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1970

I j.S

l e r i c a l

D e p artm e n t of Labor

Bureau

of L a b o r St a t i s t i c s

Bul l et i n

1693

1971

r v e y

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1970

A c c o u n ta n ts a n d A u d ito r s
A tto rn e y s
P erso n n el M an ag em en t
B u yers
E n g in e e r s a n d C h e m is ts
E n g in e e r in g T e c h n ic ia n s
D ra fts m e n
O ffic e C l e r i c a l

U . S .

D e p a r t m e n t

J.

H o d g s o n ,

D .

B u r e a u
G e o f f r e y
B u l l e t i n

o f

L a b o r
H.

o f

L a b o r

S e c r e t a r y

S t a t i s t i c s

M o o r e ,

C o m m i s s i o n e r

1 6 9 3

1971

F o r Sale b y the Superintendent of Docum ents, U .S . G overnm ent Printing O ffice, Washington, D .C . 20402. Price $1.







Preface
T h i s b u l l e t i n s u m m a r i z e s th e r e s u l t s o f th e B u r e a u ’ s a n n u a l s a l a r y s u r v e y
of s e le c te d p ro fe s s io n a l,
a d m in is tra tiv e ,
te c h n ic a l,
a n d c le r i c a l o c c u p a tio n s in
p riv a te in d u s try .
T h e n a t i o n w i d e s a l a r y i n f o r m a t i o n , w h i c h r e l a t e s to J u n e 1 9 7 0 ,
is r e p r e s e n t a t iv e o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s in a b r o a d s p e c t r u m of in d u s t r i e s t h r o u g h o u t
th e U n i t e d S ta te s ,
except A la s k a and H a w a ii.

T h e s u r v e y w a s d e s i g n e d b y the B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s i n c o o p e r a t i o n
w it h the B u r e a u of the B u d g e t an d the C i v i l S e r v ic e C o m m i s s i o n .
It p r o v i d e s
a fu n d of b r o a d ly b a se d in f o r m a t io n on s a la ry le v e ls and d is trib u tio n s in p riv a te
e m p lo y m e n t.
A s such,
th e r e s u l t s
a r e u s e f u l as a g u id e f o r s a la r y
a d m in is ­
tra tio n p u rp o se s
and fo r
g e n e ra l e c o n o m ic
a n a ly s is .
In a d d itio n ,
th e
surve y
p ro v id e s
in fo rm a tio n o n p a y in p riv a te
in d u s t r y in a f o r m
s u ita b le f o r u s e
in
a p p r a is i n g th e c o m p e n s a t io n of s a l a r i e d e m p lo y e e s in th e F e d e r a l c i v i l s e r v ic e
(a p p e n d ix D ) .
It s h o u ld be e m p h a s i z e d th a t t h is s u r v e y ,
lik e a n y o th e r
s a la ry
su rve y,
is in no s e n s e
c a l c u l a t e d to s u p p l y m e c h a n i c a l a n s w e r s
to p a y p o l i c y
q u e s tio n s .

T h e o c c u p a tio n s s tu d ie d sp a n a
I n d i v i d u a l ly , the o c c u p a tio n s s e le c te d
t r y w i t h i n th e f r a m e w o r k o f a b r o a d
c u p a tio n a l g ro u p s w h ic h a re n u m e r ic a
F e d e r a l S e rv ic e .

w id e ra n g e of d u tie s a n d r e s p o n s ib
w e r e ju d g e d to be (a ) s u r v e y a b l e in
s u r v e y d e s i g n a n d (b ) r e p r e s e n t a t i v e
l l y im p o r t a n t in in d u s t r y as w e ll as

ilitie s .
in d u s ­
of o c ­
in th e

O c c u p a t io n a l d e f in it io n s u s e d i n th e c o l le c t i o n o f th e s a l a r y d a ta (a p p e n d ix C )
r e f le c t d u tie s an d r e s p o n s ib ilit ie s
in p r iv a te
in d u s try ; h o w e ve r,
th e y a re
a lso
d e s i g n e d to b e t r a n s l a t a b l e to s p e c i f i c p a y g r a d e s i n t h e G e n e r a l S c h e d u l e a p p l y i n g
to F e d e r a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n A c t e m p l o y e e s .
T h is n e c e s s ita te d lim itin g so m e o c c u ­
p a t io n s a n d w o r k le v e ls to s p e c if ic
e le m e n ts that co u ld be c la s s ifie d u n if o r m ly
a m o n g e s ta b lis h m e n ts .
T h e B u re a u of L a b o r
S ta tis tic s
a n d th e C i v i l S e r v i c e
C o m m i s s i o n c o l l a b o r a t e d i n th e p r e p a r a t i o n of th e d e f in it io n s .

T h e s c o p e of th e s u r v e y , in t e r m s of i n d u s t r i a l , g e o g r a p h i c , a n d
e s t a b l i s h m e n t -s i z e c o v e r a g e r e m a i n e d the s a m e as in th e 1969 s u r v e y .
o c c u p a tio n , k e y p u n c h s u p e r v i s o r w a s a d d e d ; the o t h e r d e f in itio n s w e r e
as

used

in

th e

1969

m in im u m
One new
the s a m e

surve y.

T h e s u r v e y c o u ld n o t h a v e b e e n a c c o m p l i s h e d w it h o u t th e c o o p e r a t i o n of th e
m a n y f i r m s w h o s e s a l a r y d a ta p r o v i d e th e b a s i s f o r th e
s ta tis tic a l in fo rm a tio n
p r e s e n te d in th is b u lle t in .
The B u re a u ,
o n its o w n b e h a lf a n d o n b e h a lf of the
o t h e r F e d e r a l a g e n c ie s th a t c o lla b o r a t e d in p la n n in g the s u r v e y ,
w is h e s to e x ­
p r e s s s in c e r e a p p r e c ia t io n f o r the c o o p e r a t io n it h a s r e c e iv e d .

T h i s s t u d y w a s c o n d u c t e d i n the B u r e a u ' s O f f ic e
of W a ge s
and In d u s tria l
R e l a t i o n s b y th e D i v i s i o n o f O c c u p a t i o n a l W a g e
S tru ctu re s.
T h e a n a ly s is w a s
p r e p a re d b y S te ph en H . P e rlo f f .
F i e l d w o r k f o r th e s u r v e y w a s d i r e c t e d b y th e
B u r e a u ’ s A s s is ta n t R e g io n a l D ir e c t o r s ,
D iv is io n of O p e ra tio n s .

A lth o u g h o n ly n a tio n w id e s a la r y d a ta a r e p r e s e n te d in th is b u lle t in , c le r i c a l
a n d d r a f t i n g o c c u p a t i o n s a l a r y d a t a a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r e a c h o f th e 89 m e t r o p o l i t a n
a r e a s in w h ic h the B u r e a u c o n d u c ts a r e a w a g e s u r v e y s .
Th e se a re a re p o rts
a lso in c lu d e in f o rm a tio n on su ch
s u p p le m e n t a r y b e n e fits
as p a id
v a c a tio n s ,
h o l i d a y s , a n d h e a l t h , i n s u r a n c e , a n d p e n s i o n p l a n s r e l a t i n g to n o n s u p e r v i s o r y
o ffice w o r k e r s .
(S e e th e a r e a s l i s t e d in th e o r d e r f o r m a t th e b a c k o f th is
b u lle tin . )







Contents

Page

S u m m a r y ______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________
C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s u r v e y _______________________________________________________________________________________
C h a n g e s i n s a l a r y l e v e l s _______________________________________________________________________________________________
A
S
S
S

verag
a la ry
a la ry
a la ry

1
1
2

e s a l a r i e s , J u n e 1 9 7 0 ________________________________________________________________________________________
l e v e l s i n m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s ____ _____________________________________________________________ ___________
l e v e l s i n l a r g e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ________________________________________________________________________ _
d i s t r i b u t i o n s ________________________

5
9
10

P a y d i f f e r e n c e s b y i n d u s t r y _____________________________________________________________________________ ____________
A v e r a g e s t a n d a r d w e e k l y h o u r s _______________________________________________________________ ___________________

11
15

10

T a b le s :
A v e ra g e s a la rie s :
1. U n i t e d S t a t e s
2.
3.

______________

16

M e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s ________________________________________________________________________________________
E s t a b l i s h m e n t s e m p l o y i n g 2 , 5 0 0 o r m o r e ______________________________________________________

18
20

E m p lo y m e n t d is trib u tio n b y s a la ry :
4 . P r o f e s s i o n a l a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n s __________________________________________________
5 . E n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n i c i a n s a n d k e y p u n c h s u p e r v i s o r s _________________________________________

22
27

6.
7.
8.
9.

D r a f t i n g a n d c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s ____________________________________________________________________

28

O c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t d is trib u tio n :
B y i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n ________________________________
_
R e la tiv e s a la ry le v e ls :
O c c u p a t i o n b y i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n _ ____________________________________
A v e r a g e s ta n d a rd w e e k ly h o u r s :
O c c u p a t i o n b y i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n _________________________

30
31
32

C h a rts:
1.

C u m u la tiv e

2.
3.
4.
5.

g r o u p s , 1 9 6 1 t o 1 9 7 0 ______________________________________________________________________________________
R a t e s o f s a l a r y c h a n g e s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s , 1 9 6 1 t o 1 9 7 0 ________________
S a l a r i e s i n p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s , J u n e 1 9 7 0 ______________________________
S a l a r i e s i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n d c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s , J u n e 1 9 7 0 _____________________________
R e la tiv e e m p lo y m e n t in s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p s b y
i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , J u n e 1 9 7 0 _____________________________________________________________________________

ris e

in

average

(m e a n )

s a la rie s

fo r

s e le c te d

o c c u p a tio n a l
3
6
12
13
14

A p p e n d ix e s :
A ,
B.

S c o p e a n d m e t h o d o f s u r v e y _______________________________________________________________________________
S u r v e y c h a n g e s i n 1 9 7 0 ___________________________________________________________________________________

33
39

Co
D.

O c c u p a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s ______________________________________________________________________________________
C o m p a r i s o n of a v e r a g e a n n u a l s a la r ie s in p r iv a t e in d u s t r y ,
Ju n e 1970, w ith c o rre s p o n d in g s a la ry ra te s fo r F e d e r a l

41

e m p lo y e e s u n d e r th e G e n e r a l S c e h d u le




_____________________________________________________________

v

79




N a t i o n a l S u rv e y
T e c h n ic a l,

o f P ro fe s s io n a l, A d m in is t r a t iv e ,

and

C le r ic a l

Pay, J u n e

(1970

S u m m a ry
A v e r a g e s a l a r i e s of w o r k e r s in th e o c c u p a t io n s c o v e r e d b y th is s u r v e y i n c r e a s e d
h ig h e r
ra te b e tw e e n 1969 and 1970 th a n f o r a n y y e a r
s in c e th e s tu d y w a s in it ia t e d .
6 .2 a ve ra g e p e rc e n t in cre a s e fo r a ll w h ite -c o lla r
o c c u p a tio n s c o m b in e d w a s
o n e -h a lf
cen tage p o in t
h i g h e r th a n th e i n c r e a s e r e p o r t e d b e t w e e n 1968 a n d 19 6 9 .
In c re a s e s fo r

at a
The
p e r­
9 of

11 p r o f e s s i o n a l ,
a d m in is tra tiv e ,
a n d t e c h n ic a l s u p p o r t o c c u p a tio n s r a n g e d f r o m 5 .5 to 7 . 4
p e r c e n t , a n d a v e r a g e d 6. 2 p e r c e n t .
T h e a v e r a g e of the i n c r e a s e s f o r c l e r i c a l o c c u p a tio n s
a ls o w a s 6 .2 p e r c e n t ; 8 of th e 9 a d v a n c e d b e tw e e n 5 .5 a n d 6 .4 p e r c e n t .

A v e r a g e m o n t h l y s a l a r i e s f o r th e 81 o c c u p a t i o n a l l e v e l s v a r i e d f r o m
$343 fo r c le rk s
e n g a g e d in r o u t in e f ilin g to $ 2 , 753 f o r th e h ig h e s t l e v e l in th e a t t o r n e y s e r i e s .
F o r e n g i­
n e e r s , the la r g e s t p r o f e s s io n a l o c c u p a tio n s u r v e y e d , s a la r ie s r a n g e d f r o m $ 8 5 1 a m o n th f o r
re c e n t c o lle g e
g ra d u a te s
in tra in e e p o s itio n s
r e s p o n s ib ilit ie s c o u ld in c lu d e the d i r e c t i o n
of

to $ 2 , 1 1 6 f o r e n g i n e e r s
V III,
w ho se ty p ic a l
a h ig h ly c o m p le x and d iv e r s if ie d e n g in e e rin g

pro gram
c o n s is tin g
of m a n y la r g e a n d im p o r t a n t p r o je c t s .
A verage
m o n th ly
s a la rie s of
e n g in e e rin g
te c h n ic ia n s ra n g e d f r o m
$ 5 2 5 to $ 9 2 0 a m o n g th e f i v e w o r k
le v e ls .
Keypunch
s u p e r v i s o r s , a d d e d to th e s u r v e y
in 1970, a v e r a g e d
$574
a m o n th at le ve l I and $82 4 a
m o n th
at
c le rk s I,
and $393

le ve l IV ,
the h ig h e s t r e p o r t e d .
M o n th ly
s a la rie s a v e ra g e d
$ 4 3 9 fo r a cc o u n tin g
$ 5 2 2 fo r s e c re ta rie s I, $ 5 8 2 fo r s e c re ta rie s II, $ 45 6 fo r g e n e ra l s te n o g ra p h e rs ,
f o r ty p is ts I, the la r g e s t c l e r i c a l g r o u p s
r e p r e s e n t e d in the
survey.
F o r m ost

of the o c c u p a tio n s ,
s a la ry le v e ls
in m e t ro p o lita n
a r e a s a n d in la r g e e s ta b lis h m e n ts
w e re
h i g h e r th a n in a l l e s t a b lis h m e n t s w it h i n th e f u ll s c o p e of th e s u r v e y .
S a la ry le v e ls in fin a n c e
a n d r e t a il t r a d e in d u s t r ie s g e n e r a lly w e r e lo w e r th a n in o th e r m a j o r i n d u s t r y d iv is io n s r e p r e ­
s e n te d in the s u r v e y .
R e p o rte d
a v e ra g e s ta n d a rd w e e k ly h o u rs w e re a lso g e n e ra lly lo w e r
in the fin a n c e i n d u s t r i e s .

C h a ra c te ris tic s

of

the

Survey

Th is su rve y,
the e le v e n th in a n a n n u a l s e r ie s ,
p r o v id e s n a tio n w id e s a la r y a v e r a g e s a n d
d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r 8 1 w o r k l e v e l c a t e g o r i e s c o v e r i n g 13 b r o a d o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s . 1
It r e la t e s
to e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ^ i n a l l a r e a s o f th e U n i t e d S ta te s e x c e p t A l a s k a a n d H a w a i i in th e f o l l o w i n g
in d u s trie s : M a n u fa c tu rin g ; tra n s p o rta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , e le c tric , gas, and s a n ita ry s e r v ­
ic e s ; w h o le s a le
tra d e ; r e ta il tra d e ; fin a n c e ,
in s u ra n ce ,
and r e a l e sta te ; e n g in e e rin g and
a rc h ite c tu ra l s e rv ic e s ; and re s e a rc h ,
d e ve lo p m e n t,
and te s tin g la b o r a to r ie s
o p e ra te d on a
c o m m e rc ia l b a s is .2
Th e m in im u m
s ize of e s ta b lis h m e n t re q u ire m e n ts v a r ie d b y in d u s try
d iv is io n r o u g h ly e q u a liz in g m i n i m u m s ize sco p e in t e r m s of w h i t e -c o lla r e m p lo y m e n t.
These
r e q u i r e m e n t s r a n g e d f r o m 50 e m p lo y e e s in the f in a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s ta te d i v is io n ,
w h i c h is a l m o s t e n t i r e l y c o m p o s e d o f w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s , to 250 e m p lo y e e s in th e m a n u ­
fa c tu rin g and re ta il tra d e d iv is io n s . 3
D e f in it io n s f o r the o c c u p a tio n s in c lu d e d in th is s tu d y p r o v i d e f o r c la s s i f i c a t i o n o f e m ­
p lo ye e s
a c c o r d i n g to a p p r o p r i a t e
w o r k le ve ls
(o r c la s s e s ).
W ith in
e a ch o c c u p a tio n ,
th e
w o r k le v e ls s u rv e y e d , u s u a lly d e s ig n a te d b y R o m a n n u m e ra ls w ith
c la s s I a s s ig n e d to th e
lo w e s t le v e l, a r e d e fin e d in t e r m s of d u tie s a n d r e s p o n s ib ilit ie s .
S p e c ific jo b fa c to rs d e te r ­
m i n i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , h o w e v e r , v a r i e d f r o m o c c u p a t i o n to o c c u p a t i o n .

1 Results o f the ea rlier survey reports w ere presented under the title : N ational Survey o f P rofessional. A d m in istrative. T e c h n ic a l.
and C le r ic a l Pay. W inter 1 9 5 9 -6 0 (BLS B ulletin 1286, 1960); W inter 1960-61 (BLS B ulletin 1310, 1961); W inter 1 9 6 1 -6 2 (BLS B ulletin
1346, 1962); February-M arch 1963 (BLS B ulletin 1387, 1963); F eb ru a ry-M a rch 1964 (BLS B ulletin 1422, 1964); F ebruary-M arch 1965
(BLS B ulletin 1469, 1965); F ebruary-M arch 1966 (BLS B ulletin 1535, 1966); June 1967 (BLS B ulletin 1585, 1968); June 1968 (BLS Bul­
le tin 1617, 1969); and lune 1969 (BLS B ulletin 1654, 1970).
2 F ebruary-M arch 1964 and ea rlier surveys w ere lim it e d to establishm ents in m e tro p o lita n areas. For a fu ll d escrip tion o f the
scop e o f the 1970 survey, see appendix A .
3 F ebruary-M arch 1965 and ea rlier surveys w ere lim ite d to establishm ents havin g 250 e m p lo y e e s or m ore.




1

T h e n u m b e r of w o r k
le v e l d e fin itio n s fo r e a c h o c c u p a tio n v a r ie s f r o m one
b o y s o r g i r l s to e i g h t e a c h f o r c h e m i s t s a n d e n g i n e e r s .
M o r e th an one le v e l of
d e fin e d f o r
s u r v e y in m o s t of the o c c u p a tio n s ; h o w e v e r ,
s o m e o c c u p a tio n s w e re
d e f in e d to c o v e r s p e c i f i c
bands of w o rk
l e v e l s , w h i c h w e r e n o t i n t e n d e d to r e p
le v e ls o r a ll w o r k e r s th a t m a y be fo u n d in th o s e o c c u p a tio n s .

f o r o ffic e
w o rk was
p u rp o s e ly
re s e n t a ll

The
su rve y was
d e s i g n e d to p e r m i t
sepa rate
p r e s e n ta tio n of d a ta fo r m e t r o p o lit a n
areas.
C o v e r a g e in m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s in c lu d e s th e 229
S ta n d a rd M e tro p o lita n S ta tis tic a l
A r e a s i n th e U n i t e d S ta te s e x c e p t A l a s k a a n d H a w a i i , a s r e v i s e d t h r o u g h J a n u a r y 1968 b y th e
B u r e a u o f th e B u d g e t ,
th e s a m e n u m b e r r e p r e s e n t e d in the p r e v i o u s s u r v e y .
About fourfifth s of the to ta l e m p lo y m e n t a n d a lm o s t n in e -t e n t h s
of the
e m p lo y m e n t in p ro fe s s io n a l,
a d m in is t r a t iv e , c le r ic a l, an d re la te d o c c u p a tio n s w it h in sco pe of th is s u r v e y w e r e a c c o u n te d
fo r b y e s ta b lis h m e n t s lo c a te d in m e t r o p o lit a n a r e a s .
A l m o s t n in e -t e n t h s o f th e e m p lo y e e s
in th e s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d a ls o w e r e e m p l o y e d in m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s .
The pro po r­
t io n s v a r i e d m o r e f o r th e p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n s th a n f o r th e c l e r i c a l
and d ra ftin g o c c u p a tio n s .
The

s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s

f o u r t h of the
o c c u p a tio n s
o c c u p a tio n s
p a tio n s ,
as

a cco u nted

fo r m o re

th a n

1 ,6 3 7 , 000

e m p lo y e e s

or

a lm o s t

one-

e s tim a te d to ta l e m p lo y m e n t in p ro fe s s io n a l, a d m in is tra tiv e , c le r ic a l, and re la te d
in a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts
w it h i n s c o p e of the s u r v e y .
E m p l o y m e n t i n th e s e le c t e d
v a r i e d w i d e l y , r e f l e c t i n g a c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s in e m p l o y m e n t i n th e v a r i o u s o c c u ­
w e l l as d if f e r e n c e s in th e r a n g e of d u t ie s a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s c o v e r e d b y e a c h

o c c u p a tio n a l d e fin itio n .
A m o n g the p r o f e s s i o n a l an d a d m in is t r a t iv e o c c u p a t io n s ,
th e e ig h t
le v e ls of e n g in e e rs a c c o u n te d fo r a to ta l of 384, 263 e m p lo y e e s , w h e r e a s , fe w e r th a n 5 ,0 0 0
w e r e e m p lo y e d in e a c h of f o u r of th e o c c u p a t io n a l c a t e g o r ie s as d e f in e d f o r th e s t u d y (c h ie f
a c c o u n ta n ts , jo b a n a ly s ts , d i r e c t o r s of p e r s o n n e l, a n d k e y p u n c h s u p e r v i s o r s ) .
(S e e ta b le 1 . )
F o u r o c c u p a tio n s at a ll w o r k le v e ls s tu d ie d (a c c o u n tin g c le r k s , s e c r e t a r i e s , s t e n o g r a p h e r s ,
a n d t y p i s t s ) a c c o u n t e d f o r a b o u t 70 p e r c e n t of th e 9 0 7 ,4 5 8 e m p l o y e e s i n th e c l e r i c a l o c c u p a ­
tio n s s tu d ie d .
The
the fiv e e n g in e e r in g

s e le c te d d ra ftin g
te c h n ic ia n le v e ls

o c c u p a tio n s h a d a g g re g a te
e m p lo y m e n t
t o g e t h e r a c c o u n t e d f o r a b o u t 9 5 , 00 0 *

of

8 6 , 019

and

A lth o u g h w o m e n a cco u n te d fo r
a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - h a l f of th e t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t in th e
o c c u p a tio n s s tu d ie d , th e y w e r e e m p lo y e d la r g e l y in c le r i c a l p o s itio n s .
Th e c le ric a l o ccup a­
tio n s
i n w h i c h th e p r o p o r t i o n
of w o m e n a m o u n t e d to m o r e
th a n 90 p e r c e n t of e m p lo y m e n t
at e a c h le v e l w e r e file c le r k s , k e y p u n c h o p e r a t o r s , s e c r e t a r ie s , s te n o g r a p h e r s , s w itc h b o a rd
o p e ra to rs , and ty p is ts .
A m o n g t a b u la tin g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , w o m e n a c c o u n te d f o r 43 p e r ­
c e n t a t l e v e l I, 36 p e r c e n t a t l e v e l I I , a n d 26 p e r c e n t a t l e v e l I I I .
O f f ic e g i r l s (4 6 p e r c e n t )
w e re
o u t n u m b e r e d b y o ffice b o y s
(5 4 p e r c e n t ) .
W o m e n w e re u s u a lly
r e p o r t e d o n ly in th e
lo w e r le v e ls of the p r o f e s s io n a l, a d m in is t r a t iv e , a n d t e c h n ic a l s u p p o r t o c c u p a tio n s .
A d is ­
t r i b u t i o n of th e p r o p o r t i o n s of w o m e n r e p o r t e d b y o c c u p a t io n a n d l e v e l is s h o w n o n p a g e 3 6 .
T h e g e n e r a l le v e l of s a la r ie s f o r e a ch
o c c u p a t io n o r w o r k l e v e l is p r e s e n t e d in th is
s t u d y as th e a r i t h m e t i c m e a n o f a l l th e i n d i v i d u a l s a l a r y r a t e s .
M e d i a n s a l a r i e s , th e a m o u n t
b e lo w and a b o v e w h ic h the
s a la r i e s f o r 50 p e r c e n t of th e
e m p lo y e e s
a re found,
a re a lso
p r e s e n t e d i n t a b l e s 1, 2 , a n d 3 .
Changes

in

S a la ry

L e v e ls

T h e fo llo w in g ta b u la tio n p re s e n ts s a la r y in c r e a s e s th a t o c c u r r e d b e tw e e n a n n u a l s u r ­
v e y s s in c e 1961 f o r e a c h s u r v e y o c c u p a t io n . 4
A ls o shown a re average p e rce n t changes for
th e tw o b r o a d o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s c o m p r i s i n g th e s u r v e y (th e p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e ,
a n d t e c h n i c a l s u p p o r t g r o u p , a n d th e c l e r i c a l g r o u p ) a n d th e a v e r a g e p e r c e n t c h a n g e f o r th e
tw o g ro u p s c o m b in e d .
T h e p e r c e n t in c r e a s e s f o r e a c h o c c u p a tio n w e r e o b ta in e d b y a d d in g
th e a g g r e g a t e s a l a r i e s f o r e a c h l e v e l in e a c h of t w o
s u c c e s s ive y e a rs
( e m p l o y m e n t i n the
m o s t r e c e n t y e a r , to e l im i n a t e th e e ffe c ts of y e a r - t o - y e a r e m p l o y m e n t s h if t s , m u l t i p l i e d b y
th e a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s i n b o th y e a r s ) a n d d i v i d i n g th e l a t t e r s u m b y th e e a r l i e r .
T h e re s u lt­
a n t r e l a t iv e , le s s 100 , is the p e r c e n t of i n c r e a s e .
C h a n g e s in the s c o p e of the s u r v e y an d
in o c c u p a tio n a l d e fin itio n s w e r e in c o r p o r a t e d
in to the s e r ie s on a c o n tin u in g b a s is as s o o n
as tw o c o m p a r a b le p e r io d s w e r e a v a ila b le .
T h e in c r e a s e s f o r e a c h of the tw o b r o a d o c c u ­
p a t io n a l g r o u p s w e r e o b ta in e d b y a v e r a g i n g th e i n c r e a s e s of th e o c c u p a t io n s w it h i n th e g r o u p .
The
in c re a s e s fo r a ll s u r v e y o c c u p a tio n s
w e re d e te rm in e d by a ve ra g in g
th e i n c r e a s e s f o r
the tw o b r o a d o c c u p a tio n a l g r o u p s .
T h e a n n u a l in c r e a s e s w e r e th e n lin k e d to g e t h e r to o b ­
ta in th e c h a n g e s th a t h a d o c c u r r e d s in c e th is s e r ie s b e g a n a n d to c o m p u te a v e r a g e a n n u a l
ra te s of in c re a s e fo r each o cc u p a tio n and g ro u p , and a ll o c c u p a tio n s c o m b in e d .
T h e 1 9 6 1 -7 0
p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s a r e s h o w n i n c h a r t 1.
* T h e increases sin ce 1965 rela te to establishm ents in m etrop olita n areas and n on m etrop olita n cou n ties;
m etrop olita n areas o n ly . Establishments e m p loy in g few er than 250 workers w ere e x clu d e d b e fo re 1966.




2

a ll others rela te to

C h a r t 1. C u m u l a t i v e

R is e in A v e r a g e

{ M e a n ) S a la r ie s

fo r S e le c te d O c c u p a tio n a l G r o u p s , 1 9 6 1 to

1970

PERCENT
O C C U P A TIO N A L
GROUPS

0

A u d ito rs

20

50.2

C h ie f a c c o u n ta n ts

15

50.2

C h e m ists

10

49.2

D ire c to rs of

48.4

personnel

A cco u n tants

48.1

E n g in e e rs

45.2

C le ric a l e m p lo y e e s

4i . i

J o b a n a ly s ts

39.1




3

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

Percent increases in average salaries

Average
annual
rate of
increase

1962
1961
1966
1965
1964
1963
1961
to
to
to
to
to
to
to ,
1962
1966
1965
1964
1963
1970
1967
Occupation and group
Professional, administrative, and
technical support:
2.8
4.5
3.5
2.8
3.3
4.6
3.8
5.7
6.7
7.0
Accountants —------------------ -—----- ----2.9
3.9
3.1
3.6
4.6
3.8
5.5
4.8
7.2
7.0
Auditors--------------------- ---------------------2.8
2.6
4.5
4.8
3.9
5.8
5.5
5.1
3.3
7.1
Chief accountants------------------------------4.2
3.2
3. 3
4.6
5.3
3.2
4.0
7.1
Attorneys-----------------------------—----------(2)
(3)
(4)
(4)
(4)
(4)
4.9
4.2
6.1
6.6
Buyers----------------------------------------------(4)
(4)
1.4
3.5
2.6
3.7
5.4
4.3
3.4
4.1
2.1
7.0
Job analysts----------------------------------------3.5
4.6
3.7
4.5
3.0
5.4
3.8
3.6
7.4
5.4
Directors of personnel-------------------------3.9
4.6
3.9
3.3
3.8
4.4
4.8
5.9
6.5
5.1
Chemists-------------------------------------------2.9
4.4
4.2
3.2
2.6
3.7
5.4
4.3
5.5
6.2
Engineers-------------------------------------------54.1
3.6
3.7
2.8
2.3
2.9
5.1
6.3
5.8
Engineering technicians---------- -----------(4)
2.6
3.6
3.2
4.9
1.5
5.8
5.3
3.5
Drafting------------------,------------------------C
2)
(3)
3.4
3.3
4.3
3.7
3.0
6.2
5.8
5.5
4.2
3.6
Average percent increase” ------------------------Clerical:
2.2
2.8
2.5
,3.6
3.0
4.7
3.3
6.2
4.7
3.0
Accounting clerks----------------------------2.2
2.6
f 4. 2
2.9
3.1
5.5
6.8
5.1
5.5
File clerks-----------------------------------------<
4)
2.7
2.5
-4.1
2.3
6.4
4.9
5.2
3.7
5.3
Keypunch operators------------ ---- -----------(4
4.2
3.0
2.8
2.6
6.7
5.4
2.8
2.3
6.2
6.3
Office boys or g irls----------------------------(4j
(4j
(4}
(4j
(4j
6.4
5.3
4.6
Secretaries-------- •------------------------------y
y
4.9
5.8
5.9
f t
H.h
5
y
Stenographers--------------------------------- —
(2f
2.4
2.8
5.8
4.8
3.0
4.8
4.3
3.0
Switchboard operators---------- -------------(3)
t2)
3.9
2.5
2.4
2.5
4.8
3.2
2.3
7.1
5.4
5.0
Tabulating-machine operators------------ —
2.5
2.5
2.6
2.6
4.0
5.8
5.4
2.6
5.7
6.0
Typists----------------------------------------------2.4
2.7
2.6
2.8
3.9
4.8
6.2
5.5
5.3
3.0
Average percent increase” —----All survey occupations:
3. 1
2.9
4.1
3.1
3.0
6.2
5.7
5.4
4.5
3.3
Average percent increase & --------------------1 Actual survey-to-survey increases have been prorated to a 12-month period because changes in timing had lengthened the period
between the 1966 and 1967 surveys.
2 Comparable data not available for both years.
3 Comparison over this period was not possible because of changes in the definition of the occupation.
4 Not surveyed.
5 First surveyed in 1962; therefore, the average annual rate of increase relates to the 1962 to 1970 period.
6 Data for one administrative occupation, managers of office services last surveyed in 1968, and one clerical occupation,
bookkeeping-machine operators last surveyed in 1964, not shown above, are included in the average percent increases for the periods
during which they were surveyed.
1969
to
1970

1968
to
1969

1967
to
1968

In the 1969- 70 p e r i o d , in c r e a s e s in a v e r a g e s a la r i e s f o r 9 o f the 11 p r o f e s s i o n a l ,
a d m in is t r a t iv e , and t e c h n ic a l s u p p o r t o c c u p a t io n s r a n g e d f r o m 5 .5 to 7 . 4 p e r c e n t , w h ile 8 o f
the 9 c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t io n s a d v a n c e d b e tw e e n 5 .5 and 6. 4 p e r c e n t . I n c r e a s e s w e r e g e n e r a lly
h ig h e r than h ad b e e n r e c o r d e d f o r any o t h e r y e a r p e r io d s in c e 1961—6 2 , w h en th e B u r e a u
b e g a n m e a s u r in g o c c u p a t io n a l w a g e tr e n d s on a n a tio n a l b a s i s .
T o e x a m in e the c h a n g e s in s a la r i e s that h a v e o c c u r r e d s in c e 1961 f o r d if fe r e n t le v e l s
o f w o r k , a ll o f the o c c u p a t io n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s w e r e g r o u p e d in to the th r e e b r o a d c a t e g o r i e s
d e s c r i b e d in the ta b u la tio n w h ic h f o l l o w s .
The y e a r -t o - y e a r p e rce n t in c r e a s e s fo r ea ch
g r o u p w e r e d e t e r m in e d b y a d d in g a v e r a g e s a la r i e s f o r a ll o c c u p a t io n s in the g r o u p f o r 2 c o n ­
s e c u t iv e y e a r s , and d iv id in g the la t t e r su m b y the e a r l i e r s u m . T h e r e s u lta n t r e la t iv e , le s s
100, s h o w s the p e r c e n t o f in c r e a s e .
C h a n g es in the s c o p e o f the s u r v e y o r in the o c c u p a ­
t io n a l d e fin it io n s w e r e in c o r p o r a t e d in to th e s e r i e s a s s o o n a s c o m p a r a b le data f o r 2 c o n ­
s e c u t iv e p e r io d s w e r e a v a ila b le . T h e 9 y e a r tr e n d s w e r e o b ta in e d b y lin k in g c h a n g e s f o r the
in d iv id u a l p e r i o d s .
Percent increases in average salaries
1969
1967
1968
1966
1965
1964
1962
1961
1961
1963
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to
to 3
to ?
Work level categories 1
1967 2
1969
1968
1966
1965
1964
1963
1962
19702
1970
Group A (GS grades 1-4 in appendix D )----6.2
5.5
5.1
4.5
2.9
2.2
2.7
2.7
2.8
40.3
Group B (GS grades 5-10 in appendix D ) ---4.8
3.7
2.6
47.2
6.3
6.5
5.8
2.6
4.0
3.3
Group C (GS grades 11-15 in appendix D) —
6.4
5.9
4.7
4.1
4.2
4.2
3.5
3.7
3.5
48.1
1 Work levels used for computing 1969 to 1970 increases are:
Group A--A11 levels of accounting clerks, file clerks, keypunch operators, stenographers, switchboard operators, tabulatingmachine operators, and typists: and office boys or girls, secretaries I, draftsmen-tracers, draftsmen I, and engineering technicians I and ft.
Group B—Accountants 1, II, and III; attorneys I; auditors I, II, and III; buyers I, II, and HI; chemists I, ft, and III: draftsmen
II and III; engineers I, II, and 111; engineering technicians III, IV, and V; job analysts I, II, and III; and secretaries II, III, and IV.
Group C—Accountants IV and V; attorneys II, III, IV, V, and VI; auditors IV; buyers IV; chemists IV, V, VI, VII, and VIII;
chief accountants I, II, III, and IV; directors of personnel I, II, III, and IV; engineers IV, V, VI, V II, and VIII; and job analysts IV.
2 Actual survey-to-survey increases have been prorated to a 12-month period because changes in timing had lengthened the
period between the 1966 and 1967 surveys.




4

A v e r a g e s a l a r i e s in c r e a s e d m o r e f o r the h ig h e r o c c u p a t io n a l le v e l s (g r o u p C ), than
f o r th e o th e r tw o g r o u p in g s f r o m 1961 th r o u g h 1966, w ith the e x c e p t io n o f the 1 9 6 2 -6 3 p e r io d .
D u rin g the p e r io d s b e tw e e n 1966 and 1969, h o w e v e r , w h ile a ll th r e e g r o u p s sh o w e d s u c c e s ­
s iv e l y h ig h e r y e a r - t o - y e a r i n c r e a s e , g r o u p B (m id d le o c c u p a t io n a l l e v e l s ) r e p o r t e d la r g e r
i n c r e a s e s than e it h e r g r o u p A o r C.
B e tw e e n 1969 and 1970, the in c r e a s e s f o r a l l th r e e
g r o u p s w e r e n e a r ly id e n t ic a l; the in c r e a s e f o r g r o u p C w a s s lig h tly g r e a t e r than the o th e r tw o.

B e g in n in g w ith the 1 9 6 5 -6 6 p e r i o d , p a y e n tr y and d e v e lo p m e n t a l l e v e l p r o f e s s i o n a l and
a d m in is t r a t iv e p o s it io n s in c r e a s e d e a c h y e a r at a f a s t e r p a c e than f o r c l e r i c a l , t e c h n ic a l
s u p p o r t, o r e x p e r ie n c e d p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d a d m in is t r a t iv e p o s it io n s .
In the 1 9 6 9 -7 0 p e r io d ,
h o w e v e r , a lth ou g h a g a in sh o w in g the h ig h e s t p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e , the e n tr y and d e v e lo p m e n t a l
g r o u p w a s the o n ly on e w h ic h i n c r e a s e d a t a l e s s e r r a te than the p r e v io u s y e a r .
B y g r o u p in g
s u r v e y o c c u p a t io n a l le v e l s in to the fo u r c a t e g o r i e s m e n tio n e d a b o v e , d i f f e r e n c e s in th e r a te
o f ch a n g e in a v e r a g e s a la r i e s s in c e 1961 c a n b e illu s t r a t e d . 5 R e la t iv e s a la r y le v e l s w e r e
c o m p u te d in th e s a m e m a n n e r a s th e p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e s in th e fo r e g o i n g ta b le an d w e r e p lo t te d
u s in g a r a t io s c a l e .
(S e e c h a r t 2 .)
A v e r a g e s a la r i e s o f c l e r i c a l and t e c h n ic a l s u p p o r t w o r k e r s in c r e a s e d o v e r th e 9 - y e a r
p e r io d b y p r a c t i c a l l y id e n t ic a l p e r c e n t a g e a m o u n ts , b u t h a v e n o t m a in ta in e d p a c e w ith i n ­
c r e a s e s f o r th e tw o p r o f e s s i o n a l and a d m in is t r a t iv e o c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p s .
F o r th e c l e r i c a l
an d t e c h n ic a l s u p p o r t g r o u p s , s a la r i e s i n c r e a s e d a t an a v e r a g e a n n u a l r a te o f 3. 9 p e r c e n t
o v e r the p e r io d .
F o r the tw o p r o f e s s i o n a l and a d m in is t r a t iv e c a t e g o r i e s , the a v e r a g e r a t e s
o f i n c r e a s e w e r e 4. 4 p e r c e n t f o r the e x p e r ie n c e d g r o u p and 4. 8 p e r c e n t f o r the e n tr y and
d e v e lo p m e n t a l e m p lo y e e g r o u p .

C h a n g es in a v e r a g e s a la r i e s r e f l e c t n o t o n ly g e n e r a l s a la r y in c r e a s e s and m e r i t o r
o th e r i n c r e a s e s g iv e n to in d iv id u a ls w h ile in th e s a m e w o r k le v e l c a t e g o r y , b u t th e y a l s o
m a y r e f l e c t o th e r f a c t o r s s u ch a s e m p lo y e e t u r n o v e r , e x p a n s io n s o r r e d u c t io n s in th e w o r k
f o r c e , and c h a n g e s in s ta ffin g p a tte r n s w ith in e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith d if fe r e n t s a la r y l e v e l s .
F o r e x a m p le , an e x p a n s io n in f o r c e m a y i n c r e a s e the p r o p o r t io n o f e m p lo y e e s at the m i n i ­
m u m o f the s a la r y r a n g e e s t a b lis h e d f o r a w o r k le v e l , w h ic h w o u ld ten d to lo w e r the a v e r a g e ,
w h e r e a s , a r e d u c t io n o r a lo w t u r n o v e r in the w o r k f o r c e m a y h a v e the o p p o s it e e ff e c t .
S im ila r ly , y e a r - t o - y e a r p r o m o t io n s o f e m p l o y e e s to h ig h e r w o r k le v e l s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l and
a d m in is t r a t iv e o c c u p a t io n s m a y a f f e c t a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s , lo w e r in g o r r a is in g the a v e r a g e .
F o r e x a m p le , the e s t a b lis h e d s a la r y r a n g e s f o r s u c h o c c u p a t io n s a r e r e la t iv e ly w id e , and
p r o m o t e d e m p lo y e e s , w h o m a y h a v e b e e n p a id th e m a x im u m o f the s a la r y s c a le f o r the
lo w e r l e v e l , a r e lik e ly to b e r e p l a c e d b y l e s s e x p e r ie n c e d e m p lo y e e s w h o m a y b e p a id the
m in im u m ; o r v a c a n c ie s m a y e x is t at th e t im e o f th e r e s u r v e y .
O c c u p a tio n s m o s t lik e ly to
r e f l e c t su ch c h a n g e s in th e s a la r y a v e r a g e s a r e th e h ig h e r l e v e l s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l an d a d m in ­
is t r a t iv e o c c u p a t io n s and s in g le -in c u m b e n t p o s it io n s su ch a s c h ie f a c c o u n ta n t and d i r e c t o r
o f p e r s o n n e l. °

A v e r a g e S a la r ie s ,

June 1970

A v e r a g e m o n th ly s a la r i e s f o r th e o c c u p a t io n s in c lu d e d in th is r e p o r t r a n g e d f r o m $ 3 4 3
f o r f i le c l e r k s I to $ 2 , 753 f o r th e to p l e v e l o f a t t o r n e y s u r v e y e d (t a b le l ) .
T hese e x tre m e s

The base year 1967=100 is used to conform with uniform Federal statistical practice.
Work levels used for computing 1969-70 increase were:
Clerical - All clerical levels for which data are shown in table 1.
Technical support - All level of draftsmen and engineering technicians for which data are shown in table 1.
Entry and developmental professional and administrative - Accountants 1 and II; auditors I and II; attorneys I; job analysts I and II;
chemists I and II; and engineers I and II.
Experienced professional and administrative - Accountants III, IV, and V; auditors III and IV; chief accountants I, II, III, and
IV; attorneys II, III, IV, V, and VI; job analysts III and IV; directors of personnel I, II, III, and IV; chemists III, IV, V, VI, VII,
and VIII; and engineers III, IV, V, VI, VII, and VIII.
A few survey levels, not readily identifiable with any of the four occupational categories, were not used.
The 1966-67 increases were prorated to a 12-month period. A change in survey timing in 1967 resulted in a longer period
between surveys.
^ These types of occupations also may be subject to greater sampling error, as explained in the last paragraph of appendix A.




5

C h a r t 2 . R a te s o f S a la r y C h a n g e s f o r S e le c te d
O c c u p a tio n a l G ro u p s , 1 9 6 1 to 1 9 7 0

OCCUPATIONAL INDEXES (1 9 6 7 = 100)




6

r e f l e c t th e w id e ra n g e o f d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s r e p r e s e n t e d b y th e o c c u p a t io n a l w o r k
le v e ls su rv e y e d .
A v e r a g e s a la r i e s f o r th e o c c u p a t io n a l l e v e l s , and a b r i e f in d ic a t io n o f the
d u tie s an d r e s p o n s ib i lit ie s th ey r e p r e s e n t , a r e s u m m a r iz e d in th e fo llo w in g p a r a g r a p h s . 7
A m o n g the fiv e l e v e l s o f accountants s u r v e y e d , a v e r a g e m o n th ly s a la r i e s r a n g e d f r o m
$ 7 0 9 f o r a c c o u n ta n ts I to $ 1 , 2 9 0 f o r a c c o u n ta n ts V . Auditors in the fo u r l e v e l s d e fin e d f o r
s u r v e y h a d a v e r a g e s a la r i e s ra n g in g f r o m $74 1 a m o n th f o r a u d it o r s I to $ 1 , 1 7 0 f o r a u d i­
t o r s IV .
L e v e l I in b o th th e a c c o u n t in g and a u d itin g s e r i e s in c lu d e d t r a i n e e s w h o h ad
b a c h e l o r 's d e g r e e s in a c c o u n t in g o r th e e q u iv a le n t in e d u c a tio n and e x p e r ie n c e c o m b in e d .
A t e a c h c o r r e s p o n d in g l e v e l , a v e r a g e s a la r i e s w e r e h ig h e r f o r a u d it o r s than f o r a c c o u n t a n t s .
F o r l e v e l III, th e m o s t h e a v ily p o p u la te d g r o u p in b o th s e r i e s , m o n th ly s a l a r i e s a v e r a g e d
$ 891 f o r a c c o u n ta n ts and $ 9 5 6 f o r a u d it o r s .
W h e r e a s a lm o s t 70 p e r c e n t o f th e a c c o u n ta n ts
w e r e e m p lo y e d in m a n u fa c tu r in g , th is in d u s tr y d iv i s io n e m p lo y e d s lig h tly l e s s than 40 p e r ­
c e n t o f the a u d it o r s . 8 O th e r in d u s tr y d iv is io n s w h ic h a c c o u n t e d f o r la r g e n u m b e r s o f
a u d it o r s w e r e fin a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te (29 p e r c e n t ) , and p u b lic u t ilit ie s (17 p e r ­
c e n t ).
T h e p r o p o r t io n o f e m p lo y e e s in e a c h m a j o r in d u s tr y d iv i s io n w ith in s c o p e o f the
s u r v e y i s sh ow n b y o c c u p a t io n in ta b le 7 and p r e s e n t e d g r a p h ic a lly in c h a r t 5, p a g e 14.
Chief accountants w e r e s u r v e y e d s e p a r a t e ly f r o m a c c o u n ta n ts an d in c lu d e d th o s e w h o
d e v e lo p o r ad ap t an d d i r e c t th e a c c o u n t in g p r o g r a m f o r a c o m p a n y o r an e s ta b lis h m e n t
(p la n t) o f a c o m p a n y .
L e v e l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w a s d e t e r m in e d b y th e e x te n t o f d e le g a t e d a u ­
t h o r it y an d r e s p o n s ib i lit y ; the t e c h n ic a l c o m p le x it y o f th e s y s t e m ; an d , to a l e s s e r d e g r e e ,
th e s i z e o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l s ta ff d ir e c t e d . C h ie f a c c o u n t a n t s at le v e l I, w h o h a v e a u th o r ity
to a d ap t th e a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m , e s t a b lis h e d at h ig h e r l e v e l s , to m e e t th e n e e d s o f an e s ­
ta b lis h m e n t o f a c o m p a n y w ith r e la t iv e ly fe w and s ta b le fu n c tio n s and w o r k p r o c e s s e s ( d i r e c ­
tin g o n e o r tw o a c c o u n t a n t s ), a v e r a g e d $ 1, 160 a m o n th .
C h ie f a c c o u n ta n ts IV , 9 w h o h a v e
a u th o r ity to e s t a b lis h and m a in ta in th e a c c o u n t in g p r o g r a m , s u b je c t to g e n e r a l p o l i c y g u id e ­
l i n e s , f o r a c o m p a n y w ith n u m e r o u s and v a r ie d fu n c tio n s and w o r k p r o c e s s (d ir e c t in g a s
m a n y a s 40 a c c o u n t a n t s ), a v e r a g e d $ 1 , 928 a m o n th .
A lm o s t t h r e e - f if t h s o f th e c h ie f a c ­
co u n ta n ts w h o m e t the r e q u ir e m e n t s o f the d e fin itio n s f o r th e s e fo u r l e v e l s w e r e e m p lo y e d
in m a n u fa c tu r in g in d u s t r ie s , w h ile a lm o s t o n e - s ix t h w e r e in the fin a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and
r e a l e s ta te d iv i s io n s .
Attorneys w e r e c l a s s i f i e d in to s ix l e v e l s b a s e d u p on the d if fic u lt y o f t h e ir a s s ig n m e n t s
and t h e ir r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . 10 A t t o r n e y s I w h ic h in c lu d e d n ew la w g r a d u a te s w ith b a r m e m ­
b e r s h ip and th o s e p e r fo r m i n g w o r k that w a s r e la t iv e ly u n c o m p lic a t e d due to c l e a r l y a p p lic a b le
p r e c e d e n t s and w e l l e s t a b lis h e d fa c t s a v e r a g e d $ 9 8 8 a m o n th .
A t t o r n e y s in th e to p le v e l
s u r v e y e d , l e v e l V I, e a r n e d an a v e r a g e o f $ 2 , 753 a m o n th . T h e s e a tt o r n e y s d e a lt w ith le g a l
m a t t e r s o f c r i t i c a l im p o r t a n c e to t h e ir o r g a n iz a t i o n s , an d w e r e u s u a lly s u b o r d in a te o n ly
to the g e n e r a l c o u n s e l o r h is im m e d ia t e d ep u ty in v e r y la r g e f i r m s .
F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e ,
and r e a l e s ta te in d u s t r ie s e m p lo y e d o v e r fo u r -t e n t h s o f th e a t t o r n e y s ; m a n u fa c tu r in g in d u s ­
t r i e s e m p lo y e d a lm o s t t h r e e -t e n t h s ; and a h ig h p r o p o r t io n o f th e r e m a in d e r w e r e e m p lo y e d
in p u b lic u t ilit ie s (a lm o s t o n e - f i f t h ) .
Buyers
a v e r a g e d $ 7 0 9 a m o n th at le v e l I , w h ic h in c lu d e d th o s e w h o p u r c h a s e d " o f f - t h e s h e lf " and r e a d ily a v a ila b le it e m s and s e r v i c e s f r o m l o c a l s o u r c e s . . B u y e r s IV , w h o p u r ­
c h a s e d l a r g e a m o u n ts o f h ig h ly c o m p l e x an d t e c h n ic a l it e m s , m a t e r i a l s , o r s e r v i c e s w e r e
p a id m o n th ly s a la r i e s a v e r a g in g $ 1 , 1 5 8 . 11 M a n u fa c tu r in g in d u s t r ie s a c c o u n t e d f o r 86 p e r ­
c e n t o f th e b u y e r s in th e fo u r l e v e l s .

In th e p e r s o n n e l m a n a g e m e n t f i e l d , fo u r w o r k l e v e l s o f job analyst and fiv e l e v e l s o f
directors of personnel w e r e s tu d ie d . 12 J o b a n a ly s t s I , d e fin e d to in c lu d e t r a in e e s u n d e r i m m e ­
d ia te s u p e r v is io n , a v e r a g e d $ 7 4 5 , c o m p a r e d w ith $ 1 ,0 8 6 f o r jo b a n a ly s ts IV , w h o a n a ly z e
^ C lassification of em ployees in the occupations and work levels surveyed was based on factors detailed in the definitions in
appendix C .
8 Establishments prim arily engaged in providing accounting and auditing services were excluded from the survey.
9 Although level V was surveyed, as defined in appendix C , too few em ployees m et requirements for this level to warrant
presentation of salary figures.
1® Establishments prim arily engaged in offering leg al advice or leg al services were excluded from the survey.
i f Although buyers V were surveyed, as defined in appendix D, too few employees m et requirements for this level to warrant
p resen ta tio n ^ o ^ sa ia iy ^ g,rs ^

y were surveyed, as defined in appendix D, too few em ployees m et requirements for this

level to warrant presentation of salary figures.




7

an d e v a lu a te a v a r ie t y o f th e m o r e d if fic u lt j o b s u n d e r g e n e r a l s u p e r v is io n an d w h o m a y
p a r t ic ip a t e in th e d e v e lo p m e n t and in s t a lla t io n o f e v a lu a tio n o r c o m p e n s a t io n s y s t e m s .
D i­
r e c t o r s o f p e r s o n n e l w e r e lim it e d b y d e fin itio n to th o s e w h o h a d p r o g r a m s that in c lu d e d ,
at a m in im u m , r e s p o n s ib i lit y f o r a d m in is t e r in g a jo b e v a lu a tio n s y s t e m , e m p lo y m e n t and
p la c e m e n t fu n c t io n s , an d e m p lo y e e r e la t io n s an d s e r v i c e s fu n c t io n s . T h o s e w ith s ig n ific a n t
r e s p o n s ib i lit y f o r a c tu a l c o n t r a c t n e g o tia t io n w ith la b o r u n io n s a s the p r in c ip a l c o m p a n y
r e s p r e s e n t a t i v e w e r e e x c lu d e d .
P r o v i s i o n s w e r e m a d e in th e d e fin itio n f o r w e ig h in g v a r ­
io u s c o m b in a t io n s o f d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to d e t e r m in e th e le v e l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .
A m ong
p e r s o n n e l d i r e c t o r s w ith jo b fu n c tio n s a s s p e c i f i e d f o r th e fo u r le v e l s o f r e s p o n s ib i lit y ,
a v e r a g e m o n th ly s a la r i e s r a n g e d f r o m $ 1 ,0 4 9 f o r le v e l I to $ 1 ,8 2 7 f o r le v e l IV .
M anu­
fa c t u r in g in d u s t r ie s a c c o u n t e d f o r 65 p e r c e n t o f the jo b a n a ly s t s and 69 p e r c e n t o f the
d i r e c t o r s o f p e r s o n n e l in c lu d e d in th e stu d y ; th e fin a n c e , in s u r a n c e , an d r e a l e s ta te i n ­
d u s t r ie s r a n k e d n e x t, w ith 23 p e r c e n t o f th e jo b a n a ly s t s an d 14 p e r c e n t o f th e d i r e c t o r s
o f p e r s o n n e l.

C h e m i s t s an d e n g i n e e r s e a c h w e r e s u r v e y e d in e ig h t l e v e l s .
B oth s e r i e s s ta r te d w ith
a p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a in e e le v e l , t y p ic a l ly r e q u ir in g a B . S. d e g r e e .
T h e h ig h e s t le v e l s u r ­
v e y e d in v o lv e d e it h e r fu ll r e s p o n s ib i lit y o v e r a v e r y b r o a d and h ig h ly c o m p l e x an d d i v e r ­
s if ie d e n g in e e r in g o r c h e m ic a l p r o g r a m , w ith s e v e r a l s u b o r d in a te s e a c h d ir e c t in g la r g e
an d im p o r ta n t s e g m e n ts o f th e p r o g r a m ; o r in d iv id u a l r e s e a r c h an d c o n s u lta tio n in d iffic u lt
p r o b le m a r e a s w h e r e th e e n g in e e r o r c h e m is t w a s a r e c o g n i z e d a u th o r ity an d w h e r e s o lu ­
tio n s w o u ld r e p r e s e n t a m a j o r s c i e n t i f i c o r t e c h n o lo g ic a l a d v a n c e . 13
A v e r a g e m o n th ly s a l ­
a r i e s r a n g e d f r o m $ 8 5 1 f o r e n g in e e r s I to $ 2 ,1 1 6 f o r e n g in e e r s V III, a n d f r o m $ 7 6 4 f o r
c h e m is t s I to $ 2 ,3 1 1 f o r c h e m is t s V III.
A lth o u g h , at le v e l I, th e a v e r a g e s a la r i e s o f
e n g in e e r s e x c e e d e d th o s e f o r c h e m is t s b y 11 p e r c e n t , at le v e l IV th e d i f f e r e n c e n a r r o w e d
to 3 p e r c e n t , and at le v e l V III, th e a v e r a g e s a la r i e s o f c h e m is t s e x c e e d e d t h o s e f o r e n g i­
n e e rs by 9 p ercen t.
L e v e l IV , the l a r g e s t g r o u p in e a c h s e r i e s , in c lu d e d p r o f e s s i o n a l
e m p l o y e e s w h o w e r e fu lly c o m p e te n t in a ll t e c h n ic a l a s p e c t s o f t h e ir a s s i g n m e n t s , w o r k e d
w ith c o n s id e r a b le in d e p e n d e n c e , a n d , in s o m e c a s e s , s u p e r v is e d a fe w p r o f e s s i o n a l and
t e c h n ic a l w o r k e r s .
M a n u fa c tu r in g in d u s t r ie s a c c o u n t e d f o r a lm o s t 80 p e r c e n t o f a l l e n g i­
n e e r s and 91 p e r c e n t o f a ll c h e m is t s ; p u b lic u t il it i e s , 10 an d l e s s than 1 p e r c e n t , r e s p e c ­
t i v e ly ; an d the s u r v e y e d e n g in e e r in g a n d s c ie n t i f i c s e r v i c e s e m p lo y e d v ir t u a l ly a l l o f the
oth e rs.
B y d e fin it io n , th e f i v e - l e v e l s e r i e s f o r e n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n i c i a n w a s lim it e d to e m p lo y e e s
s
p r o v id in g s e m i p r o f e s s i o n a l t e c h n ic a l s u p p o r t to e n g in e e r s e n g a g e d in su ch a r e a s a s r e ­
s e a r c h , d e s ig n , d e v e lo p m e n t , t e s t in g , o r m a n u fa c tu r in g p r o c e s s im p r o v e m e n t , a n d w h o s e
w o r k p e r ta in e d to e l e c t r i c a l , e l e c t r o n i c , o r m e c h a n ic a l c o m p o n e n ts o r e q u ip m e n t.
T ech ­
n ic ia n s e n g a g e d p r im a r i l y in p r o d u c t io n o r m a in t e n a n c e w o r k w e r e e x c lu d e d . E n g in e e r in g
t e c h n ic ia n s I, w h o p e r f o r m e d s im p le , r o u tin e ta s k s u n d e r c l o s e s u p e r v is io n , o r f r o m d e ­
t a ile d p r o c e d u r e s , w e r e p a id m o n th ly s a la r i e s a v e r a g in g $ 5 2 5 .
E n g in e e r in g t e c h n ic ia n s V ,
th e h ig h e s t le v e l s u r v e y e d , a v e r a g e d $ 9 2 0 a m o n th .
T h a t le v e l in c lu d e d fu lly e x p e r ie n c e d
t e c h n ic ia n s p e r fo r m i n g m o r e c o m p l e x a s s ig n m e n t s in v o lv in g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p la n n in g and
c o n d u c tin g a c o m p le t e p r o j e c t o f r e la t iv e ly lim it e d s c o p e , o r a p o r t io n o f a l a r g e r and
m o r e d i v e r s e p r o j e c t , in a c c o r d a n c e w ith o b j e c t i v e s , r e q u ir e m e n t s , an d d e s ig n a p p r o a c h e s
a s o u tlin e d b y th e s u p e r v is o r o r a p r o f e s s i o n a l e n g in e e r .
A v e r a g e s f o r in t e r m e d ia t e le v e l s
III and IV , at w h ic h a m a j o r it y o f th e t e c h n ic ia n s s u r v e y e d w e r e c l a s s i f i e d , w e r e $ 7 1 2
an d $ 8 2 0 , r e s p e c t i v e l y .
A s m ig h t b e e x p e c t e d , n e a r ly a ll o f th e t e c h n ic ia n s a s d e fin e d
w e r e e m p lo y e d in m a n u fa c tu r in g (77 p e r c e n t ) an d in th e s c i e n t i f i c s e r v i c e s in d u s t r ie s stu d ie d
(1 5 p e r c e n t ).
A lth o u g h th e r a t io o f s u ch t e c h n ic ia n s to e n g in e e r s s tu d ie d w a s a b o u t 1 to
4 in a ll m a n u fa c tu r in g in d u s t r ie s , h ig h e r r a t i o s o f a p p r o x im a t e ly 1 t o 3 w e r e fo u n d in e s ­
t a b lis h m e n t s m a n u fa c tu r in g m e c h a n ic a l and e l e c t r i c a l e q u ip m e n t an d 1 to 2 in
research ,
d e v e lo p m e n t , and te s t in g l a b o r a t o r i e s .
In th e d r a f t i n g f i e l d ,th e d e fin it io n s u s e d in th e s u r v e y c o v e r e d fo u r l e v e l s o f w o r k —
d r a f t s m e n - t r a c e r s , an d d r a ft s m e n I, II, an d III.
M o n th ly s a la r i e s a v e r a g 'e d $ 4 7 3 f o r
d r a f t s m e n - t r a c e r s an d r a n g e d f r o m $ 5 6 7 to $ 8 5 0 a m o n g th e t h r e e le v e l s o f d r a ft s m e n .

13 It was recognized in the definition that top positions of some companies with unusally extensive and complex engineering or
chemical programs were above that level.




8

D r a f t s m e n - t r a c e r s c o p y p la n s and d r a w in g s p r e p a r e d b y o t h e r s o r p r e p a r e s im p le o r r e ­
p e t it iv e d r a w in g s o f e a s il y v is u a liz e d it e m s .
T he t h r e e d r a ft s m e n le v e l s a s d e fin e d r a n g e d
f r o m e m p lo y e e s p r e p a r in g d e t a il d r a w in g s o f s in g le u n its o r p a r t s ( l e v e l I) to th o s e w h o ,
w o r k in g in c l o s e su p p o r t w ith the d e s ig n o r ig i n a t o r , p la n the g r a p h ic p r e s e n t a t io n o f c o m ­
p le x it e m s h a v in g d is t in c t iv e d e s ig n fe a t u r e s , and e it h e r p r e p a r e o r d i r e c t the p r e p a r a ­
tio n o f th e d r a w in g s ( l e v e l III).
T h e d r a ftin g e m p lo y e e s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d b y in d u s tr y in
a b o u t th e s a m e p r o p o r t io n a s e n g in e e r s , w ith 78 p e r c e n t in m a n u fa c tu r in g , 7 p e r c e n t in
p u b lic u t il it i e s , and 13 p e r c e n t in th e s e le c t e d e n g in e e r in g and s c i e n t i f i c s e r v i c e s in d u s ­
t r i e s stu d ie d .

Keypunch supervisors, s tu d ie d f o r th e f i r s t tim e th is y e a r , w e r e c l a s s i f i e d on the b a s is
o f c o m b in a t io n s o f th r e e e le m e n t s — l e v e l o f s u p e r v is o r y r e s p o n s ib i lit y , d if fic u lt y o f k e y p u n c h
w o r k s u p e r v is e d , an d n u m b e r o f e m p l o y e e s s u p e r v is e d .
K e y p u n ch s u p e r v is o r s I, w h o w e r e
r e s p o n s i b l e f o r th e d a y - t o - d a y s u p e r v is io n o f fe w e r than 20 o p e r a t o r s p e r fo r m i n g r o u tin e
k e y p u n ch in g o p e r a t io n s , a v e r a g e d $ 5 7 4 a m on th .
A t l e v e l IV , the h ig h e s t l e v e l r e p o r t e d , 14
k e y p u n c h s u p e r v is o r s a v e r a g e d $ 8 2 4 .
In d iv id u a ls c l a s s i f i e d at th is le v e l had g r e a t e r r e ­
s p o n s ib i lit ie s b e c a u s e th e y s u p e r v is e d m o r e c o m p l e x k e y p u n c h in g o p e r a t io n s , la r g e r n u m ­
b e r s o f o p e r a t o r s , a n d /o r p e r f o r m e d a t a h ig h e r l e v e l o f s u p e r v is o r y a u th o r ity .

A m o n g the 21 clerical jobs in c lu d e d in th is stu d y, a v e r a g e m o n th ly s a la r i e s f o r s e c r e ­
t a r i e s , the m o s t h e a v ily p o p u la te d c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t io n stu d ie d , r a n g e d f r o m $ 5 2 2 at l e v e l I
to $ 6 7 9 a t l e v e l IV .
F o r o th e r la r g e g r o u p s , a v e r a g e s a la r i e s o f $ 4 5 6 and $ 5 2 1 w e r e
r e p o r t e d f o r g e n e r a l and s e n io r s t e n o g r a p h e r s ; $ 4 3 9 and $ 5 6 8 f o r a c c o u n t in g c l e r k s I and
II; and the tw o le v e l s o f t y p is t s a v e r a g e d $ 3 9 3 and $ 4 5 6 .
G e n e r a lly , a v e r a g e s a la r i e s f o r
c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s w e r e h ig h e s t in p u b lic u t ilit ie s and m a n u fa c tu r in g in d u s t r ie s and lo w e s t
in th e fin a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta t e , and r e t a i l tr a d e d iv i s io n s .
E m p lo y m e n t in
m a n u fa c tu r in g e x c e e d e d that in a n y o f th e n o n m a n u fa c tu r in g d iv i s io n s w ith in s c o p e o f the
s u r v e y in 14 o f the 21 c l e r i c a l w o r k l e v e l s ; h ig h e s t e m p lo y m e n t t o t a ls in the o th e r s e v e n
l e v e l s w e r e in the fin a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te d iv is io n .
W om en a ccou n ted fo r
95 p e r c e n t o r m o r e o f th e e m p lo y e e s in 14 o f th e c l e r i c a l w o r k l e v e l s , and m e n a c c o u n t e d
f o r o n e - h a lf o r m o r e in fo u r (t a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s I, II, and III, and o f f i c e b o y s
or g ir ls ).

M e d ia n m o n th ly s a la r i e s (th e a m o u n t b e lo w and a b o v e w h ic h 50 p e r c e n t o f the e m p l o y ­
e e s w e r e fou n d ) f o r m o s t o f the w o r k l e v e l s w e r e s lig h tly lo w e r than the w e ig h te d a v e r a g e s
(m e a n s ) c it e d a b o v e (i- e. , the s a la r i e s in the u p p e r h a lv e s o f the a r r a y s had a g r e a t e r
e f f e c t on the a v e r a g e s than d id th e s a la r i e s in th e lo w e r h a lv e s ).
T he r e la t iv e d if f e r e n c e
b e tw e e n the m e d ia n and the m e a n w a s l e s s than 3 p e r c e n t f o r 67 o f the 81 w o r k le v e l s
and a s m u ch a s 3 bu t l e s s than 5 p e r c e n t in th e 14 o th e r l e v e l s .

S a la r y L e v e ls in M e t r o p o lit a n A r e a s
In m o s t o f th e o c c u p a t io n a l w o r k l e v e l s , a v e r a g e s a la r i e s f o r e m p lo y e e s in m e t r o ­
p o lita n a r e a s (ta b le 2) w e r e e it h e r id e n t ic a l to o r s lig h t ly h ig h e r than a v e r a g e s a la r i e s
f o r e m p lo y e e s in a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith in fu ll s c o p e o f th e s u r v e y (t a b le 1).
E m p lo y ­
m e n t in the s u r v e y o c c u p a t io n s in m e t r o p o lit a n a r e a s a c c o u n t e d f o r a lm o s t n in e -te n th s o f
th e to ta l n a tio n w id e e m p lo y m e n t r e p o r t e d in th e s e o c c u p a t io n s .
T h e p r o p o r t io n s v a r ie d ,
h o w e v e r , a m o n g o c c u p a t io n s and w o r k l e v e l s .
N e a r ly a ll o f th e a t t o r n e y s a t e a c h le v e l ,
f o r e x a m p le , w e r e e m p lo y e d in m e t r o p o lit a n a r e a s , w h e r e a s the p r o p o r t io n o f c h ie f a c ­
co u n ta n ts and d i r e c t o r s o f p e r s o n n e l f o r a ll le v e l s c o m b in e d w a s a p p r o x im a t e ly f o u r - f i f t h s
an d s e v e n -t e n t h s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , w ith a s m a l le r p r o p o r t io n a t the lo w e s t l e v e l s .
In 64 o f
the 81 w o r k le v e l s s tu d ie d , 85 p e r c e n t o r m o r e o f th e e m p lo y m e n t w a s in m e t r o p o lit a n
areas.
It is a p p a r e n t, t h e r e f o r e , that a lth o u g h a v e r a g e s a la r i e s u s u a lly w e r e lo w e r in
n o n m e t r o p o lit a n c o u n t ie s , in th o s e w o r k l e v e l s in w h ic h n e a r ly a ll o f the e m p lo y m e n t w a s
Although keypunch supervisors V were surveyed, as defined in appendix D, too few employees met requirements for this level;
to warrant presentation of salary figures.




9

in m e t r o p o lit a n a r e a s , n o n m e t r o p o lit a n c o u n t ie s c o u ld h a v e lit t le e f f e c t u pon the a v e r a g e s
f o r a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s c o m b in e d .
O n ly in fiv e o f th e 81 w o r k l e v e l s stu d ie d w e r e a v e r ­
a g e s a la r i e s m o r e than 1 .5 (bu t n ot m o r e th an 2 .5 ) p e r c e n t h ig h e r in m e t r o p o lit a n a r e a s
than in a ll a r e a s c o m b in e d ; in a ll o f th e s e c a s e s th e p r o p o r t io n o f th e to t a l e m p lo y m e n t
w ith in n o n m e t r o p o lit a n c o u n t ie s r a n g e d a p p r o x im a t e ly b e tw e e n o n e -t e n t h an d o n e - t h ir d .

I n c r e a s e s in a v e r a g e s a la r i e s in m e t r o p o lit a n a r e a e s t a b lis h m e n t s f r o m June 1969
to June 1970 w e r e w ith in o n e - h a l f p e r c e n t a g e p o in t o f i n c r e a s e s r e p o r t e d f o r a ll a r e a s
s tu d ie d in 67 o f the 77 l e v e l s f o r w h ic h y e a r - t o - y e a r i n c r e a s e s w e r e r e p o r t e d . T h e y e a r t o - y e a r i n c r e a s e s in m e t r o p o lit a n a r e a s c o m p a r e d w ith a ll a r e a s w e r e l a r g e r f o r 32, s m a lle r
f o r 30 l e v e l s , and the s a m e f o r 15.

S a la r y L e v e ls in L a r g e E s t a b lis h m e n t s
It w a s p o s s i b l e to p r e s e n t s e p a r a t e d ata f o r 75 o f th e 81 o c c u p a t io n w o r k l e v e l s fo r
a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith 2 ,5 0 0 e m p l o y e e s o r m o r e (t a b le 3 ).
C o m p a r is o n s b e tw e e n e m ­
p lo y m e n t s an d r e la t iv e s a la r y l e v e l s in th e s e e s t a b lis h m e n t s and a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s c o m ­
b in e d a ls o a r e p r e s e n t e d .
E s ta b lis h m e n t s e m p lo y in g 2, 500 o r m o r e a c c o u n t e d f o r a lm o s t
t h r e e -e i g h t h s o f the e m p lo y m e n t in p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m in is t r a t iv e , s u p e r v i s o r y , an d c l e r i c a l
o c c u p a t io n s w ith in s c o p e o f the s u r v e y , and n e a r ly t w o - f i f t h s o f to t a l e m p lo y m e n t in the
s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d .
L a r g e e s t a b lis h m e n t s a c c o u n t e d f o r v a r y in g p r o p o r t io n s o f
to t a l e m p lo y m e n t in th e 75 o c c u p a t io n a l w o r k l e v e l s sh ow n in ta b le 3, ra n g in g f r o m 16 to
75 p e r c e n t ( f i l e c l e r k s I an d jo b a n a ly s t s IV , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) .

T h e s a la r y le v e l s in la r g e e s t a b lis h m e n t s , e x p r e s s e d a s a p e r c e n t o f l e v e l s in a ll
e s t a b lis h m e n t s c o m b in e d r a n g e d f r o m 99 f o r b u y e r s I V , and a t t o r n e y s VI to 116 f o r d i r e c ­
t o r s o f p e r s o n n e l III.
A s sh ow n in the fo llo w in g ta b u la tio n , s a la r y a v e r a g e s f o r la r g e e s ­
t a b lis h m e n t s e x c e e d e d the a l l e s t a b lis h m e n t a v e r a g e s b y 5 p e r c e n t o r m o r e in 19
21 c l e r i c a l
j o b s , but in o n ly 22 o f 54 n o n c l e r i c a l j o b s .
Number of job categories
Pay levels in large
establishments as
percent of all
establishment average

Professional,
administrative,
and technical

Clerical

Total — ................ ........... ...........—

54

21

95-100 ------------------------------------------- —
101-104--------------------- ------- —..............
105-109 ---------- -------------- --------- ----------110 and o ver----------------------------------------

3
29
15
7

2
12

T

T h e r e la t iv e s a la r y l e v e l s in l a r g e e s t a b lis h m e n t s te n d e d to b e h ig h e s t f o r w o r k le v e l s
in w h ic h su ch e s t a b lis h m e n t s a c c o u n t e d f o r the s m a l le s t p r o p o r t io n o f th e to ta l e m p lo y m e n t .
T h u s , w h ile th e d e g r e e o f e m p lo y m e n t c o n c e n t r a t io n in la r g e e s t a b lis h m e n t s r a n g e d f r o m
16 to 46 p e r c e n t f o r c l e r i c a l j o b s , s u ch f i r m s c o n tr ib u te d 40 p e r c e n t o r m o r e o f th e e m ­
p lo y m e n t in a lm o s t t h r e e - f i f t h s o f th e n o n c l e r i c a l j o b s .

S a la ry D is tr ib u t io n
P e r c e n t d is t r ib u t io n s o f e m p l o y e e s b y m o n th ly s a l a r i e s a r e p r e s e n t e d f o r the p r o f e s ­
s io n a l and a d m in is t r a t iv e o c c u p a t io n s in ta b le 4, and f o r e n g in e e r in g t e c h n ic ia n s an d k e y ­
p u n ch s u p e r v i s o r s in ta b le 5; d is t r ib u t io n s b y w e e k ly s a la r i e s a r e sh o w n f o r e m p l o y e e s in
d r a ftin g an d c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t io n s in ta b le 6. 15 W ith in a lm o s t a ll o f th e 81 o c c u p a t io n w o r k
l e v e l s , s a la r y r a te s f o r s o m e o f th e h ig h e s t p a id e m p lo y e e s w e r e t w ic e th o s e o f th e lo w e s t
15

Technical considerations dictated the summarization of employee distributions by weekly salaries for drafting and clerical jobs.




1 0

p a id e m p l o y e e s . T h e a b s o lu te s p r e a d b e tw e e n h ig h e s t and lo w e s t p a id w o r k e r s w ith in g iv e n
w o r k l e v e l s te n d e d to w id e n w ith e a c h s u c c e s s i v e w o r k le v e l f o r m o s t o c c u p a t io n s in w h ic h
tw o le v e l s o r m o r e w e r e s u r v e y e d .
A ll o c c u p a t io n s in w h ic h tw o le v e l s o r m o r e o f w o r k
w e r e s u r v e y e d s h o w e d a s u b s ta n tia l d e g r e e o f o v e r la p p in g o f in d iv id u a l s a la r i e s b e tw e e n w o r k
l e v e l s in the s a m e o c c u p a t io n .
R a n g e s in s a la r y r a t e s o f e m p l o y e e s in e s t a b lis h e d p ay
g r a d e s o r w o r k le v e l s w ith in s a la r y s t r u c t u r e s o f in d iv id u a l f i r m s a ls o o v e r la p p e d s u b s ta n tia lly .
T h e m id d le 50 and 80 p e r c e n t o f the r a n g e , and the m e d ia n s a la r y f o r e< /:h o c c u p a t io n
w o r k le v e l h a v e b e e n c h a r t e d (c h a r t s 3 and 4) to p o in t up o c c u p a t io n a l p ay r e la t io n s h ip s as
w e l l a s the t y p ic a lly g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f s a la r y d i s p e r s i o n a s s o c i a t e d w ith the h ig h e r w o r k
le v e l s in e a c h o c c u p a t io n a l s e r i e s .
Distribution of work levels by degree of dispersion
(salary range of middle 50 percent of employees
____ expressed as a percent of median salary)____

Total

Under
15

15
and
under
20

All levels---------------------

81

4

23

38

Accountants---------------------------Auditors----- ---------- -—---- ——
Chief accounts-----------------------Attorneys-------------------------------Buyers-----------------------------------Job analysts ---------------- ----------Directors of personnel —-------—
Chemists-------------------------------Engineers -------- ---------------------Engineering technicians------------Drafting--------------- ----------------Keypunch supervisors----—---- —
Clerical ------------ -------------------

5

4
2
1
1
1
2

1
2
2
4
3
2
3
5
1
1
2
1
11

Occupational group

4

6
4
4
8
8
5

1
3

4
21

2
4
4
1
1

20
and
under
25

25
and
under
30

30
and
over

15

i

1
1
1

1
3

8

i

E x p r e s s in g the s a la r y ra n g e o f the m id d le 50 p e r c e n t o f e m p l o y e e s in e a c h w o r k le v e l
a s a p e r c e n t o f the m e d ia n s a la r y p e r m it t e d c o m p a r i s o n o f s a la r y r a n g e s on the s a m e b a s is
and e lim in a t e d e x t r e m e low and h igh s a la r i e s f r o m e a c h c o m p a r i s o n . A s sh ow n in the t a b ­
u la tio n , the d e g r e e o f d is p e r s i o n w a s b e tw e e n 15 and 30 p e r c e n t o f the m e d ia n s a la r y in a ll
b u t fiv e w o r k le v e l s (1 1 . 1, 1 2 .0 , and 1 4 .6 f o r e n g in e e r s I, II, and III, r e s p e c t i v e l y , 1 4 .9 f o r
c h e m is t s II, and 3 0 .4 f o r s w it c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s I). T h is r e la t iv e s p r e a d te n d e d to b e s m a l l e r
f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m in is t r a t iv e , and e n g in e e r in g te c h n ic ia n w o r k l e v e l s than f o r the
c l e r i c a l and d r a ftin g l e v e l s s tu d ie d .
D i f f e r e n c e s in the ra n g e o f s a la r i e s p a id in d iv id u a ls w ith in w o r k le v e l s s u r v e y e d r e ­
f l e c t a v a r ie t y o f f a c t o r s o th e r than d i f f e r e n c e s in the ra n g e o f d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s
e n c o m p a s s e d by the v a r io u s w o r k le v e l d e fin it io n s . T w o
th e s e f a c t o r s a r e s a la r y s t r u c ­
t u r e s w ith in e s t a b lis h m e n t s w h ich p r o v id e f o r a ra n g e o f r a t e s f o r e a c h g ra d e le v e l and
r e g io n a l v a r ia t io n s , p a r t i c u l a r ly in the c l e r i c a l l e v e l s ( c l e r i c a l e m p l o y e e s a r e u s u a lly r e ­
c r u it e d l o c a l l y , w h ile the jo b f i e ld ten d s to b e b r o a d e r r e g io n a lly , o fte n n a tio n a l in s c o p e ,
f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l and a d m in is t r a t iv e o c c u p a t io n s ). 16 A s p o in te d ou t e a r l i e r (and in d ic a t e d
in ta b le 7 and c h a r t 5 ), e m p lo y m e n t in the v a r io u s in d u s t r ie s w ith in the s c o p e o f the s u r v e y
v a r ie s c o n s id e r a b ly f r o m o c c u p a t io n to o c c u p a t io n .
T h e s e v a r ia t io n s in e m p lo y m e n t a r e
r e f l e c t e d a ls o in s a la r y le v e l s and d is t r ib u t io n s to the ex te n t that s a la r i e s d if f e r b y in d u s tr y ,
as e x p la in e d in the fo llo w in g s e c t io n .

P a y D i f f e r e n c e s b y In d u stry
T he s u r v e y w a s p la n n ed to p e r m it p u b lic a t io n o f n a tio n a l s a la r y e s t im a t e s b y l e v e l o f
w ork .
B y c o m b in in g the data f o r a ll le v e l s o f w o r k stu d ie d in e a c h o c c u p a t io n , it w as
p o s s ib l e to p r e s e n t c o m p a r i s o n s b e tw e e n r e la t iv e s a la r y le v e l s in m a jo r in d u s tr y d iv is io n s
^ For an analysis of interarea pay differentials in clerical salaries, see Area Wage Survey: Metropolitan Areas, United States
and Regional Summaries. 1968— (BLS Bulletin 1625-91, 1970).
69




11

C h a r t 3 . S a la r ie s in P r o f e s s io n a l a n d T e c h n ic a l
O c c u p a tio n s , J u n e

1970

Median M onthly Salaries and Ranges W ithin Which Fell

0

$500

$ 1,000

$ 1,500

OCCUPATION AND CLASS

Accountants
III
IV
V

Auditors

|
III
IV

Chief accountants

i
III
IV

Attorneys

I
III
IV
V
VI

Chemists

l
II

III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII

Engineers

I
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII

Engineeringtechnicians I
III
IV

Draftsmen-tracers

V

Draftsmen

r
II

III




12

50 Percent

$ 2,000

and

80 Percent

$ 2,500

of Employees

$ 3,000

$3,500

C h a r t 4 . S a la r ie s in A d m in is t r a t iv e

a n d C le r ic a l

O c c u p a tio n s , J u n e , 1 9 7 0
Median Monthly Salaries and Ranges Within Which Fell 50 Percent and 80 Percent of Employees




0

$400

$800

$1,200

13

$1,600

$2,000

$2,400

$2,800

C h a r t 5 . R e la t iv e E m p lo y m e n t in S e le c t e d
O c c u p a tio n a l G r o u p s b y In d u s t r y D iv is io n , J u n e

1970

OCCUPATIONAL
GROUPS

Account ant s and
chief a ccount ants
Auditors

Attorneys

Buyers
Directors of personnel
and job analysts
Chemi sts

Engineers
Engineering techni ­
cians and draft smen
Keypunch supervisors

Clerical e mpl oy ees

Manufacturing

Public utilities

I




14

Finance, insurance,
and real estate

Trade and
selected services

an d a ll in d u s t r ie s c o m b in e d (ta b le 8).
T o o b ta in r e la t iv e s a la r y l e v e l s , the a ll - in d u s t r y
e m p lo y m e n t in e a c h w o r k le v e l w a s u s e d a s a c o n s ta n t e m p lo y m e n t w e ig h t to c o m p u te
a g g r e g a t e s in e a c h in d u s tr y d iv is io n to e lim in a te the in flu e n c e o f d if f e r e n c e s a m o n g in d u s tr y
d iv i s io n s in the p r o p o r t io n o f e m p lo y m e n t in v a r io u s w o r k l e v e l s .
T h e in d u s t r y d iv is io n
a g g r e g a t e s f o r w o r k le v e l s w ith in an o c c u p a t io n w e r e c o m b in e d and e x p r e s s e d a s p e r c e n t a g e s
o f the c o r r e s p o n d in g a g g r e g a t e s in a ll in d u s t r ie s c o m b in e d .
T h e r e la t iv e s a la r y le v e l s f o r m o s t o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m in is t r a t iv e , c l e r i c a l s u p e r ­
v i s o r y , and t e c h n ic a l s u p p o r t o c c u p a t io n s te n d e d to b e n e a r e s t 100 p e r c e n t o f th e a ll - in d u s t r y
l e v e l s in m a n u fa c tu r in g , w h ich h a d 57 to 91 p e r c e n t o f the e m p lo y e e s in 9 o f the 12 o c c u ­
p a t io n s . R e la tiv e s a la r y le v e l s in th e p u b lic u t ilit ie s and s e l e c t e d s e r v i c e s in d u s t r ie s w e r e
g e n e r a lly the h ig h e s t .
F o r e n g in e e r s , h o w e v e r , the f i g u r e s w e r e 97 p e r c e n t f o r p u b lic
u t i l i t i e s , 98 p e r c e n t f o r s e le c t e d s e r v i c e s , and 101 p e r c e n t f o r m a n u fa c tu r in g .
C o n v e r s e ly ,
f o r e n g in e e r in g t e c h n ic ia n s , p u b lic u t ilit ie s s h o w e d a r e la t iv e s a la r y o f 107, w h ile s e le c t e d
s e r v i c e s r e p o r t e d 102, and m a n u fa c tu r in g 9 9 . R e la t iv e s a la r y le v e l s f o r 8 o f the 9 c l e r i c a l
o c c u p a t io n s w e r e h ig h e s t in the p u b lic u t ilit ie s in d u s t r ie s .
F o r a ll o f the c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d , an d f o r a m a jo r it y o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d
a d m in is t r a t iv e o c c u p a t io n s in w h ic h c o m p a r i s o n s c o u ld b e m a d e , r e la t iv e s a la r y le v e l s w e r e
lo w e r in r e t a i l tr a d e and in fin a n c e , in s u r a n c e , an d r e a l e s ta t e than in o th e r in d u s tr y d i v i ­
s io n s .
It is a p p a r e n t , t h e r e f o r e , that in th o s e o c c u p a t io n s in w h ic h r e t a i l tr a d e and the
fin a n c e in d u s t r ie s in c lu d e a s u b s ta n tia l p r o p o r t io n o f the to ta l e m p lo y m e n t , the a v e r a g e
s a la r i e s f o r a ll in d u s t r ie s c o m b in e d a r e lo w e r e d , and the r e la t iv e le v e l s in in d u s t r ie s su ch
as m a n u fa c tu r in g an d p u b lic u t ilit ie s ten d to b e w e l l a b o v e 100 p e r c e n t o f the a ll - in d u s t r y
le v e l .
F o r e x a m p le , r e la t iv e p a y l e v e l s f o r fi le c l e r k s o f 108 p e r c e n t in m a n u fa c tu r in g
an d 121 p e r c e n t in p u b lic u t il it i e s r e f l e c t the in flu e n c e o f lo w e r s a la r i e s f o r the h ig h p r o ­
p o r t io n (59 p e r c e n t ) o f a ll - in d u s t r y e m p lo y m e n t in c lu d e d in the fin a n c e in d u s t r ie s .
T he
fin a n c e in d u s t r ie s , h o w e v e r , a ls o r e p o r t e d lo w e r a v e r a g e sta n d a r d w e e k l y h o u r s than in
the o th e r in d u s t r ie s s u r v e y e d , a s sh o w n in ta b le 9.

A verage

S ta n d a rd

W e e k ly

H ou rs

T h e len g th o f the s ta n d a r d w o r k w e e k , on w h ic h the r e g u la r s t r a i g h t -t i m e s a la r y w a s
b a s e d , w a s o b ta in e d f o r in d iv id u a l e m p lo y e e s in the o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d .
W h en in d iv id u a l
w e e k ly h o u r s w e r e n o t a v a ila b le , p a r t i c u l a r ly f o r s o m e h ig h e r l e v e l p r o f e s s i o n a l an d a d m in ­
is t r a t iv e p o s it io n s , the p r e d o m in a n t w o r k w e e k o f the o f f i c e w o r k f o r c e w a s u s e d a s the
s ta n d a r d w o r k w e e k .
T he d is t r ib u t io n o f a v e r a g e w e e k ly h o u r s (r o u n d e d to the n e a r e s t
h a lf h o u r ) is p r e s e n t e d in ta b le 9 f o r a l l w o r k l e v e l s o f e a c h o c c u p a t io n c o m b in e d in m a j o r
in d u s tr y d iv is io n s s u r v e y e d .
A v e r a g e w e e k ly h o u r s w e r e lo w e r in fin a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and
r e a l e s ta te than in the o th e r in d u s tr y d iv i s io n s .
T h u s , in fin a n c e in d u s t r ie s , w o r k w e e k s
a v e r a g e d 38 h o u r s f o r a m a jo r it y o f the o c c u p a t io n s , c o m p a r e d to 39 o r 39. 5 h o u r s in the
r e m a in in g in d u s t r ie s s u r v e y e d . 17
17 For information on schedule weekly hours of office workers employed in metropolitan areas, see Area Wage Survey;
Metropolitan Areas, 1968— (BLS Bulletin 1625-90, 1970).
69




15

Selected

Table 1.

Average salaries:

United States

(E m p lo y m e n t and a v e r a g e s a la r i e s f o r s e l e c t e d p r o f e s s io n a l, a d m in is t r a t iv e , t e c h n ic a l, and c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t io n s
in p r iv a t e i n d u s t r y , 1 U n ited S ta tes e x c e p t A la s k a and H a w aii, June 1970, and p e r c e n t in c r e a s e in
m ea n s a la r i e s d u rin g the y e a r 2)
M on th ly s a la r i e s 4
O c c u p a tio n and c l a s s
(S ee d e fin it io n s in a p p e n d ix C)

N u m ber
of
e m p lo y e e s 3

A n n u a l s a la r i e s 4

M id d le ra n g e 5
M ea n

M ed ia n

F ir s t
q u a r tile

T h ir d
q u a r t ile

M id d le ra n g e 5
M ea n

M e d ia n

F ir s t
q u a r t ile

T h ird
q u a r t ile

P ercen t
in c r e a s e
in
m ea n
s a la r i e s 2

A c c o u n t a n t s and a u d it o r s
A ccou n ta n ts
A c c o u n c a n ts
A ccou n ta n ts
A ccou n ta n ts
A ccou n ta n ts
A u d it o r s
A u d it o r s
A u d it o r s
A u d it o r s
C h ie f
C h ie f
C h ie f
C h ie f

I ----------------------------------------------------I I -----------------------*
----------------------------I I I ---------------------------------------- ---------I V --------------------------------------------------V -----------------------------------------------------

I ----------------------------------- -----------------------I I ---------------------------------------------------------I I I --------------------------------------------------------I V ---------------------------------------------------------

a c c o u n ta n t s
a c c o u n ta n t s
a c c o u n ta n t s
a c c o u n ta n t s

I ------------------------------------------I I -----------------------------------------I I I ----------------------------------------I V ----------------------------------------

795
414
777
559
331

$709
801
891
1, 063
1, 290

$710
800
875
1, 050
1, 260

$650
730
800
955
1, 151

$765
871
973
1, 166
1, 400

$8,
9,
10,
12,
15,

503
609
686
755
477

$8,
9,
10,
12,
15,

520
600
500
600
120

$7,
8,
9,
11,
13,

800
760
600
460
812

$ 9 , 180
10, 452
11, 676
1 3 ,9 9 2
16, 800

6.
6.
6.
6.
7.

3
6
6
6
7

8 04
1, 842
4, 323
2, 243

741
830
956
1, 170

726
800
937
1, 166

674
735
850
1, 044

816
917
1, 041
1, 274

8,
9,
11,
14,

894
955
475
044

8,
9,
11,
13,

712
600
244
992

8,
8,
10,
12,

083
820
200
528

9,
11,
12,
15,

792
004
492
288

6.
7.
7.
7.

3
2
0
0

599
1, 260
703
287

1,
1,
1,
1,

160
304
565
928

1,
1,
1,
1,

166
308
540
933

1,
1,
1,
1,

000
123
390
666

1,
1,
1,
2,

295
426
667
104

13,
15,
18,
23,

917
647
780
133

13,
15,
18,
23,

992
696
480
196

12,
13,
16,
19,

000
476
680
992

15,
17,
20,
25,

540
112
004
248

5.
6.
6.
12.

3
9
0
4

634
1, 249
1, 775
1, 659
793
458

1,
1,
1,
2,
2,

988
132
407
692
116
753

1,
1,
1,
1,
2,
2,

000
110
403
666
083
667

1,
1,
1,
2,

856
978
250
456
845
414

1,
1,
1,
1,
2,
3,

083
250
518
875
332
073

11,
13,
16,
20,
25,
33,

859
585
884
304
391
032

12,
13,
16,
19.
24,
32,

000
320
836
992
996
004

10,
11,
15,
17,
22,
28,

272
736
000
472
140
968

12,
15,
18,
22,
27,
36,

996
000
216
500
9 84
876

7.
6.
6.
6.
7.
12.

6
3
3
0
2
3

4,
10,
25,
17,
6,

A ttorn eys
A ttorn eys
A ttorn eys
A ttorn eys
A ttorn eys
A ttorn eys
A ttorn eys

I --------------------------------------------------------I I -------------------------------------------------------I I I -----------------------------------------------------I V -----------------------------------------------------V -------------------------------------------------------V I ------------------------------------------------------

B uyer s
B u y ers
B u yers
B u y ers
B u y ers

I ------------------------------------------------------------I I -----------------------------------------------------------I I I ---------------------------------------------------------IV ----------------------------------------------------------

490
137
091
968

709
813
972
1, 158

696
800
958
1, 135

639
723
870
1, 025

775
895
1, 069
1, 274

8, 512
9, 759
1 1 ,6 6 5
13, 895

8,
9,
11,
13,

352
600
496
620

7, 668
8 ,6 7 6
10, 440
12, 300

9,
10,
12,
15,

300
740
828
288

8.
5.
6.
5.

1
3
6
7

123
370
609
626

2,
10,
13,
4,

745
798
932
1, 086

736
803
924
1, 091

666
725
839
983

835
862
1, 026
1, 191

8,
9,
11,
13,

938
571
183
035

8,
9,
11,
13,

832
636
088
092

7,
8,
10,
11,

992
700
068
796

10, 020
10, 344
12, 312
14, 2 9 2

9.
5.
5.
1.

8
4
5
6

1,
1,
1,
1,

049
236
535
827

1,
1,
1,
1,

050
188
477
833

9 25
1, 096
1, 356
1, 550

1,
1,
1,
2,

150
350
666
013

12,
14,
18,
21,

593
832
419
920

12,
14,
17,
21,

600
256
7 24
996

11,
13,
16,
18,

100
152
272
600

13,
16,
19,
24,

800
200
992
156

6.
6.
10.
6.

3
5
0
5

1,
1,
1,
1,
2,

764
853
978
185
422
642
911
311

1,
1,
1,
1,
2,

765
850
965
175
408
625
843
249

1,
1,
1,
1,
2,

700
784
880
055
275
480
675
037

1,
1,
1,
1,
2,
2,

825
911
060
307
558
813
081
542

9,
10,
11,
14,
17,
19,
22,
27,

164
233
737
218
066
700
937
731

9,
10,
11,
14,
16,
19,
22,
26,

180
200
580
100
896
500
116
988

8,
9,
10,
12,
15,
17,
20,
24,

400
408
560
660
300
760
100
4 44

9,
10,
12,
15,
18,
21,
24,
30,

900
932
720
684
696
756
972
504

4.
6.
6.
6.
6.
6.
2.

9
3
1
4
1
3
1

1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
2,

850
917
025
216
412
621
850
068

1,
1,
1,
1,
1,

806
865
950
117
275
465
674
851

1,
1,
1,
1,
2,
2,

900
975
100
320
540
760
020
300

10,
11,
12,
14,
17,
19,
22,
25,

209
077
350
695
004
471
328
393

10,
11,
12,
14,
16,
19,
22,
24,

200
004
300
592
944
452
200
816

9,
10,
11,
13,
15,
17,
20,
22,

672
380
400
4 04
300
580
088
212

10,
11,
13,
15,
18,
21,
24,
27,

800
700
200
840
480
120
240
600

5.7

1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
2,

851
923
029
225
417
623
861
116

5.
5.
4.
5.
5.

8
6
8
3
7

576
678
769
883
991

6,
7,
8,
9,
11,

298
520
541
837
043

6,
7,
8,
9,
10,

300
428
472
780
980

5,
6,
7,
8,
10,

628
840
800
9 64
152

6,
8,
9,
10,
11,

912
136
228
596
892

6.
7.
6.
5.
7.

0
3
2
8
0

P e rso n n e l m anagem ent
J ob
Job
J ob
J ob

a n a ly s t s
a n a ly s t s
a n a ly s t s
a n a ly s t s

I ---------------------------------------------------I I -------------------------------------------------I I I ------------------------------------------------I V -------------------------------------------------

D ir e c t o r s
D ir e c to r s
D ir e c to r s
D ir e c t o r s

of
of
of
of

person n el
person n el
person n el
person n el

I -------------------------------I I ------------------------------I I I -----------------------------I V ------------------------------

C h e m is t s
C h e m is t s
C h e m is t s
C h e m is t s
C h e m is t s
C h e m is t s
C h e m is t s
C h e m is t s

I --------------------------------------------------------I I -------------------------------------------------------H I -----------------------------------------------------I V -----------------------------------------------------V ------------------------------------------------------V I -----------------------------------------------------V I I ----------------------------------------------------V I H ---------------------------------------------------

E n g in e e r s
E n g in e e r s
E n g in e e r s
E n g in e e r s
E n g in e e r s
E n g in e e r s
E n g in e e r s
E n g in e e r s

I ------------------------------------------------------I I -----------------------------------------------------H I ----------------------------------------------------I V ----------------------------------------------------V -----------------------------------------------------V I ----------------------------------------------------V I I --------------------------------------------------V H I --------------------------------------------------

1, 057
1, 963
1, 035
409

C h e m is t s and e n g in e e r s
1, 601
5, 211
9, 158
1 1 ,1 4 3
7, 407
4, 249
1, 700
483
13,
32,
85,
114,
78,
41,
15,
3,

028
117
759
365
391
259
460
884

4,
14,
26,
31,
16,

685
546
998
478
621

2.4

5.9
5.5

T e c h n ic a l su p p o r t
E n g in e e r in g
E n g in e e r in g
E n g in e e r in g
E n g in e e r in g
E n g in e e r in g

te c h n ic ia n s
te c h n ic ia n s
te c h n ic ia n s
te c h n ic ia n s
te c h n ic ia n s

I ----------------------------I I ---------------------------I I I --------------------------I V --------------------------V ----------------------------

525
627
712
820
9 20

525
619
706
815
915

See fo o t n o t e s a t end o f ta b le .




16

469
570
650
747
846

Table 1.

Average salaries:

United States— Continued

(E m p lo y m e n t a n d a v e r a g e s a la r i e s fo r s e l e c t e d p r o f e s s io n a l,
in p r iv a t e in d u s t r y ,1 U n ited Sta tes e x c e p t A la s k a and H a w aii,
m e a n s a la r i e s d u rin g the y e a r 2)

a d m in is t r a t iv e , t e c h n ic a l, and c l e r i c a l
June 1970, and p e r c e n t in c r e a s e in

o c c u p a t io n s

A n n u a l s a la r i e s 4

M on th ly s a la r i e s 4
O cc u p a tio n and c l a s s
(S e e d e fin it io n s in a p p e n d ix C)

N u m b er
of
e m p lo y e e s 3

M id d le ra n g e 5

M id d le ra n g e 5
M ean

M ed ia n

F ir s t
q u a r tile

T h ir d
q u a r tile

M ean

M ed ia n

P e rcen t
in c r e a s e
in
m ea n
s a la r i e s 2

F ir s t
q u a r t ile

T h ir d
q u a r tile

501
719
254
990

$4,
5,
7,
9,

883
892
486
072

$6,
7,
9,
10,

299
510
177
993

7.
5.
4.
4.

T e c h n ic a l s u p p o r t — C ontinued
D r a ft s m e n - t r a c e r s ---------------------------------D r a ft s m e n I ---------------------------------------------D r a ft s m e n I I ---------------------------------------------D r a ft s m e n I I I --------------------------------------------

992
932
752
343

$ 47 3
567
697
850

$ 45 8
560
688
833

$ 40 7
491
624
756

$525
626
765
916

$5,
6,
8,
10,

675
805
364
204

1, 190
1, 444
889
281

574
647
691
824

570
625
666
815

500
563
595
726

650
735
769
917

6,
7,
8,
9,

883
763
297
8 94

6 ,8 4 0
7, 500
7, 992
9, 780

6,
6,
7,
8,

000
756
140
712

7,
8,
9,
11,

800
820
228
004

(‘ >
(? )
(? )
( 6)

439
568
343
381
459
426
485
379
522
582
625
679
456
521
426
501
461
538
651
393
456

424
554
331
369
446
412
478
369
520
578
623
675
448
515
417
497
445
529
639
385
445

374
485
305
330
388
366
430
332
460
513
543
582
394
455
359
435
400
474
576
348
400

489
641
369
413
517
469
534
411
579
652
700
766
513
587
486
556
504
600
704
428
499

5,
6,
4,
4,
5,
5,
5,
4,
6,
6,
7,
8,
5,
6,
5,
6,
5,
6,
7,
4,
5,

268
815
119
571
508
114
820
548
259
979
506
147
478
247
109
010
531
462
813
717
471

5, 087
6, 648
3, 968
4, 432
5, 347
4, 945
5, 735
4, 432
6, 239
6, 935
7, 471
8, 098
5, 370
6, 179
5, 005
5, 965
5, 339
6 , 351
7, 665
4, 614
5, 339

4,
5,
3,
3,
4,
4,
5,
3,
5,
6,
6,
6,
4,
5,
4,
5,
4,
5,
6,
4,
4,

484
826
659
963
659
391
159
983
524
153
518
987
727
459
311
219
799
683
911
171
799

5,
7,
4,
4,
6,
5,
6,
4,
6,
7,
8,
9,
6,
7,
5,
6,
6,
7,
8,
5,
5,

866
691
432
953
207
631
403
934
943
821
398
188
155
039
830
6 74
048
195
447
140
987

6. 6
5. 7
6. 1
5. 6
3. 5
6. 6
6. 2
6. 3
6. 6
6. 0
6. 7
5 .8
5. 5
6. 2
6. 0
5. 6
10. 2
6. 6
6. 0
6. 0
6. 1

4,
19,
32,
28,

$5,
6,
8,
9,

1
4
7
6

C l e r i c a l s u p e r v is o r y
K ey p u n ch
K ey p u n ch
K ey p u n ch
K e yp u n ch

s u p e r v is o r s
s u p e r v is o r s
s u p e r v is o r s
s u p e r v is o r s

I -----------------------------------I I ----------------------------------I I I --------------------------------IV ----------------------------------

C le rica l
C le r k s , a c c o u n tin g I -----------------------------------------C le r k s , a c c o u n tin g I I ---------------------------------------C le r k s , f i le I -----------------------------------------------------C le r k s , f i l e I I -----------------------------------------------------C le r k s , f i le I-II----------------------------------------------------K ey p u n ch o p e r a t o r s I ---------------------------------------K eyp u n ch o p e r a t o r s I I ---------------------------------------O ffic e b o y s o r g i r l s ------------------------------------------S e c r e t a r ie s I ------------------------------------------------------S e c r e t a r ie s II -----------------------------------------------------S e c r e t a r ie s I I I -----------------------------------------------------S e c r e t a r ie s I V -----------------------------------------------------S t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l -------------------------------------S t e n o g r a p h e r s , s e n io r --------------------------------------S w itc h b o a rd o p e r a t o r s I -----------------------------------S w itc h b o a rd o p e r a t o r s I I ----------------------------------T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s I --------------------T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s I I --------------------T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s H I -------------------T y p is t s I --------------------------------------------------------------T y p is t s II----------------------------------------------------------------

87,
60,
31,
29,
8,
64,
49,
28,
90,
90,
51,
15,
68,
58,
14,
11,
3,
7,
4,
83,
45,

609
169
145
941
772
645
024
845
862
995
723
991
301
912
146
641
515
950
328
788
156

1 F o r s c o p e o f stu d y , s e e ta b le in a p p e n d ix A .
2 F o r lim it a t io n s o f p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e in a v e r a g e s a la r i e s a s a m e a s u r e o f ch a n g e in s a la r y s c a l e s , s e e p . 5 o f tex t.
3 O c c u p a t io n a l e m p lo y m e n t e s t im a t e s r e la t e t o the t o t a l in a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith in s c o p e o f the s u r v e y and n ot t o the n u m b e r a c t u a lly s u r ­
veyed.
F o r fu r th e r e x p la n a tio n , s e e p. 35.
4 S a la r ie s r e p o r t e d r e la t e to the sta n d a rd s a la r i e s that w e r e p a id fo r s ta n d a rd w o r k s c h e d u le s ; i . e . , the s t r a i g h t - t im e s a la r y c o r r e s p o n d in g
to the e m p l o y e e 's n o r m a l w o r k s c h e d u le e x clu d in g o v e r t i m e h o u r s . N o n p r o d u c t io n b o n u s e s a r e e x c lu d e d , but c o s t - o f - l i v i n g p a y m e n ts
and in c e n t iv e
e a r n in g s a r e in clu d e d .
*

T h e m id d le r a n g e (in te r q u a r t ile ) u s e d h e r e is th e c e n t r a l p a r t o f the a r r a y e x clu d in g the u p p er and lo w e r fo u r th s o f th e e m p lo y e e d is t r ib u tio n .

6

N ot s u r v e y e d in 1969.




17

Table 2.

Average salaries:

Metropolitan areas

(E m p lo y m e n t and a v e r a g e s a la r i e s f o r s e l e c t e d p r o f e s s io n a l, a d m in is t r a t iv e , t e c h n ic a l, and c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t io n s in p r iv a t e in d u s tr y ,
m e t r o p o lit a n a r e a s , 1 June 1970)
M on th ly s a l a r i e s 3
O c c u p a t io n and c l a s s
(S ee d e fin it io n s in a p p e n d ix C )

of
e m p lo y e e s 2

Annual s a la r ie s 3

M id d le r a n g e 4
M ea n

F ir s t
q u a r tile

T h ir d
q u a r tile

M id d le r a n g e 4
M ea n

F ir s t
q u a r tile

T h ir d
q u a r tile

A c co u n ta n ts and a u d it o r s
I ----------------------------------------------------II -------------------------------------------------I I I -------------------------------------------------I V --------------------------- -------------------V ---------------------------------------------------

4, 189
9, 232
21, 446
1 4 ,9 9 4
5, 447

$712
805
893
1, 064
1, 291

$715
805
877
1 ,0 5 1
1, 267

$652
7 35
800
956
1, 166

$769
880
977
1, 166
1, 400

$ 8 , 547
9, 665
10, 722
12, 763
1 5 ,4 8 7

$ 8 , 580
9, 660
10, 524
12, 612
1 5 ,2 0 4

$7,
8,
9,
11,
13,

824
820
600
472
992

$ 9 , 228
1 0 ,5 6 0
11, 724
13, 992
1 6 ,8 0 0

I ______________________________________
I I _____________________________________
I I I ___ ____ ___ ___ __ ___ ___ ___________
IV ---------------------------------------------------------

782
1 ,7 0 2
4, 004
2, 067

747
834
955
1, 173

730
800
937
1, 166

675
7 37
850
1, 058

824
925
1, 041
1, 274

8, 962
10, 002
1 1 ,4 6 3
1 4 ,0 7 4

8, 760
9, 600
11, 244
1 3 ,9 9 2

8,
8,
10,
12,

100
844
200
696

9, 888
11, 100
12, 492
1 5 ,2 8 8

477
968
626
258

1, 181
1, 307
1 ,5 6 9
1, 925

1, 166
1, 312
1 ,5 37
1, 933

1, 000
1, 104
1 ,4 1 2
1, 658

1,
1,
1,
2,

308
425
667
137

14, 167
1 5 ,6 8 1
18, 829
23, 106

13,
15.
18,
23,

992
744
444
196

12,
13,
16,
19,

000
248
944
896

1 5 ,6 9 6
1 7 ,1 0 0
2 0 ,0 0 4
25, 644

600
1, 189
1 ,6 6 5
1, 617
746
453

988
1, 132
1 ,4 1 3
1, 692
2, 119
2, 754

1, 004
1, 110
1 ,4 1 2
1 ,6 6 6
2, 084
2 ,6 9 9

1,
1,
1,
2,

850
978
250
456
845
406

1, 083
1, 256
1 ,5 4 1
1, 875
2, 335
3, 082

11, 859
13, 582
1 6 ,9 5 8
20, 307
25, 433
33, 043

12,
13,
16,
19,
25,
32,

048
320
944
992
008
388

1 0 ,2 0 0
11, 736
1 5 ,0 0 0
17, 472
22, 140
2 8 ,8 7 2

12, 996
15, 072
18, 492
2 2 ,5 0 0
28, 020
3 6 ,9 8 4

2, 136
7 ,9 2 4
10, 814
4, 491

717
827
975
1, 161

701
816
960
1, 139

650
740
875
1, 025

7 84
902
1, 072
1, 276

8, 599
9 ,9 2 0
11, 702
13, 926

8, 412
9, 792
1 1 ,5 2 0
13, 668

7,
8,
10,
12,

9, 408
1 0 ,8 2 4
12, 864
1 5 ,3 1 2

123
358
5 25
574

745
799
939
1, 081

736
804
935
1, 083

666
731
839
983

835
862
1, 036
1, 182

8,
9,
11,
12,

8,
9,
11,
12,

832
648
220
996

7 ,9 9 2
8, 772
1 0 ,0 6 8
11, 796

10,
10,
12,
14,

1,
1,
1,
1,

075
242
545
819

1 ,0 8 3
1, 200
1 ,4 9 9
1 ,8 3 3

948
1, 096
1, 355
1, 550

1,
1,
1,
2,

160
360
673
013

12, 899
14, 902
1 8 ,5 3 4
21, 833

12, 996
1 4 ,4 0 0
1 7 ,9 8 8
21, 996

11, 376
1 3 ,1 5 2
16, 260
1 8 ,6 0 0

13, 920
16, 320
2 0 ,0 7 6
24, 156

1,
1,
1,
1,
2,

763
856
985
191
428
648
927
325

766
854
975
1, 183
1 ,4 1 6
1, 624
1, 863
2, 250

688
790
886
1, 061
1, 280
1, 480
1 ,6 8 1
2, 041

825
911
1 ,0 7 5
1, 315
1, 566
1, 820
2, 083
2, 600

9, 151
10, 273
11, 822
14, 295
1 7 ,1 4 1
19, 771
23, 128
2 7 ,9 0 3

9, 192
1 0 ,2 4 8
1 1 ,7 0 0
14, 196
1 6 ,9 9 2
1 9 ,4 8 8
22, 356
2 7 ,0 0 0

8 , 256
9, 480
10, 632
12, 732
15, 360
1 7 ,7 6 0
20, 172
2 4 ,4 9 2

9, 900
1 0 ,9 3 2
12, 900
1 5 ,7 8 0
18, 792
21, 840
2 4 ,9 9 6
31, 200

10, 218
11, 110
12, 420
14, 795
1 7 , 111
19, 534
22, 351
2 5 ,5 3 0

10, 200
11, 028
12, 384
14, 700
1 7 ,0 0 4
19, 500
22, 236
24, 996

9, 696
10, 392
11, 496
1 3 ,5 3 6
15, 432
1 7 ,7 0 0
2 0 ,1 9 6
22, 416

1 0 ,8 0 0
1 1 ,7 36
13, 260
1 5 ,9 1 2
1 8 ,5 8 8
21, 156
24, 240
2 7 ,6 8 4

6,
7,
8,
9,
11,

6, 360
7, 452
8, 520
9, 828
1 0 ,9 8 0

5 ,7 1 2
6, 900
7 ,8 2 4
9, 000
10, 140

6, 960
8, 184
9, 264
1 0 ,6 8 0
11, 904

A c co u n ta n ts
A c co u n ta n ts
A c co u n ta n ts
A c co u n ta n ts
A c co u n ta n ts
A u d it o r s
A u d it o r s
A u d it o r s
A u d it o r s
C h ie f
C h ie f
C h ie f
C h ie f

a cco u n ta n ts
a cco u n ta n ts
a cco u n ta n ts
a cco u n ta n ts

I ___________________________
I I __________________________
I I I --------------------------------------IV - _______________________
A ttorn ey s

A ttorn ey s
A tto rn e y s
A tto r n e y s
A ttorn ey s
A ttorn ey s
A ttorn ey s

I ________ - ____________ _____ — ----- I I ____________________________________
I I I ______—__ - ___ ___ ______ _______
I V _________ __ ___ ___________ _____
V ____ _________ ___ ___ ____
______
V I -----------------------------------------------------B u y ers

B u y ers
B u yers
B u yers
B u y ers

I —
------------ - ----- ----- -----------I I ----------------------------------------------------------I I I ---------------------------------------------------------IV ______________________________________

800
880
500
300

P e rs o n n e l m anagem ent
Job
Job
Job
Job

a n a ly s ts
a n a ly s t s
a n a ly s t s
a n a ly s t s

I __________________________________
II _ ------------------- --------- ---------I I I __________________ _____ ______
I V ---------- _ —
---------------------

D ir e c t o r s
D ir e c t o r s
D ir e c to r s
D ir e c to r s

of
of
of
of

person n el
person n el
person n el
p erson n el

I -------------------------------I I ------------------------------I I I ----------------------------I V -----------------------------

C h e m is t s
C h e m is t s
C h e m is t s
C h e m is t s
C h e m is t s
C h e m is t s
C h e m is t s
C h e m is t s

I -------------------- ---------------------------------I I ____ _____ ___ ____ _____ ____ ____ _
I I I ----- -------- ------------ ----— I V __ _________________________ — , ----—
V ____ _______________ _____ ____ ______
V I ____ ________ .___.___ ______ ___ ___ _
V I I ----------------------------------------------------V I I I -------------- ---------- ---------------- _

1, 374
4, 438
7 ,6 6 7
9, 299
6, 277
3, 688
1, 462
443

E n g in e e r s
E n g in e e r s
E n g in e e r s
E n g in e e r s
E n g in e e r s
E n g in e e r s
E n g in e e r s
E n g in e e r s

I _ _
- _
_
II - ------ ------------------------ -------- —
I I I _________________________________
I V __ ______________________________
V ----- -------- ----------------------------------V I ____ __________ __________________
V I I __________________________________
VIII _
__ — — _
------ _

12, 122
2 9 ,2 1 5
7 6 ,3 5 4
100, 930
7 0 ,2 9 7
3 6 ,5 8 0
14, 062
3, 484

851
926
1, 035
1, 233
1 ,4 2 6
1, 628
1, 863
2, 128

850
919
1, 032
1, 225
1 ,4 1 7
1 ,6 2 5
1, 853
2 ,0 8 3

808
866
958
1, 128
1, 286
1, 475
1 ,6 8 3
1 ,8 6 8

900
978
1, 105
1, 326
1, 549
1 ,7 6 3
2, 020
2, 307

3, 889
1 1 ,6 3 5
22, 524
27, 620
1 4 ,6 8 7

531
631
714
825
921

530
621
710
819
915

476
575
652
750
845

580
682
772
890
992

690
1, 517
803
313

938
583
269
966

020
344
432
184

C h e m is t s and e n g in e e r s

T e c h n i c a l su p p o r t
E n g in e e r in g
E n g in e e r in g
E n g in e e r in g
E n g in e e r in g
E n g in e e r in g

t e c h n ic ia n s
t e c h n ic ia n s
te c h n ic ia n s
t e c h n ic ia n s
te c h n ic ia n s

I . ----------------------------I I ----------------------------I I I __________________
I V . . _______________
V --------------- -------------

S ee fo o t n o t e s at en d o f ta b le .




18

366
572
571
897
053

Table 2.

Average salaries:

Metropolitan areas------Continued

(E m p lo y m e n t and a v e r a g e s a la r i e s f o r s e l e c t e d p r o f e s s io n a l, a d m in is t r a t iv e , t e c h n ic a l, and c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t io n s in p r iv a t e in d u s t r y ,
m e t r o p o lit a n a r e a s , 1 J une 1970)
M on th ly s a l a r i e s 3
O c c u p a t io n and c l a s s
(S ee d e fin it io n s in a p p e n d ix C )

of
e m p lo y e e s 2

Annual s a la r ie s 3

M id d le r a n g e 4
M ea n

F ir s t
q u a r t ile

T h ir d
q u a r tile

M id d le r a n g e 4
M ea n

M ed ia n

F ir s t
q u a r t ile

T h ir d
q u a r t ile

431
755
342
078

$ 4 , 818
5 ,9 7 0
7, 560
9, 156

$ 6 , 317
7 ,5 5 8
9, 229
1 1 ,1 5 7

T e c h n i c a l su p p ort— C on tin u ed
D r a f t s m e n - t r a c e r s -----------------------------------------D r a ft s m e n I -----------------------------------------------------D r a ft s m e n I I -----------------------------------------------------D r a ft s m e n III ---------------------------------------------------

4, 272
1 6 ,6 9 6
2 6 ,8 5 0
24, 956

$472
570
704
858

$453
563
695
840

$401
498
630
763

$526
630
769
930

$ 5 , 659
6 ,8 3 8
8 , 449
1 0 ,2 9 8

$5,
6,
8,
10,

1, 024
1, 318
765
255

582
650
700
822

576
626
678
815

500
574
606
734

652
729
785
891

6, 988
7 ,7 9 5
8, 402
9, 863

6, 912
7 ,5 1 2
8, 136
9 ,7 8 0

6 ,0 0 0
6 ,8 8 8
7, 272
8, 808

7, 8 24
8 ,7 4 8
9, 420
1 0 ,6 9 2

7 4 , 081
5 1 , 318
2 6 ,1 2 1
26, 285
7, 925
55, 320
4 2, 523
2 6 ,6 0 5
8 1, 083
8 2, 097
4 6, 713
14, 392
5 9 ,3 5 5
5 1, 359
12, 715
1 0 ,5 9 7
3, 137
7 , 363
3, 917
7 2 , 917
4 1 , 490

445
572
346
384
461
434
491
380
527
586
633
691
461
526
430
505
463
540
654
396
457

430
559
335
369
449
417
483
369
521
583
630
691
450
521
424
500
445
530
637
388
446

375
493
309
335
388
374
435
335
469
520
552
595
400
461
369
443
402
474
576
350
402

497
645
373
415
521
478
541
412
584
653
704
775
518
590
491
558
505
600
715
433
500

5 , 335
6, 869
4, 152
4 ,6 0 6
5 ,5 3 7
5, 212
5, 897
4, 554
6, 323
7 ,0 3 5
7, 601
8, 294
5, 526
6 , 315
5, 162
6 ,0 5 6
5 ,5 6 3
6 , 476
7, 848
4, 754
5, 488

5, 162
6 ,7 0 7
4 ,0 1 9
4, 432
5 , 394
5, 005
5 .7 9 5
4 , 432
6 , 257
6 ,9 9 4
7 ,5 5 8
8, 290
5, 406
6, 257
5, 0 84
5 ,9 9 6
5 , 339
6 , 358
7 ,6 4 9
4 ,6 5 9
5, 351

4 , 503
5 , 920
3 ,7 0 7
4 ,0 1 5
4 ,6 5 9
4, 484
5 , 214
4 , 015
5 , 625
6 , 239
6 ,6 2 2
7 , 138
4 ,7 9 7
5 , 527
4 , 425
5 , 318
4 ,8 2 3
5 ,6 8 4
6, 911
4, 199
4 ,8 2 3

5, 965
7, 738
4, 472
4 ,9 7 9
6, 257
5 ,7 3 5
6, 486
4 , 943
7, 008
7, 842
8, 447
9, 298
6, 219
7, 079
5 ,8 9 2
6 ,7 0 2
6, 063
7 , 198
8 , 578
5, 195
5, 996

C l e r i c a l s u p e r v is o r y
K eyp u n ch
K eyp u n ch
K ey p u n ch
K eyp u n ch

s u p e r v is o r s
s u p e r v is o r s
s u p e r v is o r s
s u p e r v is o r s

I ______________________
I I --------------------------------I I I ------------------------------I V -------------------------------

C le r ic a l
C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g I ------ — -----------------------C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g I I ------------------------------------C l e r k s , f i le I ----------------------------------------------------C l e r k s , f i l e I I --------------------------------------------------C l e r k s , f i le I I I -------------------------------------------------K eyp u n ch o p e r a t o r s I --------- ------------------------K eyp u n ch o p e r a t o r s I I -----------------------------------O ffi c e b o y s o r g ir ls ---------------------------------------S e c r e t a r ie s I ----------------------------------------------------S e c r e t a r ie s I I --------------------------------------------------S e c r e t a r ie s I I I -------------------------------------------------S e c r e t a r ie s I V -------------------------------------------------S t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l --------------------------------S t e n o g r a p h e r s , s e n i o r -----------------------------------S w itc h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s I --------------------------------S w itc h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s II ____________________
T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s I ____________
T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s I I ___________
T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s I I I ---------------T y p is t s I — — _________________________________
T y p is t s I I ------------------------------------------------------------

1 F o r s c o p e o f stu d y, s e e ta b le in a p p e n d ix A .
2 O c c u p a t io n a l e m p lo y m e n t e s t im a t e s r e la t e to the t o ta l in a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith in s c o p e o f the s u r v e y and not to th e n u m b e r a ct u a lly s u r ­
F o r fu r t h e r e x p la n a tio n , s e e p . 35.
3 S a la r ie s r e p o r t e d r e la t e to the sta n d a rd s a la r i e s that w e r e p a id f o r sta n d a rd w o r k s c h e d u le s ; i . e . , the s t r a i g h t - t im e s a la r y c o r r e s p o n d i n g
to the e m p l o y e e ’ s n o r m a l w o r k s c h e d u le e x c lu d in g o v e r t i m e h o u r s . N o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u s e s a r e e x c lu d e d , but c o s t - o f - l i v i n g p a y m e n ts and in c e n t iv e
e a r n in g s a r e in c lu d e d .
* T h e m id d le ra n g e (in t e r q u a r t ile ) u s e d h e r e is the c e n t r a l p a r t o f the a r r a y e x c lu d in g the u p p e r and. lo w e r fo u r t h s o f the e m p lo y e e d is t r ib u t io n .
veyed.




19

Tabic 3.

Average salaries:

Establishments employing 2,500 or more

(E m p lo y m e n t and a v e r a g e m on th ly s a la r i e s f o r s e l e c t e d p r o f e s s io n a l, a d m in is t r a t iv e , t e c h n ic a l, and c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t io n s in p r iv a t e in d u s tr y 1
in e s t a b lis h m e n t s e m p lo y in g 2, 500 w o r k e r s o r m o r e , 2 U n ited S ta tes e x c e p t A la s k a and H a w a ii, June 1970, p e r c e n t in c r e a s e in m e a n
s a la r i e s d u rin g the y e a r , 3 and c o m p a r is o n w ith l e v e l s in a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s c o m b in e d )
M on th ly s a la r i e s 5
O c c u p a t io n and c l a s s
(S ee d e fin it io n s in a p p e n d ix C)

Num be r
of
e m p lo y e e s 4

M id d le ra n g e 6
M ea n

M ed ia n

F ir s t
qua r tile

T h ir d
qua r tile

P ercen t
in cre a s e
in
m ea n
s a la r i e s 3

L e v e l s in la r g e e s t a b lis h m e n t s
e x p r e s s e d a s p e r c e n t o f th o se
in a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s c o m b in e d
E m p lo y m e n t

M ea n

A c c o u n t a n t s and a u d it o r s
I _
----- — — — __ -------- -----I I --------------------- ---------------------------------I I I ____________________ _____________
IV - -------------------------------------------------V
---------------- — —
------

1, 901
5 ,4 9 4
7, 948
5, 073
2. 579

$ 751
837
935
1, 099
1, 307

$ 750
835
931
1, 097
1, 290

$ 700
775
843
991
1, 183

$805
912
1, 027
1, 198
1, 434

7. 5
6 .9
6. 2
6. 1
7 .4

40
53
31
29
41

106
104
105
103
101

I
_
II
----- ----- ---------------- — ------------ III ________________________ -____________ _
IV ------------------------------------------------------- -

388
822
1 ,5 7 9
1 ,0 1 4

786
877
991
1, 174

775
850
975
1, 175

700
766
864
1, 063

880
990
1, 100
1, 275

2.
5.
7.
6.

7
6
7
7

48
45
37
45

106
106
104
100

C h ie f a c c o u n ta n ts I I I _____________________________
C h ie f a c c o u n ta n ts IV __ __________________________

182
115

1, 717
2, 004

1, 707
1, 999

1, 526
1, 673

1, 880
2, 208

7. 1
11. 7

26
40

110
104

14 3
356
522
517
337
240

1,
1,
1,
1,
2,
2,

1,
1,
1,
1,
2,
2,

1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
2,

000
125
333
600
846
395

1, 250
1 ,4 1 6
1, 700
2, 000
2 ,4 5 7
2, 999

11.
8.
8.
9.
5.
8.

9
1
7
8
7
0

23
29
29
31
42
52

115
113
110
108
102
99

A ccou n ta n ts
A c c o u n ta n ts
A c c o u n ta n ts
A ccou n ta n ts
A ccou n ta n ts
A u d it o r s
A u d it o r s
A u d it o r s
A u d it o r s

A ttorn ey s
A tto rn e y s
A tto rn e y s
A tto rn e y s
A ttorn ey s
A tto rn e y s
A tto rn e y s

I
I I ______________________ ____________ I I I ________________ _______
_________
IV ---------------------------------------------------------V _______________________________________
V I ----------------------------------------------------------

132
277
553
820
165
726

155
258
542
780
132
667

B u y ers
B u yers
B u yers
B u y ers
B u y ers

I _ — —
— _ — ----- _ -------------II
—
------- --------- -------------------- —
III --------------------------------------- ----------------------IV _ ---------- ------------------------ -----------------

757
2, 673
5, 149
2, 918

787
867
1, 005
1, 151

782
853
997
1, 125

713
769
899
1, 017

850
941
1, 116
1, 254

9.
6.
7.
5.

0
8
6
8

30
26
39
59

111
107
103
99

Job a n a ly s t s II _
------__ -------J o b a n a ly s t s III
__ -------------------------------J o b a n a ly s t s IV ___________________________________

206
361
470

815
946
1, 106

810
935
1, 112

735
850
1, 004

890
1, 026
1, 200

6. 0
7. 4
2. 7

56
59
75

102
102
102

D i r e c t o r s o f p e r s o n n e l III
---------------------------D i r e c t o r s o f p e r s o n n e l IV ______________________

210
130

1, 783
2, 014

1, 740
1, 934

1 ,4 8 6
1, 792

2, 095
2, 227

9. 8
6. 9

20
32

116
110

364
829
100
972
781
733
712
251

1,
1,
1,
1,
1,
2,

827
894
043
243
480
679
984
380

826
890
1, 041
1, 245
1 ,4 7 4
1, 650
1, 925
2, 313

1,
1,
1,
1,
2,

773
824
940
111
333
500
741
085

1,
1,
1,
1,
2,
2,

875
995
134
373
625
830
164
616

6.
5.
6.
6.
6.
6.
6.
5.

4
8
8
4
3
3
9
8

23
35
34
36
38
41
42
52

108
105
107
105
104
102
104
103

7,
19,
49,
69,
45,
22,
8,
2,

320
072
869
542
553
969
547
097

859
933
1, 048
1, 255
1 ,4 5 6
1, 678
1, 934
2, 200

865
925
1, 043
1, 247
1 ,4 5 0
1, 670
1, 912
2, 137

1,
1,
1,
1,
1,

816
875
975
158
325
540
766
968

1,
1,
1,
1,
2,
2,

905
981
117
345
575
800
083
360

5.
6.
5.
6.
6.
5.
6.
6.

8
5
6
0
1
4
1
0

56
59
58
61
58
56
55
54

101
101
102
102
103
103
104
104

2,
7,
13,
18,
10,

291
275
485
186
988

540
643
721
833
930

534
633
713
826
925

490
584
660
756
857

594
695
777
895
1, 002

3.
7.
4.
5.
6.

7
2
8
8
8

49
50
50
58
66

103
103
101
102
101

P e rso n n e l m anagem ent

C h e m is t s and e n g in e e r s
C h e m is t s
C h e m is t s
C h e m is t s
C h e m is t s
C h e m is t s
C h e m is t s
C h e m is t s
C h e m is t s

I _____________________________
II -----------------------------------------------------------III ----- -------------------------------- - - -----IV ---------------------------------------------------------V -----------------------------------------------------------V I --------------------- ------------- ------------- VII _ __ ---------------- ------------------------ ----- ----------------------- — _
VIII __

E n g in e e r s
E n g in e e r s
E n g in e e r s
E n g in e e r s
E n g in e e r s
E n g in ee r s
E n g in e e r s
E n g in e e r s

I ------ _
_ ----- ---------I I ___ _______ _____________________ _____
III ----------------- ------------------- -------------I V ---------------------------------------------------------V ---------------------------------------------------------VI — ----- ------ _ -------- ------------- VII ------------------------ — — ----------------V I I I ------------------------------------------------------

1,
3,
3,
2,
1,

T e c h n ic a l su p p o r t
E n g in e e r in g
E n g in e e r in g
E n g in ee r in g
E n g in ee rin g
E n g in ee rin g

te c h n ic ia n s
t e c h n ic ia n s
te c h n ic ia n s
t e c h n ic ia n s
te c h n ic ia n s

I
------------------------ I I --------------------------------I I I _____________________
I V -------------------------------V ----------------------------------

See fo o t n o t e s at end o f ta b le .




2 0

Table 3.

Average salaries:

Establishments employing 2,500 or more------Continued

(E m p lo y m e n t and a v e r a g e m o n th ly s a la r i e s fo r s e l e c t e d p r o f e s s io n a l, a d m in is t r a t iv e , t e c h n ic a l, and c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t io n s in p r iv a t e in d u s tr y 1
in e s t a b lis h m e n t s e m p lo y in g 2, 500 w o r k e r s o r m o r e , 2 U n ited S ta tes e x c e p t A la s k a and H a w a ii, June 1970, p e r c e n t in c r e a s e in m e a n
s a la r i e s d u rin g the y e a r , 3 and c o m p a r is o n w ith l e v e l s in a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s co m b in e d )
M on th ly s a la r i e s 5
O c c u p a tio n and c l a s s
(S ee d e fin it io n s in a p p e n d ix C)

N u m ber
of
e m p lo y e e s 4

M id d le ra n g e 6
M ea n

M ed ia n

F ir s t
qua r tile

T h ir d
qua r t ile

P ercen t
in c r e a s e
in
m ean
s a la r i e s 3

L e v e l s in la r g e e s t a b lis h m e n t s
e x p r e s s e d as p e r c e n t o f th o s e
in a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s c o m b in e d
E m p lo y m e n t

M ea n
s a la r i e s

T e c h n ic a l su p p o r t— C on tin u ed
D r a f t s m e n - t r a c e r s ---------------------------------------------D r a ft s m e n I __ _ ------------ --------------------------D r a ft s m e n I I ---------------------------------------------------------D r a ft s m e n I I I ____
— — — — -------- ------------

129
264
198
002

$496
606
727
905

$480
600
714
878

$419
539
650
791

$571
665
795
1, 003

289
232
127

700
742
850

675
739
855

616
652
726

791
838
948

16, 698
14, 128
5, 070
5, 051
2, 606
16, 527
1 4 ,4 9 2
7, 252
24, 849
34, 653
13, 663
3, 880
21, 614
21, 671
3, 034
3, 54 1
1, 612
3, 532
1, 781
18, 338
16, 521

480
617
381
427
505
470
524
404
550
626
702
762
491
556
453
536
4 87
553
690
4 28
476

470
610
373
413
500
455
520
384
544
625
691
742
486
555
442
539
474
546
663
413
460

400
526
339
371
430
395
461
354
495
561
625
687
430
495
391
470
417
482
602
380
415

546
699
412
478
575
542
586
439
603
685
773
826
554
624
515
602
556
617
765
464
527

2,
6,
11,
12,

4.
6.
5.
7.

5
9
2
1

43
31
34
42

105
107
104
106

0
(7)

20
26
45

108
107
103

4. 8
5. 0
5. 7
6. 5
2. 5
6. 9
6. 7
6. 3
6. 1
6. 5
6. 5
6. 7
5. 8
6. 5
6. 2
6. 1
5. 6
6. 4
7. 4
6. 0
6. 0

19
23
16
20
30
26
30
25
27
38
26
24
32
37
21
30
46
44
41
22
37

110
109
111
112
110
110
108
107
105
108
112
112
108
107
106
107
106
103
106
109
104

C l e r i c a l s u p e r v is o r y
K e y p u n ch s u p e r v is o r s I I . __ __________________
K e y p u n ch s u p e r v is o r s III _ —
~
-------K e y p u n ch s u p e r v is o r s IV ----- ------ ------

(I)

C le rica l
C l e r k s , a cc o u n tin g I ____________________________
C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g I I . --------------------------------------C l e r k s , f i le I
_
. . .
C l e r k s , fi le I I .............................
C l e r k s , fi le I I I --- ----. --------K e y p u n ch o p e r a t o r s I
—
K ey p u n ch o p e r a t o r s II __________________________
O ffic e b o y s o r g i r l s _____________________________
S e c r e t a r ie s I _________ _______ ____________ ___ ___
S e c r e t a r i e s II
___ —
___ ________ S e c r e t a r ie s III ----------------------- ---------------------------S e c r e t a r ie s IV ----------------- ------------- — -----------S t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l -------------- -------------------S t e n o g r a p h e r s , s e n i o r ---------------------------------------S w it c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s I ------------------------------------S w itc h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s I I -----------------------------------T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s I ---------------------T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s II ----------T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s III
- —
T y p is t s I
-------------------- ----------------T y p is t s II
_ ------- — — —
— — —

1 F o r s c o p e o f stu d y , s e e ta b le in a p p en d ix A .
2 In c lu d e s da ta f o r a few e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith l e s s than 2 ,5 0 0 e m p lo y e e s o f 6 la r g e c o m p a n ie s stu d ie d that p r o v id e d co m p a n y w id e da ta u n id en ­
t ifie d b y s i z e o f e s t a b lis h m e n t .
T h is a p p lie s o n ly to da ta fo r o c c u p a t io n s o th e r than d r a ftin g and c l e r i c a l .
3 F o r lim it a t io n s o f p e r c e n t in c r e a s e in a v e r a g e s a la r i e s as a m e a s u r e o f ch a n g e in s a la r y s c a l e s , s e e p . 5.
4 O c c u p a t io n a l e m p lo y m e n t e s t im a t e s r e la t e to the to ta l in a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith in s c o p e o f the s u r v e y and n ot to the n u m b e r a c t u a lly s u r v e y e d .
F o r fu r t h e r e x p la n a tio n , s e e p . 35.
5 S a la r ie s r e p o r t e d re la t e to the sta n d a rd s a la r i e s that w e r e p a id fo r s ta n d a rd w o r k s c h e d u l e s ; i . e . , the s t r a ig h t - t im e s a la r y c o r r e s p o n d i n g
to the e m p l o y e e 's n o r m a l w o r k s c h e d u le e x c lu d in g o v e r t im e h o u r s .
N o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u s e s a r e e x c lu d e d , but c o s t - o f - l i v i n g p a y m e n ts and in c e n t iv e
e a r n in g s a re in c lu d e d .
6 The
m id d le ra n g e (in t e r q u a r t ile ) u s e d h e r e is the c e n t r a l p a r t o f the a r r a y e x c lu d in g the u p p e r and lo w e r fo u r th s o f the e m p lo y e e d is t r ib u t io n .
N o t s u r v e y e d in 1969.

7




21

Table 4.

Employment distribution by salary:

Professional and administrative occupations

(P e r c e n t d is t r ib u t io n o f e m p lo y e e s in s e l e c t e d p r o f e s s io n a l and a d m in is t r a t iv e o c c u p a t io n s , b y a v e r a g e m o n th ly s a l a r i e s ,
U n ited S ta te s e x c e p t A la s k a and H a w a ii, 1 June 1970)
A c c o u n ta n ts

A u d it o r s

C h ie f a cco u n ta n ts

A v e r a g e m o n th ly s a la r i e s
i
$ 4 2 5 and u n d er $ 4 5 0 _________________
$ 4 5 0 and u n d er $ 4 7 5 ________________
$ 4 7 5 a n d u n d er $ 5 0 0 ______ ________

III

II

IV

i

II

III

IV

i

II

_

-

-

-

_

1. 6
_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
(1 . 1)

_
-

_
_
-

_
_

. 1
4. 6
. 1
2 .4

.
_
_
(0 . 1)

_
_

_
_

III

IV

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
_

$500
$525
$550
$575

and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$525
$550
$575
$600

_________________
_________________
________________
______ __ _____

( 0 .9 )
1. 6
4. 8
2. 0

$600
$625
$650
$675

and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$625
$650
$675
$700

_________________
________________
__ ____________
__ ________

5.
6.
12.
7.

5
7
7
6

1.
2.
5.
4.

8
0
9
5

$700
$725
$750
$775

and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$725
$750
$775
$800

________________
------------------------________________
- __ __ _______

13.
10.
11.
7.

6
7
3
7

7.
6.
10.
9.

9
3
0
8

3.
3.
6.
6.

2
8
3
5

$800
$825
$850
$875

and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$825
$850
$875
$900

_________________
_________________
________________
_________________

6. 1
4. 0
2. 3
( 2 .4 )

9. 2
9 .4
7. 3
5. 8

9.
7.
8.
7.

0
7
5
5

$900
$925
$950
$ 975

and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$ 9 2 5 _________________
$ 9 5 0 _________________
$ 9 7 5 ________________
$ 1, 000 ______________

_
-

-

-

-

_

_
-

_
_

(0 . 9)
1. 1
1. 5

-

10.
2.
2.
1.

$
$
$
$
$

1,
1,
1,
1,
1,

000
050
100
150
200

and
and
and
and
and

under
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$
$
$
$
$

1 ,0 5 0 ___________
1, 1 0 0 ___________
1, 1 5 0 ___________
1, 200 __ _______
1 ,2 5 0 ___________

_
-

1. 2
( 1 .0 )
-

-

-

9. 1
5. 9
2. 7
1. 2
( 1 .4 )

$
$
$
$
$

1, 250
1, 300
1, 350
1 ,4 0 0
1 ,4 5 0

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
under
u n d er
u n d er

$
$
$
$
$

1, 300
1 ,3 5 0
1 ,4 0 0
1 ,4 5 0
1, 500

___________
___________
___________
___ _____
___________

_
-

_
-

-

$
$
$
$
$

1 ,5 0 0
1, 550
1, 600
1, 650
1 ,7 0 0

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
under
u n d er
u n d er

$
$
$
$
$

1 ,5 5 0
1, 600
1 ,6 5 0
1 ,7 0 0
1 ,7 5 0

_
____ _
— ____ _
__
_____
___________
___________

_

$
$
$
$
$

1,
1,
1,
1,
1,

750
800
850
900
950

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
under

$ 1 ,8 0 0
$ 1 ,8 5 0
$ 1, 900
$ 1 ,9 5 0
$ 2 , 000

$
$
$
$
$

2,
2,
2,
2,
2,

000
050
100
150
200

and
and
and
and
and

$ 2, 250
$ 2 , 300
$ 2 , 350
$ 2 ,4 0 0
$ 2, 4 5 0
$ 2,
$2,
$ 2,
$2,
$ 2,

500
550
600
650
700

V

9
4
3
0

7. 8
5 .4
6. 1
4. 5

-

5
8
7
8

_
-

5 .4
4. 6
5. 9
5. 8

_

1.
2.
3.
2.

(2 . 1)
1. 3
1. 1

3
8
9
5

_
_

_
_

_

( 2 .5 )

-

-

-

4
0
7
0

8.
7.
8.
11.

1
5
4
2

1. 3
2. 0
1 .5
3. 2

_
_

_
_

_

-

-

-

-

5
5
5
6

6.
7.
4.
3.

5
2
8
1

4.
7.
7.
6.

7
7
8
8

.

3. 0
_
_

_
_

_
_

-

0. 5

-

-

5.
1.
.
.

7
0
9
7

5 .4
2. 8
5. 8
3 .4

6.
7.
6.
6.

9
7
3
0

3.
1.
3.
2.

5
3
3
5

1. 7
_
12. 5
1 .0

3. 0
_
3. 0
-

_
_

_

3. 5
5. 7
2. 2
(- 9 )

11.
7.
5.
3.
2.

9
1
7
7
5

10.
6.
11.
14.
12.

5
0
2
0
6

11. 7
2. 5
13. 5
19. 5
4 .5

5.
5.
8.
3.
4.

8
9
6
7
0

(1 . 3)
1. 8
1. 1

2. 3
.9
1. 0
(•3)

11.
7.
4.
2.
2.

0
6
3
8
5

8.
8.
4.
4.
.

0
3
5
5
8

10.
18.
9.
7.
1.

2
4
0
4
6

3.
6.
11.
6.
12.

5.
2.
2.
4.
1.

3
1
7
9
3

6. 8
12. 5
8 .4
6. 4
2. 3

3.
4.
5.
4.
4.

8
5
2
9
2

. 3
1 .4
(•7)

1. 3
4. 6
3. 6
1 .0
2. 7

4.
4.
3.
5.
19-

2
9
8
9
5

6
9
1
2
0

4.
6.
9.
8.
11.

1
4
1
5
6

1. 1
(- 4 )

_
-

5. 2
3. 2
1. 5
( 2 .0 )

-

-

8
6
5
5
3

_
-

-

10.
8.
10.
6.
5.

_

_

_

-

14.
11.
11.
9.
7.

-

-

2.
3.
2.
4.

4.
5.
4.
4.

-

-

5
7
1
0

12.
7.
12.
6.

_
-

-

2.
3.
10.
8.

-

_
( 1 .8 )

_

_
'

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

(1 .3 )
1. 6
1. 1

-

_
_
_

.
_
_

_

2. 7
_
_
_

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

.
_
_

.
_
_
_

_
_
_

-

-

_

_

3
8
1
4
8.

_
(1 . 7)
2. 8
4. 2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4. 3
3. 2
3 .4
1. 1
(2 . 3)

_ ________
----------------__
___________
___________

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$ 2, 050 _ ------------$ 2, 1 0 0 ___________
$ 2 , 1 5 0 ___________
$ 2 , 2 0 0 __ _ _____
$ 2, 250 ___________

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_

.
_
_
_

_
_

_
_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

and
and
and
and
and

under
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$ 2 ,3 0 0
$ 2 , 350
$ 2 ,4 0 0
$ 2 ,4 5 0
$ 2, 500

___________
_
_______
___________
___________
_
___

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

.
_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.
.

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
under
u n d er
u n d er

$ 2,
$2,
$ 2,
$2,
$ 2,

___________
_
___
_____ __
___________
_ ____

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
_
_

.
_
_
_

_
_
_

_
__
_

_
_
_

_
_

1.0
1.0
2.1
1.0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1.0

_

_

_

.

$ 2 , 750 and o v e r -

—

550
600
650
700
750

----- -----

__ _

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

T o t a l ____________________________

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

N u m b e r o f e m p l o y e e s ________________

4 , 795

1 0 ,4 1 4

25, 777

$709

$801

$891

A v e r a g e m o n th ly s a la r i e s _ _____

—

_
100. 0

1 .4
( 1 .5 )

. 3
2. 1
. 6
1. 8
( 1 .0 )

2. 1
2. 4
4.5
5.2
2.4
3.5
1.0
. 3

_

7
7

1.0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

17, 559

6, 331

8 , 004

1, 842

4 , 323

2, 243

599

I, 260

703

287

$ 1 ,0 6 3

$ 1, 290

$74 1

$830

$956

$ 1, 170

$ 1, 160

$ 1, 304

$ 1, 565

$ 1, 928

S ee fo o tn o te a t end o f ta b le .




-

22

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100.0

Table 4.

Employment distribution by salary:

Professional and administrative occupations— Continued

( P e r c e n t d i s t r ib u t io n o f e m p lo y e e s in s e l e c t e d p r o f e s s io n a l and a d m in is t r a t iv e o c c u p a t io n s , b y a v e r a g e m o n th ly s a l a r i e s ,
U n ited S ta te s e x c e p t A la s k a and H a w a ii, 1 June 1970)
A ttorn ey s

B u yers

A v e r a g e m o n th ly s a la r i e s
i

III

II

IV

V

VI

i

m

II

IV

$ 4 7 5 and u n d e r $ 5 0 0 _________________

.

-

-

-

-

.

1. 0

.

_

$500
$525
$550
$575

and
and
and
and

under
under
u n d er
under

$525
$550
$575
$600

.
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

and
and
and
and

u n d er
under
u n d er
u n d er

$ 6 2 5 --------------------------$ 6 5 0 _________________
$ 6 7 5 — ------- --------$700
. —

_
-

_
_
-

_
-

7
9
5
7

2.
3.
4.
4.

7
1
7
8

_

-

_
_

_
-

9.
4.
14.
8.

_
_
.
_

_
-

_
-

0
9
2
2

_
_
_

_
5. 8

2.
2.
1.
5.

$600
$625
$650
$675

_
_
-

.
_
-

.
.
_
-

10.
6.
7.
6.

3
8
4
8

6.
6.
9.
7.

6
1
7
9

2.
1.
2.
2.

0
3
3
0

_
_
_
-

-

_
_
-

_
_
.
-

_
.
-

5.
3.
1.
1.

0
9
7
4

6.
8.
7.
4.

9
9
1
5

4.
4.
6.
6.

4
7
7
3

(1 .
1.
.
1.

8)
0
9
2

_
_
_
0. 6
1. 4
. 2

_
_
_
_
_
_
-

_
.
.
.
-

1.
.
1.
(2.

9
8
4
5)

6.
3.
2.
2.

0
7
6
6

8. 4
7. 1
0 .4
5. 9

2.
3.
3.
4.

5
0
9
6

.
.
_
_
-

4.
1.
1.
(2 .

0
9
1
0)

.
.
(1 -4 )

.
.
_
-

_
_
.
-

..
.
.
-

.
.
1
.

_
_
-

__ — --------------__ __ __ __
_________________
---------------------------

$ 700
.$7 2 5
$750
$ 775

and
and
and
and

under
under
u n d er
u n d er

$ 725
$750
$ 775
$800

--------------------------__ __ __ __ __
_________________
__ , _________
_

. 5
5. 7
7. 7
-

_
1. 0
. 2

$800
$825
$850
$875

and
and
and
and

under
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$825
$850
$875
$900

____
_________
_________________
_________________
_________________

1.
1.
5.
3.

1
1
8
0

1. 4
1. 0
1 .4
2. 0

$900
$925
$950
$ 975

and
and
and
and

under
under
u n d er
u n d er

$ 9 2 5 _________________
$ 9 5 0 _________________
$ 9 7 5 __ _____________
$ 1 , 000 _______________

3.
2.
9.
3.

2
2
0
3

8.
1.
4.
6.

7
6
6
7

0.
1.
.
2.

1
8
2
5

20. 3
8 .4
6. 2
4. 7
2. 1

13.
6.
8.
5.
9.

7
3
2
2
9

1.
3.
2.
7.
3.

7
0
7
3
3

.
(1 . 7)
1. 4

-

(1 - 9 )

$
$
$
$
$

1,
1,
1,
1,
1,

000
050
100
150
200

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$
$
$
$
$

1 ,0 5 0 ____ ______
1, 1 0 0 ____________
1, 150 _ __ ______
1, 200 ____________
1 ,2 5 0 ____________

$
$
$
$
$

1, 250
1 ,3 0 0
1, 350
1 ,4 0 0
1, 4 50

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
u n d er
u n d er

$
$
$
$
$

1 ,3 0 0
1 ,3 5 0
1 ,4 0 0
1 ,4 5 0
1 ,5 0 0

____________
____________
. —
__ _
____________
____________

5.
.
.
1.
1.

5
5
8
3
1

9. 1
5. 9
3. 0
3 .4
2. 2

11.
6.
8.
12.
10.

0
6
1
1
2

5.
3.
3.
10.
6.

6
5
1
4
4

$
$
$
$
$

1, 500
1, 550
1, 600
1 ,6 5 0
1, 700

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$
$
$
$
$

1, 550
1 ,6 0 0
1 ,6 5 0
1 ,7 0 0
1 ,7 5 0

____________
------------------____________
____________
____________

(.8 )

1. 0
1. 0
(2. 3)
_

6.
3.
2.
5.
2.

9
7
8
0
3

8.
5.
3.
8.
4.

3
9
8
3
7

1.
2.
1.
4.
5.

6
9
3
8
5

$
$
$
$
$

1,
1,
1,
1,
1,

750
800
850
900
950

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
under

$ 1, 800
$ 1, 850
$ 1, 900
$ 1, 950
$ 2 ,0 0 0

____________
_
_
_ __
____________
____________

.
_
_

4. 3
5. 1
4 .4
2. 7
3. 3

3.
4.
4.
3.
6.

4
7
2
5
8

(0 .7 )
1. 1
. 7
2. 0
2. 6

under
u n d er
u n d er
under
u n d er

$ 2,
$2,
$2,
$ 2,
$ 2,

3.
3.
1.
3.
1.

3 .4
8. 6
4. 9
4. 0
5. 4

.4
1. 5
1. 5
2. 6
6. 8

_

-

and
and
and
and
and

_

-

$ 2, 0 00
$ 2 , 0 50
$ 2 , 100
$ 2, 150
$ 2 ,2 0 0

.
.
_
_
_
-

.
_
_
.
-

_
-

.
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
_
-

$ 2, 250
$ 2, 300
$ 2 , 350
$ 2 ,4 0 0
$ 2 ,4 5 0

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
u n d er

$ 2 ,3 0 0
$ 2 , 350
$ 2 ,4 0 0
$ 2 ,4 5 0
$ 2, 500

____________
____________
____________
_
_____
_ —

_
.
-

1
2
0
6
0

2 .4
. 2
2. 2
1. 5
5. 2

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
under
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$ 2 ,5 5 0
$ 2 ,6 0 0
$ 2 , 650
$ 2 , 700
$ 2, 750

____________
____________
____________
_
_______
_ ___ ____

_
-

.
_
_
-

7.
3.
2.
2.
3.

$ 2 ,5 0 0
$ 2, 550
$ 2 , 600
$ 2 , 650
$ 2 ,7 0 0

_
_
_
_
-

4.
1.
1.
1.
1.

5
5
9
1
3

5.
5.
2.
6.
3.

2
9
0
1
5

_
_
.
_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
.
-

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
-

$ 2,
$2,
$ 2,
$2,
$ 2,

750
800
850
900
950

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
under
u n d er
u n d er

$ 2,
$2,
$ 2,
$2,
$ 3,

-----------------------------------_
_
__
____________
____________

1
9
7
2
7

$ 3 ,0 5 0 -----------------$ 3 , 1 0 0 -----------------$ 3 , 1 5 0 ____________
$ 3 , 200 _ _________
$ 3 ,2 5 0 ____________

_
-

-

$ 3 ,2 5 0
$ 3, 300
$ 3 , 350
$ 3 ,4 0 0
$ 3, 4 5 0

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$ 3 ,3 0 0
$ 3 ,3 5 0
$ 3 ,4 0 0
$ 3 , 450
$ 3, 500

_
_
-

5
0
7
5
5

_
_
-

_
_
_
.
_
_
_
-

.
_
_
-

_
-

1.
2.
.
1.
1.

_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

_
_
_
-

4.
3.
1.
5.
3.

and
and
and
and
and

_
_
-

1. 5
(3 .8 )

$ 3 ,0 0 0
$ 3 , 0 50
$ 3 , 100
$ 3 , 150
$ 3 ,2 0 0

_
_
-

_
_

_
_

_

_

_
-

-

050 ____ __
__
1 0 0 ____________
1 5 0 ____________
200 ____ ______
250 ____________

800
850
900
950
000

T otal

_____

____________
____

__

.
-

2. 3
1. 9
. 6
1. 0
( 3 .0 )

_
_
_
_
-

. 5
1. 3
1. 0
(2. 6)
_

_
.
_

_
_
_
_
_
_

-

_
_
-

-

-

-

_
-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

3. 7
4. 1

_

__

_

100. 0

.
-

100. 0

-

100. 0

_

100. 0

_

_
_
-

1. 4
1. 3
(.8 )
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

-

.

.

-

-

-

8.
6.
4.
3.
1.

1
3
1
9
9

1. 5
. 5
. 7
1. 0
(.8 )
_
_
_
_

_

-

_

11. 2
10. 7
11. 6
9 .4
9. 5

1 0 0 .0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

_

100. 0

634

1, 249

1, 775

1 ,6 5 9

793

458

2 ,4 9 0

1 0 ,1 3 7

13, 091

4 , 968

$988

$ 1. 132

$ 1 ,4 0 7

$ 1 ,6 9 2

$ 2 , 116

$ 2, 753

$709

$813

$972

$ 1, 158

S ee fo o tn o te at end o f ta b le .




3
7
0
0
6

_

.4
5. 2
. 9
.7
4. 8

100. 0

N u m b e r o f e m p lo y e e s — — __ ______
A v e r a g e m o n th ly s a l a r i e s _______

-

_

.
.
____________

$ 3, 500 and u n d er $ 3, 550 ____
$ 3 , 550 and o v e r _ __
___

_
-

11. 7
9 .4
6. 8
5. 5
3. 7

23

Table

4.

Employment

distribution

by

salary:

Professional

and

administrative

(P e r c e n t d is t r ib u t io n o f e m p lo y e e s in s e l e c t e d p r o f e s s io n a l and a d m in is t r a t iv e
U nited S ta tes e x c e p t A la s k a and H a w aii, 1 June 1970)

occupations------ Continued

o c c u p a t io n s , b y a v e r a g e m o n th ly s a la r i e s ,

D ir e c t o r s o f p e rso n n e l

J ob a n a ly s t s
A v e r a g e m on th ly s a la r i e s

II

III

IV

-

-

-

-

-

_
1. 0

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

. 2
1. 6
1. 6

_
3. 2
. 6
1. 0

_
_
.*

_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_

(1 . 3)

-

-

III

I

(l.D
3. 5
1. 1

-

-

-

-

_
(1 .6 )
2. 3

0.
1.
1.
6.

8
6
6
5

5.
4.
8.
4.

7
1
1
9

1.
4.
3.
5.

1
6
5
7

$725
$ 7 50
$775
$800

8. 9
9 .8
2. 4
9. 8

4.
7.
7.
8.

1
0
6
1

2.
3.
2.
4.

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$82 5
$850
$875
$900

9 .8
8. 1
4. 1
8. 1

9.
7.
12.
7.

5
0
7
3

5. 1
9. 9
6 .'4
6. 1

.
3.
3.
2.

6
7
0
4

1.
2.
8.
3.

7
5
5
0

under
under
u n d er
under

$ 9 2 5 ----$ 9 5 0 ----$ 9 7 5 ----$ 1 ,0 0 0 -

2.
.
1.
.

4.
2.
3.
.

6
4
8
5

7. 4
6. 6
3. 9
5 .9

3.
2.
2.
5.

7
2
6
8

3.
8.
5.
1.

4
9
7
7

3.
.
3.
3.

2
7
8
3

10.
12.
9.
16.
8.

7
0
4
8
0

9.
17.
5.
7.
4.

4
3
7
5
3

5.
8.
13.
11.
10.

5
4
3
2
0

(0 .8 )
3. 6
1. 4
5. 8

-

5. 6
4. 6
2. 1
1. 0
1 .1

5. 5
5. 1
2. 3
1. 4
(1 .4 )

8.
5.
5.
4.
2.

5
6
6
8
2

6.
5.
14.
7.
7.

4
5
4
3
1

2.
2.
3.
3.
5.

2
4
4
4
1

_
-

(.5 )
-

_
-

1. 8
3. 4
. 4
1. 6
1 .4

9.
5.
4.
8.
2.

4
6
3
7
6

5.
6.
4.
3.
4.

1
6
2
9
4

1.
3.
1.
1.
1.

5
3
4
4
2

1. 0
15. 9
6. 8
5 .9
1. 7

.
2.
.
.
.

8
1
8
7
3

4.
3.
.
2.
2.

6
2
7
2
9
2
4
7
5
2

$500
$525
$550
$575

and
and
and
and

u n d er
under
u n d er
u n d er

$525
$550
$575
$600

$600
$625
$650
$675

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
u n d er

$625
$650
$675
$700

$700
$725
$750
$775

and
and
and
and

under
u n d er
under
u n d er

$800
$825
$850
$875

and
and
and
and

$900
$925
$950
$975

and
and
and
and

—
—
—
—

4
8
6
8

.

3. 5
(1 . *
)
_

$ 1, 000
$ 1 ,0 5 0
$ 1 , 100
$ 1 , 150
$ 1 , 200

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$ 1 , 050
$ 1 ,1 0 0
$ 1 , 150
$ 1 , 200
$ 1 , 250

_
_
-

'

$ 1 ,2 5 0
$ 1 , 300
$ 1, 350
$ 1 , 400
$ 1 , 4 50

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$ 1,
$1,
$ 1,
$1,
$1,

_
_
_
-

-

$1,
$1,
$ 1,
$ 1,
$ l,

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$ 1 , 550
$ 1 , 600
$ 1, 650
$ 1, 700
$ 1 ,7 50

$ 1, 7 50 and
$ 1 , 8 00 and
$ 1, 8 50 and
$ 1, 9 00 and
$ 1, 9 50 and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$ 1 ,8 0 0
$ 1 , 8 50
$ 1, 9 00 $ 1 ,9 5 0
$ 2 , 000

$2,
$2,
$2,
$2,
$2,

000
050
100
150
200

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$2,
$2,
$2,
$2,
$2,

050
100
150
200
250

$2,
$2,
$2,
$2,
$2,

250
300
350
400
450

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$2,
$2,
$2,
$2,
$2,

300
350
400
450
500

15.
8.
2.
3.
1.

-

500
550
6 00
6 50
7 00

IV

II

I

300
350
4 00
450
500

$ 2 , 500 and u n d er 52, 550 ---------------------------------$ 2 , 550 and o v e r —

_
_

-

-

N u m b er o f e m p lo y e e s -------

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

. 3
1. 9
(1 .9 )
-

-

-

-

.
-

-

-

_

_
-

_
-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

~

-

-

2. 9
(l.D

( 1 .7 )

-

-

-

-

-

:

:

2.
3.
1.
.
.

_
-

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

1. 0
3. 4

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

123

370

609

626

1, 057

1, 963

1, 035

409

$74 5

$ 798

$ 93 2

$ 1 , 086

$ 1 , 049

$ 1 , 236

$ 1 , 535

$ 1 , 827

S ee fo o t n o t e at end o f ta b le .




-

_

.
-

_
-

100. 0

A v e r a g e m o n th ly s a la r i e s ■

-

-

_

9
2
5
4
3

1. 1
(.8 )

_

-

0
4
0
1

24

Table

4.

Employment

distribution

by

salary:

Professional

and

administrative

occupations— Continued

(P e r c e n t d is t r ib u t io n o f e m p lo y e e s in s e l e c t e d p r o f e s s io n a l and a d m in is t r a t iv e o c c u p a t io n s , b y a v e r a g e m on th ly s a la r i e s ,
U n ited S ta tes e x c e p t A la s k a and H a w a ii, 1 June 1970)
C h e m is t s
A v e r a g e m on th ly s a la r i e s
I

II

III

IV
_
-

V

VI
.
-

.
-

VII

VIII

_
-

.
-

_
-

U n der $ 5 5 0 ---------------------------------------------------------$ 5 5 0 and u n d er $ 5 7 5 -----------------------------------------$ 5 7 5 and u n d er $ 6 0 0 ------------------------------------------

2. 2
1. 0
. 6

-

-

'

-

-

$600
$625
$650
$675

and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$625
$650
$675
$700

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

.
6.
9.
4.

6
0
6
9

(0 . 3)
1 .9
1. 5

_
-

_
-

_
"

_
-

_
-

$700
$725
$750
$775

and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$725
$750
$775
$800

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.
7.
15.
10.

8
9
0
4

4.
3.
10.
8.

6
1
0
0

(1 .
1.
2.
2.

2)
5
7
6

_
-

-

-

-

-

$800
$825
$850
$875

and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$825
$850
$875
$900

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

9.
7.
5.
4.

2
4
9
4

9.
8.
10.
11.

7
9
9
0

2.
5.
4.
7.

8
3
9
9

_
(2 . 8)
1. 0

-

and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$ 9 2 5 -----------------------------------------$ 9 5 0 -----------------------------------------$ 9 7 5 -----------------------------------------$ 1 , 000 --------------------------------------

4. 5
1. 7
(2 . 0)
-

8. 5
6 .6
4. 5
3. 5

7.
7.
9.
7.

1
0
0
6

1.
2.
3.
2.

4
7
4
7

-

-

$900
$925
$950
$975

(0 .8 )

_
_
-

4. 1
1. 9
(1 .1 )

12.
9.
6.
5.
3.

8
4
5
1
2

9.
10.
10.
10.
10.

5
2
5
7
8

1.
2.
3.
4.
6.

5
6
0
4
2

_
_
-

_
_
-

7.
7.
6.
5.
3.

9
1
2
0
3

10.
9.
9.
8.
9.

3
9
7
4
5

2.
4.
4.
5.
8.

5
0
7
7
8

(1 .6 )
4. 9

2. 3
1. 4
(1 .3 )

7.
7.
5.
3.
3.

7
0
0
9
8

7.
9.
8.
7.
6.

3
0
4
8
2

2 .9
3. 3
4. 9
10. 8
8. 2

1. 0
. 2
1. 9

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

5.
8.
5.
3.
3.

3
3
0
5
1

9.
5.
7.
4.
6.

1
4
1
4
6

5. 4
3. 3
3. 5
3 .9
3. 7

3.
5.
1.
2.
2.

1
2
8
6
2

9.
4.
3.
6.
3.

9
1
5
2
9

4.
7.
2.
3.
2.

8
2
7
3
9

_
_
_

_
_
_

-

_

_
_
_
.

2. 0
1 .8
1 .2
2. 0
1 .6

-

-

-

$1,
$1,
$1,
$1,
$1,

and
and
and
and
and

under
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$1,
$1,
$1,
$1,
$1,

050 --------------------------------1 0 0 --------------------------------1 5 0 ---------------------------------200 --------------------------------250 ---------------------------------

$ 1 , 250
$ 1 , 300
$ 1 ,3 5 0
$ 1 , 4 00
$ 1 , 4 50

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$ 1 , 300
$ 1 , 350
$ 1 ,4 0 0
$ 1 , 450
$ 1 , 500

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

$1,
$ 1,
$ 1,
$1,
$1,

500
550
600
650
7 00

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$1,
$ 1,
$ 1,
$1,
$1,

550
600
650
7 00
750

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

$1,
$1,
$ 1,
$1,
$1,

750
8 00
850
9 00
9 50

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$1,
$1,
$ 1,
$1,
$2,

8 00
8 50
900
950
000

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

$2,
$2,
$2,
$2,
$2,

000
0 50
100
150
200

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
under

$2,
$2,
$2,
$2,
$2,

050 --------------------------------1 0 0 --------------------------------1 5 0 --------------------------------200 --------------------------------250 ---------------------------------

$ 2 , 250
$ 2 , 300
$ 2 ,3 5 0
$ 2, 400
$ 2 ,4 5 0

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$ 2 , 300
$ 2 , 350
$ 2 ,4 0 0
$ 2 ,4 5 0
$ 2 ,5 0 0

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

$2,
$2,
$2,
$2,
$2,

500
550
600
6 50
700

and
and
and
and
and

under
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$2,
$2,
$2,
$2,
$2,

550
600
650
700
750

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

$2,
$2,
$2,
$2,
$2,

750
8 00
850
900
9 50

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
under

$ 2 , 800
$ 2 , 8 50
$ 2 , 900
$ 2 , 950
$ 3 ,0 0 0

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

$3,
$3,
$3,
$3,
$3,

0 00
050
100
150
200

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$3,
$3,
$3,
$3,
$ 3,

050 ---------------------------------1 0 0 --------------------------------1 5 0 ---------------------------------200 --------------------------------250 ----------------------------------

1. 7
(1 . 7)
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

2. 2
1. 5
1. 1
(1 .6 )
_
_
_
_
_

_
( 1 .8 )
1. 8

"
-

_

_

2. 0
1. 2
(3 . 4)
_
_
_
_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

. 6
2. 9

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1. 7

:

:

-

:

:

:

-

.8
. 2

_

-

-

_
-

.
1.
1.
1.
(2 .

8
1
4
4
5)

I

-

_

_

3. 5
1 .9
1. 4
2. 5
3. 5
1. 9
1. 2

-

o ■
'T

$ 3 , 250 and u n d e r $ 3 , 300 ---------------------------------$ 3 ,3 0 0 and u n d er $ 3 ,3 5 0 ---------------------------------$ 3 ,3 5 0 and u n d er $ 3 ,4 0 0 ----------------------------------

_
-

-

O00

000
050
100
150
200

-

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

N u m b e r o f e m p lo y e e s ----------------------------------------

1, 601

5, 211

9, 158

11, 143

7, 407

4, 249

1, 700

483

A v e r a g e m o n th ly s a l a r i e s ----------------------------------

$764

$ 85 3

$ 97 8

$ 1 , 185

$ 1 , 422

$ 1 , 642

$ 1 ,9 1 1

$ 2 , 311

See fo o t n o t e at end o f ta b le .




25

Table

4.

Employment

distribution

by

salary:

Professional

and

administrative

occupations-----Continued

(P e r c e n t d i s t r ib u t io n o f e m p l o y e e s in s e l e c t e d p r o f e s s io n a l and a d m in is t r a t iv e o c c u p a t io n s , b y a v e r a g e m o n th ly s a l a r i e s ,
U n ited S ta tes e x c e p t A la s k a and H a w a ii, 1 June 1970)
E n g in e e r s
A v e r a g e m o n th ly s a la r i e s
i
$ 6 5 0 and u n d er $ 675 _
$ 6 7 5 and u n d er $ 7 0 0 _

— - ------- —
_ —
- —

II

( 1 .9 )
1. 2

III

V

IV

VI

VII

VIII

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_
( 1 .4 )

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

_
_
-

_
_
_

_
_
-

$ 700
$725
$ 750
$ 775

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
u n d er

$ 725
$750
$ 775
$ 800

_____
_______
________
____
— _—
__ _
____ __ ___
___________________________

1.
2.
4.
6.

8
3
5
9

(1. 8)
1. 8
2. 2

-

-

$800
$825
$850
$875

and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$825
$850
$875
$ 900

___________________________
_
____ _____ __________
________ _______
___

12.
14.
14.
14.

3
9
6
4

4.
8.
10.
10.

9
0
3
9

1.
1.
2.
3.

1
7
9
7

-

_
-

*

'

-

-

-

$ 900
$ 925
$950
$ 975

and
and
and
and

u n d er
under
u n d er
u n d er

$ 9 2 5 _ ___
_______
$ 950 _
_
$ 975 __
_ — ----$ 1, 000

11.
5.
3.
2.

1
7
7
1

13.
10.
10.
7.

2
9
7
5

6.
6.
8.
8.

3
4
6
7

_
( 2 .4 )
1. 5
2. 0

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

_

-----

050 --------------------------------1 0 0 --------------------------1 5 0 ______________________
200 --------------------------------250 ----------------------------------

$
$
$
$
$

1 ,0 0 0
1 ,0 5 0
1, 100
1, 150
1, 200

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
under
u n d er
under
under

$
$
$
$
$

1,
1,
1,
1,
1,

$
$
$
$
$

1 ,2 5 0
1 ,3 0 0
1, 350
1 ,4 0 0
1 ,4 5 0

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
unde r
under
under
under

$
$
$
$
$

1 ,3 0 0
1, 350
1 ,4 0 0
1 ,4 5 0
1, 500

$
$
$
$
$

1 ,5 0 0
1, 550
1, 600
1 ,6 5 0
1, 700

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
under
under
under
under

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

1,
1,
1,
1,
1,

750
800
850
900
950

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
unde r
under

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

2 ,0 0 0
2, 050
2, 100
2, 150
2 ,2 0 0

and
and
and
and
and

$ 2, 250
$ 2 ,3 0 0
$ 2, 350
$ 2 ,4 0 0
$ 2, 4 50
$
$
$
$
$

2. 0
(.5 )

17. 0
16. 1
11. 7
7. 2
3 .4

6.
8.
10.
13.
14.

5
3
9
2
3

(1 -7 )
2. 3
3. 4
5. 0
8. 0

10.
9.
7.
4.
3.

8
8
4
9
2

8. 2
9. 2
9. 5
10. 2
1 0 .4

2.
4.
5.
6.
6.

8.
6.
5.
3.
2.

5
5
3
8
7

'

-

_

-

9. 3
4. 9
2. 2
( 1 .5 )

-

-

______________________
_
— _
—
_
_ —
------------------------------------------------------------------------

_

_

2 .4
( 1 .3 )

-

-

'

-

-

1 ,5 5 0
1, 600
1, 650
1 ,7 0 0
1, 750

--------------------------------_
_
— —
-----------------------------------------------------------------

_

_

_

1,
1,
1,
1,
2,

800
850
900
950
000

____
— _
--------------------------------__
____ ___ —
---------------------------------

under
under
under
under
unde r

$ 2 ,0 5 0
$ 2, 100
$ 2 , 150
$ 2, 200
$ 2 ,2 5 0

---------------------------------

-

-

-

-

-

-

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
under
under
under
under

$ 2, 300 --------------------------------$ 2 ,3 5 0
_
____
$ 2, 4 00
$ 2 , 4 5 0 --------------------------------$ 2, 500 ---------------------------------

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 2, 550 ---------------- _ _
$ 2, 600 ______________________
$ 2 ,6 5 0 --------------------------------$ 2 ,7 0 0
— ----$ 2, 750

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

$ 2 , 750 and o v e r ___ . — ______ ____________ ___ ___

_

2, 500
2, 550
2 ,6 0 0
2 ,6 5 0
2, 700

T o ta 1

_

N u m b e r o f e m p lo y e e s

-

-

-

-

-

2. 1
1. 1
( 1 .7 )

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

1. 9
1. 1
( 2 .2 )
-

-

-

-

—
__
---

------- ------------_____ ________
----- -----

__ — _
_

-

__

_ —

_

----— _

A v e r a g e m o n th ly s a l a r i e s ---------------------------------

-

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

(0 . 7)
1. 4
2. 4

-

-

-

-

(0 . 3)

-

4
0
2
4
9

1. 6
1 .4
1. 3
2. 0
3. 0

_

7.
8.
9.
9.
8.

8
8
0
7
4

3.
3.
4.
5.
6.

2
9
8
6
5

1.
2.
2.
3.
3.

1
5
9
1
3

7.
5.
3.
3.
2.

3
3
9
0
2

7.
8.
7.
7.
7.

5
3
5
3
8

4.
5.
5.
4.
-6 .

2
7
8
6
4

6.
4.
2.
3.
1.

5
8
7
0
9

6.
7.
4.
5.
5.

1
7
6
9
6

2. 3
1. 6
1. 0
(4. 1)
-

3.
4.
2.
2.
2.

9
7
6
2
3

_

2.
1.
1.
1.
1.

7
2
4
6
1

1. 5
1. 2
(2. 6)
-

-

-

-

-

(0. 8)

5. 6

100. 0

100. 0

32, 117

8 5 , 759

1 1 4 ,3 6 5

78, 391

4 1 , 259

1 5 ,4 6 0

3, 884

$923

$ 1, 029

$ 1, 225

$ 1 ,4 1 7

$ 1, 623

$ 1 ,8 6 1

$ 2 , 116

100. 0

100. 0

13, 028
$851

100. 0

-

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

1
F o r s c o p e o f stu d y , s e e ta b le in a p p e n d ix A .
T o a v o id sh ow in g s m a ll p r o p o r t io n s o f e m p lo y e e s s c a t t e r e d at o r n e a r the e x t r e m e s o f the d i s ­
t r ib u t io n fo r s o m e o c c u p a t io n s , the p e r c e n t a g e s o f e m p lo y e e s in t h e s e in te r v a ls h a ve b e e n a c c u m u la te d and a r e sh ow n in the in t e r v a l a b o v e o r b e lo w the
e x t r e m e in t e r v a l co n ta in in g at le a s t 1 p e r c e n t .
T h e p e r c e n t a g e s r e p r e s e n tin g t h e s e e m p lo y e e s a r e sh ow n in p a r e n t h e s e s .
NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f r o u n d in g ,




s u m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y n ot eq u a l 100.

2 6

Table

5.

Employment

distribution

by

salary:

Engineering

technicians

and

keypunch

supervisors

(P e r c e n t d is t r ib u t io n o f e n g in e e r in g te c h n ic ia n s and k ey p u n ch s u p e r v i s o r s , by a v e r a g e m o n th ly s a l a r i e s ,
U n ited S ta tes e x c e p t A la s k a and H a w a ii, 1 June 1970)
E n g in e e r in g t e c h n ic ia n s

K e y p u n ch s u p e r v is o r s

A v e r a g e m o n th ly s a la r i e s
II

i

U n d er $ 3 7 5 ____________________________
$ 375 and u n d e r $ 4 0 0 _________________

0. 7
1. 9

IV

in

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

4 .'3
_
. 1

-

-

-

( 1 .0 )
1. 3
6. 1
5. 9

_

(0 .5 )

8. 2
2. 1
3. 6
7 .4

-

-

4
2
2
6

1.
1.
3.
3.

0
8
7
9

_
- '
(0 .9 )

_
-

4
7
9
8

14. 3
12. 6
9 .4
7. 1

5.
7.
10.
12.

7
5
6
0

1. 5
1. 8
3. 2
4 .4

_
_
( 1 .4 )

(.4 )
-

6. 0
3 .4
3. 0
2. 0

11.
9.
7.
6.

8
8
9
2

5.
8.
8.
9.

7
2
5
8

1.
2.
3.
4.

1
1
4
3

4.
3.
1.
.

-

1. 2
1. 3
( 1 .6 )

-

-

5.
4.
3.
1.

4
0
2
5

10.
9.
8.
7.

1
1
3
2

5.
7.
9.
9.

6
9
1
3

6.
4.
3.
1.

2
5
0
6

8.
8.
7.
7.

8
4
9
5

10.
7.
3.
1.
.

7
4
2
2
6

_________________
------------------------_________________
_________________

4.
8.
11.
11.

1
9
5
1

( 1 .3 )
1. 8
2. 4

$ 500
$ 525
$ 550
$575

and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$ 525
$550
$575
$600

_________________
_________________
------------------------_________________

11.
14.
10.
8.

6
1
6
2

5.
6.
9.
11.

$
$
$
$

600
625
650
675

and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
under

$ 625
$ 650
$ 675
$ 700

_________________
_________________
__ _____________
_________________

7.
4.
2.
1.

$ 700
$ 725
$750
$ 775

and
and
and
and

under
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$ 725
$ 750
$775
$ 800

______ ________
_________________
_________________
_________________

$
$
$
$

800
825
850
875

and
and
and
and

under
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$
$
$
$

825
850
875
900

_
___ _____
________________
________________
_________________

_

$
$
$
$

900
925
950
975

and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$
$
$
$

925 _ _ __________
950 _________________
975 ________________
1, 0 00 _______________

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

$
$
$
$
$

1,
1,
1,
1,
1,

_

_

_

1 ,0 5 0 ----------------1, 1 0 0 ___________
1, 1 5 0 ___________
1, 200 ___________
____ __
_____

IV

-

$425
$450
$475
$500

$
$
$
$
_

m

_

under
under
under
under

under
under
u n d er
u n d er
over

n

-

and
and
and
and

and
and
and
and
and

i

_

$400
$425
$450
$475

000
050
100
150
200

V

-

1. 4
1. 0
(1. 2)

-

-

-

3. 0
1 .0
1. 7
(• 1)

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

16.
3.
10.
9.

-

.

6
2
3
6

4.
4.
4.
11.

1
7
6
7

1.
3.
4.
10.

6
7
7
9

2. 8
.4
.4

9 .4
4. 0
8. 9
5. 0

7.
12.
5.
2.

2
5
7
6

13.
5.
8.
8.

3
7
0
1

1.
1.
5.
5.

4
1
7
0

2
7
5
3

5.
3.
7.
2.

1
3
3
2

4.
7.
2.
2.

6
1
9
7

7.
4.
5.
5.

8
6
7
0

. 8
1. 0
(-4 )
*

2.
2.
3.
1.

1
0
4
5

2.
2.
4.
3.

8
5
8
3

12.
4.
9.
6.

5
6
6
8

.4
3. 0
2. 1
.2

2.
6.
4.
5.

5
8
6
0

1. 5
1. 5
(- 1 )

3.
2.
1.
1.
.

2
1
1
1
4

_

4. 0
(1 . 5)

-

'

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

N u m b er o f e m p l o y e e s -------------------------

4 , 685

14, 546

26, 998

3 1 ,4 7 8

16, 621

1, 190

1 ,4 4 4

889

281

A v e r a g e m o n th ly s a l a r i e s -----------------

$525

$627

$712

$820

$ 920

$574

$647

$691

$824

T o t a l __ __ __

___

100. 0

1
F o r s c o p e o f stu d y , s e e ta b le in a p p e n d ix A . T o a v o id sh ow in g s m a ll p r o p o r t io n s o f e m p lo y e e s s c a t t e r e d at o r n e a r
the e x t r e m e s o f the d i s t r ib u t io n fo r s o m e o c c u p a t io n s , the p e r c e n t a g e s o f e m p lo y e e s in th e s e in t e r v a ls h a v e b e e n a c c u m u la te d
and a r e sh ow n in the in t e r v a l a b o v e o r b e lo w the e x t r e m e in t e r v a l con ta in in g a t le a s t 1 p e r c e n t . T h e p e r c e n t a g e s r e p r e s e n tin g
th e s e e m p lo y e e s a r e show n in p a r e n th e s e s .
NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g ,




s u m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y n o t eq u a l

27

100.

Table 6.

Employment distribution by salary:

Drafting and clerical occupations

(P e r c e n t d i s t r ib u t io n o f e m p lo y e e s in s e l e c t e d d r a ftin g and c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t io n s , b y a v e r a g e w e e k ly s a l a r i e s , U n ited S ta tes
A la s k a and H a w a ii, 1 June 1970)

A v e r a g e w e e k ly
s a la r i e s

II

i

U n d er $ 60
$ 6 0 and u n d er $ 6 5 ________
$ 65 and u n d er $ 7 0 _________
$ 7 0 and u n d er $ 75
___

(1. 6)

$75
$80
$85
$90
$ 95

1 .9
5. 5
7 .0
10. 3
10. 2

( 0 .4 )
1 .0
1 .9
3 .6
5. 8
6. 4
7. 4
8 .3
8. 6

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$80
$ 85
$90
$ 9 5 ________
$ 1 0 0 _______

_
-

$100
$ 10 5
$ 110
$ 115
$120

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
under
under
unde r
under

$ 10 5
$110
$ 115 _
$ 12 0 ______
$125

1 1 .8
7. 1
9. 2
6. 7
6. 8

$ 125
$130
$135
$140
$ 14 5

and
and
and
and
and

under
u n d er
under
u n d er
u n d er

$ 1 3 0 ______
$ 13 5
$140
$ 1 4 5 ______
$ 1 5 0 ______

4. 5
6. 2
2. 7
3. 2
1 .4

$150
$160
$170
$180
$190

and
and
and
and
and

under
u n d er
under
u n d er
under

$ 16 0
$ 1 7 0 ______
$180
$ 1 9 0 ______
$200

$200
$210
$220
$230
$240

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
u n d er
under
under

$ 2 1 0 ___
$ 2 2 0 ______
$ 2 3 0 ___
$240
$ 25 0

$250
$260
$270
$280

and
and
and
and

u n d er $ 2 6 0 ___
un d er $270
u n d er $ 2 8 0 ______
over

T ota l

C le rk s ,
a c c o u n tin g

D r a ft s m e n

D r a ft s m e n tra ce rs

_
-

III

-

i

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

_

C le rk s ,
fi le

II

0 .4
1 .9
4. 1
6. 4
9. 4
1 0 .6
1 1 .5
9. 7

i

-

0. 1
1 .5
5 .5
13. 9

_
( 0 .4 )
1 .3

0. 1
2. 1
4. 5

_
( 0 .5 )

(0 .5 )
1. 1
1 .5
3. 5
3 .9

1 9 .0
13. 9
9 .6
6. 8
3 .8

13. 5
1 5 .4
12. 7
12. 1
6. 8

5. 2
7. 8
1 1 .3
10. 1
8. 4

7. 7
1 1 .2
12. 0
12. 5
1 0 .6

1 .0
3. 5
4. 5
8. 1
8 .9

1 2 .0
16. 7
15. 5
1 0 .5
7. 3

5. 1
3. 5
3. 3
1 .8
1 .6

10. 1
7 .8
6. 8
6. 4
6. 2

9.
6.
5.
3.
3.

6
7
3
5
4

1 1 .4
1 1 .5
1 0 .6
10. 3
7. 2

5. 2
2 .9
3. 1
2. 2
1 .5

3. 7
4 .5
3. 0
2. 4
2 .5

2.
2.
2.
1.
.

4
5
6
1
5

5 .8
4 .8
4. 1
3 .6
1 .7

1. 0
( 1 .3 )

1. 1
(.8 )

1 .2
(.3 )

1 .5
(-9 )

_

_

_

3. 1
2 .6
2. 6
2 .0
1 .3

8.
7.
5.
5.
5.

2
1
6
8
8

_
-

1 .0
1 .0
(1 . 1)

“

-

_

.

_
_

_

-

8. 2
6 .4
3. 5
2. 7
( 1 .9 )

-

-

-

-

-

.

.

-

-

_
>

.
_
-

_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_

_

_
_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

8. 0
4. 1
2. 9
2. 2
( 1 .4 )

17. 2
14. 4
1 2 .5
8 .8
4. 3

5. 1
9 .5
12. 7
1 5 .4
14. 1

_
-

_

-

3. 7
1 .8
1. 4
(.8 )

-

-

12. 0
8. 3
4. 8
3 .6
2. 2
2 .4
2. 0
2. 5
1 .0

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
7
7
3

2. 1
( 3 .0 )
-

2. 3
1 .0
(-4 )
-

_

0.
2.
5.
12.

4
1
3
7
9

(1 .5 )
1 .4
1 .5

_

_

5.
6.
6.
7.
8.

_

-

i

9 .5
7 .3
6. 1
5. 4
3 .8

3 .4
4. 6
5. 7
7 .4
7 .5

_

n

0 .2
4. 4
1 4 .9
2 2. 2

-

7
8
4
5
6

_

O ffic e
boys
or
g ir ls

in

-

K eyp u n ch
o p era tors

II

( 1 .7 )
1 .9
2 .9

7.
8.
8.
7.
5.

ex cep t

1 .6
(• 9)
_

-

_

_
_
_

_

-

-

-

_
' _
-

.

_

-

_
_

-

-

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

1 0 0 .0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

1 00 . 0

1 0 0 .0

100. 0

N u m b e r o f e m p l o y e e s _____

4 ,9 9 2

1 9 ,9 3 2

32, 752

28, 343

8 7, 609

6 0 ,1 6 9

31, 145

2 9 ,9 4 1

8, 772

6 4 , 645

49, 0 24

2 8 ,8 4 5

A v e r a g e w e e k ly s a l a r i e s __

$ 10 9

$131

$160

$196

$101

$131

$79

$ 88

$10 6

$98

$112

$ 87

S ee fo o t n o t e at end o f ta b le .




2 8

Table 6.

Employment distribution by salary:

Drafting and clerical occupations----Continued

( P e r c e n t d is t r ib u t io n o f e m p lo y e e s in s e l e c t e d d r a ftin g and c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t io n s , b y a v e r a g e w e e k ly s a l a r i e s , U n ited S ta tes
A la s k a and H a w a ii, 1 June 1970)

S e c r e t a r ie s

S te n o ­
S te n o ­
g ra p h ers gra p h ers
s e n io r
g en era l

A v e r a g e w e e k ly s a la r i e s
i

U n d er $ 6 0 __ _____ _______________
$ 6 0 and u n d er $ 6 5 _________________
$ 65 and u n d er $ 70
$ 7 0 and u n d er $ 75
________________
$ 75
$80
$ 85
$90
$ 95

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$ 80
$85
$ 9 0 __ .......
_
$ 9 5 __________________
$ 1 0 0 _________________

II

III

IV

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

(i.D

_

1 .6
2. 7
4 .4
5 .5

(1 -3 )
1 .0
1 .8
2. 3

S w itc h b o a rd
o p e ra to rs
i

T a b u la tin g -m a c h in e
o p e ra to rs

II

i

-

0.
2.
2.
5.

3
5
7
5

(1 .1 )

4. 2
6 .5
8 .5
1 1 .2
9. 7

( 1 .4 )
1 .6
3 .0
5. 0
5 .6

6 .8
9 .7
8 .0
1 0 .3
10. 4

-

_
(0 . 7)
2. 7

_
(0 .7 )
1. 1
1 .5
1 .7

_
( 2 .8 )

-

ex cep t

II

III

I

_

_
_

(i.D

-

-

1 .3
2. 3
3 .6
6 .8
7 .6

3. 4
7. 5
9 .6
8 .4
1 1 .6

(0 .6 )
1 .7
2 .4
3. 1
4 .9

_
_

-

_
_

T y p is t s

.

II

0. 2
.5
2 .9
8. 5

_
_
(0 . 9)

“

1 0 .8
15. 2
1 5 .5
13. 1
10. 2

$100
$105
$110
$115
$120

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$105
$110
$115
$120
$12 5

______________
______________
______________
______________

7 .5
8. 7
8 .4
10. 8
9 .9

4. 0
4 .2
5 .2
7. 2
8. 1

2 .9
2 .9
3 .0
4. 7
5. 4

1. 1
2. 3
1 .8
3. 4
4. 7

10. 4
7 .9
8 .4
6 .6
5 .6

8.
8.
8.
10.
8.

9
3
1
0
0

9 .8
5 .3
7. 1
6 .0
5. 3

9 .4
9 .3
9. 1
9 .3
9. 1

1 2 .5
8. 3
10. 2
6 .4
3 .6

6. 1
7. 7
8 .6
10. 1
1 0 .6

(2 .1 )
1 .8
2. 2
3. 2
6 .9

7 .9
5. 2
3 .3
2 .0
1 .8

1 2 .6
1 0 .8
8 .3
6. 4
5. 1

$125
$ 130
$135
$ 140
$145

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 1 3 0 _______________
$ 1 3 5 _______________
$ 1 4 0 _______________
$ 1 4 5 _______________
$150

8 .6
7. 7
6 .4
5 .4
3. 7

8 .8
8 .8
7 .9
7. 7
6. 4

6.
7.
7.
7.
6.

2
4
7
3
9

3 .8
5. 7
6. 4
5. 5
5 .4

5. 1
4. 2
4. 2
1 .7
.8

7.
7.
6.
7.
3.

8
2
7
7
5

4 .8
1 .9
1 .5
(1 .8 )

9. 1
5 .9
4. 2
3. 7
2 .9

4. 2
2 .8
2 .8
3 .6
1 .5

7 .9
7 .0
6. 5
7. 3
3. 1

4 .9
8 .8
8. 0
8. 0
9 .8

1. 1
1 .0
(.8 )

3 .5
3. 1
2. 3
1 .9
1. 1

$150
$ 160
$170
$180
$190

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
u n d er

$ 1 6 0 _______________
$ 1 7 0 _______________
$ 1 8 0 _______________
$ 1 9 0 _______________
$ 2 0 0 _______________

4 .8
1 .6
(1 .0 )
-

1 1 .7
6 .9
3 .9
2 .0
(.6 )

1 3 .4
10. 3
6 .9
4. 5
2. 3

1 1 .2
1 3 .6
10. 5
7. 5
5. 4

1 .1
(.2 )

*
-

3 .7
1 .2
(-4 )

1 .5
(- 9 )

-

-

-

-

5 .5
3. 7
1 .8
1 .4
. 1

15. 3
8 .8
7. 1
3 .5
4. 4

.
_
-

-

4. 2
2. 3
(.7 )
-

$200
$210
$220
$ 230

and
and
and
and

u n d e r $ 21 0
u n d e r $ 2 2 0 _______________
u n d er $ 2 3 0 _
over

_
-

1 .6
(1 .6 )
_
-

3 .5
2 .5
1. 1
1 .7

_

_
_
-

_
a
.
-

.

_

_

_
-

_
-

_

-

_

-

-

-

2. 1
1 .4
1 .5
.2

-

2 .9
5. 7
9 .0
12. 0
1 2 .8

1 .3
(•4)
_

-

-

_
_

_
_

-

-

T o t a l __________ ___________ ____

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

100. 0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

N u m b e r o f e m p l o y e e s ______________

9 0 , 862

9 0 ,9 9 5

51, 723

1 5 ,9 9 1

6 8 ,3 0 1

5 8 ,9 1 2

14, 146

11, 641

3, 515

7, 950

4, 328

8 3 , 788

4 5 , 156

$120

$134

$144

$15 6

$105

$120

$ 98

$ 11 5

$ 10 6

$124

$150

$ 90

$ 10 5

A v e r a g e w e e k ly s a la r i e s

1
F o r s c o p e o f stu d y , s e e ta b le in a p p e n d ix A .
T o a v o id sh ow in g s m a ll p r o p o r t io n s o f e m p lo y e e s s c a t t e r e d at o r n e a r th e e x t r e m e s o f the
d is t r ib u t io n fo r s o m e o c c u p a t io n s , the p e r c e n t a g e s o f e m p l o y e e s in t h e s e in t e r v a ls h a v e b e e n a c c u m u la te d a n d a r e sh ow n in th e in t e r v a l a b o v e o r
b e lo w th e e x t r e m e in t e r v a l co n ta in in g at le a s t 1 p e r c e n t .
T h e p e r c e n t a g e s r e p r e s e n t in g t h e s e e m p lo y e e s a r e sh ow n in p a r e n t h e s e s .
NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g ,




su m s o f in d iv id u a l it e m s m a y not eq u a l 100.

29

Table 7.

Occupational employment distribution:

By industry division

(P e r c e n t d i s t r ib u t io n o f e m p lo y e e s in s e l e c t e d p r o f e s s io n a l, a d m in is t r a t iv e , t e c h n ic a l, and c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t io n s ,
b y in d u s tr y d i v is i o n , 2 U n ited S ta tes e x c e p t A la s k a and H a w a ii, June 1970)

O c c u p a tio n

P u b lic
u t ilit ie s 3

W h o le s a le
tra d e

R eta il
tra d e

fin a n c e ,
in s u ra n ce ,
and
r e a l e s ta te

S e le c t e d
s e r v ic e s 4

68
38
57
28
86
65
69
91
78

12
17
8
18
6
5
( 5)
( 5)
10

7
8
10
5
( 5)
( 5)
7
( 5)
( 5)

( 5)
7
7
(*)
( 5)
(5)
6
( 5)
( 5)

8
29
15
44
(5)
23
14
( 5)
( 5)

( 5)
( 5)
( 5)
( 5)
( 5)
4
( 5)
8
11

77
78

8
7

( 5)
( 5)

( 5)
( 5)

( 5)
( 5)

15
13

30

7

14

7

40

( 5)

39
19
41
33
50
49
32
41
39

14
5
10
13
8
14
13
16
7

13
7
12
9
7
8
7
10
5

12
8
9
4
5
( 5)
14
4
4

21
59
27
38
26
25
32
28
42

( 5)
( 5)
( 5)
( 5)
4
( 5)
( 5)
( 5)
( 5)

M anu­
fa c tu r in g

P r o f e s s i o n a l and a d m in is t r a t iv e

A ccou n ta n ts
__ ____ _
_
__ __ ------ -------- —
A u d ito r s
________ — ----------------C h ie f a c c o u n ta n ts
A tto rn e y s _
— __ ------------------- — ------------- —
B u y e r s ______________________________________________
Job a n a ly s ts —
_____ — ________________
D i r e c t o r s o f p e r s o n n e l ___________________________
C h e m i s t s -------------- -------------------------------------- ------E n g i n e e r s ----- ------------— — ---------------------------

T e c h n ic a l su p p o r t

E n g in e e r in g t e c h n ic a n s ___________________________
D r a ft s m e n —
_____ _____
_ ___

C l e r i c a l s u p e r v is o r y

K ey p u n ch s u p e r v i s o r s ____________________________

C le rica l

C l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g _____________________ ________
C l e r k s , f i l e __ __________________ ________________
K ey p u n ch o p e r a t o r s __
________ _________ ____
___________
O ffic e b o y s o r g i r l s _ __________
S e c r e t a r ie s _________________________________________
S ten og ra p h ers
—
_ —
S w it c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s __
T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s __________________
T y p is t s

1 E a ch o c c u p a t io n in c lu d e s th e w o r k le v e l s , a s d e fin e d f o r the s u r v e y , fo r w h ic h e m p lo y m e n t e s t im a t e s in a ll in d u s t r ie s w ith in s c o p e o f the study
show n in ta b le 1.
2 F o r s c o p e o f stu d y , s e e ta b le in a p p e n d ix A .
3 T r a n s p o r t a t io n ( lim it e d t o r a il r o a d , lo c a l and su b u rb a n p a s s e n g e r , d e e p se a w a t e r , and a ir t r a n s p o r t a t io n in d u s t r ie s ) , c o m m u n ic a t io n , e l e c t r i c ,
g a s , and s a n ita ry s e r v i c e s .
4 E n g in e e r in g and a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s ; and c o m m e r c i a l l y o p e r a t e d r e s e a r c h , d e v e lo p m e n t , and te s t in g l a b o r a t o r i e s o n ly .
5 L e s s than 4 p e r c e n t .

a re




30

Table 8.

Relative salary levels:

Occupation by industry division

(R e la t iv e s a la r y le v e l s f o r s e l e c t e d p r o f e s s io n a l, a d m in is t r a t iv e , t e c h n ic a l, and c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t io n s ,
b y in d u s t r y d i v is i o n , 2 U n ited S ta tes e x c e p t A la s k a and H a w a ii, June 1970)

M anu­
fa c t u r in g

O c c u p a tio n

P u b lic
u t ilit ie s 3

W h o le s a le
tr a d e

R e t a il
tr a d e

F in a n c e ,
in s u r a n c e ,
and
r e a l esta te

S e le c t e d
s e r v ic e s 4

P r o f e s s i o n a l and a d m in is t r a t iv e

A c c o u n t a n t s ______________________________
----— —
_ _ -------A u d it o r s __ ---------C h ie f a c c o u n ta n ts
----- —
________
A t t o r n e y s ---------------- ------------- ------------------------ —
"Buyers
J ob a n a l y s t s ___ _______________ ______ ___ _________
D i r e c t o r s o f p e r s o n n e l ___________________________
C h e m i s t s ____________________________________________

100
104
102
106
100
103
100
100
101

103
100
102
103
104
108
107
(5)
97

98
103
( 5)
113
109
( 5)
94
( 5)
( 5)

98
95
( 5)
98
109
( 5)
103
( 5)
( 5)

97
94
99
96
( 5)
88
10 1
l 5)
( 5)

99
115
( 5)
106
98
113
104
106
98

99
100

107
100

( 5)
101

( 5)
99

( 5)
101

102
99

__

102

116

102

100

94

107

C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g __
________ ___ __
____ _
C l e r k s , f i le ________________________________________
K e y p u n ch o p e r a t o r s ----------------- -------- -----O ffi c e b o y s o r g i r l s ----- _ -------__ ____ —
S e c r e t a r i e s — — ------- ---------------------------------------S ten og ra p h ers
S w it c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s ------------------------------------------T a b u la tin g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ___________________

104
108
102
104
102
102
105
105
104

107
121
110
109
109
106
112
101
106

104
102
101
99
103
102
105
100
102

92
97
97
97
91
97

91
95
94
94
93
91
96
93
95

104
'1 1 0
104
104
104
99
106
98
101

E n g in e e r s

................ *...................................................
T e c h n ic a l su p p o r t

E n g in e e r in g t e c h n ic ia n s _____
D r a f t s m e n _________ — ___

_ ______________
__ _____ __ -----

C l e r i c a l s u p e r v is o r y

K e y p u n ch s u p e r v i s o r s

___ ____________

_____

C le rica l

8
6
93
98

1 E a ch o c c u p a t io n in c lu d e s th e w o r k l e v e l s , a s d e fin e d f o r the s u r v e y , fo r w h ic h data a r e p r e s e n t e d in ta b le 1. In c o m p u tin g r e la t iv e s a la r y le v e l s
fo r e a c h o c c u p a t io n b y in d u s tr y d iv is io n , th e t o t a l e m p lo y m e n t in e a ch w o r k le v e l in a ll in d u s t r ie s s u r v e y e d w as u s e d a s a c o n s ta n t e m p lo y m e n t w eig h t
to e lim in a t e the e ff e c t o f d i f f e r e n c e s in the p r o p o r t io n o f e m p lo y m e n t in v a r io u s w o r k le v e l s w ithin e a ch o c c u p a t io n .
2 F o r s c o p e o f stu d y, s e e ta b le in a p p e n d ix A .
3 T r a n s p o r t a t io n (lim it e d to r a il r o a d , lo c a l and su b u rb a n p a s s e n g e r , d e e p s e a w a t e r , and a ir t r a n s p o r t a t io n in d u s t r ie s ) , c o m m u n ic a t io n , e l e c t r i c ,
g a s , and s a n ita ry s e r v i c e s .
4 E n g in e e rin g and a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s ; and c o m m e r c i a l l y o p e r a t e d r e s e a r c h , d e v e lo p m e n t , and t e s t in g la b o r a t o r i e s o n ly .
5 I n s u ffic ie n t e m p lo y m e n t in 1 w o r k le v e l o r m o r e to w a r ra n t s e p a r a t e p r e s e n t a t io n o f data.




31

Table 9.

Average standard weekly hours:

Occupation by industry division

(A v e r a g e w e e k ly h o u r s 1 f o r e m p l o y e e s in s e l e c t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m in is t r a t i v e , t e c h n i c a l, a n d c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t io n s , 2 b y in d u s tr y d i v is i o n , 3
U n ited S ta tes e x c e p t A la s k a and H a w a ii, June 1970)

O c c u p a tio n

M anu­
fa c t u r in g

F in a n c e ,
in s u r a n c e ,
and
r e a l esta te

P u b lic
u t il it i e s 4

W h o le s a le
tra d e

5
0
5
5
0
5
0
5
0

39. 5
39. 5
39. 5
39. 5
39. 5
3 9 .5
39. 5
(6)
3 9 .5

39. 5
39. 5
(‘ >
37. 5
39. 0
(6 )
38. 5
(‘ )
(6 )

39. 5
4 0. 0
(6 )
4 0. 0
39. 5
<6 )
40. 5
(‘ )
(‘ )

38. 0
38. 0
38. 0
37. 5
(6 )
38. 0
39. 0
(6 )
(6 )

39. 5
39. 5
(6)
39. 0
39. 5
40. 0
40. 0
39. 5
39. 5

40. 0
40. 0

39. 5
3 9 .5

(6 )
39. 5

(6 )
38. 0

(6 )
38. 5

39. 5
39. 5

39. 5

39. 0

39. 5

39. 0

38. 5

39. 0

39.
39.
39.
39.
39.
39.
39.
39.
39.

39.
38.
39.
38.
38.
39.
39.
39.
39.

39.
39.
39.
39.
38.
39.
39.
39.
39.

39. 5
39. 5
3 9 .5
39. 0
39. 0
39. 0
39. 5
39. 5
39. 0

38.
38.
38.
38.
38.
38.
38.
37.
38.

39.
39.
39.
39.
39.
39.
39.
39.
39.

R e t a il
tra d e

S e le c t e d
s e r v ic e s 5

P r o f e s s i o n a l and a d m in is t r a t iv e
A c c o u n ta n ts ________________________________________
A u d it o r s ____________________________________________
C h ie f a c c o u n ta n t s __________________________ _____
A t t o r n e y s __________________________________________
B u y e r s ___ _____________ _____ _____ ___ ____ __________
J o b a n a ly s t s ______________________________________
D ir e c t o r s o f p e r s o n n e l ___________________________
C h e m is t s
_
______
E n g in e e r s ----------------------------------------------------------------

39.
39.
39.
38.
40.
39.
40.
39.
40.

T e c h n i c a l su p p o r t
E n g in e e r in g t e c h n ic ia n s __________________________
D r a f t s m e n __________________________________________

C l e r i c a l s u p e r v is o r y
K eyp u n ch s u p e r v is o r s

C le rica l
C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g _______________________________
C l e r k s , f i l e ________________________________________
K ey p u n ch o p e r a t o r s ______________________________
O ffic e b o y s o r g i r l s _____________________________
S e c r e t a r ie s ________________________________________
S t e n o g r a p h e r s _____________________________________
S w it c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s _______ ____ ___________
T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s __________________
T y p is t s ______________________________________________

5
0
5
0
0
5
5
5
5

0
5
0
5
5
5
5
0
0

5
0
5
0
5
0
0
5
0

5
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
0

5
0
5
0
5
5
5
5
5

1 B a s e d on the s ta n d a rd w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e t h e ir r e g u la r s t r a i g h t - t im e s a la r y . If sta n d a rd h o u r s w e r e not a v a ila b le ,
the sta n d a rd h o u r s a p p lic a b le fo r a m a jo r it y o f the o f f i c e w o r k f o r c e in the e s t a b lis h m e n t w e r e u s e d .
T he a v e r a g e fo r e a c h j o b c a t a g o r y w as
rou n d ed to the n e a r e s t h a lf h o u r .
2 E a ch o c c u p a t io n in c lu d e s th e w o r k le v e l s , a s d e fin e d f o r th e s u r v e y , f o r w h ic h data a r e p r e s e n t e d in t a b le 1.
3 F o r s c o p e o f s tu d y , se e t a b le in a p p e n d ix A .
4 T r a n s p o r t a t io n (l im i t e d t o r a i l r o a d , l o c a l and su b u rb a n p a s s e n g e r , d e e p se a w a t e r , and a ir t r a n s p o r t a t io n in d u s t r ie s ) , c o m m u n ic a t io n ,
e l e c t r i c , g a s , and sa n it a r y s e r v i c e s .
5 E n g in e e r in g and a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s ; a n d c o m m e r c i a l l y o p e r a t e d r e s e a r c h , d e v e lo p m e n t , and te s t in g l a b o r a t o r i e s o n ly .
6 I n s u ffic ie n t e m p lo y m e n t in 1 w o r k le v e l o r m o r e t o w a r r a n t s e p a r a t e p r e s e n t a t io n o f da ta .




32

Appendix A. Scope and Method of Survey
Scope of Survey
T h e s u r v e y r e l a t e s to e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in the U nited S ta te s e x c e p t A l a s k a and H a w a ii
in the f o l l o w i n g i n d u s t r i e s :
M a n u f a c t u r in g ; t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , e l e c t r i c , g a s ,
and s a n i t a r y s e r v i c e s ; w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e ;
e n g i n e e r i n g and a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s ; and c o m m e r c i a l l y o p e r a t e d r e s e a r c h , d e v e l o p m e n t ,
and t e s t i n g l a b o r a t o r i e s .
E x c l u d e d a r e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s e m p l o y i n g f e w e r than the m i n i m u m
n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s , as i n d i c a t e d in the a c c o m p a n y i n g ta b le f o r e a c h i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , at
the t i m e o f r e f e r e n c e o f the u n i v e r s e data ( g e n e r a l l y , f i r s t q u a r t e r o f 1 9 6 9 ).
The v a r ia b le
m i n i m u m e m p l o y m e n t s i z e , w h i c h w a s a d o p te d in the 1966 s u r v e y , m o r e n e a r l y e q u a l i z e s
the m i n i m u m w h i t e - c o l l a r e m p l o y m e n t o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a m o n g the v a r i o u s in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s .
T h e e s t i m a t e d n u m b e r o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s and the to t a l e m p l o y m e n t w ith in s c o p e o f this
s u r v e y , and w ith in the s a m p l e s a c t u a l l y s t u d ie d , a r e sh o w n f o r e a c h m a j o r i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n
in the a c c o m p a n y i n g ta b l e .
T h e s e e s t i m a t e s a l s o a r e sh o w n s e p a r a t e l y f o r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
e m p l o y i n g 2, 500 w o r k e r s o r m o r e and t h o s e l o c a t e d in S ta n d a rd M e t r o p o l i t a n S t a t i s t i c a l
A r e a s .1
A s i n d ic a t e d in the t a b l e , the s c o p e o f the s tu d y w a s the s a m e f o r a ll o c c u p a t i o n s ;
h o w e v e r , the c l e r i c a l and d r a ft i n g o c c u p a t i o n s w e r e s tu d ie d in a l a r g e r n u m b e r o f e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t s than w e r e the p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , e n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n i c i a n , and k e y p u n c h s u p e r ­
v is o r o ccu p a tion s.
T h e s a m p l i n g m e t h o d s u s e d f o r s tu d y in g e a c h o f t h e s e o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s
a r e d e s c r i b e d in d e t a i l u n d e r S a m p li n g and E s t i m a t i n g P r o c e d u r e s .

T im in g o f S u rvey
S u r v e y data c o l l e c t i o n w a s p la n n e d s o that the data w o u l d r e f l e c t an a v e r a g e r e f e r e n c e
p e r i o d o f June 1970. 2
T h e d ata f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , e n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n i ­
c i a n , and k e y p u n c h s u p e r v i s o r o c c u p a t i o n s w e r e o b t a i n e d f r o m a n a tio n w id e s a m p l e o f e s t a b ­
l i s h m e n t s c o n t a c t e d l a r g e l y b e t w e e n M a r c h and S e p t e m b e r .
T h e a v e r a g e r e f e r e n c e m o n t h f o r c l e r i c a l and d r a ft i n g o c c u p a t i o n s w a s a l s o June 1970.
D a ta f o r t h e s e o c c u p a t i o n s w e r e o b t a i n e d f r o m tw o s o u r c e s :
The B u r e a u 's occu p a tion a l
w a g e s t u d ie s in 44 m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s w h i c h had r e f e r e n c e d a te s o f M a r c h t h r o u g h
S e p t e m b e r 1970; and in a l l o t h e r a r e a s , f r o m the s a m e s a m p l e o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s that w e r e
v i s i t e d f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n s .
M eth od

of

C o lle c t io n

Data w e r e o b ta in e d b y B u r e a u f i e l d e c o n o m i s t s , l a r g e l y b y p e r s o n a l v i s i t s , f r o m r e p ­
r e s e n t a t i v e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w ith in the s c o p e o f the s u r v e y . 3
E m p loy ees w e re cla s s ifie d
a c c o r d i n g to o c c u p a t i o n and l e v e l , with the a s s i s t a n c e o f c o m p a n y o f f i c i a l s , on the b a s i s o f
the B L S j o b d e f i n i t io n s w h i c h a p p e a r in a p p e n d i x C. In c o m p a r i n g a c t u a l d u tie s and r e s p o n ­
s i b i l i t i e s o f e m p l o y e e s with t h o s e in the s u r v e y d e f i n i t i o n s , e x t e n s i v e u s e w a s m a d e o f c o m ­
p a n y o c c u p a t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n s , o r g a n i z a t i o n c h a r t s , and o t h e r p e r s o n n e l r e c o r d s .

T h e m etrop olita n area data in the 1970! survey rela te to a ll 229 SM SA's (w ith in the 48 States surveyed) as re v ised through
January 1968 b y the Bureau o f the Budget. Earlier surveys represented SM SA's ranging in numbers fro m 188 in 1962 and e a rlier surveys
to 2271in the 1969j survey.
2 Prior to the 1967 study, th e average re feren ce p eriod for c le r ic a l and drafting jo b s was February, and it was M arch fo r a ll
other o ccu p a tion s.
U ntil 1963, reports listed "W in ter" as the re fe re n ce p eriod .
From 1963 through 1966, the m ore s p e c ific d e s ig ­
n ation, "F ebruary-M arch, " was used.
Beginning w ith 1967, the re fe re n ce p eriod was ch an ged to June.
3 T h e surveys in m etrop olita n areas, used to d e v e lo p the n ationw ide estim ates for the drafting and c le r ic a l o ccu p a tio n s,
v id e for c o lle c t io n b y a co m b in a tio n o f m a il and personal visits in alternate years.




33

p ro­

N um ber o f establishments and workers within scope o f su rv ey1 and num ber studied by industry division, June 1970
W ith in s c o p e o f s u r v e y 1

In d u s try d iv is io n

M in im u m
e m p lo y m e n t
in e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t s
in s c o p e o f
survey

W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s
N u m b er
o f e sta b ­
lis h m e n t s

T ota l

P r o f e s s io n a l ,
a d m in is t r a t iv e
s u p e r v is o r y ,
and c l e r i c a l 3

S tu died f o r p r o f e s s io n a l
and a d m in is t r a t iv e
o c c u p a t io n s
N u m ber
o f e sta b ­
lis h m e n t s

T ota l
w ork ers
in e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t s

S tu died f o r d r a ftin g
and c l e r i c a l
o c c u p a t io n s 2
N u m b er
o f e sta b ­
lis h m e n t s

T ota l
w ork ers
in e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t s

33, 003
M a n u fa ctu r in g __________________________
N on m a n u f a c t u r in g :
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , 4 c o m m u n ic a t io n ,
e l e c t r i c , g a s , and s a n ita ry
s e r v ic e s
W h o le s a le t r a d e
R e t a il t r a d e __________________________
F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and
r e a l e s ta te
S e rv ice s :
E n g in e e r in g and a r c h i t e c t u r a l
s e r v i c e s ; and c o m m e r c i a l l y
op erated r e s e a r c h ,
d e v e lo p m e n t , a n d t e s tin g
la b o r a t o r i e s o n ly
_ _ _ ___

1 9 ,8 3 7 ,2 0 9

7, 3 96 , 199

3, 042

6 ,8 0 6 ,3 8 4

5, 690

8 ,5 1 6 ,5 9 8

250

1 4 ,2 6 6

1 2 ,3 1 0 ,7 9 3

3 ,4 5 4 ,0 5 8

1 ,8 3 1

4 , 5 42 , 042

2 ,8 2 2

5, 3 4 0 ,8 9 5

100
100
250

2, 781
4 , 264
2, 495

2 ,1 6 0 ,1 2 2
9 6 3 ,5 6 4
2 ,2 3 7 ,2 8 2

1 ,0 1 1 ,0 7 8
4 6 9 ,8 6 2
4 6 4 ,6 3 6

305
186
223

1 ,0 2 3 , 144
7 9 ,4 4 3
5 4 6 ,0 1 3

661
519
660

1 ,2 5 8 ,5 4 0
1 8 3 ,7 3 7
9 7 2 ,6 8 8

50

8 , 680

1 ,9 2 4 ,7 9 1

1 ,8 3 1 ,0 7 2

400

4 7 8 ,1 1 0

875

6 0 5 ,9 3 0

100

2 4 0 ,6 5 7

1 6 5 ,4 9 3

97

1 3 7 ,6 3 2

153

1 5 4 ,8 0 8

1 5 ,8 4 0 ,7 0 5

6 ,4 9 0 ,3 2 7

2, 447

6 , 1 0 0 ,6 8 7

5, 095

7 ,8 1 0 , 901

250

9, 246

8 ,9 1 8 , 595

2 ,8 3 9 ,4 5 9

1 ,3 4 3

3 ,8 8 9 ,4 7 3

2, 334

4 ,6 8 8 ,3 2 6

100
100
250

2, 010
3 ,8 0 7
2, 229

1 ,9 5 3 , 385
8 7 4 ,8 1 4
2, 1 0 4 ,5 0 1

9 3 7 ,5 0 2
4 3 5 ,8 2 9
4 4 2 ,0 9 4

271
170
212

1 ,0 0 7 , 038
7 5, 173
5 3 8 ,2 7 1

627
503
649

1, 2 4 2 ,4 3 4
1 7 9 ,4 6 7
9 6 4 ,9 4 6

50

7, 360

1, 7 70 , 700

1 ,6 8 1 ,9 9 3

364

4 7 1 ,2 4 3

839

5 9 9 ,0 6 3

100

502

2 1 8 ,7 1 0

1 5 3 ,4 5 0

87

1 1 9 ,4 8 9

143

1 3 6 ,6 6 5

1, 153

M a n u fa ctu r in g __________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g :
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , 4 c o m m u n ic a t io n ,
e l e c t r i c , g a s , and s a n ita ry
s e r v i c e s ___________________________
W h o le s a le t r a d e ____________________
R e t a il t r a d e _ . . ____________________
F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and
r e a l e s t a t e _________________________
S e r v ic e s :
E n g in e e r in g and a r c h i t e c t u r a l
s e r v i c e s ; and c o m m e r c ia l ly
op e ra te d r e s e a r c h , d e v e lo p ­
m e n t, and t e s t in g
l a b o r a t o r i e s o n ly ___________

517
2 5 ,1 5 4

6 ,7 2 7 ,8 6 8

2, 6 2 1 , 306

709

5 ,1 3 8 ,3 1 3

782

5, 2 6 9 ,4 5 9

764

4 ,5 1 3 ,0 3 5

1 ,5 2 4 ,9 2 0

461

3, 5 1 0 ,0 0 1

478

3, 5 6 5 ,8 1 9

E s ta b lis h m e n t s e m p lo y in g 2, 500

M a n u fa ctu r in g

_________________________

-

1 T h e stu d y r e l a t e s t o e s t a b lis h m e n t s in in d u s t r ie s li s t e d , w ith t o t a l e m p lo y m e n t at o r a b o v e th e m in im u m lim it a t io n in d ic a t e d in th e f i r s t
c o lu m n , in th e U n ited S ta tes e x c e p t A la s k a and H a w a ii.
2 T h e d r a ftin g and c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t io n s w e r e stu d ie d in th e sa m e s a m p le o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s a s w e r e th e p r o f e s s io n a l and a d m in is t r a t iv e o c c u p a ­
t io n s , e x c e p t in S M S A 's . F o r t h e s e a r e a s , th e d r a ftin g and c l e r i c a l data w e r e o b ta in e d f r o m th e B u r e a u 's m o r e in t e n s iv e ly s a m p le d s u r v e y s o f
s e p a r a t e m e t r o p o lit a n a r e a s . ( F o r a m o r e d e t a ile d e x p la n a t io n , s e e S a m p lin g and E s tim a tin g P r o c e d u r e s , p . 3 6 .)
3 In c lu d e s e x e c u t i v e , a d m in is t r a t iv e , p r o f e s s io n a l, s u p e r v is o r y , a n d c l e r i c a l e m p l o y e e s , but e x c lu d e s t e c h n ic ia n s and d r a ft s m e n , and s a le s
p e r s o n n e l.
4 L im it e d to r a il r o a d , lo c a l and su b u rb a n p a s s e n g e r , d e e p s e a w a t e r (f o r e ig n and d o m e s t ic ) , and a ir t r a n s p o r t a t io n in d u s t r ie s a s d e fin e d in
th e 1967 e d it io n o f th e S ta n d a rd In d u s t r ia l C l a s s if ic a t i o n M a n u a l.
5 S ta n d a rd M e t r o p o lit a n S t a t is t ic a l A r e a s in th e U n ited S ta te s , e x c e p t A la s k a and H a w a ii, a s r e v i s e d th ro u g h J a n u a ry 1968 b y th e B u r e a u o f
the B u d get.




34

N a t u r e o f Data C o l l e c t e d and P r e s e n t e d
T h e r e p o r t e d s a l a r i e s r e l a t e to s ta n d a r d s a l a r i e s p a id f o r s t a n d a r d w o r k s c h e d u l e s ,
i. e. , to the s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r y c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the e m p l o y e e ' s n o r m a l w o r k s c h e d u l e
e x c lu d in g o v e r t i m e h o u r s .
N o n p r o d u c t i o n b o n u s e s a r e e x c l u d e d , but c o s t - o f - l i v i n g p a y m e n t s
and i n c e n t i v e e a r n in g s a r e i n c l u d e d .
T h e a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s p r e s e n t e d r e l a t e to f u l l - t i m e
e m p l o y e e s f o r w h o m s a l a r y data w e r e a v a i l a b l e .
A b o u t 5 p e r c e n t o f the e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a s k e d to s u p p ly d ata on p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m i n ­
i s t r a t i v e , e n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n i c i a n , and k e y p u n c h s u p e r v i s o r o c c u p a t i o n s w o u ld n ot d o s o .
T h e s e c o r r e s p o n d e d to an e s t i m a t e d tota l in the u n i v e r s e stu d ie d o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 , 0 0 4 , 0 0 0
w o r k e r s , about 5 p e r c e n t o f 1 9 ,8 3 7 ,0 0 0 .
A l o w e r r e f u s a l r a t e w a s found in the s u r v e y s o f
c l e r i c a l and d r a ft i n g o c c u p a t i o n s .
T he n o n c o o p e r a t i n g units w e r e r e p l a c e d b y o t h e r s in the
sam e in d u stry -size-loca tio n cla ss e s.
W h e r e no s u c h s u b s titu te s w e r e a v a i l a b l e , s i n c e a ll
s i m i l a r units w e r e a l r e a d y in the s a m p l e , the w e ig h ts o f the i n c l u d e d e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w e r e
i n c r e a s e d to a c c o u n t f o r the m i s s i n g u n its.
U n d e r e s t a b l i s h e d p o l i c i e s o f s o m e c o m p a n i e s , o f f i c i a l s w e r e n ot a u t h o r i z e d to p r o ­
v id e i n f o r m a t i o n r e la t in g to s a l a r i e s f o r a l l o c c u p a t i o n s s tu d ie d .
In n e a r l y a l l i n s t a n c e s ,
h o w e v e r , i n f o r m a t i o n w a s p r o v i d e d on the n u m b e r o f s u c h e m p l o y e e s and the a p p r o p r i a t e
occu p a tion a l cla s s ific a tio n .
It w a s thus p o s s i b l e to e s t i m a t e the p r o p o r t i o n o f e m p l o y e e s
f o r w h o m s a l a r y data w e r e not a v a i l a b l e .
T h e s e p o l i c i e s m o r e o ft e n r e l a t e d to the h i g h e r
l e v e l p o s i t i o n s , m a i n l y b e c a u s e o f p o l i c i e s not to d i s c l o s e p a y data f o r e m p l o y e e s c o n s i d e r e d
a p a r t o f the m a n a g e m e n t g r o u p o r c l a s s i f i e d in o c c u p a t i o n a l l e v e l s in v o lv i n g a s in g l e
em ployee.

N um ber o f jo b ca tegories
1 -------------------------------------------------

4

18

-------------------------------------------------

-----------------------------------------------

33 --------------------------------- -------------

Percent o f e m p lo y e e s cla ssifie d in p rofessional,
a dm inistrative, and en gin eerin g te ch n ic ia n
occu p ation s surveyed for w hom salary
data w ere not a v a ila b le
10 p ercen t or m ore
D irectors o f personnel IV (1 9 p ercen t)
5 to 9. 9 percen t
C h ie f accountants IE
D irectors o f personnel III
C hem ists VIII
Engineers VIII
1 to 4. 9 percen t
Less than 1 p ercen t

C o m p a r i s o n s b e t w e e n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s that p r o v i d e d s a l a r y data f o r e a c h s p e c i f i c o c ­
c u p a tio n l e v e l and th o s e not d o in g s o i n d i c a t e d that the tw o c l a s s e s o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s d id
not d i f f e r m a t e r i a l l y in i n d u s t r i e s r e p r e s e n t e d , e m p l o y m e n t , o r s a l a r y l e v e l s f o r o t h e r j o b s
in th is s e r i e s f o r w h ic h data w e r e a v a i l a b l e .
O c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t e s t i m a t e s r e l a t e to the to t a l in a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w ith in the
s c o p e o f the s u r v e y and not the n u m b e r a c t u a l l y s u r v e y e d . E m p l o y e e s f o r w h o m s a l a r y data
w e r e not a v a i l a b l e w e r e n ot ta k e n in to a c c o u n t in the e s t i m a t e s . 4
T hese estim ates w ere
d e r i v e d b y w e ig h tin g f u l l - t i m e e m p l o y e e s in the o c c u p a t i o n s s tu d ie d in e a c h s a m p l e e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t in p r o p o r t i o n to the n u m b e r o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s it r e p r e s e n t e d w ith in the L cop e o f the
survey.
F o r e x a m p l e , i f the s a m p l e e s t a b l i s h m e n t w a s s e l e c t e d f r o m a g r o u p o f f o u r e s t a b ­
l i s h m e n t s w ith s i m i l a r e m p l o y m e n t in the s a m e in d u s t r y and r e g i o n , e a c h f u l l - t i m e e m p l o y e e
fou n d in an o c c u p a t i o n s tu d ie d w a s c o u n t e d a s f o u r e m p l o y e e s in c o m p i l i n g th e e m p l o y m e n t

A lso not tak en into a ccou n t w ere a few instances in w h ich salary data w ere a v a ila b le for em p lo y e e s in an o cc u p a tio n , but
w here there was no satisfactory basis for cla ssifyin g the e m p loy ee s by the appropriate work lev e ls.




35

e s t i m a t e s f o r the o c c u p a t i o n s .
In a d d it i o n , the p r o f e s s i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n s
w e r e l i m i t e d to e m p l o y e e s m e e t i n g the s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a in e a c h s u r v e y d e f i n i t i o n and w e r e
n ot in te n d e d to in c l u d e a ll e m p l o y e e s in e a c h f i e l d o f w o r k . 5
F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s , and
b e c a u s e o f d i f f e r e n c e s in o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e a m o n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , the e s t i m a t e s o f
o c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t o b t a i n e d f r o m the s a m p l e o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s tu d ie d s e r v e o n ly to
in d ic a t e the r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f the o c c u p a t i o n s and l e v e l s a s d e f i n e d f o r the s u r v e y .
T h e s e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f the e m p l o y m e n t e s t i m a t e s do n ot m a t e r i a l l y a f f e c t the a c c u r a c y o f
the e a r n i n g s data.
W h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e , da ta w e r e c o l l e c t e d f o r m e n and w o m e n i d e n t i f ie d b y s e x .
If s e p a ­
r a te i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i n d iv i d u a l s w a s n ot p o s s i b l e , a ll w o r k e r s w e r e r e p o r t e d as the p r e d o m ­
inant s e x .
In the p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , and t e c h n i c a l s u p p o r t o c c u p a t i o n s , m e n w e r e
s u f f i c i e n t l y p r e d o m i n a n t to p r e c l u d e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s e p a r a t e data b y s e x .
F o r th o s e c l e r i c a l
o c c u p a t i o n s in w h i c h b o th m e n and w o m e n a r e c o m m o n l y e m p l o y e d , s e p a r a t e d ata b y s e x
a r e a v a i l a b l e f r o m the a r e a w a g e s u r v e y r e p o r t s c o m p i l e d b y m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a .
The o c c u ­
p a t i o n s and w o r k l e v e l s i n c l u d e d in th is s tu d y , and in w h i c h w o m e n a c c o u n t e d f o r 5 p e r c e n t
o r m o r e o f the e m p l o y m e n t , w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d a c c o r d i n g to the p r o p o r t i o n o f w o m e n e m p l o y ­
e e s , as f o l l o w s :
W om en (p ercen t)
95 or m o re _________________

9 0 - 9 4 _______________________
8 5 - 8 9 ----------------------------------7 5 - 7 9 ----------------------------------7 0 - 7 4 ----------------------------------5 0 - 5 4 ----------------------------------4 5 - 4 9 ----------------------------------4 0 - 4 4 ------- ------------------- — —
3 5 - 3 9 _______________________
3 0 - 3 4 ----------------------------------2 5 - 2 9 _______________________
2 0 - 2 4 ----------------------------------1 5 - 1 9 ----------------------------------1 0 - 1 4 _______________________
5_ 9

_______________________

-

O c cu p a tio n and l e v e l

F ile clerks I and II, a ll le v e ls o f keypu n ch operators,
secretaries, stenographers, switchboard operators,
and typists
A cco u n tin g clerks I, f ile clerks III and keypu nch
supervisors I
Keypunch supervisors II
Keypunch supervisors III
A cco u n tin g clerks II
K eypunch supervisors IV
O ffic e boys or girls
T a b u la tin g -m a ch in e operators I
T a b u la tin g -m a ch in e operators II
Job analysts I
D raftsm en -tracers, engineering te ch n icia n s I, and
ta b u la tin g -m a ch in e operators III
Job analysts II
C hem ists I and II
A ccoun tan ts I, buyers I, jo b analysts III, and
engineering tech n icia n s II
A ccoun tan ts II, auditors I, attorneys II, jo b
analysts IV, d irectors o f personnel I and II,
ch em ists III, and draftsm en I

S a m p li n g and E s t i m a t i n g P r o c e d u r e s
A s i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r , this s u r v e y r e l a t e s to a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in the U n ite d S ta te s,
e x c e p t A l a s k a and H a w a ii, w ith in the i n d u s t r y and m i n i m u m s i z e s c o p e . A lth o u g h on e s a m p l e
o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w a s s e l e c t e d f o r stu d y in g the p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , e n g i n e e r i n g
t e c h n i c i a n , and k e y p u n c h s u p e r v i s o r o c c u p a t i o n s , and a n o t h e r f o r the d r a f t i n g and c l e r i c a l
o c c u p a t i o n s , b o th r e l a t e to the s a m e p o p u l a t i o n o f g e o g r a p h i c , i n d u s t r y , and s i z e - o f - e s t a b lish m en t c h a r a c t e r is t ic s .
T he p r o c e d u r e s u s e d f o r s e l e c t i n g s a m p l e s f o r th e s e tw o g r o u p s
o f o c c u p a t i o n s a r e e x p la i n e d in the f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h s .
P r o f e s s i o n a l , A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , E n g i n e e r i n g T e c h n i c i a n , and K e y p u n c h S u p e r v i s o r O c c u p a ­
tions.
T he s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e s c a l l e d f o r the d e t a i le d s t r a t i f i c a t i o n o f a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
w ith in s c o p e o f the s u r v e y b y l o c a t i o n , i n d u s t r y , and s i z e o f e m p l o y m e n t .
F r o m this u n i ­
v e r s e , a n a tio n w id e s a m p l e o f a b ou t 3 , 0 0 0 e s t a b l i s h m e n t s (n o t c o m p a n i e s ) w a s s e l e c t e d
system a tica lly. 6
E a c h i n d u s t r y w as s a m p l e d s e p a r a t e l y , the s a m p l i n g r a t e s d e p e n d e n t on
the i m p o r t a n c e o f the i n d u s t r y as an e m p l o y e r h a v in g the s u r v e y j o b s . W ithin e a c h i n d u s t r y , a

5 Engineers, for e x a m p le, are d efin ed to perm it cla ss ific a tio n o f e m p lo y e e s en g ag ed in engineering work w ithin a band o f
e igh t le v els , starting w ith in ex p erien ced en g in eerin g graduates and ex clu d in g o n ly those w ithin certa in fie ld s o f sp ecia liz a tio n or in
positions a bov e those co v e re d b y le v e l VIII.
By w ay o f contrast, such o ccu p a tio n s as c h ie f accountants and d irectors o f personnel
are d e fin ed to in clu d e on ly those w ith resp onsibility for a s p e c ifie d program and w ith duties and resp on sibilities as in d ica te d for ea ch
o f the m ore lim ite d num ber o f work le v e ls s e le c te d for study.
6 A few o f the largest em p loyers, togeth er em p lo y in g a p p roxim a tely on e and a quarter m illio n workers, ga v e data o n a co m p a n y ­
w id e basis. T h ese com p a n ies w ere elim in a ted from the universe to w h ich the p re ce d in g procedu re applies. T h e sam ple cou n t includes
the establishm ents o f these com p a n ies w ithin the scop e o f the survey.




36

g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f l a r g e than o f s m a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w a s i n c l u d e d .
In c o m b i n i n g the
d a ta , e a c h e s t a b l i s h m e n t w a s w e i g h t e d a c c o r d i n g to it s p r o b a b i l i t y o f s e l e c t i o n , s o that u n ­
b ia se d estim ates w e re gen erated .
T o i l l u s t r a t e the p r o c e s s , w h e r e on e e s t a b l i s h m e n t out
o f f o u r w a s s e l e c t e d , it w a s g i v e n a w e i g h t o f 4 , thus r e p r e s e n t i n g i t s e l f p lu s t h r e e o t h e r s .
In i n s t a n c e s w h e r e data w e r e n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r the o r i g i n a l s a m p l e m e m b e r , an a l t e r n a t e
o f the s a m e o r i g i n a l p r o b a b i l i t y o f s e l e c t i o n w a s c h o s e n in the s a m e i n d u s t r y - s i z e c l a s s i f i ­
cation.
W h e r e t h e r e w a s no s u it a b l e s u b s t i t u t io n f o r the o r i g i n a l s a m p l e m e m b e r , the
m i s s i n g unit w a s a c c o u n t e d f o r b y a s s i g n i n g a d d it i o n a l w e i g h t to an e x is t in g s a m p l e m e m b e r
that w a s a s n e a r l y s i m i l a r a s p o s s i b l e to the m i s s i n g unit.

C l e r i c a l and D r a f t in g O c c u p a t i o n s .
T h e n a t io n w id e e s t i m a t e s f o r the c l e r i c a l and d r a f t ­
ing o c c u p a t i o n s a r e , in l a r g e p a r t , a b y p r o d u c t o f the B u r e a u ' s s u r v e y s o f t h e s e o c c u p a t i o n s
in 89 m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s .
Data f r o m 44 o f t h e s e a r e a w a g e s u r v e y s w e r e a d ju s t e d to the
s c o p e o f the n a t io n a l s u r v e y and w e r e i n c l u d e d to r e p r e s e n t t h e m s e l v e s . 7
The sa m p lin g
o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w ith in e a c h o f t h e s e a r e a s w a s d e s i g n e d to y i e l d e s t i m a t e s o f the a r e a
as a w h o l e , and f o r m a j o r i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s w ith in the a r e a .
A s d e s c r i b e d in the p r e ­
c e d i n g s e c t i o n , the e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w e r e s t r a t i f i e d b y i n d u s t r y and
e m p l o y m e n t s i z e , and
s a m p l e m e m b e r s s e l e c t e d at r a n d o m f o r e a c h s t r a t u m .

F o r a ll r e m a i n i n g a r e a s , c l e r i c a l and d r a ft i n g data w e r e o b t a i n e d f r o m the s a m e n a t i o n ­
w i d e s a m p l e o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s u s e d f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , e n g i n e e r i n g t e c h ­
n i c i a n , and k e y p u n c h s u p e r v i s o r o c c u p a t i o n s .
W ithin this s a m p l e t h e r e w e r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y
750 e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in a r e a s w h e r e l o c a l i t y s t u d ie s had b e e n d o n e b e t w e e n O c t o b e r 1969 and
F e b r u a r y 1970.
W h e r e p o s s i b l e , c l e r i c a l and d r a f t i n g data r e p o r t e d in t h e s e s t u d ie s w e r e
u p d a te d to r e f l e c t g e n e r a l i n c r e a s e s o c c u r r i n g to the t i m e p r o f e s s i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e
data w e r e c o l l e c t e d .
In a l l o t h e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , c l e r i c a l and d r a f t i n g data w e r e c o l l e c t e d in
c o n j u n c t i o n w ith p r o f e s s i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e data.
C o n v e r s io n o f S alary Rates
S a l a r y data f o r the s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s w e r e c o l l e c t e d in the f o r m in w h ic h it w a s
m o s t r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f r o m c o m p a n y r e c o r d s , i. e. , on a w e e k l y , b i w e e k l y , s e m i m o n t h l y ,
m o n t h l y , o r annual b a s i s .
F o r the in i t ia l t a b u la t io n s , the s a l a r y data w e r e f i r s t c o n v e r t e d
to a w e e k l y b a s i s f o r the c l e r i c a l and d r a ft i n g o c c u p a t i o n s and to a m o n t h ly b a s i s f o r the
p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , and e n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n i c i a n o c c u p a t i o n s .
T h e f a c t o r s u s e d to
c o n v e r t t h e s e data f o r the two g r o u p s o f o c c u p a t i o n s w e r e a s f o l l o w s :

T im e interval
represented b y
salary

Salaries for c le r ic a l and
drafting o ccu p a tio n s to
w ee k ly basis

W eek ly .......... ........................................
B iw e e k ly --------------------------------------S e m im o n t h ly ------------------------------M o n t h l y -------------------------------------------------A nnual ----------------------------------------------------

1 .0 0 0 0
. 5000
. 4602
.2 3 0 1
.0 1 9 2

Salaries for professional
and adm inistrative o c c u p a ­
tions and for en gin eerin g
tech n icia n s and keypunch
supervisors to
m on th ly basis
4 .3 4 5 0
2. 1725
2 .0 0 0 0
1 .0 0 0 0
.0 8 3 3

A v e r a g e m o n t h l y s a l a r i e s p r e s e n t e d in t a b l e s 1, 2, and 3 and an nu al s a l a r i e s p r e s e n t e d in
t a b l e s 1 and 2 f o r the c l e r i c a l and d r a ft i n g o c c u p a t i o n s a r e d e r i v e d f r o m the a v e r a g e w e e k l y
s a l a r i e s (to the n e a r e s t p enny) b y u s e o f f a c t o r s 4. 345 and 52. 14, r e s p e c t i v e l y , and r o u n d ­
ing r e s u l t s to the n e a r e s t d o l l a r .
A v e r a g e w eek ly s a la rie s fo r th ese occu p a tion s, p resen ted
in ta b le 6, a r e r o u n d e d to the n e a r e s t h a l f d o l l a r .
A v e r a g e m o n t h ly s a l a r i e s p r e s e n t e d in
t a b l e s 1, 2, and 3 f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n s a n d f o r e n g i n e e r i n g
t e c h n i c i a n s a r e r o u n d e d to the n e a r e s t d o l l a r .
T o o b ta in the an nu al s a l a r i e s , a v e r a g e
m o n t h l y s a l a r i e s (to the n e a r e s t pen n y ) a r e m u l t i p l i e d b y 12 and r o u n d e d to the n e a r e s t d o l l a r .

7

These w ere the 44 area w age surveys (ex clu d in g C lev ela n d , Kansas C ity ( M o . ), O m aha, San Jose, S iou x Falls, and T renton)
w h ich had p a y roll re feren ce dates o f M arch through Septem ber 1970, and w e re , th e re fo re , representative o f the sam e c o lle c t io n tim e
p e rio d that a p p lied for the n ational survey.




37

M e t h o d o f D e t e r m i n i n g M e d ia n and Q u a r t i l e V a lu e s
M e d i a n and q u a r t i l e v a l u e s p r e s e n t e d in this r e p o r t w e r e d e r i v e d f r o m d i s t r i b u t i o n s
o f e m p l o y e e s b y s a l a r y u s in g $ 1 c l a s s i n t e r v a l s .
W eek ly sa la ry cla s s in terv als w ere used
f o r d r a f t s m e n and c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s and m o n t h l y s a l a r y c l a s s i n t e r v a l s w e r e u s e d f o r a ll
other o ccu p a tio n s .
T he w e e k l y v a lu e s w e r e m u l t i p l i e d b y 4 . 345 to o b ta in m o n t h ly v a lu e s
and b y 52. 14 to o b ta in annual v a l u e s .
T h e annual v a l u e s f o r o t h e r than d r a f t s m e n and
c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s w e r e o b t a i n e d b y m u lt ip ly i n g m o n t h ly v a lu e s b y 12.
E s t i m a t e s o f S a m p lin g E r r o r
The s u r v e y p r o c e d u r e y i e l d s e s t i m a t e s w ith w i d e l y v a r y i n g s a m p l i n g e r r o r s , d e p e n d in g
on the f r e q u e n c y w ith w h i c h the j o b o c c u r s , and the d i s p e r s i o n o f s a l a r i e s .
T h u s , f o r the
p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , e n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n i c i a n , and k e y p u n c h s u p e r v i s o r o c c u p a t i o n w o r k
l e v e l s , the r e l a t i v e s a m p l i n g e r r o r s o f the a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d a s f o l l o w s :
32
w e r e u n d e r 2 p e r c e n t ; 14 w e r e 2 and u n d e r 4 p e r c e n t ; 5 w e r e 4 and u n d e r 6 p e r c e n t ; and 5
w e r e 6 p e r c e n t and o v e r . 8
T h e n a t io n w id e e s t i m a t e s f o r the c l e r i c a l and d r a f t i n g r o o m o c ­
c u p a t i o n s , b a s e d on the m u c h l a r g e r s a m p l e , a r e s u b j e c t to s m a l l e r s a m p l i n g e r r o r — 2 p e r c e n t
o r l e s s in a ll c a s e s e x c e p t f o r a c c o u n t i n g c l e r k s I ( 2 . 7 p e r c e n t ) , f i l e c l e r k s I, II, and III
( 2 . 4 , 4 . 3 , 3 . 8 p e r c e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , and s w i t c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s I ( 2 . 5 p e r c e n t ) .
These
s a m p l i n g e r r o r s m e a s u r e the v a l i d i t y o f the band w ith in w h i c h the tr u e a v e r a g e is l i k e l y to
fall.
T h u s , f o r an o c c u p a t i o n w ith a s a m p l e a v e r a g e m o n t h l y s a l a r y o f $ 1 , 0 0 0 and a s a m ­
p li n g e r r o r o f 4 p e r c e n t , the c h a n c e s a r e 19 out o f 20 that the tru e a v e r a g e l i e s w ith in the
ban d f r o m $ 9 6 0 and $ 1 , 0 4 0 .

8 T h e 6 p ercen t and ov er group in clu d ed : Keypunch supervisor II—9 p ercen t; c h ie f a ccou n tan t 1—8 p ercen t; attorney 1—7 .9
p ercen t; keypu nch supervisor I —7 . 2 percen t; and attorney V I —6. 1 p ercen t.




38

A p p e n d ix

Change

fo r

A
th e

in

O c c u p a tio n a l

B.

S u rvey

C hanges

19 7 0

C overage

f iv e -le v e l k e yp u n c h s u p e r v is o r o c c u p a tio n
d e f i n i t i o n u s e d to c l a s s i f y th e o c c u p a t i o n .




in

39

was

added

to

the

surve y.

See

a p p e n d ix C




A p p en d ix C.

O ccupational D efin ition s

The
p rim a ry
purpose
of p r e p a rin g
w a g e s u r v e y s is to a s s i s t i t s f i e l d

B u r e a u 's

jo b d e fin itio n s
f o r the
s ta ff in c la s s if y in g in to

a p p ro p ria te
o c c u p a tio n s ,
o r le v e ls w ith in o c c u p a tio n s ,
w o rk e rs who
are
e m p lo y e d u n d e r a v a r ie ty
of p a y r o ll title s and d iffe re n t w o rk
a r r a n g e m e n t s f r o m e s t a b l i s h m e n t to e s t a b l i s h m e n t a n d f r o m a r e a to
area.
T h i s p e r m i t s the g r o u p in g of o c c u p a tio n a l w a g e ra te s r e p r e ­
s e n tin g
c o m p a ra b le jo b
con ten t.
To
secure
c o m p a ra b ility
of
jo b
con te n t,
som e
o c c u p a tio n s
and w o rk
le v e ls
a r e d e f in e d to i n c lu d e
o n ly
th o se
w o rk e rs
m e e tin g
s p e c ific
c rite ria
as to t r a i n i n g ,
jo b
fu n c tio n s ,
and re s p o n s ib ilitie s .
B e c a u s e of th is e m p h a s is o n i n t e r ­
e s ta b lis h m e n t and in te ra r e a
c o m p a ra b ility
of
o c c u p a tio n a l co n te n t,
th e B u r e a u 's
o c c u p a tio n a l d e fin itio n s m a y
d iffe r
s ig n ific a n tly f r o m
th o se in u se in in d iv id u a l e s ta b lis h m e n ts o r th o se p r e p a r e d fo r o th e r
purpose s.
A l s o se e n o te r e f e r r i n g to th e d e f in it io n s f o r th e d r a f t i n g
a n d c l e r i c a l o c c u p a tio n s on p a g e 78.

A C C O U N TA N TS

A N D

A U D IT O R S

A C C O U N TA N T
P e r f o r m s p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t i n g w o r k r e q u i r i n g k n o w le d g e o f th e t h e o r y a n d p r a c ­
tice of r e c o r d in g ,
c la s s ify in g ,
e x a m in in g ,
a n d a n a l y z i n g th e d a ta a n d r e c o r d s o f f i n a n c i a l
tra n s a c tio n s .
The w o rk
g e n e ra lly r e q u ir e s a b a c h e lo r 's d e g re e in a c c o u n tin g o r,
in r a r e
in s ta n c e s , e q u iv a le n t e x p e rie n c e and e d u c a tio n c o m b in e d .
P o s it io n s c o v e r e d b y th is d e fin itio n
a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y th e in c lu s io n of w o r k th a t is a n a ly t ic a l, c r e a t iv e , e v a lu a t iv e ,
and a d ­
v is o r y in n a tu re .
T h e w o r k d r a w s u p o n a n d r e q u ir e s a t h o r o u g h k n o w le d g e of the f u n d a ­
m e n ta l d o c trin e s ,
th e o rie s ,
p rin c ip le s ,
and t e r m in o lo g y of a c c o u n ta n c y ,
and ofte n e n ta ils
s o m e u n d e rs ta n d in g of su c h re la te d fie ld s as b u s in e s s la w , s ta tis tic s , and g e n e ra l m a n a g e ­
m e n t.

(S e e

a lso

c h ie f

m e n ta l

P ro fe s s io n a l
le v e ls in c lu d e
A n a ly z in g

A s s u rin g
m a n a g e m e n t;

r e s p o n s ib ilit ie s in a c c o u n ta n t
s e v e r a l s u c h d u tie s a s :

th e

E v a lu a tin g
P la n n in g

a c c o u n ta n t.)

effects

of

a lte rn a tiv e

th e

m anner

the

C o n s id e rin g

m eans
in

adequacy

the

need

tra n s a c tio n s

for

of

w h ic h
of

new

upon

tre a tin g

account

the

p o s itio n s

account

s tru ctu re s

changed

A d v is in g

th e

o p e ra tin g

R e c o m m e n d in g
and

m e a n in g

of

o ffic ia ls

a c c o u n tin g
on

im p ro v e m e n ts ,

e n try

and

d e v e lo p ­

or

m o d ifie d ;

re la tio n s h ip s ;

s h o u ld

system

as

be

d e ve lo p e d

the

b a sis

for

re p o rtin g

to

c o n tro ls ;

P r o j e c t i n g a c c o u n t i n g d a ta to s h o w th e e ffe c t s of p r o p o s e d
m e n ts , in c o m e , ca sh p o s itio n , and o v e r a ll fin a n c ia l co n d itio n ;
In te rp re tin g

th e

tra n s a c tio n s ;

a cc o u n tin g

or

above

re cords,

a cc o u n tin g
a d a p ta tio n s ,

re p o rts,

m a tte rs;
or

p la n s

and

on

c a p ita l

in ve s t­

sta te m e n ts;

and

re v is io n s

in

th e

a c c o u n tin g

system

p ro ce d u re s.

( E n t r y a n d d e v e lo p m e n t a l l e v e l p o s it io n s p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n it y to d e v e lo p a b il it y to p e r f o r m
f e s s io n a l d u tie s s u c h as th o s e e n u m e r a te d a b o v e .)




41

p ro ­

A C C O U N T A N T —

C o n tin u e d

I n a d d it io n to s u c h p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k ,
m o s t a cco u n ta n ts a re a lso r e s p o n s ib le fo r
a s s u rin g
the p r o p e r
re c o rd in g
an d d o c u m e n t a t io n of t r a n s a c t io n s in the a c c o u n ts .
They,
t h e r e f o r e , f r e q u e n t ly d i r e c t n o n p r o f e s s io n a l p e r s o n n e l in the a c t u a l d a y - t o - d a y m a in t e n a n c e
of books of a cco u n ts,
the a c c u m u la t io n of c o s t o r o t h e r c o m p a r a b le d a ta ,
the p r e p a r a t io n
of s ta n d a rd re p o rts and sta te m e n ts, and s im ila r w o rk .
(P o s itio n s in v o lv in g su ch s u p e r v is o ry
w o r k b u t n o t in c lu d in g p r o f e s s io n a l d u tie s
as d e s c r ib e d
above,
are
no t in c lu d e d
in th is
d e s c rip tio n .)
E x c lu d e d
are
a cco u n ta n ts
w h o s e p r in c ip a l o r s o le d u tie s c o n s is t of d e s ig n in g o r
im p ro v in g
a c c o u n tin g
system s
o r o th e r n o n o p e ra tin g
staff w o r k ,
e. g. , f in a n c ia l a n a ly s is ,
fin a n c ia l fo re c a s tin g ,
ta x a d vis in g ,
etc.
( T h e c r it e r i a that fo llo w f o r d is tin g u is h in g a m o n g
th e s e v e r a l le v e ls o f w o r k a r e in a p p r o p r i a t e f o r s u c h j o b s . )
N ote,
h o w e ve r,
that p r o f e s ­
s io n a l a c c o u n ta n t p o s itio n s
w ith
re s p o n s ib ility fo r
r e c o r d in g o r r e p o r tin g a c c o u n tin g da ta
r e l a t i v e to ta x e s a r e in c lu d e d ,
as a r e o p e r a t in g o r c o s t a c c o u n ta n ts
b u t is n o t l i m i t e d to ,
i m p r o v e m e n t of the a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m .

S o m e acco u n ta n ts use e le c tro n ic

d a ta

p ro c e s s in g

e q u ip m e n t

whose

to

w o rk

process,

in c lu d e s ,

reco rd,

and

r e p o r t a c c o u n tin g da ta .
I n s o m e s u c h c a s e s th e m a c h i n e u n i t is a s u b o r d i n a t e s e g m e n t of
t h e a c c o u n t i n g s y s t e m ; i n o t h e r s i t is a s e p a r a t e e n t i t y o r is a t t a c h e d to s o m e o t h e r o r g a n i ­
z a tio n .
In e ith e r in s ta n c e ,
p r o v i d i n g th e p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f th e p o s i t i o n is p r o f e s ­
s io n a l a c c o u n t in g w o r k of th e ty p e o t h e r w is e in c lu d e d , th e u s e of d a ta p r o c e s s i n g e q u ip m e n t
of a n y ty p e d o e s n o t of it s e lf e x c lu d e a p o s it io n f r o m th e a c c o u n t a n t d e s c r i p t i o n n o r d o e s it
c h a n g e its le v e l.

A cco u n ta n t

I

G e n e ra l c h a ra c te ris tic s .

A t th is b e g in n in g p r o f e s s io n a l

le ve l,

th e a c c o u n ta n t

le a rn s

to a p p ly
the p r i n c i p l e s ,
th e o rie s ,
and co n ce p ts of a c c o u n tin g
to a s p e c if ic s y s t e m .
p o s i t i o n is d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l p o s i t i o n s b y th e v a r i e t y o f a s s i g n m e n t s ;

The
ra te

a n d s c o p e o f d e v e l o p m e n t e x p e c t e d o f th e i n c u m b e n t ; a n d th e e x i s t e n c e , i m p l i c i t o r e x p l i c i t ,
o f a p la n n e d t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m d e s ig n e d to g iv e th e e n t e r in g a c c o u n t a n t p r a c t i c a l e x p e r ie n c e .
( T e r m i n a l p o s itio n s a re e x c lu d e d .)
D ire c tio n

re c e iv e d .

W orks

under

c lo s e

s u p e rv is io n

of

an

e x p e rie n c e d

a cco u n ta n t

w h o s e g u id a n c e is d i r e c t e d p r i m a r i l y to th e d e v e l o p m e n t o f th e t r a i n e e 's p r o f e s s i o n a l a b i l i t y
a n d to th e e v a l u a t io n o f h is p o t e n t ia l f o r a d v a n c e m e n t .
L im it s of a s s ig n m e n ts a re c le a rly
d e fin e d , m e th o d s of p r o c e d u r e a r e s p e c ifie d ,
a n d k in d s o f i t e m s to b e n o t e d a n d r e f e r r e d
to s u p e r v i s o r a r e id e n t if ie d .
T y p i c a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s ib ilit ie s .
P e r f o r m s a v a r ie t y of a c c o u n tin g
ta sk s such
as:
E x a m in in g a v a r ie t y of fin a n c ia l s ta te m e n ts fo r c o m p le te n e s s ,
in te rn a l a c c u ra c y ,
and
co n fo rm a n ce
w ith u n ifo rm
a c c o u n tin g
c la s s ific a tio n s o r o th e r s p e c ific a c c o u n tin g r e q u ir e ­
m e n ts ; r e c o n c ilin g r e p o rts and fin a n c ia l da ta w ith fin a n c ia l s ta te m e n ts a lre a d y on file , and
p o in tin g o u t a p p a r e n t in c o n s is te n c ie s o r e r r o r s ; c a r r y i n g o u t a s s ig n e d step s in an a c c o u n tin g
a n a ly s is , s u c h as c o m p u t in g s ta n d a r d r a t i o s ; a s s e m b li n g an d s u m m a r i z i n g a c c o u n tin g l i t e r a ­
tu re on a g iv e n s u b je c t; p r e p a rin g r e la tiv e ly s im p le fin a n c ia l s ta te m e n ts , not in v o lv in g p r o b ­
l e m s o f a n a ly s is o r p r e s e n t a t i o n ; a n d p r e p a r i n g c h a r t s , t a b le s , a n d o t h e r e x h ib it s to be u s e d
in r e p o r ts .
I n a d d i t i o n to s u c h w o r k ,
m a y a lso p e r f o r m
so m e n o n p ro fe s s io n a l ta sk s fo r
tra in in g p u rp o s e s.
R e s p o n s ib ility

A cco u n ta n t

for

d ire c tio n

of

o the rs.

U s u a lly

none.

II

G e n e ra l c h a ra c te ris tic s .
A t th is
c o n tin u in g d e v e lo p m e n t a l le v e l the p r o f e s s io n a l
a c c o u n ta n t m a k e s p r a c t ic a l a p p lic a tio n s of te c h n ic a l a c c o u n tin g p r a c tic e s and c o n c e p ts be yo n d
th e m e r e a p p lic a t io n of d e t a ile d r u l e s a n d i n s t r u c t i o n s .
A s s i g n m e n t s a r e d e s ig n e d to e x p a n d
h is p r a c t i c a l e x p e r ie n c e a n d to d e v e lo p h is p r o f e s s i o n a l j u d g m e n t in th e a p p lic a t io n of b a s ic




42

A C C O U N TA N T —

C o n tin u e d

a c c o u n t i n g t e c h n iq u e s to s i m p l e p r o f e s s i o n a l p r o b l e m s .
H e is e x p e c t e d to b e c o m p e t e n t in
the a p p li c a t i o n of s t a n d a r d p r o c e d u r e s a n d r e q u i r e m e n t s
to r o u t in e
tra n s a c tio n s ,
to r a i s e
q u e s t i o n s a b o u t u n u s u a l o r q u e s t i o n a b le i t e m s , a n d to s u g g e s t s o l u t i o n s .
( T e r m i n a l p o s itio n s
a re e x c lu d e d .)

D ire c tio n

re c e iv e d .

W ork

is

re v ie w e d

c lo s e ly

to

v e rify

its

g e n e ra l

accuracy

and

c o v e r a g e of u n u s u a l p r o b l e m s , to i n s u r e c o n f o r m a n c e w i t h r e q u i r e d p r o c e d u r e s a n d s p e c i a l
i n s t r u c t i o n s , a n d to a s s u r e h is p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o w t h .
H i s p r o g r e s s is e v a lu a t e d in t e r m s of
h is a b i l i t y to a p p l y h is p r o f e s s i o n a l k n o w l e d g e to b a s i c a c c o u n t i n g p r o b l e m s
o p e ra tio n s of an e s ta b lis h e d a c c o u n tin g s y s te m .

T y p ic a l

d u tie s

and

re s p o n s ib ilitie s .

P e rfo rm s

a v a rie ty

of

in

th e d a y - t o - d a y

a c c o u n tin g

ta sk s,

e. g . ,

p r e p a r e s r o u t i n e w o r k i n g p a p e r s , s c h e d u l e s , e x h i b i t s , a n d s u m m a r i e s i n d i c a t i n g th e e x te n t of
h is e x a m in a tio n , a n d p r e s e n t in g and s u p p o rt in g h is f in d in g s a n d r e c o m m e n d a t io n s .
E x a m in e s
a v a r i e t y o f a c c o u n t i n g d o c u m e n t s to v e r i f y a c c u r a c y o f c o m p u t a t i o n s a n d to a s c e r t a i n t h a t
a ll t r a n s a c t io n s a r e p r o p e r l y s u p p o rt e d , a r e in a c c o r d a n c e w it h p e r t in e n t p o l ic ie s a n d p r o c e ­
dures,
and
are
c la s s ifie d
and
reco rd e d
a c c o rd in g
to a c c e p t a b l e
a c c o u n tin g
stan dards.

a

few

R e s p o n s ib ility
c le rk s .

A cco u n ta n t

re q u irin g

for

d ire c tio n

of

o th e rs.

U s u a lly

none,

a lth o u g h

he

m ay

s u p e rv ise

III

G e n e ra l c h a ra c te ris tic s .
P e r f o r m s p ro fe s s io n a l o p e ra tin g o r co s t a c c o u n tin g w o rk
th e s t a n d a r d iz e d
a p p lic a tio n of w e ll e s ta b lis h e d a c c o u n tin g p r in c ip le s ,
th e o rie s ,

co n cepts,
and p ra c tic e s .
R e c e iv e s d e ta ile d in s tru c tio n s c o n c e rn in g
th e o v e r a l l a c c o u n t i n g
s y s t e m a n d its o b je c t iv e s ,
th e p o l i c i e s a n d p r o c e d u r e s u n d e r w h i c h i t is o p e r a t e d , a n d th e
n a tu r e of c h a n g e s in the s y s t e m o r its o p e r a t io n .
C h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y , the a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m
o r a s s i g n e d s e g m e n t is s t a b le a n d w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d ( i . e . , th e b a s i c c h a r t o f a c c o u n t s , c l a s ­
s i f ic a t io n s , th e n a t u r e o f the c o s t a c c o u n t i n g s y s t e m , th e r e p o r t r e q u i r e m e n t s , a n d th e p r o ­
c e d u re s a re ch ange d in fre q u e n tly ).

D e p e n d in g u p o n th e w o r k l o a d
in v o lv e d ,
th e a c c o u n t a n t m a y h a v e s u c h a s s i g n m e n t s
as s u p e r v i s i o n of th e d a y - t o - d a y o p e r a t io n o f:
(a ) T h e e n tire s y s t e m of a s u b o rd in a te e s ­
ta b lis h m e n t, o r (b ) a m a j o r s e g m e n t (e . g. , g e n e ra l a c c o u n tin g ; c o s t a c c o u n tin g ; o r fin a n c ia l
sta te m e n ts and re p o rts ) of a s o m e w h a t la r g e r s y s te m ,
o r (c ) in a v e r y la rg e and c o m p le x
s y s t e m , m a y b e a s s i g n e d to a r e l a t i v e l y n a r r o w a n d s p e c i a l i z e d s e g m e n t d e a l i n g w i t h s o m e
p r o b le m , fu n c tio n ,
of th is le v e l.

or

p o r t io n of

w o rk w h ic h

is

its e lf

of

the

le v e l

of

d iffic u lty

c h a ra c te ris tic

D ire c tio n re c e iv e d .
A h ig h e r le v e l p ro fe s s io n a l acco u n ta n t n o r m a lly
is a v a i la b le
to f u r n i s h a d v ic e a n d a s s i s t a n c e as n e e d e d .
W o r k is r e v ie w e d f o r t e c h n ic a l a c c u r a c y , a d e ­
q u a c y of p r o f e s s io n a l ju d g m e n t ,
and c o m p lia n c e w ith in s tru c tio n s th ro u g h spot c h e ck s,
ap­
p r a is a l of re s u lts ,
subsequent p ro c e s s in g ,
a n a ly s is of re p o rts and s ta te m e n ts ,
and o the r
a p p ro p ria te m e a n s .

T y p i c a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i li t i e s .
T h e p r i m a r y r e s p o n s ib ility of m o s t p o s itio n s
at th is l e v e l is to a s s u r e th a t th e a s s ig n e d d a y - t o - d a y o p e r a t io n s a r e c a r r i e d o u t in a c c o r d ­
an ce w ith e s ta b lis h e d a c c o u n tin g p r in c ip le s , p o lic ie s , and o b je c tiv e s .
T h e a cco u n ta n t p e r fo r m s
such p ro fe s s io n a l w o rk a s:
D e v e lo p in g n o n s ta n d a rd r e p o r ts and s ta te m e n ts (e . g. , th o se c o n ­
ta in in g c a s h f o r e c a s t s r e f le c t in g the in t e r r e la t io n s of a c c o u n tin g , c o s t b u d g e tin g , o r c o m p a ­
r a b le in f o r m a t io n ); in te r p r e tin g and p o in tin g out tre n d s o r d e v ia tio n s f r o m s ta n d a rd s ; p r o je c tx n g d a ta in to th e f u t u r e ; p r e d i c t i n g
th e e ffe c ts of c h a n g e s
in o p e ra tin g p r o g r a m s ; o r
id e n tify in g m a n a g e m e n t
in fo rm a tio n a l needs,
and re fin in g
account s tru ctu re s
or
re p o rts
a c c o rd in g ly.




43

A C C O U N T A N T —

C o n tin u e d

W i t h i n th e l i m i t s o f h is d e le g a t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ,
m a k e s d a y -t o -d a y d e c is io n s c o n ­
c e r n in g the a c c o u n tin g t r e a t m e n t of f in a n c ia l t r a n s a c t io n s .
I s e x p e c t e d to r e c o m m e n d s o l u ­
tio n s
to c o m p le x p r o b l e m s an d p r o p o s e c h a n g e s
in th e a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m
f o r a p p ro v a l at
h ig h e r le v e ls .
S u c h r e c o m m e n d a t io n s a r e d e r i v e d f r o m h is o w n k n o w le d g e of the a p p lic a t io n
of w e ll-e s ta b lis h e d p r in c ip le s and p r a c tic e s .

of

R e s p o n s ib ilit y f o r the d i r e c t i o n
s u b o rd in a te n o n p r o f e s s io n a l staff.

a

A cco u n ta n t

of

o the rs.

In

m ost

in s ta n c e s

he

d ire c ts

the

w o rk

IV

G e n e ra l c h a ra c te ris tic s .
P e r f o r m s p ro fe s s io n a l o p e ra tin g o r c o s t a c c o u n tin g w o rk
w h ic h r e q u ir e s the a p p lic a tio n of w e ll-e s t a b li s h e d a c c o u n tin g p r in c ip le s , t h e o r ie s , c o n c e p ts ,
a n d p r a c t i c e s to a w id e v a r i e t y of d if f ic u lt p r o b l e m s .
R e c e i v e s i n s t r u c t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g th e
o b j e c t i v e s a n d o p e r a t io n s of th e o v e r a l l a c c o u n t i n g s y s t e m .
A t th is le v e l,
c o m p a re d w ith
l e v e l I I I , th e a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m o r a s s ig n e d s e g m e n t is m o r e c o m p le x , i. e. , (a ) is r e l a t i v e l y
u n sta b le ,
(b ) m u s t a d ju s t to n e w o r c h a n g in g c o m p a n y o p e r a t io n s ,
(c ) s e rv e s o rg a n iz a tio n s
o f u n u s u a l l y l a r g e s i z e , £ r (d ) is c o m p l i c a t e d b y th e n e e d to p r o v i d e a n d c o o r d i n a t e s e p a r a t e
o r s p e c ia liz e d a c c o u n tin g t r e a t m e n t a n d r e p o r t i n g (e . g. , c o s t a c c o u n tin g u s in g s ta n d a r d c o s t,
p r o c e s s co st,
and jo b o r d e r
te c h n iq u e s ) f o r d iffe r e n t o p e ra tio n s o r d iv is io n s of c o m p a n y .
D e p e n d in g u p o n the w o r k lo a d an d d e g r e e of c o o r d in a t io n in v o lv e d , the a c c o u n ta n t I V
m a y h a v e s u c h a s s ig n m e n t s as th e s u p e r v i s i o n of the d a y - t o - d a y o p e r a t io n o f:
(a ) T h e e n t ir e
a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m of a s u b o rd in a te
e s ta b lis h m e n t,
o r (b ) a m a j o r s e g m e n t (e . g. , g e n e ra l
a c c o u n tin g ; c o s t a c c o u n tin g ; o r fin a n c ia l s ta te m e n ts
and re p o rts ) of
s e rv in g a la r g e r and m o r e c o m p le x
e s ta b lis h m e n t,
o r (c ) the e n t ir e
a la rg e ( e . g . , e m p lo y in g s e v e r a l th o u s a n d
r e s p e c ts h as a n a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m of the

an a c c o u n tin g s y s te m
a c c o u n tin g
s y s t e m of

p e r s o n s ) s u b o rd in a te e s ta b lis h m e n t w h ic h
c o m p le x ity that c h a r a c te r iz e s le v e l III.

in o th e r

D ire c tio n re c e iv e d .
A h i g h e r l e v e l a c c o u n t a n t n o r m a l l y is a v a i l a b l e to f u r n i s h a d v i c e
a n d a s s is t a n c e as n e e d e d .
W o r k is r e v ie w e d b y sp o t c h e c k s an d a p p r a is a l of
re s u lts fo r
a d e q u a cy of p ro fe s s io n a l ju d g m e n t,
c o m p lia n c e w ith in s tru c tio n s ,
and o v e ra ll a c c u ra c y and
q u a lity .
T y p i c a l d u tie s and
re s p o n s ib ilitie s .
A s at le v e l III,
a p rim a ry
c h a ra c te ris tic
of
m o s t p o s i t i o n s a t th is l e v e l is th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f o p e r a t i n g a n a c c o u n t i n g s y s t e m o r m a j o r
s e g m e n t of a s y s t e m in the in te n d e d m a n n e r .
T h e a c c o u n ta n t I V e x e r c is e s p r o f e s s io n a l ju d g m e n t in m a k in g fre q u e n t a p p ro p ria t e
r e c o m m e n d a t io n s f o r : N e w a c c o u n ts ; r e v is io n s in the a c c o u n t s t r u c t u r e ; n e w ty p e s of le d g e r s ;
r e v i s i o n s i n r e p o r t i n g s y s t e m o r s u b s i d i a r y r e c o r d s ; c h a n g e s i n i n s t r u c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the
use of a c c o u n ts ; n e w o r re fin e d a c c o u n t c la s s ific a tio n s o r d e fin itio n s ; e tc.
H e a lso m a k e s
d a y -t o -d a y d e c is io n s c o n c e rn in g
the a c c o u n tin g t r e a t m e n t of f in a n c ia l t r a n s a c t io n s an d
is
e x p e c t e d to r e c o m m e n d s o lu t io n s to c o m p l e x p r o b l e m s b e y o n d th e s c o p e o f h is r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .
R e s p o n s ib ility f o r ' d ir e c tio n of
p ro fe s s io n a l a cco u n ta n ts.

in c lu d e

A cco u n ta n t

w h ic h

is

o the rs.

A c c o u n tin g

sta ff

he s u p e rv is e s ,

if

any,

m ay

V

G e n e ra l c h a ra c te ris tic s .
of g r e a t e r th a n a v e ra g e

P e r f o r m s p ro fe s s io n a l o p e ra tin g o r c o s t a c c o u n tin g w o rk
p ro fe s s io n a l d iffic u lty and
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y b e c a u s e o f th e

p r e s e n c e of u n u s u a l a n d n o v e l p r o b l e m s o r the u n u s u a l m a g n it u d e o r im p a c t of the a c c o u n tin g
program .
T y p i c a l l y th is l e v e l o f d i f f i c u l t y a r i s e s f r o m (a ) th e l a r g e s i z e of th e a c c o u n t i n g
and o p e ra tin g o rg a n iza tio n ,
(b ) th e a t y p i c a l n a t u r e o f th e a c c o u n t i n g p r o b l e m s e n c o u n t e r e d ,
or

(c )

the

u n u s u a lly

great

in v o lv e m e n t

in

a c c o u n tin g

system s

d e sig n

and

d e v e lo p m e n t.

E x a m p le s of a s s ig n m e n ts
c h a r a c t e r is t ic of th is
le v e l a re
th e
s u p e r v i s i o n o f th e
d a y - t o - d a y o p e ra tio n o f:
(a ) T h e e n tire a c c o u n tin g
s y s t e m of a s u b o rd in a te e s t a b lis h m e n t
h a v in g a n u n u s u a lly n o v e l a n d c o m p le x a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m , o r (b ) the e n t ir e a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m
of a la rg e ( e . g . ,
e m p lo y in g s e v e r a l th ousand p e rs o n s )
s u b o rd in a te e s t a b lis h m e n t w h ic h in




44

A C C O U N T A N T —

other

respects

C o n tin u e d

has

an

a c c o u n tin g

system

of

th e

c o m p le x ity

that

c h a ra c te rize s

(c ) th e e n t i r e a c c o u n t i n g s y s t e m o f a c o m p a n y o r c o r p o r a t i o n t h a t h a s a r e
and c o n v e n tio n a l a c c o u n tin g s y s te m and e m p lo y s s e v e r a l th o u s a n d p e rs o n s
s u b o rd in a te
e s ta b lis h m e n ts
w h ic h in c lu d e a c c o u n tin g u n its ,
o r (d ) a m a j o r
a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m th a t s u b s t a n tia lly e x c e e d s the c h a r a c t e r i s t ic s d e s c r ib e d in
p re c e d in g e x a m p le s .

D ire c tio n
a d vic e

and

c o m p lia n c e

re c e iv e d .

a s s is ta n c e as
w ith

A n acco u n ta n t

needed.

in s tru c tio n s ,

T y p i c a l d u tie s

W ork

and

is

o v e ra ll

and re s p o n s ib ility .

of

h ig h e r

le v e l

re v ie w e d

n o rm a lly

f o r a d e q u a c y of

le v e l

IV ,

or

la tiv e ly
sta b le
and has a few
s e g m e n t of an
a n y o n e o f th e

is a v a i la b le

to

p ro fe s s io n a l

fu rn is h

ju d g m e n t,

q u a lity .

The

w o r k is c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y

its u n u s u a l d i f f i c u lt y

o r re s p o n s ib ility .
A c c o u n ta n ts V t y p ic a lly a re d ir e c t ly c o n c e rn e d o n a r e la t iv e ly co n tin u o u s
b a s i s w i t h w h a t th e n a t u r e o f th e a c c o u n t i n g s y s t e m s h o u ld b e , w i t h th e d e v i s i n g o r r e v i s i n g
o f th e o p e r a t i n g a c c o u n t i n g p o l i c i e s a n d p r o c e d u r e s t h a t a r e n e c e s s a r y , a n d w i t h th e m a n a ­
g e r i a l as w e l l as the a c c o u n t in g m e a n in g o f th e r e p o r t s a n d s ta t e m e n ts f o r w h i c h he is r e ­
s p o n s ib le .
A c c o u n ta n ts V a re n e c e s s a rily d e e p ly in v o lv e d in fu n d a m e n ta l and c o m p le x a c ­
c o u n tin g m a t t e r s an d in the m a n a g e r i a l p r o b l e m s th a t a r e a ffe c te d .

R e s p o n s ib ility
c lu d e s

p ro fe s s io n a l

for

d ire c tio n of

o the rs.

A c c o u n tin g

staff

he s u p e rv is e s

g e n e ra lly

in ­

acco u n ta n ts.

A U D IT O R

P e rfo rm s

p ro fe s s io n a l

a u d itin g w o r k

re q u irin g

a b a c h e lo r 's d e g re e

in a c c o u n tin g o r ,

in r a r e in s ta n c e s , e q u iv a le n t e x p e rie n c e and e d u c a tio n c o m b in e d .
A u d i t s th e f i n a n c i a l r e c o r d s
and p ra c tic e s
of a c o m p a n y ,
or
of d iv isio n s
o r c o m p o n e n ts of the c o m p a n y ,
to a p p r a is e
s y s t e m a t i c a l l y a n d v e r i f y th e a c c o u n t i n g a c c u r a c y o f r e c o r d s a n d r e p o r t s a n d to a s s u r e th e
c o n s is te n t a p p lic a tio n of a c c e p te d a c c o u n tin g p r in c ip le s .
E v a lu a t e s the a d e q u a c y o f the a c ­
co u n tin g
system
and in te rn a l fin a n c ia l c o n tro l.
M a k e s a p p ro p ria te
re c o m m e n d a tio n s
for
im p r o v e m e n t as n e c e s s a r y .
T o th e e x t e n t d e t e r m i n e d n e c e s s a r y , e x a m i n e s th e t r a n s a c t i o n s
e n te r in g in to the b a la n c e
a cco u n ts.
D e te rm in e s :

(1 )
p h y s ic a l

of

(2 )
facts

sheet

the

tra n s a c tio n s

e n te rin g

in to

in c o m e ,

T h e e x is te n c e of re c o r d e d
assets (in c lu d in g
the o b s e r v a t io n
in v e n t o r ie s ) an d the a l l-in c lu s iv e n e s s of r e c o r d e d lia b ilit ie s .
Th e accuracy
th e re in .

(3 )

The

(4 )

The

d e g re e

of

p ro p rie ty

fin a n c ia l

and

fin a n c ia l s ta te m e n ts

or

of

le g a lity

of

or

re p o rts

and

expense,

of

the f a ir n e s s

the

of

and cost

ta k in g

of

p re s e n ta tio n

tra n s a c tio n s .

c o m p lia n c e w ith

e s ta b lis h e d

p o lic ie s

and

p ro ce d u re s

c o n c e rn in g

tra n s a c tio n s .

E x c lu d e d
b e c a u s e th e w o r k
a lim ite d a re a of

are

p o s itio n s

w h ic h

do

not

re q u ire

fu ll

p ro fe s s io n a l

a cc o u n tin g

tra in in g

is c o n f in e d o n a r e l a t i v e l y p e r m a n e n t b a s i s to r e p e t i t i v e e x a m i n a t i o n s of
c o m p a n y o p e r a t io n s a n d a c c o u n t in g p r o c e s s e s , e. g . , o n ly a c c o u n ts p a y a b le

and re c e iv a b le ; d e m u rr a g e

records

and re la te d fu n c tio n s ,

or

s ta tio n o p e ra tio n s

r o a d c o m p a n y ; b r a n c h o ffic e s w h ic h do n o t e n g a g e in the f u ll
a c t iv itie s of the m a i n b a n k ; w a r e h o u s e o p e ra tio n s o n ly of a
t r a n s a c t i o n s to d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e y c o n f o r m to p r e
(E x a m in a t io n s of s u c h re p e t it iv e o r lim it e d n a tu re n o r m a lly
f e s s i o n a l a u d it w o r k to b e p e r f o r m e d . )




45

o n ly of

a

ra il­

ra n g e of b a n k in g and a c c o u n tin g
m a i l o r d e r c o m p a n y ; c h e c k in g
s c rib e d ro u tin e s o r p ro c e d u re s .
do not re q u ire o r p e r m it p r o ­

A U D IT O R —

A u d ito r

C o n tin u e d

I

G e n e ra l c h a ra c te ris tic s .
A s a t r a i n e e a u d i t o r a t th e e n t e r i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l le v e l ,
p e r f o r m s a v a r ie ty of ro u tin e a s s ig n m e n ts .
Ty p ic a lly ,
he is ro ta te d
th r o u g h a v a r ie t y of
ta s k s u n d e r a p la n n e d t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m d e s ig n e d to p r o v i d e p r a c t i c a l e x p e r ie n c e in a p p ly in g
th e p r i n c i p l e s ,
th e o rie s ,
and con cepts
of a c c o u n tin g
and a u d itin g
to
s p e c ific
s itu a tio n s .
( T e r m i n a l p o s itio n s a re e x c lu d e d .)
D ire c tio n re c e iv e d .
W o r k s u n d e r c lo s e s u p e r v is io n of an e x p e rie n c e d a u d it o r w h o s e
g u i d a n c e is d i r e c t e d p r i m a r i l y to th e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e t r a i n e e ' s p r o f e s s i o n a l a b i l i t y a n d to
th e e v a l u a t i o n of h is p o t e n t ia l f o r a d v a n c e m e n t .
L i m i t s of a s s ig n m e n ts a r e c l e a r l y d e fin e d ,
m e t h o d s of p r o c e d u r e a r e s p e c if ie d , a n d k in d s o f it e m s to b e n o te d a n d r e f e r r e d to s u p e r ­
v i s o r a r e id e n tifie d .
T y p i c a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i li t i e s .
A s s is t s in m a k in g a u d its
by p e rfo rm in g such
ta sk s a s :
V e r i f i c a t i o n of th e a c c u r a c y of th e b a la n c e s in v a r i o u s r e c o r d s ; e x a m i n a t i o n of
a v a r ie t y of typ e s of d o c u m e n ts and v o u c h e r s f o r a c c u r a c y of c o m p u ta t io n s ; c h e c k in g t r a n s ­
a c t io n s to a s s u r e t h e y a r e p r o p e r l y d o c u m e n t e d a n d h a v e b e e n r e c o r d e d in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h
c o r r e c t a c c o u n tin g
c la s s ific a tio n s ; v e r if y in g
th e c o u n t o f
in v e n to rie s ; p re p a rin g
d e ta ile d
sta te m e n ts,
sc h e d u le s ,
an d s ta n d a r d a u d it w o r k i n g p a p e r s ; c o u n tin g c a s h and o t h e r a s s e t s ;
p r e p a r in g s im p le r e c o n c ilia t io n s ; and s i m il a r fu n c tio n s .
A u d ito r

a u d ito r

II

G e n e ra l c h a ra c te ris tic s .
s e r v e s as a j u n io r m e m b e r

A t th is c o n tin u in g d e v e lo p m e n t a l le v e l the p r o f e s s i o n a l
of .a n a u d it t e a m , i n d e p e n d e n t ly p e r f o r m i n g s e le c t e d p o r ­

tio n s o f th e a u d it w h i c h a r e l i m i t e d in s c o p e a n d c o m p l e x i t y .
A u d it o r s at th is le v e l t y p ic a lly
h a ve a c q u ire d k n o w le d g e of c o m p a n y o p e ra tio n s , p o lic ie s , and p r o c e d u r e s .
(T e rm in a l p o s i­
tio n s a re e x c lu d e d .)

D ire c tio n re c e iv e d .
D e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n s a r e f u r n i s h e d a n d th e w o r k is r e v i e w e d
to th e e x t e n t n e c e s s a r y to v e r i f y it s g e n e r a l a c c u r a c y a n d c o v e r a g e o f u n u s u a l p r o b l e m s , to
in s u re c o n fo rm a n c e w ith r e q u ire d p ro c e d u re s and s p e c ia l in s tru c tio n s ,
a n d to a s s u r e
the
a u d ito r's
p ro fe s s io n a l g ro w th .
Any
te c h n ic a l p r o b le m s
not co vered by
in s tru c tio n s
are
b r o u g h t to th e a t te n t io n of a s u p e r i o r .
H i s p r o g r e s s is e v a l u a t e d i n t e r m s o f h i s a b i l i t y to
a p p l y h is p r o f e s s i o n a l k n o w l e d g e to b a s i c a u d it in g s i t u a t i o n s .

T y p i c a l d u tie s an d
re s p o n s ib ilitie s .
A p p lie s
k n o w le d g e of a c c o u n tin g
th e o ry
and
a u d it p r a c t i c e s to a v a r i e t y o f r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e p r o f e s s i o n a l p r o b l e m s in h is a u d it a s s i g n ­
m e n ts,
in c lu d in g su ch tasks a s :
T h e v e r if ic a tio n of re p o rts a g a in s t s o u rc e
accou nts
and
r e c o r d s to d e t e r m i n e
th e ir r e lia b ility ; re c o n c ilia tio n of bank and o th e r acco u n ts and v e r i ­
f y i n g th e d e t a i l of r e c o r d e d t r a n s a c t i o n s ; d e t a i le d e x a m i n a t i o n s o f c a s h r e c e i p t s a n d d i s b u r s e ­
m en t vouchers,
p a y ro ll re c o rd s ,
re q u is itio n s ,
w o rk
orders,
re c e iv in g re p o rts ,
and othe r
a c c o u n tin g d o c u m e n ts to a s c e r t a i n th a t t r a n s a c t io n s a r e p r o p e r l y s u p p o r t e d and a r e r e c o r d e d
c o r r e c t l y f r o m an a c c o u n tin g o r r e g u la t o r y s ta n d p o in t; o r p r e p a r i n g w o r k in g p a p e r s , s c h e d ­
u le s ,
and s u m m a rie s .

A u d ito r

III

G e n e ra l

c h a ra c te ris tic s .

a c c o u n tin g p ro c e s s e s

that

W ork

a re re la tiv e ly

at

th is

s ta b le ,

le v e l

c o n s is ts

of

w e ll-e s ta b lis h e d ,

th e a u d it
and

of

o p e ra tio n s

ty p ic a l of

and

the in d u s t r y .

T h e a u d i t s p r i m a r i l y i n v o l v e th e c o l l e c t i o n a n d a n a l y s i s o f r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f i n d i n g s ; t h e r e is
p r e v i o u s a u d it e x p e r ie n c e th a t is d i r e c t l y a p p li c a b le ; th e a u d it r e p o r t s a r e n o r m a l l y p r e p a r e d
in a p r e s c r i b e d f o r m a t u s in g a s t a n d a r d m e t h o d o f p r e s e n t a t io n ; a n d f e w if a n y m a j o r p r o b ­
le m s a re a n tic ip a te d .
T h e w o r k p e r f o r m e d r e q u i r e s th e a p p l i c a t i o n o f s u b s t a n t i a l k n o w le d g e s
of a c c o u n tin g p r in c ip le s and p r a c tic e s ,
e .g .,
b a se s fo r d is tin g u is h in g a m o n g c a p ita l m a i n ­
te na n ce and o p e ra tin g e x p e n s e s ; a c c ru in g r e s e rv e s fo r ta x e s ; and o th e r a c c o u n tin g c o n s id e r a ­
tio n s of an e q u iv a le n t n a tu r e .




46

A U D IT O R —

C o n tin u e d

D ire c tio n re c e iv e d .
s u p e rv is io n
is p r o v i d e d
by a
W o r k is s p o t -c h e c k e d
in p r o g
coverage,
soun dne ss of ju d g m
to p o l i c i e s .

W ork
is n o r m a l l y
w ith in an e s ta b lis h e d
a u d it p r o g r a m
and
h ig h e r le v e l a u d it o r w h o o u tlin e s and d is c u s s e s a s s ig n m e n ts .
ress.
C o m p le t e d a s s ig n m e n t s a r e r e v ie w e d f o r a d e q u a c y of
e nt,
c o m p lia n c e w ith p ro fe s s io n a l s ta n d a rd s ,
and ad he re n ce

T y p i c a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i li t i e s .
T h e a u d ito r e x a m in e s tra n s a c tio n s and v e r if ie s
a c c o u n ts ; o b s e r v e s and e v a lu a te s a c c o u n tin g p r o c e d u r e s and i n t e r n a l c o n t r o ls ; p r e p a r e s a u d it
w o r k in g p a p e r s a n d s u b m it s a n a u d it r e p o r t in the r e q u i r e d p a t t e r n c o n ta in in g r e c o m m e n d a ­
tio n s fo r n e e d e d ch a n g e s o r im p r o v e m e n t s .
H e is u s u a l ly r e s p o n s ib l e f o r s e le c t in g th e d e ­
t a ile d a u d it m e t h o d s to f o ll o w , c h o o s i n g th e a u d it s a m p l e a n d its s i z e , d e t e r m i n i n g th e e x te n t
to w h i c h d i s c r e p a n c i e s n e e d to b e i n v e s t i g a t e d , a n d d e c i d i n g th e d e p t h o f th e a n a l y s e s r e q u i r e d
to s u p p o r t r e p o r t e d f in d in g s a n d c o n c lu s io n s .

E x a m p le s

of

(1 )

te a m

As

a

a s s ig n m e n ts
le a d e r

or

in v o lv in g
w o rk in g

w o rk
a lo n e ,

of

th is

le v e l;

in d e p e n d e n tly

conducts

a u d its

of

the

com ­

p le te a c c o u n ts and re la te d o p e ra tio n s of s m a l le r o r le s s c o m p le x c o m p a n ie s ( e . g . , i n ­
v o lv in g a c e n t r a liz e d a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m w ith fe w o r no s u b o rd in a te , s u b s id ia r y , o r b r a n c h
a cc o u n tin g re c o r d s ) o r of c o m p a ra b le s e g m e n ts of la r g e r c o m p a n ie s .
(2 )

As

a m em ber

of

an a u d it

te a m

in d e p e n d e n tly a c c o m p lis h e s v a r ie d

a u d it

a s s ig n ­

m e n t s o f the a b o v e d e s c r i b e d
c h a ra c te ris tic s ,
ty p ic a lly m a jo r
segm e n ts
of c o m p le te
a u d its , o r a s s ig n m e n ts o t h e r w is e li m i t e d in s c o p e of l a r g e r and m o r e c o m p le x c o m p a n ie s
(e .g .,
c o m p le x
in th a t th e a c c o u n t i n g s y s t e m e n t a ils c o s t ,
in v e n to ry ,
s p e c i a l i z e d s y s t e m s i n t e g r a t e d w i t h th e g e n e r a l a c c o u n t i n g s y s t e m ) .

and

c o m p a ra b le

I llu s t r a t iv e of s u c h a s s ig n m e n ts a r e the a u d it and in it ia l r e v ie w of a c c o u n tin g t r e a t m e n t and
v a lid it y of r e p o r t in g of o v e rh e a d e x p e n s e s in a la r g e m a n u f a c t u r in g o r m a in te n a n c e o r g a n i ­
z a t io n (e . g. , m a j o r r e p a i r y a r d of a r a i l r o a d ) ; o r , th e c h e c k in g , v e r i f i c a t i o n , a n d b a la n c in g
of a ll a c c o u n ts r e c e iv a b le and a c c o u n ts p a y a b le ; o r , the a n a ly s is and v e r if ic a t io n of a s s e ts
and r e s e rv e s ;
or,
th e
in s p e c tio n and e v a lu a tio n of a c c o u n tin g
c o n tro ls
and p ro c e d u re s .

A u d ito r

IV

G e n e ra l c h a ra c te ris tic s .
A u d it o r s at th is le v e l a r e e x p e rie n c e d p r o f e s s io n a ls w h o
a p p ly th o r o u g h k n o w le d g e of a c c o u n tin g p r in c ip le s an d t h e o r y in c o n n e c tio n w it h a v a r ie t y of
a u d its .
W o r k at th is
le v e l is c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y the a u d it of o r g a n iz a t io n s an d a c c o u n tin g
p ro c e s s e s w h ic h a re c o m p le x and d iffic u lt b e ca u s e of su ch fa c to rs a s :
P re s e n c e of n e w o r
c h a n g e d p r o g r a m s and a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m s ; e x is te n c e of m a j o r s p e c ia liz e d a c c o u n tin g fu n c tio n s
(e . g. , c o s t a c c o u n tin g ,
in v e n t o r y a c c o u n tin g ,
s a le s a c c o u n tin g ),
in a d d it io n to g e n e r a l a c ­
c o u n t i n g ; n e e d to c o n s i d e r e x t e n s i v e a n d c o m p l i c a t e d
re g u la to ry r e q u ir e m e n ts ; la c k of o r
d iffic u lty in o b ta in in g in f o r m a t io n ; and o th e r s i m il a r f a c to r s .
T y p ic a lly , a v a r ie t y of d iffe re n t
a s s ig n m e n ts a re e n c o u n te re d o v e r a p e rio d of tim e , e . g . ,
1 year.
T h e a u d it r e p o r t s p r e p a r e d
a re c o m p re h e n s iv e ,
e x p la in ir r e g u la r itie s ,
c ite
ru le s o r
re g u la tio n s v io la te d ,
recom m e nd
r e m e d i a l a c t io n s , a n d c o n t a in a n a ly s e s of i t e m s o f s p e c ia l i m p o r t a n c e o r i n t e r e s t to c o m p a n y
m an a ge m e n t.
D ire c tio n re c e iv e d .
W ith in an e s ta b lis h e d
a u d it p r o g r a m ,
have re s p o n s ib ility fo r
in d e p e n d e n tly p la n n in g and e x e c u tin g a u d its .
U n u s u a lly d iffic u lt p r o b le m s a re d is c u s s e d w ith
th e s u p e r v i s o r w h o
a lso
re v ie w s
c o m p le te d
a s s ig n m e n ts
fo r a d he re n ce
to p r i n c i p l e s an d
s t a n d a r d s a n d th e s o u n d n e s s of c o n c lu s io n s .
T y p ic a l

d u tie s

and

re s p o n s ib ilitie s .

A u d ito rs

at

th is

le v e l

have

fu ll

re s p o n s ib ility

f o r p la n n in g th e a u d it,
in c lu d in g d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f th e a s p e c t s to e m p h a s iz e ,
m ethods
used,
d e v e lo p m e n t of n o n s ta n d a rd o r
s p e c ia lize d
a u d it a id s s u c h as q u e s tio n n a ire s ,
w h e re p r e v io u s a u d it e x p e rie n c e
and p la n s a re of lim ite d a p p lic a b ility .




47

to be
etc. ,

A U D IT O R —

C o n tin u e d

I n c lu d e d i n th e s c o p e o f w o r k
th a t c h a r a c t e r iz e s th is le v e l a re s u c h fu n c tio n s a s :
E v a lu a t io n of m e th o d s u s e d f o r d e t e r m in in g d e p r e c ia t io n ra te s of e q u ip m e n t; e v a lu a tio n of
a s s e t s w h e r e o r i g i n a l c o s ts a r e u n k n o w n ; e v a lu a t io n of th e r e l i a b i l i t y o f a c c o u n t in g a n d r e ­
p o r t i n g s y s t e m s ; a n a ly s is of c o s t a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m s a n d c o s t r e p o r t s to e v a lu a te the b a s is
for
c o s t and p r ic e s e ttin g ; e v a lu a tio n of a c c o u n tin g p r o c u r e m e n t and s u p p ly m a n a g e m e n t
records,
c o n tro ls ,
and p ro c e d u re s ; and m a n y o th e rs .

E x a m p le s
(1 )

As

of

a s s ig n m e n ts

a te a m

le a d e r

or

in v o lv in g
w o rk in g

w o rk
a lo n e ,

at

th is

le v e l:

in d e p e n d e n tly

p la n s

and

con ducts

a u d its of

the c o m p le te a c c o u n ts and r e la t e d o p e ra tio n s o f r e la t iv e l y la r g e and c o m p le x c o m p a n ie s
(e .g .,
c o m p le x in th a t the a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m e n ta ils c o s t,
in v e n to ry ,
and c o m p a ra b le
s p e c ia liz e d a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m s in te g ra t e d w it h the g e n e r a l a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m ) o r of c o m ­
pan y b ra n ch , s u b s id ia ry,
s ize and c o m p le x ity ,
or

o r a ffilia te d o r g a n iz a tio n s

w h ic h a re

in d iv id u a lly

of

c o m p a ra b le

(2 )
A s a m e m b e r of an a u d it te a m in d e p e n d e n tly p la n s and a c c o m p lis h e s a u d it a s ­
s ig n m e n ts th a t c o n s titu te m a j o r s e g m e n ts of a u d its of v e r y la r g e and c o m p le x o r g a n i z a ­
t io n s , f o r e x a m p le , th o s e w it h f i n a n c ia l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s so g r e a t a s to in v o l v e s p e c i a l i z e d
s u b o rd in a te , s u b s id ia r y , o r a ffilia te a c c o u n tin g s y s te m s that a r e c o m p le te in th e m s e lv e s .
N O T E :
E x c lu d e d f r o m le v e l I V a r e a u d it o r s w h o , as te a m le a d e r o r w o r k in g a lo n e ,
c o n d u c t c o m p le t e a u d its of v e r y l a r g e a n d c o m p le x - o r g a n iz a t io n s ,
fo r e x a m p le ,
th o se w ith
f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s s o g r e a t as to i n v o l v e s p e c i a l i z e d s u b o r d i n a t e ,
s u b s id ia ry , o r a f­
filia te a c c o u n tin g s y s te m s that a re c o m p le te in th e m s e lv e s ; o r a re te a m m e m b e r s a s s ig n e d
to m a j o r s e g m e n t s o f a u d it s o f e v e n l a r g e r o r m o r e c o m p l e x o r g a n i z a t i o n s .

C H IE F

A C C O U N T A N T

pro gram

A s th e to p t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i n a c c o u n t i n g , is r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d i r e c t i n g th e a c c o u n t i n g
fo r a c o m p a n y o r fo r an e s ta b lis h m e n t of a c o m p a n y .
T h e m in im u m a c c o u n tin g

p r o g r a m in c lu d e s :
(1 ) G e n e r a l a c c o u n tin g (a s s e t s , lia b ilit ie s , in c o m e , e x p e n s e , an d c a p ita l
acco u n ts,
in c lu d in g
r e s p o n s ib ilit y f o r p r o f it and lo s s
and b a la n c e sh eet s ta te m e n ts ); and
(2 ) at le a s t on e o t h e r m a j o r a c c o u n tin g a c t iv it y ,
ty p ic a lly
ta x a c c o u n tin g ,
c o s t a c c o u n tin g ,
p r o p e r t y a c c o u n tin g , o r s a le s a c c o u n tin g .
It m a y a ls o in c lu d e su c h o th e r a c tiv itie s as p a y r o ll
and tim e k e e p in g , and m e c h a n ic a l o r e le c tr o n ic d a ta p r o c e s s in g o p e ra tio n s w h ic h a r e an a d ju n c t
o f th e a c c o u n t i n g s y s t e m .
(R e s p o n s ib ilit y f o r a n i n t e r n a l a u d it p r o g r a m
is
ty p ic a lly
not
in c lu d e d . )
The

to

(1 )
m eet
(2 )

re s p o n s ib ilitie s
On
th e

of

th e

c h ie f

acco u n ta n t

in c lu d e

a ll

of

the

o w n r e s p o n s ib ility , d e v e lo p in g o r a d a p tin g o r r e v is in g
n e eds of the o r g a n iz a t io n .

S u p e rv is in g ,

e ith e r

d ire c tly

or

th ro u g h

s u b o rd in a te

fo llo w in g :
an

a c c o u n tin g

s u p e rv is o rs ,

o f th e s y s t e m w it h f u l l m a n a g e m e n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r th e q u a lit y a n d
p e r f o r m e d , t r a in in g and d e v e lo p m e n t of s u b o rd in a te s , w o r k s c h e d u lin g
o r d i n a t io n w it h o t h e r p a r t s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n s e r v e d ,
etc.
(3 )
ice s

to

P ro v id in g d ire c tly
th e

to p m a n a g e m e n t

or

th ro u g h an

o ffic ia ls

of

o ffic ia l

the

su ch as a

o rg a n iza tio n

(a )
T h e s ta tu s of f in a n c ia l r e s o u r c e s
o p e ra tio n s as r e v e a le d b y a c c o u n tin g d a ta ,
th a t is m e a n i n g f u l to m a n a g e m e n t .

as

o p e ra tio n

q u a n tity of w o r k
and re v ie w ,
co­

c o m p tro lle r,

served

th e

system

a d v is o ry

se rv­

to :

a n d th e f i n a n c i a l t r e n d s o r r e s u l t s
of
and s e le c tin g a m a n n e r of p re s e n ta tio n

(b )
M e th o ds
fo r
i m p r o v in g o p e ra tio n s as s u g g e s te d b y h is
e x p e rt k n o w le d g e
of a c c o u n tin g ,
e. g. , p r o p o s a ls
fo r im p r o v in g co st c o n tro l,
p ro p e rty m a n a g e m e n t,
c r e d it and c o lle c tio n ,
ta x re d u c tio n ,
o r s im ilia r p ro g ra m s .




48

C H IE F

A C C O U N T A N T —

C o n tin u e d

E x c lu d e d a r e p o s itio n s w it h r e s p o n s ib ilit y f o r th e a c c o u n tin g p r o g r a m if th e y a ls o
in c lu d e (a s a m a j o r p a r t of th e jo b ) r e s p o n s ib ilit y f o r b u d g e tin g ; w o r k m e a s u r e m e n t ; o r g a n i ­
z a tio n ,
m e th o d s and p r o c e d u r e s s tu d ie s ; o r s i m i l a r n o n a c c o u n tin g fu n c tio n s .
(P o s it io n s of
such b re a d th a re s o m e tim e s
title d
c o m p tro lle r,
bu d g e t and a c c o u n tin g m a n a g e r,
fin a n c ia l
m an ager,
e tc .)
S o m e p o s itio n s

re s p o n sib le

m a jo r a c c o u n tin g a c tiv itie s
a cco u n ta n t s p e c ifie d a bove
C h ie f

a cco u n ta n t

f o r s u p e rv is in g g e n e ra l a c c o u n tin g and one o r m o r e

b u t w h ic h do n o t f u lly m e e t a ll o f the r e s p o n s ib ilit ie s
m a y be c o v e r e d b y the d e s c r ip t io n s f o r a c c o u n ta n t.
jo b s

w h ic h

m eet

th e

above c h a ra c te ris tic s

of w o r k a c c o r d i n g to (a ) a u t h o r it y an d r e s p o n s i b i li t y
c h a r t w h ic h f o llo w s the d e f in it io n s b e lo w .
A u th o rity

and

and

are

(b ) t e c h n ic a l

of

c la s s ifie d

by

c o m p le x ity ,

a

other
c h ie f

le v e l1

u s in g

th e

R e s p o n s ib ility

A R - 1.
T h e a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m ( i . e. , a c c o u n t s , p r o c e d u r e s , a n d r e p o r t s to b e u s e d )
h a s b e e n p r e s c r i b e d i n c o n s i d e r a b l e d e t a i l b y h i g h e r l e v e l s in th e c o m p a n y o r o r g a n i z a t i o n .
T h e c h ie f a c c o u n t a n t h a s f in a l, u n r e v i e w e d a u t h o r i t y w it h i n th e p r e s c r i b e d s y s t e m , to e x p a n d
i t to f it th e p a r t i c u l a r n e e d s o f th e o r g a n i z a t i o n s e r v e d ,
e. g . , in the f o llo w in g o r c o m p a ­
ra b le w a y s :
P ro v id e s

g re a te r

E s ta b lis h e s
re c o rd s ; and

s ib le

P ro v id e s
f o r the

d e ta il

a d d itio n a l

in

accou nts

a c c o u n tin g

and

re p o rts

c o n tro ls ,

or

fin a n c ia l

a cco u n ts,

statem en ts;

suba ccounts,

s p e c ia l o r in te r im re p o rts and s ta te m e n ts needed b y
d a y - t o - d a y o p e r a t io n s of th e o r g a n i z a t i o n s e r v e d .

the

and

s u b s id ia ry

m anager

respon­

A R -2 .
T h e b a s ic a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m is p r e s c r i b e d in b r o a d o u t lin e s r a t h e r th a n in
s p e c ific d e ta il.
W h ile c e rta in m a j o r fin a n c ia l r e p o rts , o v e r a ll a c c o u n ts , and g e n e ra l p o lic ie s
a r e r e q u i r e d b y th e b a s i c s y s t e m ,
th e c h i e f a c c o u n t a n t h a s b r o a d l a t it u d e a n d a u t h o r i t y to
d e c id e
th e
sp e c ific m e th o d s , p ro c e d u re s ,
a cco u n ts,
re p o rts,
e t c . — to b e u s e d w i t h i n th e
o rg a n iza tio n a l se g m e n t s e rv e d .
H e m u s t s e c u r e p r i o r a p p ro v a l f r o m h ig h e r le v e ls f o r o n ly
th o se ch a n g e s w h ic h w o u ld b a s ic a lly a ffe ct the b r o a d r e q u ir e m e n t s p r e s c r ib e d b y s u c h h ig h e r
le v e ls .
T y p ic a l re s p o n s ib ilitie s in c lu d e :

Evaluating and taking final action on recommendations proposed by subordinate e s ­
tablishments for changes in aspects of the accounting system or activities not prescribed
by higher authority;
Extending cost accounting operations to areas not previously covered;
C h a n g in g

fro m

one

cost

a c c o u n tin g

m ethod

to

a n o th e r;

Expanding the utilization of computers within the accounting process; and
P r e p a r in g a c c o u n tin g r e p o rts and
th e e n t ir e o r g a n iz a t io n f o r w h ic h he is
s u b o rd in a te s e g m e n ts .

s ta te m e n ts r e f le c t in g the e v e n ts a n d p r o g r e s s
r e s p o n s ib le ; often c o n s o lid a tin g d a ta s u b m itte d

of
by

T h i s d e g r e e of a u t h o r it y is m o s t t y p i c a ll y fo u n d at i n t e r m e d ia t e o r g a n iz a t io n a l le v e ls s u c h as
re g io n a l o ffic e s , o r d iv is io n o r s u b s id ia r y h e a d q u a rte rs .
I t is a ls o fo u n d in s o m e c o m p a n y
l e v e l s it u a t io n s w h e r e th e a u t h o r i t y of th e c h ie f a c c o u n t a n t is le s s e x t e n s i v e t h a n is d e s c r i b e d
in A R -3 .
M o r e r a r e l y it is fo u n d in p la n t l e v e l c h ie f a c c o u n ta n ts w h o h a v e b e e n d e le g a t e d
m o r e a u th o rity th an u s u a l f o r s u c h p o s itio n s as d e s c r ib e d in A R - 1 .

1 Insufficient data were obtained for le v e l V to warrant presentation o f average salaries.




49

C H IE F

A C C O U N TA N T—

C o n tin u e d

A R -3 .
H a s c o m p le te r e s p o n s i b i li t y f o r e s t a b lis h in g an d m a in t a in in g the f r a m e w o r k
f o r th e b a s i c a c c o u n t i n g s y s t e m u s e d i n th e c o m p a n y , s u b j e c t o n l y to g e n e r a l p o l i c y g u i d a n c e
a n d c o n tro l f r o m a h ig h e r le v e l c o m p a n y o ffic ia l r e s p o n s ib le fo r g e n e ra l fin a n c ia l m a n a g e ­
m e n t.
T y p i c a l re s p o n s ib ilitie s in c lu d e :
D e t e r m i n i n g th e b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
s p e c i f i c a c c o u n t s to b e u s e d ;
D e v is in g an d p r e p a rin g a c c o u n tin g
m e n t 's n e e d s fo r data;
E s ta b lis h in g

te m

b a s ic

a c c o u n tin g

of

re p o rts

p o lic ie s ,

R e v ie w in g and ta k in g a c tio n on p ro p o s e d
s u g g e s te d b y s u b o rd in a te u n its ; and
T a k in g

fin a l

a c tio n

on

a ll

the

te c h n ic a l

c o m p a n y 's

a c c o u n tin g

and sta te m e n ts

in te rp re ta tio n s ,
re v is io n s

a c c o u n tin g

to

re q u ire d

and

th e

system

to m e e t

and

th e

m anage­

p ro ce d u re s;

c o m p a n y 's

a c c o u n tin g

sys­

m atters.

C h a ra c te r is tic a lly , p a rtic ip a te s e x te n s iv e ly in b ro a d c o m p a n y m a n a g e m e n t p ro c e s s e s
b y p r o v id in g a c c o u n tin g a d v ic e , in t e r p r e t a t io n s , o r r e c o m m e n d a t io n s b a s e d on d a ta a c c u m u ­
la t e d in th e a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m a n d o n h is p r o f e s s i o n a l ju d g m e n t a n d e x p e r ie n c e .

T e c h n ic a l

C o m p le x ity

T C - 1.
T h e o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h th e a c c o u n t i n g p r o g r a m s e r v e s h a s r e l a t i v e l y fe w
f u n c t i o n s , p r o d u c t s , w o r k p r o c e s s e s , e t c . , a n d th e s e t e n d to be s ta b le a n d u n c h a n g i n g .
The
a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m o p e ra te s in a c c o rd a n c e w it h w e ll-e s t a b lis h e d p r in c ip le s and p r a c tic e s o r
th o se of e q u iv a le n t d if f ic u lt y w h ic h a r e t y p ic a l of th a t in d u s t r y .

T C -Z .
T h e o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h th e a c c o u n t i n g p r o g r a m s e r v e s h a s a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e
n u m b e r of fu n c tio n s , p r o d u c ts , w o r k p r o c e s s e s , e tc ., w h ic h r e q u ir e s u b s ta n tia l and fre q u e n t
a d a p t a t io n s o f th e b a s i c s y s t e m to m e e t m a n a g e m e n t n e e d s ( e . g . , a d o p t io n o f n e w a c c o u n t s ,
subaccounts,
and s u b s id ia ry
r e c o r d s ; r e v i s i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r th e u s e of a c c o u n t s ; i m ­
p r o v e m e n t o r e x p a n s io n of m e th o d s fo r a c c u m u la t in g
a n d r e p o r t i n g c o s t d a ta in . c o n n e c tio n
w ith

new

or

changed

w o rk

p ro c e s s e s ).

T C - 3.
T h e o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h th e a c c o u n t i n g p r o g r a m s e r v e s p u ts a h e a v y d e m a n d
o n the a c c o u n tin g o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r s p e c i a li z e d a n d e x te n s iv e a d a p ta tio n s of th e b a s ic s y s t e m
to m e e t m a n a g e m e n t n e e d s .
Such dem ands
a ris e
because
th e f u n c t io n s , p r o d u c t s , w o r k
p r o c e s s e s , e t c ., of th e o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e v e r y n u m e r o u s , d i v e r s e , u n i q u e , o r s p e c i a l i z e d , o r
th e re a re o the r c o m p a ra b le c o m p le x itie s .
C o n s e q u e n t l y , th e a c c o u n t i n g s y s t e m , to a c o n s i d ­
e ra b le d e g re e ,
is d e v e lo p e d w e l l b e y o n d e s t a b lis h e d p r in c ip l e s a n d a c c o u n tin g p r a c t i c e s in
o r d e r to:
P ro v id e

for

th e

s o lu tio n

of

p ro b le m s

for

w h ic h

no

c le a r

preced ents

e x is t;

or

P r o v i d e f o r th e
d e v e l o p m e n t o r e x t e n s i o n of a c c o u n t i n g t h e o r i e s a n d p r a c t i c e s to
d e a l w it h p r o b l e m s to w h i c h th e s e t h e o r i e s a n d p r a c t i c e s h a v e n o t p r e v i o u s l y b e e n a p p lie d .

S u b o rd in a te

S ta ff

In th e c h a r t th a t f o l l o w s , th e n u m b e r o f p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a n t s s u p e r v i s e d is r e c ­
o g n iz e d to be a r e l a t i v e l y c r u d e c r i t e r i o n f o r d i s t i n g u i s h in g b e t w e e n v a r io u s c l a s s e s .
It is
to b e c o n s i d e r e d le s s i m p o r t a n t i n th e m a t c h i n g p r o c e s s t h a n th e o t h e r c r i t e r i a .
In a d d itio n
to th e s ta ff of p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a n t s in th e s y s t e m f o r w h i c h th e c h ie f a c c o u n t a n t is r e ­
s p o n s ib le ,
th e re
are
c le ric a l,
m a c h in e
o p e ra tio n ,
b o o k k e e p in g ,
and
re la te d
p e rs o n n e l.




50

C H IE F

A C C O U N TA N T—

C o n tin u e d

A u th o rity
and
re s p o n s ib ility *

C la s s

T e c h n ic a l
c o m p le x ity 1

S u b o rd in a te staff of p r o f e s s io n a l a c c o u n ta n ts
th e s y s t e m f o r w h i c h h e is r e s p o n s i b l e .

in

I

A R -l

T C -1

O n ly one o r tw o p ro fe s s io n a l
do no t e x c e e d th e a c c o u n ta n t

II

A R -l

T C -2

A b o u t 5 t o 10 p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a n t s , w i t h a t
le a s t one
o r tw o
m a tc h in g
th e
a ccou ntan t IV
jo b

acco u n ta n ts, w ho
III jo b d e fin itio n .

d e fin itio n .

A R -2

A b o u t 5 t o 10 p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a n t s .
M ost
of th e s e m a t c h th e a c c o u n ta n t I I I jo b d e f in it io n ,
bu t one
o r t w o m a y m a t c h th e
a cco u n ta n t I V
jo b d e fin itio n .

A R -3

T C -1

O n ly one o r tw o p ro fe s s io n a l
do n o t e x c e e d the a c c o u n ta n t

acco u n ta n ts, w ho
I V jo b d e fin itio n .

A R -l

T C -3

About
15 t o
le a s t one o r
d e fin itio n .

acco u n ta n ts.
a cco u ntan t V

A R -2

III

T C -1

T C -2

20
p ro fe s s io n a l
tw o m a t c h the

At
jo b

or
About
of

15

these

to

20

p ro fe s s io n a l

m a t c h the

acco u n ta n ts.

acco u ntan t

IV

jo b

Many

d e fin itio n ,

b u t s o m e m a y m a t c h the a c c o u n ta n t V j o b d e f in it io n .
or
A -R -3

A b o u t 5 t o 10 p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a n t s .
M o s t of
th e s e m a t c h the a c c o u n ta n t I I I jo b d e f in it io n , b u t
one o r tw o m a y m a t c h as h ig h as a c c o u n ta n t V .

A R -2

T C -3

A b o u t 25 to 4 0 p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a n t s .
Many
o f t h e s e m a t c h th e
a c c o u n ta n t V jo b d e fin itio n ,
bu t s e v e r a l m a y e x ce e d that le v e l.

A R -3

T C -2

A b o u t 15 t o 2 0 p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a n t s .
M o s t of
th e s e m a t c h the a c c o u n ta n t I V jo b d e f in it io n , b u t
s e v e r a l m a y m a t c h the a c c o u n ta n t V and one o r
tw o m a y e x c e e d that le v e l.

A R -3

IV

T C -1

T C -3

A b o u t 25 to 4 0 p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a n t s .
Many
of th e s e m a t c h the
a c c o u n ta n t V jo b d e fin itio n ,
bu t s e v e r a l m a y ex ce e d th at le v e l.

or

V

A R -l,

-2 ,

and

-3 ;




and

T C -1 ,

-2 ,

and

-3

a re

e x p la in e d

on

51

th e

p r e c e d in g p a g e s .

A T T O R N E Y S

A T T O R N E Y

P e r f o r m s c o n s u lt a t io n a n d a d v i s o r y w o r k a n d c a r r i e s o u t the le g a l p r o c e s s e s n e c ­
e s s a r y to e f f e c t the r i g h t s , p r i v i l e g e s , a n d o b li g a t i o n s o f th e c o m p a n y .
The w o rk perform ed
r e q u i r e s c o m p l e t i o n o f l a w s c h o o l w it h a n L L . B . d e g r e e ( o r the e q u i v a le n t ) a n d a d m i s s i o n
to th e b a r .
R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o r f u n c t io n s i n c lu d e one o r m o r e o f th e f o ll o w in g o r c o m p a r a ­
b le

d u tie s :
P r e p a r in g and r e v ie w in g v a rio u s le g a l in s tru m e n ts and
le a s e s , lic e n s e s ,
purchases,
s a le s ,
r e a l esta te,
etc.;
A c tin g

as

agent

E x a m in in g
tio n s; a d v is in g

of the

com pany

in

its

do cu m en ts,

such as c o n tra c ts ,

tra n s a c tio n s ;

m a te ria l ( e . g . ,
a d v e rtis e m e n ts ,
p u b lic a tio n s ,
et c . ) for
le g a l i m p l i c a ­
o f f ic ia ls of p r o p o s e d le g is la t i o n w h ic h m i g h t a ffe c t the c o m p a n y ;

A p p ly in g fo r p a te n ts , c o p y r ig h t s , o r r e g is t r a t io n of c o m p a n y 's p r o d u c ts ,
d e v ic e s a n d t r a d e m a r k s ; a d v is in g w h e t h e r to in s t ig a t e o r d e fe n d la w s u i t s ;
C o n d u c tin g

p re -tria l

A d v is in g

o ffic ia ls

E x c lu d e d

fro m

P aten t w o rk
ic a lly ,
a degree

p re p a ra tio n s ;

on ta x

th is

m a tte rs,

d e fin itio n

w h ic h re q u ire s
in e n g in e e rin g

d e fe n d in g

th e

com pany

G o v e rn m e n t re g u la tio n s ,

in

la w s u its ;

and/or

processes,

and

co rp o ra te

rig h ts .

are:

p ro fe s s io n a l tra in in g
o r in a s c ie n c e );

in

a d d itio n

C la im s e x a m in in g , c la im s in v e s tig a tin g o r s im il a r w o r k
t r a in in g a n d b a r m e m b e r s h i p is n o t e s s e n t i a l;

for

to

le g a l

tra in in g

(ty p ­

w h ic h p ro fe s s io n a l

le g a l

A tto rn e ys,
f r e q u e n t ly t itle d " g e n e r a l c o u n s e l" (a n d t h e i r im m e d ia t e f u ll a s s o c ia t e s
o r d e p u t i e s ) , w h o s e r v e a s c o m p a n y o f f i c e r s o r the e q u i v a l e n t a n d a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r
p a rtic ip a tin g
i n th e o v e r a l l m a n a g e m e n t a n d f o r m u l a t i o n o f p o l i c y f o r th e c o m p a n y in
a d d i t i o n to d i r e c t i n g its l e g a l w o r k .
(T h e d u tie s and r e s p o n s ib ilit ie s of s u c h p o s itio n s
e x c e e d le v e l Y I as d e s c r ib e d b e lo w . )
A tt o r n e y jo b s w h ic h
m eet
a c c o r d a n c e w it h the c h a r t b e lo w .
D iffic u lty le ve l
of le g a l w o rk *
I

the

above

R e s p o n s ib ility
le v e l of jo b*

T h i s is th e
e n try le v e l.
T h e d u tie s
and re s p o n s ib ilitie s a fte r in itia l o r i ­
e n ta tio n and t r a in in g
are
those
de­
s c rib e d in D - l and R - l .

D - 1

R -2

D -2

II

R - 1

or

D -2
D -3

R - 1




are

to

be

c la s s ifie d

E x p e rie n c e

and

coded

in

re q u ire d

C o m p le tio n of la w s c h o o l w ith an L L . B .
or
J.D .
de gre e
p lu s
a d m is s io n
to th e
b a r.

S u ffic ie n t p r o f e s s io n a l e x p e r i e n c e
(a t
le a s t 1 y e a r , u s u a l l y m o r e ) a t th e " D - l "
l e v e l to a s s u r e
com p eten ce
as an a tto rn e y

or

in

d e fin itio n s

R -2

A t le a s t 1 y e a r , u s u a lly
m o re,
of p r o ­
f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e a t th e " D - 2 " l e v e l .

52

A T T O R N E Y — C o n t in u e d

D ifficu lty le v e l
of leg a l w o r k *

C la ss

R esp on sib ility
le v e l o f job *

E x p e rie n ce req u ired

D -2
D -3

R -3
R -2

E x t e n s i v e p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e at the
" D - 2 " o r a h igh er lev el.

V

D -3

R -3

E x t e n s i v e p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e at the
" D - 3 " level.

VI

D -3

R -4

E x t e n s i v e p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e at the
" D - 3 " and " R - 3 " l e v e l s .

IV
—

* D - l, D -2, D -3j and R - l , R -2 , R -3, and R -4 are explained below.

D - 1. L e g a l q u e s t i o n s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y: F a c t s that a r e w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d ; c l e a r l y
a p p l i c a b l e l e g a l p r e c e d e n t s ; and m a t t e r s n o t o f s u b s t a n t ia l i m p o r t a n c e t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n .
(U s u a l ly r e l a t i v e l y l i m i t e d s u m s o f m o n e y , e . g . , a few th o u s a n d d o l l a r s , a r e i n v o l v e d . )
E xa m p les

of D - 1 w ork:

(a) L e g a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n , n e g o t i a t i o n , and r e s e a r c h p r e p a r a t o r y to d e fe n d in g the o r ­
g a n iz a t i o n in p o t e n t i a l o r a c t u a l la w s u i t s in v o l v i n g a l l e g e d n e g l i g e n c e w h e r e the f a c t s
ca n b e f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d and t h e r e a r e p r e c e d e n t c a s e s d i r e c t l y a p p l i c a b l e to the
s itu a tio n .
(b) S e a r c h i n g c a s e r e p o r t s , l e g a l d o c u m e n t s , p e r i o d i c a l s , t e x t b o o k s , and o t h e r l e g a l
r e f e r e n c e s , and p r e p a r i n g d r a f t o p in io n s on e m p l o y e e c o m p e n s a t i o n o r b e n e f i t q u e s t i o n s
w hen t h e r e is a s u b s t a n t ia l a m o u n t o f c l e a r l y a p p l i c a b l e s t a t u t o r y , r e g u l a t o r y , and c a s e
m aterial.
(c ) D r a w in g up c o n t r a c t s and o t h e r l e g a l d o c u m e n t s in c o n n e c t i o n w ith r e a l p r o p e r t y
t r a n s a c t i o n s r e q u i r i n g the d e v e l o p m e n t o f d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n but n o t in v o l v i n g s e r i o u s
q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t i t l e s to p r o p e r t y o r o t h e r m a j o r f a c t u a l o r l e g a l i s s u e s .
D -2.
L e g a l w o r k is r e g u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t b y r e a s o n o f one o r m o r e o f the f o l l o w i n g :
The a b s e n c e o f c l e a r and d i r e c t l y a p p l i c a b l e l e g a l p r e c e d e n t s ; the d if f e r e n t p o s s i b l e i n t e r ­
p r e t a t i o n s that c a n be p l a c e d on e i t h e r the f a c t s , the l a w s , o r the p r e c e d e n t s i n v o l v e d ; the
s u b s ta n tia l i m p o r t a n c e o f the l e g a l m a t t e r s to the o r g a n i z a t i o n ( e . g . , s u m s as l a r g e a s $100,000
a r e g e n e r a l l y d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d ) ; the m a t t e r i s b e in g s t r o n g l y p r e s s e d o r c o n ­
t e s t e d in f o r m a l p r o c e e d i n g s o r in n e g o t i a t i o n s b y the i n d i v i d u a l s , c o r p o r a t i o n s , o r G o v e r n ­
m ent a g e n c ie s in v olv ed .
E xa m p les

of D -2 w ork:

(a) A d v i s i n g on the l e g a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f a d v e r t i s i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s w h en the f a c t s
s u p p o r tin g the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s and the a p p l i c a b l e p r e c e d e n t c a s e s a r e s u b j e c t to d i f ­
feren t in terp reta tion s.
(b) R e v i e w i n g and a d v is i n g
orga n iza tion .

on the i m p l i c a t i o n s

of new o r

r e v i s e d la w s a f f e c t i n g the

(c) P r e s e n t i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s d e f e n s e in c o u r t in a n e g l i g e n c e la w s u i t w h i c h is
s t r o n g l y p r e s s e d b y c o u n s e l f o r an o r g a n i z e d g r o u p .
(d) P r o v i d i n g l e g a l c o u n s e l on ta x q u e s t i o n s c o m p l i c a t e d b y the a b s e n c e
dent d e c i s i o n s that a r e d i r e c t l y a p p l i c a b l e to the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s sit u a t io n .



53

of p r e c e ­

A T T O R N E Y — C o n t in u e d

D - 3 . L e g a l w o r k i s t y p i c a l l y c o m p l e x and d i f f i c u l t b e c a u s e o f one o r m o r e o f the
f o l l o w i n g : T he q u e s t i o n s a r e u n iq u e and r e q u i r e a h ig h o r d e r o f o r i g i n a l and c r e a t i v e l e g a l
e n d e a v o r f o r t h e i r s o lu tio n ; the q u e s t i o n s r e q u i r e e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h and a n a l y s i s and the
o b ta in in g and e v a lu a tin g o f e x p e r t t e s t i m o n y r e g a r d i n g c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s in a s c i e n t i f i c ,
f i n a n c i a l , c o r p o r a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n , e n g i n e e r i n g , o r o t h e r h ig h ly t e c h n i c a l a r e a ; the l e g a l m a t t e r
is o f c r i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e to the o r g a n i z a t i o n and is b e in g v i g o r o u s l y p r e s s e d o r c o n t e s t e d
( e . g . , su m s such as $1 m illio n o r m o r e a re g e n e r a lly d ir e c t ly o r in d ir e c t ly in v o lv e d ).
E xa m p les

of D -3 w o r k :

(a) A d v i s i n g on the l e g a l a s p e c t s and i m p l i c a t i o n s o f F e d e r a l a n t it r u s t la w s to p r o ­
j e c t e d g r e a t l y e x p a n d e d m a r k e t i n g o p e r a t i o n s i n v o lv i n g j o i n t v e n t u r e s w ith s e v e r a l o t h e r
org a n iza tion s.
(b) P la n n in g l e g a l s t r a t e g y and r e p r e s e n t i n g a u tility c o m p a n y in ra te o r G o v e r n ­
m e n t f r a n c h i s e c a s e s i n v o lv i n g a g e o g r a p h i c a r e a in c lu d in g p a r t s o r a l l ox s e v e r a l S ta te s .
(c) P r e p a r i n g and p r e s e n t i n g a c a s e b e f o r e an a p p e l l a t e c o u r t w h e r e the c a s e i s
h ig h ly i m p o r t a n t to the fu tu re o p e r a t i o n o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n and is v i g o r o u s l y c o n t e s t e d
by v e r y d i s t i n g u i s h e d ( e . g . , h a v in g a b r o a d r e g i o n a l o r n a t io n a l r e p u ta tio n ) l e g a l ta le n t.
(d) S e r v i n g a s the p r i n c i p a l c o u n s e l to the o f f i c e r s and s t a f f o f an i n s u r a n c e c o m ­
pany on the l e g a l p r o b l e m s in the s a l e , u n d e r w r i t i n g , and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f g r o u p c o n ­
t r a c t s in v o l v i n g n a tio n w id e o r m u lt is t a t e c o v e r a g e s and l a w s .
(e) P e r f o r m i n g the p r i n c i p a l l e g a l w o r k in a n o n r o u t i n e m a j o r
p a n y 's c h a r t e r o r in e f f e c t u a t in g n e w m a j o r fi n a n c i n g s t e p s .

r e v i s i o n o f the c o m ­

R - 1.
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r fi n a l a c t i o n is u s u a l l y l i m i t e d t o m a t t e r s c o v e r e d b y l e g a l
p r e c e d e n t s and in w h i c h little d e v i a t i o n f r o m s t a n d a r d p r a c t i c e is i n v o l v e d .
A ny d e cision s
o r a c t i o n s h a v in g a s i g n i f i c a n t b e a r i n g on the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s b u s i n e s s a r e r e v i e w e d .
(is
g i v e n g u id a n c e in the in itia l s t a g e s o f h is a s s i g n m e n t ( e . g . , in p lanning and o r g a n i z i n g l e g a l
r e s e a r c h and s t u d i e s ) . A s s i g n m e n t s a r e then c a r r i e d out w ith m o d e r a t e i n d e p e n d e n c e a lt h o u g h
g u i d a n c e i s g e n e r a l l y a v a i l a b l e and is so u g h t f r o m t i m e - t o - t i m e on p r o b l e m p o i n t s . )
R -2 .
U s u a l ly w o r k s in d e p e n d e n t l y in in v e s t i g a t in g the f a c t s , s e a r c h i n g l e g a l p r e c ­
e d e n t s , d e fin in g the l e g a l and fa c t u a l i s s u e s , d r a ft i n g the n e c e s s a r y l e g a l d o c u m e n t s and
d e v e l o p i n g c o n c l u s i o n s and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . D e c i s i o n s h a v in g an i m p o r t a n t b e a r i n g on the
o rg a n iz a tio n 's b u sin e ss a re re v ie w e d .
(R e c e iv e s in form a tion fr o m s u p e r v is o r reg a rd in g
u n u su a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s o r i m p o r t a n t p o l i c y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g to a l e g a l p r o b l e m .
If t r i a l s a r e i n v o l v e d , m a y r e c e i v e g u id a n c e f r o m a s u p e r v i s o r r e g a r d i n g p r e s e n t a t i o n ,
lin e o f a p p r o a c h , p o s s i b l e lin e o f o p p o s i t i o n to b e e n c o u n t e r e d , e t c .
In the c a s e o f n o n ­
r o u tin e w r i t t e n p r e s e n t a t i o n s the fin a l p r o d u c t is r e v i e w e d c a r e f u l l y , but p r i m a r i l y f o r o v e r ­
a l l s o u n d n e s s o f l e g a l r e a s o n i n g and c o n s i s t e n c y w ith o r g a n i z a t i o n p o l i c y .
S o m e , but n ot
a l l a t t o r n e y s , m a k e a s s i g n m e n t s to one o r m o r e l o w e r l e v e l a t t o r n e y s , a i d s , o r c l e r k s . )
R - 3.
C a r r i e s out a s s i g n m e n t s in d e p e n d e n t l y and m a k e s fin a l l e g a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n s
in m a t t e r s o f s u b s t a n t ia l i m p o r t a n c e to his o r g a n i z a t i o n .
S u ch d e t e r m i n a t i o n s a r e s u b ­
j e c t to r e v i e w o n ly f o r c o n s i s t e n c y with c o m p a n y p o l i c y , p o s s i b l e p r e c e d e n t e f f e c t , and
o v e ra ll effe ctiv e n e ss.
T o c a r r y out h is a s s i g n m e n t s he d e a ls r e g u l a r l y with c o m p a n y o f f i ­
c e r s and to p l e v e l m a n a g e m e n t o f f i c i a l s and c o n f e r s o r n e g o t i a t e s r e g u l a r l y w ith s e n i o r
a t t o r n e y s and o f f i c i a l s in o t h e r c o m p a n i e s o r in G o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s on v a r i o u s a s p e c t s
o f h is a s s i g n e d w o r k . ( R e c e i v e s little o r n o p r e l i m i n a r y i n s t r u c t i o n on l e g a l p r o b l e m s and
a m i n i m u m o f t e c h n i c a l l e g a l s u p e r v i s i o n . M a y a s s i g n and r e v i e w w o r k o f a fe w a t t o r n e y s ,
but this is n o t a p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . )
R -4 .
C a r r i e s out a s s i g n m e n t s w h i c h e n t a il in d e p e n d e n t l y p la n n in g i n v e s t i g a t i o n s
and n e g o t i a t i o n s on l e g a l p r o b l e m s o f the h i g h e s t i m p o r t a n c e to his o r g a n i z a t i o n and d e v e l ­
op in g c o m p l e t e d b r i e f s , o p i n i o n s , c o n t r a c t s , o r o th e r l e g a l p r o d u c t s .
T o c a r r y out h is
a s s i g n m e n t s he r e p r e s e n t s h is o r g a n i z a t i o n at c o n f e r e n c e s , h e a r i n g s , o r t r i a l s , and p e r s o n ­
a l l y c o n f e r s and n e g o t i a t e s w ith t o p a t t o r n e y s and t o p - r a n k i n g o f f i c i a l s in p r i v a t e c o m p a n i e s
o r in G o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s .
On v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f h is a s s i g n e d w o r k m a y g i v e a d v i c e




54

A T T ORN E Y---- C ontin u e d

d i r e c t l y and p e r s o n a l l y to c o r p o r a t i o n o f f i c e r s
the g e n e r a l c o u n s e l o f the c o m p a n y in a d v is i n g
i n s t r u c t i o n on l e g a l p r o b l e m s .
On m a t t e r s
a t t o r n e y s o r o t h e r s p e c i a l i s t s , is r e s p o n s i b l e
w o r k o f the a t t o r n e y s i n v o l v e d . )

and top l e v e l m a n a g e r s , o r m a y w o r k th ro u g h
o f f i c e r s . (G e n e ra lly r e c e iv e s no p r e lim in a r y
r e q u i r i n g the c o n c e n t r a t e d e f f o r t s o f s e v e r a l
f o r d i r e c t i n g , c o o r d i n a t i n g and r e v i e w i n g the

OR

A s a p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , d i r e c t s the w o r k o f a s t a f f o f a t t o r n e y s , o n e , but u s u a l l y
m o r e , of whom reg u la rly p e r fo r m D -3 legal w ork.
W ith r e s p e c t to the w o r k d i r e c t e d ,
g i v e s a d v i c e d i r e c t l y to c o r p o r a t i o n o f f i c e r s and to p m a n a g e r i a l o f f i c e r s , o r m a y g iv e
su ch a d v i c e t h r o u g h the g e n e r a l c o u n s e l .
( R e c e i v e s g u id a n c e as to o r g a n i z a t i o n p o l i c y
but n o t e c h n i c a l s u p e r v i s i o n o r a s s i s t a n c e
e x c e p t w h en he m i g h t r e q u e s t a d v i c e f r o m ,
o r b e b r i e f e d on, the o v e r a l l a p p r o a c h to the m o s t d i f f i c u l t , n o v e l o r im p o r t a n t l e g a l
q u e s t i o n s , b y the g e n e r a l c o u n s e l . U s u a l ly r e p o r t s to the g e n e r a l c o u n s e l o r h is d e p u t y .)

BUYERS

BUYER

P u r c h a s e s m a t e r i a l s , s u p p l i e s , e q u ip m e n t , and s e r v i c e s ( e . g . , u t i l i t i e s , m a i n t e n a n c e ,
and r e p a i r ) . In s o m e i n s t a n c e s i t e m s a r e o f t y p e s that m u s t b e s p e c i a l l y d e s i g n e d , p r o d u c e d ,
o r m o d i f i e d b y the v e n d o r in a c c o r d a n c e w ith d r a w i n g s o r e n g i n e e r i n g s p e c i f i c a t i o n s .
S o l i c i t s b i d s , a n a l y z e s q u o ta tio n s r e c e i v e d , and s e l e c t s o r r e c o m m e n d s s u p p l i e r .
M ay in te rv ie w p r o s p e c t iv e v e n d o r s .
P u r c h a s e s i t e m s and s e r v i c e s at the m o s t f a v o r a b l e
p r i c e c o n s i s t e n t w ith q u a lit y , q u a n tity , s p e c i f i c a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s , and o t h e r f a c t o r s . P r e ­
p a r e s o r s u p e r v i s e s p r e p a r a t i o n o f p u r c h a s e o r d e r s f r o m r e q u i s i t i o n s . M a y e x p e d it e d e l i v e r y
and v i s i t v e n d o r s ' o f f i c e s and p la n ts .
N o r m a l l y , p u r c h a s e s a r e u n r e v i e w e d w h e n t h e y a r e c o n s i s t e n t w ith p a s t e x p e r i e n c e ,
and a r e in c o n f o r m a n c e w ith e s t a b l i s h e d r u l e s and p o l i c i e s . P r o p o s e d p u r c h a s e t r a n s a c t i o n s
that d e v ia t e f r o m the u s u a l o r f r o m p a s t e x p e r i e n c e in t e r m s o f p r i c e s , q u a lit y o f i t e m s ,
q u a n t it i e s , e t c . , o r that m a y s e t p r e c e d e n t s f o r fu tu r e p u r c h a s e s , a r e r e v i e w e d b y h ig h e r
a u t h o r it y p r i o r to fi n a l a c t i o n .
In a d d itio n to the w o r k d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , s o m e (but not all) b u y e r s d i r e c t the w o r k
o f on e o r a f e w c l e r k s w h o p e r f o r m r o u t in e a s p e c t s o f the w o r k . A s a s e c o n d a r y and s u b ­
s i d i a r y duty, s o m e b u y e r s m a y a l s o s e l l o r d i s p o s e o f s u r p l u s , s a l v a g e , o r u s e d m a t e r i a l s ,
e q u ip m e n t , o r s u p p l i e s .

N O T E : S o m e b u y e r s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p u r c h a s i n g o f a v a r i e t y o f i t e m s and
m a teria ls.
W h en the v a r i e t y in c l u d e s i t e m s and w o r k d e s c r i b e d at m o r e , than on e o f the
f o l l o w i n g l e v e l s , the p o s i t i o n s h o u ld b e c o n s i d e r e d to e q u a l the h ig h e s t l e v e l that c h a r a c t e r i z e s
at l e a s t a s u b s t a n t ia l p o r t i o n o f the b u y e r ' s t i m e .

E xclu d ed are:
(a)
B u y e rs o f item s fo r d ir e c t s a le , either w h o le s a le o r retail;
(b)
B r o k e r s and d e a l e r s b u y in g f o r c l i e n t s o r f o r i n v e s t m e n t p u r p o s e s ;
(c )
P o s i t i o n s that s p e c i f i c a l l y r e q u i r e p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t io n and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s in
a p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e o r in e n g i n e e r i n g ( e . g . , c h e m i s t , m e c h a n i c a l e n g i n e e r ) ;




55

B U Y E R — C o n tin u e d

(d)
B u y e r s w h o s p e c i a l i z e in p u r c h a s i n g a s i n g l e o r a fe w r e l a t e d i t e m s o f h ig h ly
v a r i a b l e q u a lit y s u c h as r a w c o t t o n o r w o o l , t o b a c c o , c a t t l e , o r l e a t h e r f o r s h o e u p p e r s ,
etc.
E x p e r t p e r s o n a l k n o w l e d g e o f the i t e m is r e q u i r e d to ju d g e the r e l a t i v e v a lu e o f
the g o o d s o f f e r e d , and to d e c i d e the q u a n tity , q u a lit y , and p r i c e o f e a c h p u r c h a s e in
t e r m s o f its p r o b a b l e e f f e c t on the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s p r o f i t and c o m p e t i t i v e sta t u s ;
(e)
B u y e r s w h o s e p r i n c i p a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y is the s u p e r v i s i o n o f o t h e r b u y e r s o r the
m an agem en t, d ire ctio n , or su p e rv isio n o f a pu rchasin g p r o g r a m ;
(f)
P e r s o n s p r e d o m i n a n t l y c o n c e r n e d w ith c o n t r a c t o r s u b c o n t r a c t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ;
(g)
P e r s o n s w h o s e m a j o r d u tie s c o n s i s t o f o r d e r i n g , r e o r d e r i n g , o r r e q u i s i t i o n i n g
i t e m s u n d e r e x i s t i n g c o n t r a c t s ; and
(h)
P o s i t i o n s r e s t r i c t e d to the c l e r i c a l fu n c tio n s o r to p u r c h a s e e x p e d it i n g w o r k .

Buyer I

p lies,

P u r c h a s e s " o f f - t h e - s h e l f " ty p e s o f r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e , c o m m o n l y u s e d m a t e r i a l s , s u p ­
to o l s , fu rn itu re, s e r v i c e s , etc.

T r a n s a c tio n s u su a lly in v olv e lo c a l
t u r e r s 1 sa les re p re s e n ta tiv e s .

reta ilers,

w h olesa lers,

jo b b e rs ,

and

m an u fac­

Q u a n titie s p u r c h a s e d a r e g e n e r a l l y s m a l l a m o u n t s , e . g . , t h o s e a v a i l a b l e f r o m

loca l

sources.
E x a m p l e s o f i t e m s p u r c h a s e d i n c l u d e : C o m m o n s t a t i o n e r y and o f f i c e s u p p l i e s ; s t a n d ­
a r d t y p e s o f o f f i c e f u r n i t u r e and f i x t u r e s ; s t a n d a r d n u ts, b o l t s , s c r e w s ; j a n i t o r i a l and
c o m m o n b u ild in g m a i n t e n a n c e s u p p l i e s ; and c o m m o n b u il d i n g m a i n t e n a n c e o r c o m m o n
u t il it y s e r v i c e s .

B u y e r II
Purchases "o ff-th e -sh e lf"
m a t e r i a l s , and s e r v i c e s .

job b ers,

T ra n sa ction s
etc.

u su a lly

types o f

in v o l v e

standard,

d e a li n g

d irectly

g en era lly

w ith

ava ila ble

tech n ica l

m an u factu rers,

Q u a n titie s o f i t e m s and m a t e r i a l s p u r c h a s e d m a y b e r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e ,
in the c a s e o f c o n t r a c t s f o r c o n tin u in g s u p p ly o v e r a p e r i o d o f t i m e .

item s,

d istrib u to rs,

p a rticu la rly

M a y b e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r lo c a t i n g o r p r o m o t i n g p o s s i b l e n e w s o u r c e s o f s u p p ly . U s u ­
a l l y is e x p e c t e d to k e e p a b r e a s t o f m a r k e t t r e n d s , c h a n g e s in b u s i n e s s p r a c t i c e s in the
a s s i g n e d m a r k e t s , n e w o r a l t e r e d ty p e s o f m a t e r i a l s e n t e r in g the m a r k e t , e t c .
E x a m p l e s o f i t e m s p u r c h a s e d i n c l u d e : I n d u s t r ia l t y p e s o f h a n d t o o ls ; e l e c t r o n i c tube
and c o m p o n e n t t e s t in s t r u m e n t s ; s t a n d a r d e l e c t r o n i c p a r t s and c o m p o n e n t s ; e l e c t r i c
m o t o r s ; g a s o l i n e s e r v i c e s ta t io n e q u ip m e n t ; P B X o r o t h e r s p e c i a l i z e d t e l e p h o n e s e r v i c e s ;
and r o u t in e p u r c h a s e s o f c o m m o n r a w m a t e r i a l s s u c h a s s t a n d a r d g r a d e s and s i z e s o f
s t e e l b a r s , r o d s , and a n g l e s .
A l s o in c l u d e d at th is l e v e l a r e b u y e r s o f m a t e r i a l s o f the ty p e s d e s c r i b e d f o r b u y e r I w h en
the q u a n t itie s p u r c h a s e d a r e l a r g e s o that l o c a l s o u r c e s o f s u p p ly a r e g e n e r a l l y in a d e q u a te
and the b u y e r m u s t d e a l d i r e c t l y w ith m a n u f a c t u r e r s on a b r o a d e r than l o c a l s c a l e .

B u y e r III
P u r c h a s e s i t e m s , m a t e r i a l s , o r s e r v i c e s o f a t e c h n i c a l and s p e c i a l i z e d n a t u r e . T h e
i t e m s , w h i le o f a c o m m o n g e n e r a l t y p e , a r e u s u a l l y m a d e , a l t e r e d , o r c u s t o m i z e d to m e e t
the u s e r ' s s p e c i f i c n e e d s and s p e c i f i c a t i o n s .




56

B U Y E R — C o n t in u e d

T r a n s a c t i o n s u s u a l l y r e q u i r e d e a li n g w ith m a n u f a c t u r e r s . T h e n u m b e r o f p o t e n t i a l
v e n d o r s is l i k e l y to b e s m a l l and p r i c e d i f f e r e n t i a l s o ft e n r e f l e c t im p o r t a n t f a c t o r s (q u a li t y ,
d e l i v e r y d a t e s , and p l a c e s , e t c . ) that a r e d i f f i c u l t to e v a lu a t e .
T h e q u a n t itie s p u r c h a s e d o f a n y i t e m o r s e r v i c e m a y b e l a r g e .
M a n y o f the p u r c h a s e s i n v o l v e o n e o r m o r e o f
that d e t a i l , in t e c h n i c a l t e r m s , the r e q u i r e d p h y s i c a l ,
r a b l e p r o p e r t i e s ; s p e c i a l t e s t in g p r i o r to a c c e p t a n c e ;
a w a r d s ; s p e c i a l i z e d p r o c e s s i n g , p a c k i n g , o r p a c k a g in g
p ort d ifferen tia ls; etc.

such c o m p lica tio n s as: S p ecifica tion s
ch em ica l, e le c t r ic a l, o r other c o m p a ­
g r o u p in g o f i t e m s f o r lot b id d i n g and
req u irem en ts; export packs; o v e r s e a s

Is e x p e c t e d to k e e p a b r e a s t o f m a r k e t and p r o d u c t d e v e l o p m e n t s .
to l o c a t e n e w s o u r c e s o f s u p p ly .

May be req u ired

S o m e p o s i t i o n s m a y in v o l v e a s s i s t i n g in the t r a i n i n g o r s u p e r v i s i n g o f l o w e r l e v e l
buyers or c le r k s.
E x a m p l e s o f i t e m s p u r c h a s e d in c l u d e : C a s t i n g s ; s p e c i a l e x t r u d e d s h a p e s o f n o r m a l
s i z e and m a t e r i a l ; s p e c i a l f o r m u l a p a in t s ; e l e c t r i c m o t o r s o f s p e c i a l s h a p e o r s p e e d ;
s p e c i a l p a c k a g in g o f i t e m s ; and r a w m a t e r i a l s in s u b s t a n t ia l q u a n t it i e s .
B u y e r IV
P u r c h a s e s h ig h ly c o m p l e x and t e c h n i c a l i t e m s , m a t e r i a l s , o r s e r v i c e s , u s u a l l y t h o s e
s p e c i a l l y d e s i g n e d and m a n u f a c t u r e d e x c l u s i v e l y f o r the p u r c h a s e r .
T r a n s a c t i o n s r e q u i r e d e a li n g w ith m a n u f a c t u r e r s and o f t e n i n v o l v e p e r s u a d i n g p o t e n ­
t i a l v e n d o r s to u n d e r t a k e the m a n u f a c t u r in g o f c u s t o m d e s i g n e d i t e m s a c c o r d i n g to c o m p l e x
and r i g i d s p e c i f i c a t i o n s .
Q u a n titie s o f i t e m s and m a t e r i a l s p u r c h a s e d a r e o f t e n l a r g e in o r d e r to s a t i s f y the
r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an e n t i r e l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r an e x t e n d e d p e r i o d o f t i m e .
C om p lex
s c h e d u l e s o f d e l i v e r y a r e o f t e n i n v o l v e d . B u y e r d e t e r m i n e s a p p r o p r i a t e q u a n t itie s to b e c o n ­
t r a c t e d f o r at a n y g iv e n p e r i o d o f t i m e .
T r a n s a c t i o n s a r e o ft e n c o m p l i c a t e d b y th e p r e s e n c e o f on e o r m o r e s u c h m a t t e r s as
i n c l u s i o n o f: R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r s p a r e p a r t s , p r e p r o d u c t i o n s a m p l e s and t e s t i n g , o r t e c h n i c a l
l i t e r a t u r e ; o r p aten t and r o y a l t y p r o v i s i o n s .
K e e p s a b r e a s t o f m a r k e t and p r o d u c t d e v e l o p m e n t s .

D e v e l o p s n e w s o u r c e s o f s u p p ly .

In a d d itio n to the w o r k d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , a f e w p o s i t i o n s m a y a l s o r e q u i r e s u p e r v i s i o n
o v e r a fe w l o w e r l e v e l b u y e r s o r c l e r k s . (N o p o s i t i o n is in c l u d e d in th is l e v e l s o l e l y b e c a u s e
s u p e r v i s o r y d u tie s a r e p e r f o r m e d . )
E x a m p l e s o f i t e m s p u r c h a s e d i n c l u d e : S p e c i a l p u r p o s e h ig h c o s t m a c h i n e t o o l s and
p r o d u c t i o n f a c i l i t i e s ; r a w m a t e r i a l s o f c r i t i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o r q u a lit y ;
p a r t s , s u b a s s e m b l i e s , c o m p o n e n t s , e t c . , s p e c i a l l y d e s i g n e d and m a d e t o o r d e r ( e . g . ,
c o m m u n i c a t i o n s e q u ip m e n t f o r in s t a l l a t i o n in a i r c r a f t b e in g m a n u f a c t u r e d ; c o m p o n e n t
a s s e m b l i e s f o r m i s s i l e s and r o c k e t s ; and m o t o r v e h i c l e f r a m e s ) .
Buyer V 2
P u r c h a s e s i t e m s o r m a t e r i a l s , e i t h e r t e c h n i c a l o r n o n t e c h n i c a l , in s u c h u n u s u a lly
l a r g e q u a n titie s that in d iv i d u a l p u r c h a s e s c a n a f f e c t the o v e r a l l m a r k e t p r i c e o f the c o m ­
m odity.
(N O T E : O n ly the v e r y l a r g e s t o r g a n i z a t i o n s , e . g. , t h o s e e m p l o y i n g m o r e than
1 0 ,0 0 0 p e r s o n s , a r e a b le to b u y in the q u a n t itie s c o n t e m p l a t e d in th is p a r a g r a p h . E v e n in
the v e r y l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s th is l e v e l o f b u y in g is o ft e n a b s e n t and e v e n w h e n p r e s e n t , is
r e s t r i c t e d to a v e r y fe w b u y e r s o r is a s s i g n e d , not to a b u y e r but to s o m e h i g h e r ra n k in g
o ffic ia l.)

2

Insufficient data were obtained for level V to warrant presentation of average salaries.




57

B U Y E R — C on tin u e d

A l t e r n a t i v e l y , m a y p u r c h a s e i t e m s o f e x t r a o r d i n a r y t e c h n i c a l c o m p l e x i t y (e . g. , m i s ­
s i l e g u id a n c e s y s t e m s ; i t e m s that in v o l v e the o u t e r m o s t l i m i t s o f the p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s o r
e n g in e e r in g ) o r o f u n u s u a lly h ig h in d iv i d u a l v a lu e ( e . g. , m u lt ie n g in e je t a i r c r a f t ; l a r g e c a ­
p a c i t y c o m p u t e r s ; and h ig h c a p a c i t y t u r b i n e - g e n e r a t o r s ) .
U s u a l l y is

r e q u i r e d to id e n t i f y and c o n s i d e r a l l p o s s i b l e

sources

o f s u p p ly .

T h e t r a n s a c t i o n s a r e s o l a r g e that th e y o ft e n a f f e c t a c o n s i d e r a b l e p o r t i o n o f the
in d u s t r y o r t r a d e c o n c e r n e d , r e s u l t i n g in c o m p l e x s c h e d u l in g and d i f f i c u l t y in n e g o t ia t in g
m u t u a ll y a c c e p t a b l e a r r a n g e m e n t s .

fa ctu rers

F r e q u e n t l y is r e q u i r e d to d e v e l o p n e w s o u r c e s o f su p p ly t h r o u g h p e r s u a s i o n o f m a n u ­
o r o t h e r c o n c e r n s to e x p a n d o r c o n v e r t p la n ts and f a c i l i t i e s .

In a d d it i o n to the w o r k d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , a fe w p o s i t i o n s m a y a l s o r e q u i r e s u p e r ­
v i s i o n o v e r a f e w l o w e r g r a d e b u y e r s o r c l e r k s . (N o p o s i t i o n is i n c l u d e d in th is l e v e l s o l e l y
b e c a u s e s u p e r v i s o r y d u tie s a r e p e r f o r m e d . )

PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT

JOB A N A L Y S T
P e r f o r m s w o r k i n v o l v e d in c o l l e c t i n g , a n a l y z i n g , and d e v e l o p i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l data
r e l a t i v e to j o b s , j o b q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , and w o r k e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s a b a s i s f o r c o m p e n s a t i n g
e m p l o y e e s in a f a i r , e q u it a b l e , and u n i f o r m m a n n e r . P e r f o r m s s u c h d u tie s as stu d y in g and
a n a ly z in g j o b s and p r e p a r i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s o f d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and o f the p h y s i c a l
and m e n t a l r e q u i r e m e n t s n e e d e d b y w o r k e r s ; ev a lu a tin g j o b s and d e t e r m i n i n g a p p r o p r i a t e
w a g e o r s a l a r y l e v e l s in a c c o r d a n c e w ith t h e i r d i f f i c u l t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; in d e p e n d e n t l y
c o n d u c t i n g o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g w ith r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f o t h e r c o m p a n i e s in c o n d u c t i n g c o m p e n ­
s a t i o n s u r v e y s w ith in a l o c a l i t y o r l a b o r m a r k e t a r e a ; a s s i s t i n g in a d m i n i s t e r i n g m e r i t ra tin g
p r o g r a m ; r e v i e w i n g c h a n g e s in w a g e s and s a l a r i e s i n d ic a t e d b y s u r v e y s and r e c o m m e n d i n g
c h a n g e s in p a y s c a l e s ; and a u d itin g in d iv i d u a l j o b s to c h e c k the p r o p r i e t y o f e v a lu a t i o n s and
to a p p ly c u r r e n t j o b c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s .

Job A nalyst I
A s a t r a i n e e , p e r f o r m s w o r k in d e s i g n a t e d a r e a s and o f l i m i t e d o c c u p a t i o n a l s c o p e .
R e c e i v e s i m m e d i a t e s u p e r v i s i o n in a s s i g n m e n t s d e s i g n e d to p r o v i d e t r a i n i n g in the a p p l i c a t i o n
o f e s t a b l i s h e d m e t h o d s and t e c h n i q u e s o f j o b a n a l y s i s .
S tu d ies the l e a s t d i f f i c u l t j o b s and
p r e p a r e s r e p o r t s f o r r e v i e w b y a j o b a n a ly s t o f h ig h e r l e v e l .

J o b A n a l y s t II
S t u d ie s , d e s c r i b e s , and e v a lu a t e s j o b s in a c c o r d a n c e w ith e s t a b l i s h e d p r o c e d u r e s .
Is u s u a l l y a s s i g n e d to the s i m p l e r k in d s o f b o t h w a g e and s a l a r i e d j o b s in the e s t a b l i s h m e n t .
W o r k s in d e p e n d e n t l y on s u c h a s s i g n m e n t s but is l i m i t e d b y in s t r u c t i o n s o f his s u p e r i o r and
b y d e fi n e d a r e a o f a s s i g n m e n t .

J o b A n a l y s t III
A n a l y z e s and e v a lu a t e s a v a r i e t y o f w a g e and s a l a r i e d j o b s in a c c o r d a n c e w ith
e s t a b l i s h e d e v a lu a t i o n s y s t e m s and p r o c e d u r e s . M a y c o n d u c t w a g e s u r v e y s w ith in the l o c a l i t y
o r p a r t i c i p a t e in c o n d u c t in g s u r v e y s o f b r o a d c o m p e n s a t i o n a r e a s .
M a y a s s i s t in d e v e l o p i n g
s u r v e y m e t h o d s and p l a n s . R e c e i v e s g e n e r a l s u p e r v i s i o n but r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r fi n a l a c t i o n
is l i m i t e d .




58

J O B A N A L Y S T ---- C on tin u e d

J ob A n a l y s t IV
A n a l y z e s and e v a l u a t e s a v a r i e t y o f j o b s in a c c o r d a n c e with e s t a b l i s h e d e v a lu a tio n
s y s t e m s and p r o c e d u r e s , and i s g i v e n a s s i g n m e n t w h i c h r e g u l a r l y i n c l u d e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r
the m o r e d i f f i c u l t k in d s o f j o b s .
(" M o r e d iffic u lt " m ean s jo b s w hich c o n s is t of h a r d - t o u n d e r s t a n d w o r k p r o c e s s e s ; e. g. , p r o f e s s i o n a l , s c i e n t i f i c , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , o r t e c h n i c a l ; o r
j o b s in n e w o r e m e r g i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d s ; or_ j o b s w h i c h a r e b e in g e s t a b l i s h e d as p a r t o f
the c r e a t i o n o f n e w o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; o r w h e r e o t h e r s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f th e s e ty p e s a p p ly . )
R e c e i v e s g e n e r a l s u p e r v i s i o n , but r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r fi n a l a c t i o n is l i m i t e d . M a y p a r t i c i p a t e
in the d e v e l o p m e n t and i n s t a l l a t i o n o f e v a lu a t i o n o r c o m p e n s a t i o n s y s t e m s , w h i c h m a y in c l u d e
th o s e f o r m e r i t r a tin g p r o g r a m s .
M a y p lan s u r v e y m e t h o d s and c o n d u c t o r d i r e c t w a g e
s u r v e y s w ith in a b r o a d c o m p e n s a t i o n a r e a .

DIRECTOR OF PERSON N EL

D ire cts a p e rso n n e l m anagem ent p r o g r a m for a com pan y or a segm en t o f a com pany.
S e r v e s top m a n a g e m e n t o f f i c i a l s o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n a s the s o u r c e o f a d v i c e and a s s i s t a n c e
on p e r s o n n e l m a n a g e m e n t m a t t e r s and p r o b l e m s g e n e r a l l y ; is t y p i c a l l y c o n s u l t e d on the
p e r s o n n e l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f p la n n e d c h a n g e s in m a n a g e m e n t p o l i c y o r p r o g r a m , the e f f e c t s on
the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f e c o n o m i c o r m a r k e t t r e n d s , p r o d u c t o r p r o d u c t i o n m e t h o d c h a n g e s , e t c . ;
r e p r e s e n t s m a n a g e m e n t in c o n t a c t s w ith o th e r c o m p a n i e s , t r a d e a s s o c i a t i o n s , g o v e r n m e n t
a g e n c i e s , e t c . , d e a lin g p r i m a r i l y w ith p e r s o n n e l m a n a g e m e n t m a t t e r s .
T y p i c a l l y the d i r e c t o r o f p e r s o n n e l f o r a c o m p a n y r e p o r t s to a c o m p a n y o f f i c e r in
c h a r g e o f i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s and p e r s o n n e l m a n a g e m e n t a c t i v i t i e s o r an o f f i c e r o f s i m i l a r
level.
B e l o w the c o m p a n y l e v e l the d i r e c t o r o f p e r s o n n e l t y p i c a l l y r e p o r t s to a c o m p a n y
o f f i c e r o r a h ig h m a n a g e m e n t o f f i c i a l wh o h a s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the o p e r a t i o n o f a p la n t,
e s t a b l i s h m e n t , o r o th e r s e g m e n t o f the c o m p a n y .
F o r a j o b to be c o v e r e d b y th is d e f i n i t io n , the p e r s o n n e l m a n a g e m e n t p r o g r a m m u s t
in c l u d e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l l t h r e e o f the f o l l o w i n g f u n c t io n s :
(1) A d m i n i s t e r i n g a j o b e v a lu a t i o n s y s t e m ; i. e. , a s y s t e m in w h i c h t h e r e a r e e s ­
t a b l is h e d p r o c e d u r e s b y w h i c h j o b s a r e a n a l y z e d and e v a lu a t e d on the b a s i s o f t h e ir
d u t ie s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and q u a l i f i c a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s in o r d e r to p r o v i d e a fo u n d a tio n
f o r e q u it a b l e c o m p e n s a t i o n . T y p i c a l l y , s u c h a s y s t e m in c l u d e s the u s e o f one o r m o r e
s e t s o f j o b e v a lu a t i o n f a c t o r s and the p r e p a r a t i o n o f f o r m a l j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s .
It m a y
a l s o in c l u d e s u c h r e l a t e d f u n c t io n s a s w a g e and s a l a r y s u r v e y s o r m e r i t ra tin g s y s t e m
a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . T h e j o b e v a lu a t i o n s y s t e m ( s ) d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y c o v e r a l l j o b s in the
o r g a n i z a t i o n , but d o e s c o v e r a s u b s t a n t ia l p o r t i o n o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n .
(2) E m p l o y m e n t and p l a c e m e n t fu n c t i o n s ; i. e. , r e c r u i t i n g a c t i v e l y f o r at l e a s t s o m e
k in d s o f w o r k e r s t h r o u g h a v a r i e t y o f s o u r c e s ( e . g . , s c h o o l s o r c o l l e g e s , e m p l o y m e n t
a g e n c i e s , p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t i e s , e t c . ) ; e v a lu a tin g a p p li c a n t s a g a in s t d e m a n d s o f p a r t i c ­
u l a r j o b s by u s e o f s u c h t e c h n i q u e s a s j o b a n a l y s i s to d e t e r m i n e r e q u i r e m e n t s , i n t e r ­
v i e w s , w r i t t e n t e s t s o f a p titu d e , k n o w l e d g e , s k i l l , r e f e r e n c e c h e c k s , e x p e r i e n c e e v a l u ­
a t i o n s , e t c . ; r e c o m m e n d i n g s e l e c t i o n s and j o b p l a c e m e n t s t o m a n a g e m e n t , e t c .
(3) E m p l o y e e r e l a t i o n s and s e r v i c e s f u n c t i o n s ; i . e . , fu n c t io n s d e s i g n e d to m a i n t a in
e m p l o y e e s ' m o r a l e and p r o d u c t i v i t y at a h ig h l e v e l ( f o r e x a m p l e a d m i n i s t e r i n g a f o r m a l
o r i n f o r m a l g r i e v a n c e p r o c e d u r e ; id e n t i fy in g and r e c o m m e n d i n g s o l u t i o n s f o r p e r s o n n e l
p r o b l e m s s u c h a s a b s e n t e e i s m , h ig h t u r n o v e r , lo w p r o d u c t i v i t y , e t c . ; a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f
b e n e f i c i a l s u g g e s t i o n s s y s t e m , r e t i r e m e n t , p e n s i o n , o r i n s u r a n c e p l a n s , m e r i t r a tin g
s y s t e m , e t c . ; o v e r s e e i n g c a f e t e r i a o p e r a t i o n s , r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s , i n d u s t r i a l h e a lth
and s a f e t y p r o g r a m s , e t c . ) .




59

D I R E C T O R O F P E R S O N N E L — C on tin u e d

In a d d it i o n , p o s i t i o n s c o v e r e d b y this d e fi n i t io n m a y , but do n ot n e c e s s a r i l y , in c l u d e
r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s in the f o l l o w i n g a r e a s :
a.

E m p l o y e e tra in in g and d e v e l o p m e n t

b. L a b o r r e l a t i o n s a c t i v i t i e s w h ic h a r e c o n f i n e d m a i n l y to the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i n t e r ­
p r e t a t i o n , and a p p l i c a t i o n o f th o s e a s p e c t s o f l a b o r u n io n c o n t r a c t s that a r e e s s e n t i a l l y
o f the ty p e d e s c r i b e d u n d e r (3) a b o v e .
M a y a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e in b a r g a i n i n g o f a s u b ­
o r d in a t e n a t u r e , e . g . , to n e g o t i a t e d e t a i le d s e t t l e m e n t o f s u c h m a t t e r s a s s p e c i f i c r a t e s ,
j o b c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , w o r k r u l e s , h ir i n g o r l a y o f f p r o c e d u r e s , e t c . , w ith in the b r o a d
t e r m s o f a g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t r e a c h e d at h i g h e r l e v e l s , o r to su p p ly a d v i c e and i n f o r ­
m a t i o n on t e c h n i c a l p o in ts to the c o m p a n y ' s p r i n c i p a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e .

E x c l u d e d a r e p o s i t i o n s in w h i c h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ■f o r a c t u a l c o n t r a c t n e g o t i a t i o n with
l a b o r u n io n s as the p r i n c i p a l c o m p a n y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e is a s i g n i f i c a n t a s p e c t o f the j o b , i. e. ,
a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w h ic h s e r v e s as a p r i m a r y b a s i s f o r q u a l i f i c a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s and c o m ­
p e n s a t io n .

D i r e c t o r s o f p e r s o n n e l j o b s w h ic h m e e t the a b o v e d e f i n i t io n a r e
o f w o r k in a c c o r d a n c e w ith the f o l l o w i n g ta b u la tio n :

"D e v e lo p m e n t l e v e l"
personnel program

"O peration s le v e l"
personnel program

N um ber o f em p loy ees in
work fo r c e serviced
2 5 0 - 7 5 0 ----------------------------------------------------------1 , 0 0 0 - 5 , 0 0 0 -------------------------------------------------6 , 0 0 0 - 1 2 ,0 0 0 -----------------------------------------------15, 0 0 0 - 2 5 ,0 0 0 ----------------------------------------------

" T y p e B"
organization
s e rv ice d 4

"T y p e A "
organization
s e rv ice d 3

"T y p e A "
organization
s e r v ic e d 3

II
III
IV
V

I
II
III
IV

cla ssified by le v e l 3

II
III
IV
V

"T y p e B
organizati
serviced
III
IV
V

1 " O perations l e v e l" personnel p rogram — d irector o f personnel servicin g an organ ization al segm ent (e . g. , a plan t) o f a c o m ­
pany, where the b a sic personnel program p o lic ie s , plans, o b je c tiv e s , e t c . , are established at co m p a n y headquarters or at som e other
higher le v e l b etw een the plant and the com p a n y headquarters le v e l. T h e personnel d ire cto r's resp onsibility is to put these into o p e r­
ation at the lo c a l le v e l, in such a m anner as to m ost e ffe c t iv e ly serve the l o c a l m an agem ent needs.
2 "D e v e lo p m e n t l e v e l" personnel program — either:
(a ) D irector o f personnel servicin g an entire com p a n y (w ith or w ithout subordinate establishm ents) w h ere the personnel
d irector plays an im portant role in establishm ent o f basic personnel p o lic ie s , plans, o b je c tiv e s , e t c . , for the co m p a n y , sub­
j e c t to p o lic y d irection and con trol from com p a n y o ffice rs , or
(b ) D irector o f personnel servicin g an in term ed ia te organization b e lo w the co m p a n y le v e l, e. g. , a d ivision or a sub­
sidiary, to w h ich a re la tiv e ly c o m p le te d e le g a tio n o f personnel program planning and d e v e lo p m e n t resp on sib ility is m a d e .
In
this situation o n ly b asic p o lic y d ire ctio n is giv en b y the parent co m p a n y and lo c a l o ffic e r s .
T h e d ire cto r o f personnel has
essentially the sam e d egree o f latitude and resp onsibility for establishm ent o f b asic personnel p o lic ie s , plans, o b je c tiv e s , e t c . ,
as d escrib ed a b ov e in paragraph (a ).
3 " T y p e A " - organization serviced — m ost job s serviced do not present particularly d iffic u lt or unusual recru itm en t, jo b e v a lu ­
ation, or training problem s b eca u se the job s consist o f re la tiv e ly ea sy-to-u n d ersta n d work processes, and an adequate la bor supply
is a v a ila b le . T h ese con dition s are m ost lik e ly to be found in organizations in w h ich the work fo rce and organ ization al structure are
re la tiv e ly stable.
4 " T y p e B" - organization serviced — a substantial num ber o f jobs present d iffic u lt recru itm en t, jo b e va lu a tion , or training p ro b ­
lem s b eca u se the job s: Consist o f h a rd -to-und erstand work processes (e . g . , professional, s c ie n t ific , a dm inistrative, or te ch n ic a l);
have h a rd -to -m a tch skill requirem ents; are in new or em ergin g o ccu p a tio n s; or are ex tre m e ly hard to f i l l. T hese con dition s are m ost
lik e ly to be found in organizations in w h ich the work fo r c e , organizational structure, work processes or fun ction s, e t c . , are c o m p ­
lic a te d or unstable.
NOTE: T h ere are gaps b etw een d ifferen t degrees o f a ll three elem en ts used to d eterm in e jo b le v e l m atch es. T h ese gaps have
b e e n p rovid ed purposely to a llow room for ju d gm en t in gettin g the best o v e ra ll jo b le v e l m atch for e a ch jo b .
Thus, a jo b w h ich
services a work fo rce o f 850 e m p loy ees should be m atch ed w ith le v e l II if it is a personnel program operations le v e l jo b w here the
nature o f the organ ization serviced seem s to fa ll sligh tly b e lo w the d e fin itio n fo r the type B d eg re e . H ow ever, the sam e jo b should
b e m atch ed with le v e l I if the nature o f the organization serviced c le a r ly fa lls w e ll w ithin the d e fin itio n for the typ e A d e gree.
3

In su fficien t data w ere ob ta in ed for le v e l V to warrant presentation o f average salaries.




6 0

C H E M IS T S A N D E N G IN E E R S
C H E M IS T
P e r f o r m s p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k in r e s e a r c h , d e v e l o p m e n t , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and a n a l y s i s
to d e t e r m i n e the c o m p o s i t i o n , m o l e c u l a r s t r u c t u r e , and p r o p e r t i e s o f s u b s t a n c e s ; to d e v e l o p
o r in v e s t i g a t e n e w m a t e r i a l s and p r o c e s s e s ; and to in v e s t i g a t e the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n w h ic h
substances u ndergo.
W o r k t y p i c a l l y r e q u i r e s a B. S. d e g r e e in c h e m i s t r y o r e q u iv a le n t in
a p p r o p r i a t e and s u b s ta n tia l c o l l e g e l e v e l study o f c h e m i s t r y p lu s e x p e r i e n c e .
C hem ist I
G eneral ch a r a c te r is tic s .
T h i s is the e n t r y l e v e l o f p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k r e q u i r i n g a
b a c h e l o r ’ s d e g r e e in c h e m i s t r y and no e x p e r i e n c e , o r the e q u iv a le n t (to a d e g r e e ) in a p p r o ­
p r ia t e e d u c a t io n and e x p e r i e n c e .
P e r f o r m s a s s i g n m e n t s d e s i g n e d to d e v e l o p p r o f e s s i o n a l
c a p a b i l i t i e s and to p r o v i d e e x p e r i e n c e in the a p p l i c a t i o n o f t r a i n i n g in c h e m i s t r y a s it r e l a t e s
to the c o m p a n y ’ s p r o g r a m s .
M a y a l s o r e c e i v e f o r m a l c l a s s r o o m o r s e m i n a r ty p e t r a i n i n g .
(T e r m in a l p o sitio n s a re exclu d ed . )
D irection re ce iv e d .
W orks under c lo s e su p erv ision .
R e c e i v e s s p e c i f i c and d e t a i l e d
i n s t r u c t i o n s a s to r e q u i r e d t a s k s and r e s u l t s e x p e c t e d .
W o r k i s c h e c k e d d u r in g p r o g r e s s ,
and is r e v i e w e d f o r a c c u r a c y upon c o m p l e t i o n .
T y p i c a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .
P e r f o r m s a v a r i e t y o f r o u tin e t a s k s that a r e
p la n n ed to p r o v i d e e x p e r i e n c e and f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n with the c h e m i s t r y s ta ff, m e t h o d s , p r a c ­
t i c e s and p r o g r a m s o f the c o m p a n y .
T h e w o r k i n c l u d e s a v a r i e t y o f r o u tin e q u a lit a t iv e and
q u a n tita tiv e a n a l y s e s ; p h y s i c a l t e s t s to d e t e r m i n e p r o p e r t i e s s u c h a s v i s c o s i t y , t e n s i l e s t r e n g t h ,
and m e l t i n g p oin t; and a s s i s t i n g m o r e e x p e r i e n c e d c h e m i s t s to gain a d d it i o n a l k n o w le d g e t h r o u g h
p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n .
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the d i r e c t i o n o f o t h e r s .

U s u a l ly n o n e .

C h e m i s t II
G eneral c h a r a c te r is tic s .
A t th is c o n tin u in g d e v e l o p m e n t a l l e v e l , p e r f o r m s r o u tin e
c h e m i c a l w o r k r e q u i r i n g s e l e c t i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n o f g e n e r a l and s p e c i a l i z e d m e t h o d s , t e c h ­
n i q u e s , and in s t r u m e n t s c o m m o n l y u s e d in the l a b o r a t o r y and the a b il it y to c a r r y out i n ­
s t r u c t i o n s when l e s s c o m m o n o r p r o p o s e d m e t h o d s o r p r o c e d u r e s a r e n e c e s s a r y .
R equires
w o r k e x p e r i e n c e a c q u i r e d in an e n t r y l e v e l p o s i t i o n , o r a p p r o p r i a t e g r a d u a te l e v e l study.
F o r tr a i n i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t a l p u r p o s e s , a s s i g n m e n t s m a y in c l u d e s o m e w o r k that i s t y p i c a l
o f a h ig h e r l e v e l .
(T e r m in a l p o sitio n s a r e ex clu d ed . )
D irection re ce iv e d .
S u p e r v i s o r e s t a b l i s h e s the n a tu re and exten t o f a n a l y s i s r e ­
q u i r e d , s p e c i f i e s m e t h o d s and c r i t e r i a on n e w t y p e s o f a s s i g n m e n t s , and r e v i e w s w o r k f o r
t h o r o u g h n e s s o f a p p l i c a t i o n o f m e t h o d s and a c c u r a c y o f r e s u l t s .
T y p i c a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .
C a r r i e s out a w i d e v a r i e t y o f s t a n d a r d i z e d
m e t h o d s , t e s t s , and p r o c e d u r e s .
In a c c o r d a n c e w ith s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s m a y c a r r y out
p r o p o s e d and l e s s c o m m o n o n e s .
Is e x p e c t e d to d e t e c t p r o b l e m s in u s in g s t a n d a r d i z e d p r o ­
c e d u r e s b e c a u s e o f the c o n d i t i o n o f the s a m p l e , d i f f i c u l t i e s with the e q u ip m e n t , e t c .
R ec­
o m m e n d s m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f p r o c e d u r e s , e . g. , e x te n d in g o r c u r t a i l i n g the a n a l y s i s o r u s in g
a l t e r n a t e p r o c e d u r e s , b a s e d on h is k n o w le d g e o f the p r o b l e m and p e r tin e n t a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a ­
t u r e . C o n d u c ts s p e c i f i e d p h a s e s o f r es e a r c h p r o j e c t s as an a s s i s t a n t to an e x p e r i e n c e d c h e m i s t .
R espon sibility
te ch n icia n s.

for

the

d irection

of

oth ers.

M ay

be

a ssisted

by

a

few

a id s

or

C h e m i s t III
G eneral c h a r a c te r is tic s .
P e r f o r m s a b r o a d r a n g e o f c h e m i c a l t e s t s and p r o c e ­
d u r e s u t i l i z e d in the l a b o r a t o r y , u s in g ju d g m e n t in the in d e p e n d e n t e v a lu a t i o n , s e l e c t i o n ,
and a d a p ta tio n o f sta n d a r d m e t h o d s and t e c h n i q u e s .
M ay c a r r y through a c o m p le t e s e r ie s
o f t e s t s on a p r o d u c t in its d if f e r e n t p r o c e s s s t a g e s .
Som e assign m en ts req u ire a s p e ­
c i a l i z e d k n o w le d g e o f on e o r tw o c o m m o n c a t e g o r i e s o f r e l a t e d s u b s t a n c e s .
P erform an ce
at th is l e v e l r e q u i r e s d e v e l o p m e n t a l e x p e r i e n c e in a p r o f e s s i o n a l p o s i t i o n , o r e q u iv a le n t
g r a d u a te l e v e l e d u c a t io n .




61

C H E M I S T — C o n t in u e d
D irection re ce iv e d .
On r o u tin e w o r k , s u p e r v i s i o n i s v e r y g e n e r a l . A s s i s t a n c e is
f u r n i s h e d on u n u su a l p r o b l e m s and w o r k i s r e v i e w e d f o r a p p l i c a t i o n o f sou n d p r o f e s s i o n a l
ju d g m e n t .
T y p i c a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . In a c c o r d a n c e with i n s t r u c t i o n s a s to the n a tu re
o f the p r o b l e m , s e l e c t s s ta n d a r d m e t h o d s , t e s t s o r p r o c e d u r e s ; w h en n e c e s s a r y , d e v e l o p s
o r w o r k s out a lt e r n a t e o r m o d i f i e d m e t h o d s with s u p e r v i s o r ^ c o n c u r r e n c e . A s s i s t s in r e ­
s e a r c h by a n a ly z in g s a m p l e s o r t e s t i n g n e w p r o c e d u r e s that r e q u i r e s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g
b e c a u s e (a) s ta n d a r d m e t h o d s a r e i n a p p l i c a b l e , (b) a n a l y t i c a l fi n d i n g s m u s t be i n t e r p r e t e d
in t e r m s o f c o m p l i a n c e o r n o n c o m p l i a n c e w ith s t a n d a r d s , o r ( c ) s p e c i a l i z e d and a d v a n c e d
e q u ip m e n t and t e c h n i q u e s m u s t b e a d a p te d .
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the d i r e c t i o n o f o t h e r s .
M a y s u p e r v i s e o r c o o r d i n a t e th e w o r k
o f a f e w t e c h n i c i a n s o r a i d s , and be a s s i s t e d b y l o w e r l e v e l c h e m i s t s .
C h e m i s t IV
G eneral ch a ra cte ristics.
A s a fu ll y c o m p e t e n t c h e m i s t in a l l c o n v e n t i o n a l a s p e c t s
o f the s u b j e c t - m a t t e r o r the fu n c t i o n a l a r e a o f the a s s i g n m e n t s , p la n s and c o n d u c t s w o r k
r e q u i r i n g (a) m a s t e r y o f s p e c i a l i z e d t e c h n i q u e s o r in g e n u ity in s e l e c t i n g and e v a lu a tin g a p ­
p r o a c h e s to u n f o r e s e e n o r n o v e l p r o b l e m s , and (b) a b i l i t y to a p p ly a r e s e a r c h a p p r o a c h to
the s o lu t i o n o f a w i d e v a r i e t y o f p r o b l e m s and to a s s i m i l a t e the d e t a i l s and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f
c h e m i c a l and p h y s i c a l a n a l y s e s , p r o c e d u r e s , and t e s t s .
R e q u ir e s su fficien t p r o fe s s i o n a l
e x p e r i e n c e to a s s u r e c o m p e t e n c e a s a f u l l y t r a i n e d w o r k e r ; o r , f o r p o s i t i o n s p r i m a r i l y o f
a r e s e a r c h n a t u r e , c o m p l e t i o n o f a l l r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a d o c t o r a l d e g r e e m a y b e s u b s titu te d
fo r ex p e rie n ce .
D i r e c t i o n r e c e i v e d . I n d e p e n d e n tly p e r f o r m s m o s t a s s i g n m e n t s with i n s t r u c t i o n s a s
to the g e n e r a l r e s u l t s e x p e c t e d .
R e c e i v e s t e c h n i c a l g u id a n c e on u n u s u a l o r c o m p l e x p r o b ­
l e m s and s u p e r v i s o r y a p p r o v a l on p r o p o s e d p la n s f o r p r o j e c t s .
T y p i c a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . C o n d u c t s l a b o r a t o r y a s s i g n m e n t s r e q u i r i n g the
d e t e r m i n a t i o n and e v a lu a t i o n o f a l t e r n a t i v e p r o c e d u r e s and the s e q u e n c e o f p e r f o r m i n g t h e m .
P e r f o r m s c o m p l e x , e x a c t i n g , o r u n u su a l a n a l y t i c a l a s s i g n m e n t s r e q u i r i n g s p e c i a l i z e d k n o w l ­
edge o f te ch n iq u es o r p ro d u cts .
I n t e r p r e t s r e s u l t s , p r e p a r e s r e p o r t s , and m a y p r o v i d e
t e c h n i c a l a d v i c e in h is s p e c i a l i z e d a r e a .
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the d i r e c t i o n o f o t h e r s .
and t e c h n i c i a n s .

M ay s u p e r v is e a sm a ll staff o f c h e m is t s

C h em ist V
G e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . P a r t i c i p a t e s in p lan n in g l a b o r a t o r y p r o g r a m s on the b a s i s
o f s p e c i a l i z e d k n o w le d g e o f p r o b l e m s and m e t h o d s and p r o b a b l e v a lu e o f r e s u l t s . M a y s e r v e
a s an e x p e r t in a n a r r o w s p e c i a l t y (e . g. , c l a s s o f c h e m i c a l c o m p o u n d s , o r a c l a s s o f p r o d ­
u c t s ) , m a k in g r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s and c o n c l u s i o n s w h i c h s e r v e a s the b a s i s f o r u n d e r t a k in g
o r r e j e c t i n g im p o r t a n t p r o j e c t s .
D e v e l o p m e n t o f the k n o w le d g e and e x p e r t i s e r e q u i r e d f o r
th is l e v e l o f w o r k u s u a l l y r e f l e c t s p r o g r e s s i v e e x p e r i e n c e t h r o u g h c h e m i s t IV.
D i r e c t i o n r e c e i v e d . S u p e r v i s i o n and g u id a n c e r e l a t e s l a r g e l y t o o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e s ,
c r i t i c a l i s s u e s , n e w c o n c e p t s , and p o l i c y m a t t e r s .
C o n s u lt s with s u p e r v i s o r c o n c e r n i n g
u n u s u a l p r o b l e m s and d e v e l o p m e n t s .
T y p i c a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .

(One o r b oth o f the f o l l o w i n g . )

(1)
In a s u p e r v i s o r y c a p a c i t y p l a n s , o r g a n i z e s , and d i r e c t s a s s i g n e d l a b o r a t o r y
p r o g r a m s . I n d e p e n d e n tly d e f i n e s s c o p e and c r i t i c a l e l e m e n t s o f the p r o j e c t s and s e l e c t s
a p p r o a c h e s to be ta k e n . A s u b s t a n t ia l p o r t i o n o f the w o r k s u p e r v i s e d is c o m p a r a b l e to
that d e s c r i b e d f o r c h e m i s t IV .
(2)
A s in d iv id u a l r e s e a r c h e r o r w o r k e r , c a r r i e s out p r o j e c t s r e q u i r i n g d e v e l o p ­
m e n t o f n e w o r h ig h ly m o d i f i e d s c i e n t i f i c t e c h n i q u e s and p r o c e d u r e s , e x t e n s i v e k n o w l ­
e d g e o f h i s s p e c i a l t y , and k n o w le d g e o f r e l a t e d s c i e n t i f i c f i e l d s .




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R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the d i r e c t i o n o f o t h e r s .
S u p e r v i s e s , c o o r d i n a t e s , and r e v i e w s
the w o r k o f a s m a l l s ta ff o f c h e m i s t s and t e c h n i c i a n s e n g a g e d in v a r i e d r e s e a r c h and d e ­
v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s , o r a l a r g e r g r o u p p e r f o r m i n g r o u t in e a n a l y t i c a l w o r k . E s t i m a t e s m a n ­
p o w e r n e e d s and s c h e d u l e s and a s s i g n s w o r k to m e e t c o m p l e t i o n d a te .
O r , a s in d iv id u a l
r e s e a r c h e r o r w o r k e r , m a y be a s s i s t e d on p r o j e c t s b y o t h e r c h e m i s t s o r t e c h n i c i a n s .
C h e m i s t VI
G eneral ch a r a c te r is tic s .
P e r f o r m s w o r k r e q u i r i n g l e a d e r s h i p and e x p e r t k n o w l ­
ed g e in a s p e c i a l i z e d f i e l d , p r o d u c t , o r p r o c e s s .
F o r m u l a t e s and c o n d u c t s a s y s t e m a t i c
a tt a c k on a p r o b l e m a r e a o f c o n s i d e r a b l e s c o p e and c o m p l e x i t y w h i c h m u s t b e a p p r o a c h e d
th r o u g h a s e r i e s o f c o m p l e t e and c o n c e p t u a l l y r e l a t e d s t u d i e s , o r a n u m b e r o f p r o j e c t s o f
lesser scope.
T h e p r o b l e m s a r e c o m p l e x b e c a u s e th e y a r e d i f f i c u l t to d e fin e and r e q u i r e
u n c o n v e n t i o n a l o r n o v e l a p p r o a c h e s o r h a v e o t h e r d i f f i c u l t f e a t u r e s . M a in ta in s l i a i s o n w ith
in d iv i d u a l s and u n its w ith in and o u t s id e h is o r g a n i z a t i o n w ith r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a c t i n g i n ­
d e p e n d e n tl y on t e c h n i c a l m a t t e r s p e r t a i n i n g to h is f i e l d . W o r k at t h is l e v e l u s u a l l y r e q u i r e s
e x t e n s i v e p r o g r e s s i v e e x p e r i e n c e in c l u d i n g w o r k c o m p a r a b l e to c h e m i s t V .
D i r e c t i o n r e c e i v e d . S u p e r v i s i o n r e c e i v e d is e s s e n t i a l l y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , w ith a s s i g n ­
m e n t s g iv e n in t e r m s o f b r o a d g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e s and l i m i t s .
T y p i c a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .

(One o r b oth o f the f o l l o w i n g . )

(1)
In a s u p e r v i s o r y c a p a c i t y (a) p la n s , d e v e l o p s , c o o r d i n a t e s , and d i r e c t s a n u m ­
b e r o f l a r g e and im p o r t a n t p r o j e c t s o r a p r o j e c t o f m a j o r s c o p e and i m p o r t a n c e , o r
(b) i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the e n t i r e c h e m i c a l p r o g r a m o f a c o m p a n y , w h en the p r o g r a m is
o f l i m i t e d c o m p l e x i t y and s c o p e .
A c t i v i t i e s u n d e r h is l e a d e r s h i p a r e o f a s c o p e that
t h e y r e q u i r e a f e w (3 to 5) s u b o r d in a t e s u p e r v i s o r s o r t e a m l e a d e r s w ith at le a s t one
in a p o s i t i o n c o m p a r a b l e to l e v e l V .
(2) A s in d iv id u a l r e s e a r c h e r o r
p r o j e c t s o f m a j o r i m p o r t a n c e to the
in g e n u ity in a d a p tin g , e x t e n d in g , and
n iq u e s in to o r i g i n a l c o m b i n a t i o n s and
c h e m i s t s in h is s p e c i a l t y .

w o r k e r d e t e r m i n e s , c o n c e i v e s , p la n s , and c o n d u c t s
c o m p a n y . A p p l i e s a h ig h d e g r e e o f o r i g i n a l i t y and
s y n t h e s i z i n g e x i s t i n g t h e o r y , p r i n c i p l e s , and t e c h ­
c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . M a y s e r v e a s a c o n s u lt a n t to o t h e r

R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the d i r e c t i o n o f o t h e r s . P l a n s , o r g a n i z e s , and s u p e r v i s e s the w o r k
o f a sta ff o f c h e m i s t s and t e c h n i c i a n s . E v a l u a t e s p r o g r e s s o f the s ta ff and r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d ,
and r e c o m m e n d s m a j o r c h a n g e s to a c h i e v e o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e s . O r , a s in d iv id u a l w o r k e r o r
r e s e a r c h e r m a y be a s s i s t e d on in d iv id u a l p r o j e c t s b y o t h e r c h e m i s t s o r t e c h n i c i a n s .
C h e m i s t VII
G e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . M a k e s d e c i s i o n s and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s that a r e r e c o g n i z e d
a s a u t h o r it a t iv e and h ave an i m p o r t a n t i m p a c t on e x t e n s i v e c h e m i c a l a c t i v i t i e s .
I n it ia te s and
m a i n t a i n s e x t e n s i v e c o n t a c t s w ith k e y c h e m i s t s and o f f i c i a l s o f o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s and c o m ­
p a n i e s , r e q u i r i n g s k il l in p e r s u a s i o n and n e g o t i a t i o n o f c r i t i c a l i s s u e s . A t th is l e v e l i n d i ­
v i d u a l s w i l l h a v e d e m o n s t r a t e d c r e a t i v i t y , f o r e s i g h t , and m a t u r e ju d g m e n t in a n t ic i p a t in g
and s o lv i n g u n p r e c e d e n t e d c h e m i c a l p r o b l e m s , d e t e r m i n i n g p r o g r a m o b j e c t i v e s and r e q u i r e ­
m e n t s , o r g a n i z i n g p r o g r a m s and p r o j e c t s , and d e v e l o p i n g s t a n d a r d s and g u id e s f o r d i v e r s e
ch e m ica l a ctiv ities.
D irection r e c e iv e d .

R eceiv es

gen eral adm inistrative d irection .

T y p i c a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .

(One o r b o th o f the f o l l o w i n g . )

(1)
In a s u p e r v i s o r y c a p a c i t y is r e s p o n s i b l e f o r (a) an im p o r t a n t s e g m e n t o f a
c h e m i c a l p r o g r a m o f a c o m p a n y w ith e x t e n s i v e and d i v e r s i f i e d s c i e n t i f i c r e q u i r e m e n t s ,
o r (b) the e n t i r e c h e m i c a l p r o g r a m o f a c o m p a n y w h e r e the p r o g r a m i s m o r e l i m i t e d
in s c o p e .
T h e o v e r a l l c h e m i c a l p r o g r a m c o n t a in s c r i t i c a l p r o b l e m s the s o lu t i o n o f
w h i c h r e q u i r e s m a j o r t e c h n o l o g i c a l a d v a n c e s and o p e n s the w a y f o r e x t e n s i v e r e l a t e d
d ev elop m en t.
M a k e s a u t h o r it a t iv e t e c h n i c a l r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the s c i e n t i f i c




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o b j e c t i v e s and l e v e l s o f w o r k w h i c h w i l l b e m o s t p r o f i t a b l e in the lig h t o f c o m p a n y r e ­
q u i r e m e n t s and s c i e n t i f i c a n d in d u s t r i a l t r e n d s and d e v e l o p m e n t s .
R ecom m ends fa cil­
i t i e s , p e r s o n n e l , and funds r e q u i r e d .
(2)
A s in d iv id u a l r e s e a r c h e r and c o n s u lt a n t s e l e c t s p r o b l e m s f o r r e s e a r c h to
f u r t h e r the c o m p a n y ' s o b j e c t i v e s .
C o n c e i v e s and p la n s in v e s t i g a t i o n s in w h i c h the
p h e n o m e n a and p r i n c i p l e s a r e not a d e q u a t e ly u n d e r s t o o d , and w h e r e fe w o r c o n t r a ­
d i c t o r y s c i e n t i f i c p r e c e d e n t s o r r e s u l t s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e . O u ts ta n d in g c r e a ­
ti v it y and m a t u r e ju d g m e n t a r e r e q u i r e d to d e v i s e h y p o t h e s e s and t e c h n i q u e s o f e x p e r i ­
m e n t a t i o n and to i n t e r p r e t r e s u l t s .
A s a l e a d e r and a u t h o r it y in h is c o m p a n y , in a
b r o a d a r e a o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , o r in a n a r r o w but in t e n s e l y s p e c i a l i z e d o n e , a d v i s e s the
h e a d o f a l a r g e l a b o r a t o r y o r c o m p a n y o f f i c i a l s on c o m p l e x a s p e c t s o f e x t r e m e l y b r o a d
and i m p o r t a n t p r o g r a m s .
H a s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e x p l o r i n g , e v a lu a tin g , and j u s t i f y i n g
p r o p o s e d and c u r r e n t p r o g r a m s and p r o j e c t s and f u r n is h in g a d v i c e on u n u s u a lly c o m p l e x
and n o v e l p r o b l e m s in the s p e c i a l t y f i e l d .
T y p i c a l l y w i l l h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d in n o v a t io n s
( e . g . , t e c h n i q u e s , p r o d u c t s , p r o c e d u r e s ) w h ic h a r e r e g a r d e d a s s i g n i f i c a n t a d v a n c e s
in the f i e l d .
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the d i r e c t i o n o f o t h e r s . D i r e c t s s e v e r a l s u b o r d in a t e s u p e r v i s o r s
o r t e a m l e a d e r s , s o m e o f w h o m a r e in p o s i t i o n s c o m p a r a b l e to c h e m i s t VI; o r , a s i n d i ­
v id u a l r e s e a r c h e r and co n s u lt a n t , m a y b e a s s i s t e d o n in d iv id u a l p r o j e c t s b y o t h e r c h e m i s t s
and t e c h n i c i a n s .
C h e m i s t VIII
G e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . M a k e s d e c i s i o n s and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s that a r e a u t h o r it a t iv e
and h a v e a f a r - r e a c h i n g i m p a c t on e x t e n s i v e c h e m i c a l and r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s o f the c o m p a n y .
N e g o t i a t e s c r i t i c a l and c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s w ith to p l e v e l c h e m i s t s and o f f i c e r s o f o t h e r
o r g a n i z a t i o n s and c o m p a n i e s .
I n d iv id u a ls at th is l e v e l h a v e d e m o n s t r a t e d a h ig h d e g r e e o f
c r e a t i v i t y , f o r e s i g h t , and m a t u r e ju d g m e n t in p la n n in g , o r g a n i z i n g , and g u id in g e x t e n s i v e
c h e m i c a l p r o g r a m s and a c t i v i t i e s o f o u ts ta n d in g n o v e l t y and i m p o r t a n c e .
D irection re ce iv e d .

R e ce iv e s

gen eral ad m inistrative d irection .

T y p i c a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .

(O ne o r b o th o f the f o l l o w i n g . )

(1)
In a s u p e r v i s o r y c a p a c i t y i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r (a) the e n t i r e c h e m i c a l p r o g r a m o f
a c o m p a n y w h i c h i s o f m o d e r a t e s c o p e , o r (b) an im p o r t a n t s e g m e n t o f a c h e m i c a l p r o ­
g r a m o f a c o m p a n y w ith v e r y e x t e n s i v e and h ig h ly d i v e r s i f i e d s c i e n t i f i c r e q u i r e m e n t s ,
w h e r e p r o g r a m s a r e o f su ch c o m p l e x i t y and s c o p e that th e y a r e o f c r i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e
to o v e r a l l o p e r a t i o n s and i n c l u d e p r o b l e m s o f e x t r a o r d i n a r y d i f f i c u l t y that h a v e r e s i s t e d
solu tion .
D e c i d e s the kind and e xten t o f c h e m i c a l p r o g r a m s n e e d e d to a c c o m p l i s h the
o b j e c t i v e s o f the c o m p a n y , f o r c h o o s i n g the s c i e n t i f i c a p p r o a c h e s , f o r p la n n in g and
o r g a n i z i n g f a c i l i t i e s and p r o g r a m s , and f o r in t e r p r e t i n g r e s u l t s .
(2)
A s in d iv id u a l r e s e a r c h e r and c o n s u lta n t f o r m u l a t e s and g u id e s the a tt a c k on
p r o b l e m s o f e x c e p t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t y and m a r k e d i m p o r t a n c e to the c o m p a n y a n d / o r i n ­
dustry.
P r o b l e m s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y the l a c k o f s c i e n t i f i c p r e c e d e n t s and s o u r c e
m a t e r i a l s , o r the l a c k o f s u c c e s s o f p r i o r r e s e a r c h and a n a l y s i s so that t h e i r s o lu t i o n
w o u l d r e p r e s e n t an a d v a n c e o f g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e and i m p o r t a n c e .
P e r fo r m s ad v isory
and c o n s u lt i n g w o r k f o r the c o m p a n y a s a r e c o g n i z e d a u t h o r it y f o r b r o a d p r o g r a m a r e a s
o f c o n s i d e r a b l e n o v e lt y and i m p o r t a n c e . H a s m a d e c o n t r i b u t i o n s s u ch a s n e w p r o d u c t s
o r tech n iq u es, d evelop m en t of p r o c e s s e s , e t c . , w hich a re re g a rd e d as m a jd r a d van ces
in the f i e l d .
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the d i r e c t i o n o f o t h e r s .
S u p e rv ise s s e v e r a l subordin ate s u p e r ­
v i s o r s o r t e a m l e a d e r s s o m e o f w h o s e p o s i t i o n s a r e c o m p a r a b l e to c h e m i s t VII o r in d iv i d u a l
r e s e a r c h e r s s o m e o f w h o s e p o s i t i o n s a r e c o m p a r a b l e to c h e m i s t VII and s o m e t i m e s c h e m i s t
VIII. A s an in d iv id u a l r e s e a r c h e r and c o n s u lta n t m a y be a s s i s t e d on in d iv i d u a l p r o j e c t s by
other ch e m is ts o r te ch n icia n s.




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“
N O T E : In d iv id u a ls in c h a r g e o f a c o m p a n y ' s c h e m i c a l p r o g r a m m a y m a t c h any o f
s e v e r a l o f the s u r v e y j o b l e v e l s , d e p e n d in g on the s i z e and c o m p l e x i t y o f c h e m i c a l p r o ­
gram s.
E x c l u d e d f r o m l e v e l VIH a r e c h e m i s t s in c h a r g e o f p r o g r a m s so e x t e n s i v e and
c o m p l e x ( e . g . , c o n s i s t i n g o f h ig h ly d i v e r s i f i e d o r u n u s u a lly n o v e l p r o d u c t s and p r o c e d u r e s )
that on e o r m o r e s u b o r d in a t e s u p e r v i s o r y c h e m i s t s a r e p e r f o r m i n g at l e v e l VIII.
A lso
e x c l u d e d f r o m l e v e l VIII a r e in d iv id u a l r e s e a r c h e r s and c o n s u lt a n t s w h o a r e r e c o g n i z e d as
n a tio n a l a n d / o r in t e r n a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s and s c i e n t i f i c l e a d e r s in v e r y b r o a d a r e a s o f s c i e n t i f i c
i n t e r e s t and i n v e s t i g a t i o n .
ENGINEER
P e r f o r m s p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k in r e s e a r c h , d e v e l o p m e n t , d e s i g n , t e s t i n g , a n a l y s i s ,
p r o d u c t i o n , c o n s t r u c t i o n , m a i n t e n a n c e , o p e r a t i o n , p la n n in g , s u r v e y , e s t i m a t i n g , a p p l i c a t i o n ,
o r stan dardization o f en g in eerin g fa c i lit ie s ,
s y s t e m s , s t r u c t u r e s , p r o c e s s e s , e q u ip m e n t
d e v i c e s , o r m a t e r i a l s r e q u i r i n g k n o w le d g e o f the s c i e n c e and a r t b y w h i c h m a t e r i a l s , n a tu ra l
r e s o u r c e s , and p o w e r a r e m a d e u s e f u l .
W o r k t y p i c a l l y r e q u i r e s a B . S. d e g r e e in e n g i ­
n e e r i n g o r the e q u iv a le n t in c o m b i n e d e d u c a t io n and e x p e r i e n c e . ( E x c l u d e d a r e : Safety e n g i ­
n e e r s , in d u s t r i a l e n g i n e e r s , q u a lit y c o n t r o l e n g i n e e r s , s a l e s e n g i n e e r s , and e n g i n e e r s w h o s e
p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y is to be in c h a r g e o f n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l m a i n t e n a n c e w o r k . )
E ngineer I
G eneral ch a ra cte ristics.
T h i s i s the e n t r y l e v e l o f p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k r e q u i r i n g a
b a c h e l o r ' s d e g r e e in e n g i n e e r i n g and no e x p e r i e n c e , o r the e q u iv a le n t (to a d e g r e e ) in a p ­
p r o p r i a t e e d u c a t i o n and e x p e r i e n c e . P e r f o r m s a s s i g n m e n t s d e s i g n e d to d e v e l o p p r o f e s s i o n a l
w o r k k n o w l e d g e s and a b i l i t i e s . M a y a l s o r e c e i v e f o r m a l c l a s s r o o m o r s e m i n a r ty p e t r a i n i n g .
(T e rm in a l p osition s a re e x clu d e d .)
D i r e c t i o n r e c e i v e d . W o r k s u n d e r c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n . R e c e i v e s s p e c i f i c and d e t a i le d
i n s t r u c t i o n s as to r e q u i r e d t a s k s and r e s u l t s e x p e c t e d .
W o r k is c h e c k e d d u rin g p r o g r e s s ,
and i s r e v i e w e d f o r a c c u r a c y u p on c o m p l e t i o n .
T y p i c a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .
P e r f o r m s a v a r i e t y o f r o u tin e ta s k s that a r e
p la n n e d to p r o v i d e e x p e r i e n c e and f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n w ith the e n g i n e e r i n g s t a f f, m e t h o d s , p r a c ­
t i c e s , and p r o g r a m s o f the c o m p a n y .
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the d i r e c t i o n o f o t h e r s .

U s u a l ly n o n e .

E n g i n e e r II
G e n e r al c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .
At th is c o n tin u in g d e v e l o p m e n t a l l e v e l , p e r f o r m s ro u tin e
e n g i n e e r i n g w o r k r e q u i r i n g a p p l i c a t i o n o f s t a n d a r d t e c h n i q u e s , p r o c e d u r e s , and c r i t e r i a in
c a r r y i n g out a s e q u e n c e o f r e l a t e d e n g i n e e r i n g t a s k s .
L i m i t e d e x e r c i s e o f ju d g m e n t is
r e q u i r e d o n d e t a i l s o f w o r k and in m a k in g p r e l i m i n a r y s e l e c t i o n s and a d a p ta tio n s o f e n g i ­
n eerin g a lte rn a tiv e s .
R e q u i r e s w o r k e x p e r i e n c e a c q u i r e d in an e n t r y l e v e l p o s i t i o n , o r
a p p r o p r i a t e g r a d u a te l e v e l stu d y .
F o r tr a i n i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t a l p u r p o s e s , a s s i g n m e n t s
m a y in c l u d e s o m e w o r k that is t y p i c a l o f a h ig h e r l e v e l . ( T e r m i n a l p o s i t i o n s a r e e x c l u d e d . )
D irection re ce iv e d .
S u p e r v i s o r s c r e e n s a s s i g n m e n t s f o r u n u su a l o r d i f f i c u l t p r o b ­
l e m s and s e l e c t s t e c h n i q u e s and p r o c e d u r e s to b e a p p li e d on n o n r o u tin e w o r k .
R e ceiv es
c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n on n e w a s p e c t s o f a s s i g n m e n t s .
T y p i c a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .
U sin g p r e s c r i b e d m e t h o d s , p e r f o r m s s p e c i f i c
and l i m i t e d p o r t i o n s o f a b r o a d e r a s s i g n m e n t o f an e x p e r i e n c e d e n g i n e e r . A p p l i e s s ta n d a r d
p r a c t i c e s and t e c h n iq u e s in s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s , a d ju s t s and c o r r e l a t e s da ta , r e c o g n i z e s d i s ­
c r e p a n c i e s in r e s u l t s , and f o l l o w s o p e r a t i o n s t h r o u g h a s e r i e s o f r e l a t e d d e t a i l e d ste p s o r
processes.
R esp on sibility
tech n icia n s.




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E N G I N E E R — C o n t in u e d
E n g i n e e r III
G eneral ch a ra cte ristics.
I n d e p e n d e n tly e v a l u a t e s , s e l e c t s , and a p p l i e s s t a n d a r d
e n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n i q u e s , p r o c e d u r e s , and c r i t e r i a , u s in g ju d g m e n t in m a k in g m i n o r a d a p t a ­
t i o n s and m o d i f i c a t i o n s .
A s s i g n m e n t s h a v e c l e a r and s p e c i f i e d o b j e c t i v e s and r e q u i r e the
i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f a l i m i t e d n u m b e r o f v a r i a b l e s . P e r f o r m a n c e at th is l e v e l r e q u i r e s d e v e l o p ­
m e n t a l e x p e r i e n c e in a p r o f e s s i o n a l p o s i t i o n , o r e q u iv a le n t g r a d u a t e l e v e l e d u c a t io n .
D ire ctio n r e c e i v e d . R e c e iv e s in stru ctio n s on s p e c if ic a ssig n m en t o b je c t iv e s , c o m ­
p l e x f e a t u r e s , and p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s .
A s s i s t a n c e is f u r n i s h e d on u n u su a l p r o b l e m s and
w o r k i s r e v i e w e d f o r a p p l i c a t i o n o f so u n d p r o f e s s i o n a l j u d g m e n t .
T y p i c a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .
P e r f o r m s w o r k w hich in v o lv e s con vention al
t y p e s o f p l a n s , i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , s u r v e y s , s t r u c t u r e s , o r e q u ip m e n t w ith r e l a t i v e l y f e w c o m ­
p le x fe a tu r e s fo r w hich th ere a re p r e c e d e n t s . A s s ig n m e n ts u su ally include one o r m o r e o f
the f o l l o w i n g :
E q u ip m e n t d e s i g n and d e v e l o p m e n t , t e s t o f m a t e r i a l s , p r e p a r a t i o n o f s p e c i ­
f i c a t i o n s , p r o c e s s stu d y , r e s e a r c h i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , r e p o r t p r e p a r a t i o n , and o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s
o f l i m i t e d s c o p e r e q u i r i n g k n o w le d g e o f p r i n c i p l e s and t e c h n i q u e s c o m m o n l y e m p l o y e d in the
sp e cific n arrow area of assign m en ts.

of

R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the d i r e c t i o n o f o t h e r s .
M a y s u p e r v i s e o r c o o r d i n a t e the w o r k
d r a f t s m e n , t e c h n i c i a n s , and o t h e r s wh o a s s i s t in s p e c i f i c a s s i g n m e n t s .
E n g i n e e r IV

G e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A s a f u ll y c o m p e t e n t e n g i n e e r in a ll c o n v e n t i o n a l a s p e c t s
o f the s u b j e c t - m a t t e r o r the fu n c t io n a l a r e a o f the a s s i g n m e n t s , p la n s and c o n d u c t s w o r k
r e q u i r i n g j u d g m e n t in the in d e p e n d e n t e v a lu a t i o n , s e l e c t i o n , and s u b s t a n t ia l a d a p ta tio n and
m o d i f i c a t i o n o f s t a n d a r d t e c h n i q u e s , p r o c e d u r e s , and c r i t e r i a .
D e v ises new a p p roa ch es
to p r o b l e m s e n c o u n t e r e d . R e q u i r e s s u f f i c i e n t p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e to a s s u r e c o m p e t e n c e
a s a fu ll y t r a i n e d w o r k e r ; o r , f o r p o s i t i o n s p r i m a r i l y o f a r e s e a r c h n a t u r e , c o m p l e t i o n o f a ll
r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a d o c t o r a l d e g r e e m a y b e s u b s titu te d f o r e x p e r i e n c e .
D i r e c t i o n r e c e i v e d . I n d e p e n d e n tly p e r f o r m s m o s t a s s i g n m e n t s w ith i n s t r u c t i o n s as
to the g e n e r a l r e s u l t s e x p e c t e d .
R e c e i v e s t e c h n i c a l g u id a n c e on u n u su a l o r c o m p l e x p r o b ­
l e m s and s u p e r v i s o r y a p p r o v a l on p r o p o s e d p la n s f o r p r o j e c t s .
T y p i c a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .
P lan s, sch ed u les, con ducts, o r coord in a tes
d e t a i l e d p h a s e s o f the e n g i n e e r i n g w o r k in a p a r t o f a m a j o r p r o j e c t o r in a to t a l p r o j e c t
of m oderate scop e.
P e r f o r m s w o r k w h i c h i n v o l v e s c o n v e n t i o n a l e n g i n e e r i n g p r a c t i c e but
m a y in c l u d e a v a r i e t y o f c o m p l e x f e a t u r e s s u c h a s c o n f l i c t i n g d e s i g n r e q u i r e m e n t s , u n s u i t a ­
b i l i t y o f s t a n d a r d m a t e r i a l s , and d i f f i c u l t c o o r d i n a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s . W o r k r e q u i r e s a b r o a d
k n o w l e d g e o f p r e c e d e n t s in the s p e c i a l t y a r e a and a g o o d k n o w le d g e o f p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c ­
tice s o f related sp e cia ltie s.
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the d i r e c t i o n o f o t h e r s .
n icia n s on a s s ig n e d w o r k .

M ay s u p e r v is e a few e n g in e e rs o r t e c h ­

E ngineer V
G e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A p p l i e s i n t e n s i v e and d i v e r s i f i e d k n o w l e d g e o f e n g i n e e r i n g
p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s in b r o a d a r e a s o f a s s i g n m e n t s and r e l a t e d f i e l d s . M a k e s d e c i s i o n s
i n d e p e n d e n t l y o n e n g i n e e r i n g p r o b l e m s and m e t h o d s , and r e p r e s e n t s the o r g a n i z a t i o n in c o n ­
f e r e n c e s to r e s o l v e i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s and to p la n and c o o r d i n a t e w o r k . R e q u i r e s th e u s e
o f a d v a n c e d t e c h n i q u e s and the m o d i f i c a t i o n and e x t e n s i o n o f t h e o r i e s , p r e c e p t s a n d p r a c ­
t i c e s o f h is f i e l d and r e l a t e d s c i e n c e s and d i s c i p l i n e s . T h e k n o w le d g e and e x p e r t i s e r e q u i r e d
f o r th is l e v e l o f w o r k u s u a l l y r e s u l t s f r o m p r o g r e s s i v e e x p e r i e n c e , in c l u d i n g w o r k c o m p a r a b l e
to e n g i n e e r IV .
D i r e c t i o n r e c e i v e d . S u p e r v i s i o n and g u id a n c e r e l a t e s l a r g e l y to o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e s ,
c r i t i c a l i s s u e s , n e w c o n c e p t s , and p o l i c y m a t t e r s .
C o n s u l t s w ith s u p e r v i s o r c o n c e r n i n g
u n u s u a l p r o b l e m s and d e v e l o p m e n t s .




66

E N G I N E E R — C o n t in u e d
T y p i c a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .

(O ne o r m o r e o f the f o l l o w i n g . )

(1)
In a s u p e r v i s o r y c a p a c i t y p l a n s , d e v e l o p s , c o o r d i n a t e s , and d i r e c t s a l a r g e
and i m p o r t a n t e n g i n e e r i n g p r o j e c t o r a n u m b e r o f s m a l l p r o j e c t s w ith m a n y c o m p l e x
f e a t u r e s . A s u b s ta n tia l p o r t i o n o f th e w o r k s u p e r v i s e d i s c o m p a r a b l e to that d e s c r i b e d
fo r en g in eer IV.
(2)
A s in d iv i d u a l r e s e a r c h e r o r w o r k e r c a r r i e s out c o m p l e x o r n o v e l a s s i g n m e n t s
r e q u i r i n g the d e v e l o p m e n t o f n e w o r i m p r o v e d t e c h n i q u e s and p r o c e d u r e s . W o r k i s e x ­
p e c t e d to r e s u l t in the d e v e l o p m e n t o f n e w o r r e f i n e d e q u ip m e n t , m a t e r i a l s , p r o c e s s e s ,
p rod u cts, a n d /o r scien tific m ethods.
(3)
A s s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t d e v e l o p s and e v a l u a t e s p la n s and c r i t e r i a f o r a v a r i e t y o f
p r o j e c t s and a c t i v i t i e s to b e c a r r i e d out b y o t h e r s . A s s e s s e s the f e a s i b i l i t y and s o u n d ­
n e s s o f p r o p o s e d e n g i n e e r i n g e v a lu a t i o n t e s t s , p r o d u c t s , o r e q u ip m e n t w h e n n e c e s s a r y
data a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t o r c o n f i r m a t i o n b y te s t in g i s a d v i s a b l e .
U s u a l ly p e r f o r m s a s a
s ta ff a d v i s o r and c o n s u lt a n t a s to a t e c h n i c a l s p e c i a l t y , a ty p e o f f a c i l i t y o r e q u ip m e n t,
o r a p r o g r a m fu n c t io n .
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the d i r e c t i o n o f o t h e r s .
S u p e r v i s e s , c o o r d i n a t e s , and r e v i e w s
the w o r k o f a s m a l l s t a f f o f e n g i n e e r s and t e c h n i c i a n s ; e s t i m a t e s m a n p o w e r n e e d s and s c h e d ­
u l e s and a s s i g n s w o r k to m e e t c o m p l e t i o n d a te . O r , a s in d iv i d u a l r e s e a r c h e r o r s t a f f s p e ­
c i a l i s t m a y b e a s s i s t e d on p r o j e c t s b y o t h e r e n g i n e e r s o r t e c h n i c i a n s .
E n g i n e e r VI
G e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . H a s fu ll t e c h n i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g , o r g a n i z ­
in g , e x e c u t i n g , and c o o r d i n a t i n g a s s i g n m e n t s . P l a n s and d e v e l o p s e n g i n e e r i n g p r o j e c t s c o n ­
c e r n e d w ith u nique o r c o n t r o v e r s i a l p r o b l e m s w h i c h h a v e an im p o r t a n t e f f e c t on m a j o r c o m ­
p a n y p r o g r a m s . T h i s i n v o l v e s e x p l o r a t i o n o f s u b j e c t a r e a , d e f i n i t io n o f s c o p e and s e l e c t i o n
o f p r o b l e m s f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n , a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f n o v e l c o n c e p t s and a p p r o a c h e s . M a in ta in s
l i a i s o n w ith in d iv i d u a l s and units w ith in o r o u t s i d e h is o r g a n i z a t i o n w ith r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r
a c t i n g in d e p e n d e n t l y on t e c h n i c a l m a t t e r s p e r t a i n i n g to h is f i e l d . W o r k at th is l e v e l u s u a lly
r e q u i r e s e x t e n s i v e p r o g r e s s i v e e x p e r i e n c e in c l u d i n g w o r k c o m p a r a b l e to e n g i n e e r V .
D i r e c t i o n r e c e i v e d . S u p e r v i s i o n r e c e i v e d i s e s s e n t i a l l y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , w ith a s s i g n ­
m e n t s g iv e n in t e r m s o f b r o a d g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e s and l i m i t s .
T y p i c a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .

(One o r

m o r e o f the f o l l o w i n g . )

(1)
In a s u p e r v i s o r y c a p a c i t y (a) p l a n s , d e v e l o p s , c o o r d i n a t e s , and d i r e c t s a n u m ­
b e r o f l a r g e and im p o r t a n t p r o j e c t s o r a p r o j e c t o f m a j o r s c o p e and i m p o r t a n c e , o r
(b) is r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the e n t i r e e n g i n e e r i n g p r o g r a m o f a c o m p a n y w h e n the p r o g r a m
i s o f l i m i t e d c o m p l e x i t y and s c o p e . T h e e xten t o f h is r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r e
a fe w (3 to 5) s u b o r d i n a t e s u p e r v i s o r s o r t e a m l e a d e r s w ith at l e a s t one in a p o s i t i o n
c o m p a r a b l e to l e v e l V .
(2)
A s in d iv i d u a l r e s e a r c h e r o r w o r k e r c o n c e i v e s , p la n s , and c o n d u c t s r e s e a r c h in
p r o b l e m a r e a s o f c o n s i d e r a b l e s c o p e and c o m p l e x i t y . T h e p r o b l e m s m u s t be a p p r o a c h e d
t h r o u g h a s e r i e s o f c o m p l e t e and c o n c e p t u a l l y r e l a t e d s t u d i e s , a r e d i f f i c u l t to d e f i n e , r e ­
q u i r e u n c o n v e n t i o n a l o r n o v e l a p p r o a c h e s ; and r e q u i r e s o p h i s t i c a t e d r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s .
A v a i l a b l e g u id e s a n d p r e c e d e n t s c o n ta in c r i t i c a l g a p s , a r e o n ly p a r t i a l l y r e l a t e d to the
p r o b l e m , o r m a y b e l a r g e l y la c k i n g due to the n o v e l c h a r a c t e r o f the p r o j e c t . At th is
l e v e l , the in d iv i d u a l r e s e a r c h e r g e n e r a l l y w i l l h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d i n v e n t i o n s , n e w d e s i g n s ,
o r t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h a r e o f m a t e r i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e in the s o l u t i o n o f im p o r t a n t p r o b l e m s .
(3)
A s a s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s e r v e s a s the t e c h n i c a l s p e c i a l i s t f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n
( d i v i s i o n o r c o m p a n y ) in the a p p l i c a t i o n o f a d v a n c e d t h e o r i e s , c o n c e p t s , p r i n c i p l e s , and
p r o c e s s e s f o r an a s s i g n e d a r e a o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ( i . e . , s u b j e c t m a t t e r , fu n c t io n , type
o f f a c i l i t y o r e q u ip m e n t , o r p r o d u c t ) . K e e p s a b r e a s t o f n ew s c i e n t i f i c m e t h o d s and d e ­
v e l o p m e n t s a f f e c t i n g h is o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r the p u r p o s e o f r e c o m m e n d i n g c h a n g e s in e m ­
p h a sis o f p r o g r a m s o r new p r o g r a m s w a rr a n te d by such d e v e lo p m e n ts .




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E N G I N E E R — C o n t in u e d
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the d i r e c t i o n o f o t h e r s .
P l a n s , o r g a n i z e s , and s u p e r v i s e s the
w o r k o f a s t a f f o f e n g i n e e r s and t e c h n i c i a n s .
E v a l u a t e s p r o g r e s s o f the s ta ff and r e s u l t s
o b t a i n e d , and r e c o m m e n d s m a j o r c h a n g e s to a c h i e v e o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e s .
O r , a s in d iv id u a l
r e s e a r c h e r o r s ta ff s p e c i a l i s t m a y b e a s s i s t e d o n in d iv id u a l p r o j e c t s b y o t h e r e n g i n e e r s o r
te ch n icia n s.
E n g i n e e r VII
G e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . M a k e s d e c i s i o n s a n d r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s that a r e r e c o g n i z e d
a s a u t h o r it a t iv e and h a v e an i m p o r t a n t i m p a c t o n e x t e n s i v e e n g i n e e r i n g a c t i v i t i e s . In it ia t e s
and m a i n t a in s e x t e n s i v e c o n t a c t s w ith k e y e n g i n e e r s and o f f i c i a l s o f o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s and
c o m p a n i e s , r e q u i r i n g s k il l in p e r s u a s i o n and n e g o t ia t io n o f c r i t i c a l i s s u e s .
A t th is l e v e l
in d iv i d u a l s w i l l h a v e d e m o n s t r a t e d c r e a t i v i t y , f o r e s i g h t , and m a t u r e e n g i n e e r i n g ju d g m e n t
in a n tic ip a tin g and s o lv i n g u n p r e c e d e n t e d e n g i n e e r i n g p r o b l e m s , d e t e r m i n i n g p r o g r a m o b ­
j e c t i v e s and r e q u i r e m e n t s , o r g a n i z i n g p r o g r a m s and p r o j e c t s , and d e v e l o p i n g s t a n d a r d s and
g u id e s f o r d i v e r s e e n g i n e e r i n g a c t i v i t i e s .
D irection re ce iv e d .

R eceiv es

gen eral a dm in istrative d irection .

T y p i c a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .

(O ne o r b o th o f the f o l l o w i n g . )

(1)
In a s u p e r v i s o r y c a p a c i t y i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r (a) an i m p o r t a n t s e g m e n t o f the
e n g i n e e r i n g p r o g r a m o f a c o m p a n y w ith e x t e n s i v e and d i v e r s i f i e d e n g i n e e r i n g r e q u i r e ­
m e n t s , o r (b) th e e n t ir e e n g i n e e r i n g p r o g r a m o f a c o m p a n y w h e n it i s m o r e l i m i t e d in
s c o p e . T h e o v e r a l l e n g i n e e r i n g p r o g r a m c o n t a in s c r i t i c a l p r o b l e m s the s o lu t i o n o f w h ic h
r e q u i r e s m a j o r t e c h n o l o g i c a l a d v a n c e s and o p e n s the w a y f o r e x t e n s i v e r e l a t e d d e v e l o p ­
m e n t . T h e e x ten t o f h is r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r e s e v e r a l s u b o r d in a t e o r g a n i ­
zational seg m en ts o r te a m s.
R e c o m m e n d s f a c i l i t i e s , p e r s o n n e l , and fu n d s r e q u i r e d to
c a r r y ou t p r o g r a m s w h i c h a r e d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d w ith and d i r e c t e d t o w a r d f u l f i l l m e n t o f
ov e ra ll com pany o b je ctiv e s.
(2)
A s in d iv i d u a l r e s e a r c h e r and c o n s u lt a n t i s a r e c o g n i z e d l e a d e r and a u t h o r it y
in h is c o m p a n y in a b r o a d a r e a o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o r in a n a r r o w but i n t e n s e l y s p e c i a l i z e d
field .
S e l e c t s r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m s to f u r t h e r th e c o m p a n y ' s o b j e c t i v e s .
C o n c e i v e s and
p la n s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f b r o a d a r e a s o f c o n s i d e r a b l e n o v e l t y and i m p o r t a n c e f o r w h i c h
e n g i n e e r i n g p r e c e d e n t s a r e l a c k i n g in a r e a s c r i t i c a l to the o v e r a l l e n g i n e e r i n g p r o g r a m .
I s c o n s u l t e d e x t e n s i v e l y b y a s s o c i a t e s and o t h e r s w ith a h ig h d e g r e e o f r e l i a n c e p l a c e d
on h is s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and a d v i c e . T y p i c a l l y , w i l l h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d in v e n t i o n s ,
n ew d e s i g n s , o r t e c h n i q u e s w h ic h a r e r e g a r d e d as m a j o r a d v a n c e s in the f i e l d .
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the d i r e c t i o n o f o t h e r s . D i r e c t s s e v e r a l s u b o r d i n a t e s u p e r v i s o r s
o r t e a m l e a d e r s , s o m e o f w h o m a r e in p o s i t i o n s c o m p a r a b l e to e n g i n e e r V I; o r , as i n d i ­
v id u a l r e s e a r c h e r and co n s u lt a n t , m a y b e a s s i s t e d o n in d iv i d u a l p r o j e c t s b y o t h e r e n g i n e e r s
and t e c h n i c i a n s .
E n g i n e e r VIII
G e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . M a k e s d e c i s i o n s and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s that a r e r e c o g n i z e d
a s a u t h o r it a t iv e and h a v e a f a r - r e a c h i n g i m p a c t on e x t e n s i v e e n g i n e e r i n g and r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s
o f the c o m p a n y .
N e g o t i a t e s c r i t i c a l and c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s w ith to p l e v e l e n g i n e e r s and
o f f i c e r s o f o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s and c o m p a n i e s . I n d iv id u a ls at th is l e v e l d e m o n s t r a t e a h ig h
degree
o f c r e a t i v i t y , f o r e s i g h t , and m a t u r e ju d g m e n t in p la n n in g , o r g a n i z i n g , and g u id in g
e x t e n s i v e e n g i n e e r i n g p r o g r a m s and a c t i v i t i e s o f o u tsta n d in g n o v e l t y and i m p o r t a n c e .
D irection re ce iv e d .

R e ce iv e s

gen eral ad m inistrative d irection .

T y p i c a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .

(O ne o r b o th o f the f o l l o w i n g . )

(1)
In a s u p e r v i s o r y c a p a c i t y i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r (a) an i m p o r t a n t s e g m e n t o f a v e r y
e x t e n s i v e and h ig h ly d i v e r s i f i e d e n g i n e e r i n g p r o g r a m o f a c o m p a n y , o r (b) the e n t ir e
e n g i n e e r i n g p r o g r a m o f a c o m p a n y w h e n the p r o g r a m i s o f m o d e r a t e s c o p e . T h e p r o ­
g r a m s a r e o f su ch c o m p l e x i t y and s c o p e that th e y a r e o f c r i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e to o v e r a l l
o b j e c t i v e s , in c l u d e p r o b l e m s o f e x t r a o r d i n a r y d i f f i c u l t y that o ft e n h a v e r e s i s t e d s o lu t i o n ,
and c o n s i s t o f s e v e r a l s e g m e n t s r e q u i r i n g s u b o r d in a t e s u p e r v i s o r s . Is r e s p o n s i b l e f o r




68

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d e c i d i n g the kind and ex te n t o f e n g i n e e r i n g and r e l a t e d p r o g r a m s n e e d e d to a c c o m p l i s h
the o b j e c t i v e s o f the c o m p a n y , f o r c h o o s i n g the s c i e n t i f i c a p p r o a c h e s , f o r p la n n in g and
o r g a n i z i n g f a c i l i t i e s and p r o g r a m s , and f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g r e s u l t s .
(2) A s in d iv i d u a l r e s e a r c h e r and c o n s u lt a n t f o r m u l a t e s and g u id e s the a t t a c k on p r o b ­
l e m s o f e x c e p t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t y and m a r k e d i m p o r t a n c e to the c o m p a n y o r i n d u s t r y . P r o b ­
l e m s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e i r l a c k o f s c i e n t i f i c p r e c e d e n t s and s o u r c e m a t e r i a l , o r
l a c k o f s u c c e s s o f p r i o r r e s e a r c h and a n a l y s i s s o that t h e i r s o lu t i o n w o u l d r e p r e s e n t an
a d v a n c e o f g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e and i m p o r t a n c e .
P e r f o r m s a d v i s o r y and c o n s u lt i n g w o r k
f o r the c o m p a n y a s a r e c o g n i z e d a u t h o r it y f o r b r o a d p r o g r a m a r e a s o r in an i n t e n s e l y
s p e c i a l i z e d a r e a o f c o n s i d e r a b l e n o v e l t y and i m p o r t a n c e .
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the d i r e c t i o n o f o t h e r s .
S u p e r v i s e s s e v e r a l s u b o r d in a t e s u p e r ­
v i s o r s o r t e a m l e a d e r s s o m e o f w h o s e p o s i t i o n s a r e c o m p a r a b l e to e n g i n e e r VII, o r i n d i ­
v id u a l r e s e a r c h e r s s o m e o f w h o s e p o s i t i o n s a r e c o m p a r a b l e to e n g i n e e r VII and s o m e t i m e s
e n g i n e e r VIII.
A s an in d iv id u a l r e s e a r c h e r and c o n s u lt a n t m a y b e a s s i s t e d on in d iv id u a l
p r o je c t s by other e n g in eers o r te ch n icia n s.
NOTE:
I n d iv id u a ls in c h a r g e o f a c o m p a n y ’ s e n g i n e e r i n g p r o g r a m m a y m a t c h any
o f s e v e r a l o f the s u r v e y j o b l e v e l s d e p e n d in g o n the s i z e and c o m p l e x i t y o f e n g i n e e r i n g p r o ­
gram s.
E x c l u d e d f r o m l e v e l VIII a r e e n g i n e e r s in c h a r g e o f p r o g r a m s so e x t e n s i v e and
c o m p l e x ( e . g. , c o n s i s t i n g o f r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t on a v a r i e t y o f c o m p l e x p r o d u c t s o r
s y s t e m s w ith n u m e r o u s n o v e l c o m p o n e n t s ) that o n e o r m o r e s u b o r d in a t e s u p e r v i s o r y e n g i ­
n e e r s a r e p e r f o r m i n g at l e v e l VIII. A l s o e x c l u d e d f r o m l e v e l VIII a r e in d iv i d u a l r e s e a r c h e r s
and c o n s u lt a n t s w h o a r e r e c o g n i z e d a s n a tio n a l a n d / o r in t e r n a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s and s c i e n t i f i c
l e a d e r s in v e r y b r o a d a r e a s o f s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r e s t and i n v e s t i g a t i o n .

TECH N ICAL SU PPO R T

E N G IN E E R IN G T E C H N I C IA N
T o b e c o v e r e d b y t h e s e d e f i n i t i o n s , e m p l o y e e s m u s t m e e t a l l o f the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a ;

as

( 1 ) P r o v i d e s s e m i p r o f e s s i o n a l t e c h n i c a l s u p p o r t f o r e n g i n e e r s w o r k i n g in s u c h a r e a s
r e s e a r c h , d e s i g n , d e v e l o p m e n t , t e s t in g o r m a n u f a c t u r i n g p r o c e s s
im p rovem en t.
(2 )

W o r k p e r t a i n s to e l e c t r i c a l , e l e c t r o n i c , o r m e c h a n i c a l c o m p o n e n t s o r e q u ip m e n t .

(3 )

R e q u i r e d to h a v e s o m e k n o w le d g e o f s c i e n c e o r

(E xclu d es p rod u ction o r m aintenan ce w o r k e r s ,
d r a f t s m e n , d e s i g n e r s , and e n g i n e e r s . )

en gin eerin g.

q u a lit y

control

testers,

cra ftsm en ,

E ngineering T ech n icia n I
P e r f o r m s s i m p l e r o u t in e t a s k s u n d e r c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n o r f r o m d e t a i l e d p r o c e d u r e s .
W o r k is c h e c k e d in p r o c e s s o r on c o m p l e t i o n .
P e r f o r m s at th is l e v e l , on e o r a c o m b i n a ­
tion o f s u c h t y p i c a l d u tie s a s :
A s s e m b le s o r in stalls
con n ectin g .

e q u ip m e n t

o r parts

req u irin g

sim p le

w irin g ,

so ld erin g ,

or

P e r f o r m s s i m p l e o r r o u t in e ta sk s o r t e s t s s u c h as t e n s i l e o r h a r d n e s s t e s t s ; o p ­
e r a t e s , and a d ju s t s s i m p l e t e s t e q u ip m e n t ; r e c o r d s t e s t data.
G a t h e r s and m a i n t a in s s p e c i f i e d r e c o r d s o f e n g i n e e r i n g d a ta s u c h as t e s t s , and
d r a w i n g s ; p e r f o r m s c o m p u t a t i o n s by su b stitu tin g n u m b e r s in s p e c i f i e d f o r m u l a s ; p lo t s
data and d r a w s s i m p l e c u r v e s and g r a p h s .




6 9

E N G I N E E R IN G T E C H N I C IA N — C o n t in u e d

E n g i n e e r i n g T e c h n i c i a n II
P e r f o r m s s t a n d a r d i z e d o r p r e s c r i b e d a s s i g n m e n t s , in v o lv i n g a s e q u e n c e o f r e l a t e d
op erations.
F o llo w s standard w o r k m eth od s o r e x p lic it in stru ctio n s; te ch n ica l a dequ acy o f
r o u t in e w o r k is r e v i e w e d on c o m p l e t i o n ; n o n r o u t i n e w o r k m a y a l s o b e r e v i e w e d in p r o c e s s .
P e r f o r m s at th is l e v e l , o n e o r a c o m b i n a t i o n o f s u c h t y p i c a l d u tie s a s:
A s s e m b l e s o r c o n s t r u c t s s i m p l e o r s t a n d a r d e q u ip m e n t o r p a r t s .
r e p a i r s i m p l e in s t r u m e n t s o r e q u ip m e n t .

M ay s e r v ic e

Conducts a v a rie ty o f sta n d a rd ized te sts; m a y p r e p a r e test s p e c im e n s ;
o p e r a t e s s t a n d a r d t e s t e q u ip m e n t ; r e c o r d s t e s t da ta .
E x t r a c t s e n g i n e e r i n g d a ta f r o m v a r i o u s p r e s c r i b e d s o u r c e s ; p r o c e s s e s
lo w in g w e l l d e f i n e d m e t h o d s ; p r e s e n t s the d ata in p r e s c r i b e d f o r m .

or

s e t s up and

the da ta f o l ­

E n g i n e e r i n g T e c h n i c i a n III
P e r f o r m s a s s i g n m e n t s that a r e n o t c o m p l e t e l y s t a n d a r d i z e d o r p r e s c r i b e d .
S elects
o r adapts s t a n d a r d p r o c e d u r e s o r e q u ip m e n t .
R e c e i v e s in i t ia l i n s t r u c t i o n s , e q u i p m e n t r e ­
q u i r e m e n t s and a d v i c e f r o m s u p e r v i s o r o r e n g i n e e r ; t e c h n i c a l a d e q u a c y o f c o m p l e t e d w o r k
is c h e c k e d .
P e r f o r m s at this l e v e l , o n e o r a c o m b i n a t i o n o f s u c h t y p i c a l d u t ie s a s :
C o n s t r u c t s c o m p o n e n t s , su b u n its o r s i m p l e m o d e l s o r ad a p ts
M a y t r o u b l e s h o o t and c o r r e c t m a l f u n c t i o n s .

standard

equ ipm en t.

C o n d u c t s v a r i o u s t e s t s o r e x p e r i m e n t s w h i c h m a y r e q u i r e m i n o r m o d i f i c a t i o n s in
t e s t s e tu p s o r p r o c e d u r e s ; s e l e c t s , s e t s up and o p e r a t e s s t a n d a r d t e s t e q u ip m e n t and
r e c o r d s t e s t da ta .
E x t r a c t s and c o m p i l e s a v a r i e t y o f e n g i n e e r i n g data; p r o c e s s e s o r c o m p u t e s d a ta
u s in g s p e c i f i e d f o r m u l a s and p r o c e d u r e s .
P e r f o r m s r o u t in e a n a l y s i s to c h e c k a p p l i ­
c a b i l i t y , a c c u r a c y , and r e a s o n a b l e n e s s o f da ta .
E n g i n e e r i n g T e c h n i c i a n IV
P e r f o r m s n o n r o u t i n e a s s i g n m e n t s o f s u b s t a n t ia l v a r i e t y and c o m p l e x i t y .
R eceiv es
o b j e c t i v e s and t e c h n i c a l a d v i c e f r o m s u p e r v i s o r o r e n g i n e e r ; w o r k is r e v i e w e d f o r t e c h n i c a l
adequacy.
M ay be a s s is te d by lo w e r le v e l te ch n icia n s.
P e r f o r m s at th is l e v e l , o n e o r a
c o m b i n a t i o n o f s u c h t y p i c a l d u tie s a s :
W o r k s on l i m i t e d s e g m e n t o f d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t ; c o n s t r u c t s e x p e r i m e n t a l o r p r o ­
to t y p e m o d e l s to m e e t e n g i n e e r i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s ; c o n d u c t s t e s t s o r e x p e r i m e n t s ; r e c o r d s
and e v a lu a t e s data and r e p o r t s f i n d i n g s .
C o n d u c t s t e s t s o r e x p e r i m e n t s r e q u i r i n g s e l e c t i o n and a d a p ta tio n o r m o d i f i c a t i o n o f
t e s t e q u ip m e n t and t e s t p r o c e d u r e s ; s e t s up and o p e r a t e s e q u i p m e n t ; r e c o r d s da ta ; a n a ­
l y z e s d ata and p r e p a r e s t e s t r e p o r t s .
C o m p i l e s and c o m p u t e s a v a r i e t y o f e n g i n e e r i n g da ta ; m a y a n a l y z e t e s t and d e s i g n
da ta ; d e v e l o p s o r p r e p a r e s s c h e m a t i c s , d e s i g n s , s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , p a r t s l i s t s o r m a k e s
r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g th e s e i t e m s .
M ay rev iew d esig n s o r sp e cifica tio n s for
adequacy.
E ngineering T ech n icia n V
P e r f o r m s n o n r o u t i n e and c o m p l e x a s s i g n m e n t s in v o lv i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p la n n in g
and c o n d u c t i n g a c o m p l e t e p r o j e c t o f r e l a t i v e l y l i m i t e d s c o p e o r a p o r t i o n o f a l a r g e r and
m o re d iv erse p ro je ct.
S e l e c t s and a d a p ts p l a n s , t e c h n i q u e s , d e s i g n s o r l a y o u t s .
M ay c o ­
o r d i n a t e p o r t i o n s o f o v e r a l l a s s i g n m e n t ; r e v i e w s , a n a l y z e s and in t e g r a t e s the t e c h n i c a l w o r k




70

E N G IN E E R IN G T E C H N I C IA N — C o n tin u e d

of others.
S u p e r v i s o r o r p r o f e s s i o n a l e n g i n e e r o u t li n e s o b j e c t i v e s , r e q u i r e m e n t s and d e s i g n
a p p r o a c h e s ; c o m p l e t e d w o r k is r e v i e w e d f o r t e c h n i c a l a d e q u a c y and s a t i s f a c t i o n o f r e q u i r e ­
m ents.
M ay be a s s is te d by lo w e r le v e l tech n icia n s.
P e r f o r m s at this l e v e l , o n e o r a c o m ­
b in a t i o n o f s u c h t y p i c a l d u tie s a s :
D e s i g n s , d e v e l o p s and c o n s t r u c t s m a j o r u n i t s , d e v i c e s o r e q u ip m e n t ; c o n d u c t s t e s t s
o r e x p e r i m e n t s ; a n a l y z e s r e s u l t s and r e d e s i g n s o r m o d i f i e s e q u ip m e n t to i m p r o v e p e r ­
form a n ce; rep orts resu lts.
P l a n s o r a s s i s t s in p la n n in g t e s t s to e v a lu a t e e q u ip m e n t p e r f o r m a n c e .
D eterm in es
t e s t r e q u i r e m e n t s , e q u ip m e n t m o d i f i c a t i o n and t e s t p r o c e d u r e s ; c o n d u c t s t e s t s , a n a l y z e s
and e v a lu a t e s da ta and p r e p a r e s r e p o r t s on fin d in g s and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s .
R e v i e w s and a n a l y z e s a v a r i e t y o f e n g i n e e r i n g d a ta to d e t e r m i n e r e q u i r e m e n t s to
m e e t e n g i n e e r i n g o b j e c t i v e s ; m a y c a l c u l a t e d e s i g n data; p r e p a r e s l a y o u t s , d e t a i l e d s p e c i ­
fica tio n s, parts lis ts , e stim a te s , p r o c e d u r e s , etc.
M a y c h e c k and a n a ly z e d r a w i n g s
o r e q u ip m e n t to d e t e r m i n e a d e q u a c y o f d r a w i n g s and d e s i g n .
DRAFTSMEN
D ra ftsm a n -tra cer
C o p i e s p la n s and d r a w i n g s p r e p a r e d b y o t h e r s b y p l a c i n g t r a c i n g c l o t h o r p a p e r
o v e r d r a w i n g s and t r a c i n g w ith p e n o r p e n c i l .
( D o e s not in c lu d e t r a c i n g l i m i t e d to p la n s
p r i m a r i l y c o n s i s t i n g o f s t r a i g h t li n e s and a l a r g e s c a l e n ot r e q u i r i n g c l o s e d e l i n e a t i o n . )
a n d /o r
P r e p a r e s sim p le o r rep etitive draw ings o f e a sily v isu a liz e d it e m s .
v i s e d d u r in g p r o g r e s s .

W o r k is c l o s e l y

super­

D raftsm an I
P r e p a r e s d e t a i l d r a w i n g s o f s i n g l e units o r p a r t s f o r e n g i n e e r i n g , c o n s t r u c t i o n ,
m an u factu rin g, o r r e p a ir p u r p o s e s .
T y p e s o f d r a w i n g s p r e p a r e d in c l u d e i s o m e t r i c p r o j e c ­
tion s ( d e p ic t in g t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s in a c c u r a t e s c a l e ) and s e c t i o n a l v i e w s to c l a r i f y p o s i t i o n i n g
o f c o m p o n e n t s and c o n v e y n e e d e d i n f o r m a t i o n .
C on solid a tes details f r o m a n u m b er of s o u r c e s
and a d ju s ts o r t r a n s p o s e s s c a l e as r e q u i r e d .
D r a f t s m a n II
P e r f o r m s n o n r o u t i n e and c o m p l e x d r a ft i n g a s s i g n m e n t s that r e q u i r e the a p p l i c a t i o n
o f m o s t o f the s t a n d a r d i z e d d r a w i n g t e c h n iq u e s r e g u l a r l y u s e d . D u tie s t y p i c a l l y in v o l v e s u c h
w o rk as:
P r e p a r e s w o r k i n g d r a w i n g s o f s u b a s s e m b l i e s w ith i r r e g u l a r s h a p e s , m u l t i p l e
f u n c t i o n s , and p r e c i s e p o s i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n c o m p o n e n t s ; p r e p a r e s a r c h i t e c t u r a l
d r a w i n g s f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a b u ild in g in c l u d i n g d e t a i l d r a w i n g s o f fo u n d a t i o n s , w a l l s e c t i o n s ,
f l o o r p l a n s , and r o o f .
U s e s a c c e p t e d f o r m u l a s and m a n u a ls in m a k in g n e c e s s a r y c o m p u ­
ta tio n s to d e t e r m i n e q u a n t itie s o f m a t e r i a l s to b e u s e d , lo a d c a p a c i t i e s , s t r e n g t h s , s t r e s s e s ,
etc.
R e c e i v e s in i t ia l i n s t r u c t i o n s , r e q u i r e m e n t s , and a d v i c e f r o m s u p e r v i s o r .
C om p leted
w o r k is c h e c k e d f o r t e c h n i c a l a d e q u a c y .
D r a f t s m a n III
P l a n s the g r a p h i c p r e s e n t a t i o n o f c o m p l e x i t e m s h a v in g d i s t i n c t i v e d e s i g n f e a t u r e s
that d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m e s t a b l i s h e d d r a f t i n g p r e c e d e n t s .
W o r k s in c l o s e s u p p o r t w ith
the d e s i g n o r i g i n a t o r , and m a y r e c o m m e n d m i n o r d e s i g n c h a n g e s .
A n a l y z e s the e f f e c t o f
e a c h ch a n g e on the d e t a i l s o f f o r m , f u n c t i o n , and p o s i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f c o m p o n e n t s and
parts.
W o r k s w ith a m i n i m u m o f s u p e r v i s o r y a s s i s t a n c e .
C o m p l e t e d w o r k is r e v i e w e d b y
d e s i g n o r i g i n a t o r f o r c o n s i s t e n c y w ith p r i o r e n g i n e e r i n g d e t e r m i n a t i o n s .
M ay eith er p r e p a r e
d r a w i n g s , o r d i r e c t t h e ir p r e p a r a t i o n b y l o w e r l e v e l d r a f t s m e n .




71

CLERICAL

SUPERVISO RY

K E Y PU N C H SU PER V ISO R
S u p e r v i s e s t h r e e o r m o r e k e y p u n c h o p e r a t o r s w h o k e y p u n c h o r v e r i f y c a r d s o r ta p e f o r
c o m p u t e r o r ta b u la tin g m a c h i n e p r o c e s s i n g . M a y a l s o , a s an in c i d e n t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , s u p e r v i s e
the o p e r a t i o n o f o th e r t y p e s o f p u n ch in g m a c h i n e s su ch a s r e p r o d u c e r s o r gang p u n c h e s .
E x c l u d e d a r e : (a) P o s i t i o n s a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s u p e r v i s i n g the o p e r a t i o n o f e q u ip m e n t
s u c h a s c o m p u t e r s , ta b u la tin g m a c h i n e s , o r o t h e r k in d s o f o f f i c e m a c h i n e s ; (b) p o s i t i o n s r e s p o n ­
s i b l e f o r s u p e r v i s i n g c l e r i c a l w o r k n ot d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the k e y p u n c h fu n c t io n ; and (c) w o r k i n g
s u p e r v i s o r s , g r o u p l e a d e r s , o r o th e r o v e r s e e r s w ith m o r e l i m i t e d s u p e r v i s o r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
th an is d e s c r i b e d b e l o w .
K e y p u n c h s u p e r v i s o r y p o s i t i o n s a r e c l a s s i f i e d in f i v e l e v e l s (I th ro u g h V) on the b a s i s o f
c o m b i n a t i o n s o f t h r e e e l e m e n t s — l e v e l and k in d o f s u p e r v i s o r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , d i f f i c u l t y o f k e y ­
p u n ch w o r k s u p e r v i s e d , and n u m b e r o f e m p l o y e e s s u p e r v i s e d .
In the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e , tw o
lev els of su p erv ision
a r e d e s c r i b e d and e a c h is f o l l o w e d b y a b r i e f c h a r t that s h o w s the
l e v e l o f k e y p u n c h s u p e r v i s o r f o r e a c h c o m b i n a t i o n o f the o t h e r tw o e l e m e n t s .

L e v e l and Kind o f S u p e r v i s o r y R e s p o n s i b i l i t y
L ower

U pper

Is r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d a y - t o - d a y o p e r a t i o n s and In a d d it i o n to b e in g r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the f u n c t i o n s
f l o w o f w o r k w h e n the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the w o r k , o f the l o w e r l e v e l o f s u p e r v i s o r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ,
a s s i g n m e n t o f e m p l o y e e s to p o s i t i o n s , the j o b p la n s and e s t a b l i s h e s the o r g a n i z a t i o n and f l o w
t y p e s and l e v e l s , i n s t r u c t i o n s and p r o c e d u r e s , o f w o r k ; p la n s c h a n g e s to m e e t b o th s h o r t and
e t c . , a r e p r e s c r i b e d b y h ig h e r a u t h o r it y . W it h ­ l o n g - t e r m w o r k l o a d t r e n d s and c h a n g e s ; s e l e c t s
in th is p r e s c r i b e d f r a m e w o r k , a s s i g n s w o r k to e m p l o y e e s and a s s i g n s t h e m to p o s i t i o n s ; a s ­
in d iv i d u a l e m p l o y e e s ; i n s t r u c t s e m p l o y e e s in s ig n s and r e v i e w s w o r k o f s u b o r d i n a t e s , in i t ia t e s
s p e c i f i c t a s k s and p r o c e d u r e s ; i n s u r e s w o r k r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o r f o r m a l a c t i o n s s u c h a s r e ­
m e e t s e s t a b l i s h e d s t a n d a r d s o f q u a lit y ; c h e c k s q u e s t s f o r sta ff, j o b e v a lu a t i o n a c t i o n s , p r o ­
a t t e n d a n c e ; k e e p s p r o d u c t i o n r e c o r d s ; p r o v i d e s m o t i o n s , e tc . ; a p p r o v e s a b s e n c e s and v a c a t i o n
i n f o r m a t i o n to h i g h e r l e v e l s f o r u s e in b u d g e tin g , s c h e d u l e s ; r e c o m m e n d s d i s c i p l i n a r y a c t i o n s ; in
p la n n in g o f p e r s o n n e l c h a n g e s , a d ju s t i n g to v a r ­ s o m e p o s i t i o n s , a s s i s t s p r o g r a m m e r s , p r o j e c t
i a t io n s in the w o r k l o a d , e tc. , r e p o r t s p r o b l e m s p l a n n e r s , o r o t h e r t e c h n i c a l s p e c i a l i s t s in d e ­
to a h i g h e r l e v e l s u p e r v i s o r . ( E x c l u d e p o s i t i o n s s ig n in g c a r d la y o u t s and d e t a i l e d p u n c h in g i n ­
in w h i c h k e y p u n c h in g r a t h e r than s u p e r v i s o r y s t r u c t i o n s .
r e s p o n s i b i l i t y is the m o s t s ig n i f ic a n t f u n c t io n . )
N um ber of
em ployees
su p ervised

D ifficu lty of keypunch w o rk
su p erv ised
L e s s d if f ic u lt 1 M o re d ifficu lt 2
L e v e l of keypunch s u p e rv iso r

3 -1 5
20-40
50 o r m o r e

I
II
III

II
III
IV

D ifficu lty o f keypunch w o r k
su p ervised
L e s s d ifficu lt 1
M ore d ifficu lt 2
L e v e l of keypunch s u p e rv iso r
II
III
IV

III
IV
V

1 Less d iffic u lt keypu nch work - W ork is routine and r e p e titiv e .
Under clo se supervision or fo llo w in g s p e c ific procedures or
instructions, works from various standardized source docum ents w h ich have b e e n co d e d , fo llo w s s p e c ifie d procedures w h ich have b e e n
prescribed in d eta il and require little or no se le c tin g , co d in g , or interpreting o f data to b e re co rd e d .
R efers to supervisor problem s
arising from erroneous item s or cod es or m issing inform a tion .
(This l e v e l is the sam e as the BLS Class B K eypunch O p e r a to r.)
2 M ore d iffic u lt keypunch w ork - W ork requires the a p p lica tio n o f e x p e rie n ce and ju d gm en t in se le ctin g procedures to b e f o l ­
lo w e d and in searching fo r, interpreting, s e le c tin g , or cod in g item s to b e keypu nch ed from a v a rie ty o f d ocu m en ts.
On o c c a s io n
m ay also perform som e routine keypu nch w ork.
M ay train in ex p e rie n ce d k eypu nch operators.
(T his le v e l is th e sam e as the BLS
Class A Keypunch O p e r a to r.)
NOTE: If the keypunch a ctiv ities in clu d e both "m o r e d iffic u lt" and "less d iffic u lt" w ork, cla ss ific a tio n should be o n the basis o f
the m ore d iffic u lt w ork p rov id ed that a sig n ifica n t p roportion o f the keypu nch operators work at this le v e l.
The num ber o f keypu nch
operators perform ing m ore d iffic u lt work is con sid ered sig n ifica n t w hen at least 25 p ercen t o f the operators work at this l e v e l , p rovided
there are at least tw o such operators in units w ith a total o f 3 or 4 e m p lo y e e s, 3 such operators in units w ith a to ta l o f 5 to 12
e m p lo y e e s, and 4 such operators in units w ith a total o f 13 or m ore operators.




72

C LE RICA L

CLERK,

A C C O U N T IN G

C lerk ,

A ccounting I

U n d e r s u p e r v i s i o n , p e r f o r m s o n e o r m o r e r o u t in e a c c o u n t in g o p e r a t i o n s s u c h as
p o s t i n g s i m p l e j o u r n a l v o u c h e r s o r a c c o u n t s p a y a b le v o u c h e r s , e n t e r in g v o u c h e r s in v o u c h e r
r e g i s t e r s ; r e c o n c i l i n g b a n k a c c o u n t s ; and p o s t i n g s u b s i d i a r y l e d g e r s c o n t r o l l e d b y g e n e r a l
l e d g e r s , o r p o s t i n g s i m p l e c o s t a c c o u n t in g da ta .
T h i s j o b d o e s n o t r e q u i r e a k n o w le d g e o f
a c c o u n t in g and b o o k k e e p i n g p r i n c i p l e s , but is fou n d in o f f i c e s in w h i c h the m o r e r o u t in e a c ­
cou n tin g w o r k is s u b d iv id e d o n a fu n c t io n a l b a s i s a m o n g s e v e r a l w o r k e r s .
C lerk ,

A c c o u n t i n g II

U n d er g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n o f a b o o k k e e p e r o r a c c o u n t a n t , has r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r k e e p in g
o n e o r m o r e s e c t i o n s o f a c o m p l e t e s e t o f b o o k s o r r e c o r d s r e la t in g to o n e p h a s e o f an
e s t a b l i s h m e n t ' s b u s i n e s s t r a n s a c t i o n s . W o r k i n v o l v e s p o s t i n g and b a la n c in g s u b s i d i a r y l e d g e r
o r l e d g e r s s u c h as a c c o u n t s r e c e i v a b l e o r a c c o u n t s p a y a b le ; e x a m i n i n g and c o d i n g i n v o i c e s
o r v o u c h e r s w ith p r o p e r a c c o u n t i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n ; r e q u i r e s j u d g m e n t and e x p e r i e n c e in m a k in g
p r o p e r a s s i g n a t i o n s and a l l o c a t i o n s . M a y a s s i s t in p r e p a r i n g , a d ju s t i n g , and c l o s i n g j o u r n a l
e n t r i e s ; m a y d i r e c t a c c o u n t in g c l e r k s I.
\

CLERK,

FIL E

C lerk ,

F ile I

P e r f o r m s r o u t in e fi lin g o f m a t e r i a l that h as a l r e a d y b e e n c l a s s i f i e d o r w h i c h is
e a s i l y c l a s s i f i e d in a s i m p l e s e r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m ( e . g . , a l p h a b e t i c a l , c h r o n o l o g i c a l ,
or n u m erica l).
A s r e q u e s t e d , l o c a t e s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l in f i l e s and f o r w a r d s m a ­
t e r i a l ; m a y f i l l o u t w i t h d r a w a l c h a r g e . P e r f o r m s s i m p l e c l e r i c a l and m a n u a l ta s k s r e q u i r e d
to m a i n t a i n and s e r v i c e f i l e s .
C lerk ,

F i l e II

S o r t s , c o d e s , and f i l e s u n c l a s s i f i e d m a t e r i a l b y s i m p l e ( s u b j e c t m a t t e r ) h e a d in g s
o r partly
c la s s if i e d m a t e r ia l by fin e r subheadings.
P r e p a r e s s i m p l e r e l a t e d in d e x
and
c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e a i d s . As r e q u e s t e d , l o c a t e s c l e a r l y i d e n t i f ie d m a t e r i a l in f i l e s and f o r w a r d s
m a teria l.
M a y p e r f o r m r e l a t e d c l e r i c a l t a s k s r e q u i r e d to m a i n t a in
and s e r v i c e f i l e s .
C lerk ,

F i l e III

In an e s t a b l i s h e d fi lin g s y s t e m c o n t a in i n g a n u m b e r o f v a r i e d s u b j e c t m a t t e r f i l e s ,
c l a s s i f i e s and in d e x e s f i l e m a t e r i a l s u c h as c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , r e p o r t s , t e c h n i c a l d o c u m e n t s ,
etc.
M a y a l s o f i le this m a t e r i a l .
May keep r e c o r d s
o f v a r i o u s ty p e s in c o n j u n c t i o n w ith
the f i l e s .
M a y le a d a s m a l l g r o u p o f l o w e r l e v e l f i le
cle rk s.

KEYPUNCH O P E R A T O R

K e y p u n ch O p e r a t o r I
U nder c lo s e s u p e r v is io n o r follow in g s p e c if ic p r o c e d u r e s o r in s tr u c tio n s , t r a n s c r ib e s
d ata f r o m s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s to p u n ch e d c a r d s .
O p era tes a n u m e r ic a l a n d /o r a lp h a b etica l o r
c o m b i n a t i o n k e y p u n c h m a c h i n e to k e y p u n c h ta b u la tin g c a r d s .
M ay v erify ca rd s.
W o r k in g
fr o m v a rio u s sta n d a rd ize d s o u r c e d o c u m e n ts , fo llo w s s p e c ifie d se q u e n ce s w h ich have b e e n
c o d e d o r p r e s c r i b e d in d e t a i l and r e q u i r e little o r no s e l e c t i n g , c o d i n g , o r i n t e r p r e t i n g o f
data to be p u n c h e d . P r o b l e m s a r i s i n g f r o m e r r o n e o u s i t e m s o r c o d e s , m i s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ,
e t c . , a r e r e f e r r e d to s u p e r v i s o r .




73

K E Y P U N C H O P E R A T O R — C o n t in u e d

K e y p u n c h O p e r a t o r II
O p e r a t e s a n u m e r i c a l a n d / o r a l p h a b e t i c a l o r c o m b i n a t i o n k e y p u n c h m a c h i n e to t r a n ­
s c r i b e da ta f r o m v a r i o u s s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s to k e y p u n c h ta b u la tin g c a r d s .
P e r fo r m s sam e
ta s k s as l o w e r l e v e l k e y p u n c h o p e r a t o r b u t in a d d it i o n , w o r k r e q u i r e s a p p l i c a t i o n o f c o d i n g
s k i l l s and the m a k in g o f s o m e d e t e r m i n a t i o n s , f o r e x a m p l e , l o c a t e s o n the s o u r c e d o c u m e n t
the i t e m s to b e p u n c h e d ; e x t r a c t s i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m s e v e r a l d o c u m e n t s ; s e a r c h e s f o r and
i n t e r p r e t s i n f o r m a t i o n o n the d o c u m e n t to d e t e r m i n e i n f o r m a t i o n to b e p u n c h e d .
M a y train
in e x p e rie n ce d o p e r a to r s .

O F F IC E BOY OR GIRL
P e r f o r m s v a r i o u s r o u t in e d u tie s s u c h as ru n n in g e r r a n d s ; o p e r a t i n g m i n o r o f f i c e
m a c h i n e s , s u c h as s e a l e r s o r m a i l e r s ; o p e n in g and d i s t r i b u t i n g m a i l ; and o t h e r m i n o r
cle rica l w ork.

SECRETARY
A s s i g n e d a s p e r s o n a l s e c r e t a r y , n o r m a l l y to on e in d iv i d u a l .
M a in t a i n s a c l o s e and
h ig h ly r e s p o n s i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p to the d a y - t o - d a y w o r k a c t i v i t i e s o f the s u p e r v i s o r .
W orks
f a i r l y in d e p e n d e n t l y r e c e i v i n g a m i n i m u m o f d e t a i le d s u p e r v i s i o n and g u i d a n c e .
P erform s
v a r i e d c l e r i c a l and s e c r e t a r i a l d u t i e s , u s u a l l y in c lu d in g m o s t o f the f o l l o w i n g :
(a )
R e c e i v e s te l e p h o n e c a l l s , p e r s o n a l c a l l e r s , and i n c o m i n g m a i l , a n s w e r s r o u t in e
i n q u i r i e s , and r o u t e s the t e c h n i c a l i n q u i r i e s to the p r o p e r p e r s o n s ;
(b )
E s t a b l i s h e s , m a i n t a i n s , and r e v i s e s the s u p e r v i s o r ' s f i l e s ;
( c ) M a in t a i n s the s u p e r v i s o r ' s c a l e n d a r and m a k e s a p p o in t m e n t s as i n s t r u c t e d ;
(d )
R e l a y s m e s s a g e s f r o m s u p e r v i s o r to s u b o r d i n a t e s ;
(e ) R e v i e w s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , m e m o r a n d a , and r e p o r t s p r e p a r e d b y o t h e r s f o r the
s u p e r v i s o r ' s s ig n a t u r e to a s s u r e p r o c e d u r a l and t y p o g r a p h i c a c c u r a c y ;
(f)
P e r f o r m s s t e n o g r a p h i c and typing w o r k .
M a y a l s o p e r f o r m o t h e r c l e r i c a l and s e c r e t a r i a l t a s k s o f c o m p a r a b l e n a tu re and
d ifficu lty .
T he w o r k t y p i c a l l y r e q u i r e s k n o w le d g e o f o f f i c e r o u t in e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the
o r g a n i z a t i o n , p r o g r a m s , and p r o c e d u r e s r e l a t e d to the w o r k o f the s u p e r v i s o r .
E xclu sion s
Not a ll p o s i t i o n s that a r e t itle d " s e c r e t a r y " p o s s e s s the a b o v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .
E x a m p l e s o f p o s i t i o n s w h i c h a r e e x c l u d e d f r o m the d e f i n i t i o n a r e as f o l l o w s :
(a )
P o s i t i o n s w h i c h do n o t m e e t the " p e r s o n a l " s e c r e t a r y c o n c e p t d e s c r i b e d a b o v e ;
(b )
S t e n o g r a p h e r s not fu ll y t r a i n e d in s e c r e t a r i a l type d u t ie s ;
(c)
S t e n o g r a p h e r s s e r v i n g as o f f i c e a s s i s t a n t s to a g r o u p o f p r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l ,
o r m a n a g eria l p e rs o n s ;
(d)
S e c r e t a r y p o s i t i o n s in w h i c h the d u tie s a r e e it h e r s u b s t a n t ia l ly m o r e r o u t in e o r
s u b s t a n t ia l ly m o r e c o m p l e x and r e s p o n s i b l e than th o s e c h a r a c t e r i z e d in the d e f i n i t io n ;
(e)
A s s i s t a n t type p o s i t i o n s w h i c h in v o l v e m o r e d i f f i c u l t o r m o r e r e s p o n s i b l e t e c h ­
n i c a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , s u p e r v i s o r y , o r s p e c i a l i z e d c l e r i c a l d u tie s w h i c h a r e n o t t y p i c a l
of secreta ria l work.
NOTE:
T h e t e r m " c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r , " u s e d in the l e v e l d e f i n i t i o n s f o l l o w i n g , r e f e r s
to t h o s e o f f i c i a l s w h o h a v e a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r p o r a t e - w i d e p o l i c y m a k i n g r o l e w ith r e g a r d to
m a jo r com p an y a ctiv ities.
T h e title " v i c e p r e s i d e n t , " thou gh n o r m a l l y i n d i c a t i v e o f th is
r o l e , d o e s n o t in a l l c a s e s i d e n t i f y s u c h p o s i t i o n s .
V ice p resid en ts w h ose p r im a r y r e s p o n ­
s i b i l i t y is to a c t p e r s o n a l l y o n in d iv i d u a l c a s e s o r t r a n s a c t i o n s ( e . g . , a p p r o v e o r d e n y i n d i ­
v id u a l lo a n o r c r e d i t a c t i o n s ; a d m i n i s t e r in d iv i d u a l t r u s t a c c o u n t s ; d i r e c t l y s u p e r v i s e a c l e r i ­
c a l sta ff) a r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d to b e " c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r s " f o r p u r p o s e s o f a p p ly in g the f o l l o w i n g
le v e l d efin ition s:




74

S E C R E T A R Y — C o n t in u e d

S ecretary I

(a )
S e c r e t a r y to the s u p e r v i s o r o r h e a d o f a s m a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u nit ( e . g. , f e w e r
than a b o u t 25 o r 30 p e r s o n s ) ; o r

(b )
S e c r e t a r y to a n o n s u p e r v i s o r y s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t , p r o f e s s i o n a l e m p l o y e e , a d m i n i s ­
t r a t iv e o f f i c e r , o r a s s i s t a n t , s k i l l e d t e c h n i c i a n o r e x p e r t .
(N O T E :
Many com p a n ies a ssign
s t e n o g r a p h e r s , r a t h e r than s e c r e t a r i e s as d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , to th is l e v e l o f s u p e r v i s o r y o r
n o n su p erv isory w o r k e r .)

S e c r e t a r y II

(a )
S e c r e t a r y to an e x e c u t i v e o r m a n a g e r i a l p e r s o n w h o s e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y is not
e q u iv a le n t to o n e o f the s p e c i f i c l e v e l s it u a t io n s in the d e f i n i t i o n f o r l e v e l III, b u t w h o s e s u b ­
o r d i n a t e s t a f f n o r m a l l y n u m b e r s at l e a s t s e v e r a l d o z e n e m p l o y e e s and is u s u a l l y d i v i d e d into
o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e g m e n t s w h i c h a r e o f t e n , in t u r n , f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d .
In s o m e c o m p a n i e s ,
th is l e v e l in c l u d e s a w i d e r a n g e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e c h e l o n s ; in o t h e r s , o n ly o n e o r tw o ; o r
(b )
S e c r e t a r y to the h e a d o f an in d iv i d u a l p la n t, f a c t o r y , e t c . , ( o r o t h e r e q u iv a le n t
l e v e l o f o f f i c i a l ) that e m p l o y s , in a l l , f e w e r than 5, 000 p e r s o n s .

S e c r e t a r y III

in a l l ,

(a)
S e c r e t a r y to the c h a i r m a n o f the b o a r d o r p r e s i d e n t o f a c o m p a n y that e m p l o y s ,
f e w e r than 100 p e r s o n s ; o r

(b )
S e c r e t a r y to a c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r ( o t h e r than c h a i r m a n o f the b o a r d o r p r e s i d e n t )
o f a c o m p a n y that e m p l o y s , in a l l , o v e r 100 but f e w e r than 5 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n s ; o r
(c ) S e c r e t a r y to the h e a d ( i m m e d i a t e l y b e l o w the o f f i c e r le v e l ) o v e r e i t h e r a m a j o r
c o r p o r a t e - w i d e , fu n c t i o n a l a c t i v i t y ( e . g . , m a r k e t i n g , r e s e a r c h , o p e r a t i o n s , i n d u s t r i a l r e l a ­
t io n s , e t c . ) or~ a m a j o r g e o g r a p h i c o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e g m e n t ( e . g . , a r e g i o n a l h e a d q u a r t e r s ;
a m a j o r d i v i s i o n ) o f a c o m p a n y that e m p l o y s , in a l l , o v e r 5 , 0 0 0 b u t f e w e r than 2 5 , 0 0 0
em p loyees; or
(d )
S e c r e t a r y to the h e a d o f an in d iv i d u a l p la n t , f a c t o r y ,
l e v e l o f o f f i c i a l ) that e m p l o y s , in a l l , o v e r 5 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n s ; o r

etc.

( o r o t h e r e q u iv a le n t

(e)
S e c r e t a r y to the h e a d o f a l a r g e and i m p o r t a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e g m e n t ( e . g . ,
a m i d d l e m a n a g e m e n t s u p e r v i s o r o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e g m e n t o f t e n in v o lv i n g as m a n y as
s e v e r a l h u n d r e d p e r s o n s ) o f a c o m p a n y th at e m p l o y s , in a l l , o v e r 2 5 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n s .

S e c r e t a r y IV

in a l l ,

dent)

m ajor

(a)
over

of

S e c r e t a r y to the c h a i r m a n o f the b o a r d o r p r e s i d e n t o f a c o m p a n y that e m p l o y s ,
100 b u t f e w e r than 5 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n s ; o r

(b)
S e c r e t a r y to a c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r ( o t h e r than the c h a i r m a n o f the b o a r d o r p r e s i ­
a c o m p a n y that e m p l o y s , in a l l , o v e r 5, 000 but f e w e r than 25, 000 p e r s o n s ; o r

(c)
S e c r e t a r y to the h e a d , i m m e d i a t e l y b e l o w the c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r l e v e l , o f a
s e g m e n t o r s u b s i d i a r y o f a c o m p a n y that e m p l o y s , in a l l , o v e r 2 5 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n s .




75

STENOGRAPHER,

GENERAL

P r i m a r y duty is to take and t r a n s c r i b e d i c t a t i o n f r o m on e o r m o r e p e r s o n s e i t h e r
in s h o r th a n d o r b y S te n o ty p e o r s i m i l a r m a c h i n e , in v o lv i n g a n o r m a l r o u tin e v o c a b u l a r y .
M a y a l s o ty p e f r o m w r i t t e n c o p y .
M a y m a i n t a in f i l e s , k e e p s i m p l e r e c o r d s o r p e r f o r m o t h e r
r e l a t i v e l y r o u t in e c l e r i c a l t a s k s .
M ay op erate fr o m a sten ograp h ic p ool.
D o e s n o t in c l u d e
tra n scrib in g -m a ch in e w ork .

STENOGRAPHER,

S EN IO R

P r i m a r y duty is to take and t r a n s c r i b e d i c t a t i o n f r o m o n e o r m o r e p e r s o n s e it h e r
in s h o r t h a n d o r b y S te n oty p e o r s i m i l a r m a c h i n e , i n v o lv i n g a v a r i e d t e c h n i c a l o r s p e c i a l i z e d
v o c a b u l a r y s u c h as in l e g a l b r i e f s o r r e p o r t s o n s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h .
M a y a l s o type f r o m
w ritten cop y.
M a y a l s o s e t up and m a i n t a in f i l e s , k e e p r e c o r d s , e t c .

OR

P e r f o r m s s t e n o g r a p h i c d u tie s r e q u i r i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r in d e p e n d e n c e and r e ­
s p o n s i b i l i t y th an s t e n o g r a p h e r , g e n e r a l as e v i d e n c e d b y the f o l l o w i n g :
W o r k r e q u i r e s h igh
d e g r e e o f s t e n o g r a p h i c s p e e d and a c c u r a c y ; a t h o r o u g h w o r k i n g k n o w le d g e o f g e n e r a l b u s i n e s s
and o f f i c e p r o c e d u r e and o f the s p e c i f i c b u s i n e s s o p e r a t i o n s , o r g a n i z a t i o n , p o l i c i e s , p r o ­
ce d u r e s , file s , w o rk flo w , etc.
U s e s th is k n o w le d g e in p e r f o r m i n g s t e n o g r a p h i c d u tie s and
r e s p o n s i b l e c l e r i c a l t a s k s s u c h as m a i n t a in in g f o l l o w u p f i l e s ; a s s e m b l i n g m a t e r i a l f o r r e ­
p o r t s , m e m o r a n d u m s , and l e t t e r s ; c o m p o s i n g s i m p l e l e t t e r s f r o m g e n e r a l i n s t r u c t i o n s ;
r e a d i n g and r o u t in g i n c o m i n g m a i l ; a n s w e r i n g r o u tin e q u e s t i o n s , e t c .
D o e s n ot in c l u d e
tra n scrib in g -m a ch in e w ork .

NOTE:
T h i s j o b is d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m that o f a s e c r e t a r y in that the s e c r e t a r y
n o r m a l l y w o r k s in a c o n f i d e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p to o n ly on e m a n a g e r o r e x e c u t i v e and p e r f o r m s
m o r e r e s p o n s i b l e and d i s c r e t i o n a r y t a s k s as d e s c r i b e d in that j o b d e fi n i t io n .

S W ITCH B O A R D O P E R A T O R

Sw itch board O p era tor I

O p e r a t e s a s i n g l e - o r m u l t i p l e - p o s i t i o n t e l e p h o n e s w i t c h b o a r d h a n d lin g i n c o m i n g ,
o u t g o i n g , in t r a p l a n t o r o f f i c e c a l l s .
M a y h a nd le r o u t in e lon g d i s t a n c e c a l l s and r e c o r d t o l l s .
M ay p e r f o r m lim ite d telephone in fo rm a tio n s e r v i c e .
( " L i m i t e d " telephone in fo rm a tio n s e r v ­
i c e o c c u r s i f the fu n c t io n s o f the e s t a b l i s h m e n t s e r v i c e d a r e r e a d i l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e f o r
te l e p h o n e i n f o r m a t i o n p u r p o s e s , o r i f the r e q u e s t s a r e r o u t i n e , e . g . , g iv in g e x t e n s i o n n u m b e r s
w h e n s p e c i f i c n a m e s a r e f u r n i s h e d , o r i f c o m p l e x c a l l s a r e r e f e r r e d to a n o th e r o p e r a t o r . )

S w i t c h b o a r d O p e r a t o r II

O p e r a t e s a s i n g l e - o r m u l t i p l e - p o s i t i o n t e l e p h o n e s w i t c h b o a r d h a nd lin g i n c o m i n g ,
o u t g o i n g , in t r a p l a n t o r o f f i c e c a l l s .
P e r f o r m s fu ll t e l e p h o n e i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e o r h a n d le s
c o m p l e x c a l l s , s u c h as c o n f e r e n c e , c o l l e c t , o v e r s e a s , o r s i m i l a r c a l l s , e i t h e r in a d d itio n
to d o in g r o u t in e w o r k as d e s c r i b e d f o r s w i t c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r I, o r as a f u l l - t i m e a s s i g n ­
m ent.
( " F u l l " te l e p h o n e i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e o c c u r s w h e n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t h as v a r i e d f u n c ­
tio n s that a r e r ^ t r e a d i l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e f o r t e l e p h o n e i n f o r m a t i o n p u r p o s e s , e . g . , b e c a u s e
o f o v e r l a p p i n g o r i n t e r r e l a t e d f u n c t i o n s , and c o n s e q u e n t l y p r e s e n t f r e q u e n t p r o b l e m s as to
w h ich exten sion s are a p p rop ria te fo r c a lls .)




76

T A B U L A T IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R

T a b u la tin g -M a ch in e O p e ra to r I
O p e r a t e s s i m p l e ta b u la tin g o r e l e c t r i c a l a c c o u n t in g m a c h i n e s , s u c h as the s o r t e r ,
r e p r o d u c i n g p u n c h , c o l l a t o r , e t c . , w ith s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s .
M a y in c l u d e the p e r f o r m a n c e
o f s o m e s i m p l e w i r i n g f r o m d i a g r a m s and s o m e fi l i n g w o r k .
The w o r k ty p ica lly in v olv es
p o r t i o n s o f a w o r k u n it, f o r e x a m p l e , in d iv id u a l s o r t i n g o r c o l l a t i n g r u n s , o r r e p e t i t i v e
op eration s.

T a b u l a t i n g - M a c h i n e O p e r a t o r II

O p e r a t e s m o r e d i f f i c u l t ta b u la tin g o r e l e c t r i c a l a c c o u n t in g m a c h i n e s , s u c h as the
t a b u la t o r and c a l c u l a t o r , in a d d itio n to the s o r t e r , r e p r o d u c e r , and c o l l a t o r .
T h i s w o r k is
p e r f o r m e d u n d e r s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s and m a y in c l u d e the p e r f o r m a n c e o f s o m e w i r i n g f r o m
d ia g ra m s.
T h e w o r k t y p i c a l l y i n v o l v e s , f o r e x a m p l e , t a b u la t io n s in v o lv i n g a r e p e t i t i v e a c ­
co u n tin g e x e r c i s e , a c o m p l e t e but s m a l l tabu latin g s tu d y , o r p a r t s o f a l o n g e r and m o r e
com p lex rep ort.
Su ch r e p o r t s and s tu d ie s a r e u s u a l l y o f a r e c u r r i n g n a tu re w h e r e the p r o ­
c e d u re s are w e ll esta b lish ed .
M a y a l s o i n c l u d e the t r a in in g o f n ew e m p l o y e e s in the b a s i c
o p e r a t i o n o f the m a c h i n e .

T a b u l a t i n g - M a c h i n e O p e r a t o r III

O p e r a t e s a v a r i e t y o f ta b u la tin g o r e l e c t r i c a l a c c o u n t in g m a c h i n e s , t y p i c a l l y i n ­
c lu d in g s u c h m a c h i n e s as the t a b u l a t o r , c a l c u l a t o r , i n t e r p r e t e r , c o l l a t o r , and o t h e r s .
P er­
f o r m s c o m p l e t e r e p o r t i n g a s s i g n m e n t s w ith o u t c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n , and p e r f o r m s d i f f i c u l t
w i r i n g as r e q u i r e d .
T h e c o m p l e t e r e p o r t i n g and tabu latin g a s s i g n m e n t s t y p i c a l l y in v o l v e a
v a r i e t y o f lon g and c o m p l e x r e p o r t s w h i c h o f t e n a r e o f i r r e g u l a r o r n o n r e c u r r i n g type r e ­
q u ir i n g s o m e p la n n in g and s e q u e n c i n g o f s t e p s to b e ta k en .
As a m o r e exp erien ced op era tor,
is t y p i c a l l y i n v o l v e d in tr a in in g new o p e r a t o r s in m a c h i n e o p e r a t i o n s , o r p a r t i a l l y t r a i n e d
o p e r a t o r s in w i r i n g f r o m d i a g r a m s and o p e r a t i n g s e q u e n c e s o f lon g and c o m p l e x r e p o r t s .
D o e s n ot in c l u d e w o r k i n g s u p e r v i s o r s p e r f o r m i n g t a b u l a t i n g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t i o n s and d a y - t o d ay s u p e r v i s i o n o f the w o r k and p r o d u c t i o n o f a g r o u p o f t a b u l a t i n g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s .

TYPIST

U s e s a t y p e w r i t e r to m a k e c o p i e s o f v a r i o u s m a t e r i a l s o r to m a k e o u t b i l l s a f t e r
c a l c u l a t i o n s h a v e b e e n m a d e b y a n o th e r p e r s o n .
M a y in c l u d e ty p in g o f s t e n c i l s , m a t s , o r
s i m i l a r m a t e r i a l s f o r u s e in d u p l ic a t in g p r o c e s s e s .
M a y do c l e r i c a l w o r k i n v o lv i n g little
s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g , s u c h as k e e p in g s i m p l e r e c o r d s , filin g r e c o r d s and r e p o r t s , o r s o r t i n g
and d is t r ib u t in g i n c o m i n g m a i l .

T y p ist I
P e r f o r m s on e o r m o r e o f the f o l l o w i n g : C o p y ty p in g f r o m r o u g h o r c l e a r d r a f t s ;
r o u tin e ty p in g o f f o r m s , i n s u r a n c e p o l i c i e s , e t c . ; se tt in g up s i m p l e s ta n d a r d t a b u l a t i o n s ,
o r c o p y i n g m o r e c o m p l e x t a b le s a l r e a d y s e t up and s p a c e d p r o p e r l y .

T y p i s t II
P e r f o r m s on e o r m o r e o f the f o l l o w i n g :
T y p in g m a t e r i a l in fi n a l f o r m w h e n it i n ­
v olv es com binin g m a t e r ia l fr o m s e v e r a l s o u r c e s o r r e s p o n s ib ilit y fo r c o r r e c t sp e llin g , s y l ­
l a b i c a t i o n , p u n c t u a t io n , e t c . , o f t e c h n i c a l o r u n u s u a l w o r d s o r f o r e i g n la n g u a g e m a t e r i a l ;
p lanning la y o u t and typing o f c o m p l i c a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l ta b l e s to m a i n t a in u n i f o r m i t y and b a l a n c e
in s p a c i n g .
M a y type r o u tin e f o r m l e t t e r s , v a r y i n g d e t a i l s to su it c i r c u m s t a n c e s .




77

N O T E : T h e d e f i n i t i o n s f o r th e d r a ft i n g a n d c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s sh o w n in t h is b u l l e t i n
a r e th e s a m e a s t h o s e u s e d in th e B u r e a u ' s p r o g r a m o f o c c u p a t i o n a l w a g e s u r v e y s in m e t r o ­
p o li t a n a r e a s .
(S ee th e l i s t o f a r e a s in th e o r d e r f o r m at th e b a c k o f t h is b u l l e t i n . )
The
l e v e l d e s i g n a t i o n s u s e d in t h i s b u l l e t i n , h o w e v e r , d i f f e r f r o m t h o s e u s e d in th e a r e a b u l l e t i n s .
T h e e q u iv a le n t l e v e l d e s i g n a t i o n s f o r th e o c c u p a t i o n s c o n c e r n e d a r e a s f o l l o w s :

N a t io n a l S u r v e y o f
P ro fe ssio n a l, A d m in is t r a t i v e , T e c h n i c a l , and
C le rica l Pay

O ccu pational
W a g e S u r v e y s in
M etrop olita n
A reas

I
II
III

C
B
A

I
II

B
A

I
II
III

C
B
A

K e y p u n c h o p e r a t o r ________ _______

I
II

B
A

S e c r e t a r y ___________________ _______

I
II
III
IY

D
C
B
A

S w i t c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r _____ _______

I
II

B
A

I
II
III

C
B
A

I
II

B
A

Occupation
D r a f t s m a n _________________ _______

C lerk ,

a c c o u n t i n g ________ _______

C l e r k , f i l e ________

_______ _______

T a b u la tin g -m a ch in e
o p e r a t o r ___ _____ __________ _______

T y p i s t _______________________ _______




78

A ppen dix

D.

Com parison o f A verage A nnual Salaries in Private

Industry, June 1970, w ith Corresponding Salary Rates for
Federal Em ployees U nder T h e General Schedule

T h e s u r v e y w a s d e s i g n e d , a m o n g o t h e r u s e s , to p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r c o m p a r i n g F e d e r a l
s a l a r i e s u n d e r the G e n e r a l S c h e d u l e w ith g e n e r a l p a y l e v e l s in p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y . T o a s s u r e
c o m p i l a t i o n o f p a y data f o r w o r k l e v e l s that w o u l d b e e q u iv a le n t to the F e d e r a l g r a d e s , the
C i v i l S e r v i c e C o m m i s s i o n c o l l a b o r a t e d w ith the B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s to p r e p a r e the
o c c u p a t i o n w o r k l e v e l d e f i n i t i o n s u s e d in the s u r v e y . D e f in it io n s w e r e g r a d e d b y the C o m ­
m i s s i o n a c c o r d i n g to s t a n d a r d s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r e a c h g r a d e . E a c h o c c u p a t i o n w o r k l e v e l
s u r v e y e d b y the B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s and c u r r e n t l y c o n s i d e r e d b y the C o m m i s s i o n to
b e e q u iv a le n t to a G e n e r a l S c h e d u l e g r a d e is i d e n t i f i e d in the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e .




79

Comparison o f average annual salaries in private industry,1 June 1970, with salary rates for Federal employees
under the General Schedule2
S a la ry r a t e s fo r F e d e r a l e m p lo y e e s u n d er the G e n e r a l S ch ed u le

A v era g e
O c c u p a tio n and c l a s s
su rveyed by B L S 3

C le r k s , f i l e I --------------------------------------O ffic e b o y s o r g i r l s --------------------------

P e r annum r a t e s and s te p s 6

s a la r i e s
in p r iv a t e
in d u s tr y 4

$ 4 , 119
4, 548

i

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

10

GS 1

$ 4 , 125

$ 4 , 262

$ 4 , 399

$ 4 , 536

$ 4 , 673

$ 4 , 8 10

$ 4 , 947

$ 5 , 084

$ 5 , 221

$ 5 , 358

C le r k s , f i l e I I -----------------------------------K ey p u n ch o p e r a t o r s I -----------------------S w itc h b o a rd o p e r a t o r s I ------------------T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s I ---T y p is t s I -----------------------------------------------

4,
5,
5,
5,
4,

571
114
109
531
717

GS 2

4, 621

4, 775

4, 929

5, 083

5, 237

5, 391

5, 545

5, 699

5, 853

6, 007

C le r k s , a c c o u n tin g I ------------------------C le r k s , f i l e H I -----------------------------------D r a f t s m e n - t r a c e r s ----------------------------E n g in e e r in g te c h n ic ia n s I ----------------K ey p u n ch o p e r a t o r s I I -----------------------K eyp u n ch s u p e r v is o r s I ------------------S t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l --------------------S w itc h b o a rd o p e r a t o r s I I -----------------T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s II —
T y p is t s I I ---------------------------------------------

5,
5,
5,
6,
5,
6,
5,
6,
6,
5,

268
508
675
298
820
883
478
010
462
471

GS 3

5, 212

5, 386

5, 560

5, 734

5, 908

6, 082

6, 256

6, 430

6, 604

6, 778

C le r k s , a c c o u n tin g I I -----------------------D r a ft s m e n I ----------------------------------------E n g in e e r in g te c h n ic ia n s I I --------------K ey p u n ch s u p e r v is o r s I I -----------------S e c r e t a r ie s I ---------------------------------------S t e n o g r a p h e r s , s e n io r ---------------------T a b u la t in g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s III —

6,
6,
7,
7,
6,
6,
7,

815
805
520
763
259
247
813

GS 4

5, 853

6, 048

6, 243

6, 438

6, 633

6, 828

7, 023

7, 218

7, 413

7, 608

8,
8,
8,
9,
8,
10,
8,
8,
8,
6,

503
894
512
164
364
209
541
938
297
979

GS 5

6, 548

6, 766

6, 9 84

7, 202

7, 420

7, 638

7, 856

8, 074

8 292
,

8, 510

9, 894
7, 506

GS 6

7, 294

7, 537

7, 780

8, 023

8, 266

8, 509

8, 752

8, 995

9, 238

9, 481

GS 7

8, 098

8, 368

8, 638

8, 908

9, 178

9, 448

9, 718

9, 988

10, 258

10, 528

A ccou n ta n ts I

-------------------------------------

C h e m is t s I ------------------------------------------D r a ft s m e n I I ---------------------------------------E n g in e e r s I ------------------------------------------E n g in e e r in g te c h n ic ia n s I I I -------------J ob a n a ly s t s I ------------------------------------K ey p u n ch s u p e r v is o r s I I I ----------------S e c r e t a r ie s I I ------------------------------------K ey p u n ch s u p e r v is o r s I V -----------------S e c r e t a r ie s I I I ------------------------------------A c c o u n t a n t s I I ------------------------------------A u d it o r s I I ------------------------------------------B u y e r s I I --------------------------------------------C h e m is t s I I ----------------------------------------D r a ft s m e n III ------------------------------------E n g in e e r s II ---------------------------------------E n g in e e r in g te c h n ic ia n s IV ------------J ob a n a ly s t s I I ------------------------------------

9,
9,
9,
10,
10,
11,
9,
9,

609
955
759
233
204
077
837
571

GS 8

8, 956

9, 255

9, 554

9, 853

10, 152

10, 451

10, 750

11, 049

11, 348

11, 647

A c c o u n t a n t s I I I -----------------------------------A t t o r n e y s I -----------------------------------------A u d it o r s I I I ----------------------------------------B u y e r s I I I -------------------------------------------C h e m is t s I I I ---------------------------------------E n g in e e r s I I I -------------------------------------E n g in e e r in g t e c h n ic ia n s V -------------J ob a n a ly s t s I I I ----------------------------------

10,
11,
11,
11,
11,
12,
11,
11,

686
859
475
665
737
350
043
183

GS 9

9, 881

10, 210

10, 539

10, 868

11, 197

11, 526

11, 855

12, 184

12, 513

12, 842

A c c o u n t a n t s I V -----------------------------------A t t o r n e y s II ---------------------------------------A u d it o r s I V ----------------------------------------B u y e r s IV -------------------------------------------C h e m is t s I V ----------------------------------------C h ie f a c c o u n ta n ts I --------------------------D i r e c t o r s o f p e r s o n n e l I -----------------E n g in e e r s I V ---------------------------------------J ob a n a ly s t s I V ------------------------------------

12,
13,
14,
13,
14,
13,
12,
14,
13,

755
585
044
895
218
917
593
695
035

GS 11

11, 905

12, 302

12, 699

13, 096

13, 493

13, 8 90

14, 287

14, 684

15, 081

S e c r e t a r ie s I V ------------------------------------

8, 147

See fo o t n o t e s at en d o f ta b le .




8 0

Comparison o f average annual salaries in private industry,1 June 1970, with salary rates for Federal employees
under the General Schedule2----Continued

1 F o r s c o p e o f s u r v e y , s e e a p p e n d ix A .
2 S a la r y r a t e s in e f f e c t in June 1 9 7 0 , th e r e f e r e n c e d a te o f th e B L S s u r v e y , a s e s t a b lis h e d b y E x e c u tiv e O r d e r 1 1 5 2 4 i s s u e d u n d er a u th o r ity o f
the F e d e r a l E m p lo y e e s S a la r y A c t o f 1 9 7 0 , P u b lic L aw 9 1 - 2 3 1 .
3 F o r d e fin itio n s , s e e a p p e n d ix C .
4 S u rv e y fin d in g s a s s u m m a r iz e d in ta b le 1 o f th is r e p o r t .
5 C o r r e s p o n d in g g r a d e s in th e G e n e r a l S ch ed u le w e r e su p p lie d by the U. S. C iv i l S e r v i c e C o m m i s s io n .
S e c tio n 5 3 3 5 o f t i t le 5 o f th e U . S. C ode p r o v id e s f o r w it h i n -g r a d e i n c r e a s e s on c o n d itio n th at th e e m p lo y e e * s w o r k i s o f an a c c e p ta b le l e v e l
o f c o m p e t e n c e a s d e fin e d b y th e h ead o f th e a g e n c y .
F o r e m p lo y e e s w h o m e e t th is co n d itio n , th e s e r v i c e r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e 5 2 c a le n d a r w e e k s e a c h
f o r a d v a n c e m e n t to s a l a r y r a t e s 2 , 3 , and 4 ; 104 w e e k s e a c h fo r a d v a n c e m e n t to s a l a r y r a t e s 5 , 6 , and 7 ; and 156 w e e k s e a c h fo r a d v a n c e m e n t
to s a l a r y r a te s 8 , 9 , and 10.
S e c tio n 5 3 3 6 p r o v id e s th at an a d d itio n a l w it h in -g r a d e in c r e a s e m a y be g r a n te d w ithin any p e r io d o f 5 2 w e e k s in
r e c o g n it io n o f h ig h q u a lity p e r f o r m a n c e a b o v e th at o r d in a r i ly found in the type o f p o s it io n c o n c e r n e d .

U n d e r S e c tio n 5 3 0 3 o f t itle 5 o f the U . S . C o d e , h ig h e r m in im u m r a t e s (but n ot e x c e e d in g the m a x iu m s a l a r y r a te
p r e s c r i b e d in the G e n e r a l S c h e d u le fo r th e g r a d e o r l e v e l) an d a c o r r e s p o n d in g n ew s a l a r y r a n g e m a y be e s t a b lis h e d fo r
p o s it io n s o r o c c u p a tio n s u n d er c e r t a in c o n d itio n s .
T h e c o n d itio n s in clu d e a fin d in g th at th e s a l a r y r a t e s in p r iv a te in d u str y
a r e s o s u b s ta n tia lly a b o v e the s a l a r y r a t e s o f th e s ta tu to ry p ay s c h e d u le s a s to h a n d ica p s ig n ific a n t ly th e G o v e r n m e n t 's
r e c r u it m e n t o r r e te n tio n o f w e 11-q u a lifie d p e r s o n s .
Such s p e c ia l pay s c a l e s h ave b e e n e s t a b lis h e d f o r s p e c if ic g r a d e s or
l e v e l s o f c e r t a in o c c u p a tio n s (in clu d in g a c c o u n t a n t s , a u d it o r s , c h e m i s t s , and e n g i n e e r s ) .
In fo r m a tio n on s p e c ia l h ig h e r
pay s c a l e s c u r r e n t ly in e f f e c t , an d th e o c c u p a tio n s and a r e a s to w h ich th e y a p p ly , m a y be ob ta in ed f r o m th e U . S . C iv i l
S e r v i c e C o m m i s s i o n , W a s h in g to n , D . C . 2 0 4 1 5 , o r it s r e g io n a l o f f i c e s .




81

☆ U. S. GO VE R N M EN T PRINTING O F F IC E : 1971 O - 4 3 7 -2 0 6 (16)




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TO:
Superintendent o f Documents
U. S. Government Printing O ffice
Washington, D. C . 20402

or

Bureau of Labor Statistics—
John F. Kennedy Federal Building,
Government Center, Room 1603-B,
Boston, Mass. 02203
341 Ninth A v e ., Rm . 1025, New York, N .Y . 10001
406 Penn Square Building,
1317 Filbert S t., Philadelphia, Pa. 19107
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1968-69 AREA WAGE SURVEY SUMMARY BULLETINS

Bulletin 1625-90.
1968-69 (1970).

Area Wage Surveys, Selected Metropolitan Areas,

Consolidates information from the individual area bulletins for surveys made during
the period July 1968 to June 1969.
Contains average weekly earnings for o ffic e o c ­
cupations, average hourly earnings for plant occupations, and establishment practices
and supplementary wage provisions by industry division and area.
Price $1.
Bulletin 1625-91. Area Wage Surveys. Metropolitan Areas.
United States and R egional Summaries. 1968-69 (1970).
Presents information on occupational earnings for all metropolitan areas com bined and
separately by industry division and region. Also provides analyses o f wage differences
and trends o f occupational earnings.
Price $1.




1969-70 AREA WAGE SURVEY BULLETINS:*
BLS
bulletin
number

Price
(in
cents)

1660-88

30

1660-51
1660-55

30
35

1660-83
1660-76
1660-11

35
50
35

1660-84
1685-6
1660-57

30
30
30

Boise City (Nov. 1969) ------- 1660-34
Boston (Aug. 1970)----- —------ 1685-11
Buffalo (Oct. 1969)-................ 1660-29
Burlington (Mar. 1970) ------- 1660-53
Canton (May 1970)-------------- 1660-81
Charleston (Apr. 1970)--------- 1660-68
Charlotte'(Mar. 1970)---------- 1660-61
Chattanooga (Sept. 1970)----- 1685-10
Chicago (June 1970)------------ 1660-90

25
50
45
25
35
35
40
35
60

Cincinnati (Feb. 1970) ------- 1660-49
Cleveland (Sept. 1969)--------- 1660-22
Columbus (Oct. 1969)---------- 1660-27
Dallas (Oct. 1969) ................ 1660-23
Davenport-Rock Island
Moline (Oct. 1969)------------ 1660-20
Dayton (Dec. 1969)------------- 1660-32
Denver (Dec. 1969)------------- 1660-41

35
40
30
35

Des Moines (May 1970)--------Detroit (Feb. 1970)------------Fort Worth (Oct. 1969)--------Green Bay (July 1970)---------Greenville (May 1970)------- Houston (Apr. 1970)---------—
Indianapolis (Oct. 1969)----- Jackson (Jan. 1970) ------------

1660-73
1660-58
1660-18
1685-4
1660-79
1660-67
1660-25
1660-39

35
35
30
35
30
35
30
30

Jacksonville (Dec. 1969)----Kansas City (Sept. 1969)----Lawrenc e-Haverhill
(June 1970)--------------------Little Rock-North Little
Rock (July 1970)--------------Los Angeles-Long Beach and
Anaheim-Santa AnaGarden Grove
(Mar. 1970)---------------------

1660-35
1660-10

30
35

1660-82

35

1685-1

35

Area and payroll period
Akron (July 1970)------------- Albany-Schenectady-Troy
(Feb. 1970)..........................
Albuquerque (Mar. 1970)-----Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton
(May 1970).........................
Atlanta (May 1970)-----------Baltimore (Aug. 1969)--------Beaumont-Port ArthurOrange (May 1970)----- ----Binghamton (July 1970)--------Birmingham (Mar. 1970)-------

Number
of
copies

45

Louisville (Nov. 1969)--------- 1660-28
Lubbock (Mar. 1970)---------- 1660-50
Manchester (July 1970)-----— 1685-2
Memphis (Nov. 1969) --------- 1660-31
Miami (Nov. 1969) ------- ---- 1660-32
Midland and Odessa
(Jan. 1970)------------- -------- 1660-44
Milwaukee (May 1970)--------- 1660-74
Minneapolis-St. Paul
(Jan. 1970)---------- ----------- 1660-46

1660-85

35

1660-47
1660-40
1660-42
1660-89

50
35
30
75

1660-59
1685-5

35
30

Omaha (Sept. 1969)--------------Paterson-Clifton-Passaic
(June 1970).......... ...................
Philadelphia (Nov. 1969) -------Phoenix (Mar. 1970) —-----------Pittsburgh (Jan. 1970)------------Portland (Maine) (Nov. 1969) —
Portland (Oreg.) (May 1970)---Providenc e- Pawtucket Warwick (May 1970) ------------

1660-12

30

1660-87
1660-48
1660-70
1660-60
1660-26
1660-77

45
60
35
50
35
40

1660-72

30

Raleigh (Aug. 1970) ------------Richmond (Mar. 1970) ---------Rochester (Aug. 1970)-----------Rockford (May 1970)--------------St. Louis (Mar. 1970)------------Salt Lake City (Nov. 1969)------San Antonio (May 1970)---------San Bernardino-RiversideOntario (Dec. 1969)-------------

1685-12
1660-65
1685-7
1660-75
1660-66
1660-30
1660-71

35
40
30
35
40
35
30

1660-43

30

San Diego (Nov. 1969)-----------San Francisco-Oakland
(Oct. 1969)--------------- --------San Jose (Aug. 1970)-------------Savannah (May 1970)------------Scranton (July 1970)----------—Seattle-Everett (Jan. 1970)------Sioux Falls (Sept. 1969)----------

1660-36

35

1660-33
1685-13
1660-80
1685-3
166(J-52
1660-14

50
30
35
35
30
25

South Bend (Mar. 1970) ---------Spokane (June 1970) --------------Syracuse (July 1970)------------- Ta mpa -St. Petersburg
(Aug. 1969)------- ----------------Toledo (Feb. 1970)---------------Trenton (Sept. 1969)---------------

1660-62
1660-86
1685-8

35
35
30

1660-7
1660-56
1660-21

35
30
30

Utica-Rome (July 1970)------- —
Washington, D.C.-Md. -Va.
(Sept. 1969)---------------- ------Waterbury (Mar. 1970)-----------Waterloo (Jan. 1970}--------------Wichita (Apr. 1970)--------------Worcester (May 1970)------------York (Feb. 1970)................ .......
Youngstown-W arren
(Nov. 1969)------------------------

1685-9

30

1660-19
1660-54
1660-45
1660-69
1660-78
1660-63

50
35
30
35
35
35

1660-38

35

Area and payroll period

—

40
35
35
40
30

—

35
50
50

Price
(in
cents)

Muskegon-Muskegon Heights
(June 1970)----------------------Newark and Jersey City
(Jan. 1970)............ ...............
New Haven (Jan. 1970) ----- New Orleans (Jan. 1970)--------New York (Apr. 1970) —- - - - Norfolk-Portsmouth and Newport
News-Hampton
(Jan. 1970) — ..................—
Oklahoma City (July 1970)-------

35
30
40

1660-64

B
LS
bulletin
number

__

*'Bulletins dated prior to July 1965 were entitled "Occupational Wage Surveys. "
Name________________________ _________________________________________
Address________________________________________________________________
C ity________________________________ State______________________Zip Code




Number
of
copies

B U R E A U

O F

L A B O R

R E G IO N A L

Region I
1603-A Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: 223-6762 (Area Code 617)

S T A T IS T IC S

O F F IC E S

Region V
219 South Dearborn St.
Chicago, III. 60604
Phone: 353-7230 (Area Code 312)

Region II
341 Ninth Ave., Rm. 1025
New York, N .Y . 10001
Phone: 971-5405 (Area Code 212)

Region V I
337 Mayflower Building
411 North Akard St.
Dallas, Tex. 75201
Phone: 749-3516 (Area Code 214)

Region III
406 Penn Square Building
1317 Filbert St.
Philadelphia. Pa. 19107
Phone: 597-7796 (Area Code 215)

Regions V II and V III
Federal Office Building
911 Walnut St., 10th Floor
Kansas C ity, Mo. 64106
Phone: 374-2481 (Area Code 816)

Region IV
Suite 540
1371 Peachtree St. NE.
Atlanta, Ga. 30309
Phone: 526-5418 (Area Code 404)

Regions IX and X
450 Golden Gate Ave.
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: 556-4678 (Area Code 415)




••

Regions V II and V III will be serviced by Kansas City.
Regions IX and X will be serviced by San Francisco.

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20212
O F F I C I A L B U SIN ES S
P E N A LTY FOR P R IV A T E USE, $300




POSTAGE AND FEES PAID
U.S. DEPARTM ENT OF LABOR

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THIRD CLASS MAIL

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102