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National Survey of
Professional,
Administrative,
Technical,
and Clerical Pay,
June 1971

U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Bulletin 1742
1972




National Survey of
Professional,
Administrative,
Technical,
and Clerical Pay,
Jum 1971

Bulletin 1742
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
J. D. Hodgson, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Geoffrey H. Moore, Commissioner
1972

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Price 75 cents







P r e fa c e
This bulletin summarizes the results of the Bureau's
annual salary survey of selected professional, adminis­
trative, technical, and clerical occupations in private
industry.
The nationwide salary information, which r e ­
lates to June 1971, is representative of establishments
in a broad spectrum of industries throughout the United
States, except Alaska and Hawaii.
The survey was designed by the Bureau of Labor Sta­
tistics in cooperation with the U. S. Office of Management
and Budget (previously the U. S. Bureau of the Budget)
and the Civil Service Commission.
It provides a fund of
broadly based information on salary levels and distri­
butions in private employment.
As such, the results are
useful as a guide for salary administration purposes and
for general economic analysis.
In addition, the survey
provides information on pay in private industry in a form
suitable for use in appraising the compensation of salaried
employees in the Federal civil service (appendix D).
It
should be emphasized that this survey, like any other
salary survey, is in no sense calculated to supply m e­
chanical answers to pay policy questions.
The occupations studied span a wide range of duties
and responsibilities. Individually, the occupations selected
were judged to be (a) surveyable in industry within the
framework of a broad survey design and (b) represen­
tative of occupational groups which are numerically im ­
portant in industry as well as in the Federal service.
Occupational definitions used in the collection of the
salary data (appendix C) reflect duties and responsibil­
ities in private industry; however, they are also designed
to be translatable to specific pay grades in the General
Schedule applying to Federal Classification Act employ­
ees.
This necessitated limiting some occupations and
work levels to specific elements that could be classified
uniformly among establishments.
The Bureau of Labor
Statistics and the Civil Service Commission collaborated
in the preparation of the definitions.
The scope of the survey, in term s of industrial, geo­
graphic, and minimum establishm ent-size coverage r e ­
mained the same as in the 197 0 survey.
The definitions
for accounting clerks, keypunch operators, and m essengers
(office boys and girls) were revised, and switchboard op­
erators and tabulating-machine operators were not sur­
veyed (see appendix B).
The other definitions were the
same as used in the 1970 survey.
The survey could not have been accomplished without
the cooperation of the many firms whose salary d a t a
provide the basis for the statistical information p re­
sented in this bulletin.
The Bureau, on its own behalf
and on behalf of the other Federal agencies that collab­
orated in planning the survey, wishes to express sincere
appreciation for the cooperation it has received.




iii

P r e f a c e ------C o n tin u e d
This study was conducted in the Bureau's Office of
Wages and Industrial Relations by the Division of Occu­
pational Wage Structures.
The analysis was prepared by
W illiam M. Smith. Field work for the survey was directed
by the Bureau's Assistant Regional Directors, Division of
Operations.




Although only nationwide salary data are presented
in this bulletin, clerical and drafting occupation salary
data are available for each of the 89 metropolitan areas
in which the Bureau conducts area wage surveys. These
area reports also include information on such supple­
mentary benefits as paid vacations, holidays, and health,
insurance, and pension plans relating to nonsupervisory
officew orkers.
(See the areas listed in the order form
at the back of this bulletin. )

iv

C o n te n ts
Page
S u m m a ry ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Characteristics of the survey ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Changes in salary l e v e l s ---------------------------------------------- — -----------------------------------------------------------Average salaries, June 1971 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Salary levels in metropolitan a r e a s -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Salary levels in large estab lish m en ts------------------------------------------------------------- — — —---------------Salary distributions----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Pay differences by ind u stry--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Average standard weekly h o u r s --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1
1
2
7
10
10v
11
15
15

T ables:
A.

Percent increases in average salaries, 1961-71, by occupation
and g ro u p -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Percent increases in average salaries, 1961-71, bywork level category---------------

3
5

Average salaries:
1. United S ta tes---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2. Metropolitan a r e a s ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3. Establishments employing 2, 500 or m o r e --------------------------------------------------------------

16
18
20

Employment distribution by salary:
4. Professional and administrative occupations----------------------------------------------------------5. Engineering technicians and keypunch su p ervisors---------------------------------------------6. Drafting and clerical occupations----------------------------------------------------------------------

22
26
27

7.
8.
9.

29
30
31

B.

Occupational employment distribution:By industry division--------------------------------------Relative salary levels: Occupation by industry division-------------------------Average standard weekly hours: Occupation by industry d iv isio n ---------------------------

Charts:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Cumulative rise in average (mean) salaries for selected occupational
groups, 1961 to 1 9 7 1 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Rates of salary changes for selected occupational groups, 1961to 19 71------Salaries in professional and technical occupations, June 19 71--------------Salaries in administrative and clerical occupations, June 1971------------Relative employment in selected occupational groups by
industry division, June 1971-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4
6
12
13
14

Appendixes:
A.
B.
C.
D.

Scope and method of s u r v e y ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Survey changes in 1971 ----------------------------------------------------------------------- —-------------------------Occupational d efinition s-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Comparison of average annual salaries in private industry,
June 1971, with corresponding salary rates for Federal
employees under the General Schedule-----------------------------------------------------------------------




v

33
39
40

77 ^




P ro fe s s io n a l, A d m in is tra tiv e , T e c h n ic a l,
and C le ric a l P ay
finance and retail trade industries gen­
erally were lower than in other major
industry divisions represented in the su r­
vey.
Reported average standard weekly
hours were also generally lower in the
finance industries.

Sum m ary

Average salaries of workers in the
occupations covered by this survey in­
creased at a higher rate between 1970
and 1971 than for any year since the study
was initiated.
The 6. 6 average percent
increase for all white-collar occupations
combined was slightly more than the 6. 2
percent increase reported between 1969
and 1970.
Increases for 9 of 11 pro­
fessional, administrative, and technical
support occupations ranged from 5. 5 to
8. 0 percent, and averaged 6. 7 percent.
The average of the increases for clerical
and clerical supervisory occupations was
6. 5 percent; 7 of the 8 advanced between
6. 0 and 7. 0 percent.
Average monthly salaries for the 76
occupational levels varied from $366 for
clerks engaged in routine filing to $ 2 ,7 8 1
for the highest level in the attorney series .
For engineers, the largest professional
occupation surveyed, salaries r a n g e d
from $890 a month for recent college
graduates in trainee positions to $ 2 , 2 2 8
for engineers VIII, whose typical respon­
sibilities could include the direction of a
highly complex and diversified engineering
program consisting of many large and
important projects.
Average m o n t h l y
salaries of engineering technicians ranged
from $571 to $985 among the five work
levels.
Keypunch supervisors,
repre­
senting the only clerical supervisory oc­
cupation in the survey averaged $599 a
month at level I and $943 a month at
level V, the highest surveyed.
Monthly
salaries averaged $467 for accounting
clerks I, $555 for secretaries I, $620
for -secretaries II, and $418 for typists
I, the largest clerical groups represented
in the survey.
For most of the occupa­
tions, salary levels in metropolitan areas
and in large establishments were higher
than in all establishments within the full
scope of the survey.
Salary levels in




Characteristics of the survey

This survey, the twelfth in an annual
serie s, provides nationwide salary aver­
ages and distributions for 76 work level
categories covering 19 occupations. 1 It
relates to establishments in all areas of
the United States except Alaska and Hawaii
in the following industries; Manufacturing;
transportation, communication, electric,
gas, and sanitary services; wholesale
trade; retail trade; finance, insurance,
and real estate; engineering and archi­
tectural services; and research, develop­
ment, and testing laboratories operated
on a commercial basis. 2 The minimum
size of establishment requirements varied
by industry division roughly equalizing
minimum size scope j n terms of whitecollar employment. f /t h e s e requirements
ranged from 50 employees in the finance,
insurance, and real estate division, which
is almost entirely composed of white-­
collar workers, to 250 employees in the—
,
manufacturing and retail trade divisions. 3 1
Results of the earlier survey reports were presented
under the title: National Survey of Professional. Adm ini­
strative. T ech n ical, and C lerical Pay, Winter 1959-60 (BLS
Bulletin 1286, 1960); Winter 1960-61 (BLS Bulletin 1310,
1961); Winter 1961-62 (BLS Bulletin 1346, 1962); FebruaryT
March 1963 (BLS Bulletin 1387, 1963); February-March 1964
(BLS Bulletin 1422, 1964); February-March 1965 (BLS Bul­
letin 1469, 1965); February-March 1966 (BLS Bulletin 1535.
1966); June 1967 (BLS Bulletin 1585, 1968); Tune 1968 (BLS
Bulletin 1617, 1969); June 1969 (BLS Bulletin 1654, 1970);
and June 1970 (BLS Bulletin 1693, 1971).
2
February-March 1964 and earlier surveys were lim ited
to establishments in m etropolitan areas. For a full descrip­
tion of the scope of. the 1971 survey, see appendix A.
February-March 1965 and earlier surveys were lim ited
to establishments having 250 em ployees or more.

1

Definitions for the occupations included
in this study provide for classification of
employees according to appropriate work
levels (or classes). Within each occupa­
tion, the work levels surveyed, usually
designated by Roman numerals with class
I assigned to the lowest level, are defined
in terms of duties and responsibilities.
Specific job factors determining classifi­
cation, however, varied from occupation
to occupation.
The number of work level definitions
for each occupation varies from one for
messengers to eight each for chemists
and engineers.
More than one level of
work was defined for survey in most of
the occupations; however, some occupa­
tions were purposely defined to cover
specific bands of work levels, which were
not intended to represent all levels or all
w o r k e r s that may be f o u n d in those
occupations.
The survey was designed to permit
separate presentation of data for m etro­
politan areas. Coverage in metropolitan
areas includes the 229 Standard M etro­
politan Statistical Areas in the United
States, except A l a s k a and H a w a i i ,
as revised through January 1968 by the
U. S. Office of Management and Budget
(previously the U. S. Bureau of the Bud­
get), the same number represented in the
previous survey.
About four-fifths of
the total employment and almost ninetenths of the employment in professional,
administrative, clerical, and related o c­
cupations within scope of this survey
were accounted for by establishments lo­
cated in metropolitan areas.
Almost
nine-tenths of the employees in the selected
occupations studied also were employed
in metropolitan areas.
The
selected occupations accounted
for more than 1 , 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 employees or
about one-fifth of the estimated total em ­
ployment in professional, administrative,
clerical, and related occupations in all
establishments within scope of the survey.
Employment in the selected occupations
varied widely, reflecting actual differences
in employment in the various occupations,
as well as differences in the range of
duties and responsibilities covered by
each occupational definition. Among the
professional and administrative occupa­
tions, the eight levels of engineers ac­
counted for a total of 355,763 employees,
w h e r e a s , fewer than 5, 000 were e m ­
ployed in each of four of the occupational




categories as defined for the study (chief
accountants, job analysts, directors of
personnel, and keypunch supervisors).
( S e e t a b l e 1. )
Two occupations at all
work levels studied (accounting clerks
and s ecretaries) accounted for about onehalf of the 8 2 6,75 9 e m p l o y e e s in the
clerical occupations studied. The selected
drafting occupations had aggregate e m ­
ployment of 77 ,450 and the five engineer­
ing technician levels together accounted
for about 8 2 ,0 0 0 .
Although women accounted for approx­
imately one-half of the total employment
in the occupations studied, they were e m ­
ployed largely in clerical positions. The
clerical occupations in which the propor­
tion of women amounted to more than
90 percent of employment at each level
were file clerks, keypunch operators,
secretaries, stenographers , and typists.
Female messengers (46 percent) were out­
numbered by males (54 percent). Women
were usually reported only in the lower
levels of the professional, administrative,
and technical s u p p o r t occupations.
A
distribution of the proportions of women
reported by occupation and level is shown
on page 36.
The general level of salaries for each
occupation or work level is presented in
this study as the arithmetic mean of all
the individual salary rates. Median s a l­
aries, the amount below and above which
the salaries for 50 percent of the e m ­
ployees are found, are also presented in
tables 1, 2, and 3.
C h a n g e in s a l a r y l e v e l s

Table A presents increases in a v er­
age salaries that occurred between an­
nual surveys since 1961 for each sur­
vey occupation. 4 Also shown are average
percent changes for the two broad o c ­
cupational g r o u p s comprising the sur­
vey (the professional,
administrative,
and t e c h n i c a l support group, and the
clerical and clerical supervisory group)
and the average percent change for the
two groups combined.
The percent in­
creases for each occupation were ob­
tained by adding the aggregate salaries
for each level in each of two su cc es­
sive years ( e m p l o y m e n t in the most
4

The increases since 1965 relate to establishments
in m etropolitan areas and nonmetropolitan c o u n t i e s ; all
others relate to metropolitan areas only. Establishments
employing fewer than 250 workers were excluded before
1966.

2

Table A. Percent increases in average salaries, 1961-71, by occupation and group

Occupation and group

Professional, adm inistrative, and
technical support:
A ccou n tan ts----------------------- ----- A u d ito rs------------------ - — -------- —
Chief accountants ----------------------Attorneys --------------------------------Buyers —----- — ------------------------Job a n a ly s t s -------------- ---------------Directors of personnel ----------------C h em ists------------------------------- —
E n g in e e rs-------------------------------- Engineering te c h n ic ia n s---------------D r a ftin g ------ --------------------Average percent increase 6 ----------C lerical and clerical supervisory:
Accounting c le r k s ----------------------File c l e r k s -------------------------------Keypunch operators--------------------Keypunch su p erv iso rs------------------Messengers (office boys and g ir ls)---S e c re ta rie s-------------------------------Stenographers -------------------------- T y p i s t s -----------------------------------Average percent increase ^ ---------------All survey occupations:
Average percent increase ^ ----------------

1961
to
1962

1962
to
1963

2 .8
2 .9
2. 6
3 .2

3 .3
3 .6
2 .8
4 .6

( 45
)

1 .4
3 .7
3 .9
2 .6
( 4)
3. 2
3 .0

3 .0

1964
to
1965

1965
to
1966

1966
to
1967 1

2.8
3. 1
4 .8
3 .3

3 .5
3 .9
3 .9
4 .2

(4)

( 4)

(4)

2 .6
3 .0
3 .8
4 .4
2 .9
3 .6
3.3

3 .5
4 .6
3 .3
2 .9
3 .6
2 .6
3 .4

4 .3
3 .5
3 .9
3 .2
2.3
( 2)
3.7

3 .8
3 .8
3 .3
4 .0
( 4)
5 .4
3 .6
4 .8
3 .7
2.8
1 .5
3 .6

4 .6
4 .8
5.1
3 .2
4 .2
3 .4
3 .8
4 .4
4 .3
3 .7
3 .5
4 .2

(4 )

2 .5
2 .6
2 .5

2 .8
3. 1
2 .7

3 .0
2 .9
3 .7

(4 )

(4)

(4)

2. 6
(4)

2.3
( 4)
2 .4
2 .6
2 .7

2.8

3 .3
5. 1
5. 2
( 4)
5 .4

(4)

(4 )

(4 )

2 .5
2.8

2.8
( 4)
2 .5
2 .6
2 .6

2 .2
2 .2
2.3
( 4)
3 .0
2.3
2 .5
2 .4

2 .9
2 .6
3 .0

2 .9

3 .0

3. 1

3.1

3 .3

(4)

(2)

1963
to
1964

( 4)

1967
to
1968

Average
annual
1970 rate of
increase
to
1971
1961
to
1971

1968
to
1969

1969
to
1970

5 .7
5 .5
5 ,5
5.3
4 .9
7 .0
5 .4
5. 1
5 .4
5. 1
5 .3
5 .5

7 .0
7 .2
5 .8
( 2)
6 .6
2.1
5 .4
6 .5
6 .2
5 .8
5 .8
5 .8

6 .7
7 .0
7. 1
7. 1
6. 1
4. 1
7 .4
5 .9
5 .5
6 .3
4 .9
6. 2

6 .7
7 .0
9. 1
5 .0
7 .0
7 .7
8 .0
5. 5
5 .7
6 .5
5 .6
6 .7

4 .7
4. 9
5 .0
( 3)
( 4)
4 ,1
4. 8
4 .7
4 .4
54 .3

4 .7
6 .8
4 .9

6. 2
5 .5
6 .4
(4 )
6 .3
6 .4
5 .8
6 .0
6 .2

6 .0
6.1
7 .0
6.1
6 .7
6 .6
7 .5
6.1
6 .5

3 .8
54. 4
54. 4
(4)
4 .9

4 .6
5 .4
4 .8

6. 2
4 .6
4 .9
5 .8
5.3

4 .7
5 .5
5 .3
( 4)
6 .7
5 .3
5 .9
5 .7
5 .5

54. 3
4 .6
4 .2

4 .5

5 .4

5 .7

6. 2

6 .6

4 .4

(4 )

(3)

4 .5

(4 )

1 Actual survey-to-survey increases have been prorated to a 12-month period because changes in timing had length­
ened the period between the 1966 and 1967 surveys.
2 Comparable data not available for both years.
3 Comparison over this period was not possible because of changes in the definition of the occupation.
4 Not surveyed.
5 First surveyed in 1962; therefore, the average annual rate of increase relates to the 1962 to 1971 period.
^ Data for 1 administrative occupation, managers of office services last surveyed in 1968, and 3 clerical occu p a ­
tions, bookkeeping-m achine operators last surveyed in 1964, and switchboard operator and tabulating-ma chine operator
last surveyed in 1970, not shown above, are included in the average percent increases for the periods during which they
were surveyed.

recent year, to eliminate the effects of
y e a r-to -y ea r employment shifts, multi­
plied by the average s a l a r i e s in both
years) and dividing the later sum by the
earlier. The resultant relative, less 100,
is the percent of increase.
Changes in
the scope of the survey and in occupa­
tional definitions were incorporated into
the series on a continuing basis as soon
as two comparable periods were avail­
able. The increases for each of the two
broad occupational groups were obtained
by averaging the increases of the occupa­
tions within the group.
The increases
for all survey occupations were deter­




mined by averaging the increases for the
two broad occupational groups. The an­
nual increases were then linked together
to obtain the changes that had occurred
since this series began and to compute
average annual rates of increase for each
occupation and group, and all occupa­
tions combined. The 1961-71 percent in­
creases for selected occupations are shown
in chart 1.
In the 1970-71 period, increases in
average salaries for 9 of the 11 p ro fe s­
sional, administrative, and technical sup­
port occupations ranged from 5. 5 to 8. 0
percent, while 7 of the 8 clerical and

3

CHART 1

Cumulative Rise in Average (Mean) Salaries for Selected Occupational
Groups, 1961 to 1971




PERCENT
0

5

10

15

20

25

30.

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

i n c r e a s e s than either group A or C.
Over the past 2 years, the increases
for all three groups were nearly identical.
By grouping survey occupational levels
into the four occupational groups shown
in chart 2, differences in the rate of
change of average salaries since 1961
can be illustrated. 5 Beginning with the
1965-66 period, pay for entry and develop­
mental level professional and administra­
tive positions increased each year at a
faster pace than for clerical, technical
support, or experienced professional and
administrative positions. In the 1969-70
period, however, although again showing
the highest percent increase, the entry

clerical supervisory occupations advanced
between 6. 0 and 7. 0 percent. Increases
were generally higher than had been r e ­
corded for any other year period since
1961-62, when the Bureau began m e a s ­
uring white-collar wage trends on a na­
tional basis.
To examine the changes in salaries
that have occurred since 1961 for differ­
ent levels of work, all of the occupa­
tional classifications were grouped into
the three broad categories described in
table B w h i c h f o l l o w s .
The yea rto-year percent increases for each group
were determined by adding average sa l­
aries for all occupations in the group for
2 consecutive years, and dividing t h e
later sum by the earlier sum. The r e ­
sultant relative, less 100, shows the p e r ­
cent of increase.
Changes in the scope
of the survey or in the occupational def­
initions were incorporated into the series
as soon as comparable data for 2 conse­
cutive periods were available.
The 10
year trends were o b t a i n e d by linking
changes for the individual periods.
Average salaries increased more for
the higher occupational levels (group C ),
than for the other two groupings from
1961 through 1966, with the exception of
the 1962-63 period.
During the periods
between 1966 and 1969* however, while
all three g r o u p s showed successively
higher y e a r -to -y e a r increases, group B
(middle occupational levels)reported larger

5 The base year 1967=100 is used to conform with
uniform Federal statistical practice,,
Work levels used for computing 1970-71 increase were:
C le ric al—All clerical levels for which data are shown
in table 1.
Technical support—A ll levels of draftsmen and engi­
neering technicians for which data are shown in table 1.
Entry and developm ental professional and adm inistra­
tiv e —Accountants I and II; auditors I and II; job analysts
I and II; chemists I and II; and engineers I and II.
Experienced professional and adm inistrative—Accountants III, IV, and V; auditors III and IV; chief accountants
I, II, III, and IV; attorneys II, III, IV, V, and VI; job
analysts III and IV; directors of personnel I, II, III, and IV;
chemists III, IV, V, VI, VII, and VIII; and engineers III,
IV, V, VI, VII, and VIII.
A few survey levels, not readily identifiable with
any of the four occupational categories, were not used.
The 1966-67 increases were prorated to a 12-month
period. A change in survey tim ing in 1967 resulted in a
longer period between surveys.

Table B. Percent increases in average salaries, 1961-71, by work level category
Work level categories 1

Group A (GS grades 1-4 in
appendix D ) ---------------------------------Group B (GS grades 5-10 in
appendix D ) --------------------------------Group C (GS grades 11-15 in
appendix D ) ----------------------------------

1961
to
1962

1962
to
1963

1963
to
1964

1964
to
1965

1965
to
1966

2 .8

2.7

2 .7

2 .2

2 .9

4 .5

2 .6

4 .0

2 .6

3 .3

3 .7

3 .5

3 .7

3 .5

4 .2

4 .2

1966
to
1967 2

1967
to
1968

1968
to
1969

1969
to
1970

1970
to
1971

1961
to
1971 2

5. 1

5 .5

6 .2

6 .2

49. 1

4 .8

5 .8

6 .5

6 .3

6 .3

56. 5

4. 1

4 .7

5 .9

6 .4

6 .2

5 7 .4

1 Work levels used for computing 1970 to 1971 increases are:
Group A --A ll levels of accounting clerks, file clerks, keypunch operators, stenographers, and typists; draftsmentracers; draftsmen I; engineering technicians I and II; keypunch supervisors I and II; messengers (office boys and girls);
and secretaries I.
Group B--Accountants I, II, and III; auditors I, II, and III; buyers I, II, and III; chemists I, II, and III; drafts­
men II and III; engineers I, II, and III; engineering technicians III, IV, and V; job analysts I, II, and III; keypunch
supervisors III and IV; and secretaries II, III, and IV.
Group C--Accountants IV and V; attorneys II, III, IV, V, and VI; auditors IV; buyers IV; chemists IV, V, VI, VII,
and VIII; chief accountants I, II, III, and IV; directors of personnel I, II, III, and IV; engineers IV, V, VI, VII, and
VIII; and job analysts IV.
2 Actual survey-to-survey increases have been prorated to a 12-month period because changes in tim ing length­
ened the period between the 1966 and 1967 surveys.




5

CHART 2

Rates of Salary Changes for Selected Occupational Groups,
1961 to 1971

O C C U P A TIO N A L IN D E X E S (1967 = 100)




6

positions such as chief accountant
director of personnel. 6

and developmental group was the only one
which increased at a slower rate than in
the previous year.
Between June 1970,
and June 1971, both the entry and develop­
mental and experienced professional and
administrative groups showed declines in
the rate of increase from the previous
survey period, and the former group had
t h e smallest y ea r -to -y ea r increase of
any of the four groups.

A v e r a g e s ala rie s, J u n e 1971

Average monthly salaries for the oc­
cupations included in this report ranged
from $366 for file clerks I to $2 , 7 8 1
for the top level of attorney surveyed
( t a b l e 1).
These extremes reflect the
wide range of duties and responsibilities
represented by the occupational work
levels surveyed.
Average salaries for
the occupational levels, and a brief in­
dication of the duties and responsibilities
they represent, are summarized in the
following paragraphs. 7
Among the five levels of a c c o u n ta n ts
surveyed, average monthly salaries ranged
from $748 for accountants I to $ 1 , 3 8 6
for accountants V. A u d i t o r s in the four
levels d e f i n e d for survey had average
salaries ranging from $ 783 a month for
a u d i t o r s I to $ 1 , 2 6 1 for auditors IV.
Level I in both the accounting and auditing
series included trainees who had bache­
lo r's degrees in accounting or the equi­
valent in education and experience co m ­
bined. At each corresponding level, aver­
age salaries were higher for auditors
than for accountants. For level III, the
most heavily populated group in both s e ­
ries, m o n t h l y salaries averaged $949
for accountants and $ 1 , 0 1 9 for auditors.
Whereas a l m o s t 70 percent of the ac­
countants were employed in manufactur­
ing, this industry division employed 40
percent of the auditors. 8 Other industry
divisions which accounted for large num­
bers of auditors were finance, insur­
ance, and real estate (29 percent), and
public utilities (16 percent).
T h e pro­
portion of employees in each major in­
dustry division within scope of the sur­
vey is shown by occupation in table 7
and p r e s e n t e d graphically in chart 5,
page 14.
C h ie f a c c o u n ta n ts were surveyed sepa­
rately from accountants and included thos e
who develop or adapt and direct the a c­
counting program for a company or an
establishment (plant) of a company. Level

Average salaries of clerical and tech­
nical support workers increased over the
10-year period by practically identical
percentage amounts, but have not main­
tained pace with increases for the two
professional and administrative occupa­
tional groups. For the clerical and tech­
nical support groups, salaries increased
at an average annual rate of 4. 1 percent
over the period. For the twoprofessional
and administrative categories, the aver­
age rates of increase were 4. 6 percent
for the experienced group and 4. 9 per­
cent for the entry and developmental em ­
ployee group.
Changes in average salaries reflect
not only general salary increases and
merit or other increases given to indi­
v i d u a l s while in the same work level
category, but they also may reflect other
factors such as employee turnover, ex­
pansions or reductions in the work force,
and changes in staffing patterns within
establishments with different salary levels.
For example, an expansion in force may
increase the proportion of employees at
the minimum of the salary range estab­
lished for a work level, which would tend
to lower the average, whereas, a reduc­
tion or a low turnover in the work force
may have the opposite effect. Similarly,
yea r-to -y ea r promotions of employees to
higher work levels of professional and
administrative occupations may a f f e c t
a v e r a g e salaries, lowering or raising
the average.
For example, the estab­
lished salary ranges for such occupations
are relatively wide, and promoted em ­
ployees, who may have been paid the
m a x i m u m of the salary scale for the
lower level, are likely to be replaced by
less experienced employees who may be
paid the m i n i m u m ; or vacancies may
exist at the time of the resurvey.
O c­
c u p a t i o n s most likely to reflect such
changes in the salary averages are the
higher levels of professional and admini­
strative occupations and single incumbent




and

® These types of occupations also may be subject to
greater sampling error, as explained in the last paragraph
of appendix A.
7 C lassification of employees in the occupations and
work levels surveyed was based on factors detailed in the
definitions in appendix C.
® Establishments prim arily engaged in providing a c ­
counting and auditing services were excluded from the survey.

7

classification-was determined by the ex­
t e n t of delegated authority and respon­
sibility; t h e technical complexity of the
system; and, to a lesser degree, the
size of the professional s t a f f directed.
Chief accountants at l e v e l I, who have
authority to adapt the accounting system,
established at higher levels, to meet the
the needs of an establishment of a com­
pany with relatively few and stable func­
tions and work processes (directing one
or two accountants), averaged $ 1,2 0 4 a
month. Chief accountants IV, 9 who have
authority to establish and maintain the'
accounting program, subject to general
policy guidelines, for a c o m p a n y with
numerous and varied functions and work
processes (directing as many as 40 a c­
countants), averaged $ 2 , 0 5 0 a month.
About three-fifths of the chief account­
ants who met the requirements of the
definitions for these four levels were em ­
ployed in manufacturing industries, while
about one-eighth were in the finance, in­
surance, and real estate divisions.
A tto r n e y s were classified into survey
levels based upon the difficulty of their
assignments and their responsibilities. 10
Attorneys II, the lowest level defined for
survey for which data could be presented,
averaged $ 1 , 1 9 5 a month. 1 Attorneys in
1
the top level surveyed, level VI, earned
an average of $ 2 , 7 8 1 a month.
These
attorneys dealt with legal matters of crit­
ical importance to their organizations,
and were usually subordinate only to the
general counsel or his immediate deputy
in very large firm s. Finance, insurance,
and real estate industries employed al­
most four-tenths of the attorneys; manu­
facturing industries employed about threetenths; and a high proportion of the re­
mainder were employed in public utili­
ties (about one-fifth).
B u yers averaged $ 750 a month at level
I, which included those who purchased
" o ff-t h e -s h e lf” and readily available items
and services from local sources. Buyers
IV, who purchased large amounts of highly
complex and technical items, materials,
or services were paid monthly salaries
averaging $ 1 ,2 3 2 .12 Manufacturing in­
dustries accounted for 86 percent of the
buyers in the four levels.
In the personnel management field,
four work levels of j o b a n a l y s t s and five
l e v e l s of d i r e c t o r s o f p e r s o n n e l were
studied. 13 Job analysts I, defined to in­
clude trainees under immediate super­




vision, averaged $7 6 9 , compared with
$ 1 , 1 7 5 for job analysts IV, who analyze
and evaluate a variety of the more dif­
ficult jobs under general supervision and
who may participate in the development
and installation of evaluation or co m ­
pensation systems.
Directors of p e r ­
sonnel were limited by definition to those
who had programs that included, at a
minimum, responsibility for administer­
ing a job evaluation system, employment
and placement functions, and employee
relations and services functions.
Those
with significant responsibility for actual
contract negotiation with labor unions as
the principal company.representative were
excluded. Provisions were made in the
definition for weighing various combina­
tions of d u t i e s and responsibilities to
determine the level classification. Among
personnel directors with job functions as
specified for the four levels of responsi­
bility, average monthly salaries ranged
from $ 1 , 1 4 4 for level I to $ 1, 989 for
level IV.
Manufacturing industries ac­
counted for 66 percent of the job analysts
and 74 percent of the directors of per­
sonnel included in the study; the finance,
insurance,
and real estate industries
ranked next, with 22 percent of the job
analysts and 10 percent of the directors
of personnel.
C h e m i s t s and e n g i n e e r s each were su r­
veyed in eight levels. Both series started
with a professional trainee level, typically
requiring a B. S. degree.
The highest
level surveyed involved either full respon­
sibility over a very broad and highly co m ­
plex and diversified engineering or chemi­
cal program, with several subordinates
each directing large and important se g ­
ments of the program; or individual re ­
search and consultation in difficult prob­
lem areas where the engineer or chemist
was a recognized authority and where solu­
tions would repres ent a major scientific or
technological advance.14 Average monthly
^ Although chief accountants V, attorneys I, buyers V,
and directors of personnel V were surveyed, as defined in a p ­
pendix C, too few em ployees in each occupational level met
requirements for the level to warrant presentation on salary
figures.
10 Establishments prim arily engaged in offering legal
advice or legal services were excluded from the survey.
11 Footnote 9, op. cit.
12 Footnote 9, op. cit.
13 Footnote 9, op. cit.
It was recognied in the definition that top position
of some companies with unusually extensive and com plex
engineering or chem ical programs were above that level.

8

turing industries, ratios of approximately
1 to 3 were found in establishments manu­
facturing mechanical and electrical equip­
ment and 1 to 2 in research, develop­
ment, and testing laboratories.

salaries ranged from $890 for engineers
I to $ 2, 228 for engineers VIII, and from
$ 807 for chemists I to $ 2, 476 for chemists
VIII.
Although, at level I, the average
salaries of engineers exceeded those for
chemists by 10 percent, at level IV the
difference narrowed to 3 percent, and at
level VIII, the average salaries of chemists
exceeded those for engineers by 11 p er­
cent.
Level IV, the largest group in
each series, included professional em ­
ployees who were fully competent in all
technical aspects of their assignments,
worked with considerable independence,
and, in some cases, supervised a few
profes sional and technical workers. Man­
ufacturing industries accounted for about
three-fourths of all engineers and ninetenths of all chemists; public utilities,
II and less than 1 percent, respectively;
and the surveyed engineering and scien­
tific services employed virtually all of
the others.
By definition, the five-level series for
e n g in e e rin g te c h n ic ia n s was limited to e m ­
ployees providing semiprofessional tech­
nical support to engineers engaged in such
areas as research, design, development,
testing, or manufacturing process im ­
provement, and whose work pertained to
electrical, electronic, or mechanical co m ­
ponents or equipment.
Technicians en­
gaged primarily in production or main­
tenance work were excluded. Engineer­
ing technicians I, who performed simple,
routine tasks under close supervision, or
from d e t a i l e d procedures, were paid
monthly salaries averaging $571.
Engi­
neering technicians V, the highest level
surveyed, averaged $985 a month. That
level included fully experienced techni­
cians performing more complex assign­
ments involving responsibility for plan­
ning and conducting a complete project of
relatively limited scope, or a portion of
a larger and more diverse project in a c­
cordance with objectives, requirements,
and design approaches as outlined by the
supervisor or a professional engineer.
Averages for intermediate levels III and
IV at which a majority of the technicians
surveyed were classified, were $ 762 and
$866, respectively. As mightbe expected,
nearly all of the technicians as defined
were employed in manufacturing (74 p er­
cent) and in the scientific services indus­
tries studied (16 percent). Although the
ratio of such technicians
to engineers
studied was about 1 to 4 in all manufac­




In the d r a f t i n g f i e l d , the definitions
used in the survey covered four levels
of work— draftsmen-tracers , and drafts­
men I, II, and III.
Monthly salaries
averaged $491 for draftsmen-tracers and
ranged from $ 602 and $900 among the
three levels of draftsmen.
Draftsmentracers copy plans and drawings pre­
pared by others or prepare simple or r e petive drawings of easily v i s u a l i z e d
items.
The three draftsmen levels as
defined ranged from employees preparing
detail drawings of single units or parts
(level I) to those who, working in close
support with the design originator, plan
the graphic presentation of complex items
having distinctive design features, and
either prepare or direct the preparation
of the drawings (level III).
The draft­
ing employees were distributed by indus­
try in about the same proportion as engi­
neers, with 75 percent in manufacturing,
8 percent in public utilities, and 12 per­
cent in the selected engineering and s c i ­
entific services industries studied.
K e y p u n c h su perviso rs were classified
on the basis
of combinations of three
elements— level of supervisory responsi­
bility, difficulty of keypunch work super­
vised, and number of employees super­
vised. Keypunch supervisors I, who were
responsible for the day-to-day supervision
of fewer than 20 operators performing
routine keypunching operations, averaged
$599 a month.
At level V, the highest
level defined for survey, keypunch super­
visors averaged $943. Individuals c la ssi­
fied at this level supervised more com­
plex keypunching operations, 50 or more
operators, and performed at a higher
level of supervisory authority.
Among the 16 c l e r i c a l j o b s included
in this study, average monthly salaries
for secretaries, the most heavily popu­
lated clerical occupation studied, ranged
from $555 at level I to $ 724 at level
IV. Average salaries of $494 and $555
were reported for general and senior
stenographers; $467 and $600 for ac­
counting clerks I and II; and the two levels
of typists averaged $418 and $483. Gen­
erally, average salaries for clerical work­
ers were highest in public utilities and

9

averages for all establishments combined.
Only in eight of the 75 work levels studied
were average salaries m ore than 1. 5 (but
not m ore than 2. 5) p e r c e n t higher in
metropolitan areas than in all areas com ­
bined; in all of these cases the propor­
tion of the total employment within non­
metropolitan counties ranged approxi­
mately between one-tenth and one-third.
Increases in average salaries in m e t­
ropolitan area establishments from June
1970 to June 1971 were within one-half
percentage point of increases reported for
all areas studied in 54 of the 74 levels
for which y e a r -to -y e a r increases were
reported.
The y e a r -to -y e a r increases
in metropolitan areas compared with all
areas were larger for 40, sm aller for
24 levels, and the same for 10.

manufacturing industries and lowest in
the finance, insurance, and real estate,
and retail trade divisions.
Employment
in manufacturing exceeded that in any of
the nonmanufacturing d i v i s i o n s within
scope of the survey in 11 of the 16 c le r i­
cal work levels; highest employment totals
in the other five levels were in the f i ­
nance, insurance, and real estate divi­
sion.
Women accounted for 95 percent
or m ore of the employees in 12 of the
c l e r i c a l work lev els, while men a c ­
counted for one-half or more in only one
(mes senger).
Median monthly salaries (the amount
below and above which 50 percent of the
employees were found) for m ost of the
work levels were slightly lower than the
weighted averages (means) cited above
(i. e. , the salaries in the upper halves
of the arrays had a greater effect on the
averages than did the salaries in the lower
halves). The relative difference between
the median and the mean was less than 3
percent for 60 of the 76 work levels and
between 3 and 7 percent in the 16 other
le v e ls .

S a l a r y l e v e l s in l a r g e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s

It was possible to present separate
data for 73 of the 76 occupation work
levels for all establishments with 2 ,5 0 0
e m p l o y e e s or more (table 3).
Com ­
parisons between employments and r e l­
ative salary levels in these establish­
ments and all establishments combined
also are presented. Establishments e m ­
ploying 2, 500 or m ore accounted for over
one-third of the professional, adm inistra­
tive, supervisory, and clerical em ploy­
ment within scope of the survey, and alm ost
three-eighths of the employment in selected
occupations studied. Large establishments
accounted for varying proportions of total
employment in the 73 occupational work
levels shown in table 3, ranging from 7
to 80 percent (directors of personnel II
and job analysts IV, respectively).

S a l a r y l e v e l s in m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s

In m ost of the occupational work levels ,
average salaries for employees in m e tro ­
politan areas (table 2) were either identical
to or slightly higher than average salaries
for employees in all establishments within
full scope of the survey (table 1). Em ­
ployment in the survey occupations in
metropolitan areas accounted for about
seven-eighths of the total nationwide em ­
ployment reported in these occupations.
The proportions varied, however, among
occupations and work levels. Nearly all
of the attorneys at each level, for ex­
ample, were employed in metropolitan
areas, whereas the proportion of chief
accountants and directors of personnel
for all levels combined was approximately
four-fifths and three-fourths, respectively,
with a sm aller proportion at the lowest
levels. In 57 of the 75 work levels studied,
85 percent or more of the employment
was in metropolitan areas.
It is ap­
parent, therefore, that although average
salaries usually were lower in nonmetro­
politan counties, in those work levels in
which nearly all of the employment was
in metropolitan areas, nonmetropolitan
counties could have little effect upon the.




The salary levels in large establish­
m ents, expressed as a percent of levels
in all establishments combined ranged
from 101 for auditors IV, buyers IV,
and job analysts II to 132 for directors
of personnel II. As shown in the follow ­
ing tabulation, salary averages for large
£ establishments exceeded the all estab­
lishment averages by 5 percent or m ore
in 20 of 21 clerical and clerical super­
visory job s, but in only 25 of 52 non­
clerical jobs.
The relative s a l a r y levels in large
establishments tended to be highest for
work levels in which such establishments
accounted for the sm allest proportion of
the total employment.
Thus, while the
10

Pay lev els in larg e
estab lish m en ts as
p e rc e n t of a ll e s ta b lis h ­
m e n t a v e ra g e

D istrib u tio n of w ork le v e ls by
d e g re e of disp ersio n (salary
ra n g e of m id d le 50 p e rc e n t of
e m p lo y ees expressed as a p e r -

N u m b er of job c a te g o rie s
C le r ic a l
P rofessional,
and
c le r ic a l
a d m in is tra tiv e ,
and te c h n ic a l
supervisory

T o t a l --------------------------

52

21

-1 0 4 — ....................................
>-109 -------------------------------) and o v e r ------------------------

27
17
8

1
14
6

O c c u p a tio n a l group
A ll l e v e l s -----------------

S a la ry distributions

P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n s of e m p l o y e e s b y
m o n t h l y s a l a r i e s a r e p r e s e n t e d f o r t he
p r o f e s s i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o c c u p a ­
t i o n s i n t a b l e 4, a n d f o r e n g i n e e r i n g t e c h ­
n i c i a n s a n d k e y p u n c h s u p e r v i s o r s in t a b l e
5; d i s t r i b u t i o n s b y w e e k l y s a l a r i e s a r e
show n fo r e m p l o y e e s in d r a f t i n g and
c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s i n t a b l e 6. 15 W i t h i n
a l m o s t a l l o f t h e 76 o c c u p a t i o n w o r k l e v e l s ,
s a l a r y r a t e s f o r s o m e of t h e h i g h e s t p a i d
e m p l o y e e s w e r e t w i c e t h o s e of t h e l o w e s t
paid em ployees.
The absolute s p r e a d
b e tw e e n h ig h e st and lo w e st paid w o r k e r s
w ith in given w o r k l e v e l s te n d e d to w id e n
with each s u c c e s s iv e w ork level for m o s t
o c c u p a tio n s in w h ic h two le v e ls o r m o r e
w e r e s u r v e y e d . All o c c u p a tio n s in w hich
t w o l e v e l s o r m o r e of w o r k w e r e s u r v e y e d
sh o w e d a s u b s t a n t i a l d e g r e e of o v e r l a p p i n g
of i n d i v i d u a l s a l a r i e s b e t w e e n w o r k l e v e l s
in the s a m e o c c u p a tio n .
R a n g e s in s a l a r y
r a t e s of e m p l o y e e s in. e s t a b l i s h e d p a y
g r a d e s o r w o r k l e v e l s w i t h i n s a i a r y s 1r u e t u r e s of i n d i v i d u a l f i r m s a l s o o v e r l a p p e d
substantially.
T h e m i d d l e 50 a n d 80 p e r c e n t o f t h e
r a n g e , and the m e d i a n s a l a r y fo r e a c h
occupation w ork level have been charted
( c h a r t s 3 a n d 4) t o p o i n t u p o c c u p a t i o n a l
p a y r e l a t i o n s h i p s as well as the t y p ic a lly
g r e a t e r d e g r e e of s a l a r y d i s p e r s i o n a s ­
s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e h i g h e r w o r k l e v e l s in
each occupational s e rie s .
E x p r e s s i n g t h e s a l a r y r a n g e of t h e
m i d d l e 50 p e r c e n t o f e m p l o y e e s i n e a c h
w o r k l e v e l a s a p e r c e n t of t h e m e d i a n
s a l a r y p e r m i t t e d c o m p a r i s o n of s a l a r y
r a n g e s on t h e s a m e b a s i s a n d e l i m i n a t e d
e x t r e m e low and h ig h s a l a r i e s f r o m e a c h
c o m p a r i s o n . As sh o w n in the ta b u la tio n ,

76

A c c o u n ta n ts ---- --------------------A u d ito r s -----------------------------C h ief a c c o u n ta n ts --------------A t t o r n e y s ---------------------------B u y e rs--------------------------------Job a n a l y s t s -----------------------D irecto rs of p e rso n n e l---- - —
C h em ists ---------------------------E n g in e e r s ---------------------------E ngin eerin g t e c h n i c i a n s -----D r a f t i n g -----------------------------K eypunch s u p e rv is o rs ---------C l e r i c a l ------------------------------

d e g r e e of e m p l o y m e n t c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n
l a r g e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s r a n g e d f r o m 9 t o 56
p e r c e n t for c l e r ic a l and c le r ic a l s u p e r ­
v i s o r y j o b s , s u c h f i r m s c o n t r i b u t e d 40
p e r c e n t o r m o r e of t h e e m p l o y m e n t i n
o v e r o n e - h a l f of t h e n o n c l e r i c a l
jobs.




20
15
25
and
and
and
U nder under under under
T o ta l
15
20
25
30

5
4
4
5
4
4
4
8
8
5
4
5
16

3

23
5
2
2

1

1

2

3
5
4

1

37

2
2
3
4
2
3
5
1
1
4
3
7

13

2

1

2
8

t h e d e g r e e o f d i s p e r s i o n w a s b e t w e e n 15
a nd 3 0 p e r c e n t of t h e m e d i a n s a l a r y i n
a l l b u t t h r e e w o r k l e v e l s ( 13. 7 p e r c e n t
f o r j o b a n a l y s t s I, 12. 7 p e r c e n t f o r e n g i ­
n e e r s II, a n d 1 1 . 4 p e r c e n t f o r e n g i n e e r s
I).
T h i s r e l a t i v e s p r e a d t e n d e d to b e
s m a l l e r for the p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a ­
t i v e , and e n g in e e rin g te c h n ic ia n w o r k
l e v e l s t h a n f o r t h e cleric,:-nu u r a m n g
levels studied.
D i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e r a n g e of s a l a r i e s
paid individuals within w ork levels s u r ­
v e y e d r e f l e c t a v a r i e t y of f a c t o r s o t h e r
t h a n d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e r a n g e of d u t i e s
and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s e n c o m p a s s e d b y the
v ario u s w ork level definitions.
T w o of
these factors are sa la ry stru c tu re s w ith­
in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w h ic h p r o v i d e for a
r a n g e of r a t e s f o r e a c h g r a d e l e v e l a n d
r e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y in the
cle ric a l levels (c le ric al em ployees are
u s u a l l y r e c r u i t e d l o c a lly , w h ile the job
f i e l d t e n d s to b e b r o a d e r r e g i o n a l l y , o f t e n
n a t i o n a l in s c o p e , f o r th e p r o f e s s i o n a l
a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n s ) . 16
As
p o in te d out e a r l i e r (and in d ic a te d in ta b le
7 a n d c h a r t 5), e m p l o y m e n t i n t h e v a r i o u s
i n d u s t r i e s w i t h i n s c o p e of t h e s u r v e y
v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y f r o m o c c u p a t i o n to
15 T e c h n ic a l c o n sid eratio n s d ic ta te d th e su m m a riz a ­
tio n of e m p lo y e e d istrib u tio n s by w eek ly sa la rie s for d raftin g
and c le r ic a l jo b s.
For an analysis of in te ra re a pay d iffe re n tia ls in
c le r ic a l sa la rie s, see A rea W age Surveys: M e tro p o lita n A re a s,
U n ited S tates and R e g io n a l S u m m a rie s. 1 9 6 9 -7 0 (BLS B ul­
le tin 1 6 6 0 -9 2 , 1972).

11

CHART 3

Salaries in Professional and Technical Occupations, June 1971

M e d ian M o n th ly Salaries and Ranges W ith in W h ic h Fe ll 5 0 P ercent and 8 0 P ercent o f E m p loy ees

0

$500

$1,000

$1,500

$2,000

$2,500

O CCUPATIO N A ND CLASS
M EDIAN
I
'
FIRST Q U A R TILE ^ j ^ TH IR D Q U A R TILE

Accountants

I
II

FIRST DECILE — M

fa

I-----N IN TH DECILE

rasd

m & r .i

III
IV
V
Auditors

I
II
III

nxsn
cx

IV
Chief accountants

c u m =□
m m

I

r r w
Co e s t
:
r~.... f"
I B '

II
III
IV
Attorneys

II

CUTE

III
IV
V
VI
Chemists

.....J

tmrwm
i ----r

XT

I

cm

II
ill
IV

m ui
r r w
CX

V

3 = ]

VI

:

32223

V II
V III
Engineers

am:

I

m in
3SO

II
III

CCM

IV

cxc 5XZ]

V
VI

CZXX3SSXZZX:

V II
V III
Engineering technicians

I
II
III
IV
V

Draftsmen-tracers
Draftsmen




I
II
III

rprai
CEEn
um n
m
rx p n

Cnsn

XO
co x

12

$3,000

$3,500

$4,000

CHART 4

Salaries in Administrative and Clerical Occupations, June 1971

M e d ian M o n th ly Salaries and Ranges W ith in W hich Fell 5 0 P ercen t and 8 0 P ercent o f E m p loy ees

0

$400

$800

$1,200

O CCUPATIO N A ND CLASS

Directors of personnel I
II
III
IV
Job analysts I
II
III
IV
Buyers I
II
III
IV
Keypunch supervisors I
II
III
IV
V
Secretaries I
II
III
IV
Clerks, accounting I
II
Stenographers, general
Stenographers, senior
Keypunch operators I
II
Clerks, file I
II
III
Typists I
II
Messengers (office boys
and girls)




13

$1,600

$2,000

$2,400

$2,800

CHART 5

Relative Employment in Selected Occupational Groups by Industry Division,
June 1971

PER C EN T

O C C U P A T IO N A L
0

GROUPS

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

A c c o u n ta n ts and
c h ie f a c c o u n ta n ts

A u d ito rs

A tto rn e y s

Buyers

D ire c to rs o f personnel
and jo b analysts

C hem ists

Engineers

E ngineering techn icians
and d ra fts m e n

K ey p u n c h supervisors

C lerical em plo yee s




Manufacturing

Public utilities

14

Finance, insurance
and real estate

Trade and selected services

industry divisions. It is apparent, there­
fore, that in those occupations in which
retail trade and the finance industries in­
clude a substantial proportion of the total
employment, the average salaries for all
industries combined are lowered, and the
relative levels in industries such as manu­
facturing and public utilities tend to be
well above 100 percent of the all-industry
level. For example, relative pay levels
for file clerks of 108 percent in manu­
facturing and 127 percent in public utilities
reflect the influence of lower salaries
for the high proportion (60 percent) of
all-industry employment included in the
finance industries.
The finance indus­
tries, however, also reported lower aver­
age standard weekly hour s than in the other
industries surveyed, as shown in table 9.

occupation. These variations in employ­
ment are reflected also in salary levels
and distributions to the extent that sa l­
aries differ by industry, as explained in
the following section.
P a y d i f f e r e n c e s by in d u s try

The survey was p l a n n e d to permit
publication of national salary estimates
by level of work. By combining the data
for all levels of work studied in each o c ­
cupation, it was possible to present com ­
parisons between relative salary levels in
major industry divisions and all industries
combined (table 8).
To obtain relative
salary levels, the all-industry employ­
ment in each work level was used as a
constant employment weight to compute
aggregates in each industry division to
e l i m i n a t e the influence of differences
among industry divisions in the propor­
tion of e m p l o y m e n t in various work
levels. The industry division aggregates
for work levels within an occupation were
combined and expressed as percentages
of the corresponding aggregates in all in­
dustries combined.
The relative salary levels for most
of the professional, administrative, c le ri­
cal supervisory, and technical support
occupations tended to be nearest 100 p er­
cent of the all-industry levels in manu­
facturing, which had 61 to 9 2 percent of
the employees in 9 of the 12 occupations.
Relative salary levels in the public utilities
and selected services industries were
generally the highest.
Relative salary
levels for all of the c l e r i c a l occupa­
tions were highest in the public utilities
industries.
For all of the clerical and clerical
supervisory occupations studied, and for
a majority of the professional and admini­
strative occupations in which comparisons
could be made, relative salary levels
were lower in retail trade and in finance,
insurance, and real estate than in other




A v e ra g e standard w e e k ly hours

The length of the standard workweek,
on which the regular straight-time salary
was based, was obtained for individual
employees in the occupations studied.
When individual weekly hours were not
available, particularly for some higher
level professional and administrative po­
sitions, the predominant workweek of the
office work force was used as the stand­
ard workweek. The distribution of aver­
age weekly hours (rounded to the nearest
half hour) is presented in table 9 for all
work levels of each occupation combined
in major industry divisions surveyed.
Average weekly hours were lower in fi­
nance, insurance, and real estate than
in the other industry divisions.
Thus,
in finance industries, workweeks aver­
aged 38 hours for a majority of the oc­
cupations, compared to 39 or 39. 5 hours
in the remaining industries surveyed. 1
7
17 For information on scheduled weekly hours of officeworkers employed in metropolitan areas, see Area Wage
Surveys: Selected Metropolitan Areas. 1969-70 (BLS Bul­
letin 1660-91, 1971).

15

T a b l e 1. A v e r a g e s a l a r i e s : U n i t e d S t a t e s
(E m ploym ent and av e ra g e s a la r ie s for selected pro fessio n al, a d m in is tra tiv e , tec hnic al, and c le ric a l occupations
in p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y , 1 U n i t e d S t a t e s e x c e p t A l a s k a a n d H a w a i i , J u n e 1 9 71 , a n d p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e in
m e a n s a l a r i e s durin g the y e a r 2 )
M onthly s a l a r i e s 4
O ccupation and c la ss
( S e e d e f i n i t i o n s i n a p p e n d i x C)

N um ber
of
em ployees 3

M ean

M edian

A n n u a l s;a l a r i e s 4

M iddle r a n g e 5
F irst
q u artile

M iddle ra n g e 5
M ean

T hird
q u artile

M edian
F irst
quartile

T hird
q u artile

Percent
increase
in
m ean
salaries 2

A ccountants and au d ito rs
A ccountants
A ccountants
A ccountants
A ccountants
A ccountants
A uditors
A uditors
A uditors
A uditors
C hie f
C hief
C hie f
C hie f

I ------------- ------------------ -------II . . . . . ---------. . . __________ . . . .
I I I ............................... .............
..........
IV . .. ___________________________
V _____ _____ _______ _____ ___________

------------------ --------I -----------------------II _____
_. ______ _______ ___________
III . . . ______. . .
___________________
IV ___ _______ _ . . . . . .
. . . . .

accountants
accountants
accountants
accountants

I .. . . . _____ ______ .
I I ____________ ________________
I I I . . . ______
. ...
I V . ______ . . . . . . .
____

4, 353
10,697
25,722
17,787
6, 282

$748
851
949
1, 138
1, 386

$750
84 0
93 7
1, 124
1, 374

$692
770
850
1, 026
1,250

$805
92 8
1,033
1,239
1,503

$ 8,975
10,213
11,383
13,654
16,626

$ 9 , 00 0
10,080
11,244
13,488
16,488

$ 8 , 304
9, 240
10,200
12,312
15,000

$9,660
11, 136
12,396
14,868
18,036

5.
6.
6.
7.
7.

6
3
5
0
4

786
2, 177
4,0 9 9
2, 557

783
887
1,019
1, 261

7 70
8 64
1,000
1,250

694
791
90 5
1, 143

87 5
960
1,111
1,362

9,401
10,643
12,227
15, 136

9, 24 0
10,368
12,000
15,000

8, 328
9,492
10,860
13,716

10,500
11,520
13,332
, 16,344

5.
6.
6.
7.

7
9
6
8

396
1, 274
697
218

1, 204
1,433
1, 741
2, 050

1, 125
1,433
1,650
2,0 0 0

1,083
1,266
1, 540
1,8 1 1

1, 349
1,542
1,8 5 0
2 , 303

14,449
17, 191
2 0,897
2 4,597

13, 500
17,196
19,800
2 4,000

12,996
15,192
18,480
21,732

16,188
18,504,
22,200
2 7,636

3.
9.
11.
6.

8
9
3
3

1, 099
2, 109
1, 543
806
47 6

1, 195
1,4 5 9
1, 848
2, 190
2, 781

1, 167
1,412
1, 78 3
2, 166
2,730

1,063
1, 250
1,616
1,898
2,4 2 4

1, 320
1,633
2, 02 9
2,4 7 4
3,082

14,345
17,509
2 2 , 178
2 6 ,277
33, 375

14,004
16,944
2 1 , 396
25,992
32,760

12,756
15,000
19,392
22,776
2 9 ,088

15,840
19,596
24,348
29,688
36,984

5.
3.
9.
3.
1.

6
7
2
5
0

A ttorneys
A ttorneys
A ttorneys
A ttorneys
A ttorneys
Attorneys:

II
__________ _____ ___________ ___
II I _ ______ __ _____ ____________ _ . . .
IV
_______ ___________
__ . . .
V _____ _________ . . . . _______ _____ _
V I _____________________________________

1
i

Buyer s
B uyers
Buyers
B uyers
B uyers

1 ___________________________________________
II _________________________________________
I I I _________________________________________
I V _________________________________________

2, 704
9, 637
12,340
4 ,672

750
865
1,049
1,2 3 2

736
850
1,035
1,200

666
76 0
926
1,080

821
9 44
1, 155
1, 369

8,9 9 8
10,375
12,585
14,785

8 ,832
10,200
12,420
14,400

7,992
9, 120
11,112
12,960

9 ,852
11,328
13, 860
16,428

5.
6.
7.
6.

7
3
9
4

769
86 6
1,001
1,175

750
865
'99 5
1, 185

709
800
8 99
1,042

812
9 34
1, 100
1,287

9, 232
10,397
12,016
14,103

9,000
10,380
11,940
14,220

8 ,508
9 ,600
10,788
12,504

9, 74 4
11,208
13, 20 0
15,444

3.
8.
7.
8.

3
6
4
2

1, 118
1,282
1,600
1,958

1,000
1, 166
1,450
1,667

1,260
1 , 4 33
1,816
2, 206

13, 4 1 6
15,384

15,120
17,196
21,792
26,472

9.
7.
7.
8.

0
3
6
9

800
900
1,025
1,234
1,475
1,679
1, 979
2,4 2 4

725
82 5
9 25
1, 108
1, 337
1,526
1, 775
2, 166

884
969
1,0 8 6
1,290
1,490
1,695
1,925
2,1 7 3

556
665
756
86 0
97 3

Personnel m anagem ent
Job
Job
Job
Job

analysts
analysts
analysts
analysts

D irectors
D irectors
D irectors
D irectors

of
of
of
of

C h em ists
C h em ists
C hem ists
C h em ists
C h em ists
C hem ists
C hem ists
C h em ists

I ____________________ _______________
II __________ ______________________
III ______ __________________________
IV _________________ ____ ___________
personnel
personnel
personnel
personnel

I ___________ ___________
I I _______________________
II I ____________ ________
IV ____ ___ _ _____ _____

106
332
564
568

!
1
|

1,034
1,651
1, 134
379

1, 144
1, 327
1,6 5 2
1,9 8 9

I _______________________________________
I I _______________________ _____________
III _____________________________________
IV __________________
________________
V . ____________________________________
V I ___________ ___ . _______
____
V I I . ___ _ ____ _
____ ____ ____
V I II ___________________________________

1, 346
4 , 161
8,492
9, 911
7 ,643
4,2 1 8
1, 541
4 58

80 7
89 8
1, 038
1,253
1,494
1, 709
2 ,043
2,476

1 ____________________ _______________
I I ______ _______________ ____________
I I I _______________ __________ _________
I V _________________________ _________
V .. _ _ .............................
V I _____________________________________
VII ___________________________________
VI II ______ _______________ ____________

9,8 6 7
28,748
78,762
108,091
73,938
38,892
14, 169
3, 296

890
9 75
1, 0 9 3
1,295
1,498
1,712
1,959
2,228

j
|

j

13,730
15,920
19,823
23, 872

23, 496

12,000
13,992
17,400
2 0,004

879
970
1, 135
1, 380
1,629
1,866
2, 200
2, 705

9,688
10,776
12,459
15,036
17,928
2 0,514
2 4,520
29,714

9,600
10,800
12,300
14,808
17,700
20,148
2 3 , 748
29,088

8,700
9, 900
11, 100
13,296
16,044
18,312
2 1,300
2 5,992

10,548
11,640
13, 620
16,560
19,548
2 2 ,392
26,400
32,460

5.
5.
6.
5.
5.
4.
6.
7.

7
3
2
8
1
1
9
2

8 39
908
1,004
1, 180
1, 3 65
1, 550
1, 750
1,950

940
1,031
1, 175
1,400
1,617
1,850
2, 125
2,426

10,677
11,694
13, 117
15,535
17,979
2 0,547
2 3 , 508
2 6,736

10,608
11,628
13, 03 2
15,480
17,880
2 0 ,340
2 3 , 100
26,076

10,068
10,896
12,048
14,160
16,380
18,600
21,000
23,400

11,280
12,372
14, 100
16,800
19,404
2 2 ,200
25,500
2 9 , 112

4.
5.
6.
5.
5.
5.
5.
5.

6
6
2
7
7
5
3
3

508
601
690
790
896

626
716
8 30
930
1,067

6,854
7 ,963
9, 148
10,389
11,815

6,6 7 2
7, 86 0
9, 07 2
10,320
11,676

6,0 9 6
7,2 1 2
8,280
9 ,480
10,752

7 ,512
8 ,592
9, 960
11, 160
12,804

8.
5.
7.
5.
7.

8
9
1
6
0

1 9 ,2 0 0

C h e m ists and eng in e ers

Engineers
E ngineers
E ngineers
E ngineers
E ngineer s
E ngineers
E ngineers
E ngineers

I

!

;
1
1
I
|

T ech n ical support
Engineering
Engineering
E ngineering
E ngineering
Engineering

tec h n ic ian s
technicians
tec h n ic ian s
tec h n ic ian s
tec h n ic ian s

I _____________________
I I _____________________
I I I ____________________
IV ____________________
V ...............

3, 675
11, 307
2 3 , 90 3
2 7 ,440
15,744

571
664
762
866
9 85

S e e f o o t n o t e s a t e n d of t a b l e .




16

T a b l e 1. A v e r a g e s a l a r i e s : U n i t e d S t a t e s — C o n t i n u e d
( E m p lo y m e n t a n d a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s f o r s e le c te d p r o f e s s io n a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , te c h n i c a l , a n d c l e r i c a l o c c u p a tio n s
in p r iv a te in d u s t r y , 1 U n ite d S ta te s e x c e p t A la s k a a n d H a w a ii, J u n e 1971, a n d p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e in
m e a n s a l a r i e s d u r in g th e y e a r 2 )
Annual s a l a r i e s 4

M onthly s a l a r i e s 4
O ccupation and c la s s
( S e e d e f i n i t i o n s i n a p p e n d i x C)

Num ber
of
em ployees 3

M iddle r a n g e 5
M ean

M edian

F irst
q u artile

P ercent
increase

M iddle ra n g e 5
M ean

M edian

$ 5 ,889
7, 221
8,812
10,801

Third
q uartile

$ 5 , 735
7 ,070
8,6 7 6
10,461

7,1 9 3
8, 204
8,8 8 3
10,692
11,320

5 ,602
7, 195
4, 395
4,8 3 4
5 ,815
5,469
6, 231
4,853
6 ,660
7,4 4 0
8,0 2 4
8 ,671
5, 931

m ean
salaries 2

F irst
q u artile

T hird
q u artile

$5,0 9 9
6 ,299
7,821
9, 5 14

$ 6 ,4 3 4
7, 959
9,698
11,630

6 ,340
8 , 100
8,700
10,800
10,980

6 ,048
7 ,092
7,644
9,4 0 8
9,9 9 6

8,0 7 6
9, 144
9,7 9 2
11,580
12,324

4. 5
5. 7
7, 1
8. 1
(6 )

5, 399
7 ,019
4 , 259
4,6 8 0
5, 579
5 ,214
6, 100
4,693
6 ,599
7 ,376
7,919
8 ,518
5,756
6, 559
4 , 902
5,631

4, 797
6, 0 7 4
3, 90 4
4 , 171
4, 8 7 5
4 , 67 9
5,4 2 3
4, 199
5,9 3 9
6, 538
6, 987
7, 313
5,099
5, 759
4,4 3 2
5,0 9 9

6 , 153
8 , 158
4 , 739
5,2 5 6
6 ,518
5,999
6,851
5 ,266
7,3 5 2
8,2 8 0
8,968
9,8 3 8
6 ,622
7, 508
5,472
6,332

6. 3
5. 6
6. 7
5. 8
5. 6
6. 9
7. 1
6. 7
6. 4
6. 6
6. 9
6.4
8. 3
6. 7
6. 3
5. 9

T e c h n ic a l s u p p o rt— C on tin u e d
D r a f t s m e n - t r a c e r s __________ ____________________
D r a f t s m e n I ---------------------- ---------------------------- -----D r a f t s m e n I I ...... .....................................................................
D r a f t s m e n III _............. ......................... .............................

4 , 141
16,524
29,979
2 6,806

$491
602
7 34
900

$478
589
723
872

$425
525
65 2
79 3

$536
66 3
808
969

1,109
1,695
1, 141
3 98
98

599
6 84
740
8 91
94 3

570
675
725
900
91 5

504
591
637
784
83 3

673
76 2
816
965
1,027

90,562
62,046
2 8,052
2 7 , 127
7, 8 4 4
6 0,476
49,837
27,907
9 2,462
9 5,738
54,451
16,733
57,819
5 3,674
72,591
41,351

467
600
366
403
485
45 6
519
404
555
620
66 9
72 4
494
555
41 8
483

45 0
58 5
355
390
46 5
43 5
508
391
550
615
66 0
710
480
547
409
46 9

400
506
325
348
406
390
452
350
49 5
545
582
609
425
48 0
369
425

513
680
395
43 8
543
500
571
439
613
69 0
747
82 0
552
62 6
456
528

!

3.
6.
5.
5.

8
1
4
9

C le rica l su p erv iso ry
Keypunch
K eypunch
K eypunch
Keypunch
Keypunch

su p erv iso rs
su p erv iso rs
su p erv iso rs
su p erv iso rs
su p erv iso rs

1 ...................... - ................------ !
11 _____ _____ ___________
I I I ------- ------ ---------------------I V ________________________

V ............................. ..............

!

C lerical
C l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g I _____________________________
C l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g II ___________________________
C l e r k s , f i l e I ____ ________________________________
C l e r k s , f i l e I I __________ __________________________
C l e r k s , f i l e I I I ........ ...............................................................
K e y p u n c h o p e r a t o r s I ___________________________
K e y p u n c h o p e r a t o r s II .....................................................
M e s s e n g e r s ( o f f i c e b o y s a n d g i r l s ) __________
S e c r e t a r i e s I ........................ .......... ........................................
S e c r e t a r i e s II .........................................................................
S e c r e t a r i e s III ___________________________________
S e c r e t a r i e s I V ...................................................... ..................
S t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l . ....................... .........................
S t e n o g r a p h e r s , s e n i o r __________________________
T y p i s t s I ....................................................................................
T y p i s t s I I -------- ----------------- --------- ----------------------

|1

|
1
|

6,666
5,013
5, 79 5

1 F o r s c o p e of s tu d y , s e e t a b le in a p p e n d ix A .
2 F o r lim it a ti o n s of p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e in a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s a s a m e a s u r e of c h a n g e in s a la r y s c a l e s , s e e p. 7
3 O c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t e s t i m a t e s r e l a t e to th e t o ta l in a l l e s ta b l is h m e n t s w ith in s c o p e of th e s u rv e y
v e y e d . F o r f u r t h e r e x p la n a tio n , s e e p. 35.
4 S a l a r i e s r e p o r t e d r e l a t e to th e s ta n d a r d s a l a r i e s th a t w e r e p a id f o r s ta n d a r d w o rk s c h d u le s ; i. e. , th e

of te x t.
a n d n o t to th e n u m b e r a c tu a lly s u r ­

s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r y c o r r e s p o n d in g
to th e e m p lo y e e * s n o r m a l w o rk s c h e d u le e x c lu d in g o v e r t i m e h o u r s . N o n p ro d u c tio n b o n u s e s a r e e x c lu d e d , b u t c o s t- o f - l iv i n g p a y m e n ts a n d in c e n tiv e
e a r n i n g s a r e in c lu d e d .
* T h e m id d le r a n g e ( in t e r q u a r ti le ) u s e d h e r e i s th e c e n t r a l p a r t of th e a r r a y e x c lu d in g th e u p p e r a n d lo w e r f o u r th s of th e e m p lo y e e d i s t r ib u t io n .
N ot p u b lis h e d in 1970.

6




17

T a b l e 2.

A v e r a g e salaries: M e t r o p o lit a n a re a s

( E m p lo y m e n t and a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s for s e le c te d p r o f e s s i o n a l ,
m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s , 1 J u n e 1971)

ad m in istrativ e,

t e c h n i c a l , a n d c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s in p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y ,

M onthly s a l a r i e s 3
Num ber
of
em ployees2

O ccupation and c la ss
( S e e d e f i n i t i o n s i n a p p e n d i x C)

Annual salaries 3

M iddle ra n g e 4
M edian

M ean

M iddle r a n g e 4
XI e a n

Third
q u a r til e

F irst
quartile

1

I

M edian

I

F irst
q u a r t ile

T hird
quartile

$8,400
9, 33 6
10,200
12,420
15,012

j
j

$ 9,720
11,220
1 2, 49 2
1 4,988
18,228

^ {(>o
-q 4 m I i
10,920
13, 716

:v,500
1 1 , 5 m2
1 3 , 3 68
16,380

12,600
15,348
18,492
21,540

16,104
18,696
2 2 ,488
26,964

A c c o u n ta n ts and a u d ito rs
A ccountants
A ccountants
A ccountants
A ccountants
A ccountants
A uditors
A uditors
A u d ; t o i; s
A uditors
C hief
C hief
C hie f
C hief

I ----------------------------------------------------------II -------------------------------- ---- --------- ------ —
i j i --------------------------------------------------------IV --------------------------------------------------------V -----------------------------------------------------------

3, 8 86
9 ■656
21,892
15,232
5, 4 2 4

1 ____________________________________________
3; ------------------------------------------------ --111-------------------------------------------------------------- 1 V ----------------------------------------------------------------

accountants
accountants
accountants
accountants

$7 5 2
858
956
1 ,144
1,394

$7 5 0
850
949
1,125
1,375

750
2,05 3
3, 7 50
2, 397

775
865
1,000
1,250

3 12
1,023
622
198

1,182
1,44 6
1,755
2 , 0 39

1,112
1 , 4 75
1,665
2,0 0 0

1,063
2, 042
1,460
••82
47 5

I -------------------------------------------------I I -----------------------------------------------I I I ----------------------------------------------I V -----------------------------------------------

789
8 68
1,021
1 , 2 6c

1,195
1,463
1,859
2, 185
2, 782

1,167
1,4 1 6
1,799
2, 166
2,730

$ 70 0
778
850
1,035
1,251

1
1

:
1
|

|

700

791
930
1,143

!
1
!
1

1,050
1 j 279
1,541
1,795

!
!

!
i

$81 0 !
a ;:
1,041 i
1, 240 j
1,519

$9,028
30,290
11,471
13,724
16,723

875
00 6
1,1 1 4 1
1,365 !

o , - |
I 0, t- 5 i
3 ’.2 5 0
15, 14 6

1,34 2 :
1,558 I
1,874 i
2,24 7

14,188
17,349
21,059
2 4 , 471

1,3 2 0
1, 64 6
2, 041
2 ,463
3, 08 2

$9,000
10,200
11,388
13,500
16,500
1
1
i
!

14,339
17, 55 3
22,307
26,225
3 3,389

!
,
i

9,3 0 0
10,386
13,000
15,000
13,344
17,700
19,980
24 , 0 00

!
;
■

i

1

A ttorneys
A ttorneys
A ttorneys
A ttorneys
A ttorneys
A ttorneys

II -------------------------------------------------------------H i -----------------------------------------------------------IV ------------------------------------------------------------V --------------------------------------------------------------VI -------------------------------------------------------------

I

1,060
1,252
1,645
1,898
2,429

;
!

1

;
1

12,720
15,024
19,740
22,776
2 9 ,148

15,840
19,752
24,492
2 9,556
3 6 ,984

8, 208
9, 348
11,208
12,984

9,960
11,520
1 3,944
16,476

8 ,484
9, 600
10,920
12,444

9 , 864
11,220
13,200
15,384

13,644
15,600
19,992
24,000

12,780
14,100
17, 58 0
19,500

15,120
17,496
22,152
26,448

9 , 600
10,800
12,480
15,000
17,928
2 0 ,496
24,000
29,280

8 , 700
9, 900
11,220
13,440
16 , 176
18,600
21,504
25, 992

10 , 512
11,712
13,800
16, 800
19,800
22,800
26,700
33,000

10,620
11,652
13,140
15,588
17,988
20,400
23,208
26,208

10,116
10,920
12, 180
14,292
16,500
18, 720
21,120
23,568

11,316
3 2, 40 8
14,220
16, 9 3 2
19,500
2 2 ,296
25,500
29,340

!

1

B uyers

14,004
16,992
21,588
25,992
32,760

i

B uyers
B uyers
B uyers
B uyers

I --------------------------------------------------------------------I I -------------------------------------------------------------------I I I -----------------------------------------------------------------IV ------------------------------------------------------------------

i

2,2 1 2
7,446
10,037
4 , 251

76 3
881
1 ,056
1, 233

104
32 7
469
525

770
86 7
1,003
1,174

690
1, 256
89 3
294

1,1 6 5
1, 345
1,691
1 ,974

750
869
1,040
1, 200

;
;

68 4
779
93 4
1,082

j

!

707
800
91 0
1,037

!
:
!
;

;

830
960
1,162
1,373

I
1

!

9 ,153
10,568
12,672
14,798

9 , 000
10,428
12,480
14,400

:
!
i
i

9,238
10,400
12,041
14,082

9,0 0 0
10,380
12,060
14,100

Personnel m anagem ent
j

Job
Job
Job
Job

analysts
analysts
analysts
analysts

I ----------------------------------------------------------I I ---------------------------------------------------------I I I --------------------------------------------------------I V ---------------------------------------------------------

i

750
86 5
1,005
1,175

i
1
.

82 2
93 5
1 ,1 0 0

1,2 8 2

j

!

i

D irectors
D irectors
D irectors
D irectors

of
of
of
of

personnel
personnel
personnel
personnel

I ---------------------------------------I I --------------------------------------I I I -------------------------------------I V --------------------------------------

C hem ists
C hem ists
C h em ists
C h em ists
C h em ists
C h e m i s ts
C h em ists
C hem ists

I -----------------------------------------------r----------------I I --------------------------------------------------------------I I I -------------------------------------------------------------I V -------------------------------------------------------------V --------------------------------------------------------------V I -------------------------------------------------------------V I I ------------------------------------------------------------V I I I -----------------------------------------------------------

1, 140
3,406
6, 94 9
8, 300
6,4 7 3
3, 49 0
1,280
406

80 6
900
1,050
1,267
1,511
1,731
2, 0 6 6
2, 49 0

E ngineers
E ngineers
Engineers
Engineers
E ngineers
E ngineers
E ngineers
E ngineers

I ---------------------------------------------------------------I I -------------------------------------------------------------I I I ------------------------------------------------------------I V ------------------------------------------------------------V -------------------------------------------------------------V I ------------------------------------------------------------V I I ----------------------------------------------------------V I I I ----------------------------------------------------------

9, 03 0
26,435
69,649
9 6 , 123
66,407
34,991
12,727
2, 9 43

893
97 8
1, 101
1,303
1, 507
1, 719
1,964
2,242

1,137
1, 300
1, 66 6
2, 00 0

!
!
!

1,065
1,175
1,465
1,625

!

1,260
1,458
1,846
2,204

725
82 5
93s ,
1 . 3 20 i
1,3 4 8 j
1,550 1
1,792 |
2 ,166 j

87 6
97 6
1,150
1,4 0 0
1,650
1,900
2 ,225
2 ,750

84 3
91 0
1,015
1,191
1,3 7 5
1,5 6 0
1,760
1,964

94 3
1 ,034
1, 185
1,411
1,625
1 ,858
2, 125
2, 4 4 5

1
I

!

i

13,982
16,143
20,288
2 3, 692

!

C h e m is ts and e n g in e e rs

!
|
!
;

800
900
1,040
1,250
1,494
1,708
2,000
2,440

1
j
.
:
;
'
!

j
!

|

9, 671
10,796
1 2 ,596
15, 2 0 4
18,127
20,771
2 4 ,798
2 9 ,877

j
j

i

885
971
1,095
1, 299
1,499
1, 700
1,934
2,184

!

,
:
1
j
i

i______________:
See footnotes

a t e n d of t a b l e .




18

10,719
11,738
13, 21 6
15,640
18,086
20,623
23,571
26,908

T a b l e 2.

A v e r a g e s a larie s : M e tr o p o lita n a r e a s —C o n tin u e d

(E m p lo y m en t and a v e ra g e s a la r ie s for sele c te d p ro fe ssio n a l,
m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s , 1 J u n e 1971 )

a d m in is tr a tiv e , tec h n ic al,

and c l e r i c a l o c c u p a tio n s in p r i v a t e in d u s tr y ,

A n n u a l ss a l a r i e s 3

M onthly- s a l a r i e s 3
O ccupation and c la ss
( S e e d e f i n i t i o n s i n a p p e n d i x C)

N um ber
of
em ployees2

M iddle r a n g e 4
M ean

M edian

F irst
quartile

Third
q u artile

M iddle ra n g e 4
M ean

M edian

F irst
quartile

|

Th i rd
quartile

$7 , 2 60
8,340
9 ,492
10,788

$8,604

1
1

T echnical support

$6
68

II ----------------------------------III --------------------------------IV --------------------------------V ------------------------------------

9 , 396
,7 2 7
23,954
13,979

D r a f t s m e n - t r a c e r s -----------------------------------------------D r a f t s m e n I ------------------------------------------------------------D r a f t s m e n II ----------------------------------------------------------D r a f t s m e n III ----------------------------------------------------------

3, 6 46
13,977
24,688
23,619

493

96 9
1, 5 36
1,071
378
97

E ngineering
E ngineering
E ngineering
E ngineering

tec h n ic ian s
tec h n ician s
tech n ician s
tec h n ician s

1
9

$6 6 0
760
865
975

$605
695
791
8 99

743
911

478
59 5
73 4
882

430
5 30
660
799

611
683
73 9
89 0
94 5

58 3
675
725
90 0
91 5

521
5 98
6 37
783
833

7 68
871
98 9

68
0

$717
835
94 2
1,075

!

!

1

$8,011
9,2 2 2
10,454
11,871

$7, 9 20
9,1 2 0
10,380
1 1 , 7 00

5 ,735 ■
7, 1 38
, 81 2 ;
10,582 j

5, 921
7, 2 ° 7
, 91 4

53 9
673
81 7
984

|
!

8

8
10,926

10,020

!

6, 358

!
:

7,9 1 9
9,594

!

5,159

11,304
12,900
6,465
8 ,078
9,8 0 2
11,804

C le rica l su p erv iso ry
Keypunch
Keypunch
Keypunch
Keypunch
Keypunch

su p erv iso rs
su p erv iso rs
su p erv iso rs
su p erv iso rs
su p erv iso rs

I ---------------------------------------I I --------------------------------------I I I -------------------------------------IV -------------------------------------V ---------------------------------------

685
750
8 12
9 65
1,028

6
8

!

6,2 5 2
7,1 7 6
7,6 4 4
9,396
9,996

, 996
, 100
8 ,700
10,800
10,980

7, 328

8, 197
8, 863
10,674
11,338

i
i

8,220
9,000
9,7 4 4
11,580
12,336

j
1
1

C le rica l
C l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g I ---------------------------------------------C l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g I I --------------------------------------------C l e r k s , f i l e I ---------------------------------------------------------C l e r k s , f i l e II --------------------------------------------------------C l e r k s , f i l e I I I ------------------------------------------------------K e y p u n c h o p e r a t o r s I -------------------------------------------K e y p u n c h o p e r a t o r s I I ------------------------------------------M e s s e n g e r s ( o f f i c e b o y s a n d g i r l s ) -------------------S e c r e t a r i e s I ----------------------------------------------------------S e c r e t a r i e s I I ---------------------------------------------------------S e c r e t a r i e s I I I --------------------------------------------------------S e c r e t a r i e s I V --------------------------------------------------------S t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l ---------------------------------------S t e n o g r a p h e r s , s e n i o r -----------------------------------------T y p i s t s I -----------------------------------------------------------------T y p i s t s II -----------------------------------------------------------------

78,617
53,539
2 4, 2 4 6
24,715
7, 2 14
51,521
44,221
25,660
81,186
,917
49,763
1 5,026
5 0 ,173
47,010
6 5 ,213
37,770

86

473
6 04
36 7
405
488
465
525
405
562
6 24
67 6
737
50 2
563
42 0
48 5

456
589
356
391
467
444
514
391
556
618
66 7
7 26
486
553
412
473

402
514
326
350
410
395
457
35 0
50 0
55 0
591
6 34
432
492
36 9
425

521
68 4
395
440
551
513
578
439
619
695
750
827
5 59
633
456
5 30

5, 673
7,2 5 1
4,4 0 9
4 ,861
,5,858
5,5 8 6
, 295
4, 864
, 740
7, 491
8 ,115
, 84 9
, 026
, 759
5,044
5, 81 9

6
6

8
6
6

!

5,4 7 5
7,0 7 1
4,270
4 ,693
5 ,606
5,331
6,171
4 , 693
6,674
7,4 1 4
8 ,009
, 70 7
5, 833
, 635
4, 945
5, 671

8
6

i

4,823
6,1 6 3
3,911
4 ,199
4 , 925
4,7 4 5
5,4 8 5
4 , 199
5 ,999
6,5 9 9
7,091
7 ,608
5, 189
5, 9 07
4,4 3 2
5,0 9 9

6,2 5 7

8,212
1

!
|
!

4 ,745
5,279
6,6 0 7
6,153
6,9 3 5
5,2 6 6
7,423
, 338
, 99 8
9,9 2 5
, 713
7, 60 0
5, 47 5
, 361

8
8
6
6

1 F o r s c o p e o f s t u d y , s e e t a b l e i n a p p e n d i x A.
2 O c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t e s t i m a t e s r e l a t e t o t h e t o t a l i n a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w i t h i n s c o p e of t h e s u r v e y a n d n o t t o t h e n u m b e r a c t u a l l y s u r v e y e d .
F o r f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n , s e e p . 35.
3 S a l a r i e s r e p o r t e d r e l a t e t o t h e s t a n d a r d s a l a r i e s t h a t w e r e p a i d f o r s t a n d a r d w o r k s c h e d u l e s ; i. e. , t h e s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r y c o r r e s p o n d i n g to
the e m p lo y e e 's n o r m a l w o r k s c h e d u le e x c luding o v e r tim e h o u r s .
N o n production b o n u ses a r e ex cluded, but c o s t-o f-liv in g p ay m e n ts and incentive
earnings a r e included.
*
T h e m i d d le ra n g e ( i n t e r q u a r t i l e ) u s e d h e r e is the c e n t r a l p a r t of th e a r r a y e x c lu d in g th e u p p e r and l o w e r fo u r th s of the e m p l o y e e d i s tr i b u ti o n .




19

T a b l e 3.

A v e r a g e s a larie s : E s ta b lis h m e n ts e m p lo y in g 2 , 5 0 0 or m o re

( E m p l o y m e n t a n d a v e r a g e m o n t h l y s a l a r i e s f o r s e l e c t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , t e c h n i c a l , a n d c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s in p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y 1
i n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s e m p l o y i n g 2, 500 w o r k e r s o r m o r e , 2 U n i t e d S t a t e s e x c e p t A l a s k a a n d H a w a i i , J u n e 1 9 7 1 , p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e in m e a n s a l a r i e s
d u rin g the y e a r ,
a n d c o m p a r i s o n w i t h l e v e l s in a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s c o m b i n e d )
M onthly s a l a r i e s 5
O ccupation and cla ss
(S ee d e f in itio n s in appendix

A ccountants and a u d ito rs
A ccountants
A ccountants
A ccountants
A ccountants
A ccountants
A uditors
A uditors
A uditors
A uditors

Num ber
of
em ployees4

C)

M iddle ra n g e
M ean

1, 508
5, 126
7,7 2 2
5, 047
2, 390

$ 798
900
1, 005
1, 182
1, 41 6

1
1
!

426
940
1, 525
1, 024

831
92 3
1, 07 5
1, 278

107
191
106

1, 649
1, 978
2, 141

368
61 5
583
315
261

1, 310
1, 608
1,968
2, 273
2, 86 9

;
;

i

I II III
IV

!

C h i e f a c c o u n t a n t s II —
C h i e f a c c o u n t a n t s II I C hief a c c o u n t a n t s I V -

F irst
quartile

T hird
q u artile

E m ploym ent

M ean
salaries

1

j

I II ■
III
IV
V

M edian

L e v e l s in l a r g e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
e x p r e s s e d a s p e r c e n t of th o s e
in a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s c o m b i n e d

P ercent
in crease
in
mean
salaries3

k

1

i

$ 79 5
904
999
1, 170
1,416
830
890
1, 043
1, 258
1, 58 4
1, 92 2
2, 199

!
!

j

j
1

!

$ 731
825
900
1, 065
1, 270
750
81 3
93 9
1, 138

1

|
1

$ 860
991
1, 113
1, 29 2
1, 548

6.
7.
7,
7.

3
5
5
6

35
48
30
28
38

107
106
106
104
10 2

54
43
37
40

106
1 04
105
101

15. 2
6. 8

8
27
49

115
114
104

45 5
800
159
500
228

2.
3.
8.
5.
5.

6
5
1
0
2

33
29
38
39
55

110
110
106
10 4
103

910
1,012
1, 205
1, 399

5.
7.
8.
8.

1
6
6
5

25
24
38

110
108
104
101

i

8- 3

!
!
!

930
1, 02 5
1, 197
1,388

5.7
5. 2
8. 5
8. 9

i
1,4 4 6
1,629
1,833

!

i

1,8 7 4
2, 3 3 4
2,411

(

7

)

I
i
A ttorneys
A ttorneys
A ttorneys
A ttorneys
A ttorneys

Buyers
Buyers
B uyers
B uyers

:

II —
III
IV
V
VI

-

I
II
I II
IV

;

1
J
!
I

674
2, 2 94
4, 73 2
2, 6 6 4

j

j

827
933
1,091
1,2 4 9

1, 296
1,571
1,9 3 5
2, 207
2, 8 4 4

1,
1,
1,
1,
2,

815
910
1, 07 4
1, 198

!

73 3
821
960
1,0 8 6

!

166
415
72 2
983
500

1

1
i
j
|

1,
1,
2,
2,
3,

!

!

57

P ersonnel m anagem ent

1

213

J o b a n a l y s t s II —
J o b a n a l y s t s III
J o b a n a l y s t s IV
D i r e c t o r s of p e r s o n n e l II —
D i r e c t o r s of p e r s o n n e l III D i r e c t o r s of p e r s o n n e l IV .
C h e m i s t s an d e n g i n e e r s
C hem ists
C h em ists
C hem ists
C hem ists
C h em ists
C hem ists
C h em ists
C h em ists
E ngineers
E ngineers
E ngineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
E ngineers
Engineers

I ----I I ----III —
IV —
V
VI —
VII VI II -

359
45 6

874
1, 019
1, 194

8 78
1, 008
1,208

|
|

123
200
139

1, 746
1,966
2, 255

1,6 9 0
1, 8 9 2
2, 129

87 7
950
1,119
1, 324
1,557
1,741
2, 086
2, 537

880
945
1,110
1,324
1, 53 4
1,715
2, 03 2
2, 50 0

800
91 7
1,08 0

i

1,433
1, 6 5 0

950
1,1 1 0
1, 301

64
64
80

101
102
102

(7 )
10. 3

7
18

132
119

10. 5

2, 076
2, 367
2, 49 5

1, 924

i

37

112

28
36
37
36
36
42
46
57

109
106
1 08
106
104
102
102
102

49
56
55
60
57
55
55
55

103
102
102
103
103
103
105
105

47
45
43
58
68

1 02
104
102
102
102

7. 2
7.7
8. 0

i
]

1

1,
3,
3,
2,
1,
|

I -------I I -------III ----IV -----V -----VI -----V I I -----V II I —

!
j

!
!
!

>

37 5
517
147
58 2
746
756
716
259

4 ,827
16, 007
43, 581
64,938
42, 076
21, 232
7, 77 2
1, 801

i
!
!
!
|

I

I
i

913
991
1, 120
1, 33 4
1, 543
1,769
2, 05 0
2, 337

j

;

905
98 3
1, 112
1, 327
1,533
1 ,750
2, 000
2, 249

1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
2,

822
8 86
00 0
180
383
529
8 50
207

1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
2,
2,

1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
2,

850
920
034
227
41 6
608
847
05 0

965
1, 047
1,201
1 ,430
1,662
1, 9 0 5
2, 22 5
2, 52 4

1
;
!

925
028
22 5
45 5
70 0
895
250
74 3

!
|

1
|
|

6.
6.
7.
6.
5.
3.
5.
6.

0
3
3
5
2
7
1
6

6.
6.
6.
6.
6.
5.
6.
6.

3
2
9
3
0
4
0
2

7.
7.
7.
5.
7.

6
5
5
8
5

j

|

T echnical support
E ngineering
Engineering
Engineering
Engineering
E ngineering

tec h n ic ian s
tec h n ician s
technicians
tec h n ic ian s
tec h n ic ian s

I -----------I I ----------I I I .......... IV ---------V ----------

1, 74 0
5, 105
10,361
15,839
10,664

581
691
775
881
, 00 0

1

567
68 5
767
876
985

S e e f o o t n o t e s a t e n d of t a b l e .




20

528
625
70 8
804
9 08

643
752
839
950
1, 0 90

i
1
j

T a b l e 3. A v e r a g e salaries: E s t a b l i s h m e n t s e m p l o y i n g 2 , 5 0 0 or m o r e —C o n t i n u e d
( E m p l o y m e n t an d a v e r a g e m o n th ly s a l a r i e s fo r s e l e c t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , te c h n ic a l , an d c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s in p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y 1
in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s e m p l o y i n g 2, 50 0 w o r k e r s o r m o r e , 2 U n i t e d S t a t e s e x c e p t A l a s k a a n d H a w a i i , J u n e 1 9 7 1 , p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e i n m e a n s a l a r i e s
d u r i n g t h e y e a r , 3 a n d c o m p a r i s o n w i t h l e v e l s in a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s c o m b i n e d )
M onthly s a l a r i e s 5
O ccupation and c la ss
( S e e d e f i n i t i o n s i n a p p e n d i x C)

Percent
increase

M i d d l e r a n g e 67
em ployees4

F irst
quartile

T hird
quartile

in
mean
salaries

L e v e l s in l a r g e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
e x p r e s s e d a s p e r c e n t of t h o s e
in a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s c o m b i n e d
E m ploym ent

M ean
salarie s

T e c h n i c a l s u p p o r t —C o n t i n u e d
1,
5,
8,
10,

D raftsm en-tracer s
D raftsm en I
--------D r a f t s m e n II -------D r a f t s m e n I I I ---------

846
226
93 7
249

$ 519
64 9
78 5
971

$489
634
769
921

$ 450
569
827

$ 58 2
711
856
1, 08 0

105
38 4
28 5
149
55

77 2
726
79 6
911
99 8

77 3
691
800
905
933

67 0
628
71 0
77 5
869

865
808
87 3
1, 030
1, 155

339

510
o55
405
453
531
508
564
437
584
665
753
81 7
530
595
45 6
507

487
63 7
395
435
517
47 8
546
415
581
66 3
73 9
799
516
587
436
48 4

432
543
356
391
45 2
426
490
37 5
530
591
668
7 29
460
521
40 2
44 5

569
7 5U
435
488
601
569
640
46 8
640
72 8
826
900
5 94
660
492
549

696

4. 6
7, 1

45
32
30
38

106
108
107
108

9
23
25
37
56

129
106
108
102
106

C lerical su p erv iso ry
Keypunch
K eypunch
K eypunch
K eypunch
K eypunch

su p erv iso rs
su p erv iso rs
su p erv iso rs
su p erv iso rs
su p erv iso rs

I -----------------I I ----------------III ------------IV ------------V
-------------

l7)

3. 7
7. 3
7. 2

C le rica l
C l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g I ---------------------------C l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g II ------------------------C l e r k s , f i l e I ---------------------------------------C l e r k s , f i l e I I -------------------------------------C l e r k s , f i l e I I I ------------------------------------K e y p u n c h o p e r a t o r s I ------------------------K e y p u n c h o p e r a t o r s I I ------------------------M e s s e n g e r s (office boys an d g irls ) —
S e c r e t a r i e s I ---------------------------------------S e c r e t a r i e s I I ---------------------------------------S e c r e t a r i e s I I I -------------------------------------S e c r e t a r i e s I V -------------------------------------S t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l --------------------S t e n o g r a p h e r s , s e n i o r ---------------------T y p i s t s I ----------------------------------------------T y p i s t s I I -----------------------------------------------

17,
1 3,
4,
5,
2,

14,
14,
6,

24,
37,

14,

7i b

85 7
27 4
44 3
70 3
396
86 3
553
9 22
963
227

4,
19, 296
19, 40 9
539
36 5

15,
14
,

6. 3
6 .2
6. 3
6. 1
5. 1
8. 1
7. 6
8. 2
6. 4
6. 2
7 .3
7 .2
7. 9
7. 0
6. 5
6. 5

19
22
17
19
31
24
29
25
27
40
27
25
33
36

21
35

109

10
9
111
112

109

11
1
109
108
105
107
113
113
107
107
109
105

1 F o r s c o p e of s t u d y , s e e t a b l e i n a p p e n d i x A.
2 I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r a fe w e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w i t h l e s s t h a n 2, 50 0 e m p l o y e e s o f 6 l a r g e c o m p a n i e s s t u d i e d t h a t p r o v i d e d c o m p a n y w i d e d a t a u n i d e n ­
t i f i e d by s i z e of e s t a b l i s h m e n t .
T h i s a p p l i e s only t o d a t a f o r o c c u p a t i o n s o t h e r t h a n d r a f t i n g a n d c l e r i c a l .
3 F o r l i m i t a t i o n s o f p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e i n a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s a s a m e a s u r e of c h a n g e i n s a l a r y s c a l e s , s e e p. 7.
4 O c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t e s t i m a t e s r e l a t e to t h e t o t a l i n a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w i t h i n s c o p e o f t h e s u r v e y a n d n o t t o t h e n u m b e r a c t u a l l y s u r ­
v e y e d . F o r f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n , s e e p. 35.
S a l a r i e s r e p o r t e d r e l a t e to t h e s t a n d a r d s a l a r i e s t h a t w e r e p a i d f o r s t a n d a r d w o r k s c h e d u l e s ; i. e. , t h e s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r y c o r r e s p o n d i n g
to the e m p l o y e e ' s n o r m a l w o r k s c h e d u le ex c lu d in g o v e r t i m e h o u r s .
N o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u se s a r e ex c luded, but c o s t-o f -liv in g p a y m e n ts and in ce n tiv e
e a rn in g s a r e included.
T h e m i d d l e r a n g e ( i n t e r q u a r t i l e ) u s e d h e r e i s t h e c e n t r a l p a r t o f t h e a r r a y e x c l u d i n g t h e u p p e r a n d l o w e r f o u r t h s of t h e e m p l o y e e d i s t r i b u t i o n .
7 N o t p u b l i s h e d in 19 70.




21

T ab le 4. Em ployment distribution by salary: Professional and adm inistrative occupations
( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n of e m p l o y e e s in s e l e c t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n s , b y m o n t h l y s a l a r i e s , U n it e d S t a t e s e x c e p t
A l a s k a and H a w a i i , 1 June 1971)
Accountants

Auditors

C h ie f a c c o u n t a n t s

M o n t h ly s a l a r i e s
I

II

III

_

IV

V

_

I

_

II

_

IV

III

I

II

III

IV

“

-

-

_
-

“

_
“

_
-

_
-

_
“

_
-

_
“

-

»
-

_
-

_
“ ■

_
-

_
“

_
-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

“

_
-

-

_
-

.
-

_
-

(1 .4 )
1.4
2. 4

_
-

_

$ 4 2 5 and u n d er $ 4 5 0 --------------------------------------------- ----------------$ 4 5 0 and un d er $ 4 7 5 -------------------------------------------------------------$ 4 7 5 and un d er $ 5 0 0 --------------------------------------------------------------

0. 3
-

“

“

-

-

1. 8

$500
$525
$550
$575

and
and
and
and

un d er
under
u n d er
u n d er

$ 5 2 5 -------------------------------------------------------------$ 5 5 0 -------------------------------------------------------------$ 5 7 5 --------------------------------------------------------------$ 6 0 0 ---------------------------------------------------------------

1. 8
.4
.8
2. 0

-

-

_
“

“

.4
1. 8
.5

$600
$625
$650
$ 675

and
and
and
and

under
u n d er
under
un d er

$ 6 2 5 — ---------------------------------------------------------$ 6 5 0 -------------------------------------------------------------$ 6 7 5 -------------------------------------------------------------$ 7 0 0 --------------------------------------------------------------

3.
5.
6.
5.

6
1
8
0

(1.1)
1.7
2. 1

_
*
(1-7)

_
“

_
"

2.
2.
7.
8.

9
5
3
0

0.
1.
1.
1.

$700
$725
$750
$775

and
and
and
and

under
under
u n d er
under

$ 7 2 5 -------------------------------------------------------------$ 7 5 0 -------------------------------------------------------------$ 7 7 5 --------------- ----------- ------ ---------------------------$ 8 0 0 --------------------------------------------------------------

10. 5
10. 9
14. 4
7.9

6. 1
5. 4
9.4
7. 1

1. 3
1.6
3. 2
4. 2

_
-

_
“

10.
4.
9.
8.

9
7
8
1

1.8
3. 5
7.4
8. 8

$800
$825
$850
$875

and
and
and
and

u n d er
un d er
un d er
u n d er

$ 8 2 5 -------------------------------------------------------------$ 8 5 0 -------------------------------------------------------------$ 8 7 5 -------------------------------------------------------------$ 9 0 0 --------------------------------------------------------------

9.4
7. 0
4. 1
3. 3

10.
8.
8.
7.

2
8
1
3

5. 1
7. 3
7.4
6. 5

_
(2.5)
1. 5

_
-

3.
7.
4.
5.

6
1
8
6

9.
9.
7.
6.

8
3
0
8

3.
3.
5.
5.

1
6
7
1

_
-

1.0
-

$900
$925
$950
$975

and
and
and
and

un d er
un d er
u n d er
u n d er

$ 9 2 5 -------------------------------------------------------------$ 9 5 0 -------------------------------------------------------------$ 9 7 5 -------------------------------------------------------------$ 1 , 0 0 0 ------- --------------- ------ ---------------------------

3. 0
1.0
(2.5)

6.
5.
4.
3.

8
3
9
3

8. 2
5. 7
7.0
6. 5

2.
2.
3.
4.

3
8
4
0

_
(2.0)

4. 5
4. 5
2.9
1. 3

7.
3.
6.
3.

5
8
7
3

7.
5.
6.
6.

8
2
2
1

_
(1.7)
1.0
.9

_
12. 6
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

9.4
1. 8
(1.2)

12.4
7.4
5. 7
4. 1
2. 4

14. 0
13. 6
12. 5
11.3
8. 3

1. 6
3. 5
4. 6
5.0
6.6

5. 7
(1.3)

7.0
4. 6
2. 6
4. 2
1.0

16.
8.
9.
6.
3.

2
2
1
1
2

5.9
6. 1
10. 0
9. 7
9. 1

5. 1
13. 4
19.9
4. 5
7. 3

_
5. 3
3. 7
6. 6
7. 1

_
( 0 .6 )

_
1.8

8.4
4. 9
3. 1
3. 7
1. 7

9.9
11. 8
9.9
8. 7
10. 1

_
-

(.5)

2. 6
2. 0
2. 5
1.0
(1 .2)

19. 7
7. 7
9.9
5. 3
4. 1

3. 5
8. 6
7. 3
7. 3
1.8

3. 5
5.9
11. 1
8. 2
12. 0

1.0
4. 4
3. 9
7. 5

_
1.4
.9
.5

(1.8)

_
-

_
-

-

3. 2
1.9
1.8
1.0
(1.1)

1.5
1.3
.5
1.5
1.8

11.9
4. 5
7. 1
7. 5
1.0

11. 6
12. 8
8. 2
8.9
6. 7

_
- ‘
-

.
-

(i.o )

.5
. 2
.6
. 2
.5

1,000
1,050
1, 100
1, 1 50
1,200

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
under
u n d er
u n d er
un d er

$ 1 , 0 5 0 ----------- ------ ---------- ---------------- --------$ 1, 1 0 0 ------------------------ -----------------------------$ 1 , 1 5 0 ------------------------------------------------------$ 1 , 2 0 0 .................-......................................................
$ 1 , 2 5 0 -------------------------------------------------------

_
-

$ 1,250
$ 1,300
$ 1,350
$1,400
$ 1,450

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$
$
$
$
$

1 , 3 0 0 ------------------------------------------------------1 , 3 5 0 ----------------------------------------- ------ -----1 , 4 0 0 ------------------------------------------------------1 , 4 5 0 -----------------------------------------------------1 , 5 0 0 -------------------------------------------------------

_
-

_
-

1. 1
(1.3)

-

-

-

$
$
$
$
$

1,500
1,550
1,600
1,650
1,700

and
and
and
and
and

un d er
u n d er
u n d er
un d er
under

$
$
$
$
$

1 , 5 5 0 ------------------------------------------------------1 , 6 0 0 ------------------------------------------------------1 , 6 5 0 ------------------------------------------------------1 , 7 0 0 ------------------------------------------------------1 , 7 5 0 ------------------------------------------- ----------

_
-

_
-

-

-

7.0
5. 0
4. 4
4. 0
2. 4

$ 1,750
$1,800
$ 1,850
$ 1 ,900
$ 1,950

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 1 , 8 0 0 ------------------------------------------------------$ 1 , 8 5 0 -----------------------------------------------------$ 1 , 9 0 0 -----------------------------------------------------$ 1 , 9 5 0 ------------------------------------------------------$ 2 , 0 0 0 ------------ ------------------- ---------------------

_
-

.
-

.
-

_
-

1.0
(2 .6 )
-

.
-

$2,000
$2,050
$ 2, 100
$ 2, 150
$ 2,200

and
and
and
and
and

under
un d er
un d er
un d er
under

$ 2 , 0 5 0 — ........................................ ............................
$ 2 , 1 0 0 ------------------------------------------------------$ 2 , 1 5 0 .................. - ............- ------ ---------------------$ 2, 2 0 0 ------------------------------------------------------$ 2 , 2 5 0 -------------------------------------------------------

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

$ 2,250
$ 2,300
$ 2,350
$2,400
$ 2,450

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
under
u n d er

$ 2 , 3 0 0 ------------------------------------------------------$ 2, 3 5 0 ------------------------------------------------------$ 2 , 4 0 0 ------------------------------------------------------$ 2 , 4 5 0 ------------------------------------------------------$ 2 , 5 0 0 -------------------------------------------------------

_
-

_
-

.
-

_
-

-

-

_
•
-

-

-

$ 2,500
$ 2, 550
$ 2, 600
$ 2 , 650
$ 2, 700

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
under
under
un d er
under

$ 2 , 5 5 0 ------------------------------------------------------$ 2, 6 0 0 — .................. -...................................... ........
$ 2, 6 5 0 ------------------------------------------------- ----$ 2 , 7 0 0 ------------------------------------------------------$ 2, 7 5 0 ---------------- -------------- -----------------------

_
"

.
-

_
-

.
-

_
“

$ 2 , 750 and u n d e r $ 2, 8 0 0 ------------ ----------------------------------------$ 2, 800 and o v e r ----------------------------------------------------------------------

_

.

-

-

_
-

_
-

.
-

6
1
2
3

$
$
$
$
$

T o t a l - ------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------N u m b e r of e m p l o y e e s - ............. - -----------------------------------------------A v e r a g e m o n t h l y s a l a r i e s --------------------------------------------- -------

“

-

100. 0

-

“

-

_

-

.
-

_
-

-

.
_

-

-

2. 6
2. 0
.6
2. 0
. 1

7. 8
6.4

-

.
.

1.0
3. 9
.9
.6
.4

.9
6.4
1.4
4. 1
1.4

. 3
. 3
3.0
.

1.8
1. 8
1.4
2. 3
1. 4

100. 0

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

„
-

_
.
-

.
-

-

_
-

-

„
.
.
-

-

-

„
-

.
-

_

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

3
1
5
5
4

.5
5.0
3. 2
9. 6
5. 5

2.4
. 3
-

3.
5.
4.
1.
2.

2.
4.
.
5.
6.

0
3
0
3
7

_

-

-

.
-

-

_

.4

6.4
5. 5

1.4
(2.3)

100. 0

100.0

1 00 . 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100.0

100. 0

100.0

6, 282

786

2, 177

4,099

2,557

396

1,274

697

218

$949 $ 1 , 1 3 8 $ 1 , 3 8 6

$783

$851

S e e fo o tn o t e at end of ta b le .




-

-

-

4 , 3 5 3 1 0 , 6 9 7 2 5 , 722 1 7 , 7 8 7
$748

100. 0

-

-

-

22

$8 87 $ 1 , 0 1 9 $ 1 , 2 6 1 $ 1 , 2 0 4 $ 1 , 4 3 3 $1, 741 $ 2 , 0 5 0

T a b l e 4.

E m p lo y m e n t d is trib u tio n by s a lary : P r o fe s s io n a l a d m in is tr a tiv e o c c u p a t io n — C o n tin u e d

( P e r c e n t d is tr i b u ti o n of e m p l o y e e s in s e l e c t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n s ,
A l a s k a a n d H a w a i i , 1 J u n e 1971)

by m o n th ly s a l a r i e s ,

U nited S ta te s ex c ep t

A ttorneys

B uyers

M onthly s a l a r i e s

|

II

IV

m

V

VI

I

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 525
$ 55 0
$ 575
$600

$
$
$
$

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$625
$650
$ 675
$700

---------------------------------

$700
$ 725
$750
$775

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 725
$ 750
$ 775
$800

---------------------------------

$800
$825
$850
$875

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$825
$850
$875
$900

---------------------------------

0. 2
1 .0
1. 4
. 5

$900
$925
$950
$975

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 9 2 5 --------$ 9 5 0 --------$ 9 7 5 --------$ 1 , 0 0 0 -----

$

1,

$ 1,

-

—
—
—
—
—

7.
8.
12.
8.
8.

under
under
under
under
under

$ 1,300
$ 1,350
$ 1,400
$1,450
$ 1,500

—
—
—
—
—

1 0.
7.
3.
4.
2.

6
5
8
1
9

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
und e r

$ 1,550
$ 1 ,600
$ 1,650
$ 1,700
$1,750

—
—
—
—
—

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$1,800
$ 1,850
$1,900
$1,950
$ 2,000

—
—
—
—
—

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 2 , 050
$ 2 , 100
$ 2,150
$ 2,200
$ 2, 250

—
—
—
—
—

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 2 , 300
$ 2, 350
$2,400
$2,450
$ 2,500

—
—
—
—
—

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$
$
$
$
$

2, 550
2 , 600
2, 650
2,700
2,750

—
—
—
—
—

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 2 , 800
$2,850
$ 2,900
$ 2, 950
$3,000

- —
—
—
—

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$3,050
$ 3 , 100
$ 3 , 150
$3,200
$ 3 , 250

—
—
—
—
—

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 3 , 300
$ 3 , 3 50
$3,400
$3,450
$ 3 , 500

—
—
—
—
—

a n d u n d e r $ 3 , 550 —
a n d u n d e r $ 3, 600 —
and o v e r

1
1
i

15 .
6.
5.
10.
4.
5.
5.
4.
5.
4.

3. 4
1.9
. 8
1. 5
(1.4)

j

_
_
.
.

7
0
1
7
2

6.
5.
3.
8.
8.

2. 2
3. 2
2. 4
. 9
1. 3

.
.
.
.
.
-

:

2

6
8
I
9
8

5. 3

!

-

:

;
1

|

i

1.7
1. 7
10. 3
6. 5
3. 7

!
1
i

-

-

_
-

j

-

(

j
_
_
_
_
-

;
j
1
j

:

(1-7)
1 .3

1

5

1

:

-

-

!
|
!

1. 2
1. 7
1.9
1.0
1. 1

!
|
;

1 .0
.4
. 1
. 5
1. 1

:
!
!
i
|

8

2

!

• 4
2. 7

;
;

;

(.4)

-

.

-

3

i

3

2. 7
4 .6
2 .7
5. 9

J

4 .6
2. 7
2. 3
3 .8
6. 5

8

.

,

1.3
5 .5
3. 8
4 . 4

-

!
'
|
|
i

.

-

2 .5

i
j

-

4

2. 7
|
2. 1 2
1 . 5 !
1.1
!

-

3.6
2. 7
4. 0
1 .3
,2.5

i
i

-

1
I

*

5
5
0
7
5

_

-

2 . 8)

-

!

!
j

9
8
2
7
1

3. 3
3. 2
1.9
1. 3

3.
1.
2.
1.
1.

_
.

j

(1 .4)

!

!
;
|

.
-

_
_

.
-

7.
6.
5.
5.
3.

|

6. 8
4. 2
1.9
2. 1
6. 6

( 4 . 0)

-

‘

8. 5
8. 9
10. 2
9. 8

5. 0
3. 5
1. 7

|

!

j

2. 3

-

!
3. 5
1 8
.
1j . 3
.9
1.2

-

2. 0

1.6

-

2 . 7

1.1
2. 0
2.9
4. 3

1. 1
11.0

8. 1
5. 5

i

j

!

i

1. 6

-

.

.8

7
8
4
0

11. 1
8. 8

(2.4)

.

. 7
. 5

13 . 2

1

(0.9)

|

(2.1)
1. 2
1. 6

7. 3
3 .9
1. 7

(1.7)

1 .9
2. 2
2. 9

1. 2
(2.5)

1

-

_
-

-

1 .5
”
1. 5
2. 1
6. 3

4

i

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

54 3
,

806

476

2, 7 0 4

9 ,637

12, 340

4, 672

$1,848

$2,190

$2,781

$750

$865

$1,049

$1,232

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

1,0 9 9

2, 10 9

1

A v e rag e m o n th ly s a la r ie s -

$ 1,195

$1,459

100. 0

100. 0

■■

S e e f o o t n o t e a t e n d of t a b l e .




. 9

2. 4

3. 5
5. 8
1 .5
2. 6
6. 6

N u m b e r o f e m p l o y e e s --------

T o t a l --------

5.
4.
6.
5.

!
;

-

)

5
7
6
9

!

. 6

_
( 0 . 5)
1.4

2
4
8
3

_
-

i
|

-

_

8.
5.
4.
2.

-

7. l
6. 4
3. 1
3 .4

!
i

-

2. 1
1. 7

-

(1.
1.
.
4.
3.

-

_
_
_

1 .8
3. 7
4. 1
3. 7

;

-

;

_
.

7
1
9
3

1. 2

7
5
0
4
9

I

0
1
2
1

6.
8.
6.
7.

:
0. 1
!. 8
2.0
1 .4
3. 4
6. 2
3. 5

_

8. 4
6. 0

i

I

4
6
4
9
4

and
and
an d
and
and

2.
1.
3.
3.

”

3. 4

$ 1,050
$ 1,100
$1,150
$ 1,200
$1,250

(1.2)

-

j

-

i

-

4 . 6

|

:

“

under
under
under
under
under

-

4. 7
4 .5
8. 4
5. 3

-

and
and
and
and
and

2
6
6
4

IV

III

9. 8
8. 9
7. 1
5.9

4. 2

$ 1,

1
!

-

1
4
9
9

3.
3.
12.
7.

•
•
•
-

600
625
650
675

II
2.
2.
.
2.

$500
$525
$550
$ 575

23

100. 0

. . ■ ■. . . . H . . . . . . . . .

T a b l e 4.

E m p l o y m e n t d is trib u tio n by s a lary : P r o f e s s i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n — C o n t i n u e d

( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f e m p l o y e e s i> s e l e c t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n s , b y m o n t h l y s a l a r i e s ,
A l a s k a and H a w a i i , 1 June 1971)

United States e x c e p t

Job analysts

D irectors of personnel

M onthly s a la ries
I

II

IV

III

$ 550 and u n d e r $ 575 — $ 5 7 5 and u n d e r $ 6 0 0 — -

1.9
5. 7

$ 6 00
$
5
S
$fa;a

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 625 — $650
$675
$ 700 — -

2. 8
6. 6
. 9
1.9

$
$
$
$

700
725
750
775

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 725 —
$ 7 5 0 ----$ 775 — $800

$ 800
$825
$850
$875

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$825
$850 — $875 — $900 — -

4. 7
3. 8

$ 900
$925
$950
$975

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$925
$950 — $975 —
$ 1,000 -

4. 7
1.9
1.9
2. 8

1 1.
8.
9.
3.

1
4
6
3

7.
6.
6.
5.

2. 8

7. 2
(3.0)

14.
9.
10.
5.
3.

I

$ 1 ,000
$ 1 ,050
$ 1 ,100
$ 1,150
$ 1,200

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 1,050
$1,100
$1,150
$1,200
$ 1,250

$ 1,250
$ 1,300
$ 1,350
$ 1,400
$ 1,450

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$
$
$
$
$

6.
21.
1 6.
3.

-

1,500
1,550
1,600
1,650
1,700

and
,ind
and
a nd
a nd

under
under
under
unci e r
under

$
$
$
$
$

1, 5 50
1,600
1,650
1,7 0 0
1,750

$ 1, 750
$ 1,800
$ 1,850
$1,900
$ 1,950

and
and
and
and
a nd

under
under
under
under
under

$
$
$
$
$

$ 2,0 0 0
$ 2 ,050
$2,100
$ 2, 150
$ 2,200

and
and
and
and
a nd

under
under
under
under
under

$ 2 ,0 5 0
$ 2 ,100
$2,150
$ 2, 2 0 0
$ 2 ,250

—
—
—
—
—

$ 2, 2 5 0
$ 2 , 300
$ 2, 3 50
$ 2,400
$ 2,450

an d
and
and
an d
and

under
under
under
under
under

$
$
$
$
$

2, 3 00
2, 3 5 0
2,4 0 0
2 ,450
2 ,500

— -- -— •
— •
— -

$
S
$
$
$

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
over -

$
$
$
$

2, 5 5 0
2 ,600
2, 650
2 ,700

—
—
—
—

2 ,5 0 0
2,550
2,600
2,650
2,7 0 0

—
—
—
—

.
.
2.
2.

-

_
-

_
-

-

-

2. 3

1. 5
3. 9
1.9
1. 7

6
2
0
9

1.4
2. 5
2. 3
4. 2

3. 9
3. 8
1.9
3. 1

0
4
1
1
7

8. 8
9. 5
6. 7
11.1
11. 1
1 3.
8.
5.
3.
3.

1. 8
(1 .4 )

-

-

-

4
5
5
0
0

-

-

“

-

l
!
!
!
1

-

_

_
-

!
|

“

-

_

i

_

_

-

“

4
9
4
7
9

13. 7
1 0. 7
5. 6
5.6
4. 5
4.
5.
.
1.
1.
!
|
:
i

_

j

!
1

i
|
1

8
1
5
2
2

|

|
j

I

-

(1.6)
2. 2
3. 0
3.
7.
4.
3.
1 2.

1

( 0 . 5)
2. 1

0
2
i
8
3

7.
4.
4.
7.

:

5
7
2
2

!

2. 5
7. 7
4. 1
2. 6
1.8

_

4. 2
4. 0
1. 8
. 8
6. 3
4. 5
6.1
2. 6

8- 3

i
'
1
|

I
;
!
!
!
J

1

"

_
-

-

i

j

-

-

1

1.6
(1-8)

i

“

1

1
5
9
8
8

. 3
1.3
1.4
.3

.

|

-

_

1. 2
2. 0
. 2

. 4
1.4
1. 1
(i.i)

-

-

_

7.
4.
5.
10.
7.

_
-

0. 5

5
5
3
5
2

-

_
-

_

9.
13.
11.
7.
7.

-

-

_
-

-

-

.

_

_
-

;
i

7.
8.
3.
1.
3.

S
j

-

!

_
.
-

1

-

-

I
1

(1 .4 )
2. 3

i

i

-

-

2
9
1
3

2. 3
1. 4
2. 3
(-9)

i

-

!

1. 8
5.9
6. 2
3.0

-

j
j
i

-

-

1.
3.
4.
4.
6.

|

2. 2
2. 2

;
4

"
_

4
1-9
5

6
7
2
2
9

7.
6.
3.
2.
4.

7
6
4
9
0

1.
2.
1.
1.

8
1
1
1

i
~
-

. 1
2. 3
(.7)

-

:

“

:

!

-

1
;

-

1. 8
1.8
4. o
2. 1
5. 0

100. 0

at e n d

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

3 32

564

568

1,0 3 4

1,651

1,1 3 4

379

$769

A v era g e m onthly sa la ries

100. 0

106

Total

footnote

-

i

■
•

■
■
•
■

4
3
5
7

9. 3
9. 6
9.6
5. 1

.

-

N u m b e r o f e m p l o y e e s -------

See

2.
3.
4.
5.

6
7
0
8

-

1,800 — 1,8 5 0 — 1,900
1,950 — 2, 0 0 0

$
$
$
$
$

1. 1
1. 2
. 4

(2~ 7)
3. 0
1.8

‘

1,300 — 1, 3 50 — 1,400
1 ,450 — 1,500

IV

“

(1.9)

-

III

-

7 .5

—
—
—
—
—

II

$866

$1,001

$1,175

$ 1 ,144

$1,327

$ 1,652

$1,989

o f table.




24

100. 0

-

T a b l e 4. E m p l o y m e n t d is t r i b u t i o n by s a lary: P r o f e s s i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n — C o n t i n u e d
( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n of e m p l o y e e s in s e l e c t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n s , b y m o n t h ly s a l a r i e s ,
A l a s k a a n d H a w a i i , 1 J u n e 1971)

U nited S ta tes e x c e p t

C hem ists

E ngineers

M onthly s a la r ie s
I

II

III

IV

V

VI

V II

VI II

.

_

U n d e r $ 5 5 0 ------------------------------------------$ 5 5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 5 75 -----------------------$ 5 7 5 a n d u n d e r $ 6 0 0 ------------------------

1. 0
1. 9
. 1

$
$
$
$

600
625
650
675

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 6 25
$ 650
$ 6 75
$700

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1.
2.
2.
3.

0
2
3
9

$
$
$
$

700
725
750
775

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 725
$ 750
$ 775
$800

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

8.
10.
7.
9.

7
3
7
7

1.
2.
3.
4.

7
1
5
3

$800
$ 825
$850
$ 875

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$825
$850
$875
$900

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.
7.
8.
8.

0
5
2
0

7.
8.
6.
8.

3
6
7
9

2.
2.
3.
4.

7
3
5
2

(1 .6 )

-

-

-

and
and
and
an d

under
under
under
under

$ 9 2 5 -----------------------$ 9 5 0 -----------------------$ 9 7 5 -----------------------$ 1 , 0 0 0 -------------------

5.
4.
3.
2.

7
8
8
5

1 1.
7.
8.
5.

8
3
1
3

7.
5.
6.
4.

3
0
8
5

1.0
1. 2
1.5
1.8

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

10. 2
5. 8
2. 4
(i.o )
-

15.
1 1.
8.
8.
4.

6
8
8
1
8

6.
8.
9.
9.
9.

8
8
9
8
8

(1.5)
1. 2
1. 3
2. 7
4. 9

_
-

_

(1.4)
1. 6

_
-

4.
2.
1.
(2.
-

4
2
5
1)

9.
8.
6.
6.
5.

7
7
4
0
4

7 .9
7. 6
8. 7
9. 5
9. 3

1.8
2. 7
3. 2
4. 3
5. 5

8. 6
6 .8
7. 5
5. 2
3. 6

6.
8.
7.
8.
6.

3. 2
2. 8 :
1.9
1. 7
•9

5.
7.
5.
4.
5.

IV

.

V

VI

V II

V II I

_

_

-

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(1.7)
1. 5
1. 7

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( 0 . 8)

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(2.0)
1. 3
1. 7

-

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(1.3)
I. 5
1. 6

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$
$
$
$
$

1,050
1,100
1, 1 50
1,200
1,2 5 0

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

3. 4
1. 0
-

$
$
$
$
$

1,250
1,300
1,350
1,400
1,450

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$
$
$
$
$

1,300
1,350
1,400
1,450
1,500

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

-

_
-

“

-

$
$
$
$
$

1,500
1,5 5 0
1 , 600
1,650
1,700

and
and
and'
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$
$
$
$
$

1,550
1,600
1 , 650
1,700
1,7 5 0

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

-

-

$
$
$
*
$

1,750
1,8 0 0
1,850
1,900
,9 5 0

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 1,800
$ 1, 8 5 0
$ 1,900
$ 1,950
$ 2,000

----------------------------- !
--------------- j
-----------------------------

$ 2,000
$ 2 ,050
$ 2 , 100
$ 2, 1 50
$ 2,200

and
and
and
and
an d

under
under
under
under
under

$2,0 5 0
$ 2, 1 00
$ 2 , 1 50
$2,200
$ 2 ,250

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

_
-

-

-

$ 2,250
$ 2, 3 0 0
$ 2,350
$ 2 ,400
$2,450

and
and
an d
an d
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 2 ,300
$2,3 5 0
$ 2,400
$2,450
$ 2 ,5 0 0

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

_
-

-

$
$
$
$
$

2 ,500
2, 550
2 ,600
2,6 5 0
2 ,700

and
an d
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$
$
$
$
$

2 ,550
2 ,600
2 ,650
2 ,7 0 0
2 ,750

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

_
-

_
-

-

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$ 2 ,750
$2,800
$ 2,850
$2,9 0 0
$ 2 ,9 5 0

and
and
and
and
an d

under
under
under
under
under

$ 2,800
$2,850
$2,9 0 0
$2,950
$ 3 ,000

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

_

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$3,000
$ 3 ,050
$ 3 ,100
$ 3 ,150
$ 3, 200

an d
and
and
an d
and

under
under
under
under
under

$3,050
$ 3,1 0 0
$ 3 ,150
$ 3,2 0 0
$ 3,250

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

_
-

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•
-

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.4

$
$
$
$

and
and
and
and

u n d e r $ 3 , 3 0 0 --------------u n d e r $ 3 , 3 5 0 --------------u n d e r $ 3 , 4 0 0 --------------o v e r ---------------------------------

_
-

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1.5
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2. 9 1
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14.
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(1.5)
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13.
1 1.
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5.
7.
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10.
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1.3
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( 0 . 7)

3. 9
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-

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9.
7.
6.
4.

3
3
8
3
3

7.
7.
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8.

4
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4. 9
5. 6

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7.
5.
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1
3
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6
1

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7.7
6.9
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3. 2
4.9
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3. 3
5. 5

6.
6.
4.
4.
3.

5. 9
5 .9
5. 0
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(1.6)

( 0 . 8)

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5.
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2
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(2.2)
1. 7
. 7
5. 5
3. 7

-

.
-

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3. 3
2. 2 !
1.4
1.0
(2.2)

5.
8.
4.
4.
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2.
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2. 9
2. 7
1. 8
1.4
(2.8)

3. 3
1.8
1.5
1.3
1.9

6.
1.
2.
3.
2.

6
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. 3

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. 7
. 7
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under
under
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8
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8.
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15.
12.

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2.
2.
4.

and
and
and
and
and

3,250
3, 3 0 0
3, 350
3 ,400

III

-

$ 1,000
$ 1,050
$1,100
$1 ,1 5 0
$ 1,2 0 0

-

II
_

-

$900
$925
$ 950
$975

I

5
7
6
6
1

(1.5)
-

5
4
7
1

T o ta l --------------------------------------------

10 0. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

N u m b e r o f e m p l o y e e s ----------------------

1, 3 4 6

4 , 161

8 ,492

9,911

7, 643

4 , 218

1,541

458

A v e r a g e m o n t h l y s a l a r i e s ---------------

$807

$89 8 $ 1 , 0 3 8 $ 1 , 2 5 3 $ 1 , 4 9 4 $ 1 , 7 0 9 $ 2 , 0 4 3 $ 2 , 4 7 6

-

!

-

l
-

2
7
1
2
0

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2.9
2. 6
1.8
1.6
1.5

3.
5.
3.
4.
3.

6
6
8
5
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(4.5)
-

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1.
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-

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100. 0

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9 , 867 2 8 , 7 4 8 7 8 , 7 6 2
$890

$9 75 $ 1 , 0 9 3

100. 0
108,091

100. 0

100. 0

7 3 , 9 3 8 3 8 , 892 1 4 , 1 6 9

3, 296

100 . 0

100. 0

$1,295 $1,498 $1,712 $1,959 $2,228

1
F o r s c o p e of s tu d y , s e e ta b le in a p p e n d ix A.
To avoid show ing s m a l l p r o p o r ti o n s of e m p l o y e e s s c a t t e r e d a t o r n e a r the e x t r e m e s of the
d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r s o m e o c c u p a t i o n s , t h e p e r c e n t a g e s of e m p l o y e e s i n t h e s e i n t e r v a l s h a v e b e e n a c c u m u l a t e d a n d a r e s h o w n i n t h e i n t e r v a l a b o v e o r
b elo w the e x t r e m e i n t e r v a l c o n ta in in g a t l e a s t 1 p e r c e n t .
T he p e r c e n t a g e s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e s e e m p l o y e e s a r e show n in p a r e n t h e s e s .
NOTE:

Because

of ro u n d in g ,




sum s

of in d iv id u a l i t e m s

m a y n o t e q u a l 10 0.

25

T a b l e 5.

E m p l o y m e n t d is t r i b u t i o n by s a la r y : E n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n i c i a n s a n d k e y p u n c h s u p e r v i s o r s

( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n of e n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n i c i a n s a n d k e y p u n c h s u p e r v i s o r s ,
J u n e 1971)

by m o n th ly s a l a r i e s ,

U nited S ta tes e x c e p t A la s k a and H a w aii, 1

Engineering technicians

Keypunch su p erv isors

M onthly sa la ries
II

U n d e r $ 37 5 -----------------------------------------------$ 3 7 5 a n d u n d e r $ 4 0 0 --------------------------$400
$425
$450
$47 5

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 4 2 5 ----------------------------$ 4 5 0 ----------------------------$ 4 7 5 ----------------------------$ 5 0 0 -----------------------------

1.
3.
6.
5.

$500
$525
$550
$575

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 5 2 5 ----------------------------$ 5 5 0 ----------------------------$ 5 7 5 ----------------------------$ 6 0 0 -----------------------------

1 2.
13.
13.
9.

$600
$625
$650
$675

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 6 2 5 ----------------------------$ 6 5 0 ----------------------------$ 6 7 5 ----------------------------$ 7 0 0 -----------------------------

$700
$725
$750
$77 5

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 7 2 5 ----------------------------$ 7 5 0 ------------------------$ 7 7 5 ------------------------$ 8 0 0 -------------------------

3.
1.
.
.

$800
$825
$850
$875

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 8 2 5 ------------------------$ 8 5 0 ------------------------$ 8 7 5 ------------------------$ 9 0 0 -------------------------

$900
$925
$950
$97 5

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$ 9 2 5 ------------------------$ 9 5 0 ------------------------$ 9 7 5 ------------------------$ 1 , 0 0 0 ---------------------

$ 1 ,0 0 0
$ 1,050
$ 1, 1 00
$ 1 , 1 50
$ 1, 2 0 0
$ 1 , 2 50
$1, 50U
$ 1, 3 50
$ 1,400

and
an d
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 1 , 0 5 0 -------------------$ 1, 1 0 0 -------------------$ 1 , 1 5 0 -------------------$ 1 , 2 0 0 -------------------$ 1, 2 5 0 --------------------

a n d uncle r S I , 5 0 0 ------------------a n d u n d e r y ] , 3 5 0 ----------------a n d u n d e r $ 1 , 4 0 0 ----------------a n d o v e r ----------------------------------

_

_

1. 3

-

-

-

-

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-

7. 2
6.9
5. 9
4. 6

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-

( 0 . 5)
1. 0

0
7
6
6

V

-

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8
1

IV

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(0.8)
1. 5

III

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3.
4.
7.

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4.
6.
7.

2
3
7
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(1.1)
1. 1
1.9

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(1.3)
1.6
3. 0

-

6
5
6
9

9.
9.
10.
9.

3
5
2
7

3.
4.
6.
7.

4
6
8
4

(1.4)
1. 6
2. 2

1.9
1.8
1.6
1. 2

6.
6.
6.
3.

9
4
4
8

7.
9.
1 0.
1 0.

7
1
5
0

2.9
5. 3
5. 0
7. 5

3. 4
2. 0
1. 2
1. 2

8.
5.
4.
3.

1
2
9
3

7. 6
8.8
8. 1

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1.8
v • 9)

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8.
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. 1
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1. 1
. 7

(1 .5 )

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6.
7.
4.

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6. 6
8. 5
11.9

4. 7
1 1 .1
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6. 7

9.
4.
4.
4.

4
4
1
7

7.
7.
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0
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3. 4
. 5
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V

7. 9
2. 9
11.9
2. 1

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IV

9. 8
9.8
8. 2
2. 5

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III

-

3.
4.
8.
8.

11.8
1 0. 9
1 3. 5
10. 4

11

i
j

2. 2
2. 2
(1.0)

-

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-

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-

-

-

-

2. 3

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•3
1.8
1-5

7. 1
1. 0

1

2. 5
6. 0
8 .8

i

3- 0

6. 1
2. 0
2. 0

|

3.
8.
3.
6.

5
3
3
5

3.
7.
9.
8.

1
1
2
2

1 2. 3
6. 5

1 3.
5.
3.
6.

3
1
1
1

3.
5.
2.
3.
2.

1
1
0
1
0

1
i

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I

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6. 3
6.
4.
2.
1.
1.

3
0
3
5
0

(i.o )
-

-

_

6. 1
2. 0
2. 0
1.0

T o t a l -------------------------------------------

100. 0

10 0. 0

100 . 0

100. 0

100. 0

100 . 0

100.0

100. 0

100. 0

N u m b e r o f e m p l o y e e s ------------------------

3, 6 7 5

11, 3 07

23, 903

27, 440

15, 7 4 4

1, 10 9

1, 6 9 5

1, 141

39 8

98

A v e r a g e m o n t h l y s a l a r i e s ----------------

$571

$ 664

$762

$866

$985

$599

$684

$740

$891

$943

100. 0

1
F o r s c o p e of s t u d y , s e e t a b l e i n a p p e n d i x A.
T o av o id sh o w in g s m a l l p r o p o r ti o n s of e m p l o y e e s s c a t t e r e d at o r n e a r the e x t r e m e s of
d i s t r i b u t i o n fo r s o m e o c c u p a t i o n s , th e p e r c e n t a g e s of e m p l o y e e s in t h e s e i n t e r v a l s h a v e b e e n a c c u m u l a t e d a n d a r e sh o w n in the i n t e r v a l a b o v e o r
b e lo w the e x t r e m e i n t e r v a l c o n ta in in g at l e a s t 1 p e r c e n t .
T he p e r c e n ta g e r e p r e s e n tin g th e s e e m p lo y e e s a r e show n in p a r e n th e s e s .
NOTE:

B e c a u s e of r o u n d i n g ,




s u m s ol i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s m a y n o t e q u a l 100.

26

the

T a b l e 6.

E m p l o y m e n t d is t r i b u t i i o n by s a la ry : D r a f t i n g a n d c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s

( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f e m p l o y e e s in s e l e c t e d d r a f t i n g and c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s ,
Ju ne 1971)

by

weekly

salaries,

U nite d

States

except

A laska

and

Haw aii, 1

—
M onthly sa la rie s

Draft s m entracers

_

U n d e r $ 6 0 -------------------------------------$ 6 0 a n d u n d e r $ 6 5 -------------------$ 6 5 a n d u n d e r $ 7 0 -------------------$ 7 0 a n d u n d e r $ 7 5 -------------------$75
$80
$8 5
$90
$9 5

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

D raftsm c
I

II

III

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

(0.9)
1. 2
1. 3

$100
$105
$ 1 10
$115
$ 1 Z0

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
u nd e r

$ 1 0 5 ----------------$ 1 1 0 ----------------$ 1 1 5 ---------------$ 1 2 0 ---------------$ 1 Z 5 ----------------

1 3. 7
8. 2
11.8
7. 5
7 .9

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 1 3 0 ---------------$ 1 3 5 ---------------$ 1 4 0 ----------------$ 1 4 5 ----------------$ 1 5 0 -----------------

4. 2
5 .7
2. 7
2. 1
1.8

7. 9
9. 9
7 .7
8.3
6. 5

$ 1 50
$ 160
$170
$180
$ 1 90

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 1 6 0 ---------------$ 1 7 0 ----------------- !
$ 1 8 0 ---------------$ 1 9 0 ---------------$ 2 0 0 -------------

3. 1
1.9
1. 1

11.3
7. 3
4. 1
2. 4
2. 0

$Z00
$210
$220
$230
$240

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ Z 1 0 ------------$ Z Z 0 ------------$ 2 3 0 ------------$ 2 4 0 ------------$ 2 5 0 -------------

-

(1.9)

$250
$260
$270
$280
$290

and
and
a nd
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 2 6 0 ------------$ 2 7 0 ------------$ 2 8 0 ------------$ 2 9 0 ------------$ 3 0 0 -------------

-

$ 3 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 3 1 0 ------------$ 3 10 a n d o v e r -----------------------

(i.o)
"

-

2.
3.
4.
6.
5.

i

-

2
1
2
0
9

14. 1
15. 9
14.2
10.3
8. 2

1. 0
2.
6.
9.
14.
1 2.

_
1

(1.6)
1.8
2. 6
3.
5.
6.
7.
7.

8
8
4
2
5

2. 5
1.7
1.0
(0.7)

"

1

8
1
0
7
7

6. 4
7. 8

1
1

7' 4
5' 9
5. 0
9. 2
7 .8
5.8
3. 6
2. 1

III

II

_

.

(0.8)
2. 4
9. 7

(0.5)

-

-

(0.9)
2. 8

“

14. 8
18.0
1 3. 7
10.5
7. 3

1 0. 7
1 3. 2
1 3. 5
1 2. 6
9 .2

2.9
7. 0
6. 9
9. 1
9. 1

3. 7
8. 0
9.8
11.1
11.8

(0.5)
1.4
2. 6
4. 8
6. 8

8 .8
4. 7
3. 9
3. 0
1.6

1 0. 5
9. 5
6.8
6.8
4. 8

11.1
7. 8
7. 1
5. 8
4. 8

1 0. 1
9 .7
8. 5
11.2
10. 0

1. 5
1.4
(3.0)

5.
3.
3.
3.
2.

4 .5
2. 2
1. 1
(2.8)

_

-

1

j
1
|

_
-

-

-

"

-

-

-

-

2. 3

-

-

-

-

-

-

1 .4
2. 3
1.0

-

-

-

-

1. 3

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

4
6
2
3
6

2. 9
2. 4
1.6
1. 5
. 7
2. 5
2. 6
1.0
(0.2)

4. 9
3. 0
1.0
(0.6)

_
-

9. 2
12. 3
14. 2
11.9
11.3

!
!

8. 3
5. 6
3.4
2. 5
1 ■9

-

1
1

-

i
i

j
1
!
!
|

-

-

_

-

2*. 9
7. 9

-

_
-

( 0 . 1)

3. 1
2.9
(1.8)

-

-

1. 4
2. 0

i

2)
1
4
3

-

1. 2
(1.5)

Me ssen gers
(office
b o y s and
girls)

Keypunch
operators

file

II

13.6
10.8
6. 3
4.8
4. 7

-

4.8
3. 7
1.8
(2.4)

3.9
2. 6
2. 4
2. 7
1. 2

( 1 •"2)
*

|

2
9
9
2
0

I

(0.
1.
7.
1 6.

-

11.7
8. 5
8. 2
6.9
5. 0

(1.9)
1. 3

_
-

3.
6.
7.
1 0.
1 0.

-

_

3. 2
3. 0
4. 3
8. 4
8 .6

$1Z5
$130
$135
$ 14 0
$ 14 5

-

C lerks,

II

(0.7)
2. 3

-

_
-

(0.9)
5, 7
4.5
7.8
8. 3

I
„

-

-

$ 8 0 -------------------$ 8 5 -------------------$ 9 0 -------------------$ 9 5 -------------------$ 1 0 0 ------------------

C lerk s,
a c c o u n t i ng

"

-

!
!

_

:

_

|

I

-

I

1 .1
1. 2
1. 3
1.0
(1.7)
_

-

:

!
-

-

j

j

i

i

3
5
1
i
7

i

:

-

7.
5.
4.
4.
3.

-

1

-

1

-

_

..

-

-

j

T o t a l ------------------------------------

10 0. 0

100. 0

10 0. 0

100. 0

10 0 . 0

100 . 0

100. 0

100. 0

100.0

100.0

| 100. 0

100. 0

N u m b e r o f e m p l o y e e s ---------------

4, 141

16,524

29,979

26, 806

9 0,562

6 2,046

28,052

27,127

7,844

60, 476

4 9,837

2 7, 9 0 7

A v e r a g e w e e k l y s a l a r i e s ---------

$113

$139

$169

$207

$ 1 07

$ 138

$ 84

$93

$112

$ 105

$ 120

$ 93

S e e f o o t n o t e at e n d o f t a b l e .




27

I

T a b l e 6.

E m p l o y m e n t d is t r i b u t i o n by s a l a r y : D r a f t i n g a n d c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s — C o n t i n u e d

( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n of e m p l o y e e s i n s e l e c t e d d r a f t i n g a n d c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s , b y w e e k l y s a l a r i e s ,
J u n e 197 1)

United S tates eu cep t A lask a and H aw aii, 1

-------------------------------- !
Secretaries

Stenographers,
g e n e raJ

W eek ly salaries
I

III

n

IV

:
|

i
1
Typists

Stenographe r s ,
sen ,or

11
1

U n d e r $ 6 0 -------------------------------------$ 6 0 a n d u n d e r $ 6 5 --------------------$ 6 5 a n d u n d e r $ 7 0 --------------------$ 7 0 a n d u n d e r $ 7 5 --------------------$75
$80
$85
$90
$95

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

-

-

-

-

"

-

"

-

(0.2)
1. 3

_

_

_

.

(1.1)
1.8
2. 9
3. 5

$ 8 0 --------------------$ 8 5 --------------------$ 9 0 --------------------$ 9 5 --------------------$ 1 0 0 ------------------

(2.0)
1. 2

(1.1)
1. 2

(1.4)

2. 1
1.8
2. 3
3. 3
3. 7

1.
.
1.
3.
2.

0
7
6
2
7

1 0. 5
9. 4
8. 6
8. 0
6 .8

4.
5.
6.
7.
6.

8
6
5
6
3

3.
3.
5.
4.
5.

6
9
3
6
1

6.
4.
3.
3.
2.

13.
12.
9.
6.
4.

3
4
9
7
3

$100
$105
$110
$115
$120

and
and
and
an d
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 1 0 5 ---------------$ 1 1 0 ---------------$ 1 1 5 ----------------$ 1 2 0 ----------------$ 1 2 5 -----------------

5.
5.
6.
9.
10.

0
2
3
5
1

2.5
2.9
3. 7
5. 4
6. 0

$125
$130
$135
$140
$145

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 1 3 0 ----------------$ 1 3 5 ---------------$ 1 4 0 ---------------$ 1 4 5 ----------------$ 1 5 0 -----------------

9.
9.
8.
6.
5.

8
5
0
7
2

7. 4
7.9
8. 4
8. 0
7. 0

$150
$160
$170
$180
$190

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 1 6 0 ---------------$ 1 7 0 ---------------$ 1 8 0 ---------------$ 1 9 0 ---------------$ 2 0 0 ----------------

8. 2
3. 8
1.6
(1.5)

$200
$ 21 0
$220
$230
$240

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 2 1 0 ---------------$ 2 2 0 ---------------$ 2 3 0 ---------------$ 2 4 0 ---------------$ 2 5 0 ----------------

_

-

1 3.
1 0.
5.
3.
2.

7
9
7
0
2

-

1. 2
(1.0)
-

-

-

2. 9
1. 5
1. 2
(1.4)

j

1
i
j
:
!
:

"

-

$ 2 5 0 a n d o v e r -----------------------------

l

-

...

10. 3
12. 4
1 2.4
7.9
6. 8
s o
3". 8
2.9
1.9
1. 1
( JU7)

-

i
i

4. 9

( 0 . 6)

_

7. 0
11.1
13.3
! i. 5
12. 8

1.
4.
5.
7.
[0.

1 0.
7.
5.
3.
2.

12. 5
11.7
9. 3
9. 0
7. 0

-

(1.3)
1 .4
3.5
4. 5

!
i
!

1
6
5
5
0

3.8
3.0
1.2
(0.3)

_

"

1.6
4. 0
5. 9
7.3
8 .4

i U 5)

6. 5
6.3
6. 4
8 .9
9. 5
7.
7.
6.
5.
5.

!
j

j

"

7
7
6
9
2

1.9
1. 4
1. 0
(1 ,7 )

;

_

|

.
-

I
!
i

1 ■7

j

-

1

-

6
3
3
0

2. 5
1.5

_

9. 6
4. 5
2. 6
1.5
( 0 . 5)

j

t

!

4.
4.
3.
2.

!

1
l

4
3
2
5
9

1
6
6
3
4

!

(i.o)

-

i
I

!

_

T o t a l -----------------------------------

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100.0

100.0

N u m b e r o f e m p l o y e e s ---------------

9 2, 462

9 5 , 7 38

5 4 , 451

16,733

57,819

5 3,674

7 2 , 591

41,351

A v e r a g e w e e k l y s a l a r i e s ---------

$128

$ 143

$ 154

$167

$ 114

$128

$96

$111

iOO. 0

1
____________________

1 F o r s c o p e o f s t u d y , s e e t a b l e i n a p p e n d i x A.
To a v o id s h o w in g s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n s of e m p l o y e e s s c a t t e r e d at o r n e a r th e e x t r e m e s of the
d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r s o m e o c c u p a t i o n s , t h e p e r c e n t a g e s o f e m p l o y e e s i n t h e s e i n t e r v a l s h a v e b e e n a c c u m u l a t e d a n d a r e shovvn in t h e i n t e r v a l a b o v e o r
belo w the e x t r e m e i n t e r v a l co n ta in in g at l e a s t 1 p e r c e n t .
The p e r c e n t a g e r e p r e s e n t i n g th e s e e m p l o y e e s a r e sh o w n in p a r e n t h e s e s .
NOTE:

B e c a u s e of r o u n d i n g ,




s u m s of i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s m a y n o t e q u a l 100.

28

T a b l e 7.

O c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t d is trib u tio n : B y in d u s try d iv is io n

(P e r c e n t d istribu tion of e m p lo y e e s m s e le c t e d
U n i te d S ta te s e x c e p t A l a s k a and H a w a i i , Ju n e

professional,
197 1)

M anu­
facturing

O ccupation

P rofessional

adm inistrative,

technical,

and

C lerical

o c c u p a t i o n s , 1 by

W hole sale
trade

R etail
trade

7
8
10
5
(5 )

P ublic
utilities 3

(5 )
7
5
5
(5 )
(5 )
5
(5 )
(5 )

T echnical

support

67
40
61
31
86
66
74
92
7b

12
16
8
21
6
5
(5 )

1

(S )

6
(5 )
(5 )

n

n

1
j

E n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n i c i a n s _____________________
D r a f t s m e n ______________________________________

su p erv iso rs

F inance,
insurance,
and
real estate

S elected
serv ices 4

74
75

i

9
29
12
38
C)
22
10
(5 )
(5 )

i5 J
(5 )
(5 )
l5 )
(=)
4
(5 )
6
12

1
1

i
i

i
I

j

K eypunch

division, 2

and a d m in is tr a tiv e

A c c o u n t a n t s -----------------------------------------------------A u d i t o r s _______________________________________
C h i e f a c c o u n t a n t s ------------------------------------------A t t o r n e y s _______________________________________
B u y e r s ---------------------------------------------------------------J o b a n a l y s t s ----------------------------------------------------D i r e c t o r s o f p e r s o n n e l ______________________
C h e m i s t s _______________________________________
E n g i n e e r s _______________________________________

C le rica l

I

industry

10
8

(r>)
(b )

O
(S )

;

n
(5 )

16
14

su p erv iso ry

-----------------------------------

i

C le rica l

C l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g ___________________________
C l e r k s , f i l e ------------------------------------------------------K e y p u n c h o p e r a t o r s ____ ____________________
M e s s e n g e r s ( o f f i c e b o y s a n d g i r l s ) ----------S e c r e t a r i e s _____________________________________
S t e n o g r a p h e r s -------------------------------------------------- —
T y p i s t s ____________________________________ _____

89
19
42
32
52
49
36

15
5
11
13
9
14
8

1
|

14
9
13
9
7
9
°

12
6
7
4
4
l5 )
4

j

19
60
25
39
25
23
44

(5 )
(5 )
(5 )
(5 )
■

<
5

(5 )
(5 ;

i____

study

gas,

1
E a c h o c c u p a t i o n i n c l u d e s t he w o r k le\ e l s , a s d e f i n e d f o r t he s u r v e y , f o r w h i c h e m p l o y m e n t e s t i m a t e s i n a i l i n d u s t r i e s w i t h i n s c o p e o f the
a r e s h o w n i n t a b l e 1.
2 F o r s c o p e o f stu d y , s e e t able in a p p e n d i x A .
3 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ( l i m i t e d to r a i l r o a d , l o c a l a n d s u b u r b a n p a s s e n g e r , d e e p s e a w a t e r , a n d a i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r i e s ) , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , e l e c t r i c ,
and s a n ita r y s e r v i c e s .
4 E n g i n e e r i n g and a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s ; a nd c o m m e r c i a l l y o p e r a t e d r e s e a r c h , d e v e l o p m e n t , and t e s t i n g l a b o r a t o r i e s o n ly .
s L e s s than 4 p e r c e n t .




29

T a b l e 8.

R e l a t i v e s a l a r y l e v e ls : O c c u p a t i o n by i n d u s t r y d iv i s i o n

(R elative s a l a r y le v e ls for s e le c te d p ro f e s s io n a l,
e x c e p t A l a s k a a n d H a w a i i , J u n e 197 1)

a d m in istrativ e,

tech n ical,

and c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s , 1 by i n d u s tr y d iv isio n , 2 U n ited S ta tes

( A v e r a g e s a l a r y f o r e a c h o c c u p a t i o n i n a l l i n d u s t r i e s - 100)
M anu­
facturing

O ccupation

Public
u tilities3

W holesale
1- a d e

R etail
trade

j

1
1

P ro fe s sio n a l and a d m in is tr a tiv e

10
0
104
11
0
104
10
0
103
10
0
10
0
10
0

A c c o u n t a n t s ------------------------------------------------------------A u d i t o r s ------------------------------------------------------------------C h i e f a c c o u n t a n t s ---------------------------------------------------A t t o r n e y s ____________________________ _______________
B u y e r s _______________________________________________
J o b a n a l y s t s ------------------------------------------------------------D i r e c t o r s of p e r s o n n e l ----------------------------------------C h e m i s t s ____________________________________________
E n g i n e e r s _______________________________________- ___ i

T echnical

12
0
98
12
0

J
i

12
0
10
0

105
(5 )
in
(5 )
99

!

(5 )
98
(5 )
98

12
1

98
93
99
95
(5 )

|

(5 )
97

8
8
10
0

(5 )

(5 )

(b )

1

(5 )

(5 )
ioo

(5 )
87

101

93

93
94
96
95
93
92

91
95
93
92
93
90
95

10
0
114
99
103
96
107

11
0

104
98

1

!
99

11
0

i

10
0

107

11
0

98

!
C le ric a l su p erv iso ry

su p erv iso rs

!

97
98
103
107

support

E n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n i c i a n s __________________________
D r a f t s m e n ______________________________________ __

K eypunch

S elected
serv ic es 4

!
97
104
97

103

F in a n ce,
insurance,
and
re a l estate

____________________________

i
i

11
0
97

|

11
0

119

(5 )

1
|

ir>)

!
!
j

C le rica l

C l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g ----------------------------------------------C l e r k s , f i l e ------------------------------------------------------------K e y p u n c h o p e r a t o r s ______________________________
M e s s e n g e r s ( o f f i c e b o y s a n d g i r l s ) ----------------S ecretarie s
_______ _______________________________
S t e n o g r a p h e r s — ------ ---------------------------------------------T y p i s t s ______________________________________________

1

12
0
11
0
104
12
0
12
0

108

104

i

103

109
127
114
115

12
0
11
0
10
0
11
0
99
12
0

10
1
10
1
106

1

10
0

103
109

12
0

109
104
99

11
0

E a c h o c c u p a t i o n i n c l u d e s t h e w o r k l e v e l s , a s d e f i n e d f o r t h e s u r v e y , f o r w h i c h d a t a a r e p r e s e n t e d in t a b l e 1.
In c o m p u t i n g r e l a t i v e s a l a r y
l e v e l s f o r e a c h o c c u p a t i o n by i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , t h e t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t i n e a c h w o r k l e v e l i n a l l i n d u s t r i e s s u r v e y e d w a s u s e d a s a c o n s t a n t e m p l o y ­
m e n t w e i g h t to e l i m i n a t e t h e e f f e c t of d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n of e m p l o y m e n t in v a r i o u s w o r k l e v e l s w i t h i n e a c h o c c u p a t i o n .
F o r s c o p e of s t u d y , s e e t a b l e i n a p p e n d i x A.
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ( l i m i t e d to r a i l r o a d , l o c a l a n d s u b u r b a n p a s s e n g e r , d e e p s e a w a t e r , a n d a i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r i e s ) , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , e l e c t r i c ,
gas, and sa n ita ry s e r v ic e s .
E n g i n e e r i n g and a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s ; and c o m m e r c i a l l y o p e r a t e d r e s e a r c h , d e v e l o p m e n t , and t e s t i n g l a b o r a t o r i e s only.
I n s u f f i c i e n t e m p l o y m e n t i n 1 w o r k l e v e l o r m o r e to w a r r a n t s e p a r a t e p r e s e n t a t i o n of d a t a .

2
3
4
5




30

T a b l e 9.

A v e r a g e s t a n d a r d w e e k l y h o u rs : O c c u p a t i o n by i n d u s t r y d iv i s i o n

(A verage w eekly h o u r s 1 for e m p lo y ee s
S tates ex c ep t A la s k a and H a w aii, Ju n e

in s e l e c t e d
197 1)

pro fessio n al,

M anu­
facturing

O ccupation

ad m in istrativ e,

tech n ical,

P ublic
utilitie s 4

a n d c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s , 2 by i n d u s t r y

F inance,
insurance,
and
re al estate

R etail
trade

W holesale
trade

P ro fe s sio n a l and a d m in is tr a tiv e

d ivision, 3 United

[
S elected
serv ices 5
|

i

I
A c c o u n t a n t s -----------------------------------------------------A u d i t o r s -----------------------------------------------------------C h i e f a c c o u n t a n t s ------------------------------------------A ttorneys
--------------------------------------------------------B u y e r s ---------------------------- ----------------------------------J o b a n a l y s t s -----------------------------------------------------D i r e c t o r s of p e r s o n n e l ---------------------------------C h em ists
---------------------------------------------------------E n g i n e e r s --------------------------------- ------------------------

T echnical

39.
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su p erv iso rs

38.0
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Keypunch

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support

E n g in ee rin g tec h n ic ian s
D r a f t s m e n ----------------------

C le rica l

5
0
5
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(

6

)

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C l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g ----------------------------------------------C l e r k s , f i l e ------------------------------------------------------------K e y p u n c h o p e r a t o r s ---------------------------------------------M e s s e n g e r s ( o f f i c e b o y s a n d g i r l s ) ----------------S e c r e t a r i e s -------------------------------------------------------------S t e n o g r a p h e r s --------------------------------------------------------T y p i s t s ---------------------------------------------------------------------

393939.
39.
39.
39.
39.

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B a s e d on t h e s t a n d a r d w o r k w e e k f o r w h i c h e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e t h e i r r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r y .
If s t a n d a r d h o u r s w e r e n o t a v a i l a b l e ,
t h e s t a n d a r d h o u r s a p p l i c a b l e f o r a m a j o r i t y of t h e o f f i c e w o r k f o r c e i n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t w e r e u s e d .
T h e a v e r a g e f o r e a c h j o b c a t e g o r y w a s r o u n d e d to
the n e a r e s t h alf h o u r .
E a c h o c c u p a t i o n i n c l u d e s t h e w o r k l e v e l s , a s d e f i n e d f o r t h e s u r v e y , f o r w h i c h d a t a a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t a b l e 1.
F o r s c o p e of s t u d y , s e e t a b l e in a p p e n d i x A.
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n ( l i m i t e d to r a i l r o a d , l o c a l a n d s u b u r b a n p a s s e n g e r , d e e p s e a w a t e r , a n d a i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r i e s ) , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , e l e c t r i c ,
gas, and sa n ita ry s e r v ic e s .
E n g i n e e r i n g and a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s ; and c o m m e r c i a l l y o p e r a t e d r e s e a r c h , d e v e lo p m e n t, and t e s t i n g l a b o r a t o r i e s only.
I n s u f f i c i e n t e m p l o y m e n t i n o n e w o r k l e v e l o r m o r e to w a r r a n t s e p a r a t e p r e s e n t a t i o n of d a t a .

2
3
4
5
6




31




A p p e n d i x A. S c o p e and M e t h o d of S u r v e y
S c o p e of survey

The s u r v e y r e l a t e s to e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in the Uni t e d S t a t e s e x c e p t A l a s k a and H a w a i i
in the fol l owi ng i n d u s t r i e s : M a n u f a c t u r i n g ; t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , e l e c t r i c , g a s ,
and s a n i t a r y s e r v i c e s ; w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e ;
e n g i n e e r i n g and a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s ; and c o m m e r c i a l l y o p e r a t e d r e s e a r c h , d e v e l o p m e n t ,
and t e s t i n g l a b o r a t o r i e s .
E x c l u d e d a r e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s e m p l o y i n g f e w e r t h a n the m i n i m u m
n u m b e r of w o r k e r s , as i n d i c a t e d in t he a c c o m p a n y i n g t a b l e f o r e a c h i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , at
the t i m e of r e f e r e n c e of t he u n i v e r s e d a t a ( g e n e r a l l y , f i r s t q u a r t e r of 1970).
T he v a r i a b l e
m i n i m u m e m p l o y m e n t s i z e , w h i c h w as a d op t e d in t he 1966 s u r v e y , m o r e n e a r l y e q u a l i z e s
the m i n i m u m w h i t e - c o l l a r e m p l o y m e n t of e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a m o n g the v a r i o u s i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s .
The e s t i m a t e d n u m b e r of e s t a b l i s h m e n t s and the t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t w i t h i n s c o p e of t hi s
s u r v e y , and w i t h i n the s a m p l e s a c t u a l l y s t u d i e d , a r e s hown f o r e a c h m a j o r i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n
in the a c c o m p a n y i n g t a b l e .
T h e s e e s t i m a t e s a l s o a r e s ho w n s e p a r a t e l y f or e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
e m p l o y i n g 2 , 5 0 0 w o r k e r s o r m o r e and t h o s e l o c a t e d in S t a n d a r d M e t r o p o l i t a n S t a t i s t i c a l
Areas. 1
As i n d i c a t e d in tne t a b l e , the s c o p e of the s t u d y w as the s a m e f o r al l o c c u p a t i o n s ;
h o w e v e r , t he c l e r i c a l and d r a f t i n g o c c u p a t i o n s w e r e s t u d i e d in a l a r g e r n u m b e r of e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t s t han w e r e t he p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , e n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n i c i a n , and k e y p u n c h s u p e r ­
visor occupations.
The s a m p l i n g m e t h o d s u s e d f o r s t u d y i n g e a c h of t h e s e o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s
a r e d e s c r i b e d in d e t a i l u n d e r S a m p l i n g and E s t i m a t i n g P r o c e d u r e s .

T im in g o f survey

S u r v e y d a t a c o l l e c t i o n w a s p l a n n e d so t h a t the d a t a wo ul d r e f l e c t a n a v e r a g e r e f e r e n c e
p e r i o d of J u n e , 197 1. 2 The d a t a f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , e n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n i ­
c i a n , and k e y p u n c h s u p e r v i s o r o c c u p a t i o n s w e r e o b t a i n e d f r o m a n a t i o n w i d e s a m p l e of e s t a b ­
l i s h m e n t s c o n t a c t e d l a r g e l y b e t w e e n M a r c h and S e p t e m b e r .
The a v e r a g e r e f e r e n c e m o n t h f o r c l e r i c a l and d r a f t i n g o c c u p a t i o n s w a s a l s o J u n e 1971.
D a t a f o r t h e s e o c c u p a t i o n s w e r e o b t a i n e d f r o m two s o u r c e s :
The B u r e a u ' s o c c u p a t i o n a l
w ag e s t u d i e s in 44 m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s w h i c h h a d r e f e r e n c e d a t e s of M a r c h t h r o u g h
S e p t e m b e r 1971; and in a l l o t h e r a r e a s , f r o m the s a m e s a m p l e of e s t a b l i s h m e n t s t h a t w e r e
v i s i t e d f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l a nd a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n s .
M e th o d of c o lle c tio n

D a t a w e r e o b t a i n e d by B u r e a u f i el d e c o n o m i s t s , l a r g e l y by p e r s o n a l v i s i t s , f r o m r e p ­
r e s e n t a t i v e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w i t h i n the s c o p e of the s u r v e y . 3
Employees were classified
a c c o r d i n g to o c c u p a t i o n a n d l e v e l , wi t h the a s s i s t a n c e of c o m p a n y o f f i c i a l s , on the b a s i s of
t he BLS j ob d e f i n i t i o n s w h ic h a p p e a r in a p p e n d i x C. In c o m p a r i n g a c t u a l d u t i e s a nd r e s p o n ­
s i b i l i t i e s of e m p l o y e e s wi t h t h o s e in the s u r v e y d e f i n i t i o n s , e x t e n s i v e u s e w a s m a d e of c o m ­
p a n y o c c u p a t i o n s d e s c r i p t i o n s , o r g a n i z a t i o n c h a r t s , and o t h e r p e r s o n n e l r e c o r d s .

1 The m etro p o litan area data in the 1971 survey relate to a ll 229 SMSA's (w ithin the 48 States surveyed) as revised through
January 1968 by the U. S. O ffice of M anagem ent and Budget (previously the U. S. Bureau of the Budget). Earlier surveys represented
SMSA’s ranging in numbers from 188 in 1962 and earlier surveys to 229 in the 1970 survey.
2 Prior to the 1967 study, the average reference period for clerical and drafting jobs was February, and it was March for all
other occupations.
Until 1963, reports listed "W inter" as the reference period. From 1963 through 1966, the more specific desig­
nation, "February-M arch, " was used. Beginning w ith 1967, the reference period was changed to June.
3 The surveys in m etropolitan areas, used to develop the nationwide estim ates for the drafting and clerical occupations, pro­
vide for co llectio n by a com bination of m ail and personal visits in alternate years.




33

N u m b e r o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s and w o r k e r s w ithin s c o p e o f s u r v e y 1 a n d n u m b e r s t u d ie d by in d u s tr y
d iv i s io n , J u n e 1971

Industry

division

M inim um
em ploym ent
in e s ta b lish m e n ts
i n s c o p e of
survey

250

10
0
10
0

-------------------------------

P ro fe ssio n a l,
ad m in istrativ e,
su p erv iso ry ,
and c l e r i c a l 3

T otal

Num ber
of e s t a b ­
lishm ents

T ota.1
w orkers
in e s t a b ­
lishm ents

S tudied fo r d ra ftin g
and c le ric a l
occupations 2
T otal
w orkers
in e s t a b ­
lish m e n ts

Num ber
of e s t a b ­
lish m e n ts

19, 21 3 , 72 6

7, 2 9 8 , 9 5 8

3, 188

7,0 0 1 ,1 3 0

5,742

8, 7 5 0 ,

14, 0 6 4

1 1,447,891

3,325,225

1 861
,

4, 4 3 6 , 263

2, 7 3 3

5, 2 8 3 , 381

1, 3 1 8 , 551
2 0 4 , 27 7
1, 1 0 8 , 9 7 0

2, 7 5 4
4, 0 4 4
2, 6 6 3

2, 2 7 1 , 348
9 1 8,769
2 ,3 8 8 ,8 7 6 !

1, 0 7 3 , 8 8 2
4 1 6,036
4 5 6 , 312

33 4
174
27 9

1 ,1 4 7 ,4 4 1
8 5 , 401
684,737

69 1
54 7

50

8, 92 2

1, 9 6 4 , 396

1, 8 6 7 , 8 5 6

434

520,686

92 3

68
9

662

680,747
I

1
10
0

1
524

2 2 2 , 44 6

159,647

j

106

126, 6 0 2

150

15 4, 73 6

25,274

1 5 ,458,707

6 , 4 1 6 , 251

j

2 , 5 96

6,3 3 0 ,3 3 5

5, 151

8, 0 7 9 , 8 6 7

8, 9 74

8, 2 1 6 , 0 0 8

2, 7 0 4 , 355

1,373

3, 8 1 6 , 231

2, 246

4 , 6 6 3 , 349

250

2, 165
3, 5 8 2
2, 46 5

2, 115, 25 2
830,250
2, 2 8 5, 384

1, 0 1 8 , 5 4 3
384,242
442, 573

307
159
266

1, 133, 6 1 5
8 2 , 048
675,456

664
5 32
685

1, 3 0 4 , 7 2 5
20 0 ,9 2 4
1 ,0 9 9 , 689

50

7, 578

1 , 8 0 9 , 036

1, 7 1 8 , 136

396

5 1 3 , 72 5

88 5

6 7 3 , 78 6

510

20 2 , 777

148,402

95

109, 260

139

137,394

48 2

2, 5 1 5 , 0 0 5

759

5, 24 2 , 357

778

5, 4 2 3 , 910

4, 0 0 2 , 312

1, 36 0 , 87 6

4 75

3, 3 86 , 735

480

3, 4 5 1 , 07 5

250

10
0
10
0

10
0

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s e m p l o y i n g 2, 50 0
w o r k e r s o r m o r e -------a l l i n d u s t r i e s
M anufacturing

of e s t a b ­
lish m e n ts

occupations

in e s ta b lis h m e n ts

250

M e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s — a l l i n d u s t r i e s 5M a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------------------N o n m an u factu rin g :
T ransportation, 4 co m m u n i­
c a tio n , e l e c t r i c , g as, and
s a n i t a r y s e r v i c e s ----------------W h o l e s a l e t r a d e _______________
R e t a i l t r a d e ____________________
F inance, in su ran c e, and
r e a l e s t a t e ----------------------------S ervices:
E n g in ee rin g and a r c h ite c ­
tu ra l se r v ic e s ; and c o m ­
m erc ially operated r e ­
sea rch , developm ent,
and testing lab o ra to rie s
o n l y ________________________

professional

C 11Li cLLliX 1i. I l l a i i d l l V C
L

W orkers

32, 971

U n i t e d S t a t e s — a l l i n d u s t r i e s 1 --------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------N o n m an u factu rin g :
T ransportation, 4 co m m uni­
c a tion, e l e c t r i c , g as, and
s a n i t a r y s e r v i c e s ___________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e _______________
R e t a i l t r a d e ___________________
F in a n c e , in s u ra n c e , and
r e a l e s t a t e ___________________
S ervices:
E n g in ee rin g and a r c h ite c ­
tu ra l s e r v ic e s ; and c o m ­
m ercially operated r e ­
s e a rc h , developm ent,
and testing la b o ra to rie s
o n l y ________________________

S tu d ie d fo r

W ithin sco p e of s u rv e y 1

1 120
,
-

692

6, 4 5 4 ,

1 T h e s t u d y r e l a t e s to e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i n i n d u s t r i e s l i s t e d , w i t h t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t a t o r a b o v e t h e m i n i m u m l i m i t a t i o n i n d i c a t e d i n t h e f i r s t
co lu m n , in the U nited S ta tes e x c e p t A la s k a and H a w aii.
2 T h e d ra ft i n g an d c l e r i c a l o c c u p a tio n s w e r e s tu d ie d in the s a m e s a m p l e of e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a s w e r e the p r o f e s s i o n a l an d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o c c u ­
p a t i o n s , e x c e p t i n SMSA* s.
F o r th e s e a r e a s , the d ra ftin g and c le r i c a l d ata w e re o b tain ed f r o m the B u r e a u 1 s m o r e in te n s iv e ly s a m p le d s u r v e y s
of
sep arate m etropolitan a reas.
( F o r a m o r e d e t a i l e d e x p l a n a t i o n , s e e S a m p l i n g a n d E s t i m a t i n g P r o c e d u r e s , p. 36. )
3 In c lu d e s ex e c u tiv e , a d m i n i s tr a t i v e , p r o f e s s io n a l, s u p e r v is o r y , and c l e r i c a l e m p lo y e e s , but e x c lu d e s te c h n ic ia n s and d r a f t s m e n , and s a le s
personnel.
4 L i m i t e d to r a i l r o a d , l o c a l a n d s u b u r b a n p a s s e n g e r , d e e p s e a w a t e r (f o re ig n an d d o m e s t i c ) , an d a i r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n d u s t r i e s a s d e f in e d in
t h e 1967 e d i t i o n of t h e S t a n d a r d I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a n u a l .
5 S t a n d a r d M e t r o p o l i t a n S t a t i s t i c a l A r e a s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , e x c e p t A l a s k a a n d H a w a i i , a s r e v i s e d t h r o u g h J a n u a r y 1968 by t h e U . S . O f f i c e
of M a n a g e m e n t a n d B u d g e t .




34

N a tu re of data collected and p re s e n te d

T h e r e p o r t e d s a l a r i e s r e l a t e to s t a n d a r d s a l a r i e s p a id f o r s t a n d a r d w o r k s c h e d u l e s ,
i. e. , to the s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r y c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the e m p l o y e e 's n o r m a l w o r k s c h e d u le
e x c lu d in g o v e r t i m e h o u r s .
N o n p r o d u c tio n b o n u s e s a r e e x c lu d e d , b u t c o s t - o f - l i v i n g p a y m e n t s
a nd in c e n tiv e e a r n i n g s a r e in c lu d e d .
T he a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s p r e s e n t e d r e l a t e to f u l l - t i m e
e m p lo y e e s f o r w h o m s a l a r y d a ta w e r e a v a i l a b l e .
A bout 5 p e r c e n t of the e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a s k e d to s u p p ly d a t a on p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m i n ­
i s t r a t i v e , e n g i n e e r i n g te c h n i c i a n , and k e y p u n c h s u p e r v i s o r o c c u p a tio n s w ould n o t do so.
T h e s e c o r r e s p o n d e d to a n e s t i m a t e d to ta l in the u n i v e r s e s tu d ie d of a p p r o x i m a t e l y
850, 000
w o r k e r s , a b o u t 4. 5 p e r c e n t of 19, 213, 726.
A lo w e r r e f u s a l r a t e w a s found in the s u r v e y s of
c l e r i c a l and d r a f t i n g o c c u p a t i o n s .
The n o n c o o p e r a t i n g u n its w e r e r e p l a c e d by o t h e r s in the
sam e in d u stry -siz e -lo c a tio n c la sse s.
W h e r e no s u c h s u b s t i t u t e s w e r e a v a i l a b l e , s i n c e a ll
s i m i l a r u n its w e r e a l r e a d y in the s a m p l e , the w e ig h ts of the in c lu d e d e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w e r e
i n c r e a s e d to a c c o u n t f o r the m i s s i n g u n its .
U n d e r e s t a b l i s h e d p o l i c i e s of s o m e c o m p a n i e s , o f f ic ia ls w e r e n o t a u t h o r i z e d to p r o ­
vide in f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g to s a l a r i e s f o r a l l o c c u p a tio n s s tu d ie d .
In n e a r l y a l l i n s t a n c e s ,
h o w e v e r , i n f o r m a t i o n w a s p r o v id e d on th e n u m b e r of s u c h e m p l o y e e s a n d the a p p r o p r i a t e
o c c u p a tio n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .
I t w a s th u s p o s s i b l e to e s t i m a t e the p r o p o r t i o n of e m p l o y e e s
f o r w hom s a l a r y d a ta w e r e not a v a i l a b l e .
T h e s e p o l i c i e s m o r e o fte n r e l a t e d to th e h i g h e r
le v e l p o s i t i o n s , m a i n l y b e c a u s e of p o l i c i e s not to d i s c l o s e p a y d a ta f o r e m p l o y e e s c o n s i d e r e d
a p a r t of the m a n a g e m e n t g r o u p o r c l a s s i f i e d in o c c u p a t i o n a l le v e l s in v o lv in g a s in g le
e m p lo y e e .

Number of job categories

Percent of em ployees classified in professional,
adm inistrative, engineering tech n ician , and
c lerical supervisory occupations surveyed
for whom salary data were not av ailab le

1

------------------------------------

10 percent or more
Directors of personnel IV (17 percent)

5

------------------------------------

5 to 9. 9 percent
Attorneys VI
C hief accountants III and IV
Directors of personnel II and III

16

------------------------------------

1 to 4. 9 percent

34

------------------------------------

Less than 1 percent

C o m p a r i s o n s b e tw e e n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s th a t p r o v i d e d s a l a r y d a ta fo r e a c h s p e c if ic o c ­
c u p a tio n l e v e l a n d th o s e n o t doing so i n d i c a t e d th a t the two c l a s s e s of e s t a b l i s h m e n t s did
n o t d i f f e r m a t e r i a l l y in i n d u s t r i e s r e p r e s e n t e d , e m p l o y m e n t , o r s a l a r y le v e l s f o r o t h e r jo b s
in th is s e r i e s f o r w h ic h d a ta w e r e a v a i l a b l e .
O c c u p a tio n a l e m p l o y m e n t e s t i m a t e s r e l a t e to the t o ta l in a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w ith in the
s c o p e of th e s u r v e y a n d not th e n u m b e r a c t u a l l y s u r v e y e d . E m p l o y e e s f o r w h o m s a l a r y d a ta
w e r e n o t a v a i l a b l e w e r e n o t ta k e n in to a c c o u n t in the e s t i m a t e s . 4
T hese estim a te s w ere
d e r i v e d by w e ig h tin g f u l l - t i m e e m p l o y e e s in the o c c u p a tio n s s t u d i e d in e a c h s a m p l e e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t in p r o p o r t i o n to th e n u m b e r of e s t a b l i s h m e n t s it r e p r e s e n t e d w ith in the s c o p e of the
survey.
F o r e x a m p l e , if the s a m p l e e s t a b l i s h m e n t w a s s e l e c t e d f r o m a g r o u p of f o u r e s t a b ­
l i s h m e n t s w ith s i m i l a r e m p l o y m e n t in the s a m e i n d u s t r y and r e g i o n , e a c h f u l l - t i m e e m p lo y e e
found in a n o c c u p a tio n s t u d i e d w a s c o u n te d a s f o u r e m p l o y e e s in c o m p ilin g the e m p l o y m e n t

Also not tak en into account were a few instances in which salary data were available for em ployees in an occupation, but
where there was no satisfactory basis for classifying the em ployees by the appropriate work levels.




35

e s t i m a t e s f o r th e o c c u p a t i o n s . In a d d itio n , the p r o f e s s i o n a l a nd a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n s
w e r e l i m i t e d to e m p l o y e e s m e e t i n g the s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a in e a c h s u r v e y d e f in itio n a n d w e r e
n o t in te n d e d to in c lu d e a l l e m p l o y e e s in e a c h f ie ld of w o r k . 5
F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s , an d
b e c a u s e of d i f f e r e n c e s in o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e a m o n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , the e s t i m a t e s of
o c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t o b ta in e d f r o m th e s a m p l e of e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s tu d ie d s e r v e only to
i n d i c a t e th e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e of th e o c c u p a tio n s a n d l e v e l s a s d e f in e d f o r the s u r v e y .
T h e s e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of the e m p l o y m e n t e s t i m a t e s do n o t m a t e r i a l l y a f f e c t the a c c u r a c y of
th e e a r n i n g s d a ta .
W h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e , d a t a w e r e c o l l e c t e d f o r m e n and w o m e n id e n tif ie d by s e x .
If s e p a ­
r a t e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of in d i v i d u a l s w a s n o t p o s s i b l e , a ll w o r k e r s w e r e r e p o r t e d a s the p r e d o m ­
in a n t se x .
In the p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , and t e c h n i c a l s u p p o r t o c c u p a t i o n s , m e n w e r e
s u f f i c i e n t l y p r e d o m i n a n t to p r e c l u d e p r e s e n t a t i o n of s e p a r a t e d a t a by s e x .
F o r th o s e c l e r i c a l
o c c u p a tio n s in w h ic h b o th m e n and w o m e n a r e c o m m o n ly e m p lo y e d , s e p a r a t e d a ta b y s e x
a r e a v a i l a b l e f r o m the a r e a w age s u r v e y r e p o r t s c o m p ile d by m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a .
The o c c u ­
p a t i o n s and w o r k le v e l s in c lu d e d in th is s tu d y , and in w h ic h w o m e n a c c o u n te d f o r 5 p e r c e n t
o r m o r e of the e m p l o y m e n t , w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d a c c o r d i n g to th e p r o p o r t i o n of w o m e n e m p l o y ­
e e s , a s fo llo w s:
O ccupation and level

W omen (percent)

95 or m o r e ---------------90-94-............................
85-89 — ......................
80-84 ............................
70-74 -----------------55-59 ............................
50-54 —........................
45-49 ............- ..............
35-39 ............................
30-34 - ------- --------20-24 —------ --------1 5 - 1 9 ...................... —
1 0 - 1 4 ............................
5 - 9 ........................ ........

F ile clerks I and II, all levels of keypunch operators,
secretaries, stenographers, and typists
A ccounting clerks I, file clerks III, keypunch
supervisors I
Keypunch supervisors II
Keypunch supervisors III
A ccounting clerks II
Keypunch supervisors IV
Keypunch supervisors V
Messengers (office boys and girls)
Job analysts I
D raftsm en-tracers

Job analysts II and engineering technicians I
Job analysts III, and chem ists I and II
Accountants I and II, chem ists III, buyers I, and
engineering technicians II
Accountants III, auditors I, job analysts IV,
directors of personnel II, and draftsm en I

S a m p li n g and estimating p ro c e d u re s

A s i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r , th is s u r v e y r e l a t e s to a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in th e U n ite d S t a t e s ,
e x c e p t A l a s k a a n d H a w a ii, w ith in the i n d u s t r y an d m i n i m u m s i z e s c o p e . A lth o u g h one s a m p l e
of e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w a s s e l e c t e d f o r s tu d y in g the p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , e n g i n e e r i n g
t e c h n i c i a n , and k e y p u n c h s u p e r v i s o r o c c u p a t i o n s , and a n o t h e r f o r the d r a f t i n g an d c l e r i c a l
o c c u p a t i o n s , b o th r e l a t e to th e s a m e p o p u la tio n of g e o g r a p h i c , i n d u s t r y , an d s i z e - o f - e s t a b lish m e n t c h a r a c te r is tic s .
The p r o c e d u r e s u s e d f o r s e l e c t i n g s a m p l e s f o r t h e s e two g r o u p s
of o c c u p a tio n s a r e e x p la in e d in the fo llo w in g p a r a g r a p h s .
P r o f e s s i o n a l , A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , E n g i n e e r i n g T e c h n i c i a n , and K e y p u n c h S u p e r v i s o r O c c u p a ­
tio n s.
T he s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e s c a lle d f o r the d e t a i l e d s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
w ith in s c o p e of the s u r v e y by lo c a tio n , i n d u s t r y , and s i z e of e m p l o y m e n t .
F r o m th is u n i ­
v e r s e , a n a tio n w id e s a m p l e of a b o u t 3 ,0 0 0 e s t a b l i s h m e n t s (not c o m p a n ie s ) w a s s e l e c t e d
s y s t e m a t i c a l l y . 6 E a c h i n d u s t r y w as s a m p l e d s e p a r a t e l y , the s a m p l i n g r a t e s d e p e n d e n t on
the i m p o r t a n c e of the i n d u s t r y as an e m p l o y e r h a v in g the s u r v e y j o b s . W ithin e a c h i n d u s t r y , a
5 Engineers, for exam ple, are defined to perm it classification of em ployees engaged in engineering work w ithin a band of
eig h t levels, starting w ith inexperienced engineering graduates and excluding only those w ithin certain fields of specialization or in
positions above those covered by lev el VIII. By way of contrast, such occupations as chief accountants and directors of personnel
are defined to include only those w ith responsibility for a specified program and w ith duties and responsibilities as indicated for each
of the more lim ite d num ber of work levels selected for study.
6 A few of the largest em ployers, together em ploying approxim ately one and a quarter m illion workers, gave data on a com pany­
wide basis. These com panies were elim in ated from the universe to which the preceding procedure applies. The sam ple count includes
the establishm ents of these com panies w ithin the scope of the survey.




36

g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n of l a r g e th a n of s m a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w a s in c lu d e d .
In c o m b in in g the
d a ta , e a c h e s t a b l i s h m e n t w a s w e ig h te d a c c o r d i n g to i ts p r o b a b i l i t y of s e l e c t i o n , so th a t u n ­
b ia se d e stim a te s w ere g e n e ra te d .
To i l l u s t r a t e th e p r o c e s s , w h e r e one e s t a b l i s h m e n t out
of fo u r w a s s e l e c t e d , it w a s g iv e n a w e ig h t of 4, th u s r e p r e s e n t i n g i t s e l f p lu s t h r e e o t h e r s .
In i n s t a n c e s w h e r e d a ta w e r e n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r the o r i g i n a l s a m p l e m e m b e r , an a l t e r n a t e
of the s a m e o r i g i n a l p r o b a b i l i t y of s e l e c t i o n w a s c h o s e n in the s a m e i n d u s t r y - s i z e c l a s s i f i ­
c a tio n .
W h e r e t h e r e w a s no s u ita b le s u b s t i t u t i o n fo r the o r i g i n a l s a m p l e m e m b e r , the
m i s s i n g u n it w a s a c c o u n t e d f o r by a s s i g n i n g a d d itio n a l w e ig h t to an e x is tin g s a m p l e m e m b e r
th a t w a s a s n e a r l y s i m i l a r a s p o s s i b l e to the m i s s i n g u n it.
C l e r i c a l and D r a f tin g O c c u p a tio n s .
T he n a tio n w id e e s t i m a t e s f o r the c l e r i c a l and d r a f t ­
ing o c c u p a tio n s a r e , in l a r g e p a r t , a b y p r o d u c t of the B u r e a u ’s s u r v e y s of t h e s e o c c u p a tio n s
in 89 m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s .
D a ta f r o m 44 of t h e s e a r e a w a g e s u r v e y s w e r e a d j u s t e d to th e
s c o p e of the n a tio n a l s u r v e y and w e r e in c lu d e d to r e p r e s e n t t h e m s e l v e s . 7
T he s a m p l i n g
of e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w ith in e a c h of t h e s e a r e a s w as d e s i g n e d to y ie ld e s t i m a t e s of the a r e a
as a w h o le , and f o r m a j o r i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s w ith in the a r e a .
A s d e s c r i b e d in the p r e ­
c e ding s e c t i o n , the e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w e r e s t r a t i f i e d by i n d u s t r y a n d e m p l o y m e n t s i z e , a n d
sam p le m e m b e r s s e le c te d at ra n d o m for each s tr a tu m .
F o r a ll r e m a i n i n g a r f e a s , c l e r i c a l a nd d r a f tin g d a ta w e r e o b ta in e d f r o m the s a m e n a t i o n ­
w ide s a m p l e of e s t a b l i s h m e n t s u s e d f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , e n g i n e e r i n g t e c h ­
n ic ia n , and k e y p u n c h s u p e r v i s o r occ u p a tio n s,,
W ithin th is s a m p l e t h e r e w e r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y
700 e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in a r e a s w h e r e lo c a l i t y s t u d i e s had b e e n done b e tw e e n O c t o b e r 1970 and
F e b r u a r y 1971.
W h e r e p o s s i b l e , c l e r i c a l and d r a f t i n g d a ta r e p o r t e d in t h e s e s t u d i e s w e r e
u p d a te d to r e f l e c t g e n e r a l i n c r e a s e s o c c u r r i n g to the ti m e p r o f e s s i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e
d a ta w e r e c o l l e c t e d .
In a l l o t h e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , c l e r i c a l and d r a f t i n g d a ta w e r e c o l l e c t e d in
c o n ju n c tio n w ith p r o f e s s i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d a ta .
Conversion of salary rates

S a l a r y d a ta f o r the s e l e c t e d o c c u p a tio n s w e r e c o l l e c t e d in the f o r m in w hich it w a s
m o s t r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f r o m c o m p a n y r e c o r d s , i. e. , on a w e e k ly , b iw e e k ly , s e m i m o n t h l y ,
m o n th ly , o r a n n u a l b a s i s .
F o r th e i n i t i a l t a b u l a t i o n s , the s a l a r y d a ta w e r e f i r s t c o n v e r t e d
to a w e e k ly b a s i s f o r th e c l e r i c a l a n d d r a f tin g o c c u p a tio n s a nd to a m o n th ly b a s i s fo r the
p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , a nd e n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n i c i a n o c c u p a t i o n s .
T he f a c t o r s u s e d to
c o n v e r t t h e s e d a ta f o r the two g r o u p s of o c c u p a tio n s w e r e a s fo llo w s:

T im e interval
represented by
salary

Salaries for clerical and
drafting occupations to
weekly basis

W eekly-----------------------------------B iw eekly--------------------------------S e m im o n th ly ----------------------------------M o n th ly ------------------------------A n n u a l --------------------------------------------

1.0000
. 5000
.4602
.2301
.0192

Salaries for professional
and adm inistrative occupa­
tions and for engineering
technicians and keypunch
supervisors to
m onthly basis
4 .3450
2. 1725
2.0000
1.0000
.0833

A v e r a g e m o n t h l y s a l a r i e s p r e s e n t e d in t a b l e s 1, 2, a nd 3 and a n n u a l s a l a r i e s p r e s e n t e d in
t a b l e s 1 a n d 2 fo r the c l e r i c a l a nd d r a f tin g o c c u p a tio n s a r e d e r i v e d f r o m the a v e r a g e w e e k ly
s a l a r i e s (to the n e a r e s t penny) by u s e of f a c t o r s 4. 345 an d 52. 14, r e s p e c t i v e l y , a n d r o u n d ­
ing r e s u l t s to th e n e a r e s t d o l l a r . A v e r a g e w e e k ly s a l a r i e s f o r t h e s e o c c u p a t i o n s , p r e s e n t e d
in ta b le 6, a r e r o u n d e d to the n e a r e s t h a lf d o l l a r . A v e r a g e m o n th ly s a l a r i e s p r e s e n t e d in
t a b l e s 1, 2, and 3 f o r a l l o t h e r o c c u p a tio n s a r e r o u n d e d to the n e a r e s t d o l l a r .
To o b ta in
the a n n u a l s a l a r i e s , a v e r a g e m o n th ly s a l a r i e s (to the n e a r e s t penny) a r e m u l t i p l i e d by 12
and r o u n d e d to the n e a r e s t d o l l a r .
7
These were the 44 area wage surveys (excluding Albany, C leveland, Kansas C ity (Mo), O m aha, and Trenton) which had
payroll referen ce dates of March through Septem ber 1971, and were, therefore, representative of the sam e co llectio n tim e period
that applied for the n ational survey.




37

M e th o d of d e term ining m e d ia n and quartile values

M e d ia n a n d q u a r t i l e v a lu e s p r e s e n t e d in th is r e p o r t w e r e d e r i v e d f r o m d i s t r i b u t i o n s
of e m p l o y e e s by s a l a r y u s in g $ 1 c l a s s i n t e r v a l s .
W e e k ly s a l a r y c l a s s i n t e r v a l s w e r e u s e d
f o r d r a f t s m e n a n d c l e r i c a l o c c u p a tio n s and m o n t h l y s a l a r y c l a s s i n t e r v a l s w e r e u s e d f o r a l l
o th er occu p atio n s.
T he w e e k ly v a lu e s w e r e m u l t i p l i e d by 4. 345 to o b ta in m o n th ly v a l u e s
a nd by 52. 14 to o b ta in a n n u a l v a l u e s .
T he a n n u a l v a l u e s f o r o t h e r th a n d r a f t s m e n a n d
c l e r i c a l o c c u p a tio n s w e r e o b ta in e d by m u ltip ly in g m o n th ly v a lu e s by 12.
Estim ates of s a m p lin g e rror

The s u r v e y p r o c e d u r e y ie ld s e s t i m a t e s w ith w id e ly v a r y i n g s a m p l i n g e r r o r s , d e p e n d in g
on the f r e q u e n c y w ith w h ic h the job o c c u r s , and the d i s p e r s i o n of s a l a r i e s .
T h u s , f o r the
p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , e n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n i c i a n , and k e y p u n c h s u p e r v i s o r o c c u p a t i o n w o r k
l e v e l s , the r e l a t i v e s a m p l i n g e r r o r s of the a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d a s f o llo w s:
31
w e r e u n d e r 2 p e r c e n t ; 16 w e r e 2 and u n d e r 4 p e r c e n t ; 5 w e r e 4 and u n d e r 6 p e r c e n t ; and 4
w e r e 6 p e r c e n t and o v e r . 8 T he n a tio n w id e e s t i m a t e s f o r the c l e r i c a l and d r a f t i n g r o o m o c ­
c u p a t i o n s , b a s e d on th e m u c h l a r g e r s a m p l e , a r e s u b j e c t to s m a l l e r s a m p l i n g e r r o r — 2 p e r c e n t
o r l e s s in a l l c a s e s e x c e p t f o r d r a f t s m e n - t r a c e r s (3. 2 p e r c e n t ) .
T h ese sam p lin g e r r o r s
m e a s u r e the v a lid ity of the b a n d w ith in w h ic h the t r u e a v e r a g e is lik e ly to f a ll.
T hus, for
an o c c u p a tio n w ith a s a m p l e a v e r a g e m o n th ly s a l a r y of $ 1 ,0 0 0 a n d s a m p l i n g e r r o r of 4
p e r c e n t , the c h a n c e s a r e 19 out of 20 t h a t the t r u e a v e r a g e l i e s w ith in th e b a n d f r o m $960
a nd $ 1, 040.

8 The 6 percent and over group included:
supervisors V -6. 5 percent; and attorneys V -6. 5.




Keypunch supervisors 1-8 .6 percent; engineering technicians 1-6.9 percent; Keypunch

38

A p p e n d ix B. S u rv ey C h a n g e s in 1971

C h a n g e s in o c c u p a t i o n a l c o v e r a g e a n d d e f i n i t i o n s

T h e t w o - l e v e l s w i t c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r and t h r e e - l e v e l t a b u l a t i n g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r
o c c u p a tio n s w e r e d r o p p e d f r o m the s u r v e y , and m i n o r c h a n g e s , d e s c r i b e d below , w e r e
m a d e in the d e f in itio n s f o r a c c o u n tin g c l e r k , k e y p u n c h o p e r a t o r , and o ffic e boy o r g i r l .
A c c o u n tin g c l e r k a n d k e y p u n c h o p e r a t o r . T h e s u r v e y d e f in itio n s f o r t h e s e o c c u ­
p a tio n s w e r e r e v i s e d s l i g h t l y to c l a r i f y th e in te n t of the d e f in itio n s a n d f a c i l i t a t e u n i f o r m
i n t e r p r e t a t i o n b y d a ta c o l l e c t o r s , r e s p o n d e n t s , and u s e r s .
S ince e a c h l e v e l r e p r e s e n t s
th e s a m e ty p e s of p o s i t i o n s a s in 1970, c o m p a r i s o n s of d a ta f o r t r e n d p u r p o s e s a r e not
a f f e c te d .
O ffic e boy o r g i r l .
T he t i t l e of th is o c c u p a tio n w a s c h a n g e d to M e s s e n g e r (office
b o y o r g ir l) .
A fe w c h a n g e s in w o r d in g w e r e m a d e f o r the r e a s o n s n o te d f o r th e two
o c c u p a tio n s a b o v e .
T he c o n te n t of the job r e m a i n s e s s e n t i a l l y th e s a m e , and c o m p a r a b i l i t y
of d a ta b e tw e e n s u r v e y s w a s m a i n t a i n e d .




39

A p p e n d ix C. O c c u p a tio n a l D e fin itio n s

The p r i m a r y p u r p o s e of p r e p a r i n g jo b d e f in itio n s f o r the
B u r e a u 1s w age s u r v e y s is to a s s i s t its f ie ld s t a f f in c l a s s i f y i n g into
a p p r o p r i a t e o c c u p a tio n s , o r l e v e l s w ith in o c c u p a t i o n s , w o r k e r s who
a r e e m p lo y e d u n d e r a v a r i e t y of p a y r o l l t i t l e s and d i f f e r e n t w o r k
a r r a n g e m e n t s f r o m e s t a b l i s h m e n t to e s t a b l i s h m e n t and f r o m a r e a to
area.
T h is p e r m i t s th e g r o u p in g of o c c u p a t i o n a l w a g e r a t e s r e p r e ­
s e n tin g c o m p a r a b l e job c o n te n t.
To s e c u r e c o m p a r a b i l i t y of job
c o n te n t, s o m e o c c u p a tio n s and w o r k l e v e l s a r e d e f in e d to in c lu d e
only t h o s e w o r k e r s m e e t i n g s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a a s to t r a i n i n g , job
f u n c tio n s , and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .
B e c a u s e of th is e m p h a s i s on i n t e r ­
e s t a b l i s h m e n t and i n t e r a r e a c o m p a r a b i l i t y of o c c u p a t i o n a l c o n te n t,
the B u r e a u 1s o c c u p a tio n a l d e f in itio n s m a y d i f f e r s ig n i f i c a n t l y f r o m
th o s e in u s e in in d iv id u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s o r t h o s e p r e p a r e d f o r o t h e r
p u r p o s e s . A ls o s e e n ote r e f e r r i n g to the d e f in itio n s f o r the d r a f t i n g
and c l e r i c a l o c c u p a tio n s on p. 7 6.

A cco u ntants and A u dito rs

ACCOUNTANT
P e r f o r m s p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n tin g w o r k r e q u i r i n g k n o w le d g e of the t h e o r y and p r a c ­
tic e of r e c o r d i n g , c l a s s i f y i n g , e x a m in in g , and a n a ly z in g the d a t a an d r e c o r d s of f in a n c i a l
tran sactio n s.
The w o r k g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r e s a b a c h e l o r ’ s d e g r e e in a c c o u n tin g o r , in r a r e
i n s t a n c e s , e q u iv a le n t e x p e r i e n c e and e d u c a t i o n c o m b in e d . P o s i t i o n s c o v e r e d by th is d e f in itio n
a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by th e i n c l u s i o n of w o r k th a t is a n a l y t i c a l , c r e a t i v e , e v a lu a tiv e , and a d ­
v i s o r y in n a t u r e .
T he w o r k d r a w s upon and r e q u i r e s a th o r o u g h k n o w le d g e of the f u n d a ­
m e n t a l d o c t r i n e s , t h e o r i e s , p r i n c i p l e s , and t e r m i n o l o g y of a c c o u n ta n c y , and o fte n e n t a i l s
s o m e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of s u c h r e l a t e d f ie ld s a s b u s i n e s s law , s t a t i s t i c s , and g e n e r a l m a n a g e ­
m e n t.
(See a l s o c h ie f a c c o u n ta n t. )
P r o f e s s i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s in a c c o u n t a n t p o s i t i o n s a b o v e the e n t r y and d e v e l o p ­
m e n t a l l e v e l s in c lu d e s e v e r a l s u c h d u t i e s a s :
A n a ly z in g th e e f f e c ts of t r a n s a c t i o n s upon a c c o u n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s ;
E v a lu a tin g a l t e r n a t i v e m e a n s of t r e a t i n g t r a n s a c t i o n s ;
P la n n in g the m a n n e r in w h ic h a c c o u n t s t r u c t u r e s s h o u ld be d e v e lo p e d o r m o d if ie d ;
A s s u r i n g the
m an ag em en t;

adequacy

of th e

a c c o u n tin g

sy stem

as

th e

b asis

for

rep o rtin g

to

C o n s i d e r i n g the n e e d f o r new o r c h a n g e d c o n t r o l s ;
P r o j e c t i n g a c c o u n tin g d a t a to show the e f f e c ts of p r o p o s e d p la n s on c a p i t a l i n v e s t ­
m e n t s , in c o m e , c a s h p o s itio n , and o v e r a l l f i n a n c i a l c o n d itio n ;
I n t e r p r e t i n g the m e a n i n g of a c c o u n tin g r e c o r d s ,

re p o rts,

and s t a t e m e n t s ;

A d v is in g o p e r a t i n g o f f ic ia ls on a c c o u n tin g m a t t e r s ; and
R e c o m m e n d in g
and p r o c e d u r e s .

im p ro v e m e n ts,

adaptations,

or

r e v i s i o n s in the a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m

( E n t r y and d e v e l o p m e n t a l l e v e l p o s i t i o n s p r o v i d e o p p o r tu n ity to d e v e lo p a b ility to p e r f o r m p r o ­
f e s s i o n a l d u tie s s u c h a s t h o s e e n u m e r a t e d a b o v e .)




40

A C C O U N T A N T — C o n tin u ed

In a d d itio n to s u c h p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k , m o s t a c c o u n t a n t s a r e a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r
a s s u r i n g the p r o p e r r e c o r d i n g and d o c u m e n t a t i o n of t r a n s a c t i o n s in the a c c o u n t s .
T hey,
t h e r e f o r e , f r e q u e n t l y d i r e c t n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l in th e a c t u a l d a y - t o - d a y m a i n t e n a n c e
of books of a c c o u n t s , the a c c u m u l a t i o n of c o s t o r o t h e r c o m p a r a b l e d a ta , th e p r e p a r a t i o n
of s t a n d a r d r e p o r t s and s t a t e m e n t s , and s i m i l a r w o r k . ( P o s i t i o n s in v o lv in g s u c h s u p e r v i s o r y
w o r k b u t n o t in c lu d in g p r o f e s s i o n a l d u tie s a s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , a r e not in c lu d e d in th is
d escrip tio n . )
E x c lu d e d a r e a c c o u n ta n ts w h o s e p r i n c i p a l o r s o le d u t i e s c o n s i s t of d e s i g n i n g o r
im p r o v i n g a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m s o r o t h e r n o n o p e r a tin g sta f f w o rk , e. g. , f i n a n c i a l a n a l y s i s ,
f i n a n c i a l f o r e c a s t i n g , ta x a d v is in g , e tc . (T h e c r i t e r i a th a t fo llo w f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g a m o n g
the s e v e r a l le v e l s of w o r k a r e i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r s u c h j o b s . )
N ote, h o w e v e r , th a t p r o f e s ­
s io n a l a c c o u n t a n t p o s i t i o n s w ith r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e c o r d i n g o r r e p o r t i n g a c c o u n tin g d a t a
r e l a t i v e to t a x e s a r e in c lu d e d , as a r e o p e r a t i n g o r c o s t a c c o u n t a n t s w h o s e w o r k i n c lu d e s ,
b u t is not l i m i t e d to, i m p r o v e m e n t of th e a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m .
S o m e a c c o u n t a n t s u s e e l e c t r o n i c d a t a p r o c e s s i n g e q u i p m e n t to p r o c e s s , r e c o r d , and
r e p o r t a c c o u n tin g d a ta .
In s o m e s u c h c a s e s the m a c h i n e u n it is a s u b o r d i n a t e s e g m e n t of
the a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m ; in o t h e r s it is a s e p a r a t e e n tity o r is a tt a c h e d to s o m e o t h e r o r g a n i ­
z a tio n .
In e i t h e r i n s t a n c e , p r o v i d i n g the p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the p o s i t i o n is p r o f e s ­
s io n a l a c c o u n tin g w o r k of the type o t h e r w i s e in c lu d e d , the u s e of d a t a p r o c e s s i n g e q u ip m e n t
of a n y type d o e s not of i t s e l f e x c lu d e a p o s i t i o n f r o m th e a c c o u n t a n t d e s c r i p t i o n n o r d o e s it
c h a n g e its le v e l.
A c c o u n ta n t I
G e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . At th is b e g in n in g p r o f e s s i o n a l l e v e l, th e a c c o u n t a n t l e a r n s
to apply the p r i n c i p l e s , t h e o r i e s , and c o n c e p ts of a c c o u n tin g to a s p e c if ic s y s t e m .
The
p o s i t i o n is d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l p o s i t i o n s by the v a r i e t y of a s s i g n m e n t s ; r a t e
and s c o p e of d e v e l o p m e n t e x p e c te d of th e i n c u m b e n t; and the e x i s t e n c e , i m p l i c i t o r e x p lic it,
of a p la n n e d t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m d e s i g n e d to give the e n t e r i n g a c c o u n t a n t p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e .
( T e r m i n a l p o s i t i o n s a r e e x c l u d e d .)
D i r e c t i o n r e c e i v e d . W o rk s u n d e r c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n of a n e x p e r i e n c e d a c c o u n t a n t
w h o se g u id a n c e is d i r e c t e d p r i m a r i l y to the d e v e l o p m e n t of th e t r a i n e e ' s p r o f e s s i o n a l a b ility
and to the e v a lu a tio n of h is p o t e n t i a l f o r a d v a n c e m e n t .
L i m i t s of a s s i g n m e n t s a r e c l e a r l y
d e f in e d , m e th o d s of p r o c e d u r e a r e s p e c if ie d , and k in d s of i t e m s to be n o te d and r e f e r r e d
to s u p e r v i s o r a r e id e n tif ie d .
T y p ic a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .
P e r f o r m s a v a r i e t y of a c c o u n tin g t a s k s s u c h
a s : E x a m i n i n g a v a r i e t y of f in a n c i a l s t a t e m e n t s f o r c o m p l e t e n e s s , i n t e r n a l a c c u r a c y , and
c o n f o r m a n c e w ith u n i f o r m a c c o u n tin g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o r o t h e r s p e c if ic a c c o u n tin g r e q u i r e ­
m e n t s ; r e c o n c i l i n g r e p o r t s and f i n a n c i a l d a t a w ith f i n a n c i a l s t a t e m e n t s a l r e a d y on f ile , and
p o in tin g out a p p a r e n t i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s o r e r r o r s ; c a r r y i n g out a s s i g n e d s te p s in an a c c o u n tin g
a n a l y s i s , s u c h as c o m p u tin g s t a n d a r d r a t i o s ; a s s e m b l i n g and s u m m a r i z i n g a c c o u n tin g l i t e r a ­
t u r e on a g iv e n s u b j e c t ; p r e p a r i n g r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e f in a n c i a l s t a t e m e n t s , not in v o lv in g p r o b ­
l e m s of a n a l y s i s o r p r e s e n t a t i o n ; and p r e p a r i n g c h a r t s , t a b l e s , and o t h e r e x h ib its to be u s e d
in r e p o r t s .
In a d d itio n to s u c h w o rk , m a y a ls o p e r f o r m s o m e n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l t a s k s f o r
train in g p u rp o se s.
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d i r e c t i o n of o t h e r s .

U s u a lly none.

A c c o u n ta n t II
G e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A t th is c o n tin u in g d e v e l o p m e n t a l le v e l the p r o f e s s i o n a l
a c c o u n ta n t m a k e s p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s of t e c h n i c a l a c c o u n tin g p r a c t i c e s and c o n c e p t s b e y o n d
the m e r e a p p l i c a t i o n of d e t a i l e d r u l e s and i n s t r u c t i o n s . A s s i g n m e n t s a r e d e s i g n e d to e xpand
h is p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e and to d e v e lo p h is p r o f e s s i o n a l ju d g m e n t in the a p p l i c a t i o n of b a s i c




41

A C C O U N T A N T— C o n t i n u e d

a c c o u n tin g t e c h n i q u e s to s i m p l e p r o f e s s i o n a l p r o b l e m s . He is e x p e c te d to be c o m p e t e n t in
the a p p l i c a t i o n of s t a n d a r d p r o c e d u r e s and r e q u i r e m e n t s to r o u t i n e t r a n s a c t i o n s , to r a i s e
q u e s t i o n s a b o u t u n u s u a l o r q u e s tio n a b le i t e m s , and to s u g g e s t s o l u t i o n s . ( T e r m i n a l p o s i t i o n s
a r e e x c l u d e d .)
D irectio n r e c e iv e d .
W ork is r e v i e w e d c l o s e l y to v e r i f y its g e n e r a l a c c u r a c y and
c o v e r a g e of u n u s u a l p r o b l e m s , to i n s u r e c o n f o r m a n c e w ith r e q u i r e d p r o c e d u r e s and s p e c i a l
i n s t r u c t i o n s , a nd to a s s u r e h is p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o w th . H is p r o g r e s s is e v a lu a te d in t e r m s of
h is a b ility to a p p ly h is p r o f e s s i o n a l k n o w le d g e to b a s i c a c c o u n tin g p r o b l e m s in the d a y - t o - d a y
o p e r a t i o n s of a n e s t a b l i s h e d a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m .
T y p ic a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .
P e r f o r m s a v a r i e t y of a c c o u n tin g t a s k s , e . g . ,
p r e p a r e s r o u t i n e w o r k in g p a p e r s , s c h e d u l e s , e x h ib its , and s u m m a r i e s in d ic a tin g the e x t e n t of
h is e x a m in a tio n , a nd p r e s e n t i n g and s u p p o r t i n g h is f in d in g s and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . E x a m i n e s
a v a r i e t y of a c c o u n tin g d o c u m e n t s to v e r i f y a c c u r a c y of c o m p u t a t i o n s and to a s c e r t a i n t h a t
a ll t r a n s a c t i o n s a r e p r o p e r l y s u p p o r t e d , a r e in a c c o r d a n c e w ith p e r t i n e n t p o l i c i e s and p r o c e ­
d u r e s , and a r e c l a s s i f i e d and r e c o r d e d a c c o r d i n g to a c c e p t a b l e a c c o u n tin g s t a n d a r d s .
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d i r e c t i o n of o t h e r s .
a few c l e r k s .

U s u a lly

none,

a lth o u g h he m a y

su p erv ise

A c c o u n ta n t III
G eneral c h a r a c te r is tic s .
P e r f o r m s p r o f e s s i o n a l o p e r a t i n g o r c o s t a c c o u n tin g w o r k
r e q u i r i n g th e s t a n d a r d i z e d a p p l i c a t i o n of w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d a c c o u n tin g p r i n c i p l e s , t h e o r i e s ,
c o n c e p t s , and p r a c t i c e s .
R e c e i v e s d e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the o v e r a l l a c c o u n tin g
s y s t e m and its o b j e c t i v e s , th e p o l i c i e s and p r o c e d u r e s u n d e r w h ic h it is o p e r a t e d , and the
n a t u r e of c h a n g e s in th e s y s t e m o r its o p e r a t i o n . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , th e a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m
o r a s s i g n e d s e g m e n t is s t a b l e and w e ll e s t a b l i s h e d ( i . e . , the b a s i c c h a r t of a c c o u n t s , c l a s ­
s i f i c a t i o n s , the n a t u r e of the c o s t a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m , th e r e p o r t r e q u i r e m e n t s , and the p r o ­
c e d u r e s a r e c h a n g e d in f r e q u e n tly ) .
D e p e n d in g up o n the w o r k lo a d in v o lv e d , the a c c o u n t a n t m a y h a v e s u c h a s s i g n m e n t s
a s s u p e r v i s i o n of the d a y - t o - d a y o p e r a t i o n of: (a) T he e n t i r e s y s t e m of a s u b o r d i n a t e e s ­
t a b l i s h m e n t , o r (b) a m a j o r s e g m e n t ( e . g . , g e n e r a l a c c o u n tin g ; c o s t a c c o u n tin g ; o r f i n a n c i a l
s t a t e m e n t s and r e p o r t s ) of a s o m e w h a t l a r g e r s y s t e m , o r (c) in a v e r y l a r g e and c o m p le x
s y s t e m , m a y b e a s s i g n e d to a r e l a t i v e l y n a r r o w and s p e c i a l i z e d s e g m e n t d e a lin g w ith s o m e
p r o b l e m , fu n c tio n , o r p o r t i o n of w o r k w h ic h is i t s e l f of th e l e v e l of d if f ic u lty c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
of th is l e v e l.
D irectio n re c e iv e d . A
to f u r n i s h a d v ic e and a s s i s t a n c e
q u a c y of p r o f e s s i o n a l ju d g m e n t,
p r a i s a l of r e s u l t s , s u b s e q u e n t
ap p ro p riate m ean s.

h i g h e r l e v e l p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a n t n o r m a l l y is a v a i l a b l e
as n e e d e d . W o rk is r e v i e w e d f o r t e c h n i c a l a c c u r a c y , a d e ­
and c o m p l i a n c e w ith i n s t r u c t i o n s th r o u g h s p o t c h e c k s , a p ­
p r o c e s s i n g , a n a l y s i s of r e p o r t s and s t a t e m e n t s , and o t h e r

T y p ic a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .
T he p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of m o s t p o s i t i o n s
a t th is le v e l is to a s s u r e th a t the a s s i g n e d d a y - t o - d a y o p e r a t i o n s a r e c a r r i e d out in a c c o r d ­
a n c e w ith e s t a b l i s h e d a c c o u n tin g p r i n c i p l e s , p o l i c i e s , and o b j e c t i v e s . T he a c c o u n t a n t p e r f o r m s
s u c h p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k a s : D e v e lo p in g n o n s t a n d a r d r e p o r t s and s t a t e m e n t s ( e . g . , t h o s e c o n ­
ta in in g c a s h f o r e c a s t s r e f l e c t i n g the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s of a c c o u n tin g , c o s t b u d g e tin g , o r c o m p a ­
r a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n ) ; i n t e r p r e t i n g and p o in tin g out t r e n d s o r d e v i a t i o n s f r o m s t a n d a r d s ; p r o ­
j e c t i n g d a t a into the f u t u r e ; p r e d i c t i n g the e f f e c ts of c h a n g e s in o p e r a t i n g p r o g r a m s ; o r
id e n tif y in g m a n a g e m e n t i n f o r m a t i o n a l n e e d s , and r e f in in g a c c o u n t s t r u c t u r e s o r r e p o r t s
acco rd in g ly .




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W ithin the l i m i t s of h is d e l e g a t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , m a k e s d a y - t o - d a y d e c i s i o n s c o n ­
c e r n i n g the a c c o u n tin g t r e a t m e n t of f i n a n c i a l t r a n s a c t i o n s . Is e x p e c t e d to r e c o m m e n d s o l u ­
tio n s to c o m p le x p r o b l e m s and p r o p o s e c h a n g e s in t h e a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m f o r a p p r o v a l a t
h i g h e r l e v e l s . S uch r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a r e d e r i v e d f r o m h is own k n o w le d g e of the a p p l i c a t i o n
of w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s .
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r th e d i r e c t i o n of o t h e r s .
of a s u b o r d i n a t e n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l s ta f f .

In m o s t

i n s t a n c e s he d i r e c t s the w o r k

A c c o u n ta n t IV
G eneral c h a r a c te r is tic s .
P e r f o r m s p r o f e s s i o n a l o p e r a t i n g o r c o s t a c c o u n tin g w o r k
w h ic h r e q u i r e s th e a p p l i c a t i o n of w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d a c c o u n tin g p r i n c i p l e s , t h e o r i e s , c o n c e p ts ,
and p r a c t i c e s to a w ide v a r i e t y of d if f ic u lt p r o b l e m s .
R e c e i v e s i n s t r u c t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the
o b j e c t i v e s and o p e r a t i o n s of the o v e r a l l a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m .
A t th is l e v e l, c o m p a r e d w ith
le v e l III, the a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m o r a s s i g n e d s e g m e n t is m o r e c o m p le x , i. e. , (a) is r e l a t i v e l y
u n s t a b l e , (b) m u s t a d j u s t to ne w o r c h a n g in g c o m p a n y o p e r a t i o n s , (c) s e r v e s o r g a n i z a t i o n s
of u n u s u a lly l a r g e s i z e , o r (d) is c o m p l i c a t e d by the n e e d to p r o v i d e and c o o r d i n a t e s e p a r a t e
o r s p e c i a l i z e d a c c o u n tin g t r e a t m e n t and r e p o r t i n g (e. g. , c o s t a c c o u n tin g u s in g s t a n d a r d c o s t,
p r o c e s s c o s t, and jo b o r d e r te c h n iq u e s ) f o r d i f f e r e n t o p e r a t i o n s o r d i v i s i o n s of c o m p a n y .
D e p e n d in g u p o n th e w o r k lo a d and d e g r e e of c o o r d i n a t i o n in v o lv e d , th e a c c o u n t a n t IV
m a y h a v e s u c h a s s i g n m e n t s a s th e s u p e r v i s i o n of the d a y - t o - d a y o p e r a t i o n of: (a) The e n t i r e
a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m of a s u b o r d i n a t e e s t a b l i s h m e n t , o r (b) a m a j o r s e g m e n t ( e . g . , g e n e r a l
a c c o u n tin g ; c o s t a c c o u n tin g ; o r f i n a n c i a l s t a t e m e n t s and r e p o r t s ) of a n a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m
s e r v i n g a l a r g e r and m o r e c o m p l e x e s t a b l i s h m e n t , o r (c) th e e n t i r e a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m of
a l a r g e ( e . g . , e m p lo y in g s e v e r a l th o u s a n d p e r s o n s ) s u b o r d i n a t e e s t a b l i s h m e n t w h ic h in o t h e r
r e s p e c t s h a s a n a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m of th e c o m p le x ity th a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s le v e l III.
D i r e c t i o n r e c e i v e d . A h i g h e r l e v e l a c c o u n t a n t n o r m a l l y is a v a i l a b l e to f u r n i s h a d v ic e
and a s s i s t a n c e a s n e e d e d .
W o rk is r e v i e w e d by sp o t c h e c k s and a p p r a i s a l of r e s u l t s f o r
a d e q u a c y of p r o f e s s i o n a l ju d g m e n t, c o m p l i a n c e w ith i n s t r u c t i o n s , and o v e r a l l a c c u r a c y and
q u a lity .
T y p ic a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . As a t l e v e l III, a p r i m a r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of
m o s t p o s i t i o n s a t th is l e v e l is the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of o p e r a t i n g a n a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m o r m a j o r
s e g m e n t of a s y s t e m in the, in te n d e d m a n n e r .
The a c c o u n t a n t IV e x e r c i s e s p r o f e s s i o n a l ju d g m e n t in m a k in g f r e q u e n t a p p r o p r i a t e
r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r : N ew a c c o u n t s ; r e v i s i o n s in the a c c o u n t s t r u c t u r e ; new ty p e s of l e d g e r s ;
r e v i s i o n s in r e p o r t i n g s y s t e m o r s u b s i d i a r y r e c o r d s ; c h a n g e s in i n s t r u c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the
u s e of a c c o u n t s ; new o r r e f i n e d a c c o u n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o r d e f i n i t i o n s ; e tc . He a l s o m a k e s
d a y - t o - d a y d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the a c c o u n tin g t r e a t m e n t of f i n a n c i a l t r a n s a c t i o n s and is
e x p e c te d to r e c o m m e n d s o lu tio n s to c o m p le x p r o b l e m s b e y o n d the s c o p e of h is r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r ' d i r e c t i o n of o t h e r s .
in c lu d e p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a n t s .

A c c o u n tin g s t a f f he s u p e r v i s e s , if any, m a y

A c c o u n ta n t V
G eneral c h a r a c te r is tic s .
P e r f o r m s p r o f e s s i o n a l o p e r a t i n g o r c o s t a c c o u n tin g w o r k
w h ic h is of g r e a t e r th a n a v e r a g e p r o f e s s i o n a l d if f ic u lty and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y b e c a u s e of the
p r e s e n c e of u n u s u a l an d n o v e l p r o b l e m s o r the u n u s u a l m a g n i t u d e o r i m p a c t of the a c c o u n tin g
program .
T y p ic a lly th is le v e l of d if f ic u lty a r i s e s f r o m (a) the l a r g e s i z e of the a c c o u n tin g
and o p e r a t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n , (b) the a t y p i c a l n a t u r e of the a c c o u n tin g p r o b l e m s e n c o u n t e r e d ,
o r (c) th e u n u s u a lly g r e a t in v o lv e m e n t in a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m s d e s i g n and d e v e l o p m e n t .
E x a m p l e s of a s s i g n m e n t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of th is l e v e l a r e the s u p e r v i s i o n of the
d a y - t o - d a y o p e r a t i o n of: (a) T he e n t i r e a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m of a s u b o r d i n a t e e s t a b l i s h m e n t
h a v in g an u n u s u a lly n o v e l and c o m p le x a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m , o r (b) the e n t i r e a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m
of a l a r g e ( e . g . , e m p lo y in g s e v e r a l th o u s a n d p e r s o n s ) s u b o r d i n a t e e s t a b l i s h m e n t w h ic h in




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o t h e r r e s p e c t s h a s a n a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m o f the c o m p l e x i t y t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s le v e l IV, o r
(c) the e n t i r e a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m of a c o m p a n y o r c o r p o r a t i o n th a t h a s a r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e
and c o n v e n tio n a l a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m and e m p lo y s s e v e r a l t h o u s a n d p e r s o n s and h a s a few
s u b o r d i n a t e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w h ic h in c lu d e a c c o u n tin g u n its , o r (d) a m a j o r s e g m e n t of an
a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m t h a t s u b s t a n t i a l l y e x c e e d s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e s c r i b e d in any one of th e
p re c e d in g ex am p les.
D i r e c t i o n r e c e i v e d . An a c c o u n t a n t of h i g h e r l e v e l n o r m a l l y is a v a i l a b l e to f u r n i s h
a d v ic e a nd a s s i s t a n c e a s n e e d e d .
W ork is r e v i e w e d f o r a d e q u a c y of p r o f e s s i o n a l j u d g m e n t ,
c o m p l i a n c e w ith i n s t r u c t i o n s , and o v e r a l l q u a lity .
T y p ic a l d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . T he w o r k is c h a r a c t e r i z e d by its u n u s u a l d if f ic u lty
o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . A c c o u n ta n ts V ty p i c a l l y a r e d i r e c t l y c o n c e r n e d on a r e l a t i v e l y c o n tin u o u s
b a s i s w ith w h a t th e n a t u r e of the a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m sh o u ld be , w ith th e d e v i s i n g o r r e v i s i n g
of the o p e r a t i n g a c c o u n tin g p o l i c i e s a n d p r o c e d u r e s t h a t a r e n e c e s s a r y , and w ith th e m a n a ­
g e r i a l a s w e ll a s the a c c o u n tin g m e a n i n g of th e r e p o r t s and s t a t e m e n t s f o r w h ic h he is r e ­
spo n sib le.
A c c o u n ta n ts V a r e n e c e s s a r i l y d e e p ly in v o lv e d in f u n d a m e n t a l and c o m p l e x a c ­
c o u n tin g m a t t e r s and in the m a n a g e r i a l p r o b l e m s t h a t a r e a f f e c te d .
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d i r e c t i o n of o t h e r s .
c lu d e s p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a n t s .

A c c o u n tin g s ta f f he s u p e r v i s e s g e n e r a l l y i n ­

A U D IT O R
P e r f o r m s p r o f e s s i o n a l a u d itin g w o r k r e q u i r i n g a b a c h e l o r ’s d e g r e e in a c c o u n tin g o r ,
in r a r e i n s t a n c e s , e q u iv a le n t e x p e r i e n c e and e d u c a tio n c o m b in e d . A u d its the f i n a n c i a l r e c o r d s
a nd p r a c t i c e s of a c o m p a n y , o r of d i v i s i o n s o r c o m p o n e n ts of the c o m p a n y , to a p p r a i s e
s y s t e m a t i c a l l y and v e r i f y the a c c o u n tin g a c c u r a c y of r e c o r d s and r e p o r t s and to a s s u r e the
c o n s i s t e n t a p p l i c a t i o n of a c c e p t e d a c c o u n tin g p r i n c i p l e s . E v a l u a t e s th e a d e q u a c y of th e a c ­
c o u n tin g s y s t e m and i n t e r n a l f in a n c i a l c o n tr o l.
M akes a p p ro p ria te reco m m en d atio n s for
im p ro v e m e n t as n e c e s s a r y .
To the e x te n t d e t e r m i n e d n e c e s s a r y , e x a m i n e s th e t r a n s a c t i o n s
e n t e r i n g into th e b a l a n c e s h e e t and the t r a n s a c t i o n s e n t e r i n g into in c o m e , e x p e n s e , and c o s t
acco u n ts.
D eterm in es:
( l)
T he e x i s t e n c e of r e c o r d e d a s s e t s ( in c lu d in g th e o b s e r v a t i o n of th e
p h y s i c a l i n v e n t o r i e s ) and the a l l - i n c l u s i v e n e s s of r e c o r d e d l i a b i l i t i e s .

ta k in g

of

(Z) The a c c u r a c y of f in a n c i a l s t a t e m e n t s o r r e p o r t s and th e f a i r n e s s of p r e s e n t a t i o n
of f a c t s t h e r e i n .
(3)

The p r o p r i e t y o r le g a l i t y of t r a n s a c t i o n s .

(4) T he d e g r e e of c o m p l i a n c e w ith e s t a b l i s h e d p o l i c i e s and p r o c e d u r e s c o n c e r n i n g
fin an cial tra n s a c tio n s .
E x c lu d e d a r e p o s i t i o n s w h ic h do not r e q u i r e fu ll p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n tin g t r a i n i n g
b e c a u s e the w o r k is c o n fin e d on a r e l a t i v e l y p e r m a n e n t b a s i s to r e p e t i t i v e e x a m i n a t i o n s of
a l i m i t e d a r e a of c o m p a n y o p e r a t i o n s and a c c o u n tin g p r o c e s s e s , e. g. , only a c c o u n t s p a y a b le
and r e c e i v a b l e ; d e m u r r a g e r e c o r d s and r e l a t e d f u n c tio n s , o r s t a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s only of a r a i l ­
r o a d c o m p a n y ; b r a n c h o f f ic e s w h ic h do not e n g a g e in the fu ll r a n g e of b a n k in g and a c c o u n tin g
a c t i v i t i e s of th e m a i n b a n k ; w a r e h o u s e o p e r a t i o n s only of a m a i l o r d e r c o m p a n y ; c h e c k in g
t r a n s a c t i o n s to d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r not th e y c o n f o r m to p r e s c r i b e d r o u t i n e s o r p r o c e d u r e s .
( E x a m i n a t i o n s of s u c h r e p e t i t i v e o r l i m i t e d n a t u r e n o r m a l l y do n o t r e q u i r e o r p e r m i t p r o ­
f e s s i o n a l a u d it w o r k to b e p e r f o r m e d . )




44

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A u d ito r I
G e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . As a t r a i n e e a u d i t o r a t
p e r f o r m s a v a r i e t y of r o u t i n e a s s i g n m e n t s .
T y p ic a lly , he
t a s k s u n d e r a p la n n e d t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m d e s ig n e d to p r o v i d e
the p r i n c i p l e s , t h e o r i e s , and c o n c e p ts of a c c o u n tin g and
( T e r m i n a l p o s i t i o n s a r e e x c l u d e d .)

the e n t e r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l le v e l,
is r o t a t e d th r o u g h a v a r i e t y of
p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e in a p p ly in g
a u d itin g to s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s .

D irectio n re c e iv e d .
W o rk s u n d e r c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n of an e x p e r i e n c e d a u d i t o r w h o se
g u id a n c e is d i r e c t e d p r i m a r i l y to the d e v e l o p m e n t of th e t r a i n e e ’s p r o f e s s i o n a l a b ility and to
the e v a lu a tio n of h is p o t e n t i a l f o r a d v a n c e m e n t .
L i m i t s of a s s i g n m e n t s a r e c l e a r l y d e fin e d ,
m e t h o d s of p r o c e d u r e a r e s p e c if ie d , and k in d s of i t e m s to be n o te d and r e f e r r e d to s u p e r ­
v i s o r a r e id e n tif ie d .
T y p ic a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . A s s i s t s in m a k in g a u d its by p e r f o r m i n g s u c h
t a s k s a s ; V e r i f i c a t i o n of the a c c u r a c y of the b a l a n c e s in v a r i o u s r e c o r d s ; e x a m i n a t i o n of
a v a r i e t y of ty p e s of d o c u m e n t s and v o u c h e r s f o r a c c u r a c y of c o m p u t a t i o n s ; c h e c k in g t r a n s ­
a c tio n s to a s s u r e they a r e p r o p e r l y d o c u m e n t e d and h a v e b e e n r e c o r d e d in a c c o r d a n c e w ith
c o r r e c t a c c o u n tin g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s ; v e r i f y i n g the c o u n t of i n v e n t o r i e s ; p r e p a r i n g d e t a i l e d
s t a t e m e n t s , s c h e d u l e s , and s t a n d a r d a u d it w o r k in g p a p e r s ; c o u n tin g c a s h and o t h e r a s s e t s ;
p r e p a r i n g s i m p l e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n s ; and s i m i l a r f u n c tio n s .
A u d ito r II
G e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A t t h i s c o n tin u in g d e v e l o p m e n t a l l e v e l the p r o f e s s i o n a l
a u d i t o r s e r v e s a s a j u n i o r m e m b e r of an a u d it te a m , in d e p e n d e n tly p e r f o r m i n g s e l e c t e d p o r ­
tio n s of the a u d it w h ic h a r e l i m i t e d in s c o p e and c o m p le x ity . A u d i t o r s a t th is l e v e l t y p ic a lly
h a v e a c q u i r e d k n o w le d g e of c o m p a n y o p e r a t i o n s , p o l i c i e s , and p r o c e d u r e s . ( T e r m i n a l p o s i ­
tio n s a r e e x c l u d e d .)
D i r e c t i o n r e c e i v e d . D e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n s a r e f u r n i s h e d and th e w o r k is r e v i e w e d
to the e x te n t n e c e s s a r y to v e r i f y its g e n e r a l a c c u r a c y and c o v e r a g e of u n u s u a l p r o b l e m s , to
i n s u r e c o n f o r m a n c e w ith r e q u i r e d p r o c e d u r e s and s p e c i a l i n s t r u c t i o n s , and to a s s u r e the
a u d i t o r ’ s p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o w th .
Any t e c h n i c a l p r o b l e m s n o t c o v e r e d by i n s t r u c t i o n s a r e
b r o u g h t to the a t t e n t i o n of a s u p e r i o r . His p r o g r e s s is e v a l u a t e d in t e r m s of h is a b ility to
a p p ly h is p r o f e s s i o n a l k n o w le d g e to b a s i c a u d itin g s i t u a t i o n s .
T y p ic a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . A p p lie s k n o w le d g e of a c c o u n tin g t h e o r y and
a u d it p r a c t i c e s to a v a r i e t y of r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e p r o f e s s i o n a l p r o b l e m s in h is a u d it a s s i g n ­
m e n t s , in c lu d in g s u c h t a s k s a s : The v e r i f i c a t i o n of r e p o r t s a g a i n s t s o u r c e a c c o u n ts and
r e c o r d s to d e t e r m i n e t h e i r r e l i a b i l i t y ; r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of b a n k and o t h e r a c c o u n t s and v e r i ­
fying the d e t a i l of r e c o r d e d t r a n s a c t i o n s ; d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n s of c a s h r e c e i p t s and d i s b u r s e ­
m e n t v o u c h e r s , p a y r o l l r e c o r d s , r e q u i s i t i o n s , w o r k o r d e r s , r e c e i v i n g r e p o r t s , and o t h e r
a c c o u n tin g d o c u m e n t s to a s c e r t a i n t h a t t r a n s a c t i o n s a r e p r o p e r l y s u p p o r t e d and a r e r e c o r d e d
c o r r e c t l y f r o m an a c c o u n tin g o r r e g u l a t o r y s ta n d p o in t; o r p r e p a r i n g w o r k in g p a p e r s , s c h e d ­
u l e s , and s u m m a r i e s .
A u d ito r III
G eneral c h a ra c te ris tic s .
W ork a t th is le v e l c o n s i s t s of the a u d it of o p e r a t i o n s and
a c c o u n tin g p r o c e s s e s t h a t a r e r e l a t i v e l y s ta b le , w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d , and t y p i c a l of the i n d u s t r y .
T he a u d its p r i m a r i l y in v o lv e the c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s of r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f in d in g s ; t h e r e is
p r e v i o u s a u d it e x p e r i e n c e t h a t is d i r e c t l y a p p l i c a b l e ; the a u d it r e p o r t s a r e n o r m a l l y p r e p a r e d
in a p r e s c r i b e d f o r m a t u s in g a s t a n d a r d m e th o d of p r e s e n t a t i o n ; and few if any m a j o r p r o b ­
l e m s a r e a n t i c i p a t e d . T he w o r k p e r f o r m e d r e q u i r e s the a p p l i c a t i o n of s u b s t a n t i a l k n o w le d g e s
of a c c o u n tin g p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s , e . g . , b a s e s f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g a m o n g c a p i t a l m a i n ­
te n a n c e and o p e r a t i n g e x p e n s e s ; a c c r u i n g r e s e r v e s f o r t a x e s ; and o t h e r a c c o u n tin g c o n s i d e r a ­
tio n s of an e q u iv a le n t n a t u r e .




45

A U D IT O R — C o n tin u ed

D irectio n re c e iv e d .
W o rk is n o r m a l l y w ith in a n e s t a b l i s h e d a u d it p r o g r a m and
s u p e r v i s i o n is p r o v i d e d by a h i g h e r le v e l a u d i t o r who o u tlin e s a nd d i s c u s s e s a s s i g n m e n t s .
W o rk is s p o t - c h e c k e d in p r o g r e s s .
C o m p le te d a s s i g n m e n t s a r e r e v i e w e d f o r a d e q u a c y of
c o v e r a g e , s o u n d n e s s of ju d g m e n t, c o m p l i a n c e w ith p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n d a r d s , and a d h e r e n c e
to p o l i c i e s .
T y p i c a l d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The a u d i t o r e x a m i n e s t r a n s a c t i o n s and v e r i f i e s
a c c o u n t s ; o b s e r v e s and e v a l u a t e s a c c o u n tin g p r o c e d u r e s and i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l s ; p r e p a r e s a u d it
w o r k in g p a p e r s and s u b m i t s a n a u d it r e p o r t in th e r e q u i r e d p a t t e r n c o n ta in in g r e c o m m e n d a ­
tio n s f o r n e e d e d c h a n g e s o r i m p r o v e m e n t s .
He is u s u a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s e l e c t i n g th e d e ­
t a i l e d a u d it m e t h o d s to follow , c h o o s in g the a u d it s a m p l e and its s i z e , d e t e r m i n i n g th e e x te n t
to w h ic h d i s c r e p a n c i e s n e e d to be i n v e s t i g a t e d , and d e c id in g the d e p t h of th e a n a l y s e s r e q u i r e d
to s u p p o r t r e p o r t e d fin d in g s and c o n c l u s i o n s .
E x a m p l e s of a s s i g n m e n t s in v o lv in g w o r k of t h i s l e v e l :
( l) A s a t e a m l e a d e r o r w o r k in g
p l e t e a c c o u n t s and r e l a t e d o p e r a t i o n s
v o lv in g a c e n t r a l i z e d a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m
a c c o u n tin g r e c o r d s ) o r of c o m p a r a b l e

a lo n e , in d e p e n d e n tly c o n d u c ts a u d its of th e c o m ­
of s m a l l e r o r l e s s c o m p l e x c o m p a n i e s ( e . g . , i n ­
w ith fe w o r no s u b o r d i n a t e , s u b s i d i a r y , o r b r a n c h
s e g m e n t s of l a r g e r c o m p a n i e s .

(Z) A s a m e m b e r of a n a u d it t e a m in d e p e n d e n tly a c c o m p l i s h e s v a r i e d a u d it a s s i g n ­
m e n t s of the a b o v e d e s c r i b e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , ty p i c a l l y m a j o r s e g m e n t s of c o m p l e t e
a u d its , o r a s s i g n m e n t s o t h e r w i s e l i m i t e d in s c o p e of l a r g e r and m o r e c o m p l e x c o m p a n i e s
( e . g . , c o m p l e x in t h a t the a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m e n t a i l s c o s t , in v e n to r y , and c o m p a r a b l e
s p e c i a l i z e d s y s t e m s i n t e g r a t e d w ith the g e n e r a l a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m ) .
I l l u s t r a t i v e of s u c h a s s i g n m e n t s a r e the a u d it and i n i t i a l r e v i e w of a c c o u n tin g t r e a t m e n t and
v a l i d i t y of r e p o r t i n g of o v e r h e a d e x p e n s e s in a l a r g e m a n u f a c t u r i n g o r m a i n t e n a n c e o r g a n i ­
z a tio n ( e . g . , m a j o r r e p a i r y a r d of a r a i l r o a d ) ; o r , the c h e c k in g , v e r i f i c a t i o n , and b a la n c in g
of a ll a c c o u n ts r e c e i v a b l e and a c c o u n t s p a y a b le ; o r , th e a n a l y s i s and v e r i f i c a t i o n of a s s e t s
and r e s e r v e s ; o r , the i n s p e c t i o n and e v a lu a tio n of a c c o u n tin g c o n t r o l s and p r o c e d u r e s .
A u d ito r IV
G e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A u d ito r s a t th is l e v e l a r e e x p e r i e n c e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s who
a p p ly th o r o u g h k n o w le d g e of a c c o u n tin g p r i n c i p l e s and t h e o r y in c o n n e c tio n w ith a v a r i e t y of
au d its.
W ork a t th is l e v e l is c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the a u d it of o r g a n i z a t i o n s and a c c o u n tin g
p r o c e s s e s w h ic h a r e c o m p le x and d if f ic u lt b e c a u s e of s u c h f a c t o r s a s : P r e s e n c e of n e w o r
c h a n g e d p r o g r a m s and a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m s ; e x i s t e n c e of m a j o r s p e c i a l i z e d a c c o u n tin g f u n c tio n s
( e . g . , c o s t a c c o u n tin g , in v e n t o r y a c c o u n tin g , s a l e s a c c o u n tin g ) , in a d d itio n to g e n e r a l a c ­
c o u n tin g ; n e e d to c o n s i d e r e x t e n s i v e and c o m p l i c a t e d r e g u l a t o r y r e q u i r e m e n t s ; l a c k of o r
d if f ic u lty in o b ta in in g i n f o r m a t i o n ; and o t h e r s i m i l a r f a c t o r s . T y p ic a lly , a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t
a s s i g n m e n t s a r e e n c o u n t e r e d o v e r a p e r i o d of t i m e , e . g . , 1 y e a r . T he a u d it r e p o r t s p r e p a r e d
a r e c o m p r e h e n s i v e , e x p la in i r r e g u l a r i t i e s , c ite r u l e s o r r e g u l a t i o n s v io la te d , r e c o m m e n d
r e m e d i a l a c tio n s , and c o n ta in a n a l y s e s of i t e m s of s p e c i a l i m p o r t a n c e o r i n t e r e s t to c o m p a n y
m an ag em en t.
D irectio n re c e iv e d .
W ithin a n e s t a b l i s h e d a u d it p r o g r a m , h a v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r
in d e p e n d e n tly p la n n in g and e x e c u tin g a u d its . U n u s u a lly d i f f ic u lt p r o b l e m s a r e d i s c u s s e d w ith
the s u p e r v i s o r who a l s o r e v i e w s c o m p l e t e d a s s i g n m e n t s f o r a d h e r e n c e to p r i n c i p l e s and
s t a n d a r d s and th e s o u n d n e s s of c o n c l u s i o n s .
T y p ic a l d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . A u d i t o r s a t th is l e v e l h a v e f u ll r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
f o r p la n n in g th e a u d it, in c lu d in g d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the a s p e c t s to e m p h a s i z e , m e t h o d s to be
u s e d , d e v e l o p m e n t of n o n s t a n d a r d o r s p e c i a l i z e d a u d it a id s s u c h a s q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , e tc . ,
w h e r e p r e v i o u s a u d it e x p e r i e n c e and p la n s a r e of l i m i t e d a p p lic a b ility .




46

A U D IT O R — C o n tin u ed

In c lu d e d in the s c o p e of w o r k t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s th is le v e l a r e s u c h f u n c tio n s a s :
E v a lu a tio n of m e t h o d s u s e d f o r d e t e r m i n i n g d e p r e c i a t i o n r a t e s of e q u ip m e n t; e v a lu a tio n of
a s s e t s w h e r e o r i g i n a l c o s t s a r e unknow n; e v a lu a tio n of the r e l i a b i l i t y of a c c o u n tin g and r e ­
p o r t i n g s y s t e m s ; a n a l y s i s of c o s t a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m s and c o s t r e p o r t s to e v a l u a t e the b a s i s
f o r c o s t and p r i c e s e t t i n g ; e v a l u a t i o n of a c c o u n tin g p r o c u r e m e n t an d su p p ly m a n a g e m e n t
r e c o r d s , c o n t r o l s , and p r o c e d u r e s ; and m a n y o t h e r s .
E x a m p l e s of a s s i g n m e n t s inv o lv in g w o r k a t th i s l e v e l :
( l) A s a t e a m l e a d e r o r w o r k in g a lo n e , in d e p e n d e n tly p la n s and c o n d u c ts a u d its of
th e c o m p l e t e a c c o u n ts and r e l a t e d o p e r a t i o n s of r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e and c o m p le x c o m p a n i e s
( e . g . , c o m p le x in t h a t the a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m e n t a i l s c o s t, i n v e n to r y , an d c o m p a r a b l e
s p e c i a l i z e d a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m s i n t e g r a t e d w ith th e g e n e r a l a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m ) o r of c o m ­
pany b r a n c h , s u b s i d i a r y , o r a f f ilia te d o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h ic h a r e in d iv id u a lly of c o m p a r a b l e
s i z e and c o m p le x ity , o r
(Z) A s a m e m b e r of a n a u d it t e a m in d e p e n d e n tly p l a n s and a c c o m p l i s h e s a u d it a s ­
s i g n m e n t s th a t c o n s t i t u t e m a j o r s e g m e n t s of a u d its of v e r y l a r g e and c o m p le x o r g a n i z a ­
tio n s , f o r e x a m p le , th o s e w ith f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s so g r e a t a s to in v o lv e s p e c i a l i z e d
s u b o r d i n a t e , s u b s i d i a r y , o r a f f i l i a t e a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m s t h a t a r e c o m p l e t e in t h e m s e l v e s .
N O T E : E x c lu d e d f r o m le v e l IV a r e a u d i t o r s who, a s t e a m l e a d e r o r w o r k in g a lo n e ,
c o n d u c t c o m p le te a u d its of v e r y l a r g e and c o m p le x o r g a n i z a t i o n s , f o r e x a m p le , t h o s e w ith
f in a n c ia l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s so g r e a t a s to in v o lv e s p e c i a l i z e d s u b o r d i n a t e , s u b s i d i a r y , o r a f ­
f ilia te a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m s t h a t a r e c o m p le te in t h e m s e l v e s ; o r a r e t e a m m e m b e r s a s s i g n e d
to m a j o r s e g m e n t s of a u d its of e v e n l a r g e r o r m o r e c o m p l e x o r g a n i z a t i o n s .
C H IE F ACCOUNTANT)
l
(
*
As the top t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t in a c c o u n tin g , is r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d i r e c t i n g the a c c o u n tin g
p r o g r a m f o r a c o m p a n y o r f o r an e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a c o m p a n y .
The m i n i m u m a c c o u n tin g
p r o g r a m i n c l u d e s : ( l) G e n e r a l a c c o u n tin g ( a s s e t s , l i a b i l i t i e s , in c o m e , e x p e n s e , and c a p i t a l
a c c o u n t s , in c lu d in g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o f i t and lo s s and b a l a n c e s h e e t s t a t e m e n t s ) ; and
(Z) a t l e a s t one o t h e r m a j o r a c c o u n tin g a c tiv ity , ty p ic a lly ta x a c c o u n tin g , c o s t a c c o u n tin g ,
p r o p e r t y a c c o u n tin g , o r s a l e s a c c o u n tin g . It m a y a l s o in c lu d e s u c h o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s a s p a y r o l l
and t i m e k e e p i n g , and m e c h a n i c a l o r e l e c t r o n i c d a t a p r o c e s s i n g o p e r a t i o n s w h ic h a r e a n a d ju n c t
of the a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m .
( R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a n i n t e r n a l a u d it p r o g r a m is ty p i c a l l y not
in c lu d e d . )
The r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the c h ie f a c c o u n t a n t in c lu d e a ll of the f o llo w in g :
( l)
On own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , d e v e lo p in g o r a d a p tin g o r r e v i s i n g a n a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m
to m e e t the n e e d s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n .
(Z) S u p e r v i s i n g , e i t h e r d i r e c t l y o r t h r o u g h s u b o r d i n a t e s u p e r v i s o r s , the o p e r a t i o n
of th e s y s t e m w ith fu ll m a n a g e m e n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the q u a lity and q u a n tity of w o r k
p e r f o r m e d , t r a i n i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t of s u b o r d i n a t e s , w o r k s c h e d u lin g and r e v ie w , c o ­
o r d i n a t i o n w ith o t h e r p a r t s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n s e r v e d , e tc .
(3) P r o v i d i n g d i r e c t l y o r t h r o u g h a n o f f ic ia l s u c h a s a c o m p t r o l l e r , a d v i s o r y s e r v ­
i c e s to the top m a n a g e m e n t o f f ic ia ls of th e o r g a n i z a t i o n s e r v e d as to:
(a)
The s t a t u s of f in a n c ia l r e s o u r c e s and the f i n a n c i a l t r e n d s o r r e s u l t s of
o p e r a t i o n s a s r e v e a l e d by a c c o u n tin g d a ta , and s e l e c t i n g a m a n n e r of p r e s e n t a t i o n
t h a t is m e a n i n g f u l to m a n a g e m e n t .
(b) M e th o d s f o r im p r o v i n g o p e r a t i o n s a s s u g g e s t e d by h is e x p e r t k n o w le d g e
of a c c o u n tin g , e. g. , p r o p o s a l s f o r im p r o v in g c o s t c o n t r o l , p r o p e r t y m a n a g e m e n t ,
c r e d i t and c o l l e c t i o n , ta x r e d u c tio n , o r s i m i l i a r p r o g r a m s .




47

C H IE F A C C O U N T A N T — C on tin u ed

E x c lu d e d a r e p o s i t i o n s w ith r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r th e a c c o u n tin g p r o g r a m if th e y a l s o
in c lu d e ( a s a m a j o r p a r t of th e job) r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r b u d g e tin g ; w o r k m e a s u r e m e n t ; o r g a n i ­
z a tio n , m e t h o d s and p r o c e d u r e s s t u d i e s ; o r s i m i l a r n o n a c c o u n tin g f u n c tio n s .
( P o s i t i o n s of
s u c h b r e a d t h a r e s o m e t i m e s t i t l e d c o m p t r o l l e r , b u d g e t and a c c o u n tin g m a n a g e r , f i n a n c i a l
m a n a g e r , e tc . )
S o m e p o s i t i o n s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s u p e r v i s i n g g e n e r a l a c c o u n tin g and one o r m o r e o t h e r
m a j o r a c c o u n tin g a c t i v i t i e s b u t w h ic h do n o t fu lly m e e t a l l of th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of a c h ie f
a c c o u n t a n t s p e c i f i e d a b o v e m a y be c o v e r e d by th e d e s c r i p t i o n s f o r a c c o u n t a n t .
C h ie f a c c o u n t a n t jo b s w h ic h m e e t the a b o v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e c l a s s i f i e d by l e v e l 1
of w o r k a c c o r d i n g to (a) a u t h o r i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y an d (b) t e c h n i c a l c o m p le x ity , u s i n g th e
c h a r t w h ic h fo llo w s the d e f in itio n s b e lo w .
A u th o r ity and R e s p o n s i b i l i t y
A R - 1. T he a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m (i. e. , a c c o u n t s , p r o c e d u r e s , and r e p o r t s to be u s e d )
h a s b e e n p r e s c r i b e d in c o n s i d e r a b l e d e t a i l by h i g h e r l e v e l s in the c o m p a n y o r o r g a n i z a t i o n .
T he c h ie f a c c o u n t a n t h a s fin a l, u n r e v i e w e d a u t h o r i t y w ith in the p r e s c r i b e d s y s t e m , to e x p a n d
it to f it the p a r t i c u l a r n e e d s of th e o r g a n i z a t i o n s e r v e d , e. g. , in th e fo llo w in g o r c o m p a ­
rab le w ays:
P r o v i d e s g r e a t e r d e t a i l in a c c o u n ts and r e p o r t s o r f i n a n c i a l s t a t e m e n t s ;
E stab lish es
r e c o r d s ; and

a d d itio n a l

a c c o u n tin g

co n tro ls,

acco u n ts,

s u b a c c o u n ts ,

and s u b s i d i a r y

P r o v i d e s s p e c i a l Or i n t e r i m r e p o r t s and s t a t e m e n t s n e e d e d by the m a n a g e r r e s p o n ­
s ib le f o r the d a y - t o - d a y o p e r a t i o n s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n s e r v e d .
A R -2.
The b a s i c a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m is p r e s c r i b e d in b r o a d o u tlin e s r a t h e r th a n in
sp ecific d etail.
W hile c e r t a i n m a j o r f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t s , o v e r a l l a c c o u n t s , and g e n e r a l p o l i c i e s
a r e r e q u i r e d by the b a s i c s y s t e m , th e c h ie f a c c o u n t a n t h a s b r o a d la t i t u d e a nd a u t h o r i t y to
d e c id e th e s p e c if ic m e t h o d s , p r o c e d u r e s , a c c o u n t s , r e p o r t s , e t c . — to be u s e d w ith in the
o rg an izatio n al seg m en t se rv e d .
He m u s t s e c u r e p r i o r a p p r o v a l f r o m h i g h e r l e v e l s f o r only
t h o s e c h a n g e s w h ic h would b a s i c a l l y a f f e c t th e b r o a d r e q u i r e m e n t s p r e s c r i b e d by s u c h h i g h e r
lev e ls.
T y p ic a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n c lu d e :
E v a lu a tin g and ta k in g f in a l .a c tio n on r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s p r o p o s e d by s u b o r d i n a t e e s ­
t a b l i s h m e n t s f o r c h a n g e s in a s p e c t s of the a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m o r a c t i v i t i e s n o t p r e s c r i b e d
by h i g h e r a u t h o r i t y ;
E x te n d in g c o s t a c c o u n tin g o p e r a t i o n s to a r e a s n o t p r e v i o u s l y c o v e r e d ;
C h a n g in g f r o m one c o s t a c c o u n tin g m e t h o d to a n o t h e r ;
E x p a n d in g the u t i l i z a t i o n of c o m p u t e r s w ith in the a c c o u n tin g p r o c e s s ; and
P r e p a r i n g a c c o u n tin g r e p o r t s an d s t a t e m e n t s r e f l e c t i n g th e e v e n ts and p r o g r e s s of
th e e n t i r e o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r w h ic h he is r e s p o n s i b l e ; o fte n c o n s o l i d a t i n g d a t a s u b m i t t e d by
su b o rd in ate se g m e n ts.
T h is d e g r e e of a u t h o r i t y is m o s t t y p i c a l l y found a t i n t e r m e d i a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l e v e l s s u c h a s
r e g i o n a l o f f ic e s , o r d i v i s i o n o r s u b s i d i a r y h e a d q u a r t e r s . ’ It is a l s o found in s o m e c o m p a n y
l e v e l s i t u a t i o n s w h e r e th e a u t h o r i t y of the c h ie f a c c o u n t a n t is l e s s e x t e n s i v e th a n is d e s c r i b e d
in A R - 3 .
M o r e r a r e l y it is found in p la n t l e v e l c h ie f a c c o u n t a n t s who h a v e b e e n d e l e g a t e d
m o r e a u t h o r i t y th a n u s u a l f o r s u c h p o s i t i o n s a s d e s c r i b e d in A R - 1 .
1

Insufficient data w ere obtained for lev el V to w arrant presentation of average salaries.




48

C H I E F A C C O U N T A N T — C o n t in u e d

A R 3 . H a s c o m p le te r e s p o n s i b i l i t y fo r e s t a b l i s h i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g th e f r a m e w o r k
f o r the b a s i c a c c o u n t i n g s y s t e m u s e d in the c o m p a n y , s u b j e c t only to g e n e r a l p o lic y g u id a n c e
a nd c o n tr o l f r o m a h i g h e r l e v e l c o m p a n y o f f ic ia l r e s p o n s i b l e f o r g e n e r a l f in a n c i a l m a n a g e ­
m e n t.
T y p ic a l r e s p o n s i b i i i t i e s i n c l u d e :
D e t e r m i n i n g the b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the c o m p a n y ’s a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m and the
s p e c i f i c a c c o u n ts to be u s e d ;
D e v is in g a nd p r e p a r i n g a c c o u n tin g r e p o r t s a nd s t a t e m e n t s r e q u i r e d to m e e t m a n a g e ­
m e n t ' s n e e d s f o r d a ta ;
)
E s t a b l i s h i n g b a s i c a c c o u n tin g p o l i c i e s ,

in terp retatio n s,

and p ro c e d u re s ;

R e v ie w in g a nd ta k in g a c tio n on p r o p o s e d r e v i s i o n s to the c o m p a n y 's a c c o u n tin g s y s ­
t e m s u g g e s t e d by s u b o r d i n a t e u n its ; an d
T a k in g f in a l a c t i o n on a ll t e c h n i c a l a c c o u n tin g m a t t e r s .
C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , p a r t i c i p a t e s e x t e n s i v e l y in b r o a d c o m p a n y m a n a g e m e n t p r o c e s s e s
by p r o v id in g a c c o u n tin g a d v ic e , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , or r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s b a s e d on d a ta a c c u m u ­
la t e d in the a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m a n d on h is p r o f e s s i o n a l ju d g m e n t an d e x p e r i e n c e .
T e c h n i c a l C o m p le x ity
T C - 1. The o r g a n i z a t i o n w h ic h the a c c o u n tin g p r o g r a m s e r v e s h a s r e l a t i v e l y few
f u n c tio n s , p r o d u c t s , v /o rk p r o c e s s e s , e t c . , a nd t h e s e te n d to be s ta b le and u n c h a n g in g . The
a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m o p e r a t e s in a c c o r d a n c e w ith w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s or
th o s e of e q u iv a le n t d if f ic u lty w h ic h a r e t y p i c a l of t h a t i n d u s t r y .
T C - 2 . T he o r g a n i z a t i o n w h ic h the a c c o u n tin g p r o g r a m s e r v e s h a s a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e
n u m b e r of f u n c t i o n s , p r o d u c t s , w o r k p r o c e s s e s , e t c ., w h ic h r e q u i r e s u b s t a n t i a l a n d f r e q u e n t
a d a p t a t i o n s of the b a s i c s y s t e m to m e e t m a n a g e m e n t n e e d s ( e .g ., a d o p tio n of new a c c o u n t s ,
s u b a c c o u n t s , a nd s u b s i d i a r y r e c o r d s ; r e v i s i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the u s e of a c c o u n ts ; i m ­
p r o v e m e n t o r e x p a n s i o n of m e th o d s fo r a c c u m u l a t i n g a nd r e p o r t i n g c o s t d a ta in c o n n e c tio n
w ith new o r c h a n g e d w o r k p r o c e s s e s ) .
T C - 3 . T he o r g a n i z a t i o n w h ic h the a c c o u n tin g p r o g r a m s e r v e s p u ts a h e a v y d e m a n d
on the a c c o u n tin g o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r s p e c i a l i z e d and e x t e n s i v e a d a p t a t i o n s of th e b a s i c s y s t e m
to m e e t m a n a g e m e n t n e e d s . S u c h d e m a n d s a r i s e b e c a u s e the f u n c tio n s , p r o d u c t s , w o r k
p r o c e s s e s , e t c . , of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e v e r y n u m e r o u s , d i v e r s e , u n iq u e , or s p e c i a l i z e d , o r
t h e r e a r e o t h e r c o m p a r a b l e c o m p l e x i t i e s . C o n s e q u e n tly , the a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m , to a c o n s i d ­
e r a b l e d e g r e e , is d e v e lo p e d w e ll b e y o n d e s t a b l i s h e d p r i n c i p l e s a nd a c c o u n tin g p r a c t i c e s in
o r d e r to:
P ro v id e

for

the

s o lu tio n

of p r o b l e m s

for

w h ic h

no

clear

p reced en ts

e x is t;

or

P r o v i d e f o r the d e v e l o p m e n t o r e x t e n s i o n of a c c o u n tin g t h e o r i e s and p r a c t i c e s to
d e a l w ith p r o b l e m s to w h ic h t h e s e t h e o r i e s and p r a c t i c e s ha v e not p r e v i o u s l y b e e n a p p lie d .
S u b o r d in a te Staff
In the c h a r t th a t f o llo w s , the n u m b e r of p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a n t s s u p e r v i s e d is r e c ­
o g n iz e d to be a r e l a t i v e l y c r u d e c r i t e r i o n f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g b e tw e e n v a r i o u s c l a s s e s . It is
to be c o n s i d e r e d l e s s i m p o r t a n t in the m a t c h i n g p r o c e s s th a n the o t h e r c r i t e r i a .
In a d d itio n
to the s ta f f of p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n ta n ts in the s y s t e m f o r w h ic h the c h ie f a c c o u n ta n t is r e ­
s p o n s i b l e , t h e r e a r e c l e r i c a l , m a c h in e o p e r a t i o n , b o o k k e e p in g , a n d r e l a t e d p e r s o n n e l .




49

C H IE F A C C O U N T A N T — C o n tin u ed

C lass

A uthority
and
resp o n sib ility

T e c h n ic al
co m p lex ity 1

S u b o r d in a te s ta f f of p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a n t s in
th e s y s t e m f o r w h ic h h e is r e s p o n s i b l e .

I

A R -1

T C -l

O nly one o r tw o p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a n t s , w ho
do not e x c e e d th e a c c o u n t a n t III jo b d e f in itio n .

II

A R -1

T C -2

A bout 5 to 10 p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a n t s , w ith at
l e a s t one o r two m a t c h i n g the a c c o u n t a n t IV
job d e f in itio n .

A R -2

T C -l

A bout 5 to 10 p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a n t s . M o s t
of t h e s e m a t c h th e a c c o u n ta n t III job d e f in itio n ,
b u t one o r two m a y m a t c h the a c c o u n t a n t IV
job d e f in itio n .

A R -3

T C -l

O nly one o r two p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a n t s , who
do n o t e x c e e d th e a c c o u n ta n t IV job d e f in itio n .

A R -1

T C -3

A bout 15 to 20 p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a n t s .
At
l e a s t one o r two m a t c h the a c c o u n ta n t V job
d e f in itio n .

A R -2

T C -2

About 15 to 20 p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a n t s . M a n y
of t h e s e m a t c h th e a c c o u n ta n t IV job d e f in itio n ,
b u t s o m e m a y m a t c h the a c c o u n ta n t V jo b d e f in itio n .

A R -3

T C -l

A bout 5 to 10 p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a n t s . M o s t of
t h e s e m a t c h the a c c o u n ta n t III job d e f in itio n , b u t
one o r two m a y m a t c h a s h ig h as a c c o u n ta n t V.

A R -2

T C -3

A bout 25 to 40 p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a n t s . M a n y
of t h e s e m a t c h the a c c o u n ta n t V job d e f in itio n ,
b u t s e v e r a l m a y e x c e e d th a t le v e l.

A R -3

TC -2

A bout 15 to 20 p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a n t s . M o s t of
t h e s e m a t c h th e a c c o u n t a n t IV job d e f in itio n , b u t
s e v e r a l m a y m a t c h th e a c c o u n ta n t V and one o r
two m a y e x c e e d th a t le v e l.

A R -3

T C -3

A bout 25 to 40 p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a n t s . M a n y
of t h e s e m a t c h the a c c o u n ta n t V job d e f in itio n ,
b u t s e v e r a l m a y e x c e e d t h a t le v e l.

or

or

III

or

or

IV

or

V

'AR-1, -2, and -3; and T C - t ,




-2, and -3 are explained on the preceding pages.

60

ATTORNEYS

ATTORNEY
P e r f o r m s c o n s u l t a t i o n a n d a d v i s o r y w o r k a n d c a r r i e s out the le g a l p r o c e s s e s n e c ­
e s s a r y to e f f e c t the r i g h t s , p r i v i l e g e s , and o b lig a tio n s of the c o m p a n y .
T he w o r k p e r f o r m e d
r e q u i r e s c o m p l e t i o n of law s c h o o l w ith a n L L . B , d e g r e e (o r the e q u iv a le n t) a n d a d m i s s i o n
to th e b a r . R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o r f u n c tio n s in c lu d e one o r m o r e of the follow ing o r c o m p a r a ­
ble d u t i e s :
P r e p a r i n g and r e v ie w in g v a r i o u s l e g a l i n s t r u m e n t s a n d d o c u m e n t s , s u c h a s c o n t r a c t s ,
le a se s, lic e n se s, p u rc h a s e s , sa le s, re a l estate, etc .;
A c tin g a s a g e n t of the c o m p a n y in its t r a n s a c t i o n s ;
E x a m in in g m a t e r i a l ( e . g . , a d v e r t i s e m e n t s , p u b l i c a t i o n s , e t c . ) fo r le g a l i m p l i c a ­
tio n s ; a d v is in g o f f ic ia ls of p r o p o s e d l e g i s l a t i o n w h ic h m ig h t a f f e c t the c o m p a n y ;
A pplying f o r p a t e n t s , c o p y r i g h t s , o r r e g i s t r a t i o n of c o m p a n y ’s p r o d u c t s , p r o c e s s e s ,
d e v ic e s and t r a d e m a r k s ; a d v is in g w h e t h e r to i n s t i g a t e o r d e f e n d l a w s u i t s ;
C o n d u c tin g p r e - t r i a l p r e p a r a t i o n s ; d e fe n d in g the c o m p a n y in l a w s u i t s ; a n d
A d v is in g o f f i c i a l s on ta x m a t t e r s , G o v e r n m e n t r e g u l a t i o n s , a n d / o r c o r p o r a t e r i g h t s .
E x c lu d e d f r o m th is d e f in itio n a r e :
P a t e n t w o r k w h ic h r e q u i r e s p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g in a d d itio n to l e g a l t r a i n i n g ( ty p ­
i c a l l y , a d e g r e e in e n g i n e e r i n g o r in a s c ie n c e ) ;
C l a i m s e x a m i n i n g , c l a i m s in v e s t i g a t i n g o r s i m i l a r w o r k f o r w h ic h p r o f e s s i o n a l l e g a l
t r a i n i n g and b a r m e m b e r s h i p is n o t e s s e n t i a l ;
A t t o r n e y s , f r e q u e n t l y t i t l e d " g e n e r a l c o u n s e l " (and t h e i r i m m e d i a t e fu ll a s s o c i a t e s
or d e p u t i e s ) , w ho s e r v e a s c o m p a n y o f f i c e r s o r the e q u i v a l e n t a nd a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r
p a r t i c i p a t i n g in the o v e r a l l m a n a g e m e n t and f o r m u l a t i o n of p o lic y f o r the c o m p a n y in
a d d itio n to d i r e c t i n g its l e g a l w o r k .
(T he d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of s u c h p o s i t i o n s
e x c e e d l e v e l VI a s d e s c r i b e d b e lo w . )
A t t o r n e y jo b s w h ic h m e e t the a b o v e
a c c o r d a n c e w ith th e c h a r t b e lo w .

D if f ic u lty le v e l
R esp o n sib ility
of l e g a l work-"________le v e l of job*

C lass
i1

d e f in itio n s a r e to be c l a s s i f i e d

T h is is the e n t r y le v e l.
T he d u tie s
and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a f t e r in i t i a l o r i ­
e n ta tio n and t r a i n i n g a r e th o s e d e ­
s c r i b e d in D - 1 and R - l .
D- 1

R-Z

D -Z

II

R- 1

—

D -Z
D -3

R -2
R -l

C o m p le tio n of la w s c h o o l w ith an L L . B .
o r J . D . d e g r e e p lu s a d m i s s i o n to the
bar.

A t l e a s t 1 y e a r , u s u a l l y m o r e , of p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e a t the "D -Z " le v e l .

See footnote and asterisk at end of chart.




E x p erien ce re q u ire d

S u ff ic ie n t p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e (at
l e a s t 1 y e a r , u s u a l l y m o r e ) a t the " D - l "
l e v e l to a s s u r e c o m p e t e n c e a s an a t ­
to rn ey .

or

III

and c o d e d in

51

A T T O R N E Y — C on tin u ed

D iff ic u lty le v e l
of l e g a l w o r k *

C la s s

R esp o n sib ility
l e v e l of jo b *

E x p erien ce re q u ire d

D -2
D -3

R -3
R -2

E x t e n s i v e p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e a t th e
" D - 2 " o r a h i g h e r l e v e l.

V

D -3

R -3

E x t e n s i v e p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e a t th e
" D - 3 " l e v e l.

VI

D -3

R -4

E x t e n s i v e p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e a t the
"D -3 " and " R -3 " le v e ls.

IV
—

Insufficient data were obtained for level I to warrant presentation of average salaries.
* D - l , D-2, D-3, and R - l , R -2 , R - 3 , and R -4 are explained below.

D - 1. L e g a l q u e s t i o n s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by: F a c t s t h a t a r e w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d ; c l e a r l y
a p p l i c a b l e l e g a l p r e c e d e n t s ; an d m a t t e r s n o t of s u b s t a n t i a l i m p o r t a n c e to the o r g a n i z a t i o n .
( U s u a lly r e l a t i v e l y l i m i t e d s u m s of m o n e y , e . g . , a few th o u s a n d d o l l a r s , a r e i n v o l v e d .)
E x a m p l e s of D - 1 w o r k :
(a) L e g a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n , n e g o tia tio n , a n d r e s e a r c h p r e p a r a t o r y to d e f e n d in g the o r ­
g a n i z a t i o n in p o t e n t i a l o r a c t u a l l a w s u i t s in v o lv in g a l l e g e d n e g l i g e n c e w h e r e the f a c t s
c a n b e f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d a n d t h e r e a r e p r e c e d e n t c a s e s d i r e c t l y a p p l i c a b l e to the
situation.
(b) S e a r c h i n g c a s e r e p o r t s , l e g a l d o c u m e n t s , p e r i o d i c a l s , t e x t b o o k s , a n d o t h e r l e g a l
r e f e r e n c e s , a n d p r e p a r i n g d r a f t o p in io n s on e m p l o y e e c o m p e n s a t i o n o r b e n e f i t q u e s t i o n s
w he n t h e r e is a s u b s t a n t i a l a m o u n t of c l e a r l y a p p l i c a b l e s t a t u t o r y , r e g u l a t o r y , a n d c a s e
m a te ria l.
(c) D r a w in g up c o n t r a c t s a nd o t h e r l e g a l d o c u m e n t s in c o n n e c tio n w ith r e a l p r o p e r t y
t r a n s a c t i o n s r e q u i r i n g the d e v e l o p m e n t of d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n b u t n o t in v o lv in g s e r i o u s
q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t i t l e s to p r o p e r t y o r o t h e r m a j o r f a c t u a l o r l e g a l i s s u e s .
D -2.
L e g a l w o r k is r e g u l a r l y d if f ic u lt by r e a s o n of one o r m o r e of the follow ing:
T he a b s e n c e of c l e a r a n d d i r e c t l y a p p lic a b le l e g a l p r e c e d e n t s ; the d i f f e r e n t p o s s i b l e i n t e r ­
p r e t a t i o n s th a t c a n be p l a c e d on e i t h e r the f a c t s , the l a w s , o r th e p r e c e d e n t s in v o lv e d ; the
s u b s t a n t i a l i m p o r t a n c e of the l e g a l m a t t e r s
to the o r g a n i z a t i o n ( e .g ., s u m s a s l a r g e a s $100,000
a r e g e n e r a l l y d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y in v o lv e d ); the m a t t e r i s b e in g s t r o n g l y p r e s s e d o r c o n ­
t e s t e d in f o r m a l p r o c e e d i n g s o r in n e g o t i a t i o n s by the in d i v i d u a l s , c o r p o r a t i o n s , o r G o v e r n ­
m e n t a g e n c i e s in v o lv e d .
E x a m p l e s of D - 2 w o r k :
(a) A d v is in g on the le g a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of a d v e r t i s i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s w h e n th e f a c t s
s u p p o r tin g the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s a n d the a p p l i c a b l e p r e c e d e n t c a s e s a r e s u b j e c t to d i f ­
feren t in te rp re ta tio n s.
(b) R e v ie w in g a n d a d v is in g on the i m p l i c a t i o n s of new o r r e v i s e d la w s a f f e c tin g the
o rg an izatio n .
(c) P r e s e n t i n g th e o r g a n i z a t i o n ’s d e f e n s e in c o u r t in a n e g l i g e n c e l a w s u i t w h ic h is
s t r o n g l y p r e s s e d by c o u n s e l fo r a n o r g a n i z e d g r o u p .
(d) P r o v i d i n g l e g a l c o u n s e l on ta x q u e s t i o n s c o m p l i c a t e d by th e a b s e n c e of p r e c e ­
d e n t d e c i s i o n s t h a t a r e d i r e c t l y a p p l i c a b l e to the o r g a n i z a t i o n 's s itu a t i o n .




52

A T T O R N E Y— C o n t i n u e d

D - 3. L e g a l w o r k i s t y p i c a l l y c o m p l e x an d d if f ic u lt b e c a u s e of one o r m o r e of the
follow ing: The q u e s t i o n s a r e u n iq u e and r e q u i r e a h ig h o r d e r of o r i g i n a l a n d c r e a t i v e l e g a l
e n d e a v o r f o r t h e i r so lu tio n ; the q u e s t i o n s r e q u i r e e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h a n d a n a l y s i s and the
o b ta in in g a nd e v a lu a tin g of e x p e r t t e s t i m o n y r e g a r d i n g c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s in a s c i e n t i f i c ,
f in a n c ia l, c o r p o r a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n , e n g i n e e r i n g , o r o t h e r h ig h ly t e c h n i c a l a r e a ; the le g a l m a t t e r
is of c r i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e to the o r g a n i z a t i o n and is b eing v ig o r o u s l y p r e s s e d o r c o n t e s t e d
( e . g . , s u m s s u c h a s $ 1 m i l l i o n o r m o r e a r e g e n e r a l l y d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y in v o lv e d ).
E x a m p l e s of D - 3 w o r k :
(a) A d v is in g on the l e g a l a s p e c t s and i m p l i c a t i o n s of F e d e r a l a n t i t r u s t la w s to p r o ­
j e c t e d g r e a t l y e x p a n d e d m a r k e t i n g o p e r a t i o n s in v o lv in g jo in t v e n t u r e s w ith s e v e r a l o t h e r
o rg an izatio n s.
(b) P la n n in g le g a l s t r a t e g y a n d r e p r e s e n t i n g a u ti l i t y c o m p a n y in r a t e o r G o v e r n ­
m e n t f r a n c h i s e c a s e s in v o lv in g a g e o g r a p h i c a r e a in c lu d in g p a r t s o r a l l of s e v e r a l S t a t e s .
(c) P r e p a r i n g a n d p r e s e n t i n g a c a s e b e f o r e an a p p e l l a t e c o u r t w h e r e the c a s e i s
h ig h ly i m p o r t a n t to the f u t u r e o p e r a t i o n of the o r g a n i z a t i o n and is v i g o r o u s l y c o n t e s t e d
by v e r y d i s t i n g u i s h e d ( e . g . , h a v in g a b r o a d r e g i o n a l o r n a t i o n a l r e p u ta tio n ) l e g a l t a l e n t .
(d) S e r v in g a s the p r i n c i p a l c o u n s e l to the o f f i c e r s a nd s ta f f of an i n s u r a n c e c o m ­
pany on the le g a l p r o b l e m s in the s a l e , u n d e r w r i t i n g , a nd a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of g r o u p c o n ­
t r a c t s in v o lv in g n a tio n w id e o r m u l t i s t a t e c o v e r a g e s a n d la w s .
(e) P e r f o r m i n g the p r i n c i p a l l e g a l w o r k in a n o n r o u tin e m a j o r r e v i s i o n of the c o m ­
p a n y ’s c h a r t e r o r in e f f e c tu a tin g new m a j o r fin a n c in g s t e p s .
R - 1.
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r f in a l a c tio n is u s u a l l y l i m i t e d to m a t t e r s c o v e r e d by l e g a l
p r e c e d e n t s and in w hich l i t t l e d e v ia tio n f r o m s t a n d a r d p r a c t i c e is in v o lv e d . A ny d e c i s i o n s
o r a c t i o n s hav in g a s i g n i f i c a n t b e a r i n g on the o r g a n i z a t i o n ’s b u s i n e s s a r e r e v ie w e d .
(is
g iv e n g u id a n c e in the in i t i a l s t a g e s of h is a s s i g n m e n t ( e . g . , in p la n n in g a nd o r g a n iz in g l e g a l
r e s e a r c h a n d s t u d i e s ) . A s s i g n m e n t s a r e th e n c a r r i e d out w ith m o d e r a t e i n d e p e n d e n c e a lth o u g h
g u id a n c e is g e n e r a l l y a v a i l a b l e a n d is s o u g h t f r o m t i m e - - t o - t i m e on p r o b l e m p o i n t s . )
R - 2 . U s u a lly w o r k s in d e p e n d e n tly in i n v e s tig a tin g the f a c t s , s e a r c h i n g l e g a l p r e c ­
e d e n t s , d e fin in g the l e g a l a n d f a c t u a l i s s u e s , d r a f tin g the n e c e s s a r y le g a l d o c u m e n t s a n d
d e v e lo p in g c o n c l u s i o n s and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . D e c i s i o n s h a v in g a n i m p o r t a n t b e a r i n g on the
o r g a n i z a t i o n ’s b u s i n e s s a r e r e v i e w e d .
( R e c e iv e s i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m s u p e r v i s o r r e g a r d i n g
u n u s u a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s o r i m p o r t a n t p o lic y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g to a l e g a l p r o b l e m .
If t r i a l s a r e in v o lv e d , m a y r e c e i v e g u id a n c e f r o m a s u p e r v i s o r r e g a r d i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n ,
lin e of a p p r o a c h , p o s s i b l e lin e of o p p o s itio n to be e n c o u n t e r e d , e tc .
In the c a s e of n o n ­
r o u t i n e w r i t t e n p r e s e n t a t i o n s the f in a l p r o d u c t is r e v i e w e d c a r e f u l l y , b u t p r i m a r i l y fo r o v e r ­
a l l s o u n d n e s s of l e g a l r e a s o n i n g and c o n s i s t e n c y w ith o r g a n i z a t i o n p o lic y .
S o m e , but n o t
a l l a t t o r n e y s , m a k e a s s i g n m e n t s to one or m o r e lo w e r l e v e l a t t o r n e y s , a i d s , o r c l e r k s . )
R - 3. C a r r i e s out a s s i g n m e n t s in d e p e n d e n tly a nd m a k e s fin a l l e g a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n s
in m a t t e r s of s u b s t a n t i a l i m p o r t a n c e to h is o r g a n i z a t i o n .
Such d e te rm in a tio n s a r e su b ­
j e c t to r e v i e w only f o r c o n s i s t e n c y w ith c o m p a n y p o lic y , p o s s i b l e p r e c e d e n t e f f e c t, a n d
o v e r a l l e f f e c t i v e n e s s . To c a r r y out h is a s s i g n m e n t s he d e a l s r e g u l a r l y w ith c o m p a n y o f f i­
c e r s a n d top l e v e l m a n a g e m e n t o f f ic ia ls a n d c o n f e r s o r n e g o t i a t e s r e g u l a r l y w ith s e n i o r
a t t o r n e y s and o f f i c i a l s in o t h e r c o m p a n i e s o r in G o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s on v a r i o u s a s p e c t s
of h is a s s i g n e d w o r k . ( R e c e i v e s lit t l e o r no p r e l i m i n a r y i n s t r u c t i o n on l e g a l p r o b l e m s and
a m i n i m u m of t e c h n i c a l le g a l s u p e r v i s i o n . M a y a s s i g n a n d r e v i e w w o r k of a few a t t o r n e y s ,
but th is is n o t a p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . )
R -4.
C a r r i e s out a s s i g n m e n t s w h ic h e n t a i l in d e p e n d e n tly p la n n in g i n v e s t i g a t i o n s
a n d n e g o t i a t i o n s on l e g a l p r o b l e m s of the h i g h e s t i m p o r t a n c e to h is o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d d e v e l ­
oping c o m p l e t e d b r i e f s , o p in io n s , c o n t r a c t s , o r o th e r le g a l p r o d u c t s .
To c a r r y out h is
a s s i g n m e n t s he r e p r e s e n t s h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a t c o n f e r e n c e s , h e a r i n g s , o r t r i a l s , a n d p e r s o n ­
a lly c o n f e r s and n e g o t i a t e s w ith to p a t t o r n e y s and t o p - r a n k i n g o f f ic ia ls in p r i v a t e c o m p a n i e s
o r in G o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s .
On v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of h is a s s i g n e d w o r k m a y g ive a d v ic e




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d i r e c t l y a n d p e r s o n a l l y to c o r p o r a t i o n o f f i c e r s
the g e n e r a l c o u n s e l of the c o m p a n y in a d v is in g
i n s t r u c t i o n on l e g a l p r o b l e m s .
On m a t t e r s
a t t o r n e y s o r o t h e r s p e c i a l i s t s , is r e s p o n s i b l e
w o r k of the a t t o r n e y s in v o lv e d . )

a n d top le v e l m a n a g e r s , o r m a y w o r k t h r o u g h
o f f i c e r s . ( G e n e r a l l y r e c e i v e s no p r e l i m i n a r y
r e q u i r i n g the c o n c e n t r a t e d e f f o r t s of s e v e r a l
f o r d i r e c t i n g , c o o r d i n a t i n g a n d r e v i e w i n g the

OR
A s a p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , d i r e c t s the w o r k of a s ta f f of a t t o r n e y s , o n e , b u t u s u a l l y
m o r e , of w h o m r e g u l a r l y p e r f o r m D - 3 le g a l w o r k .
W ith r e s p e c t to the w o r k d i r e c t e d ,
g iv e s a d v ic e d i r e c t l y to c o r p o r a t i o n o f f i c e r s and to p m a n a g e r i a l o f f i c e r s , o r m a y giv e
s u c h a d v ic e t h r o u g h the g e n e r a l c o u n s e l.
( R e c e i v e s g u id a n c e a s to o r g a n i z a t i o n p o lic y
but no t e c h n i c a l s u p e r v i s i o n o r a s s i s t a n c e e x c e p t w hen he m i g h t r e q u e s t a d v ic e f r o m ,
o r be b r i e f e d on, the o v e r a l l a p p r o a c h to the m o s t d if f ic u lt, n o v e l o r i m p o r t a n t l e g a l
q u e s t i o n s , by the g e n e r a l c o u n s e l. U s u a lly r e p o r t s to the g e n e r a l c o u n s e l o r h is d e p u t y .)

B uye rs
BUYER
P u r c h a s e s m a t e r i a l s , s u p p l i e s , e q u ip m e n t, and s e r v i c e s ( e . g . , u t i l i t i e s , m a i n t e n a n c e ,
a n d r e p a i r ) . In s o m e i n s t a n c e s i t e m s a r e of ty p e s th a t m u s t b e s p e c i a l l y d e s i g n e d , p r o d u c e d ,
o r m o d if ie d by th e v e n d o r in a c c o r d a n c e w ith d r a w i n g s o r e n g i n e e r i n g s p e c i f i c a t i o n s .
S o lic its b i d s , a n a l y z e s q u o ta tio n s r e c e i v e d , a n d s e l e c t s o r r e c o m m e n d s s u p p l i e r .
M ay in te rv ie w p ro s p e c tiv e v e n d o rs .
P u r c h a s e s i t e m s a n d s e r v i c e s a t th e m o s t f a v o r a b l e
p r i c e c o n s i s t e n t w ith q u a lity , q u a n tity , s p e c i f i c a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s , a n d o t h e r f a c t o r s . P r e ­
p a r e s o r s u p e r v i s e s p r e p a r a t i o n of p u r c h a s e o r d e r s f r o m r e q u i s i t i o n s . M a y e x p e d ite d e l i v e r y
a n d v i s i t v e n d o r s ' o f f ic e s a n d p l a n t s .
N o r m a l l y , p u r c h a s e s a r e u n r e v i e w e d w h e n th e y a r e c o n s i s t e n t w ith p a s t e x p e r i e n c e ,
a nd a r e in c o n f o r m a n c e w ith e s t a b l i s h e d r u l e s and p o l i c i e s . P r o p o s e d p u r c h a s e t r a n s a c t i o n s
t h a t d e v ia te f r o m th e u s u a l o r f r o m p a s t e x p e r i e n c e in t e r m s of p r i c e s , q u a lity of i t e m s ,
q u a n t i t i e s , e t c . , o r t h a t m a y s e t p r e c e d e n t s f o r f u t u r e p u r c h a s e s , a r e r e v i e w e d by h i g h e r
a u t h o r i t y p r i o r to f i n a l a c tio n .
In a d d itio n to th e w o r k d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , s o m e (but n o t all) b u y e r s d i r e c t th e w o r k
of one o r a few c l e r k s w ho p e r f o r m r o u t i n e a s p e c t s of th e w o r k . A s a s e c o n d a r y a n d s u b ­
s i d i a r y du ty , s o m e b u y e r s m a y a l s o s e l l o r d i s p o s e of s u r p l u s , s a l v a g e , o r u s e d m a t e r i a l s ,
e q u ip m e n t, o r s u p p l i e s .
N O T E : S o m e b u y e r s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r th e p u r c h a s i n g of a v a r i e t y of i t e m s a n d
m aterials.
W hen th e v a r i e t y i n c lu d e s i t e m s a n d w o r k d e s c r i b e d a t m o r e - t h a n one of th e
fo llo w in g l e v e l s , th e p o s i t i o n sh o u ld be c o n s i d e r e d to e q u a l th e h i g h e s t l e v e l th a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s
a t l e a s t a s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n of th e b u y e r ' s t i m e .
E x c lu d e d a r e :
(a) B u y e r s of i t e m s f o r d i r e c t s a l e , e i t h e r w h o l e s a l e o r r e t a i l ;
(b) B r o k e r s a n d d e a l e r s bu y in g f o r c l i e n t s o r f o r i n v e s t m e n t p u r p o s e s ;
(c) P o s i t i o n s t h a t s p e c i f i c a l l y r e q u i r e p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a n d q u a l i f i c a t i o n s in
a p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e o r in e n g i n e e r i n g ( e . g . , c h e m i s t , m e c h a n i c a l e n g i n e e r ) ;




\

54

B U Y E R — C on tin u ed

(d) Buyers who specialize in purchasing a single or a few related items of highly
variable quality such as raw cotton or wool, tobacco, cattle, or leather for shoe uppers,
etc.
Expert personal knowledge of the item is required to judge the relative value of
the goods offered, and to decide the quantity, quality, and price of each purchase in
terms of its probable effect on the organization's profit and competitive status;
(e) Buyers whose principal responsibility is the supervision of other buyers or the
management, direction, or supervision of a purchasing program;
(f) Persons predominantly concerned with contract or subcontract administration;
(g) Persons whose major duties consist of ordering, reordering, or requisitioning
items under existing contracts; and
(h) Positions restricted to the clerical functions or to purchase expediting work.
Buyer I
Purchases ’'off-the-shelf” types of readily available, commonly used materials, sup­
plies, tools, furniture, services, etc.
Transactions usually involve local retailers, wholesalers, jobbers, and manufac­
turers1 sales representatives.
Quantities purchased are generally small amounts, e . g . , those available from local
sources.
Examples of items purchased include: Common stationery and office supplies; stand­
ard types of office furniture and fixtures; standard nuts, bolts, screws; janitorial and
common building maintenance supplies; and common building maintenance or common
utility services.
Buyer II
Purchases "off-the-shelf" types of standard, generally available technical items,
materials, and services.
jobbers,

Transactions usually
etc.

involve dealing

directly

with manufacturers,

distributors,

Quantities of items and materials purchased may be relatively large, particularly
in the case of contracts for continuing supply over a period of time.
May be responsible for locating or promoting possible new sources of supply. Usu­
ally is expected to keep abreast of market trends, changes in business practices in the
assigned markets, new or altered types of materials entering the market, etc.
Examples of items purchased include: Industrial types of handtools; electronic tube
and component test instruments; standard electronic parts and components; electric
motors; gasoline service station equipment; PBX or other specialized telephone services;
and routine purchases of common raw materials such as standard grades and sizes of
steel bars, rods, and angles.
Also included at this level are buyers of materials of the types described for buyer I when
the quantities purchased are large so that local sources of supply are generally inadequate
and the buyer must deal directly with manufacturers on a broader than local scale.
Buyer III
Purchases items, materials, or services of a technical and specialized nature. The
items, while of a common general type, are usually made, altered, or customized to meet
the user's specific needs and specifications.




55

B U Y E R — C o n tin u ed

T r a n s a c t i o n s u s u a l l y r e q u i r e d e a lin g w ith m a n u f a c t u r e r s . T h e n u m b e r of p o t e n t i a l
v e n d o r s is lik e ly to be s m a l l a nd p r i c e d i f f e r e n t i a l s o f te n r e f l e c t i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s ( q u a lity ,
d e l i v e r y d a t e s , a n d p l a c e s , e t c . ) t h a t a r e d if f ic u lt to e v a l u a t e .
The q u a n t i t i e s p u r c h a s e d of a n y i t e m o r s e r v i c e m a y be l a r g e .
M a ny of the p u r c h a s e s in v o lv e one o r m o r e of s u c h c o m p l i c a t i o n s a s : S p e c i f i c a t i o n s
t h a t d e t a i l , in t e c h n i c a l t e r m s , th e r e q u i r e d p h y s i c a l , c h e m i c a l , e l e c t r i c a l , o r o t h e r c o m p a ­
r a b l e p r o p e r t i e s ; s p e c i a l t e s t i n g p r i o r to a c c e p t a n c e ; g r o u p in g of i t e m s fo r lot b id d in g a n d
a w a r d s ; s p e c i a l i z e d p r o c e s s i n g , p a c k in g , o r p a c k a g in g r e q u i r e m e n t s ; e x p o r t p a c k s ; o v e r s e a s
p o r t d i f f e r e n t i a l s ; e tc .
Is e x p e c te d to k e e p a b r e a s t of m a r k e t a n d p r o d u c t d e v e l o p m e n t s .
to lo c a te new s o u r c e s of su p p ly .

M ay be re q u ir e d

Som e p o s i t i o n s m a y in v o lv e a s s i s t i n g in th e t r a i n i n g o r s u p e r v i s i n g of lo w e r le v e l
buyers or c le rk s.
E x a m p l e s of i t e m s p u r c h a s e d in c lu d e : C a s t i n g s ; s p e c i a l e x t r u d e d s h a p e s of n o r m a l
s i z e an d m a t e r i a l ; s p e c i a l f o r m u l a p a i n t s ; e l e c t r i c m o t o r s of s p e c i a l s h a p e o r s p e e d ;
s p e c i a l p a c k a g in g of i t e m s ; a n d r a w m a t e r i a l s in s u b s t a n t i a l q u a n t i t i e s .
B u y e r IV
P u r c h a s e s h ig h ly c o m p l e x a nd t e c h n i c a l i t e m s , m a t e r i a l s , o r s e r v i c e s , u s u a l l y t h o s e
s p e c i a l l y d e s ig n e d an d m a n u f a c t u r e d e x c l u s i v e l y f o r th e p u r c h a s e r .
T r a n s a c t i o n s r e q u i r e d e a lin g w ith m a n u f a c t u r e r s a n d o fte n in v o lv e p e r s u a d i n g p o t e n ­
t i a l v e n d o r s to u n d e r t a k e th e m a n u f a c t u r i n g of c u s t o m d e s i g n e d i t e m s a c c o r d i n g to c o m p le x
and rig id sp e c ific a tio n s.
Q u a n titie s of i t e m s a n d m a t e r i a l s p u r c h a s e d a r e o fte n l a r g e in o r d e r to s a t i s f y th e
r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n e n t i r e l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n fo r a n e x te n d e d p e r i o d of t i m e .
C o m p le x
s c h e d u l e s of d e l i v e r y a r e o f te n in v o lv e d . B u y e r d e t e r m i n e s a p p r o p r i a t e q u a n t i t i e s to be c o n ­
t r a c t e d f o r at a n y g iv e n p e r i o d of t i m e .
T r a n s a c t i o n s a r e o fte n c o m p l i c a t e d by th e p r e s e n c e of one o r m o r e s u c h m a t t e r s a s
of: R e q u i r e m e n t s fo r s p a r e p a r t s , p r e p r o d u c t i o n s a m p l e s a n d t e s t i n g , o r t e c h n i c a l
lite r a tu r e ; or patent and ro y a lty p ro v is io n s .
i n c lu s i o n

K e e p s a b r e a s t of m a r k e t a nd p r o d u c t d e v e l o p m e n t s .

D e v e lo p s new s o u r c e s of s u p p ly .

In a d d itio n to th e w o r k d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , a few p o s i t i o n s m a y a l s o r e q u i r e s u p e r v i s i o n
o v e r a few lo w e r l e v e l b u y e r s o r c l e r k s . (No p o s i t i o n is in c lu d e d in t h i s le v e l s o l e l y b e c a u s e
s u p e r v i s o r y d u tie s a r e p e r f o r m e d . )
E x a m p l e s of i t e m s p u r c h a s e d in c lu d e : S p e c ia l p u r p o s e h ig h c o s t m a c h i n e to o ls a n d
p r o d u c t i o n f a c i l i t i e s ; r a w m a t e r i a l s of c r i t i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o r q u a lity ;
p a r t s , s u b a s s e m b l i e s , c o m p o n e n t s , e t c . , s p e c i a l l y d e s i g n e d and m a d e to o r d e r ( e . g . ,
c o m m u n i c a t i o n s e q u ip m e n t f o r i n s t a l l a t i o n in a i r c r a f t b e in g m a n u f a c t u r e d ; c o m p o n e n t
a s s e m b l i e s f o r m i s s i l e s and r o c k e t s ; and m o t o r v e h ic le f r a m e s ) .
Buyer V 2
P u r c h a s e s i t e m s o r m a t e r i a l s , e i t h e r t e c h n i c a l o r n o n t e c h n i c a l , in s u c h u n u s u a l l y
l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s t h a t in d iv id u a l p u r c h a s e s c a n a f f e c t th e o v e r a l l m a r k e t p r i c e of th e c o m ­
m o d ity .
(N O T E : O nly th e v e r y l a r g e s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s , e . g . , t h o s e e m p lo y in g m o r e th a n
1 0 ,0 0 0 p e r s o n s , a r e a b le to buy in th e q u a n t i t i e s c o n t e m p l a t e d in t h i s p a r a g r a p h . E v e n in
th e v e r y l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s th is l e v e l of b u ying is o fte n a b s e n t and e v e n w h e n p r e s e n t , is
r e s t r i c t e d to a v e r y few b u y e r s o r is a s s i g n e d , not to a b u y e r but to s o m e h i g h e r r a n k in g
o ffic ia l.)
Leuflicient aata v, ere obtained for level V to warrant presentation of average salaries.




56

B U Y E R — C o n tin u ed

A l t e r n a t i v e l y , m a y p u r c h a s e i t e m s of e x t r a o r d i n a r y t e c h n i c a l c o m p l e x i t y ( e . g . , m i s ­
s i l e g u id a n c e s y s t e m s ; i t e m s t h a t in v o lv e th e o u t e r m o s t l i m i t s of th e p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s o r
e n g in e e r in g ) o r of u n u s u a l l y h ig h in d iv id u a l v a lu e ( e . g . , m u lt i e n g i n e j e t a i r c r a f t ; l a r g e c a ­
p a c i t y c o m p u t e r s ; a n d h ig h c a p a c i t y t u r b i n e - g e n e r a t o r s ) .
U s u a l l y is r e q u i r e d to id e n tif y a n d c o n s i d e r a l l p o s s i b l e s o u r c e s of s u p p ly .
T h e t r a n s a c t i o n s a r e so l a r g e th a t th e y o fte n a f f e c t a c o n s i d e r a b l e p o r t i o n of th e
i n d u s t r y o r t r a d e c o n c e r n e d , r e s u l t i n g in c o m p le x s c h e d u lin g a nd d if f ic u lty in n e g o tia tin g
m utually acc e p tab le a r r a n g e m e n ts .
F r e q u e n t l y is r e q u i r e d to d e v e lo p new s o u r c e s of s u p p ly th r o u g h p e r s u a s i o n of m a n u ­
f a c t u r e r s o r o t h e r c o n c e r n s to e x p a n d o r c o n v e r t p la n ts a n d f a c i l i t i e s .
In a d d itio n to th e w o r k d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , a few p o s i t i o n s m a y a l s o r e q u i r e s u p e r ­
v is io n o v e r a few lo w e r g r a d e b u y e r s o r c l e r k s . (No p o s i t i o n is in c lu d e d in th is l e v e l s o l e l y
b ecau se s u p e rv is o ry duties a r e p e r f o r m e d .)

Personnel M a n a g e m e n t
JO B ANALYST
P e r f o r m s w o r k in v o lv e d in c o l l e c t i n g , a n a ly z in g , a n d d e v e lo p in g o c c u p a t i o n a l d a ta
r e l a t i v e to jo b s , job q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , an d w o r k e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s a b a s i s f o r c o m p e n s a t i n g
e m p l o y e e s in a f a i r , e q u i t a b l e , a nd u n i f o r m m a n n e r . P e r f o r m s s u c h d u tie s a s s tu d y in g and
a n a ly z in g jo b s a n d p r e p a r i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s of d u tie s a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and of th e p h y s i c a l
and m e n t a l r e q u i r e m e n t s n e e d e d by w o r k e r s ; e v a lu a tin g jo b s a n d d e t e r m i n i n g a p p r o p r i a t e
w a g e o r s a l a r y le v e l s in a c c o r d a n c e w ith t h e i r d if f ic u lty a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; in d e p e n d e n tly
c o n d u c tin g o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g w ith r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of o t h e r c o m p a n i e s in c o n d u c tin g c o m p e n ­
s a tio n s u r v e y s w ith in a l o c a l i t y o r la b o r m a r k e t a r e a ; a s s i s t i n g in a d m i n i s t e r i n g m e r i t r a t i n g
p r o g r a m ; r e v ie w in g c h a n g e s in w a g e s and s a l a r i e s in d i c a t e d by s u r v e y s and r e c o m m e n d i n g
c h a n g e s in p a y s c a l e s ; an d a u d itin g in d iv id u a l jo b s to c h e c k th e p r o p r i e t y of e v a lu a tio n s a nd
to a p p ly c u r r e n t jo b c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s .
Job A nalyst I
A s a t r a i n e e , p e r f o r m s w o r k in d e s i g n a t e d a r e a s a nd of l i m i t e d o c c u p a t i o n a l s c o p e .
R e c e i v e s i m m e d i a t e s u p e r v i s i o n in a s s i g n m e n t s d e s i g n e d to p r o v i d e t r a i n i n g in th e a p p l i c a t i o n
of e s t a b l i s h e d m e th o d s an d t e c h n i q u e s of job a n a l y s i s .
S tu d ie s th e l e a s t d if f ic u lt jo b s and
p r e p a r e s r e p o r t s f o r r e v i e w by a job a n a l y s t of h i g h e r l e v e l.
J o b A n a l y s t II
S t u d i e s , d e s c r i b e s , a n d e v a l u a t e s jo b s in a c c o r d a n c e w ith e s t a b l i s h e d p r o c e d u r e s .
Is u s u a l l y a s s i g n e d to th e s i m p l e r k in d s of b o th w a g e a n d s a l a r i e d jo b s in th e e s t a b l i s h m e n t .
W o r k s in d e p e n d e n tly on s u c h a s s i g n m e n t s but is l i m i t e d by i n s t r u c t i o n s of h is s u p e r i o r an d
by d e f in e d a r e a of a s s i g n m e n t .
J o b A n a l y s t III
A n a ly z e s and e v a l u a t e s a v a r i e t y of w a g e a n d s a l a r i e d jo b s in a c c o r d a n c e w ith
e s t a b l i s h e d e v a l u a t i o n s y s t e m s a n d p r o c e d u r e s . M ay c o n d u c t w a g e s u r v e y s w ith in th e l o c a l i t y
o r p a r t i c i p a t e in c o n d u c tin g s u r v e y s of b r o a d c o m p e n s a t i o n a r e a s .
M a y a s s i s t in d e v e lo p in g
s u r v e y m e th o d s a nd p l a n s . R e c e i v e s g e n e r a l s u p e r v i s i o n but r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r f in a l a c t i o n
is l i m i t e d .




57

JO B A N A L Y S T — C o n tin u ed

Jo b A n a l y s t IV
A n a l y z e s a n d e v a l u a t e s a v a r i e t y of jo b s in a c c o r d a n c e w ith e s t a b l i s h e d e v a l u a t i o n
s y s t e m s a n d p r o c e d u r e s , a n d i s g iv e n a s s i g n m e n t w h ic h r e g u l a r l y i n c l u d e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r
th e m o r e d if f ic u lt k in d s of j o b s .
( " M o r e d if f ic u lt" m e a n s j o b s w h ic h c o n s i s t of h a r d - t o u n d e r s t a n d w o r k p r o c e s s e s ; e. g. , p r o f e s s i o n a l , s c i e n t i f i c , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , o r te c h n i c a l ; o r
jo b s in n e w o r e m e r g i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l f ie ld s ; o r jo b s w h ic h a r e b e in g e s t a b l i s h e d a s p a r t of
the c r e a t i o n of new o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; o r w h e r e o t h e r s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of t h e s e ty p e s a p p l y . )
R e c e i v e s g e n e r a l s u p e r v i s i o n , but r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r f in a l a c t i o n is l i m i t e d . M a y p a r t i c i p a t e
in the d e v e l o p m e n t and i n s t a l l a t i o n of e v a l u a t i o n o r c o m p e n s a t i o n s y s t e m s , w h ic h m a y in c lu d e
th o s e f o r m e r i t r a t i n g p r o g r a m s .
M a y p la n s u r v e y m e t h o d s a n d c o n d u c t o r d i r e c t w a g e
s u r v e y s w ith in a b r o a d c o m p e n s a t i o n a r e a .
D IR E C T O R O F P E R S O N N E L 3
*
1
D i r e c t s a p e r s o n n e l m a n a g e m e n t p r o g r a m fo r a c o m p a n y o r a s e g m e n t of a c o m p a n y .
S e r v e s top m a n a g e m e n t o f f i c i a l s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a s the s o u r c e of a d v ic e a n d a s s i s t a n c e
on p e r s o n n e l m a n a g e m e n t m a t t e r s and p r o b l e m s g e n e r a l l y ; is ty p i c a l l y c o n s u l t e d on the
p e r s o n n e l i m p l i c a t i o n s of p la n n e d c h a n g e s in m a n a g e m e n t p o lic y o r p r o g r a m , th e e f f e c t s on
the o r g a n i z a t i o n of e c o n o m ic o r m a r k e t t r e n d s , p r o d u c t o r p r o d u c t i o n m e t h o d c h a n g e s , e tc . ;
r e p r e s e n t s m a n a g e m e n t in c o n t a c t s w ith o th e r c o m p a n i e s , t r a d e a s s o c i a t i o n s , g o v e r n m e n t
a g e n c i e s , e tc . , d e a lin g p r i m a r i l y w ith p e r s o n n e l m a n a g e m e n t m a t t e r s .
T y p i c a l l y the d i r e c t o r of p e r s o n n e l fo r a c o m p a n y r e p o r t s to a c o m p a n y o f f i c e r in
c h a r g e of i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s and p e r s o n n e l m a n a g e m e n t a c t i v i t i e s o r an o f f i c e r of s i m i l a r
l e v e l.
B elow the c o m p a n y le v e l th e d i r e c t o r of p e r s o n n e l t y p i c a l l y r e p o r t s to a c o m p a n y
o f f ic e r o r a h ig h m a n a g e m e n t o f f ic ia l who h a s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the o p e r a t i o n of a p la n t,
e s t a b l i s h m e n t , o r o t h e r s e g m e n t of the c o m p a n y .
F o r a jo b to be c o v e r e d by th is d e f in itio n , the p e r s o n n e l m a n a g e m e n t p r o g r a m m u s t
in c lu d e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l t h r e e of the fo llo w in g fu n c tio n s :
(1) A d m i n i s t e r i n g a jo b e v a lu a tio n s y s t e m ; i. e. , a s y s t e m in w h ic h t h e r e a r e e s ­
t a b l i s h e d p r o c e d u r e s by w h ic h jo b s a r e a n a l y z e d an d e v a l u a t e d on the b a s i s of t h e i r
d u t i e s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , an d q u a l i f i c a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s in o r d e r to p r o v i d e a f o u n d a tio n
fo r e q u ita b le c o m p e n s a t i o n . T y p ic a lly , s u c h a s y s t e m i n c l u d e s the u s e of one o r m o r e
s e t s of job e v a l u a t i o n f a c t o r s a n d the p r e p a r a t i o n of f o r m a l jo b d e s c r i p t i o n s .
It m a y
a l s o in c lu d e su c h r e l a t e d f u n c tio n s a s w a g e a n d s a l a r y s u r v e y s o r m e r i t r a t i n g s y s t e m
a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T he jo b e v a lu a tio n s y s t e m ( s ) d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y c o v e r a l l jo b s in the
o r g a n i z a t i o n , b u t d o e s c o v e r a s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n of the o r g a n i z a t i o n .
(Z) E m p l o y m e n t a n d p l a c e m e n t f u n c tio n s ; i. e. , r e c r u i t i n g a c t i v e l y f o r a t l e a s t s o m e
k in d s of w o r k e r s t h r o u g h a v a r i e t y of s o u r c e s ( e . g . , s c h o o ls o r c o l l e g e s , e m p l o y m e n t
a g e n c i e s , p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t i e s , e t c . ) ; e v a lu a tin g a p p l i c a n t s a g a i n s t d e m a n d s of p a r t i c ­
u l a r jo b s by u s e of s u c h t e c h n i q u e s a s jo b a n a l y s i s to d e t e r m i n e r e q u i r e m e n t s , i n t e r ­
v ie w s , w r i t t e n t e s t s of a p titu d e , k n o w le d g e , s k i l l , r e f e r e n c e c h e c k s , e x p e r i e n c e e v a l u ­
a t i o n s , e t c . ; r e c o m m e n d i n g s e l e c t i o n s a n d jo b p l a c e m e n t s to m a n a g e m e n t , e tc .
(3) E m p lo y e e r e l a t i o n s a n d s e r v i c e s f u n c tio n s ; i. e. , fu n c tio n s d e s i g n e d to m a i n t a i n
e m p l o y e e s ' m o r a l e and p r o d u c t i v i t y a t a hig h le v e l (for e x a m p l e , a d m i n i s t e r i n g a f o r m a l
o r i n f o r m a l g r i e v a n c e p r o c e d u r e ; id e n tif y in g an d r e c o m m e n d i n g s o lu tio n s f o r p e r s o n n e l
p r o b l e m s s u c h a s a b s e n t e e i s m , h ig h t u r n o v e r , low p r o d u c t i v i t y , e tc . ; a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of
b en e fic ia l su g g estio n s s y s te m , r e tir e m e n t, p ension, o r in s u ra n c e p la n s, m e r i t ratin g
sy stem , e tc .; o v erseein g cafe te ria o p eratio n s, r e c re a tio n a l p ro g ra m s , in d u stria l h ealth
and s a f e ty p r o g r a m s , e t c . ) .




58

D I R E C T O R O F P E R S O N N E L ----C o n t i n u e d

In a d d itio n , p o s i t i o n s c o v e r e d by th is d e f in itio n m a y , but do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y , in c lu d e
r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s in the follow ing a r e a s :
a.

E m p lo y e e t r a i n i n g a nd d e v e lo p m e n t

b. L a b o r r e l a t i o n s a c t i v i t i e s w h ic h a r e c o n f in e d m a i n l y to the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i n t e r ­
p r e t a t i o n , a nd a p p l i c a t i o n of th o s e a s p e c t s of l a b o r u n io n c o n t r a c t s th a t a r e e s s e n t i a l l y
of the type d e s c r i b e d u n d e r (3) a b o v e .
M a y a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e in b a r g a i n i n g of a s u b ­
o r d i n a t e n a t u r e , e . g . , to n e g o t i a t e d e t a i l e d s e t t l e m e n t of s u c h m a t t e r s a s s p e c i f i c r a t e s ,
job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , w o r k r u l e s , h i r i n g o r la y o ff p r o c e d u r e s , e t c . , w ith in the b r o a d
t e r m s of a g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t r e a c h e d a t h i g h e r l e v e l s , o r to su p p ly a d v ic e and i n f o r ­
m a t i o n on t e c h n i c a l p o in ts to the c o m p a n y ’s p r i n c i p a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e .
E x c lu d e d a r e p o s i t i o n s in w h ic h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a c t u a l c o n t r a c t n e g o t i a t i o n w ith
l a b o r u n io n s a s the p r i n c i p a l c o m p a n y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e is a s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t of the jo b , i. e. ,
a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w h ic h s e r v e s a s a p r i m a r y b a s i s f o r q u a l i f i c a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d c o m ­
p e n s a tio n .
D i r e c t o r s of p e r s o n n e l jo b s w h ic h m e e t the above d e f in itio n a r e c l a s s i f i e d b y le v e l 2
of w o r k in a c c o r d a n c e w ith th e follow ing ta b u la tio n :

"Development level"
personnel program

"Operations level"
personnel program

Number of employees in
work force serviced
2 5 0 - 7 5 0 -------------------------------------------------1 . 0 0 0 - 5 , 0 0 0 — - ----6 . 0 0 0 - 12,000 --------------------------------------1 5 .0 0 0 - 2 5 , 0 0 0 -------------------------------------

"Type B"
organization
serviced4

"Type A"
organization
serv iced3
I
II
III
IV

II
HI
IV
V

"Type A"
organization
se rv iced3
II
HI
IV
V

"Type B"
organization
serviced 4
HI
IV
V

1 "Operations level" personnel program—director of personnel servicing an organizational segment ( e . g . ,
a plant) of a c o m ­
pany, where the basic personnel program policies, plans, objectives, etc. , are established at company headquarters or at some other
higher level between the plant and the company headquarters level. The personnel director's responsibility is to put these into oper ­
ation at the local level, in such a manner as to most effectively serve the local managem ent needs.
2 "Developm ent level" personnel program— either:
(a) Director of personnel servicing an entire company (with or without subordinate establishments) where the personnel
director plays an important role in establishment of basic personnel policies, plans, objectives, etc. , for the company, sub­
j e c t to policy direction and control from company officers, or
(b) Director of personnel servicing an intermediate organization below the company level, e. g0 , a division or a sub­
sidiary, to which a relatively com plete delegation of personnel program planning and development responsibility is made.
In
this situation only basic policy direction is given by the parent company and local officers. The director of personnel has
essentially the same degree of latitude and responsibility for establishment of basic personnel policies, plans, objectives, etc. ,
as described above in paragraph (a).
^ "Type A" - organization serviced— most jobs serviced do not present particularly difficult or unusual recruitment, job ev alu ­
ation, or training problems because the jobs consist of relatively easy-to-understand work processes, and an adequate labor supply
is available. These conditions are most likely to be found in organizations in which the work force and organizational structure are
relatively stable.
4 "Type B" - organization serviced— a substantial number of jobs present difficult recruitment, job evaluation, or training prob­
lems because the jobs: Consist of har d-to-understand work processes (e. g. , professional, scientific, administrative, or technical);
have h a rd -to -m atch skill requirements; are in new or emerging occupations; or are extremely hard to fill. These conditions are most
likely to be found in organizations in which the work force, organizational structure, work processes or functions, e t c . , are co m p ­
licated or unstable.
NOTE: There are gaps betw een different degrees of all three elements used to determine job level matches. These
been provided purposely to allow room for judgment in getting the best overall job level m atch for each job. Thus, a
services a work force of 850 employees should be matched with level II if it is a personnel program operations level job
nature of the organization serviced seems to fall slightly below the definition for the type B degree. However, the same
be matched with level I if the nature of the organization serviced clearly falls well within the definition for the type
2

Insufficient data were obtained for level V to warrant presentation of average salaries.




59

gaps have
job which
where the
job should
A degree.

C he m is ts and E n g in e e rs
CH E M IST
P e r f o r m s p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k in r e s e a r c h , d e v e l o p m e n t , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , a n d a n a l y s i s
to d e t e r m i n e th e c o m p o s i t i o n , m o l e c u l a r s t r u c t u r e , a n d p r o p e r t i e s of s u b s t a n c e s ; to d e v e lo p
o r i n v e s t i g a t e n e w m a t e r i a l s a n d p r o c e s s e s ; and to i n v e s t i g a t e th e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n w h ic h
su b stan ces undergo.
W o r k ty p i c a l l y r e q u i r e s a B. S. d e g r e e in c h e m i s t r y o r e q u iv a le n t in
a p p r o p r i a t e a n d s u b s t a n t i a l c o lle g e le v e l stu d y of c h e m i s t r y p lu s e x p e r i e n c e .
C h em ist I
G eneral c h a ra c te ris tic s .
T h is is th e e n t r y l e v e l of p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k r e q u i r i n g a
b a c h e l o r s d e g r e e in c h e m i s t r y a n d no e x p e r i e n c e , o r th e e q u iv a le n t (to a d e g r e e ) in a p p r o ­
p r i a t e e d u c a tio n a n d e x p e r i e n c e .
P e r f o r m s a s s i g n m e n t s d e s i g n e d to d e v e lo p p r o f e s s i o n a l
c a p a b i l i t i e s a n d to p r o v i d e e x p e r i e n c e in th e a p p l i c a t i o n of t r a i n i n g in c h e m i s t r y a s it r e l a t e s
to th e c o m p a n y ^ p r o g r a m s .
M a y a l s o r e c e i v e f o r m a l c l a s s r o o m o r s e m i n a r ty p e t r a i n i n g .
( T e r m i n a l p o s i t i o n s a r e e x c lu d e d . )
D irectio n re c e iv e d .
W o r k s u n d e r c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n . R e c e i v e s s p e c if ic a n d d e t a i l e d
i n s t r u c t i o n s a s to r e q u i r e d t a s k s a n d r e s u l t s e x p e c t e d .
W o rk i s c h e c k e d d u r in g p r o g r e s s ,
a n d i s r e v i e w e d f o r a c c u r a c y upon c o m p le tio n .
T y p ical d u ties and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .
P e r f o r m s a v a r i e t y of r o u tin e t a s k s t h a t a r e
p la n n e d to p r o v id e e x p e r i e n c e a n d f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n w ith th e c h e m i s t r y s ta f f , m e t h o d s , p r a c ­
t i c e s a nd p r o g r a m s of th e c o m p a n y .
T h e w o r k in c l u d e s a v a r i e t y of r o u tin e q u a l i t a t i v e a n d
q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s e s ; p h y s i c a l t e s t s to d e t e r m i n e p r o p e r t i e s s u c h a s v i s c o s i t y , t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h ,
a n d m e l t i n g point; a nd a s s i s t i n g m o r e e x p e r i e n c e d c h e m i s t s to g a in a d d itio n a l k n o w le d g e t h r o u g h
p e rs o n a l o b se rv a tio n and d isc u ssio n .
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r th e d i r e c t i o n of o t h e r s .

U s u a lly n o n e .

C h e m i s t II
G e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . At t h i s c o n tin u in g d e v e l o p m e n t a l l e v e l , p e r f o r m s r o u t i n e
c h e m i c a l w o r k r e q u i r i n g s e l e c t i o n a n d a p p l i c a t i o n of g e n e r a l a n d s p e c i a l i z e d m e t h o d s , t e c h ­
n i q u e s , a nd i n s t r u m e n t s c o m m o n ly u s e d in the l a b o r a t o r y a n d th e a b ility to c a r r y out i n ­
s t r u c t i o n s w hen l e s s c o m m o n o r p r o p o s e d m e t h o d s o r p r o c e d u r e s a r e n e c e s s a r y .
R eq u ires
w o r k e x p e r i e n c e a c q u i r e d in a n e n t r y le v e l p o s itio n , o r a p p r o p r i a t e g r a d u a t e le v e l stu d y .
F o r t r a i n i n g a n d d e v e l o p m e n t a l p u r p o s e s , a s s i g n m e n t s m a y in c lu d e s o m e w o r k t h a t is t y p i c a l
of a h i g h e r l e v e l.
( T e r m i n a l p o s i t i o n s a r e e x c lu d e d . )
D i r e c t i o n r e c e i v e d . S u p e r v i s o r e s t a b l i s h e s th e n a t u r e an d e x te n t of a n a l y s i s r e ­
q u i r e d , s p e c i f i e s m e t h o d s a n d c r i t e r i a on new t y p e s of a s s i g n m e n t s , a n d r e v i e w s w o r k f o r
t h o r o u g h n e s s of a p p l i c a t i o n of m e t h o d s a n d a c c u r a c y of r e s u l t s .
T y p i c a l d u tie s a nd r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .
C a r r i e s out a w id e v a r i e t y of s t a n d a r d i z e d
m eth o d s, te s ts , and p ro c e d u re s .
In a c c o r d a n c e w ith s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s m a y c a r r y out
p r o p o s e d a nd l e s s c o m m o n o n e s . Is e x p e c t e d to d e t e c t p r o b l e m s in u s i n g s t a n d a r d i z e d p r o ­
c e d u r e s b e c a u s e of th e c o n d itio n of th e s a m p l e , d i f f i c u l t i e s w ith the e q u i p m e n t , e tc .
Rec­
o m m e n d s m o d i f i c a t i o n s of p r o c e d u r e s , e. g. , e x te n d in g o r c u r t a i l i n g th e a n a l y s i s o r u s in g
a l t e r n a t e p r o c e d u r e s , b a se d , on h is k n o w le d g e of th e p r o b l e m a n d p e r t i n e n t a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a ­
t u r e . C o n d u c ts s p e c i f i e d p h a s e s of r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s a s a n a s s i s t a n t to an e x p e r i e n c e d c h e m i s t .
R esp o n sib ility
tech n ician s.

for

the

d irectio n

of o t h e r s .

M ay be

a ssiste d

by a few a i d s

or

C h e m i s t III
G eneral c h a r a c te r is tic s .
P e r f o r m s a b r o a d r a n g e of c h e m i c a l t e s t s an d p r o c e ­
d u r e s u t i l i z e d in th e l a b o r a t o r y , u s in g ju d g m e n t in the in d e p e n d e n t e v a l u a t i o n , s e l e c t i o n ,
a n d a d a p t a t i o n of s t a n d a r d m e t h o d s a n d t e c h n i q u e s .
M ay c a r r y t h r o u g h a c o m p l e t e s e r i e s
of t e s t s on a p r o d u c t in i t s d i f f e r e n t p r o c e s s s t a g e s .
Some a s s ig n m e n ts re q u ir e a s p e ­
c i a l i z e d k n o w le d g e of one o r two c o m m o n c a t e g o r i e s of r e l a t e d s u b s t a n c e s .
P erform ance
a t t h i s le v e l r e q u i r e s d e v e l o p m e n t a l e x p e r i e n c e in a p r o f e s s i o n a l p o s i t i o n , o r e q u i v a l e n t
g r a d u a t e le v e l e d u c a tio n .




60

CHEMIST— Continued

D irectio n re c e iv e d .
On r o u t i n e w o r k , s u p e r v i s i o n i s v e r y g e n e r a l . A s s i s t a n c e is
f u r n i s h e d on u n u s u a l p r o b l e m s a n d w o r k i s r e v i e w e d f o r a p p l i c a t i o n of sound p r o f e s s i o n a l
ju d g m e n t.
T y p i c a l d u t i e s a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . In a c c o r d a n c e w ith i n s t r u c t i o n s a s to th e n a t u r e
of the p r o b l e m , s e l e c t s s t a n d a r d m e t h o d s , t e s t s o r p r o c e d u r e s ; w hen n e c e s s a r y , d e v e lo p s
o r w o r k s out a l t e r n a t e o r m o d i f i e d m e t h o d s w ith s u p e r v i s o r ^ c o n c u r r e n c e . A s s i s t s in r e ­
s e a r c h by a n a ly z in g s a m p l e s o r t e s t i n g n ew p r o c e d u r e s t h a t r e q u i r e s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g
b e c a u s e (a) s t a n d a r d m e t h o d s a r e i n a p p l i c a b l e , (b) a n a l y t i c a l f in d in g s m u s t be i n t e r p r e t e d
in t e r m s of c o m p l i a n c e o r n o n c o m p lia n c e w ith s t a n d a r d s , o r (c) s p e c i a l i z e d a n d a d v a n c e d
e q u ip m e n t a n d t e c h n i q u e s m u s t be a d a p te d .
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the d i r e c t i o n of o t h e r s .
M ay s u p e r v i s e o r c o o r d i n a t e th e w o r k
of a few t e c h n i c i a n s o r a i d s , a n d b e a s s i s t e d by lo w e r l e v e l c h e m i s t s .
C h e m i s t IV
G e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A s a fu lly c o m p e t e n t c h e m i s t in a l l c o n v e n tio n a l a s p e c t s
of the s u b j e c t - m a t t e r o r th e f u n c tio n a l a r e a of th e a s s i g n m e n t s , p la n s an d c o n d u c ts w o r k
r e q u i r i n g (a) m a s t e r y of s p e c i a l i z e d te c h n i q u e s o r in g e n u ity in s e l e c t i n g a n d e v a lu a tin g a p ­
p r o a c h e s to u n f o r e s e e n o r n o v e l p r o b l e m s , a n d (b) a b i l i t y to a p p ly a r e s e a r c h a p p r o a c h to
the s o lu tio n of a w ide v a r i e t y of p r o b l e m s and to a s s i m i l a t e th e d e t a i l s a n d s ig n if ic a n c e of
c h e m ic a l and p h y sical a n a ly s e s , p ro c e d u r e s , and te s ts .
R e q u i r e s s u f f ic ie n t p r o f e s s i o n a l
e x p e r i e n c e to a s s u r e c o m p e t e n c e a s a fu lly t r a i n e d w o r k e r ; o r , f o r p o s i t i o n s p r i m a r i l y of
a r e s e a r c h n a t u r e , c o m p l e t i o n of a l l r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a d o c t o r a l d e g r e e m a y be s u b s t i t u t e d
for e x p e rie n c e .
D i r e c t i o n r e c e i v e d . I n d e p e n d e n tly p e r f o r m s m o s t a s s i g n m e n t s w ith i n s t r u c t i o n s a s
to the g e n e r a l r e s u l t s e x p e c t e d . R e c e i v e s t e c h n i c a l g u id a n c e on u n u s u a l o r c o m p le x p r o b ­
l e m s a n d s u p e r v i s o r y a p p r o v a l on p r o p o s e d p la n s f o r p r o j e c t s .
T y p i c a l d u t i e s a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . C o n d u c ts l a b o r a t o r y a s s i g n m e n t s r e q u i r i n g th e
d e t e r m i n a t i o n a n d e v a lu a tio n of a l t e r n a t i v e p r o c e d u r e s a nd th e s e q u e n c e of p e r f o r m i n g t h e m .
P e r f o r m s c o m p l e x , e x a c tin g , o r u n u s u a l a n a l y t i c a l a s s i g n m e n t s r e q u i r i n g s p e c i a l i z e d k n o w l ­
edge of te c h n i q u e s o r p r o d u c t s .
I n t e r p r e t s r e s u l t s , p r e p a r e s r e p o r t s / a n d m a y p r o v id e
t e c h n i c a l a d v ic e in h is s p e c i a l i z e d a r e a .
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r th e d i r e c t i o n of o th e r 's .
and te c h n ic ia n s .

M ay s u p e r v i s e a s m a l l s ta f f of c h e m i s t s

C h em ist V
G e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . P a r t i c i p a t e s in p la n n in g l a b o r a t o r y p r o g r a m s on th e b a s i s
of s p e c i a l i z e d k n o w le d g e of p r o b l e m s a n d m e t h o d s and p r o b a b l e v a lu e of r e s u l t s . M ay s e r v e
a s a n e x p e r t in a n a r r o w s p e c i a l t y (e. g. , c l a s s of c h e m i c a l c o m p o u n d s , o r a c l a s s of p r o d ­
u c t s ) , m a k in g r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a n d c o n c l u s i o n s w h ic h s e r v e a s the b a s i s f o r u n d e r t a k i n g
or re je c tin g im p o rta n t p ro je c ts .
D e v e lo p m e n t of th e k n o w le d g e a n d e x p e r t i s e r e q u i r e d f o r
t h i s le v e l of w o r k u s u a l l y r e f l e c t s p r o g r e s s i v e e x p e r i e n c e t h r o u g h c h e m i s t IV.
D i r e c t i o n r e c e i v e d . S u p e r v i s i o n a n d g u id a n c e r e l a t e s l a r g e l y to o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e s ,
c r i t i c a l i s s u e s , n e w c o n c e p t s , a n d p o lic y m a t t e r s .
C o n s u l t s w ith s u p e r v i s o r c o n c e r n i n g
unu su al p ro b le m s and d ev elo p m en ts.
T y p i c a l d u tie s a nd r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .

(One o r bo th of th e f o llo w in g .)

(1) In a s u p e r v i s o r y c a p a c i t y p l a n s , o r g a n i z e s , an d d i r e c t s a s s i g n e d l a b o r a t o r y
p r o g r a m s . I n d e p e n d e n tly d e f in e s s c o p e a n d c r i t i c a l e l e m e n t s of th e p r o j e c t s an d s e l e c t s
a p p r o a c h e s to be t a k e n . A s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n of th e w o r k s u p e r v i s e d is c o m p a r a b l e to
th a t d e s c r i b e d f o r c h e m i s t IV.
(2) A s in d iv id u a l r e s e a r c h e r o r w o r k e r , c a r r i e s out p r o j e c t s r e q u i r i n g d e v e l o p ­
m e n t of ne w o r h ig h ly m o d i f i e d s c i e n t i f i c t e c h n i q u e s a n d p r o c e d u r e s , e x t e n s i v e k n o w l ­
ed g e of h i s s p e c i a l t y , a n d k n o w le d g e of r e l a t e d s c i e n t i f i c f i e l d s .




61

CHEMIST— Continued

R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r th e d i r e c t i o n of o t h e r s . S u p e r v i s e s , c o o r d i n a t e s , a n d r e v i e w s
the, w o r k of a s m a l l s ta f f of c h e m i s t s a n d t e c h n i c i a n s e n g a g e d in v a r i e d r e s e a r c h a nd d e ­
velo p m en t p ro je c ts , or a l a r g e r group p e rfo rm in g routine a n a ly tic a l w ork. E s tim a te s m a n ­
p o w e r n e e d s a n d s c h e d u l e s a n d a s s i g n s w o r k to m e e t c o m p l e t i o n d a t e .
O r , a s in d iv id u a l
r e s e a r c h e r o r w o r k e r , m a y be a s s i s t e d on p r o j e c t s by o t h e r c h e m i s t s o r t e c h n i c i a n s .
C h e m i s t VI
G eneral c h a ra c te ris tic s .
P e r f o r m s w ork re q u irin g le a d e rs h ip and e x p e rt k n o w l­
edge in a s p e c i a l i z e d f ie ld , p r o d u c t , o r p r o c e s s .
F o r m u l a t e s a n d c o n d u c ts a s y s t e m a t i c
a t t a c k on a p r o b l e m a r e a of c o n s i d e r a b l e s c o p e a nd c o m p l e x i t y w h ic h m u s t be a p p r o a c h e d
th r o u g h a s e r i e s of c o m p l e t e a n d c o n c e p t u a l l y r e l a t e d s t u d i e s , o r a n u m b e r of p r o j e c t s of
l e s s e r sc o p e .
T he p r o b l e m s a r e c o m p l e x b e c a u s e th e y a r e d if f ic u lt to d e fin e a n d r e q u i r e
u n c o n v e n tio n a l o r n o v e l a p p r o a c h e s o r h a v e o t h e r d if f ic u lt f e a t u r e s . M a i n t a i n s l i a i s o n w ith
in d iv id u a ls a n d u n i t s w ith in a n d o u ts id e h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n w ith r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a c t i n g i n ­
d e p e n d e n tly on t e c h n i c a l m a t t e r s p e r t a i n i n g to h is f ie ld . W o r k a t t h i s le v e l u s u a l l y r e q u i r e s
e x t e n s i v e p r o g r e s s i v e e x p e r i e n c e in c lu d in g w o r k c o m p a r a b l e to c h e m i s t V.
D i r e c t i o n r e c e i v e d . S u p e r v i s i o n r e c e i v e d is e s s e n t i a l l y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , w ith a s s i g n ­
m e n t s g iv e n in t e r m s of b r o a d g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e s a n d l i m i t s .
T y p ical duties and r e s p o n s ib ilitie s .

(One o r b o th of th e f o l l o w i n g . )

(1) In a s u p e r v i s o r y c a p a c i t y (a) p l a n s , d e v e l o p s , c o o r d i n a t e s , a n d d i r e c t s a n u m ­
b e r of l a r g e a n d i m p o r t a n t p r o j e c t s o r a p r o j e c t of m a j o r s c o p e a n d i m p o r t a n c e , o r
(b) is r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the e n t i r e c h e m i c a l p r o g r a m of a c o m p a n y , w hen the p r o g r a m is
of l i m i t e d c o m p l e x i t y a n d s c o p e .
A c t i v i t i e s u n d e r h i s l e a d e r s h i p a r e of a s c o p e th a t
th e y r e q u i r e a few (3 to 5) s u b o r d i n a t e s u p e r v i s o r s o r t e a m l e a d e r s w ith a t l e a s t one
in a p o s itio n c o m p a r a b l e to le v e l V.
(2) A s in d iv id u a l r e s e a r c h e r o r
p r o j e c t s of m a j o r i m p o r t a n c e to the
in g e n u ity in a d a p tin g , e x te n d in g , a n d
n iq u e s into o r i g i n a l c o m b i n a t i o n s an d
c h e m i s t s in h is s p e c i a l t y .

w o r k e r d e t e r m i n e s , c o n c e i v e s , p l a n s , a n d c o n d u c ts
c o m p a n y . A p p l i e s a h ig h d e g r e e of o r i g i n a l i t y a n d
sy n th esizin g ex istin g th e o ry , p r in c ip le s , and te c h ­
c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . M ay s e r v e a s a c o n s u l t a n t to o t h e r

R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r th e d i r e c t i o n of o t h e r s . P l a n s , o r g a n i z e s , a n d s u p e r v i s e s th e w o r k )
l
(
*
of a s ta f f of c h e m i s t s a n d t e c h n i c i a n s . E v a l u a t e s p r o g r e s s of th e s ta f f a n d r e s u l t s o b ta in e d ,
a n d r e c o m m e n d s m a j o r c h a n g e s to a c h i e v e o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e s . O r , a s in d iv id u a l w o r k e r o r
r e s e a r c h e r m a y be a s s i s t e d on in d iv id u a l p r o j e c t s by o t h e r c h e m i s t s o r t e c h n i c i a n s .
C h e m i s t VII
G e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . M a k e s d e c i s i o n s and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s th a t a r e r e c o g n i z e d
a s a u t h o r i t a t i v e a n d h a v e a n i m p o r t a n t i m p a c t on e x t e n s i v e c h e m i c a l a c t i v i t i e s .
I n i t i a t e s and
m a i n t a i n s e x t e n s i v e c o n t a c t s w ith k e y c h e m i s t s an d o f f i c i a l s of o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s a nd c o m ­
p a n i e s , r e q u i r i n g s k ill in p e r s u a s i o n a n d n e g o tia tio n of c r i t i c a l i s s u e s . A t t h i s le v e l i n d i ­
v i d u a l s w ill h a v e d e m o n s t r a t e d c r e a t i v i t y , f o r e s i g h t , a nd m a t u r e ju d g m e n t in a n t i c i p a t i n g
a nd so lv in g u n p r e c e d e n t e d c h e m i c a l p r o b l e m s , d e t e r m i n i n g p r o g r a m o b j e c t i v e s a n d r e q u i r e ­
m e n t s , o r g a n i z i n g p r o g r a m s a n d p r o j e c t s , a n d d e v e lo p in g s t a n d a r d s a n d g u id e s f o r d i v e r s e
chem ical a c tiv ities.
D irectio n r e c e iv e d .

R eceiv es g e n e ra l a d m in is tra tiv e d ire c tio n .

T y p ic a l d u t i e s a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .

(One o r bo th of th e fo llo w in g . )

( l) In a s u p e r v i s o r y c a p a c i t y is r e s p o n s i b l e f o r (a) a n i m p o r t a n t s e g m e n t of a
c h e m i c a l p r o g r a m of a c o m p a n y w ith e x t e n s i v e an d d i v e r s i f i e d s c i e n t i f i c r e q u i r e m e n t s ,
o r (b) th e e n t i r e c h e m i c a l p r o g r a m of a c o m p a n y w h e r e th e p r o g r a m is m o r e l i m i t e d
in s c o p e .
T he o v e r a l l c h e m i c a l p r o g r a m c o n t a i n s c r i t i c a l p r o b l e m s th e s o lu tio n of
w h ic h r e q u i r e s m a j o r te c h n o l o g i c a l a d v a n c e s a n d o p e n s th e w ay f o r e x t e n s i v e r e l a t e d
d e v e lo p m e n t.
M a k e s a u t h o r i t a t i v e t e c h n i c a l r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g th e s c i e n t i f i c




62

CHEMIST— Continued

o b j e c t i v e s a n d l e v e l s of w o r k w h ic h w ill be m o s t p r o f i t a b l e in th e lig h t of c o m p a n y r e ­
q u ire m e n ts and scien tific and in d u s tria l tre n d s and d ev elo p m en ts.
R ecom m ends fa c il­
i t i e s , p e r s o n n e l , a nd funds r e q u i r e d .
(2)
A s in d iv id u a l r e s e a r c h e r a n d c o n s u l t a n t s e l e c t s p r o b l e m s f o r r e s e a r c h
f u r t h e r the c o m p a n y 1s o b j e c t i v e s .
C o n c e iv e s a n d p l a n s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s in w h ic h the
p h e n o m e n a a n d p r i n c i p l e s a r e not a d e q u a t e l y u n d e r s t o o d , a n d w h e r e few o r c o n t r a ­
d i c t o r y s c i e n t i f i c p r e c e d e n t s o r r e s u l t s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e . O u ts ta n d in g c r e a ­
tiv ity a n d m a t u r e j u d g m e n t a r e r e q u i r e d to d e v i s e h y p o t h e s e s and t e c h n i q u e s of e x p e r i ­
m e n t a t i o n a n d to i n t e r p r e t r e s u l t s .
A s a l e a d e r a n d a u t h o r i t y in h i s c o m p a n y , in a
b r o a d a r e a of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , o r in a n a r r o w b u t i n t e n s e l y s p e c i a l i z e d one, a d v i s e s th e
h e a d of a l a r g e l a b o r a t o r y o r c o m p a n y o f f i c i a l s on c o m p le x a s p e c t s of e x t r e m e l y b r o a d
and im p o rta n t p r o g r a m s .
H a s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e x p l o r i n g , e v a lu a tin g , a nd j u s tif y in g
p r o p o s e d a n d c u r r e n t p r o g r a m s a n d p r o j e c t s a n d f u r n i s h i n g a d v ic e on u n u s u a lly c o m p le x
a nd n o v e l p r o b l e m s in th e s p e c i a l t y f ie ld .
T y p ic a lly w ill h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d in n o v a tio n s
( e . g . , t e c h n i q u e s , p r o d u c t s , p r o c e d u r e s ) w hich a r e r e g a r d e d a s s ig n if ic a n t a d v a n c e s
in th e f ie ld .
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r th e d i r e c t i o n of o t h e r s . D i r e c t s s e v e r a l s u b o r d i n a t e s u p e r v i s o r s
o r t e a m l e a d e r s , s o m e of w h o m a r e in p o s i t i o n s c o m p a r a b l e to c h e m i s t VI; o r , a s i n d i ­
v id u a l r e s e a r c h e r and c o n s u l t a n t , m a y be a s s i s t e d on in d iv id u a l p r o j e c t s by o t h e r c h e m i s t s
and t e c h n i c i a n s .
C h e m i s t VIII
G e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . M a k e s d e c i s i o n s a n d r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s th a t a r e a u t h o r i t a t i v e
and h a v e a f a r - r e a c h i n g i m p a c t on e x te n s iv e c h e m i c a l a n d r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s of th e c o m p a n y .
N e g o t i a t e s c r i t i c a l a n d c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s w ith top le v e l c h e m i s t s a n d o f f i c e r s of o th e r
o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d c o m p a n i e s . I n d iv id u a ls a t t h i s l e v e l h a v e d e m o n s t r a t e d a high d e g r e e of
c r e a t i v i t y , f o r e s i g h t , a n d m a t u r e ju d g m e n t in p la n n in g , o r g a n i z i n g , a n d guiding e x te n s iv e
c h e m i c a l p r o g r a m s and a c t i v i t i e s of o u ts ta n d in g n o v e lty a n d i m p o r t a n c e .
D irectio n r e c e iv e d .

R eceiv es g e n e ra l a d m in is tra tiv e d ire c tio n .

T y p ic a l d u tie s a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .

(One o r b o th of th e f o llo w in g .) 2
1

(1) In a s u p e r v i s o r y c a p a c ity i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r (a) the e n t i r e c h e m i c a l p r o g r a m of
a c o m p a n y w h ic h is of m o d e r a t e s c o p e , o r (b) an i m p o r t a n t s e g m e n t of a c h e m i c a l p r o ­
g r a m of a c o m p a n y w ith v e r y e x te n s iv e and h ighly d i v e r s i f i e d s c i e n t i f i c r e q u i r e m e n t s ,
w h e r e p r o g r a m s a r e of su c h c o m p le x ity and sc o p e th a t th e y a r e of c r i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e
to o v e r a l l o p e r a t i o n s a n d in c lu d e p r o b l e m s of e x t r a o r d i n a r y d if f ic u lty th a t h ave r e s i s t e d
s o lu tio n .
D e c id e s the kind and e x te n t of c h e m i c a l p r o g r a m s n e e d e d to a c c o m p l i s h the
o b j e c t i v e s of th e c o m p a n y , f o r c h o o s in g th e s c i e n t i f i c a p p r o a c h e s , f o r p la n n in g a nd
o r g a n i z i n g f a c i l i t i e s an d p r o g r a m s , and f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g r e s u l t s .
(2) A s in d iv id u a l r e s e a r c h e r a nd c o n s u l t a n t f o r m u l a t e s and g u id e s the a t t a c k on
p r o b l e m s of e x c e p tio n a l d if f ic u lty a n d m a r k e d i m p o r t a n c e to th e c o m p a n y a n d / o r i n ­
d u stry .
P r o b l e m s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the la c k of s c i e n t i f i c p r e c e d e n t s an d s o u r c e
m a t e r i a l s , o r th e l a c k of s u c c e s s of p r i o r r e s e a r c h and a n a l y s i s so th a t t h e i r so lu tio n
w o u ld r e p r e s e n t a n a d v a n c e of g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e an d i m p o r t a n c e .
P e r f o r m s a d v iso ry
a n d c o n s u ltin g w o r k f o r the c o m p a n y a s a r e c o g n i z e d a u t h o r i t y f o r b r o a d p r o g r a m a r e a s
of c o n s i d e r a b l e n o v e lty a n d i m p o r t a n c e . H a s m a d e c o n t r i b u t i o n s s u c h a s new p r o d u c t s
o r t e c h n i q u e s , d e v e lo p m e n t of p r o c e s s e s , e t c . , w h ic h a r e r e g a r d e d a s m a j o r a d v a n c e s
in th e f ie ld .
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r th e d i r e c t i o n of o t h e r s . S u p e r v i s e s s e v e r a l s u b o r d i n a t e s u p e r ­
v i s o r s o r t e a m l e a d e r s s o m e of w h o se p o s i t i o n s a r e c o m p a r a b l e to c h e m i s t VII o r in d iv id u a l
r e s e a r c h e r s s o m e of w h o s e p o s i t i o n s a r e c o m p a r a b l e to c h e m i s t VII a n d s o m e t i m e s c h e m i s t
VIII. As a n in d iv id u a l r e s e a r c h e r a n d c o n s u l t a n t m a y be a s s i s t e d on in d iv id u a l p r o j e c t s by
o th er c h e m ists o r tech n ic ia n s.




63

to

CHEMIST— -Continued

N O T E : I n d iv id u a ls in c h a r g e of a c o m p a n y 1s c h e m i c a l p r o g r a m m a y m a t c h a ny of
s e v e r a l of the s u r v e y jo b l e v e l s , d e p e n d in g on th e s iz e a n d c o m p l e x i t y of c h e m i c a l p r o ­
g ram s.
E x c lu d e d f r o m l e v e l VIII a r e c h e m i s t s in c h a r g e of p r o g r a m s so e x t e n s i v e a n d
c o m p le x ( e . g . , c o n s i s t i n g of h ig h ly d i v e r s i f i e d o r u n u s u a l l y n o v e l p r o d u c t s a n d p r o c e d u r e s )
th a t one o r m o r e s u b o r d i n a t e s u p e r v i s o r y c h e m i s t s a r e p e r f o r m i n g a t l e v e l VIII.
A ls o
e x c lu d e d f r o m le v e l VIII a r e in d iv id u a l r e s e a r c h e r s a n d c o n s u l t a n t s who a r e r e c o g n i z e d a s
n a tio n a l a n d / o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s a n d s c i e n t i f i c l e a d e r s in v e r y b r o a d a r e a s of s c i e n t i f i c
i n te r e s t and in v e stig a tio n .
E N G IN E E R
P e r f o r m s p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k in r e s e a r c h , d e v e l o p m e n t , d e s i g n , t e s t i n g , a n a l y s i s ,
p r o d u c t i o n , c o n s t r u c t i o n , m a i n t e n a n c e , o p e r a t i o n , p la n n in g , s u r v e y , e s t i m a t i n g , a p p l i c a t i o n ,
o r s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of e n g i n e e r i n g f a c i l i t i e s , s y s t e m s , s t r u c t u r e s , p r o c e s s e s , e q u ip m e n t
d e v i c e s , o r m a t e r i a l s r e q u i r i n g k n o w le d g e of th e s c i e n c e a n d a r t by w h ic h m a t e r i a l s , n a t u r a l
r e s o u r c e s , and p o w e r a r e m a d e u s e f u l.
W ork ty p i c a l l y r e q u i r e s a B . S . d e g r e e in e n g i ­
n e e r i n g o r the e q u iv a le n t in c o m b in e d e d u c a tio n a n d e x p e r i e n c e . ( E x c lu d e d a r e : S afety e n g i ­
n e e r s , i n d u s t r i a l e n g i n e e r s , q u a lity c o n t r o l e n g i n e e r s , s a l e s e n g i n e e r s , and e n g i n e e r s w h o s e
p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y is to be in c h a r g e of n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l m a i n t e n a n c e w o r k . )
E n g in eer I
G eneral c h a ra c te ristic s.
T h is is th e e n t r y le v e l of p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k r e q u i r i n g a
b a c h e l o r ! s d e g r e e in e n g i n e e r i n g a n d no e x p e r i e n c e , o r th e e q u iv a le n t (to a d e g r e e ) in a p ­
p r o p r i a t e e d u c a tio n a nd e x p e r i e n c e . P e r f o r m s a s s i g n m e n t s d e s i g n e d to d e v e lo p p r o f e s s i o n a l
w o r k k n o w le d g e s a n d a b i l i t i e s . M ay a l s o r e c e i v e f o r m a l c l a s s r o o m o r s e m i n a r ty p e t r a i n i n g .
( T e r m i n a l p o s i t i o n s a r e e x c l u d e d .)
D i r e c t i o n r e c e i v e d . W o rk s u n d e r c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n . R e c e i v e s s p e c if ic a n d d e t a i l e d
i n s t r u c t i o n s as to r e q u i r e d t a s k s a nd r e s u l t s e x p e c te d .
W o rk is c h e c k e d d u r in g p r o g r e s s ,
a n d i s r e v i e w e d f o r a c c u r a c y upon c o m p le tio n .
T y p ic a l d u t i e s a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .
P e r f o r j n s a v a r i e t y of r o u tin e t a s k s t h a t a r e
p la n n e d to p r o v i d e e x p e r i e n c e a n d f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n w ith the e n g i n e e r i n g s ta ff, m e t h o d s , p r a c ­
t i c e s , and p r o g r a m s of th e c o m p a n y .
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the d i r e c t i o n of o t h e r s .

U s u a lly n o n e .

E n g i n e e r II
G eneral c h a ra c te ristic s.
At th is c o n tin u in g d e v e l o p m e n t a l l e v e l , p e r f o r m s r o u tin e
e n g i n e e r i n g w o r k r e q u i r i n g a p p l i c a t i o n of s t a n d a r d t e c h n i q u e s , p r o c e d u r e s , a n d c r i t e r i a in
c a r r y i n g out a s e q u e n c e of r e l a t e d e n g i n e e r i n g t a s k s .
L i m i t e d e x e r c i s e of ju d g m e n t is
r e q u i r e d on d e t a i l s of w o r k a n d in m a k in g p r e l i m i n a r y s e l e c t i o n s a n d a d a p t a t i o n s of e n g i ­
n eerin g a lte rn a tiv e s .
R e q u i r e s w o r k e x p e r i e n c e a c q u i r e d in a n e n t r y le v e l p o s i t i o n , o r
a p p r o p r i a t e g r a d u a t e le v e l stu d y .
F o r tra in in g and d ev elo p m en tal p u rp o s e s , a s s ig n m e n ts
m a y in c lu d e s o m e w o r k th a t i s t y p i c a l of a h i g h e r l e v e l . ( T e r m i n a l p o s i t i o n s a r e e x c l u d e d .)
D irectio n re c e iv e d .
S u p e r v i s o r s c r e e n s a s s i g n m e n t s f o r u n u s u a l o r d if f ic u lt p r o b ­
l e m s an d s e l e c t s te c h n i q u e s a n d p r o c e d u r e s to be a p p lie d on n o n r o u tin e w o r k .
R eceiv es
c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n on new a s p e c t s of a s s i g n m e n t s .
T y p ic a l d u tie s a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .
U sin g p r e s c r i b e d m e t h o d s , p e r f o r m s s p e c if ic
a nd l i m i t e d p o r t i o n s of a b r o a d e r a s s i g n m e n t of an e x p e r i e n c e d e n g i n e e r . A p p lie s s t a n d a r d
p r a c t i c e s a n d te c h n i q u e s in s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s , a d j u s t s a n d c o r r e l a t e s d a t a , r e c o g n i z e s d i s ­
c r e p a n c i e s in r e s u l t s , and fo llo w s o p e r a t i o n s t h r o u g h a s e r i e s of r e l a t e d d e t a i l e d s te p s o r
processes.
R esp o n sib ility
te c h n ic ia n s.




for

th e

d irectio n

of o t h e r s .

64

M ay be

a ssisted

by a few

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E N G IN E E R — C on tin u ed

E n g i n e e r III
G e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I n d e p e n d e n tly e v a l u a t e s , s e l e c t s , a n d a p p l i e s s t a n d a r d
e n g in e e r in g t e c h n i q u e s , p r o c e d u r e s , a n d c r i t e r i a , u s in g ju d g m e n t in m a k in g m i n o r a d a p t a ­
tio n s and m o d i f i c a t i o n s .
A s s i g n m e n t s h a v e c l e a r and s p e c i f i e d o b j e c t i v e s a n d r e q u i r e the
i n v e s t i g a t i o n of a l i m i t e d n u m b e r of v a r i a b l e s . P e r f o r m a n c e a t t h i s l e v e l r e q u i r e s d e v e l o p ­
m e n t a l e x p e r i e n c e in a p r o f e s s i o n a l p o s itio n , o r e q u iv a le n t g r a d u a t e le v e l e d u c a tio n .
D i r e c t i o n r e c e i v e d . R e c e i v e s i n s t r u c t i o n s on s p e c if ic a s s i g n m e n t o b j e c t i v e s , c o m ­
p le x f e a t u r e s , a n d p o s s i b l e s o lu tio n s .
A s s i s t a n c e is f u r n i s h e d on u n u s u a l p r o b l e m s a nd
w o r k i s r e v i e w e d fo r a p p l i c a t i o n of so u n d p r o f e s s i o n a l j u d g m e n t .
T y p ic a l d u tie s a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .
P e r f o r m s w o r k w h ic h in v o lv e s c o n v e n tio n a l
ty p e s of p l a n s , i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , s u r v e y s , s t r u c t u r e s , o r e q u ip m e n t w ith r e l a t i v e l y few c o m ­
p le x f e a t u r e s fo r w h ic h t h e r e a r e p r e c e d e n t s . A s s i g n m e n t s u s u a l l y in c lu d e one o r m o r e of
th e fo llo w in g : E q u ip m e n t d e s i g n a n d d e v e l o p m e n t , t e s t of m a t e r i a l s , p r e p a r a t i o n of s p e c i ­
f i c a t i o n s , p r o c e s s s tu d y , r e s e a r c h i n v e s t i g a t i o n s } r e p o r t p r e p a r a t i o n , a n d o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s
of l i m i t e d s c o p e r e q u i r i n g k n o w le d g e of p r i n c i p l e s a n d t e c h n i q u e s c o m m o n ly e m p lo y e d in the
s p e c if ic n a r r o w a r e a of a s s i g n m e n t s .
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r th e d i r e c t i o n of o t h e r s .
M ay s u p e r v i s e o r c o o r d i n a t e the w o r k
of d r a f t s m e n , t e c h n i c i a n s , a n d o t h e r s who a s s i s t in s p e c i f i c a s s i g n m e n t s .
E n g i n e e r IV
G e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A s a fu lly c o m p e t e n t e n g i n e e r in a l l c o n v e n tio n a l a s p e c t s
of th e s u b j e c t - m a t t e r o r th e f u n c tio n a l a r e a of th e a s s i g n m e n t s , p la n s a n d c o n d u c ts w o r k
r e q u i r i n g j u d g m e n t in the in d e p e n d e n t e v a lu a tio n , s e l e c t i o n , a n d s u b s t a n t i a l a d a p t a t i o n a nd
m o d i f i c a t i o n of s t a n d a r d t e c h n i q u e s , p r o c e d u r e s , a n d c r i t e r i a .
D e v is e s ne w a p p r o a c h e s
to p r o b l e m s e n c o u n t e r e d . R e q u i r e s s u f f ic ie n t p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e to a s s u r e c o m p e t e n c e
a s a fully t r a i n e d w o r k e r ; o r , f o r p o s i t i o n s p r i m a r i l y of a r e s e a r c h n a t u r e , c o m p le tio n of a ll
r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a d o c t o r a l d e g r e e m a y be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r e x p e r i e n c e .
D i r e c t i o n r e c e i v e d . I n d e p e n d e n tly p e r f o r m s m o s t a s s i g n m e n t s w ith i n s t r u c t i o n s a s
to th e g e n e r a l r e s u l t s e x p e c t e d . R e c e i v e s t e c h n i c a l g u id a n c e on u n u s u a l o r c o m p l e x p r o b ­
l e m s a n d s u p e r v i s o r y a p p r o v a l on p r o p o s e d p la n s f o r p r o j e c t s .
T y p i c a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . P l a n s , s c h e d u l e s , c o n d u c ts , o r c o o r d i n a t e s
d e t a i l e d p h a s e s of the e n g i n e e r i n g w o r k in a p a r t of a m a j o r p r o j e c t o r in a t o t a l p r o j e c t
of m o d e r a t e s c o p e .
P e r f o r m s w o r k w h ic h in v o lv e s c o n v e n tio n a l e n g i n e e r i n g p r a c t i c e but
m a y in c lu d e a v a r i e t y of c o m p l e x f e a t u r e s s u c h a s c o n f lic tin g d e s i g n r e q u i r e m e n t s , u n s u i t a ­
b il i t y of s t a n d a r d m a t e r i a l s , and d if f ic u lt c o o r d i n a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s . W o rk r e q u i r e s a b r o a d
k n o w le d g e of p r e c e d e n t s in th e s p e c i a l t y a r e a a n d a good k n o w le d g e of p r i n c i p l e s a nd p r a c ­
t i c e s of r e l a t e d s p e c i a l t i e s .
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the d i r e c t i o n of o t h e r s .
n i c i a n s on a s s i g n e d w o r k .

M ay s u p e r v i s e a few e n g i n e e r s o r t e c h ­

E n g in eer V
G e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A p p lie s i n t e n s i v e and d i v e r s i f i e d k n o w le d g e of e n g i n e e r i n g
p r i n c i p l e s a nd p r a c t i c e s in b r o a d a r e a s of a s s i g n m e n t s a n d r e l a t e d f i e l d s . M a k e s d e c i s i o n s
i n d e p e n d e n tly on e n g i n e e r i n g p r o b l e m s a n d m e t h o d s , a n d r e p r e s e n t s th e o r g a n i z a t i o n in c o n ­
f e r e n c e s to r e s o l v e i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s a n d to p la n a n d c o o r d i n a t e w o r k . R e q u i r e s th e u s e
of a d v a n c e d t e c h n i q u e s a n d th e m o d i f i c a t i o n a n d e x t e n s i o n of t h e o r i e s , p r e c e p t s a n d p r a c ­
t i c e s of h is f ie ld a n d r e l a t e d s c i e n c e s a nd d i s c i p l i n e s . T he k n o w le d g e a nd e x p e r t i s e r e q u i r e d
f o r t h i s l e v e l of w o r k u s u a l l y r e s u l t s f r o m p r o g r e s s i v e e x p e r i e n c e , in c lu d in g w o r k c o m p a r a b l e
to e n g i n e e r IV.
D i r e c t i o n r e c e i v e d . S u p e r v i s i o n a n d g u id a n c e r e l a t e s l a r g e l y to o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e s ,
c r i t i c a l i s s u e s , new c o n c e p t s , a n d p o lic y m a t t e r s .
C o n s u l t s w ith s u p e r v i s o r c o n c e r n in g
u nusual p ro b le m s and d ev elo p m en ts.




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T y p ic a l d u tie s a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .

(One o r m o r e of th e f o llo w in g .)

(1) In a s u p e r v i s o r y c a p a c i t y p l a n s , d e v e l o p s , c o o r d i n a t e s , and d i r e c t s a l a r g e
a n d i m p o r t a n t e n g i n e e r i n g p r o j e c t o r a n u m b e r of s m a l l p r o j e c t s w ith m a n y c o m p le x
f e a t u r e s . A s u b s t a n t i a l p o r t i o n of th e w o r k s u p e r v i s e d is c o m p a r a b l e to th a t d e s c r i b e d
f o r e n g i n e e r IV.
(2) A s in d iv id u a l r e s e a r c h e r o r w o r k e r c a r r i e s out c o m p le x o r n o v e l a s s i g n m e n t s
r e q u i r i n g th e d e v e l o p m e n t of new o r i m p r o v e d te c h n i q u e s a n d p r o c e d u r e s . W o r k is e x ­
p e c t e d to r e s u l t in the d e v e lo p m e n t of new o r r e f i n e d e q u ip m e n t, m a t e r i a l s , p r o c e s s e s ,
p ro d u c ts , a n d /o r scien tific m eth o d s.
(3) A s s ta f f s p e c i a l i s t d e v e lo p s a n d e v a l u a t e s p l a n s a n d c r i t e r i a f o r a v a r i e t y of
p r o j e c t s a n d a c t i v i t i e s to be c a r r i e d out by o t h e r s . A s s e s s e s the f e a s i b i l i t y a nd s o u n d ­
n e s s of p r o p o s e d e n g i n e e r i n g e v a lu a tio n t e s t s , p r o d u c t s , o r e q u ip m e n t w h e n n e c e s s a r y
d a ta a r e in s u f f i c i e n t o r c o n f i r m a t i o n by t e s t i n g i s a d v i s a b l e .
U s u a lly p e r f o r m s a s a
s ta f f a d v i s o r a n d c o n s u l t a n t a s to a t e c h n i c a l s p e c i a l t y , a ty p e of f a c i l i t y o r e q u ip m e n t,
o r a p r o g r a m f u n c tio n .
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r th e d i r e c t i o n of o t h e r s .
S u p e rv is e s , c o o rd in a te s, and rev iew s
th e w o r k of a s m a l l s ta f f of e n g i n e e r s a n d t e c h n i c i a n s ; e s t i m a t e s m a n p o w e r n e e d s a n d s c h e d ­
u l e s a n d a s s i g n s w o r k to m e e t c o m p l e t i o n d a te . O r , a s in d iv id u a l r e s e a r c h e r o r s ta f f s p e ­
c i a l i s t m a y be a s s i s t e d on p r o j e c t s by o t h e r e n g i n e e r s o r t e c h n i c i a n s .
E n g i n e e r VI
G e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . H a s full t e c h n i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g , o r g a n i z ­
in g , e x e c u tin g , a n d c o o r d in a tin g a s s i g n m e n t s . P l a n s a n d d e v e lo p s e n g i n e e r i n g p r o j e c t s c o n ­
c e r n e d w ith u n iq u e o r c o n t r o v e r s i a l p r o b l e m s w h ic h h a v e a n i m p o r t a n t e f f e c t on m a j o r c o m ­
p a n y p r o g r a m s . T h is i n v o lv e s e x p l o r a t i o n of s u b je c t a r e a , d e f in itio n of sc o p e a n d s e l e c t i o n
of p r o b l e m s f o r in v e s t i g a t i o n , a n d d e v e lo p m e n t of n o v e l c o n c e p ts a n d a p p r o a c h e s . M a in ta in s
l i a i s o n w ith in d iv id u a ls a n d u n its w ith in o r o u ts id e h is o r g a n i z a t i o n w ith r e s p o n s i b i l i t y fo r
a c tin g in d e p e n d e n tly on t e c h n i c a l m a t t e r s p e r t a i n i n g to h is f ie ld . W o r k a t th is le v e l u s u a l l y
r e q u i r e s e x t e n s i v e p r o g r e s s i v e e x p e r i e n c e in c lu d in g w o r k c o m p a r a b l e to e n g i n e e r V.
D i r e c tio n r e c e i v e d . S u p e r v i s i o n r e c e i v e d is e s s e n t i a l l y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , w ith a s s i g n ­
m e n t s g iv e n in t e r m s of b r o a d g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e s and l i m i t s .
T y p ic a l d u tie s a nd r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .

(One o r

m o r e of th e f o llo w in g .)

( 1) In a s u p e r v i s o r y c a p a c ity (a) p l a n s , d e v e l o p s , c o o r d i n a t e s , an d d i r e c t s a n u m ­
b e r of l a r g e and i m p o r t a n t p r o j e c t s o r a p r o j e c t of m a j o r s c o p e a nd i m p o r t a n c e , o r
(b) is r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the e n t i r e e n g i n e e r i n g p r o g r a m of a c o m p a n y w h e n th e p r o g r a m
is of l i m i t e d c o m p l e x i t y a n d s c o p e . T he e x te n t of h is r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r e
a few (3 to 5) s u b o r d i n a t e s u p e r v i s o r s o r t e a m l e a d e r s w ith at l e a s t one in a p o s itio n
c o m p a r a b l e to l e v e l V.
(2) As in d iv id u a l r e s e a r c h e r o r w o r k e r c o n c e i v e s , p l a n s , and c o n d u c ts r e s e a r c h in
p r o b l e m a r e a s of c o n s i d e r a b l e sc o p e a n d c o m p le x ity . T h e p r o b l e m s m u s t be a p p r o a c h e d
th r o u g h a s e r i e s of c o m p l e t e and c o n c e p tu a lly r e l a t e d s t u d i e s , a r e d if f ic u lt to d e f in e , r e ­
q u i r e u n c o n v e n tio n a l o r n o v e l a p p r o a c h e s ; and r e q u i r e s o p h i s t i c a t e d r e s e a r c h te c h n i q u e s .
A v a ila b le g u id e s a n d p r e c e d e n t s c o n ta in c r i t i c a l g a p s , a r e only p a r t i a l l y r e l a t e d to the
p r o b l e m , o r m a y be l a r g e l y la c k in g due to the n o v e l c h a r a c t e r of the p r o j e c t . At t h i s
l e v e l , th e in d iv id u a l r e s e a r c h e r g e n e r a l l y w ill h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d in v e n t i o n s , new d e s i g n s ,
o r te c h n i q u e s w h ic h a r e of m a t e r i a l s ig n if ic a n c e in th e s o lu tio n of i m p o r t a n t p r o b l e m s .
(3) A s a s ta f f s p e c i a l i s t s e r v e s a s the t e c h n i c a l s p e c i a l i s t f o r th e o r g a n i z a t i o n
( d iv is io n o r c o m p a n y ) in the a p p l i c a t i o n of a d v a n c e d t h e o r i e s , c o n c e p t s , p r i n c i p l e s , a n d
p r o c e s s e s f o r an a s s i g n e d a r e a of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y (i. e. , s u b j e c t m a t t e r , fu n c tio n , ty p e
of f a c i l i t y o r e q u ip m e n t, o r p r o d u c t ) . K e e p s a b r e a s t of new s c i e n t i f i c m e t h o d s an d d e ­
v e l o p m e n t s a f f e c tin g h is o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r th e p u r p o s e of r e c o m m e n d i n g c h a n g e s in e m ­
p h a s i s of p r o g r a m s o r new p r o g r a m s w a r r a n t e d by s u c h d e v e l o p m e n t s .




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E N G IN E E R — C o n tin u ed

R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r th e d i r e c t i o n of o t h e r s .
P l a n s , o r g a n i z e s , a n d s u p e r v i s e s the
w o r k of a s ta f f of e n g i n e e r s an d t e c h n i c i a n s .
E v a l u a t e s p r o g r e s s of th e sta f f an d r e s u l t s
o b ta in e d , a n d r e c o m m e n d s m a j o r c h a n g e s to a c h i e v e o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e s .
O r , a s in d iv id u a l
r e s e a r c h e r o r s ta f f s p e c i a l i s t m a y be a s s i s t e d on in d iv id u a l p r o j e c t s by o t h e r e n g i n e e r s o r
tec h n ic ia n s.
E n g i n e e r VII
G e n e ra l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . M akes d e c isio n s and re c o m m e n d a tio n s th at a r e reco g n ized
a s a u t h o r i t a t i v e a n d h a v e an i m p o r t a n t i m p a c t on e x t e n s i v e e n g i n e e r i n g a c t i v i t i e s . I n i t i a t e s
and m a i n t a i n s e x t e n s i v e c o n t a c t s w ith k e y e n g i n e e r s a n d o f f i c i a l s of o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s and
c o m p a n i e s , r e q u i r i n g s k ill in p e r s u a s i o n a n d n e g o tia tio n of c r i t i c a l i s s u e s .
A t th is le v e l
in d iv id u a ls w ill h a v e d e m o n s t r a t e d c r e a t i v i t y , f o r e s i g h t , and m a t u r e e n g i n e e r i n g j u d g m e n t
in a n tic ip a tin g a n d so lv in g u n p r e c e d e n t e d e n g i n e e r i n g p r o b l e m s , d e t e r m i n i n g p r o g r a m o b ­
j e c t i v e s a nd r e q u i r e m e n t s , o r g a n i z i n g p r o g r a m s an d p r o j e c t s , a n d d e v e lo p in g s t a n d a r d s and
g u id e s f o r d i v e r s e e n g i n e e r i n g a c t i v i t i e s .
D irectio n re c e iv e d .

R eceiv es g e n e ra l a d m in is tra tiv e d ire c tio n .

T y p i c a l d u tie s a nd r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .

(One o r b o th of the f o llo w in g .)

(1) In a s u p e r v i s o r y c a p a c i t y is r e s p o n s i b l e fo r (a) a n i m p o r t a n t s e g m e n t of the
e n g i n e e r i n g p r o g r a m of a c o m p a n y w ith e x t e n s i v e a n d d i v e r s i f i e d e n g i n e e r i n g r e q u i r e ­
m e n t s , o r (b) th e e n t i r e e n g i n e e r i n g p r o g r a m of a c o m p a n y w h e n it i s m o r e l i m i t e d in
s c o p e . T he o v e r a l l e n g i n e e r i n g p r o g r a m c o n ta in s c r i t i c a l p r o b l e m s the so lu tio n of w h ic h
r e q u i r e s m a j o r t e c h n o l o g i c a l a d v a n c e s a n d o p e n s the w a y f o r e x t e n s i v e r e l a t e d d e v e l o p ­
m e n t . T he e x te n t of h is r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r e s e v e r a l s u b o r d i n a t e o r g a n i ­
zatio n al s e g m e n ts o r te a m s .
R e c o m m e n d s f a c i l i t i e s , p e r s o n n e l , a n d f u n d s r e q u i r e d to
c a r r y out p r o g r a m s w h ic h a r e d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d w ith a n d d i r e c t e d t o w a r d f u l f i l l m e n t of
o v e ra ll com pany o b jectiv es.
(2) A s in d iv id u a l r e s e a r c h e r and c o n s u l t a n t is a r e c o g n i z e d l e a d e r a n d a u t h o r i t y
in h is c o m p a n y in a b r o a d a r e a of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o r in a n a r r o w but i n t e n s e l y s p e c i a l i z e d
f ie ld .
S e le c ts r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m s to f u r t h e r th e c o m p a n y 's o b j e c t i v e s .
C o n c e iv e s and
p l a n s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of b r o a d a r e a s of c o n s i d e r a b l e n o v e lty a nd i m p o r t a n c e f o r w h ic h
e n g i n e e r i n g p r e c e d e n t s a r e la c k in g in a r e a s c r i t i c a l to th e o v e r a l l e n g i n e e r i n g p r o g r a m .
I s c o n s u l t e d e x t e n s i v e l y by a s s o c i a t e s a n d o t h e r s w ith a h ig h d e g r e e of r e l i a n c e p l a c e d
on h is s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and a d v i c e . T y p ic a lly , w ill h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d in v e n tio n s ,
new d e s i g n s , o r t e c h n i q u e s w h ic h a r e r e g a r d e d a s m a j o r a d v a n c e s in the f ie ld .
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r th e d i r e c t i o n of o t h e r s . D i r e c t s s e v e r a l s u b o r d i n a t e s u p e r v i s o r s
o r t e a m l e a d e r s , s o m e of w h o m a r e in p o s i t i o n s c o m p a r a b l e to e n g i n e e r VI; o r , a s i n d i ­
v id u a l r e s e a r c h e r and c o n s u l t a n t , m a y be a s s i s t e d on in d iv id u a l p r o j e c t s by o t h e r e n g i n e e r s
and te c h n ic ia n s .
E n g i n e e r VIII
G e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . M a k e s d e c i s i o n s a nd r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s th a t a r e r e c o g n i z e d
a s a u t h o r i t a t i v e a n d h a v e a f a r - r e a c h i n g i m p a c t on e x t e n s i v e e n g i n e e r i n g a n d r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s
of the c o m p a n y .
N e g o t i a t e s c r i t i c a l and c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s w ith top le v e l e n g i n e e r s and
o f f i c e r s of o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d c o m p a n i e s . I n d iv id u a ls a t t h i s l e v e l d e m o n s t r a t e a h ig h
d e g r e e of c r e a t i v i t y , f o r e s i g h t , a n d m a t u r e ju d g m e n t in p la n n in g , o r g a n i z i n g , a n d guiding
e x t e n s i v e e n g i n e e r i n g p r o g r a m s a n d a c t i v i t i e s of o u ts ta n d in g n o v e lty a n d i m p o r t a n c e .
D irectio n re c e iv e d .

R eceiv es g e n e ra l a d m in is tra tiv e d ire c tio n .

T y p ic a l d u tie s a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .

(One o r bo th of th e f o llo w in g .)

(l) In a s u p e r v i s o r y c a p a c i t y i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r (a) a n i m p o r t a n t s e g m e n t of a v e r y
e x t e n s i v e an d h ig h ly d i v e r s i f i e d e n g i n e e r i n g p r o g r a m of a c o m p a n y , o r (b) th e e n t i r e
e n g i n e e r i n g p r o g r a m of a c o m p a n y w h e n th e p r o g r a m i s of m o d e r a t e s c o p e . T he p r o ­
g r a m s a r e of s u c h c o m p le x ity a n d s c o p e t h a t th e y a r e of c r i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e to o v e r a l l
o b j e c t i v e s , in c lu d e p r o b l e m s of e x t r a o r d i n a r y d iffic u lty t h a t o fte n h a v e r e s i s t e d so lu tio n ,
a n d c o n s i s t of s e v e r a l s e g m e n t s r e q u i r i n g s u b o r d i n a t e s u p e r v i s o r s . I s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r




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d e c id in g th e kind a n d e x te n t of e n g i n e e r i n g a n d r e l a t e d p r o g r a m s n e e d e d to a c c o m p l i s h
th e o b j e c t i v e s of the c o m p a n y , f o r c h o o s in g th e s c i e n t i f i c a p p r o a c h e s , f o r p la n n in g a n d
o r g a n i z i n g f a c i l i t i e s and p r o g r a m s , a n d f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g r e s u l t s .
(2) A s in d iv id u a l r e s e a r c h e r a n d c o n s u l t a n t f o r m u l a t e s a nd g u id e s the a t t a c k on p r o b ­
l e m s of e x c e p t i o n a l d if f ic u lty a nd m a r k e d i m p o r t a n c e to th e c o m p a n y o r i n d u s t r y . P r o b ­
l e m s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e i r l a c k of s c i e n t i f i c p r e c e d e n t s a n d s o u r c e m a t e r i a l , o r
l a c k of s u c c e s s of p r i o r r e s e a r c h and a n a l y s i s so t h a t t h e i r s o lu tio n w o u ld r e p r e s e n t a n
a d v a n c e of g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e a n d i m p o r t a n c e . P e r f o r m s a d v i s o r y a nd c o n s u ltin g w o r k
f o r the c o m p a n y a s a r e c o g n i z e d a u t h o r i t y f o r b r o a d p r o g r a m a r e a s o r in a n i n t e n s e l y
s p e c i a l i z e d a r e a of c o n s i d e r a b l e n o v e lty a n d i m p o r t a n c e .
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the d i r e c t i o n of o t h e r s .
S u p e rv ise s s e v e ra l su b o rd in ate s u p e r ­
v i s o r s o r t e a m l e a d e r s s o m e of w h o s e p o s i t i o n s a r e c o m p a r a b l e to e n g i n e e r VII, o r i n d i ­
v id u a l r e s e a r c h e r s s o m e of w h o s e p o s i t i o n s a r e c o m p a r a b l e to e n g i n e e r VII a n d s o m e t i m e s
e n g i n e e r VIII.
A s a n in d iv id u a l r e s e a r c h e r a n d c o n s u l t a n t m a y be a s s i s t e d on in d iv id u a l
p r o j e c t s by o t h e r e n g i n e e r s o r t e c h n i c i a n s .
N O T E : I n d iv id u a ls in c h a r g e of a c o m p a n y ’s e n g i n e e r i n g p r o g r a m m a y m a t c h a ny
of s e v e r a l of the s u r v e y job l e v e l s d e p e n d in g on th e s iz e a n d c o m p le x ity of e n g i n e e r i n g p r o ­
gram s.
E x c lu d e d f r o m l e v e l VIII a r e e n g i n e e r s in c h a r g e of p r o g r a m s so e x t e n s i v e a nd
c o m p l e x ( e. g . , c o n s i s t i n g of r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t on a v a r i e t y of c o m p le x p r o d u c t s o r
s y s t e m s w ith n u m e r o u s n o v e l c o m p o n e n ts ) t h a t one o r m o r e s u b o r d i n a t e s u p e r v i s o r y e n g i ­
n e e r s a r e p e r f o r m i n g a t l e v e l VIII. A lso e x c lu d e d f r o m l e v e l VIII a r e in d iv id u a l r e s e a r c h e r s
a n d c o n s u l t a n t s who a r e r e c o g n i z e d a s n a tio n a l a n d / o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s a n d s c i e n t i f i c
l e a d e r s in v e r y b r o a d a r e a s of s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r e s t a n d i n v e s t i g a t i o n .

T e c h n ic a l S u p p o rt
E N G IN E E R IN G T E C H N IC IA N
To be c o v e r e d by t h e s e d e f i n i t i o n s , e m p l o y e e s m u s t m e e t a l l of the fo llow ing c r i t e r i a :
as

(1) P r o v i d e s s e m i p r o f e s s i o n a l t e c h n i c a l s u p p o r t f o r e n g i n e e r s w o r k in g in s u c h a r e a s
r e s e a r c h , d e s i g n , d e v e l o p m e n t , te s t i n g o r m a n u f a c t u r i n g p r o c e s s i m p r o v e m e n t .
(2)

W o r k p e r t a i n s to e l e c t r i c a l , e l e c t r o n i c , o r m e c h a n i c a l c o m p o n e n ts o r e q u i p m e n t .

(3)

R e q u i r e d to h a v e s o m e k n o w le d g e of s c i e n c e o r e n g i n e e r i n g .

( E x c lu d e s p r o d u c t i o n o r m a i n t e n a n c e w o r k e r s ,
d r a f t s m e n , d e s i g n e r s , and e n g i n e e r s . )

q u a lity

co n tro l

te ste rs,

c ra ftsm e n ,

E n g in eerin g T ech n ician I
P e r f o r m s sim p le ro u tin e ta s k s u n d er c lo se su p e rv is io n o r fro m d e ta ile d p r o c e d u r e s .
W o rk is c h e c k e d in p r o c e s s o r on c o m p l e t i o n .
P e r f o r m s a t th is l e v e l , one o r a c o m b i n a ­
tio n of s u c h t y p i c a l d u tie s a s :
A s s e m b le s o r in s ta lls equipm ent o r p a r ts re q u irin g
c o n n e c tin g .

sim p le

w irin g ,

so ld erin g ,

or

P e r f o r m s sim p le o r routine task s o r te s ts such as te n sile o r h a rd n e s s te s ts ; o p ­
e r a t e s , a nd a d j u s t s s i m p l e t e s t e q u ip m e n t; r e c o r d s t e s t d a t a .
G a t h e r s and m a i n t a i n s s p e c i f i e d r e c o r d s of e n g i n e e r i n g d a ta s u c h a s t e s t s , d r a w ­
in g s , e tc ; p e r f o r m s c o m p u t a t i o n s by s u b s t i t u t i n g n u m b e r s in s p e c i f i e d f o r m u l a s ; p lo ts
d a t a a nd d r a w s s i m p l e c u r v e s a n d g r a p h s .




68

E N G IN E E R IN G

T E C H N IC IA N — C o n tin u ed

E n g i n e e r i n g T e c h n i c i a n II
P e r f o r m s s t a n d a r d i z e d o r p r e s c r i b e d a s s i g n m e n t s , in v o lv in g a s e q u e n c e of r e l a t e d
o p eratio n s.
F o llo w s s t a n d a r d w o r k m e t h o d s o r e x p l i c i t i n s t r u c t i o n s ; t e c h n i c a l a d e q u a c y of
r o u t i n e w o r k is r e v i e w e d on c o m p le tio n ; n o n r o u t i n e w o r k m a y a ls o be r e v i e w e d in p r o c e s s .
P e r f o r m s a t th is l e v e l , one o r a c o m b in a tio n of s u c h t y p i c a l d u tie s a s:
A s se m b le s o r c o n s tru c ts sim p le or sta n d a rd equipm ent o r p a r ts .
r e p a i r s i m p l e i n s t r u m e n t s o r e q u ip m e n t.

M ay s e r v ic e or

C o n d u c ts a v a r i e t y of s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s ; m a y p r e p a r e t e s t s p e c i m e n s ; s e t s up and
o p e r a t e s s t a n d a r d t e s t e q u ip m e n t; r e c o r d s t e s t d a ta .
E x t r a c t s e n g i n e e r i n g d a t a f r o m v a r i o u s p r e s c r i b e d s o u r c e s ; p r o c e s s e s the d a ta f o l ­
low ing w e l l - d e f i n e d m e t h o d s ; p r e s e n t s the d a t a in p r e s c r i b e d f o r m .
E n g i n e e r i n g T e c h n i c i a n III
P e r f o r m s a s s i g n m e n t s th a t a r e n o t c o m p l e t e l y s t a n d a r d i z e d o r p r e s c r i b e d .
S elects
o r a d a p ts s t a n d a r d p r o c e d u r e s o r e q u ip m e n t.
R e c e iv e s in itial in s tru c tio n s , equipm ent r e ­
q u i r e m e n t s and a d v ic e f r o m s u p e r v i s o r o r e n g i n e e r ; t e c h n i c a l a d e q u a c y of c o m p l e t e d w o r k
is c h e c k e d .
P e r f o r m s a t th is l e v e l , one o r a c o m b in a tio n of s u c h t y p i c a l d u tie s a s:
C o n s t r u c t s c o m p o n e n t s , s u b u n its o r s i m p l e m o d e l s o r a d a p ts
M a y t r o u b l e s h o o t and c o r r e c t m a l f u n c t i o n s .

stan d ard

e q u ip m e n t.

C o n d u c ts v a r i o u s t e s t s o r e x p e r i m e n t s w h ic h m a y r e q u i r e m i n o r m o d i f i c a t i o n s in
t e s t s e t u p s o r p r o c e d u r e s ; s e l e c t s , s e t s up and o p e r a t e s s t a n d a r d t e s t e q u i p m e n t and
r e c o r d s te s t data.
E x t r a c t s and c o m p i l e s a v a r i e t y of e n g i n e e r i n g d a ta ; p r o c e s s e s o r c o m p u t e s d a t a
u s in g s p e c i f i e d f o r m u l a s a nd p r o c e d u r e s .
P e r f o r m s r o u t i n e a n a l y s i s to c h e c k a p p l i ­
c a b i l i t y , a c c u r a c y , a nd r e a s o n a b l e n e s s of d a t a .
E n g i n e e r i n g T e c h n i c i a n IV
P e r f o r m s n o n r o u t i n e a s s i g n m e n t s of s u b s t a n t i a l v a r i e t y and c o m p l e x i t y .
R eceiv es
o b j e c t i v e s and t e c h n i c a l a d v ic e f r o m s u p e r v i s o r o r e n g i n e e r ; w o r k is r e v i e w e d f o r t e c h n i c a l
adequacy.
M a y be a s s i s t e d by lo w e r le v e l t e c h n i c i a n s .
P e r f o r m s a t th is l e v e l , one o r a
c o m b in a tio n of s u c h t y p i c a l d u tie s a s :
W o r k s on l i m i t e d s e g m e n t of d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t ; c o n s t r u c t s e x p e r i m e n t a l o r p r o ­
to ty p e m o d e l s to m e e t e n g i n e e r i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s ; c o n d u c ts t e s t s o r e x p e r i m e n t s ; r e c o r d s
and e v a l u a t e s d a t a a nd r e p o r t s f in d in g s .
C o n d u c ts t e s t s o r e x p e r i m e n t s r e q u i r i n g s e l e c t i o n and a d a p ta tio n o r m o d i f i c a t i o n of
t e s t e q u i p m e n t and t e s t p r o c e d u r e s ; s e t s up and o p e r a t e s e q u ip m e n t; r e c o r d s d a ta ; a n a ­
ly z e s d a t a a nd p r e p a r e s t e s t r e p o r t s .
C o m p i l e s and c o m p u t e s a v a r i e t y of e n g i n e e r i n g d a ta ; m a y a n a ly z e t e s t and d e s ig n
d a ta ; d e v e lo p s o r p r e p a r e s s c h e m a t i c s , d e s i g n s , s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , p a r t s l i s t s o r m a k e s
re c o m m e n d a tio n s re g a rd in g th ese ite m s .
M ay r e v i e w d e s i g n s o r s p e c i f i c a t i o n s fo r
adequacy.
E n g in eerin g T ech n ician V
P e r f o r m s n o n r o u t i n e and c o m p l e x a s s i g n m e n t s in v o lv in g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p la n n in g
and c o n d u c tin g a c o m p l e t e p r o j e c t of r e l a t i v e l y l i m i t e d s c o p e o r a p o r t i o n of a l a r g e r and
m o re d iv e rse p ro ject.
S e l e c t s and a d a p ts p l a n s , t e c h n i q u e s , d e s i g n s o r la y o u t s .
M ay c o ­
o r d i n a t e p o r t i o n s of o v e r a l l a s s i g n m e n t ; r e v i e w s , a n a l y z e s and i n t e g r a t e s the t e c h n i c a l w o r k




69

ENGINEERING TECHNICIAN— C ontinued
of others. Supervisor or professional engineer outlines objectives, requirements and design
approaches; completed work is reviewed for technical adequacy and satisfaction of require­
ments. May be assisted by lower level technicians. Performs at this level, one or a com­
bination of such typical duties as;
Designs, develops and constructs major units, devices or equipment; conducts tests
or experiments; analyzes results and redesigns or modifies equipment to improve per­
formance; reports results.
Plans or assists in planning tests to evaluate equipment performance.
Determines
test requirements , equipment modification and test procedures; conducts tests, analyzes
and evaluates data and prepares reports on findings and recommendations.
Reviews and analyzes a variety of engineering data to determine requirements to
meet engineering objectives; may calculate design data; prepares layouts, detailed speci­
fications, parts lists, estimates, procedures, etc.
May check and analyze drawings
or equipment to determine adequacy of drawings and design.
DRAFTSMEN
Draftsman-tracer
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others by placing tracing cloth or paper
over drawings and tracing with pen or pencil.
(Does not include tracing limited to plans
primarily consisting of straight lines and a large scale not requiring close delineation.)
and/or
Prepares simple or repetitive drawings of easily visualized items.
vised during progress.

Work is closely super­

Draftsman I
Prepares detail drawings of single units or parts for engineering, construction,
manufacturing, or repair purposes.
Types of drawings prepared include isometric projec­
tions (depicting three dimensions in accurate scale) and sectional views to clarify positioning
of components and convey needed information. Consolidates details from a number of sources
and adjusts or transposes scale as required. Suggested methods of approach, applicable pre­
cedents, and advice on source materials are given with initial assignments.
Instructions
are less complete when assignments recur.
Work may be spot checked during progress.
Draftsman II
Performs nonroutine and complex drafting assignments that require the application
of most of the standardized drawing techniques regularly used. Duties typically involve such
work as:
Prepares working drawings of subassemblies with irregular shapes, multiple
functions, and precise positional relationships between components; prepares architectural
drawings for construction of a building including detail drawings of foundations, wall sections,
floor plans, and roof.
Uses accepted formulas and manuals in making necessary compu­
tations to determine quantities of materials to be used, load capacities, strengths, stresses,
etc. Receives initial instructions, requirements, and advice from supervisor.
Completed
work is checked for technical adequacy.
Draftsman III
Plans the graphic presentation of complex items having distinctive design features
that differ significantly from established drafting precedents.
Works in close support with
the design originator, and may recommend minor design changes.
Analyzes the effect of
each change on the details of form, function, and positional relationships of components and
parts. Works with a minimum of supervisory assistance.
Completed work is reviewed by
design originator for consistency with prior engineering determinations. May either prepare
drawings, or direct their preparation by lower level draftsmen.




70

Clerical Supervisory
KEYPUNCH SUPERVISOR
Supervises three or more keypunch operators who keypunch or verify cards or tape for
comouter or tabulating machine processing. May also, as an incidental responsibility, supervise
the operation of other types of punching machines such as reproducers or gang punches.
Excluded are: (a) Positions also responsible for supervising the operation of equipment
such as computers, tabulating machines, or other kinds of office machines; (b) positions respon­
sible for supervising clerical work not directly related to the keypunch function; and (c) working
supervisors, group leaders, or other overseers with more limited supervisory responsibility
than is described below.
Keypunch supervisory positions are classified in five levels (I through V) on the basis of
combinations of three elements— level and kind of supervisory responsibility, difficulty of key­
punch work supervised, and number of employees supervised.
In the following table, two
levels of supervision are described and each is followed by a brief chart that shows the
level of keypunch supervisor for each combination of the other two elements.

Level and kind o f supervisory responsibility

Upper

L ower
Is responsible for the day-to-day operations and
flow of work when the organization of the work,
assignment of employees to positions, the job
types and levels, instructions and procedures,
etc. , are prescribed by higher authority. With­
in this prescribed framework, assigns work to
individual employees; instructs employees in
specific tasks and procedures; insures work
meets established standards of quality; checks
attendance; keeps production records; provides
information to higher levels for use in budgeting,
planning of personnel changes, adjusting to var­
iations in the workload, etc. , reports problems
to ahigher level supervisor. (Exclude positions
in which keypunching rather than supervisory
responsibility is the most significant function.)
Number of
employees
supervised

Difficulty of keypunch work
supervised
Less difficult1 1More difficult 2
|
Level of keypunch supervisor

3-15
Z -40
O
50 or more

I
II
III

II
III
IV

In addition to being responsible for the functions
of the lower level of supervisory responsibility,
plans and establishes the organization and flow
of work; plans changes to meet both short- and
long-term workload trends and changes; selects
employees and assigns them to positions; a s ­
signs and reviews work of subordinates, initiates
recommendations or formal actions such as re­
quests for staff, job evaluation actions, pro­
motions, etc. ; approves absences and vacation
schedules; recommends disciplinary actions; in
some positions, assists programmers, project
planners, or other technical specialists in de­
signing card layouts and detailed punching in­
structions.
Difficulty of keypunch work
supervised
Less difficult1
|
More difficult 2
Level of keypunch supervisor
II
III
IV

III
IV
V

1 Less difficult keypunch work - Work is routine and repetitive. Under close supervision or following specific procedures or
instructions, works from various standardized source documents which have been coded, follows specified procedures which have been
prescribed in detail and require little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting of data to be recorded. Refers to supervisor problems
arising from erroneous items or codes or missing information. (This level is the same as the BLS Class B Keypunch Operator.)
2 More difficult keypunch work - Work requires the application of experience and judgment in selecting procedures to be fol­
lowed and in searching for, interpreting, selecting, or coding items to be keypunched from a variety of documents. On occasion
may also perform some routine keypunch work. May train inexperienced keypunch operators. (This level is the same as the BLS
Class A Keypunch Operator.)
NOTE: If the keypunch activities include both "more difficult" and "less difficult" work, classification should be on the basis of
the more d;fficult work, provided that a significant proportion of the keypunch operators work at this level. The number of keypunch
operators performing more difficult work is considered significant when at least 25 percent of the operators work at this level, provided
there are at least two such operators in units with a total of 3 or 4 employees, 3 such operators in units with a total of 5 to 12
employees, and 4 such operators in units with a total of 13 or more operators.




71

Clerical
CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Performs one or more accounting clerical tasks such as posting to registers and
ledgers; reconciling bank accounts; verifying the internal consistency, completeness, and
mathematical accuracy of accounting documents; assigning prescribed accounting distribution
codes; examining and verifying for clerical accuracy various types of reports, lists, calcula­
tions, posting, etc. ; or preparing simple, or assisting in preparing more complicated, jour­
nal vouchers. May work in either a manual or automated accounting system.
The work requires a knowledge of clerical methods and office practices and pro­
cedures which relates to the clerical processing and recording of transactions and account­
ing information.
With experience, the worker typically becomes familiar with the book­
keeping and accounting terms and procedures used in the assigned work, but is not required
to have a knowledge of the formal principles of bookkeeping and accounting.
Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following definitions.
Clerk, Accounting I
Under close supervision, following detailed instructions and standardized procedures,
performs one or more routine accounting clerical operations, such as posting to ledgers,
cards, or worksheets where identification of items and locations of postings are clearly indi­
cated; checking accuracy and completeness of standardized and repetitive records or accounting
documents; and coding documents using a few prescribed accounting codes.
Clerk, Accounting II
Under general supervision, performs accounting clerical operations which require the
application of experience and judgment, for example, clerically processing complicated or
nonrepetitive accounting transactions, selecting among a substantial variety of prescribed ac­
counting codes and classifications, or tracing transactions through previous accounting actions
to determine source of discrepancies. May be assisted by one or more accounting clerks I.
CLERK,

FILE

Clerk, File I
Performs routine filing of material that has already been classified or which is
easily classified in a simple serial classification system (e. g. , alphabetical, chronological,
or numerical). : As requested, locates readily available material in files and forwards ma­
terial; may fill out withdrawal charge. M ay perform simple clerical and manual tasks required
to maintain and service files.
Clerk, File II
Sorts, codes, and files unclassified material by simple (subject matter) headings
or partly classified material by finer subheadings. Prepares simple related index and
cross-reference aids. As requested, locates clearly identified material in files and forwards
material.
May perform related clerical tasks required to maintain and service files.
Clerk, File III
In an established filing system containing a number of various subject matter files,
classifies and indexes file material such as correspondence, reports, technical documents,
etc.
May also file this material.
May keep records of various types in conjunction with
the files.
May lead a small group of lower level file clerks.
KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Operates a keypunch machine to record or verify alphabetic and/or numeric data
on tabulating cards or on tape.
Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following definitions.
Keypunch Operator I
Work is routine and repetitive. Under close supervision or following specific pro­
cedures or instructions, works from various standardized source documents which have been
coded, and follows specified procedures which have been prescribed in detail and require
little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting of data to be recorded. Refers to supervisor
problems arising from erroneous items or codes or missing information.




72

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR— Continued

Keypunch Operator II
Work requires the application of experience and judgment in selecting procedures
to be followed and in searching for, interpreting, selecting, or coding items to be key­
punched from a variety of source documents. On occasion may also perform some routine
keypunch work. May train inexperienced keypunch operators.

MESSENGER (Office Boy or Girl)

Performs various routine duties such as running errands, operating minor office
machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and distributing mail, and other minor cleri­
cal work. Exclude positions that require operation of a motor vehicle as a significant duty.

SECRETARY
Assigned as personal secretary, normally to one individual.
Maintains a close and
highly responsive relationship to the day-to-day work activities of the supervisor.
Works
fairly independently receiving a minimum of detailed supervision and guidance.
Performs
varied clerical and secretarial duties, usually including most of the following:
(a) Receives telephone calls, personal callers, and incoming mail, answers routine
inquiries, and routes the technical inquiries to the proper persons;
(b) Establishes, maintains, and revises the supervisor’s files;
( c ) Maintains the supervisor's calendar and makes appointments as instructed;
(d) Relays messages from supervisor to subordinates;
(e) Reviews correspondence, memoranda, and reports prepared by others for the
supervisor's signature to assure procedural and typographic accuracy;
( f ) Performs stenographic and typing work.
May also perform other clerical and secretarial tasks of comparable nature and
difficulty. The work typically requires knowledge of office routine and understanding of the
organization, programs, and procedures related to the work of the supervisor.
Exclusions
Not all positions that are titled "secretary" possess the above characteristics.
Examples of positions which are excluded from the definition are as follows:
(a) Positions which do not meet the "personal" secretary concept described above;
(b) Stenographers not fully trained in secretarial type duties;
(c ) Stenographers serving as office assistants to a group of professional, technical,
or managerial persons;
(d ) Secretary positions in which the duties are either substantially more routine or
substantially more complex and responsible than those characterized in the definition;
(e) Assistant type positions which involve more difficult or more responsible tech­
nical, administrative, supervisory, or specialized clerical duties which are not typical
of secretarial work.
NOTE: The term "corporate o ffic e r ," used in the level definitions following, refers
to those officials who have a significant corporate-wide policymaking role with regard to
major company activities.
The title "vice president," though normally indicative of this
role, does not in all cases identify such positions.
Vice presidents whose primary respon­
sibility is to act personally on individual cases or transactions (e.g . , approve or deny indi­
vidual loan or credit actions; administer individual trust accounts; directly supervise a cleri­
cal staff) are not considered to be "corporate officers" for purposes of applying the following
level definitions:




73

SECRETARY— Continued

Secretary I
(a) Secretary to the supervisor or head of a small organizational unit (e. g. , fewer
than about 25 or 30 persons); or
(b) Secretary to a nonsupervisory staff specialist, professional employee, adminis­
trative officer, or assistant, skilled technician or expert.
(NOTE: Many companies assign
stenographers, rather than secretaries as described above, to this level of supervisory or
nonsupervisory worker.)
Secretary II
(a) Secretary to an executive or managerial person whose responsibility is not
equivalent to one of the specific level situations in the definition for level III, but whose sub­
ordinate staff normally numbers at least several dozen employees and is usually divided into
organizational segments which are often, in turn, further subdivided.
In some companies,
this level includes a wide range of organizational echelons; in others, only one or two; or
(b ) Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc. , (or other equivalent
level of official) that employs, in all, fewer than 5, 000 persons.
Secretary III
(a) Secretary to the chairman of the board or president of a company that employs,
in all, fewer than 100 persons; or
(b) Secretary to a corporate officer (other than chairman of the board or president)
of a company that employs, in all, over 100 but fewer than 5,000 persons; or
(c ) Secretary to the head (immediately below the officer level) over either a major
corporate-wide functional activity (e.g . , marketing, research, operations, industrial rela­
tions , etc.) o~r~a major geographic or organizational segment (e .g . , a regional headquarters;
a major division) of a company that employs, in all, over 5,000 but fewer than 25,000
employees; or
(d) Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc. (or other equivalent
level of official) that employs, in all, over 5,000 persons; or
(e) Secretary to the head of a large and important organizational segment (e.g. ,
a middle management supervisor of an organizational segment often involving as many as
several hundred persons) of a company that employs, in all, over 25,000 persons.
Secretary IV
(a) Secretary to the chairman of the board or president of a company that employs,
in all, over 100 but fewer than 5,000 persons; or
(b) Secretary to a corporate officer (other than the chairman of the board 'or presi­
dent) of a company that employs, in all, over 5, 000 but fewer than 25, 000 persons; or
major

(c) Secretary to the head, immediately below the corporate officer level, of a
segment or subsidiary of a company that employs, in all, over 25,000 persons.




74

stenographer,

general

P r i m a r y d u ty is to ta k e and t r a n s c r i b e d i c t a t i o n f r o m one o r m o r e p e r s o n s e i t h e r
in s h o r t h a n d o r by S te n o ty p e o r s i m i l a r m a c h i n e , in v o lv in g a n o r m a l r o u t i n e v o c a b u l a r y .
M ay a ls o type f r o m w r i t t e n c o p y , M a y m a i n t a i n f i l e s , k e e p s i m p l e r e c o r d s o r p e r f o r m o t h e r
r e l a t i v e l y r o u t i n e c l e r i c a l t a s k s . M a y o p e r a t e f r o m a s t e n o g r a p h i c p o o l.
D o e s n o t in c lu d e
tra n s c rib in g -m a c h in e w ork.

S T E N O G R A P H E R , SEN IO R
P r i m a r y duty is to ta k e and t r a n s c r i b e d i c t a t i o n f r o m one o r m o r e p e r s o n s e i t h e r
in s h o r t h a n d o r by S te n o ty p e o r s i m i l a r m a c h i n e , in v o lv in g a v a r i e d t e c h n i c a l o r s p e c i a l i z e d
v o c a b u l a r y s u c h as in l e g a l b r i e f s o r r e p o r t s on s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h .
M a y a ls o type f r o m
w r i t t e n co p y .
M a y a ls o s e t up a n d m a i n t a i n f i l e s , k e e p r e c o r d s , e tc .
OR
P e r f o r m s s t e n o g r a p h i c d u t i e s r e q u i r i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r in d e p e n d e n c e and r e ­
s p o n s i b i l i t y th a n s t e n o g r a p h e r , g e n e r a l a s e v id e n c e d by the follow ing: W o r k r e q u i r e s h ig h
d e g r e e of s t e n o g r a p h i c s p e e d and a c c u r a c y ; a th o r o u g h w o r k in g k n o w le d g e of g e n e r a l b u s i n e s s
and offic e p r o c e d u r e and of the s p e c i f i c b u s i n e s s o p e r a t i o n s , o r g a n i z a t i o n , p o l i c i e s , p r o ­
c e d u r e s , f i l e s , w o r k f lo w , e t c .
U s e s th is k n o w le d g e in p e r f o r m i n g s t e n o g r a p h i c d u tie s and
r e s p o n s i b l e c l e r i c a l t a s k s s u c h as m a i n t a i n i n g follow up f i l e s ; a s s e m b l i n g m a t e r i a l f o r r e ­
p o r t s , m e m o r a n d u m s , and l e t t e r s ; c o m p o s in g s i m p l e l e t t e r s f r o m g e n e r a l i n s t r u c t i o n s ;
r e a d i n g and r o u tin g in c o m in g m a i l ; a n s w e r i n g r o u tin e q u e s t i o n s , e tc .
D oes not in c lu d e
tran scrib in g -m ach in e w o rk .
N O T E : T h is jo b is d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m t h a t of s e c r e t a r y in th a t th e s e c r e t a r y
n o r m a l l y w o r k s in a c o n f id e n tia l r e l a t i o n s h i p to only one m a n a g e r o r e x e c u tiv e and p e r f o r m s
m o r e r e s p o n s i b l e and d i s c r e t i o n a r y t a s k s a s d e s c r i b e d in t h a t jo b d e f in itio n .

TY PIST
U s e s a t y p e w r i t e r to m a k e c o p ie s of v a r i o u s m a t e r i a l s o r to m a k e o u t b i l l s a f t e r
c a l c u l a t i o n s h a v e b e e n m a d e by a n o t h e r p e r s o n .
M ay in c lu d e ty ping of s t e n c i l s , m a t s , o r
s i m i l a r m a t e r i a l s f o r u s e in d u p lic a tin g p r o c e s s e s . M a y do c l e r i c a l w o r k in v o lv in g lit t l e
s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g , s u c h a s k e e p in g s i m p l e r e c o r d s , filing r e c o r d s and r e p o r t s , o r s o r t i n g
and d i s t r i b u t i n g in c o m in g m a i l .
T y p ist I
P e r f o r m s one o r m o r e of the fo llo w in g : Copy ty p in g f r o m r o u g h o r c l e a r d r a f t s ,
o r r o u tin e typing of f o r m s , i n s u r a n c e p o l i c i e s , e tc . ; o r s e ttin g up s i m p l e s t a n d a r d t a b u l a ­
tio n s ; o r coping m o r e c o m p le x t a b l e s a l r e a d y s e t up and s p a c e d p r o p e r l y .

T y p i s t II
P e r f o r m s one o r m o r e of the fo llow ing: T y p in g m a t e r i a l in f in a l f o r m w h e n it i n ­
v o lv e s c o m b in in g m a t e r i a l f r o m s e v e r a l s o u r c e s ; o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o r r e c t s p e l l i n g , s y l ­
l a b i c a t i o n , p u n c tu a tio n , e t c . , of t e c h n i c a l o r u n u s u a l w o r d s o r f o r e i g n la n g u a g e m a t e r i a l ,
o r p la n n in g la y o u t and typing of c o m p l i c a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l t a b l e s to m a i n t a i n u n i f o r m i t y and
b a l a n c e in s p a c in g .
M ay type r o u tin e f o r m l e t t e r s , v a r y i n g d e t a i l s to s u i t c i r c u m s t a n c e s .




75

N O T E : T h e d e f in itio n s f o r th e d r a f t i n g a n d c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s show n in t h i s b u lle tin
a r e th e s a m e a s t h o s e u s e d in th e B u r e a u * s p r o g r a m of o c c u p a t i o n a l w a g e s u r v e y s in m e t r o ­
p o lita n a r e a s .
(See th e l i s t of a r e a s in th e o r d e r f o r m a t th e b a c k of t h i s b u lle tin . ) T he
le v e l d e s i g n a t i o n s u s e d in t h i s b u l l e t i n , h o w e v e r , d i f f e r f r o m t h o s e u s e d in th e a r e a b u l l e t i n s .
T h e e q u iv a le n t l e v e l d e s i g n a t i o n s f o r th e o c c u p a tio n s c o n c e r n e d a r e a s fo llo w s :
N a tio n a l S u r v e y of
P ro fe s s io n a l, A d m in is tra tiv e , T e c h n ic a l, and
C le ric a l Pay

O c c u p a tio n a l
W age S u r v e y s in
M etro p o litan
A reas

D r a f t s m a n ............................. ............

I
II
III

C
B
A

C lerk ,

I
II

B
A

O c c u p a tio n

a c c o u n tin g _______ ............

C l e r k , f i l e _________ ____

______

I
II
III

C
B
A

K eypunch o p e ra to r

______

I
II

B
A

S e c r e t a r y ________________ ______

I
II
III
IV

D
C
B
A

T y p i s t ................. - ....................

I
II

B
A




76

A p p e n d ix D. C o m p aris o n of A v e ra g e A n n u a l S a la rie s in P rivate
Industry, Ju n e 1971, w ith C o rre s p o n d in g S a la ry R ates for
F ed eral E m p lo y e e s U n d e r the G e n e ra l S c h e d u le
T h e s u r v e y w a s d e s ig n e d , a m o n g o t h e r u s e s , to p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r c o m p a r i n g
s a l a r i e s u n d e r th e G e n e r a l S c h e d u le w ith g e n e r a l p a y l e v e l s in p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y .
To a s s u r e
c o m p i l a t i o n of p a y d a ta f o r w o r k l e v e l s t h a t w ould b e e q u iv a le n t to th e F e d e r a l g r a d e s , the
C iv il S e r v i c e C o m m i s s i o n c o l l a b o r a t e d w ith th e B u r e a u of L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s to p r e p a r e the
o c c u p a tio n w o r k le v e l d e f in itio n s u s e d in th e s u r v e y .
D e f in itio n s w e r e g r a d e d by th e C o m ­
m i s s i o n a c c o r d i n g to s t a n d a r d s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r e a c h g r a d e .
E a c h o c c u p a tio n w o r k l e v e l
s u r v e y e d by th e B u r e a u of L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s a nd c u r r e n t l y c o n s i d e r e d b y th e C o m m i s s i o n
to be e q u iv a le n t to a G e n e r a l S c h e d u le g r a d e i s i d e n t i f i e d in th e f o llo w in g t a b l e .
P r i v a t e i n d u s t r y i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d in the ta b le in t h i s a p p e n d ix e x c l u d e s d a ta
o b ta in e d f r o m f in a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w h ic h
h a d f e w e r th a n 100 e m p l o y e e s a t the t i m e th e y p a r t i c i p a t e d in th e s u r v e y .
T h ese a d ju sted
d a ta w e r e r e q u e s t e d by th e P r e s i d e n t ' s A g e n t— th e D i r e c t o r , O ffic e of M a n a g e m e n t and
B u d g e t and th e C h a i r m a n , U n ite d S ta te s C iv il S e r v i c e C o m m i s s i o n — f o r u s e in d e v e lo p in g
i t s r e p o r t to th e P r e s i d e n t on p a y c o m p a r a b i l i t y r e q u i r e d by s u b c h a p t e r I of c h a p t e r 5 3 of
t i t l e 5, U n ite d S ta te s Code.




77

C o m p a r is o n o f a v e ra g e a n n u a l s a la r ie s in p riv a te in d u s try ,1 J u n e 1 9 7 1 , w ith s a la ry ra te s fo r F e d e ra l
e m p lo y e e s u n d e r th e G e n e r a l S c h e d u l e 2

O ccupation and c la s s
s u r v e y e d by B L S 3

Average
annual
salaries

S a l a r y r a t e s f o r F e d e r a l e m p l o y e e s u n d e r th e G e n e r a l S c h e d u le

2

P e r an n u m -rate s and steps 6
Grade 5

industry 4

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

1
0

C l e r k s , fil e I --------------------------------M e s s e n g e r s (o ffice b oy s an d g i r l s )

$ 4, 417
4, 869

GS 1

$4, 326

$ 4 , 470

$ 4 , 614

$4 , 758

$4 , 902

$ 5 , 046

$5 , 190

$5, 334

$5,478

$ 5 , 622

C l e r k s , file I I --------------------------------K e y p u n c h o p e r a t o r s I --------------------T y p i s t s I -----------------------------------------

4, 854
5 ,4 8 1
5, 053

GS 2

4, 897

5, 060

5, 223

5, 386

5, 549

5, 712

5, 875

6, 038

6, 201

6, 364

C l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g I ----------------------C l e r k s , fil e III ------------------------------D r a f t s m e n - t r a c e r s -----------------------E n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n i c i a n s I -------------K e y p u n c h o p e r a t o r s II ------------------K e y p u n c h s u p e r v i s o r s I ------- —------S t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l -----------------

5, 627
5, 860
5, 891
, 854
, 223
7, 250
5, 957
5 ,7 9 1

GS 3

5, 524

5, 708

5, 892

6, 076

6, 260

6, 444

6, 628

6, 812

6, 996

7, 180

C l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g II -------------------D r a f t s m e n I ------------------------------------E n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n i c i a n s I I ------------K e y p u n c h s u p e r v i s o r s II --------------S e c r e t a r i e s I ---------------------------------S t e n o g r a p h e r s , s e n i o r -------------------

7, 223
7, 221
7, 963
, 204
, 678
, 696

GS 4

6, 202

6, 409

6, 616

6, 82 3

7, 030

7, 237

7, 444

7, 651

7, 85 8

8 065
,

GS 5

6, 938

7, 169

7,400

7. 631

7, 862

8 093
,

8 324
,

8 555
,

8 786
,

9, 017

GS 6

7, 727

7, 985

8 243
,

8, 501

8 759
,

9, 017

9, 275

9, 533

9, 791

1 , 049
0

GS 7

8 582
,

8 868
,

9, 154

9, 440

9, 726

1 , 012 1 , 298
0
0

10, 584

10, 870

11, 156

A c c o u n t a n t s I ---------------------------------A u d i t o r s I --------------------------------------B u y e r s I -----------------------------------------C h e m i s t s I -------------------------------------D r a f t s m e n II ---------------------------------E n g i n e e r s I ------------------------------------E n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n i c i a n s I I I -----------J o b a n a l y s t s I --------------------------------K e y p u n c h s u p e r v i s o r s III -------------S e c r e t a r i e s II --------------------------------K e y p u n c h s u p e r v i s o r s IV -------------S e c r e t a r i e s III --------------------------------

6
6

8
6
6
8 975
,
9, 401
8 998
,
9, 688
8 812
,

10, 677
9, 148
9, 232
, 883
7, 480

8

1 , 692
0
8 064
,
1 , 216
0

A c c o u n t a n t s II -------------------------------A u d i t o r s I I --------------------------------------B u y e r s II ----------------------------------------C h e m i s t s II ------------------------------------D r a f t s m e n I I I ---------------------------------E n g i n e e r s II ----------------------------------E n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n i c i a n s IV -----------J o b a n a l y s t s II -------------------------------S e c r e t a r i e s IV --------------------------------

10, 643
10, 375
10, 776
, 802
1 1, 6 9 4
, 389
10, 397
, 699

A c c o u n t a n t s I I I -------------------------------A t t o r n e y s I -------------------------------------A u d i t o r s III ------------------------------------B u y e r s III --------------------------------------C h e m i s t s III ----------------------------------E n g i n e e r s III ---------------------------------E n g i n e e r i n g t e c h i c i a n s V --------------J o b a n a l y s t s III ------------------------------

11, 3 86
1 2, 9 3 2
12,346
12, 585
12,459
13, 117
11, 815
1 2, 0 1 6

GS 9

1 0, 4 7 0

1 , 819 1 , 168
0
1

11, 517

1 , 866
1

1 2 ,2 1 5

1 2 ,5 6 4

12, 913

13, 262

13,6 11

A c c o u n t a n t s I V -------------------------------A t t o r n e y s II ----------------------------------A u d i t o r s IV ------------------------------------B u y e r s IV ---------------------------------------C h e m i s t s IV ----------------------------------C h i e f a c c o u n t a n t s I -----------------------D i r e c t o r s of p e r s o n n e l I --------------E n g i n e e r s IV ---------------------------------J o b a n a l y s t s I V --------------------------------

1 3 ,6 50
1 4, 3 4 5
1 5, 1 3 6
14, 785
1 5 ,0 36
1 4 ,4 49
13, 730
15 ,5 3 5
14, 103

GS 11

1 2, 61 5

1 3 ,0 3 6

13, 87 8

14,299

14,720

15,141

15, 562

15, 983

16, 404

1
0
10
8

See f o o tn o t e s a t end of t a b l e .




78

13 ,4 5 7

C o m p a r is o n o f a v e r a g e a n n u a l s a la r ie s in p riv a te in d u s try ,1 J u n e 1 9 7 1 , w ith s a la r y ra te s fo r F e d e ra l
e m p lo y e e s u n d e r th e G e n e r a l S c h e d u l e 2
—C o n tin u e d

! T h e a v e r a g e a nm ia l s a l a r i e s in p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y r e p o r t e d in th is t a b l e r e f l e c t the s c o p e of s u r v e y d e s c r i b e d in a p p e n d ix A, e x c lu d i n g d a ta
o b t a i n e d f r o m fi n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a nd r e a l e s t a t e i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w h i c h ha d f e w e r t h a n 100 e m p l o y e e s a t th e t i m e t h e y p a r t i c i p a t e d
in th e s u r v e y .
S a l a r y r a t e s i n e ff e c t in J u n e ! Q71, th e r e f e r e n c e d a te of the BL S s u r v e y , a s e s t a b l i s h e d by E x e c u t i v e O r d e r 1 1576 i s s u e d u n d e r a u t h o r i t y
of the F e d e r a l P a y C o m p a r a b i l i t y Act of 1970 P u b l i c La w 9 1- 65 6.
F o r d e f i n i ti o n s , s e e a p p e n d i x C.
S u r v e y fin di ng s a s s u m m a r i z e d in t a b l e 1 of t h is r e p o r t , e x c l u d i n g d a ta f r o m e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a s d e s c r i b e d in f oo tn o te 1 a bo ve .
C o r r e s p o n d i n g g r a d e s in th e G e n e r a l S c h e d u le w e r e s u p p li e d by the 11. S. Ci vil S e r v i c e C o m m i s s i o n .
S e c ti o n 5335 of t it le 5 of th e U. S. Code p r o v i d e s f o r w i t h i n - g r a d e i n c r e a s e s on c o n d it i o n t h a t the e m p l o y e e ' s w o r k is of an a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l
of c o m p e t e n c e a s de fi n e d by th e h e a d of the a g e n c y .
F o r e m p l o y e e s who m e e t t h is co n di ti o n , the s e r v i c e r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e 52 c a l e n d a r w e e k s
e a c h fo r a d v a n c e m e n t to s a l a r y r a t e s 2, 3, an d 4; 104 w e e k s e a c h f o r a d v a n c e m e n t to s a l a r y r a t e s 5, 6, an d 7; an d 156 w e e k s e a c h f o r a d v a n c e m e n t
to s a l a r y r a t e s 8, 9, an d 10.
S e c ti o n 5336 p r o v i d e s t h a t an a d d i t i o n a l w i t h i n - g r a d e i n c r e a s e m a y b e g r a n t e d w i t h in an y p e r i o d of 52 w e e k s in
r e c o g n i t i o n of hi gh q u a li t y p e r f o r m a n c e a bo ve th a t o r d i n a r i l y found in th e t yp e of p o s i t i o n c o n c e r n e d .

2
3
4
3
6

U n d e r S e c t i o n 5303 of ti t le 5 of the Uni ted S t a te s C od e, h i g h e r m i n i m u m r a t e s (bu t no t e x c e e d i n g
th e m a x i m u m s a l a r y r a t e p r e s c r i b e d in th e G e n e r a l S c h e d u le f or the g r a d e o r lev el ) and a c o r r e s p o n d ­
ing n e w s a l a r y r a n g e m a y b e e s t a b l i s h e d f o r p o s i t i o n s o r o c c u p a t i o n s u n d e r c e r t a i n c o n d it i o n s .
The
c o n d it i o n s i n c l u d e a finding that the s a l a r y r a t e s in p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y a r e so s u b s t a n t i a l l y ab o ve the s a l a r y
r a t e s of th e s t a t u t o r y p a y s c h e d u l e s a s to h a n d ic a p s i g n i f i c a n t l y the G o v e r n m e n t ' s r e c r u i t m e n t o r r e ­
t e n t i o n of w e l l - q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n s .
Suc h s p e c i a l p a y s c a l e s w e r e in e ff e c t f o r s p e c i f i c g r a d e s o r l e v e l s
of c e r t a i n o c c u p a t i o n s (in d u c t in g a c t o u n t a n t s , a u d i t o r s , c h e m i s t s , and e n g i n e e r s ) a s of J u n e 1971.
How­
e v e r , s p e c i a l s a l a r y r a t e s f o r a l l l e v e l s of the a f o r e m e n t i o n e d jo b s w e r e r e s c i n d e d as of F e b r u a r y 5,
1972.
I n f o r m a t i o n on s p e c i a l h i g h e r p a y s c a l e s c u r r e n t l y in e ff e c t, and th e o c c u p a t i o n s and a r e a s to
w h i c h th ey ap p ly , m a y be o b t a i n e d f r o m the U. S. C iv il S e r v i c e C o m m i s s i o n , W a s h i n g t o n , D. C. 20415,
o r its r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s .




79




O rd er Form
TO:
Superintendent of Documents
U, S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D. C. 20402

or

Bureau of Labor S tatistics-1603 JFK Federal Building, Government
Center, Boston, Mass. 02203
1515 Broadway, New York, N. Y. luubb
406 Penn Square Building,
1317 Filbert St. , Philadelphia, Pa. 19107
1371 Peachtree S t., NE., A tlanta, Ga. 30309
911 Walnut St. * Kansas City, Mo. 64106
8th Floor, 300 South V acker Drive,
v
Chicago, 111. 60606
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San Francisco, Calif. 94102

Enclosed find $
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Number
of
copies

1969-70 AREA WAGE SURVEY SUMMARY BULLETINS
Bulletin 1660-91. Area Wage Surveys. Selected M etropolitan Areas,
1969-70 (1971).
Consolidates inform ation from the individual area bulletins for surveys made during
the period July 1969 to June 1970. Contains average weekly earnings for office o c­
cupations, average hourly earnings for plant occupations, and establishment practices
and supplementary wage provisions by industry division and area. Price $1.
Bulletin 1660-92. Area Wage Surveys, Metropolitan Areas,
United States and Regional Summaries, 1969-70 (1972).
Presents information on occupational earnings, establishment practices, and supplem en­
tary wage provisions for all m etropolitan areas combined and separately by industry
division and region. Also provides analyses of wage differences and trends of occupa­
tional earnings. Price $1.




1970-71 AREA WAGE SURVEY BULLETINS:

Area and payroll period

BLS
bulletin
number

Akron (July 1971)------------- 1685-87
Albany-Schenectady-Troy
(Mar. 1971)...................... — 1685-54
Albuquerque (Mar. 1971)--- 1685-58
Allentown-Bethlehem -Easton
(May 1 971)----------------- 1685-75
Atlanta (May 1971)---------- 1685-69
Baltimore (Aug. 1971)------ 1725-16
Beaumont-Port ArthurOrange (May 1971)--------- 1685-68
Binghamton (July 1971)----- 1725-6
Birmingham (Mar. 1971)--- 1685-63

Price
(in
cents)
40

—

35
35
40

Boise City (Nov. 1970)-----Boston (Aug. 1971)---------Buffalo (Oct. 1970)................
Burlington (Mar. 1971)-----Canton (May 1971)---------Charleston (Mar. 1971)----Charlotte (Jan. 1971)-------Chattanooga (Sept. 1971)--Chicago (June 1970)---------

1685-21
1725-11
1685-43
1685-59
1685-71
1685-57
1685-48
1725-14
1660-90
1685-53
1725-17
1725-19
1685-22

45
40
30
50

1685-51
1685-45
1685-41

30
40
35

Des Moines (May 1971) - - - Detroit (Feb. 1971)---------Fort Worth (Oct. 1970)-----Green Bay (July 1971)-------Greenville (May 1971)-----Houston (Apr. 1971)--------Indianapolis (Oct. 1970)----Jackson (Jan. 1971)----------

1685-70
1685-77
1685-25
1725-3
1685-78
1685-67
1685-31
1685-39

30
50
35
30
35
50
40
35

Jacksonville (Dec. 1970)--Kansas City (Sept. 1971)--Lawrence -Haverhill
(June 1971) ..........................
Little Rock-North Little
Rock (July 1 9 7 1 )................
Los Angeles-Long Beach and
Anaheim-Santa AnaGarden Grove
(Mar. 1971)...........................

1685-37
1725-18

35
35

1685-83

30

1725-4

30

Louisville (Nov. 1970)-----Lubbock (Mar. 1971)............
Manchester (July 1971)-----Memphis (Nov. 1970)-------Miami (Nov. 1970)................
Midland and Odessa
(Jan. 1971)..........................
Milwaukee (May 1971)-----Minneapolis-St. Paul
(Jan. 1971) — ....................

1685-66

—

—

—

40
30
40
65

1685-46
1725-8

35
35

1725-13

35

1685-84
1685-34
1685-86
1685-49
1685-19
1685-85

35
50
30
50
30
35

1685-80

40

1725-5
1685-62
.1725-7
1685-78
1685-65
1685-26
1685-81

30
30
35
30
50
35
35

1685-42

40

1685-20

30

1685-23
1685-13
1685-72
1725-1
1685-52
1685-38

40
35
30
30
35
35

1685-61
1685-88
1725-10

30
30
35

1685-17
1685-74
1725-12

30
40
30

1725-9

35

1685-56
1685-55
1725-20
1685-64
1685-73
1685-50

40
30
30
30
30
30

1685-24

30

South Bend (Mar. 1971)................
Spokane (June 1971)--------------Syracuse (July 1971)--------------Tampa-St. Petersburg
(Nov. 1970) .................................
Toledo (Apr. 1971)......................
Trenton (Sept. 1971)-------------

—

'

30
35

1685-44

—

30
30
30
30
40

1685-40
1685-76

1685-47
1685-35
1685-36
1685-89

Omaha (Sept. 1971)--------------Paterson-Clifton-Passaic
(June 1971)----------------------Philadelphia (Nov. 1970)------Phoenix (June 1971)-------------Pittsburgh (Jan. 1971)-----------Portland (Maine) (Nov. 1970)--Portland (O reg.) (May 1971)----Providence-Pa wtucketWarwick (May 1971)-----------

—

50

1685-27
1685-60
1725-2
1685-30
1685-29

30

Area and payroll period

—

35
40
50
35
30
30
30
30
60

Cincinnati (Feb. 1971)-----Cleveland (Sept. 1 971)----Columbus (Oct. 1971)-----Dallas (Oct. 1970)................
Davenport-Rock IslandMoline (Feb. 1971)............
Dayton (Dec. 1970)--------Denver (Dec. 1970)---------

1685-82

San Diego (Nov. 1970)---------San Francisco-Oakland
(Oct. 1 9 7 0 ).................................
San Jose (Aug. 1971)------------Savannah (May 1971)------------Scranton (July 1971)--------------Seattle-Everett (Jan. 1971)-----Sioux Falls (Dec. 1970)----------

—

30
40
35

Price
(in
cents)

Muskegon-Muskegon Heights
(June 1 971)..................................
Newark and Jersey City
(Jan. 1971)....... ...........................
New Haven (Jan. 1971)---------New Orleans (Jan. 1971)--------New York (Apr. 1971)-----------Norfolk-Portsmouth and Newport
News-Hampton
(Jan. 1971)----------------------Oklahoma City (July 1971)------

—

35
30

BLS
bulletin
number

Raleigh (Aug. 1971)------------Richmond (Mar. 1971)---------Rochester (July 1 9 7 1 )-----------Rockford (May 1971) -----------St. Louis (Mar. 1971)-----------Salt Lake City (Nov. 1970)-----San Antonio (May 1971) --------San Bemardino-RiversideOntario (Dec. 1970)------------

Number
of
copies

40

—
Utica-Rome (July 1971)--------Washington, D. C. -Md. -Va.
(Apr. 1971)...................................
Waterbury (Mar. 1971)---------Waterloo (Nov. 1971)..................
Wichita (Apr. 1971)--------------Worcester (May 1971)-----------York (Feb. 1971)..........................
Youngstown-Warren
(Nov. 1970)......... - .....................

—
—

Name
Address

City




State

Zip Code^

■ATT S

n n V F R N M F IM T P R m T T N fi O F F IC E • 1972 O - 4 8 4 -7 9 2 (108)

B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S
R E G IO N A L O F F IC E S

a y PUERTO RICO

Region I

R egion V

1 6 0 3 J F K Federal B u ild in g
G o v e rn m e n t C en ter
B os ton , Mass. 0 2 2 0 3
Phone: 2 2 3 -6 7 6 2 (A re a Code 6 1 7 )
R egion II

Chicago, III. 6 0 6 0 6
P hone: 3 5 3 - 1 8 8 0 (A re a Code 3 1 2 )

Region V I
1 1 0 0 C o m m e rc e S t., R m . 6 B 7

1 5 1 5 B ro ad w ay
N e w Y o r k , N .Y . 1 0 0 3 6
Phone:

8 th F lo o r, 3 0 0 S o u th W ack er D rive

9 7 1 -5 4 0 5 (A re a C ode 2 1 2 )

R egion IN
4 0 6 Penn Squ are B u ild in g
1 3 1 7 F ilb e r t S t.

Dallas, T e x . 7 5 2 0 2
Phone: 7 4 9 - 3 5 1 6 (A re a Code 2 1 4 )
R egion V I I an d V I I I
Federal O ffic e B u ild in g
9 1 1 W a ln u t S t., 1 0 th F lo o r

P h ila d e lp h ia , Pa. 1 9 1 0 7

Kansas C ity , M o . 6 4 1 0 6

Phone:

P hone: 3 7 4 -2 4 8 1 (A re a Code 8 1 6 )

5 9 7 -7 7 9 6 (A re a C ode 2 1 5 )

R egion IV

R egion IX and X

S u ite 5 4 0
1 3 71 Peachtree S t. N E .

4 5 0 G o ld en G ate A ve.
B ox 3 6 0 1 7

A tla n ta , G a. 3 0 3 0 9
Phone: 5 2 6 -5 4 1 8 (A re a Code 4 0 4 )

San Francisco, C a lif. 9 4 1 0 2




* *

P hone:

5 5 6 - 4 6 7 8 (A re a Code 4 1 5 )

Regions V I I and V I I I w ill be serviced by Kansas C ity .
Regions IX an d X w ill be serviced by San Francisco.

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

T H IR D C L A S S M A IL

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20212
OFFICIAL BUSINESS
PENALTY

F O R P R IV A T E




USE, $3 00

POSTAGE AND FEES PAID
U.S. D EP A R TM E N T OF LABOR


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