21, 133

1 For definitions, see appendix C,
2 Survey findings, as summarized in table 1 of this bulletin. For scope
of survey, see appendix A.
3 Salary rates in effect in March 1976, reference date of the BLS sur­
vey, as established by Executive Order 11883 issued under authority of Sec
tion 5305 of title 5, U. S. Code.
“
^Corresponding grades in the General Schedule were supplied by the
U. S. Civil Service Commission.
5 Mean salary of all General Schedule employees in each grade as of
March 31, 1976. Not limited to Federal employees in occupations surveyed
by BLS.
6 Section 5335 of title 5 of the U. S. Code provides for within-grade in­




creases on condition that the employee's work is of an acceptable level of
competence as defined by the head of the agency. For employees who meet
this condition, the service requirements are 52 calendar weeks each for ad­
vancement to salary rates 2, 3, and 4; 104 weeks each for advancement to
salary rates 5,6, and 7; and 156 weeks each for advancement to salary rates 8 ,9 ,
and 10.
Section 5336 provides that an additional within-grade increase may be
granted within any period of 52 weeks in recognition of high quality performance
above that ordinarily found in the type of position concerned.
7
The rate of basic pay for employees at these rates is limited by sec­
tion 5308 of title 5 of the United States Code to the rate for level V of the
Executive Schedule (rate in effect in March 1976, $37,800).

Under Section 5303 of title 5 of the United States Code, higher minimum rates (but not exceed­
ing the maximum salary rate prescribed in the General Schedule for the grade or level) and a cor­
responding new salary range may be established for positions or occupations under certain conditions.
The conditions include a finding that the Government’ s recruitment or retention of well-qualified per­
sons is significantly handicapped because the salary rates in private industry are substantially above
the salary rates of the statutory pay schedules. As of March 1976, special, higher salary ranges were
authorized for professional engineers, accountants, and auditors at the entry grades (GS-5 and GS-7).
Information on special salary rates, including the occupations and the areas to which they apply, may
be obtained from the U .S. Civil Service Commission, Washington, D. C. 20415, or its regional offices.

65

Appendix E.

Test to Expand Survey Scope

At the request of the President’s pay agent, the 1976
survey tested the feasibility of 1) including a number of
industries not currently studied and 2) lowering from 250
to 100 the survey’s minimum establishment size require­
ment for six of the manufacturing industries currently

studied. (See listing below.) This request was made as part
of a continuing effort by the President’s pay agent to im­
prove the design of the survey and partly in response to
recommendations from the General Accounting Office after
its review of the survey process.1

In du strial C overage an d M in im u m E sta b lish m e n t
S ize R e q u irem e n ts o f T est E xpan sion
M in im u m
E m p lo y m e n t 1

In d u stry D ivision

In d u stry D ivisio n

A d d e d in dustries

M in in g ..............................................................
C onstruction....................................................
Transportation:2 • ..........................................
Pipelines .............................................. 100
A dvertising................................................. 100
Consumer credit reporting agencies,
mercantile reporting agencies, and
adjustment and collection agencies . . .
100
Business management, administrative,
and consulting services.......................... 100
Nonprofit educational and scientific
research agencies .................................
100

C u rrent in dustries w ith lo w ere d size c u to f f

Chemicals and allied p ro d u c ts..................
Petroleum refining and related
industries ..............................................
Machinery, except electrical....................
Electrical machinery, equipment
and supplies............................................
Transportation e q u ip m e n t.......................
Professional, scientific, and controlling
instruments; photographic and
optical goods; watches and clocks . . .

250
250
250
and 250
and 250
and 250
and 250

100
100
100
100
100
100

and 250
2Includes all but currently surveyed railroad, local and suburban
passenger, deep sea water (foreign and domestic) and air trans­
portation industries.

1The survey tested two minimum employment cutoffs for some
industries.

mated number of establishments and workers within this
expanded scope of the survey and the number actually
studied. Tables 1 and A-l in this bulletin present similar
information for the regular survey scope.

The data obtained from establishments covered by this
test expansion were not used in the agent’s 1976 compari­
son of private industry salaries with those under the Gen­
eral Schedule.
Table E-l presents occupational employment and sal­
aries from the broadest survey scope studied, i.e., present
coverage plus the expansions tested with their lowest mini­
mum establishment size cutoffs. Table E-2 shows the esti-




M in im u m
E m p lo y m e n t 1

1GAO report No. B-167266. Copies are available for $1 each
from the U.S. General Accounting Office, Room 4518, 441 G
Street N.W., Washington, D.C. 20212.

66

Table E-1. Average salaries: Regular survey scope plus expansion industries at lowest size cutoffs
(E mp lo ym en t and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry, 1 United States
except Alaska and Hawaii, M a r c h 1976)

Occupation and level2

Number
of
employees3

Mean
annual
salary4

E m p l o y m e n t and salary as
percent of 1976 P A T C survey
Employment

Salary

Accountants and Auditors
I ---------------------------------------------II---------------------------------------------III--------------------------------------------I V --------------------------------------------V ----------------------------------------------

6, 424
16, 695
35, 030
22, 838
8, 076

$11, 503
13, 360
15, 425
18, 780
23, 398

114. 0
107. 3
110.8
111.4
108.8

100.4
99.7
100.0
100.2
100.0

I -------------------------------------------------I I ------------------------------------------------HI -----------------------------------------------I V ------------------------------------------------

1 455
,
3, 045
5, 892
3, 800

11, 781
13, 531
16, 102
20, 071

101.9
110. 5
111. 1
107. 7

100. 1
100.8
100. 3
100. 6

607
1 205
,
867
366

20,
22,
28,
33,

437
766
373
782

110. 0
106.4
116.8
107. 6

99.9
100. 1
100.8
99. 6

782
1 648
,
2, 141
2, 118
1, 337
653

15, 401
18,718
24, 558
29, 793
35, 972
43, 762

105. 7
105. 3
111. 7
108. 7
118. 0
104. 5

99.9
100. 3
101. 5
99.9
99. 1
100.0

11,
14,
17,
20,

581
020
047
072

116.2
120. 5
114.2
106. 3

98. 7
98. 7
99. 6
100. 0

281
588
494

13, 514
16, 060
19, 230

102. 6
102. 1
102. 1

97. 5
99.8
100. 5

1 205
,
1, 946
1, 287
317
73

18, 229
21, 587
26, 776
33, 310
44, 370

103.6
112.2
119. 3
117. 0
102.8

100.2
99.4
99.7
100.8
100.4

1 554
,
3, 745
9, 461
10, 838
8, 299
4, 392
1, 593
422

12, 371
14, 02 9
16, 524
20, 308
2 3, 997
28, 839
33, 752
40, 703

121. 0
112.2
110. 8
111. 7
109.8
107. 0
107. 9
102.4

99.2
99.7
99.6
99.4
99. 6
99.9
100. 6
100. 0

554
645
764
136
744
505
101
762

13, 993
15, 219
17, 458
20, 746
24, 064
27, 763
30, 952
36, 410

116.4
115. 1
110. 3
108. 5
109. 1
109. 5
108. 5
105.2

100. 5
100.2
99. 9
100. 0
99.9
100. 1
100. 3
100. 5

I ---------------------------------II --------------------------------III--------------------------------I V --------------------------------V ---------------------------------

3, 537
14, 130
2 5, 952
30, 628
19, 514

8, 940
10, 753
12, 207
14, 160
16, 085

117. 7
114. 4
108. 7
106.4
106. 0

98. 6
99.2
99. 6
99. 9
100.0

Drafter-tracers ------------------------------------------Drafters I ------------------------------------------------Drafters II------------------------------------------------Drafters III ------------------------------------------------

4, 683
20, 415
35, 501
36, 677

8, 348
9, 670
11, 903
15, 272

109.4
116. 0
120.8
116. 7

99.7
99.0
99. 0
99.9

Comp ut er
Comp ut er
Co mp ut er
Co mp ut er
Comp ut er
Co mp ut er

3, 176
9, 045
23, 445
14, 595
2, 849
914

7, 687
8, 776
10, 137
11, 822
13, 388
14, 52 5

114. 1
110. 7
108. 0
107.2
107. 6
117. 6

99.0
100. 0
99.8
99. 5
99.0
96.6

Accountants
Accountants
Accountants
Accountants
Accountants
Auditors
Auditors
Auditors
Auditors
Chief
Chief
Chief
Chief

accountants
accountants
accountants
accountants

I --------------------------------------II---------------------------------------III--------------------------------------IV --------------------------------------Attorneys

Attorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys

I—
II HI ■
IV ■
V VI
Buyers

Buyers
Buyers
Buyers
Buyers

I --------------------------------------------------II -------------------------------------------------III ------------------------------------------------I V --------------------------------------------------

4, 904
15, 037
15, 679
5, 32 5

Personnel m a n a g e m e n t
Job analysts II -------------------------------------------Job analysts III -------------------------------------------Jon analysts IV ------------------------------------------Directors
Directors
Directors
Directors
Directors

of
of
of
of
of

personnel
personnel
personnel
personnel
personnel

I ----------------------------------I I ---------------------------------III --------------------------------I V ---------------------------------V ----------------------------------

Chemists
Chemists
Chemists
Chemists
Chemists

I ------------------------------------------------II ----------------------------------------------III ----------------------------------------------IV ----------------------------------------------V -------------------------------------------------

Chemists and engineers

Chemists VII ---------------------------------------------Chemists VIII ---------------------------------------------Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Enginners
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers

I -----------------------------------------------II ---------------------------------------------III----------------------------------------------I V ----------------------------------------------V ----------------------------------------------VI ---------------------------------------------VII ---------------------------------------------VIII ---------------------------------------------

13,
33,
90,
130,
93,
48,
19,
4,

Technical support
Engineering
Engineering
Engineering
Engineering
Engineering

technicians
technicians
technicians
technicians
technicians

operators
operators
operators
operators
operators
operators

I -------------------------------------II ------------------------------------III------------------------------------I V ------------------------------------V ------------------------------------V I -------------------------------------

%
See footnotes at end of table.




67

Table E-1. Average salaries: Regular survey scope plus expansion industries at lowest size cutoffs —Continued
(Emplo ym en t and average salaries for selected professional, administrative, technical, and clerical occupations in private industry,1 United States
except Alaska and Hawaii, M a r c h 1976)

Occupation and level2

Number
of
employees3

Mean
annual
salary4

E m p l o y m e n t and salary as
percent of 1976 P A T C survey
Employment

Salary

Clerical supervisory
Keypunch
Keypunch
Keypunch
Keypunch

supervisors
supervisors
supervisors
supervisors

I ------------------------II------------------------III-----------------------I V ------------------------

998
2, 167
1, 304
331

$ 10,093
11, 388
12, 830
14, 819

111.9
110. 0
104. 0
111. 1

101. 5
99.3
100. 1
99. 6

100,091
82, 434
26, 811
18, 791
6, 883
60, 713
48, 183
22, 724
46, 741
69, 486
75, 145
47, 277
15, 263
35, 028
43, 134
49, 636
35, 887

7, 670
9, 656
5, 876
6, 699
8, 262
7, 616
8, 791
6, 669
8, 849
9, 632
10, 382
11, 407
12, 326
8, 435
9, 415
6, 858
7, 984

110. 0
110. 9
104.4
107. 0
106. 7
109. 6
108. 6
106. 9
107. 1
107. 6
107. 7
107. 5
111. 0
107. 5
110.2
107.4
106.2

100.4
100. 0
100. 0
100. 9
100.7
99.4
99.8
99.9
99.6
99.9
99.7
99.7
99.9
99. 6
99.7
100. 5
100. 1

Clerical
Clerks, accounting I -------------------------Clerks, accounting II -------------------------Clerks, file I ---------------------------------Clerks, file II ---------------------------------Clerks, file III --------------------------------Keypunch operators I --------------------------Keypunch operators II--------------------------Messen ge rs -----------------------------------Secretaries I ----------------------------------Secretaries II ---------------------------------Secretaries III ---------------------------------Secretaries IV ---------------------------------Secretaries V ----------------------------------Stenographers, general ------------------------Stenographers, senior -------------------------Typists I ---------------------------------------T ypists II --------------------------------------1 Fo r scope of study, see table E-2.
2 Occupational definitions appear in appendix C.
ants V, Job analysts I and Keypunch supervisors V
,
not m e e t publication criteria.
3 Occupational em pl oy me nt estimates relate to
lishments within expanded scope of the survey and




Although Chief account­
were surveyed, data did
the total in all estab­
not to the n u m b e r a c ­

68

tually surveyed. Fo r further explanation, see appendix A.
4
Salaries reported are standard salaries paid for standard w o r k sched­
ules; i e., the straight-time salary corresponding to the employee's no rm al
.
w o r k schedule excluding overtime hours. Nonproduction bonuses are exclud­
ed, but cost-of-living payments and incentive payments are included.

Table E-2. Number of establishments and workers within regular scope of survey plus broadest scope expansion
tested and number studied, March 1976
Within scope of survey2
Industry division1

Minimum
em pl oy me nt in
establishments
in scope of
survey

United States— all
Manufacturing

Wo rk er s in
e stab lishmen t s
Profes sional,
administrative,
supervisory,
and clerical3

Number of
establishments

Number of
establishments

Wo rk er s in
establishments
Professional,
administrative,
supervisory,
and clerical3

36, 599

20, 290, 907

8, 288, 811

3, 615

6, 762, 005

3, 003, 386

4100-250

18, 799

11, 744, 572

3, 664, 887

1, 814

3, 981, 708

1, 402, 980

250
250

424
748

299, 017
255, 713

97, 758
91, 825

83
102

87, 448
67, 438

27, 209
35, 896

5100-250
100
250

3, 949
3, 837
2, 927

2, 496, 705
761, 950
2, 530, 338

1, 231, 733
399, 822
732, 043

504
215
300

1, 156, 843
51, 889
691, 719

599, 386
31, 282
222, 509

100

4, 794

100

1, 121

1, 768, 805
433, 807

1, 711, 974
358, 769

381
216

535, 437
189, 523

531, 468
152, 656

Nonmanufacturing:
Construction ------------------Transportation, communication,
electric, gas, and sanitary
services
--------------------Wholesale trade ---------------Retail trade -------------------Finance* insurance, and real
estate ---------- : ------------Selected services 6 ------------Metropolitan areas— all
industries 7 --------Manufacturing -------------N onmanuf a c tur ing:
Mining -----------------------Construction------------------Transportation, communication,
electric, gas, and sanitary
services -------------------Wholesale trade -------------Retail trade ------------------Finance, insurance, and real
estate ---------------------Selected services6 ------------Establishments employing
2, 500 workers or m o r e — ■all
industries ------------Manufacturing--------------

28, 408

16, 675, 412

7,443, 774

3, 017

6, 205, 770

2, 846, 347

4100-250

12, 767

8, 767, 770

3, 062, 975

1, 366

3, 533, 156

1, 290 , 010

250
250

229
671

149, 333
214, 125

65, 406
79, 659

40
91

40, 116
56, 301

14, 195
32,314

5100-250

2, 923
3, 459
2, 812

2, 265, 196
706, 114
2, 446, 199

1, 142, 919
385, 900
717, 757

453
206
294

1, 133, 083
50, 565
686, 884

588, 456
30, 951
221, 803

4, 464
1, 083

1, 691, 607
415, 068

1, 646, 073
343, 085

363
204

52 7, 857
177, 808

525, 029
143, 589

977
493

6, 263, 545
3, 705, 237

2, 755, 363
1, 376, 380

716
413

4, 845, 584
2, 988, 804

2, 154, 088
1, 083, 568

100

250
100

100

1 A s defined in the 1967 edition of the Standard Industrial Classification
Manual.
7 Establishments with total em pl oy me nt at or above the m i n i m u m li m ­
itation indicated in the first column; excludes Alaska and Hawaii.
3 Includes executive, administrative, professional, supervisory, and
clerical employees, but excludes technicians, drafters, and sales personnel.
4 M i n i m u m em pl oy me nt size was 100 for chemicals and allied products;
petroleum refining and related industries; machinery, except electrical; elec­
trical machinery, equipment and supplies; transportation equipment; and in­
struments and related products. M i n i m u m size wa s 250 in all other m a n u f a c ­




turing industries.
5 M i n i m u m employ me nt size wa s 100 for pipe lines and 250 for all other
transportation industries.
6 Limited to engineering and architectural services; commercially oper­
ated research, development, and testing laboratories; advertising; credit re­
porting and collection; business consulting services; and nonprofit research
agencies.
7 Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States, except
Alaska and Hawaii, as revised through April 1974 by the U. S. Office of M a n ­
agement and Budget.

69
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BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
REGIONAL OFFICES

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‘ Regions VII and VIII are serviced by Kansas City
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Rev. 10/76

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