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National Survey of
Professional,
Administrative,
Technical,
and Clerical Pay

Dayton & Montgomery Co,
Public Library

I£SJ;,81969

,

June 1968
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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
B u re a u of Labor Sta tistics

Bulletin No. 1617
January 1969






National Survey of
Professional,
Administrative,
Technical,
and Clerical P a y

,

Accountants and Auditors
Attorneys
Personnel Management
Buyers
Engineers and Chemists
Engineering Technicians
Draftsmen
Office Clerical

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

Bulletin No. 1617
J a n u a ry 1969

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office




Washington, D.C., 20402— 75 cents




Preface
T h is b u lle t in s u m m a r i z e s the r e s u l t s o f th e B u r e a u ’ s a n n u a l s a l a r y s u r v e y
o f s e l e c t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , t e c h n i c a l , a n d c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s in
p riv a te in d u stry .
T h e n a t io n w id e s a l a r y i n f o r m a t i o n , w h i c h r e l a t e s to J u n e 1968,
is r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in a b r o a d s p e c t r u m o f i n d u s t r i e s t h r o u g h o u t
the U n ite d S ta t e s , e x c e p t A l a s k a an d H a w a ii.

T h e s u r v e y w a s d e s i g n e d by the B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s in c o o p e r a t i o n
w ith th e B u r e a u o f th e B u d g e t and th e C i v i l S e r v i c e C o m m i s s i o n .
It p r o v i d e s
a fu n d o f b r o a d l y b a s e d i n f o r m a t i o n o n s a l a r y l e v e l s a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n s in p r i v a t e
em p loym en t.
A s s u c h , the r e s u l t s a r e u s e f u l a s a g u id e f o r s a l a r y a d m i n i s ­
tra tio n p u r p o s e s and fo r g e n e r a l e c o n o m ic a n a ly s is .
In a d d i t i o n ,
the s u r v e y
p ro v id e s
i n f o r m a t i o n o n p a y in p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y in a f o r m
s u i t a b l e f o r u s e in
a p p r a i s i n g the c o m p e n s a t i o n o f s a l a r i e d e m p l o y e e s in th e F e d e r a l c i v i l s e r v i c e
(a p p e n d ix D ).
It s h o u l d b e e m p h a s i z e d t h a t t h i s s u r v e y , l i k e a n y o t h e r s a l a r y
s u r v e y , i s in n o s e n s e c a l c u l a t e d to s u p p ly m e c h a n i c a l a n s w e r s to p a y p o l i c y
q u e stio n s.

T h e o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d sp an a w id e r a n g e o f d u ties and r e s p o n s ib ilit ie s .
I n d i v i d u a l l y , t h e o c c u p a t i o n s s e l e c t e d w e r e j u d g e d t o b e (a ) s u r v e y a b l e i n i n d u s ­
t r y w i t h i n t h e f r a m e w o r k o f a b r o a d s u r v e y d e s i g n a n d (b ) r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f o c ­
c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s w h i c h a r e n u m e r i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t in i n d u s t r y a s w e l l a s in the
F e d e r a l S e rv ice .

O c c u p a t i o n a l d e fin it io n s u s e d in the c o l l e c t i o n o f th e s a l a r y d a ta (a p p e n d ix C )
r e f l e c t d u t ie s an d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s in p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y ; h o w e v e r , t h e y a r e a l s o
d e s i g n e d to b e t r a n s l a t a b l e to s p e c i f i c p a y g r a d e s in th e G e n e r a l S c h e d u l e a p p l y i n g
to F e d e r a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n A c t e m p l o y e e s .
T h is n e c e s s it a t e d lim itin g s o m e o c c u ­
p a t io n s an d w o r k l e v e l s to s p e c i f i c e le m e n t s th at c o u ld b e c l a s s i f i e d u n i f o r m l y
a m on g e sta b lish m e n ts.
T h e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t i s t ic s a n d the C i v i l S e r v i c e
C o m m i s s i o n c o l l a b o r a t e d in th e p r e p a r a t i o n o f the d e f i n i t i o n s .

T h e s c o p e o f th e s u r v e y , in t e r m s o f i n d u s t r i a l , g e o g r a p h i c , a n d m i n i m u m
e sta b lis h m e n t-s iz e co v e ra g e
r e m a i n e d the s a m e a s in the
1967 s u r v e y .
The
d e f i n i t i o n s w e r e the s a m e u s e d in the 1967 s u r v e y , w ith the e x c e p t i o n o f t h o s e
fo r c h e m is t s and e n g in e e r s , w h ich w e r e slig h tly m o d ifie d .

T h e s u r v e y c o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n a c c o m p l i s h e d w ith o u t th e c o o p e r a t i o n o f th e
m a n y f i r m s w h o s e s a l a r y d a ta p r o v i d e the b a s i s f o r th e s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n
p r e s e n t e d in th is b u ll e t in .
T h e B u r e a u , o n it s o w n b e h a l f a n d o n b e h a l f o f th e
o t h e r F e d e r a l a g e n c i e s th a t c o l l a b o r a t e d in p la n n in g th e s u r v e y , w i s h e s to e x ­
p r e s s s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h e c o o p e r a t i o n it h a s r e c e i v e d .




iii

Preface— Continued
T h i s s t u d y w a s c o n d u c t e d i n t h e B u r e a u 1s O f f i c e o f W a g e s a n d I n d u s t r i a l
R e la t i o n s b y the D i v i s i o n o f O c c u p a t i o n a l W a g e S t r u c t u r e s .
T he a n a ly sis w a s
p r e p a r e d by S tep h en H . P e r lo f f .
F i e l d w o r k f o r th e s u r v e y w a s d i r e c t e d b y the
B u r e a u s A s s is ta n t R e g io n a l D ir e c t o r s , D iv is io n o f O p e ra tio n s.

A lt h o u g h o n l y n a t io n w id e s a l a r y d a t a a r e p r e s e n t e d in th is b u l l e t i n , c l e r i c a l
a n d d r a ft in g o c c u p a t i o n s a l a r y d a ta a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r e a c h o f th e 89 m e t r o p o l i t a n
a r e a s in w h i c h th e B u r e a u c o n d u c t s a r e a w a g e s u r v e y s .
T hese area reports
a ls o in c lu d e in fo r m a t io n on su ch s u p p le m e n ta r y b e n e fits as p a id v a c a t io n s ,
h o l i d a y s , and h e a lth , i n s u r a n c e , and p e n s io n p la n s r e la t in g to n o n s u p e r v i s o r y
o ffice w o rk e rs .
(S e e th e a r e a s li s t e d in th e o r d e r f o r m at the b a c k o f th is
b u lle tin . )




W

Contents
Page
S u m m a r y ____________________________________________________________________________________________
C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s u r v e y ________________________________________________________________
C h a n g e s i n s a l a r y l e v e l s ____________ _________________________________________________________
A v e r a g e s a l a r i e s , J u n e 1 9 6 8 _________________________________________________________________
S a l a r y l e v e l s i n m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s _______________________________________________________
S a l a r y l e v e l s i n l a r g e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ____________________________________________________
S a l a r y d i s t r i b u t i o n s _____________________________________________________________________________
P a y d i f f e r e n c e s b y i n d u s t r y __________________________________________________________________
A v e r a g e w e e k l y h o u r s __________________________________________________________________________

1
1
2
5
7
8
8
11

13

T a b le s:
A v e ra g e sa la rie s:
1.
U n i t e d S t a t e s _________________________________________________________________________
2.
M e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s _________________________________________________________________
3.
E s t a b l i s h m e n t s e m p l o y i n g 2 , 5 0 0 o r m o r e __________________________________

14
18
18

E m p lo y m e n t d istrib u tio n by sa la ry :
4.
P r o f e s s i o n a l a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n s _____________________________
5.
E n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n i c i a n s _________________________________________________________
6.
D r a f t i n g a n d c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s _____________________________________________

20
26
27

7.

30

8.

9.

O c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n : B y i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n ____________
R e l a t i v e s a l a r y l e v e l s : O c c u p a t i o n b y i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n __________________
A v e r a g e w e e k l y h o u r s : O c c u p a t i o n b y i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n __________________

31
32

C harts:
1.
2.
3.
4.

R i s e in a v e r a g e ( m e a n ) s a l a r i e s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n a l
g r o u p s , 1 9 6 1 t o 1 9 6 8 ________________________________________________________________
S a l a r i e s in p r o f e s s i o n a l an d t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s ,
J u n e 1 9 6 8 _______________________________________________________________________________
S a l a r i e s in a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a n d c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s ,
J u n e 1 9 6 8 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------R e l a t i v e e m p l o y m e n t in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s b y
i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , J u n e 1 9 6 8 _____________________________________________________

4
9

10
12

A p p e n d ix e s:
A.
B.
C.
D.

S c o p e a n d m e t h o d o f s u r v e y _________________________________________________________
S u r v e y c h a n g e s i n 1 9 6 8 _______________________________________________________________
O c c u p a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s ______________________________________________________________
C o m p a r i s o n o f a v e r a g e a n n u a l s a l a r i e s in p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y ,
June 1968, w ith c o r r e s p o n d in g s a la r y r a t e s fo r F e d e r a l
e m p l o y e e s u n d e r t h e G e n e r a l S c h e d u l e _______________________________________




v

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40

78




National Survey o f Professional, Administrative,
Technical, and Clerical Pay, June 1968

c o v e r i n g 13 b r o a d o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s . 1 It
r e l a t e s to e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in a l l a r e a s o f the
U n ited S ta te s e x c e p t A l a s k a and H a w a ii in the
follow in g in d u stries :
M a n u f a c t u r in g ; t r a n s ­
p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , e l e c t r i c , g a s , and
san itary s e r v i c e s ; w h o le s a le tra d e ; r e t a i l
t r a d e ; f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e ;
e n g i n e e r i n g and a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s ; and
r e s e a r c h , d e v e l o p m e n t , and t e s t in g l a b o r a ­
t o r i e s o p e r a t e d on a c o m m e r i c a l b a s i s . 2 T h e
m in im u m size of estab lish m en t re q u ire m e n ts
v a r ie d by in d u stry d iv is io n rou ghly equ alizin g
m i n i m u m s i z e s c o p e in t e r m s o f w h i t e - c o l l a r
em ploym en t.
T h e s e req u irem en ts ranged
f r o m 50 e m p l o y e e s in the f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e ,
and r e a l e s t a t e d i v i s i o n , w h i c h i s a l m o s t e n ­
t i r e l y c o m p o s e d o f w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s , to
250 e m p l o y e e s in the m a n u f a c t u r i n g and r e ­
tail trad e d iv is io n s . 3

S u m m aryA v e r a g e s a l a r i e s o f w o r k e r s in the o c ­
c u p a t io n s c o v e r e d b y th is s u r v e y i n c r e a s e d at
a h i g h e r r a te b e t w e e n 1967 and 1968 than f o r
a n y y e a r p e r i o d s i n c e the study w a s in i t ia t e d .
S a la ry in c r e a s e s fo r c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s a v e r ­
a g e d 5 p e r c e n t o v e r the y e a r e n d in g June
1968, c o m p a r e d w ith 4 . 6 p e r c e n t f r o m 1966
to 1967 and i n c r e a s e s o f 3 p e r c e n t o r l e s s
f o r the p e r i o d s b e t w e e n 1961 and 1966. A v ­
e r a g e s a l a r i e s f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m i n i s ­
t r a t i v e , and t e c h n i c a l w o r k e r s a l s o a d v a n c e d
m o r e in the 1967—68 p e r i o d than in e a r l i e r
y e a r s and at a s li g h t ly h i g h e r r a te than f o r
cle rica l w orkers.

A v e r a g e m o n t h l y s a l a r i e s f o r the 81 o c ­
c u p a t io n a l w o r k l e v e l s v a r i e d f r o m $ 3 0 6 f o r
c l e r k s e n g a g e d in r o u tin e f i l i n g to $ 2 , 4 0 3 f o r
the h i g h e s t l e v e l in the a t t o r n e y s e r i e s . F o r
e n g i n e e r s , the l a r g e s t p r o f e s s i o n a l o c c u p a ­
tion su rv ey ed , sa la rie s ranged fr o m $752 a
m o n t h f o r r e c e n t c o l l e g e g r a d u a t e s in t r a i n e e
p o s i t i o n s to $ 1 , 9 4 0 f o r e n g i n e e r s VIII, w h o s e
t y p i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s c o u l d in c l u d e the d i ­
r e c t i o n o f a h ig h ly c o m p l e x and d i v e r s i f i e d
en g in eerin g p r o g r a m con sistin g of m an y la rg e
a n d im portant p r o je c t s .
M o n th ly s a l a r i e s
a v e r a g e d $ 3 9 2 f o r a c c o u n t i n g c l e r k s I, $ 4 6 3
f o r s e c r e t a r i e s I, $ 4 0 5 f o r g e n e r a l s t e n o g ­
r a p h e r s , and $ 3 5 0 f o r t y p i s t s I, the l a r g e s t
c l e r i c a l g r o u p s r e p r e s e n t e d in the s u r v e y .
A v e r a g e m o n t h ly s a l a r i e s o f e n g i n e e r i n g t e c h ­
n i c i a n s r a n g e d f r o m $ 4 6 5 to $ 8 1 6 a m o n g fi v e
w ork le v e ls.
F o r m o s t o f the o c c u p a t i o n s ,
s a l a r y l e v e l s in m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s and in
l a r g e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w e r e h i g h e r than in a ll
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s with in the fu ll s c o p e o f the
survey.
S a l a r y l e v e l s in f i n a n c e and r e t a i l
t r a d e i n d u s t r i e s g e n e r a l l y w e r e l o w e r than in
o t h e r m a j o r i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d in
the s u r v e y .
T h e l o w e r s a l a r i e s in f i n a n c e
i n d u s t r i e s w e r e o f f s e t in p a rt b y a s h o r t e r
average workw eek.

D e f i n i t i o n s f o r the o c c u p a t i o n s in c l u d e d
in th is study p r o v i d e f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f e m ­
p l o y e e s a c c o r d i n g to a p p r o p r i a t e w o r k l e v e l s
(or c la s s e s ).
W ithin e a c h o c c u p a t i o n , the
w o r k le v e ls su rv e y e d , u su ally d esig n a ted by
R o m a n n u m e r a l s with c l a s s I a s s i g n e d t o the
l o w e s t l e v e l , a r e d e f i n e d in t e r m s o f d u tie s
and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . S p e c i f i c j o b f a c t o r s d e ­
term in in g cla s s ific a tio n , h o w e v e r, v a r i e d
f r o m o c c u p a t i o n to o c c u p a t i o n .

The n um ber of w o rk le v e l d efinition s
f o r e a c h o c c u p a t i o n v a r i e s f r o m on e f o r o f f i c e
b o y s o r g i r l s to eig h t e a c h f o r c h e m i s t s and
e n g i n e e r s . M o r e than one l e v e l o f w o r k w a s
d e f i n e d f o r s u r v e y in m o s t o f the o c c u p a t i o n s ;
h ow e v e r, som e occu p ation s w ere pu rp osely
defined to c o v e r s p e c ific bands of w o rk l e v e l s ,

* Results of the earlier survey reports were presented under
the title: National Survey of Professional, Administrative, Tech­
nical, and Clerical Pay, Winter 1959-60 (BLS Bulletin 1286,
1960); Winter 1960-61 (BLS Bulletin 1310, 1961); Winter 1961-62
(BLS Bulletin 1346, 1962); February—
March 1963 (BLS Bulletin 1387,
1963); February—
March 1964 (BLS Bulletin 1422, 1964); FebruaryMarch 1965 (BLS Bulletin 1469, 1965); February—
March 1966 (BLS
Bulletin 1535, 1966); and june 1967 (BLS Bulletin 1585, 1968).
2 February—
March 1964 and earlier surveys were limited to
establishments in metropolitan areas. For a full description of
the scope of the 1968 survey, see appendix A.
3 February—
March 1965 and earlier surveys were limited to
establishments having 250 employees or more.

C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the S u r v e y
T his su rv e y ,
the ninth in an annual
s e r i e s , p r o v i d e s n a t io n w id e s a l a r y a v e r a g e s
and d i s t r i b u t i o n s f o r 81 w o r k l e v e l c a t e g o r i e s




1

2

w h i c h w e r e not in te n d e d to r e p r e s e n t a ll
l e v e l s o r a l l w o r k e r s that m a y b e fo u n d in
those occu p a tion s.
T h e s u r v e y w a s d e s i g n e d to p e r m i t s e p ­
a r a t e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f data f o r m e t r o p o l i t a n
areas.
C o v e r a g e in m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s i n ­
c l u d e s the 227 S ta n d a r d M e t r o p o l i t a n S t a t i s ­
t i c a l A r e a s in the U n ited S ta te s e x c e p t A l a s k a
and H a w a i i , a s r e v i s e d t h r o u g h A p r i l 1967 b y
the B u r e a u o f the B u d g e t , the s a m e n u m b e r
r e p r e s e n t e d in the p r e v i o u s s u r v e y .
S lig h t ly
m o r e th an f o u r - f i f t h s o f the t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t
and n i n e - t e n t h s o f the e m p l o y m e n t in p r o f e s ­
s i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , c l e r i c a l , and r e l a t e d
o c c u p a t i o n s w ith in s c o p e o f th is s u r v e y w e r e
a c c o u n t e d f o r b y e s t a b l i s h m e n t s l o c a t e d in
m etropolita n a r e a s .
N i n e - t e n t h s o f th e e m ­
p l o y e e s in the s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s stu d ie d
a l s o w e r e e m p l o y e d in m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s .
T h e p r o p o r t i o n s v a r i e d m o r e f o r the p r o f e s ­
s i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n s than f o r
the c l e r i c a l and d r a ft i n g o c c u p a t i o n s .
The s e le c te d occu p a tion s a ccou n ted fo r
m o r e than 1 , 5 7 0 , 0 0 0 e m p l o y e e s o r a l m o s t
o n e - f o u r t h o f the e s t i m a t e d t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t
in p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , c l e r i c a l , and
r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s in a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
w ith in s c o p e o f the s u r v e y .
E m p l o y m e n t in
the s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s v a r i e d w i d e l y , r e ­
f l e c t i n g a c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s in e m p l o y m e n t in
th e v a r i o u s o c c u p a t i o n s , a s w e l l a s d i f f e r e n c e s
in the r a n g e o f d u t ie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s
c o v e r e d by ea ch o c c u p a t i o n a l definition .
A m o n g th e p r o f e s s i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e
o c c u p a t i o n s , th e eig h t l e v e l s o f e n g i n e e r s a c ­
c o u n t e d f o r a t o t a l o f 362, 140 e m p l o y e e s ,
w h e r e a s , f e w e r th an 4 , 5 0 0 w e r e e m p l o y e d in
e a c h o f f o u r o f the o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s a s
d e f i n e d f o r the study ( c h i e f a c c o u n t a n t s , m a n ­
a g e r s o f o f f i c e s e r v i c e s , j o b a n a l y s t s , and
d i r e c t o r s o f p e r s o n n e l ) . (S e e t a b l e 1. ) F o u r
o c c u p a t i o n s at a l l w o r k l e v e l s s tu d ie d ( a c ­
c o u n t in g c l e r k s , s e c r e t a r i e s , s t e n o g r a p h e r s ,
a n d t y p i s t s ) a c c o u n t e d f o r 70 p e r c e n t o f the
8 6 8 , 2 5 1 e m p l o y e e s in th e c l e r i c a l o c c u p a ­
t i o n s s t u d ie d . T h e s e l e c t e d d r a f t i n g r o o m o c ­
c u p a t i o n s h ad a g g r e g a t e e m p l o y m e n t o f a b ou t
8 7 , 0 0 0 and th e f i v e e n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n i c i a n
le v e ls tog eth er a ccou n ted fo r about 9 5 ,0 0 0 .
A lt h o u g h w o m e n a c c o u n t e d f o r a p p r o x i ­
m a t e l y o n e - h a l f o f the to t a l e m p l o y m e n t in
the o c c u p a t i o n s s t u d ie d , th e y w e r e e m p l o y e d
l a r g e l y in c l e r i c a l p o s i t i o n s .
The c l e r i c a l
o c c u p a t i o n s in w h i c h the p r o p o r t i o n o f w o m e n
a m o u n t e d t o m o r e than 90 p e r c e n t o f e m p l o y ­
m e n t at e a c h l e v e l w e r e f i l e c l e r k s , k e y ­
p u n ch o p e r a t o r s , s e c r e t a r i e s , s t e n o g r a p h e r s ,
s w i t c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s , and t y p i s t s .
Am ong




ta b u la tin g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s , w om en a c ­
c o u n t e d f o r 55 p e r c e n t at l e v e l I, a l m o s t 40
p e r c e n t at l e v e l II, and s li g h t ly m o r e than
20 p e r c e n t at l e v e l III. O f f i c e g i r l s (45 p e r ­
cen t) w e r e o u t n u m b e r e d b y o f f i c e b o y s (55
p ercen t).
W o m e n a c c o u n t e d f o r a l m o s t 25
p e r c e n t o f the d r a f t s m e n - t r a c e r s , but l e s s
than 5 p e r c e n t o f the t h r e e d r a f t s m e n l e v e l s
c o m b i n e d . E n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n i c i a n s at l e v e l I
i n c l u d e d a b o u t 20 p e r c e n t w o m e n , w h e r e a s
l e v e l s II t h r o u g h V c o m b i n e d i n c l u d e d l e s s
than 5 p e r c e n t .
W o m e n e m p l o y e e s in the
p r o f e s s i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n s
u s u a l l y w e r e r e p o r t e d in the f i r s t fe w l e v e l s ;
t h o s e in w h i c h w o m e n a c c o u n t e d f o r a s m a n y
a s 10 but l e s s than 25 p e r c e n t o f the e m p l o y ­
m ent w ere:
A c c o u n t a n t s I; j o b a n a l y s t s II;
c h e m i s t s I and II; b u y e r s I; and m a n a g e r s o f
o f f i c e s e r v i c e s I.
The g en era l le v e l of s a la r ie s fo r each
o c c u p a t i o n o r w o r k l e v e l i s p r e s e n t e d in th is
study a s the a r i t h m e t i c m e a n o f a l l the i n ­
d iv i d u a l s a l a r y r a t e s .
M e d ia n s a l a r i e s , the
a m o u n t b e l o w and a b o v e w h i c h the s a l a r i e s
f o r 50 p e r c e n t o f the e m p l o y e e s a r e fo u n d ,
a r e a l s o p r e s e n t e d in t a b l e s 1, 2, and 3.
C h a n g e s in S a l a r y L e v e l s
T he f o l l o w i n g t a b u la t io n p r e s e n t s the
s a l a r y i n c r e a s e s that o c c u r r e d b e t w e e n annual
s u r v e y s s i n c e 1961 f o r the l e v e l s r e p r e s e n t i n g
e a c h o f 13 o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s . T o d e t e r m i n e
the i n c r e a s e s f o r e a c h g r o u p , a ll l e v e l s o f
the o c c u p a t i o n w e r e c o m b i n e d u s in g e m p l o y ­
m e n t in the m o s t r e c e n t y e a r a s a c o n s t a n t
e m p l o y m e n t w e i g h t in b o th y e a r s to e l i m i n a t e
the e f f e c t s o f c h a n g e s in the p r o p o r t i o n o f e m ­
p l o y e e s in the v a r i o u s w o r k l e v e l s . C h a n g e s
in the s c o p e o f the s u r v e y o r in the o c c u p a ­
t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s w e r e i n c o r p o r a t e d in to the
s e r i e s a s s o o n a s tw o c o m p a r a b l e p e r i o d s
w e r e a v a ila b le.
The in c r e a s e s w e r e t h e n
lin k e d t o g e t h e r to o b ta in the c h a n g e s that had
o c c u r r e d o v e r the 7 - y e a r p e r i o d s i n c e th is
series b e g a n .4
In the 1967—68 p e r i o d , i n c r e a s e s in a v ­
e r a g e s a l a r i e s r a n g e d f r o m 4. 9 to 7 p e r c e n t
f o r a l l 13 o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s s t u d ie d , w ith
i n c r e a s e s f o r 11 o f t h e s e g r o u p s r a n g in g f r o m
5. 0 to 5. 7 p e r c e n t . I n c r e a s e s w e r e s i g n i f i ­
c a n t ly h i g h e r than had b e e n r e c o r d e d f o r any
o t h e r y e a r p e r i o d s i n c e 1961, w h en the B u r e a u
b e g a n m e a s u r i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l w a g e t r e n d s on
a n a t io n a l b a s i s .
^ The increases since 1965 relate to establishments in met­
ropolitan areas and nonmetropolitan counties; all others relate to
metropolitan areas only. Establishments employing fewer than
250 workers were excluded before 1966.

3
Percent increases in average salaries

Occupational
group
Accountants -------------------------------------------- ------Auditors--------------------------------------------------- ------Chief accountants--------------------------------------------Attorneys--------------------------------------------------------Managers, office services--------------------------------Buyers ----------------------------------------------------Job analysts---------------------------------------------Directors of personnel------------------------------- ------Chemists------------------------------------------------- ------Engineers------------------------------------------------- ------Engineering technicians----------------------------- ------Drafting--------------------------------------------------- ------Clerical --------------------------------------------------- -------

1967
to
1968

1966
1965
to
to
19671 1966

1964
to
1965

1963
to
1964

1962
to
1963

1961
to
1962

1961
to
1968

5. 7
5.5
5. 5
5. 3
5.6

5. 8
6.0
6.4
4.0
6.9
5. 2
4.2
4. 7
5. 5
5. 4
4. 6
4. 6
6. 1

3.5
3.9
3.9
4. 2
4. 3

2. 8
3. 1
4.8
3.3
2. 7

3.3
3.6
2.8
4.6
2.2

2.
2.
2.
3.
3.

31. 2
32. 5
33. 2
32. 3
32.0

(2)

(2)

( 2)

( 2)

5.4
5. 1
5.4
5. 1
5. 3
5.0

3. 8
3. 8
3.3
4 .0
3.3
( 2)

5.4
3.6
4. 8
3. 7
2. 8
1. 5
3.0

4.3
3.5
3.9
3. 2
2.3
(4 )

2.4

3.5
4.6
3.3
2. 9
3. 6
2.6
2. 9

2.6
3.0
3. 8
4. 4
2. 9
3.6
2.6

8
9
6
2
3

1. 4
3. 7
3. 9
2. 6

(3 )

3. 8
2. 9

(2)

31.9
32. 2
34. 5
31. 0
3 23. 4
(4 )

27. 7

The 1966-67 increases reflect changes over a 16-month period for clerical and drafting occupations and a
15-month period for all others, due to a change in survey timing. Prorated to a 12-month period, the increases
were: Accountants— 4.6; auditors— 4.8; chief accountants— 5.1; attorneys— 3.2; managers, office services— 5.5;
buyers— 4.2; job analysts— 3.4; directors of personnel— 3, 8; chemists— 4.4; engineers— 4.3; engineering technicians—
3.7; drafting— 3. 5; and clerical— 4.6.
2 Buyers were not surveyed before 1966.
3 Engineering technicians were not surveyed before 1962; therefore, the total percent increase relates to the
1962 to 1968 period.
4 Comparison over this period was not possible for draftsmen because of changes in definitions of work levels
in 1965.

T o e x a m i n e the c h a n g e s in s a l a r i e s that
h a v e o c c u r r e d s i n c e 1961 f o r d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s
o f w o r k , a l l o f the o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s
w e r e g r o u p e d into the t h r e e b r o a d c a t e g o r i e s
d e s c r i b e d in the ta b u la t io n w h i c h f o l l o w s . T h e
y e a r - t o - y e a r percen t in c r e a s e s for each group
w e r e d e t e r m i n e d b y a d d in g a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s
f o r a l l o c c u p a t i o n s in th e g r o u p f o r Z c o n s e c u ­

t i v e y e a r s , and d iv i d i n g the la t e r su m b y the
e a r l i e r s u m . T h e r e s u lt a n t r e l a t i v e , l e s s 100,
s h o w s the p e r c e n t o f i n c r e a s e .
C h a n g e s in
the s c o p e o f the s u r v e y o r in the o c c u p a t i o n a l
d e f i n i t i o n s w e r e i n c o r p o r a t e d in to the s e r i e s
a s s o o n a s tw o c o m p a r a b l e p e r i o d s w e r e
a v a ila b le.
The 7 -y e a r tre n d s w e r e obtained
b y lin k in g c h a n g e s f o r the in d iv i d u a l p e r i o d s .
_______ Percent increases in average salaries______________

Work level categories *
Group A:
Clerical and beginning technician lev els----------Group B:
Entry and development professional levels,
advanced technician levels, supervisors
of nonprofessional lev els--------------------------------Group C:
Fully experienced professional working levels,
supervisors of professional levels, and
program administrative lev els-------------------------

1967
to
1968

1966
1965
to
to
19672 1966

1964
to
1965

1963
to
1964

1962
to
1963

1961
to
1962

1961
to
1968 2

5. 1

6.0

2. 9

2. 2

2. 7

2. 7

2. 8

27. 1

5. 8

6.0

3. 7

3.3

2.6

4.0

2. 6

31. 5

4. 7

5. 1

4. 2

4. 2

3. 5

3.7

3.5

32. 9

1 Work levels used for computing 1967 to 1968 increases are:
Group A— All levels of accounting clerks, file clerks, keypunch operators, stenographers, switchboard operators,
tabulating-machine operators, typists; and office boys or girls, secretaries I, draftsmen-tracers, draftsmen I, and
engineering technicians I and II.
Group B
—Accountants I, II, and III; attorneys II; auditors I, II, and III; buyers I, II, and III; chemists I, II,
and III; draftsmen II and III; engineers I, II, and III; engineering technicians III, IV, and V; job analysts II and
III; managers, office services I and II; and secretaries II, III, and IV.
Group C— Accountants IV and V; auditors IV; attorneys III, IV, V, VI, and VII; buyers IV; chemists IV, V,
VI, VII, and VIII; chief accountants I, II, III, and IV; directors of personnel I, II, III, and IV; engineers IV, V,
VI, VII, and VIII; job analysts IV; and managers, office services III and IV.
2 Because of a change in survey timing, the 1966-67 percent changes related to a period of more than 1 year.
For clerical and drafting occupations, the period was 16 months (from February 1966 to June 1967). For all other
occupations the period was 15 months (from March 1966 to June 1967). Other year-to-year increases in the table
represent a 12-month period.
331-982 0 - 6 9 - 2




4

Chart 1. Rise in Average (Mean) Salaries
for Selected Occupational Groups, 1961 to 1968
OCCUPATIONAL
GROUPS

C hem ists

Chief accountants

Auditors

Attorneys

Directors
of personnel
M anagers,
office services

Job analysts

A ccountants

Engineers

Clerical em ployees




PERCENT
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

5

F r o m 1961 t h r o u g h 1966, a v e r a g e s a l ­
a r i e s i n c r e a s e d at a h i g h e r r a te f o r g r o u p C
than f o r g r o u p A , and g e n e r a l l y h i g h e r than
f o r g r o u p B.
However,
f o r 1966—67 and
1967—68, the i n c r e a s e f o r g r o u p C w a s e x ­
c e e d e d b y t h o s e o f b o th g r o u p s A and B.

C h a n g e s in a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s r e f l e c t not
o n ly g e n e r a l s a l a r y i n c r e a s e s and m e r i t o r
o t h e r i n c r e a s e s g iv e n to i n d iv i d u a l s w h ile in
the s a m e w o r k l e v e l c a t e g o r y , but th e y a l s o
m a y r e f l e c t o t h e r f a c t o r s su ch a s e m p l o y e e
t u r n o v e r , e x p a n s i o n s o r r e d u c t i o n s in the
w o r k f o r c e , and c h a n g e s in sta ffin g p a t t e r n s
w ith in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w ith d i f f e r e n t s a l a r y
le v e ls.
F o r e x a m p l e , an e x p a n s i o n in f o r c e
m a y i n c r e a s e the p r o p o r t i o n o f e m p l o y e e s at
the m i n i m u m o f the s a l a r y r a n g e e s t a b l i s h e d
f o r a w o r k l e v e l , w h ic h w o u l d te n d to l o w e r
the a v e r a g e , w h e r e a s , a r e d u c t i o n o r a l o w
t u r n o v e r in the w o r k f o r c e m a y h a v e the
op p osite effect. S im ila rly , y e a r - t o - y e a r p r o ­
m o t i o n s o f e m p l o y e e s to h ig h e r w o r k l e v e l s o f
p r o f e s s i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n s
m a y a f f e c t a v e ra g e s a la r ie s , lo w e rin g or
r a i s i n g the a v e r a g e . F o r e x a m p l e , th e e s t a b ­
l i s h e d s a l a r y r a n g e s f o r s u ch o c c u p a t i o n s a r e
r e l a t i v e l y w i d e , and p r o m o t e d e m p l o y e e s , who
m a y h a v e b e e n p a id the m a x i m u m o f the s a l ­
a r y s c a l e f o r the l o w e r l e v e l , a r e l i k e l y to
be r e p la c e d by le s s e x p e r ie n c e d e m p lo y e e s
w h o m a y be p a id the m i n i m u m ; o r v a c a n c i e s
m a y e x i s t at the t i m e o f the r e s u r v e y . O c c u ­
p a t i o n s m o s t l i k e l y t o r e f l e c t s u ch c h a n g e s
in the s a l a r y a v e r a g e s a r e the h i g h e r l e v e l s
o f p r o f e s s i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n s
and s i n g l e - i n c u m b e n t p o s i t i o n s su ch a s c h i e f
a c c o u n t a n t , d i r e c t o r o f p e r s o n n e l , and m a n ­
ager of office s e r v ic e s . 5

A v e r a g e S a la ries,

June

1968

A v e r a g e m o n t h l y s a l a r i e s f o r the o c c u ­
p a t i o n s i n c l u d e d in th is r e p o r t r a n g e d f r o m
$ 3 0 6 f o r f i l e c l e r k s I to $ 2 , 4 0 3 f o r the to p
l e v e l o f a t t o r n e y s u r v e y e d (ta b le 1).
These
e x t r e m e s r e f l e c t the w id e r a n g e o f d u tie s and
r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s r e p r e s e n t e d b y the o c c u p a ­
tional w ork le v e ls su rv ey ed .
A verage sa l­
a r i e s f o r the o c c u p a t i o n a l l e v e l s , and a b r i e f
in d i c a t i o n o f the d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s
t h e y r e p r e s e n t , a r e s u m m a r i z e d in the f o l ­
lo w in g p a r a g r a p h s . 6

A m o n g the f i v e l e v e l s o f
accountants
su r v e y e d , a v e r a g e m on th ly s a la r ie s ranged
f r o m $ 6 2 1 f o r a c c o u n t a n t s I to $ 1 , 1 2 8 f o r
accountants V.
A uditors in the f o u r l e v e l s
d e f i n e d f o r s u r v e y had a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s




r a n g in g f r o m $ 6 3 7 a m o n t h f o r a u d i t o r s I to
to $ 1 ,0 2 5 f o r a u d i t o r s IV .
L e v e l I in both
the a c c o u n t i n g and a u d itin g s e r i e s i n c l u d e d
t r a i n e e s w h o had b a c h e l o r * s d e g r e e s in a c ­
co u n t in g o r the e q u iv a le n t in e d u c a t i o n and
e x p e rie n ce com b in ed . At each co rre sp o n d in g
le v e l, a v e r a g e s a la r ie s w e r e h igh er fo r a u ­
d i t o r s than f o r a c c o u n t a n t s . F o r l e v e l III, the
m o s t h e a v i l y p o p u la te d g r o u p in b oth s e r i e s ,
m o n t h ly s a l a r i e s a v e r a g e d $ 7 8 1 f o r a c c o u n t ­
a n ts and $ 831 f o r a u d i t o r s .
W hereas m o r e
than t w o - t h i r d s o f the a c c o u n t a n t s w e r e e m ­
p l o y e d in m a n u f a c t u r i n g , th is i n d u s t r y d i v i ­
s io n e m p l o y e d 40 p e r c e n t o f the a u d i t o r s . 7
O th er in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s w h i c h a c c o u n t e d f o r
la rg e n u m b e r s of a u d itors w e r e fin a n ce , in ­
s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e ( o n e - f o u r t h ) , and
p u b lic u t i l i t i e s ( o n e - f i f t h ) . T h e p r o p o r t i o n o f
e m p l o y e e s in e a c h m a j o r i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n
w ith in s c o p e o f the s u r v e y is sh ow n b y o c c u ­
p a tion in ta b l e 7 and p r e s e n t e d g r a p h i c a l l y
in c h a r t 4, p a g e 12.

C h ie f accountants w e r e s u r v e y e d s e p a r a t e l y
f r o m a c c o u n t a n t s and in c l u d e d t h o s e w h o d e ­
v e l o p o r adapt and d i r e c t the a c c o u n t i n g p r o ­
g r a m f o r a c o m p a n y o r an e s t a b l i s h m e n t
(plant) o f a c o m p a n y .
L ev el cla ss ifica tio n
w a s d e t e r m i n e d b y the ex ten t o f d e l e g a t e d
a u t h o r it y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; the t e c h n i c a l
c o m p l e x i t y o f the s y s t e m ; a n d , to a l e s s e r
d e g r e e , the s i z e o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l s ta f f d i ­
rected.
C h i e f a c c o u n t a n t s at l e v e l I, w ho
h a v e a u t h o r it y to adapt the a c c o u n t i n g s y s t e m ,
e s t a b l i s h e d at h i g h e r l e v e l s , to m e e t the n e e d s
o f an e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a c o m p a n y with r e l a ­
t i v e l y f e w and s ta b le fu n c t io n s and w o r k p r o c ­
e s s e s ( d i r e c t i n g on e o r tw o a c c o u n t a n t s ) ,
a v e r a g e d $ 1 ,0 2 4 a m onth.
C hief a c c o u n t ­
ants I V , 8 w h o h a v e a u t h o r it y to e s t a b l i s h and
m a i n t a in the a c c o u n t i n g p r o g r a m , s u b j e c t to
g e n e r a l p o l i c y g u i d e l i n e s , f o r a c o m p a n y with
n u m e r o u s and v a r i e d fu n c t i o n s and w o r k p r o c ­
e s s e s ( d i r e c t i n g a s m a n y a s 40 a c c o u n t a n t s ) ,
a v e r a g e d $ 1 ,5 8 7 a m o n t h .
T h ree-fifth s of
the c h i e f a c c o u n t a n t s w h o m e t the r e q u i r e ­
m e n t s o f the d e f i n i t i o n s f o r t h e s e f o u r l e v e l s
w e r e e m p l o y e d in m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s
and o n e - e i g h t h w e r e in the f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e ,
and r e a l e s t a t e d i v i s i o n .

5 These types of occupations also may be subject to greater
sampling error, as explained in the last paragraph of appendix A.
6 Classification of employees in the occupations and work
levels surveyed was based on factors detailed in .the definitions
in appendix C.

7 Establishments prim arily engaged in providing accounting
and auditing services were excluded from the survey.
8 Although level V was surveyed, as defined in appendix C,
too few employees met requirements for this level to warrant
presentation of salary figures.

6

Attorneys w e r e c l a s s i f i e d in to s e v e n l e v e l s
b a s e d u p on the d i f f i c u l t y o f t h e i r a s s i g n m e n t s
and t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . 9 A t t o r n e y s I,
w h i c h in c l u d e d n e w la w g r a d u a t e s w ith l e s s
than a y e a r o f e x p e r i e n c e , a v e r a g e d $ 7 7 8 a
m o n t h . A t t o r n e y s in the t o p l e v e l s u r v e y e d ,
l e v e l V II, e a r n e d an a v e r a g e o f $ 2 , 4 0 3 a
m o n t h . T h e s e a t t o r n e y s d e a lt w ith l e g a l m a t ­
t e r s o f c r i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e to t h e i r o r g a n i z a ­
t i o n s , and w e r e u s u a l l y s u b o r d i n a t e o n ly to
the g e n e r a l c o u n s e l o r h i s i m m e d i a t e d ep uty
in v e r y l a r g e f i r m s .
F in a n ce , in su ra n ce ,
and r e a l e s t a t e i n d u s t r i e s e m p l o y e d a l m o s t
o n e - h a l f o f th e a t t o r n e y s ; m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n ­
d u s t r i e s e m p l o y e d o n e - f o u r t h , and a h ig h p r o ­
p o r t i o n o f the r e m a i n d e r w e r e e m p l o y e d in
p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s (17 p e r c e n t ) .
Managers of o ffic e s e rv ic e s w e r e c l a s s i f i e d
in to f o u r l e v e l s b a s e d on the v a r i e t y o f c l e r i ­
c a l an d o t h e r o f f i c e s e r v i c e s s u p e r v i s e d and
the s i z e o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n s e r v i c e d . T h o s e
at l e v e l I w e r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i d i n g f o u r
o r f i v e o f the n in e o f f i c e s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n s
e n u m e r a t e d in the s u r v e y d e f i n i t i o n f o r a s ta ff
o f 300 to 600 e m p l o y e e s , c o m p a r e d w ith s e v e n
o r e ig h t f u n c t i o n s f o r a b o u t 1 , 5 0 0 to 3 , 0 0 0
e m p l o y e e s at l e v e l IV . A m o n g t h e s e l e v e l s ,
a v e r a g e m on th ly s a la r ie s ra n ged f r o m $765
to $1,3 58. M a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s a c c o u n t e d
f o r a b o u t t w o - t h i r d s o f th e e m p l o y e e s in the
fo u r le v e l s c o m b in e d , and o n e -s ix t h w e r e e m ­
p l o y e d in f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e
in d u stries.
B uyers a v e r a g e d $ 6 1 2 a m o n t h at l e v e l I,
w h ich in clu d ed th o se who p u r c h a s e d " o f f - t h e s h e l f ” and r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i t e m s and s e r v ­
i c e s f r o m l o c a l s o u r c e s . B u y e r s I V , 10 w ho
p u r c h a s e d l a r g e a m o u n t s o f h ig h ly c o m p l e x
an d t e c h n i c a l i t e m s , m a t e r i a l s , o r s e r v i c e s
w e r e p a id m o n t h l y s a l a r i e s a v e r a g i n g $ 1 , 0 3 6 .
M a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s a c c o u n t e d f o r 86
p e r c e n t o f the b u y e r s in the f o u r l e v e l s .
In the p e r s o n n e l m a n a g e m e n t f i e l d , f o u r
w o r k l e v e l s o f job analysts a n d f i v e l e v e l s o f
directors of personnel w e r e s tu d ie d . 11 J o b a n a ­
l y s t s II, w h o a n a l y z e the s i m p l e r w a g e and
s a l a r i e d j o b s , a v e r a g e d $ 7 3 5 , c o m p a r e d with
$ 1 , 0 4 8 f o r j o b a n a l y s t s I V , w h o a n a l y z e and
e v a lu a t e a v a r i e t y o f the m o r e d i f f i c u l t j o b s
u n d e r g e n e r a l s u p e r v i s i o n and w h o m a y p a r ­
t i c i p a t e in the d e v e l o p m e n t an d in s t a l l a t i o n
o f evalu ation o r c o m p e n s a tio n s y s t e m s . D i­
r e c t o r s of p e r s o n n e l w e r e lim ite d by d e fin i­
t i o n to t h o s e w h o had p r o g r a m s that i n c l u d e d ,
at a m i n i m u m , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a d m i n i s t e r ­
in g a f o r m a l j o b e v a lu a t i o n s y s t e m , e m p l o y ­
m e n t a n d p l a c e m e n t f u n c t i o n s , and e m p l o y e e
r e l a t i o n s and s e r v i c e s fu n c t i o n s . T h o s e w ith
r e s p o n s ib ilit y fo r actual c o n tr a c t negotiation




w ith l a b o r u n io n s a s the p r i n c i p a l c o m p a n y
rep resen ta tiv e w e r e exclu d ed .
P ro v isio n s
w e r e m a d e in the d e f i n i t i o n f o r w e i g h i n g v a r ­
io u s c o m b i n a t i o n s o f d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l ­
i t i e s to d e t e r m i n e the l e v e l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .
A m o n g p e r s o n n e l d i r e c t o r s w ith j o b f u n c t i o n s
a s s p e c i f i e d f o r the f o u r l e v e l s o f r e s p o n s i ­
b ility , a v e r a g e m on th ly s a la r i e s ra n g ed f r o m
$ 919 f o r l e v e l I t o $ 1 , 6 4 3 f o r l e v e l IV . M a n ­
u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s a c c o u n t e d f o r 77 p e r c e n t
o f the j o b a n a l y s t s and 75 p e r c e n t o f the d i ­
r e c t o r s o f p e r s o n n e l i n c l u d e d in th e stu d y ;
the f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e i n ­
d u s t r i e s r a n k e d n e x t , w ith 12 p e r c e n t o f the
j o b a n a l y s t s and 9 p e r c e n t o f the d i r e c t o r s
of person nel.
C h e m is ts an d engineers e a c h w e r e s u r v e y e d
in e ig h t l e v e l s .
B o t h s e r i e s s t a r t e d w ith a
p r o fe s s io n a l tra in ee le v e l, ty p ica lly req u irin g
a B .S . d e g re e .
T he h igh est le v e l s u rv e y e d
i n v o l v e d e i t h e r f u ll r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o v e r a v e r y
b r o a d a n d h ig h ly c o m p l e x an d d i v e r s i f i e d e n ­
g i n e e r i n g o r c h e m i c a l p r o g r a m , w ith s e v e r a l
s u b o r d i n a t e s e a c h d i r e c t i n g l a r g e and i m p o r ­
tant s e g m e n t s o f the p r o g r a m ; o r in d iv i d u a l
r e s e a r c h a n d c o n s u l t a t i o n in d i f f i c u l t p r o b l e m
a r e a s w h e r e th e e n g i n e e r o r c h e m i s t w a s a
r e c o g n i z e d a u t h o r it y and w h e r e s o l u t i o n s
w ould r e p r e s e n t a m a j o r s c ie n tific o r t e c h ­
n o l o g i c a l a d v a n c e . 12 A v e r a g e m o n t h l y s a l a ­
r i e s r a n g e d f r o m $ 7 5 2 f o r e n g i n e e r s I to
$ 1 , 9 4 0 f o r e n g i n e e r s V III, and f r o m $ 6 7 2
f o r c h e m i s t s I t o $ 2 , 1 1 8 f o r c h e m i s t s VIII.
A lt h o u g h , at l e v e l I, the a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s o f
en g in eers e x c e e d e d th ose fo r c h e m ists by
12 p e r c e n t , at l e v e l IV the d i f f e r e n c e n a r ­
r o w e d to 3 p e r c e n t , and at l e v e l V III, the
a v e ra g e s a la r ie s of c h e m is ts e x ce e d e d th ose
fo r en gin eers by 9 p ercen t.
L e v e l I V , the
l a r g e s t g r o u p in e a c h s e r i e s , i n c l u d e d p r o ­
fe s s i o n a l e m p lo y e e s who w e r e fu lly c o m p e te n t
in a l l t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e i r a s s i g n m e n t s ,
w o r k e d w ith c o n s i d e r a b l e i n d e p e n d e n c e , a n d ,
in s o m e c a s e s , s u p e r v i s e d a f e w p r o f e s s i o n a l
and t e c h n i c a l w o r k e r s . M a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s ­
t r i e s a c c o u n t e d f o r 79 p e r c e n t o f a l l e n g i ­
n e e r s and 92 p e r c e n t o f a l l c h e m i s t s ; p u b lic
u t i l i t i e s , 10 and l e s s than 2 p e r c e n t , r e s p e c ­
t i v e l y ; a n d the s u r v e y e d e n g i n e e r i n g a n d s c i ­
e n t i f i c s e r v i c e s e m p l o y e d v i r t u a l l y a l l o f the
oth ers.

9
Establishments primarily engaged in offering legal advice
or legal services were excluded from the survey.
10 Op. c it ., footnote 8.
11 Although job analysts I and directors of personnel V were
studied, data for these two levels did not meet publication criteria.
12 It was recognized in the definition that top positions of
some companies with unusually extensive and complex engineering
or chemical programs were above that level.

7

By d efinition ,

the

fiv e -le v e l

series

for

engineering technicians w a s l i m i t e d to e m p l o y e e s
p rov id in g s e m i p r o f e s s io n a l te ch n ica l support
to e n g i n e e r s e n g a g e d in s u c h a r e a s a s r e ­
s e a r c h , d e sig n , d e v e lo p m e n t, testin g, or m a n ­
u f a c t u r i n g p r o c e s s i m p r o v e m e n t , and w h o s e
w o r k p e r t a i n e d to e l e c t r i c a l , e l e c t r o n i c , o r
m e c h a n i c a l c o m p o n e n t s o r e q u ip m e n t . T e c h ­
n i c i a n s e n g a g e d p r i m a r i l y in p r o d u c t i o n o r
m a intena n ce w o rk w e r e exclu d ed . E n g i n e e r ­
ing t e c h n i c i a n s I, w h o p e r f o r m e d s i m p l e ,
r o u t in e ta s k s u n d e r c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n , o r
f r o m d e t a i l e d p r o c e d u r e s , w e r e p a id m o n t h ly
s a la r ie s av era g in g $465.
E ngineering t e c h ­
n i c i a n s Y , the h i g h e s t l e v e l s u r v e y e d , a v e r ­
a g e d $ 8 1 6 a m o n th . T h a t l e v e l i n c l u d e d fu ll y
e x p e r i e n c e d tech n icia n s p e r fo r m in g m o r e
c o m p l e x a s s i g n m e n t s i n v o lv i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y
f o r p la n n in g and c o n d u c t in g a c o m p l e t e p r o ­
je c t of re la tiv e ly lim ite d s c o p e , or a p ortion
o f a l a r g e r and m o r e d i v e r s e p r o j e c t , in a c ­
c o r d a n c e w ith o b j e c t i v e s , r e q u i r e m e n t s , and
d e s i g n a p p r o a c h e s a s o u tlin e d b y the s u p e r ­
v is o r or a p r o fe s s io n a l en g in eer.
A verages
f o r i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l s III and I V , at w h i c h
a m a j o r i t y o f the t e c h n i c i a n s s u r v e y e d w e r e
c l a s s i f i e d , w e r e $ 6 3 3 and $ 7 3 1 , r e s p e c t i v e l y .
A s m i g h t b e e x p e c t e d , n e a r l y a l l o f the t e c h ­
n i c i a n s a s d e f i n e d w e r e e m p l o y e d in m a n u ­
f a c t u r i n g (78 p e r c e n t ) and in the s c i e n t i f i c
s e r v i c e s i n d u s t r i e s s tu d ie d (17 p e r c e n t ) .
A lt h o u g h the r a t i o o f s u c h t e c h n i c i a n s to e n ­
g i n e e r s s tu d ie d was a b o u t 1 to 4 in a l l m a n u ­
fa ctu rin g in d u s trie s , h ig h e r r a tio s of a p p r o x ­
i m a t e l y 1 to 3 w e r e fou n d in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
m a n u f a c t u r i n g m e c h a n i c a l and e l e c t r i c a l
e q u ip m e n t and 1 to 2 in r e s e a r c h , d e v e l o p ­
m e n t , and t e s t in g l a b o r a t o r i e s .
In the drafting fie ld , the d e f i n i t io n s u s e d in
the s u r v e y c o v e r e d f o u r l e v e l s o f w o r k —
d r a f t s m e n - t r a c e r s , and d r a f t s m e n I, II, and
III.
M o n t h ly s a l a r i e s a v e r a g e d $ 4 1 2 f o r
d r a f t s m e n - t r a c e r s and r a n g e d f r o m $ 5 0 9 to
$ 769 a m o n g the th r e e l e v e l s o f d r a f t s m e n .
D r a f t s m e n - t r a c e r s c o p y p la n s and d r a w i n g s
p re p a re d by oth ers or p re p a re
sim p le or
rep etitiv e draw ings of e a s ily v is u a liz e d ite m s .
T he t h r e e d r a f t s m e n l e v e l s a s d e f i n e d r a n g e d
f r o m e m p lo y e e s p re p a rin g d etail draw ings of
s in g l e u n its o r p a r t s ( l e v e l I) to t h o s e w h o ,
w o r k i n g in c l o s e s u p p o r t w ith the d e s i g n o r i g ­
i n a t o r , p la n the g r a p h i c p r e s e n t a t i o n o f c o m ­
p l e x i t e m s h a v in g d i s t i n c t i v e d e s i g n f e a t u r e s ,
and e it h e r p r e p a r e o r d i r e c t the p r e p a r a t i o n
o f the d r a w i n g s ( l e v e l III). T he d r a ftin g e m ­
p l o y e e s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d b y i n d u s t r y in a b o u t
the s a m e p r o p o r t i o n a s e n g i n e e r s , w ith 80
p e r c e n t in m a n u f a c t u r i n g , 7 p e r c e n t in p u b lic
u t i l i t i e s , and 11 p e r c e n t in the s e l e c t e d e n ­
g i n e e r i n g and s c i e n t i f i c s e r v i c e s i n d u s t r i e s
s tu d ie d .




A m o n g the 21 clerical jobs i n c l u d e d in this
stu d y, a v e r a g e m o n t h ly s a l a r i e s f o r s e c r e ­
t a r i e s , the m o s t h e a v i l y p o p u l a t e d c l e r i c a l
o c c u p a t i o n s t u d ie d , r a n g e d f r o m $ 4 6 3 at
l e v e l I to $ 6 0 6 at l e v e l I Y . F o r o t h e r l a r g e
g r o u p s , a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s o f $ 4 0 5 and $ 4 6 8
w e r e r e p o r t e d f o r g e n e r a l and s e n i o r s t e n o g ­
r a p h e r s ; $ 3 9 2 and $ 5 1 5 f o r a c c o u n t i n g c l e r k s
I and II; and the tw o l e v e l s o f t y p is t s a v e r a g e d
$ 3 5 0 and $ 4 0 7 . G e n e r a l l y , a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s
f o r c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s w e r e h ig h e s t in p u b l i c
u t i l i t i e s and m a n u f a c t u r in g i n d u s t r i e s and
l o w e s t in the f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , and r e a l
e s t a t e , and r e t a i l tr a d e d i v i s i o n s .
E m p loy ­
m e n t in m a n u f a c t u r i n g e x c e e d e d that in any
o f the n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g d i v i s i o n s w ith in s c o p e
o f the s u r v e y in 15 o f the 21 c l e r i c a l w o r k
l e v e l s ; h i g h e s t e m p l o y m e n t t o t a ls in the o t h e r
s i x l e v e l s w e r e in the f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e ,
and r e a l e s t a t e d i v i s i o n .
W om en accounted
f o r n in e - t e n t h s o r m o r e o f the e m p l o y e e s
in 15 o f the c l e r i c a l w o r k l e v e l s , and m e n
a c c o u n t e d f o r o n e - h a l f o r m o r e in t h r e e
( t a b u l a t i n g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s II and III, and
office boys or g ir ls ).
M e d i a n m o n t h ly s a l a r i e s (the a m o u n t
b e l o w and a b o v e w h i c h 50 p e r c e n t o f the e m ­
p l o y e e s w e r e found) f o r m o s t o f the w o r k
l e v e l s w e r e s l i g h t l y l o w e r than the w e i g h t e d
a v e r a g e s ( m e a n s ) c i t e d a b o v e (i. e. , the s a l a ­
r i e s in the u p p e r h a l v e s o f the a r r a y s had
a g r e a t e r e f f e c t on the a v e r a g e s than did the
s a l a r i e s in the l o w e r h a l v e s ) .
The r e la tiv e
d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n the m e d i a n and the m e a n
w a s l e s s than 3 p e r c e n t f o r 66 o f the 81 w o r k
l e v e l s and a s m u c h a s 3 but l e s s than 5 p e r ­
c e n t in 12 a d d it i o n a l l e v e l s .
The w e i g h t e d
a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s e x c e e d e d the m e d i a n s b y
5 to 8 p e r c e n t f o r a t t o r n e y s I and II, a n d
d i r e c t o r s o f p e r s o n n e l IY .
S a la ry L e v e ls

in M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a s

In m o s t o f the o c c u p a t i o n a l w o r k l e v e l s ,
a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s f o r e m p l o y e e s in m e t r o p o l ­
itan a r e a s (ta b le 2) w e r e e i t h e r i d e n t i c a l to
o r s l i g h t l y h ig h e r than a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s f o r
e m p l o y e e s in a ll e s t a b l i s h m e n t s within fu ll
s c o p e o f the s u r v e y (ta b le 1).
E m p loy m en t
in the s u r v e y o c c u p a t i o n s in m e t r o p o l i t a n
a r e a s a c c o u n t e d f o r n in e - t e n t h s o f the to ta l
n a tio n w id e e m p l o y m e n t r e p o r t e d in t h e s e o c ­
c u p a t i o n s . The p r o p o r t i o n s v a r i e d , h o w e v e r ,
a m o n g o c c u p a t i o n s and w o r k l e v e l s .
N early
a ll o f the a t t o r n e y s at e a c h l e v e l , f o r e x ­
a m p l e , w e r e e m p l o y e d in m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s ,
w h e r e a s the p r o p o r t i o n o f c h i e f a c c o u n t a n t s
and d i r e c t o r s o f p e r s o n n e l f o r a l l l e v e l s c o m ­
b in e d w a s a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o u r - f i f t h s with a
s m a l l e r p r o p o r t i o n at the l o w e s t l e v e l s .
In
a m a j o r i t y o f the 81 w o r k l e v e l s s t u d ie d ,

8
n in e - t e n t h s o r m o r e o f the e m p l o y m e n t w a s
in m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s . It is a p p a r e n t , t h e r e ­
f o r e , that a lth o u g h a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s u s u a l l y
w e r e l o w e r in the n o n m e t r o p o l i t a n c o u n t i e s ,
in t h o s e w o r k l e v e l s in w h i c h n e a r l y a ll o f
the e m p l o y m e n t w a s in m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s ,
n o n m e tro p o lita n cou n ties cou ld have l i t t l e
e f f e c t u p o n the a v e r a g e s f o r a l l e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t s c o m b i n e d . O n ly in f o u r o f the 81 w o r k
l e v e l s s t u d ie d w e r e a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s m o r e
than 1. 5 (but n o t m o r e than 2. 0) p e r c e n t
h i g h e r in m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s than in a l l a r e a s
c o m b i n e d ; in a ll o f t h e s e c a s e s the p r o p o r t i o n
o f the to t a l e m p l o y m e n t w ith in n o n m e t r o p o l ­
itan c o u n t i e s r a n g e d b e t w e e n o n e - t e n t h and
on e-th ird .
I n c r e a s e s in a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s in m e t r o ­
p o li t a n a r e a e s t a b l i s h m e n t s f r o m June 1967
to June 1968 w e r e w ith in o n e - h a l f p e r c e n t a g e
p o in t o f i n c r e a s e s
r e p o r t e d f o r a ll a r e a s
s tu d ie d in 71 o f the 80 l e v e l s .
T he y e a r - t o y e a r i n c r e a s e s in m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s c o m ­
p a r e d w ith a l l a r e a s w e r e l a r g e r f o r 32,
s m a l l e r f o r 39 l e v e l s , and the s a m e f o r n in e .

S a la ry L e v e ls

in L a r g e E s t a b l i s h m e n t s

It w a s p o s s i b l e to p r e s e n t s e p a r a t e data
f o r 72 o f the 81 o c c u p a t i o n w o r k l e v e l s f o r
a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w ith 2, 500 e m p l o y e e s o r
m o r e (ta b le 3).
C o m p a riso n s betw een e m ­
p l o y m e n t s and r e l a t i v e s a l a r y l e v e l s in t h e s e
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s and a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s c o m ­
b in e d a l s o a r e p r e s e n t e d .
E sta b lish m en ts
e m p l o y i n g 2, 500 o r m o r e a c c o u n t e d f o r n e a r l y
t w o - f i f t h s o f the to t a l e m p l o y m e n t in p r o f e s ­
s i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , s u p e r v i s o r y , and c l e r ­
i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s w ith in s c o p e o f the s u r v e y ,
and a p p r o x i m a t e l y
the s a m e p r o p o r t i o n o f
to t a l e m p l o y m e n t in the s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s
s tu d ie d . L a r g e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a c c o u n t e d f o r
v a r y i n g p r o p o r t i o n s o f to ta l e m p l o y m e n t in
the 72 o c c u p a t i o n a l w o r k l e v e l s s h o w n in
ta b le 3, ra n g in g f r o m 15 to 80 p e r c e n t ( d i ­
r e c t o r s o f p e r s o n n e l III and j o b a n a l y s t s IV ,
resp e ctiv e ly ).
T he s a l a r y l e v e l s in l a r g e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ,
e x p r e s s e d a s a p e r c e n t o f l e v e l s in a l l e s t a b ­
l i s h m e n t s c o m b i n e d , r a n g e d f r o m 100 o r l e s s
( f o r the t o p l e v e l s u r v e y e d in e a c h o f the
a t t o r n e y , b u y e r , j o b a n a l y s t , and e n g i n e e r i n g
t e c h n i c i a n s e r i e s , and m a n a g e r s o f o f f i c e
s e r v i c e s III) to 118 f o r d i r e c t o r s o f p e r s o n ­
n e l III. A s s h o w n in the f o l l o w i n g ta b u la t io n ,
sa la ry a v e ra g e s fo r la rg e esta blish m en ts e x ­
c e e d e d the a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t a v e r a g e s b y
5 p e r c e n t o r m o r e in 19 o f 21 c l e r i c a l j o b s ,
but in o n ly 18 o f 51 n o n c l e r i c a l j o b s .




Number of iob categories
Pay levels in large
establishments as
percent of all
establishment average

Professional,
administrative,
and technical

Clerical

T o t a l -----------------------------

51

21

95-100......... — ...............................
1 0 1 -1 0 4 ---------------------------------105-109 ......... ........................ ......
110 and o v e r ---------------------------

5
28
14
4

2
11
8

T he r e l a t i v e s a l a r y l e v e l s in l a r g e e s t a b ­
li s h m e n t s te n d e d to b e h ig h e s t f o r w o r k l e v e l s
in w h i c h s u c h e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a c c o u n t e d f o r
the s m a l l e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f the to t a l e m p l o y ­
m e n t. T h u s , w h i le the d e g r e e o f e m p l o y m e n t
c o n c e n t r a t i o n in l a r g e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s r a n g e d
f r o m 1 7 to 44 p e r c e n t f o r c l e r i c a l j o b s , t h e s e
f i r m s c o n t r i b u t e d m o r e than 40 p e r c e n t o f
the e m p l o y m e n t in a l m o s t t w o - t h i r d s o f the
n o n cle rica l job s.
S a la r y D i s t r i b u t i o n s
P e r c e n t d istrib u tion s of e m p lo y e e s by
m o n t h ly s a l a r i e s a r e p r e s e n t e d f o r the p r o ­
f e s s i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n s in
ta b le 4, and f o r e n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n i c i a n s in
ta b le 5; d i s t r i b u t i o n s b y w e e k l y s a l a r i e s a r e
sh ow n f o r e m p l o y e e s in d r a ft i n g and c l e r i c a l
o c c u p a t i o n s in ta b le 6. 13 W ith in a ll o f the
81 o c c u p a t i o n w o r k l e v e l s , s a l a r y r a t e s f o r
s o m e o f the h i g h e s t p a id e m p l o y e e s w e r e
t w i c e t h o s e o f the l o w e s t p a id e m p l o y e e s .
The a b s o l u t e s p r e a d b e t w e e n h i g h e s t and l o w ­
e s t p a id w o r k e r s w ith in g i v e n w o r k l e v e l s
te n d e d to w i d e n w ith e a c h s u c c e s s i v e w o r k
l e v e l f o r m o s t o c c u p a t i o n s in w h i c h tw o l e v e l s
or m o r e w e re su rv ey ed .
A l l o c c u p a t i o n s in
w h i c h tw o l e v e l s o r m o r e o f w o r k w e r e s u r ­
v e y e d s h o w e d a s u b s t a n t ia l d e g r e e o f o v e r ­
la p p in g o f in d iv i d u a l s a l a r i e s b e t w e e n w o r k
l e v e l s in the s a m e o c c u p a t i o n .
R a n g e s in
s a l a r y r a t e s o f e m p l o y e e s in e s t a b l i s h e d p a y
g r a d e s o r w o r k l e v e l s w ith in s a l a r y s t r u c ­
t u r e s o f in d iv i d u a l f i r m s a l s o e x h ib it e d s u b ­
sta n tia l o v e r l a p p i n g .
T he m i d d l e 50 and 80 p e r c e n t o f the r a n g e ,
and the m e d i a n s a l a r y f o r e a c h o c c u p a t i o n
w o r k l e v e l h a v e b e e n c h a r t e d ( c h a r t s 2 and 3)
to p oin t up o c c u p a t i o n a l p a y r e l a t i o n s h i p s a s
w e l l a s the t y p i c a l l y g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f s a l a r y
d i s p e r s i o n a s s o c i a t e d with the h i g h e r w o r k
l e v e l s in e a c h o c c u p a t i o n a l s e r i e s .

13
Technical considerations dictated the summarization o f
employee distributions by weekly salaries in the case of the
drafting and clerical jobs.

9

Chart 2. Salaries in Professional and Technical Occupations, June 1968




Median Monthly Salaries and Ranges Within Which Fell 50 Percent and 8 0 Percent of Employees
0

$500

$ 1 ,0 0 0

$ 1 ,5 0 0

$ 2 ,0 0 0

$2 ,5 0 0

$ 3 ,0 0 0

10

Chart 3. Salaries in Administrative and Clerical Occupations, June 1968




Median M onthly Salaries and Ranges W ithin Which Fell 50 Percent and 80 Percent of Employees
0

$400

$800

$1,200

$ 1 ,6 0 0

$ 2 ,0 0 0

$2,400

$ 2,800

11
Distribution of work levels by degree of dispersion
(salary range of middle 50 percent of employees
expressed as a percent of median salary)

Occupational group
All levels-----------------------------------Accountants-----------------------------------------Auditors-----------------------------------------------Chief accountants--------------------------------Attorneys----------------------------------------------Managers, office services--------------------Buyers-------------------------------------------------Job analysts------------------------------------------Directors of personnel---------------------------Chemists----------------------------------------------Engineers--------------------------------------------Engineering technicians-----------------------D rafting----------------------------------------------Clerical------------------------------------------------

Total

25
and
under
30
17

4

26

32

5
4
4
7
4
4
3
4
8
8
5
4
21

1

3
1
3
1
3
2

1
3
1
1

T he w id e v a r i a t i o n in the d e g r e e o f d i s ­
p e r s i o n f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a ­
tive s a l a r i e s is c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e d in the
ta b u la tio n s h o w n a b o v e . In c o n t r a s t , s a l a r i e s
f o r the c l e r i c a l l e v e l s w e r e d i s p e r s e d in a
m u c h m o r e c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n , w ith the m i d d l e
r a n g e s fa l lin g b e t w e e n 20 and 30 p e r c e n t o f
the c o r r e s p o n d i n g m e d i a n s f o r a ll but tw o
l e v e l s ( 1 4 . 7 p e r c e n t f o r f i l e c l e r k s I, and
30. 3 p e r c e n t f o r a c c o u n t i n g c l e r k s II).
D i f f e r e n c e s in the r a n g e o f s a l a r i e s p a id
in d iv i d u a l s w ith in w o r k l e v e l s s u r v e y e d r e ­
f l e c t a v a r i e t y o f f a c t o r s o t h e r than d i f f e r ­
e n c e s in the r a n g e o f d u tie s and r e s p o n s i ­
b i l i t i e s e n c o m p a s s e d b y the v a r i o u s w o r k
le v e l d efinition s.
S a l a r i e s o f i n d iv i d u a l s in
the s a m e o c c u p a t i o n and g r a d e l e v e l m a y v a r y
c o n s i d e r a b l y w ith in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . S a l a r i e s
of w h it e -c o lla r e m p lo y e e s are g e n e r a lly d e ­
t e r m i n e d on an in d iv i d u a l b a s i s o r u n d e r f o r ­
m a l i z e d pay p la n s w h i c h p r o v i d e f o r a r a n g e
in s a l a r y r a t e s f o r e a c h g r a d e l e v e l with in
each occu p a tion .
T he i n - g r a d e s a l a r y s p r e a d
(i. e. , the p e r c e n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n the
m i n i m u m and m a x i m u m r a t e s f o r a g r a d e )
ten d s to be g r e a t e r in the p r o f e s s i o n a l and




20
and
under
25

81

E x p r e s s i n g the s a l a r y ra n g e o f the m i d d l e
50 p e r c e n t o f e m p l o y e e s a s a p e r c e n t o f the
m edian sa la ry p e r m i t t e d co m p a ris o n s of
s a l a r y r a n g e s f o r the v a r i o u s w o r k l e v e l s on
the s a m e b a s i s , and a l s o e l i m i n a t e d e x t r e m e
lo w and h ig h s a l a r i e s f r o m e a c h c o m p a r i s o n .
A s sh o w n a b o v e , the r e l a t i v e s p r e a d in s a l a r y
ranges v a rie d co n sid e ra b ly am ong o c c u p a ­
ti o n s , and in m o s t c a s e s , the r e l a t i v e s p r e a d
w a s s m a l l e r f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l and a d m i n i s ­
tr a t iv e w o r k l e v e l s than f o r c l e r i c a l l e v e l s
stu d ie d .

331-982 0 - 6 9 - 3

Under
15

15
and
under
20

2

1

1
5
3
4

2
3
1
2
3
1
3
11

30
and
over
2

5
1

1
1

1
8

1

1

a d m i n i s t r a t i v e j o b s than in the c l e r i c a l j o b s .
F o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o c ­
c u p a t i o n s , the j o b f i e ld ten d s to b e n a t io n a l
in s c o p e . O f f i c e c l e r i c a l e m p l o y e e s , on the
o th e r hand, a r e u s u a l l y r e c r u i t e d l o c a l l y . 14
A s p o in t e d out e a r l i e r (and in d i c a t e d in ta b le 7
and c h a r t 4), e m p l o y m e n t in the v a r i o u s i n ­
d u s t r i e s with in the s c o p e o f the s u r v e y v a r i e s
c o n s i d e r a b l y f r o m o c c u p a t i o n to o c c u p a t i o n .
T h e s e v a r i a t i o n s in e m p l o y m e n t a l s o a r e r e ­
f l e c t e d in s a l a r y l e v e l s and d i s t r i b u t i o n s to
the e x ten t that s a l a r i e s d i f f e r by i n d u s t r y , as
e x p la i n e d in the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n .
P a y D i f f e r e n c e s b y In d u s t r y
T he s u r v e y w a s p la n n e d to p e r m i t p u b l i ­
c a t i o n o f n a tio n a l s a l a r y e s t i m a t e s b y l e v e l
o f w o r k . B y c o m b i n i n g the data f o r a ll l e v e l s
o f w o r k s t u d ie d in e a c h o c c u p a t i o n , it w a s
p o s s i b l e to p r e s e n t c o m p a r i s o n s b e t w e e n r e l ­
a t i v e s a l a r y l e v e l s in m a j o r i n d u s t r y d i v i ­
s io n s and a ll i n d u s t r i e s c o m b i n e d (table 8).
T o o b t a i n r e l a t i v e s a l a r y l e v e l s , the a l l ­
in d u s t r y e m p l o y m e n t in e a c h w o r k l e v e l w a s
u s e d a s a c o n s t a n t e m p l o y m e n t w e i g h t to
c o m p u t e a g g r e g a t e s in e a c h i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n
to e l i m i n a t e the in f l u e n c e o f d i f f e r e n c e s
a m o n g in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s in the p r o p o r t i o n o f
e m p l o y m e n t in v a r i o u s w o r k l e v e l s .
T he
in du stry d iv isio n a g g r e g a te s fo r w o rk le v e ls
w ith in an o c c u p a t i o n w e r e c o m b i n e d and e x ­
p r e s s e d a s p e r c e n t a g e s o f the c o r r e s p o n d i n g
a g g r e g a t e s in a ll i n d u s t r i e s c o m b i n e d .

14
For an analysis of interarea pay differentials in clerical
salaries, see Wages and Related Benefits, Part II: Metropolitan
Areas, United States and Regional Summaries, 1966-67 (BLS Bul­
letin 1530-87, 1968).

12

Chart 4. Relative Employment in Selected Occupational Groups
by Industry Division, June 1968
OCCUPATIONAL
GROUPS

PERCENT
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Accountants and
ch ief accountants
Auditors

Attorneys
M anagers,
office services

Buyers
D irectors of personnel
and job analysts

C hem ists

Engineers
E ngineering
technicians
and draftsm en
Clerical em ployees




M an u fac tu rin g
Public Utilities

H

H

Finance, Insurance,
and Real Estate
Trade
I Selected Services

13
F o r a l m o s t a ll o f the c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s
stu d ie d , and f o r a m a j o r i t y o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l
an d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n s in w h i c h c o m ­
p a riso n s cou ld be m ade, rela tiv e s a la ry lev els
w e r e l o w e r in r e t a i l tr a d e and in f i n a n c e ,
i n s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e than in o t h e r i n ­
du stry d iv ision s.
It is a p p a r e n t , t h e r e f o r e ,
that in t h o s e o c c u p a t i o n s in w h i c h r e t a i l t r a d e
and the fi n a n c e i n d u s t r i e s a c c o u n t f o r a s u b ­
sta n tia l p r o p o r t i o n o f the to t a l e m p l o y m e n t ,
the a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s f o r a ll i n d u s t r i e s c o m ­
b in e d a r e l o w e r e d , and the r e l a t i v e l e v e l s in
i n d u s t r i e s s u c h as m a n u f a c t u r in g and p u b lic
u t i l i t i e s ten d to b e w e l l a b o v e 100 p e r c e n t o f
the a l l - i n d u s t r y l e v e l . F o r e x a m p l e , r e l a t i v e
p a y l e v e l s f o r f i l e c l e r k s o f 107 p e r c e n t in
m a n u f a c t u r i n g and 119 p e r c e n t in p u b lic u t i l ­
i t i e s r e f l e c t the i n f l u e n c e o f l o w e r s a l a r i e s
f o r the h ig h p r o p o r t i o n (52 p e r c e n t ) o f a l l ­
in du stry e m p lo y m e n t a ccou n ted
f o r b y the
f i n a n c e in d u stries.
In f i n a n c e i n d u s t r i e s ,
h o w e v e r , the r e l a t i v e l y l o w e r s a l a r y l e v e l s
w e r e o f f s e t to the e x te n t that a v e r a g e w e e k l y
h o u r s w e r e l o w e r than in the o t h e r in d u s t r i e s
s u r v e y e d , as s h o w n in ta b l e 9.

The r e l a t i v e s a l a r y l e v e l s f o r m o s t o f
the p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , and t e c h ­
n i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s t e n d e d to b e n e a r e s t to
1 0 0 p e r c e n t o f the a l l - i n d u s t r y l e v e l s in m a n ­
u fa ctu rin g in d u s trie s , which a ccou n ted fo r a
h ig h p r o p o r t i o n o f the to ta l e m p l o y m e n t in




m o s t o f these o ccu p a tio n s .
R ela tiv e s a la r y
l e v e l s f o r a m a j o r i t y o f the c l e r i c a l and s o m e
o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o c c u ­
p a tio n s w e r e s li g h t ly h i g h e r in p u b lic u t i l i t i e s
than in m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s . F o r e n g i ­
neers,
h o w e v e r , r e l a t i v e s a l a r y l e v e l s in
u t i l i t i e s w e r e 97 p e r c e n t o f the a l l - i n d u s t r y
l e v e l , c o m p a r e d w ith 101 f o r m a n u f a c t u r i n g
and 98 f o r the s e l e c t e d s e r v i c e s .
A v e r a g e W eek ly H ours
T h e len g th o f the w o r k w e e k , on w h ic h
the r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r y w a s b a s e d ,
w as o b t a i n e d f o r in d iv id u a l e m p l o y e e s in the
o c c u p a t i o n s stu d ie d . T he d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a v e r ­
age w e e k l y h o u r s (r o u n d e d to the n e a r e s t h a lf
h o u r) is p r e s e n t e d in ta b le 9 f o r a l l w o r k
l e v e l s o f e a c h o c c u p a t i o n c o m b i n e d in m a j o r
in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s u r v e y e d . A v e r a g e w e e k l y
h o u r s w e r e l o w e r in f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , and
r e a l e s t a t e than in the o t h e r i n d u s t r y d i v i ­
sion s.
T h u s , in fi n a n c e i n d u s t r i e s , w o r k ­
w e e k s a v e r a g e d 38 h o u r s f o r a m a j o r i t y o f
the o c c u p a t i o n s , c o m p a r e d to 39. 5 h o u r s in
m a n u f a c t u r in g and f r o m 39 to 3 9. 5 h o u r s in
the r e m a i n i n g i n d u s t r i e s s u r v e y e d . 15

15
For additional information on scheduled weekly hours of
office workers employed in metropolitan areas, see Wages and
Related Benefits, Part I: 85 Metropolitan Areas, 1966-67 (BLS
Bulletin 1530-87, 1967).

14

Table 1. Average Salaries:

United States

( E m p l o y m e n t and a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s f o r s e l e c t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , t e c h n i c a l , and c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s in
p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y , 1 United States e x c e p t A la s k a and H a wa ii, June 1968,
and p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e in m e a n s a l a r i e s d u ri n g the y e a r 2 )
Mo n th ly s a l a r i e s ' i
O c c u p a t io n and c l a s s
(See d e f i n i ti o n s in a p p e n d i x C)

Number
of
em ploy ees 3

An nual s a l a r i e s 4

Mi d d le ra ng e 5
Me a n

M e d ia n

F irst
Third
q u a rt ile q u a rt ile

M id d le r a ng e 5
Me a n

M e d ia n

F irst
Third
q u a rt i le q ua rt ile

Percent
increase
in
mean
salaries2

A c c o u n t a n t s and a u d i to r s
I _______ - __________ ___
I I _______________________
I I I ______________________
IV_______________________
V________________________

4,6 9 3
9,6 8 3
24,119
16,669
6 ,557

$621
690
781
939
1,128

$623
680
773
925
1,108

$575
625
705
850
1,008

$ 666
749
840
1,008
1,243

$7,451
8, 277
9, 367
11,273
1 3, 5 3 1

$7,476
8 ,160
9 ,276
11,100
13,296

$6,900
7 ,500
8 ,460
10,200
12,096

$7,992
8 ,988
10,080
12,096
14,916

6.
5.
5.
5.
5.

I _____________________________
I I __________ _______________
II I ___________________________
I V ___________________________

724
1,795
3,773
2,637

637
726
831
1,025

625
719
820
1 ,002

575
650
740
925

700
800
908
1,100

7 ,645
8,707
9 ,977
12, 303

7, 500
8,628
9,8 4 0
12,024

6,900
7 ,800
8 ,880
11,100

8 ,400
9,600
10,896
13,200

6. 3
4. 2
5.6
5. 8

837
1 ,343
784
301

1 ,024
1,178
1, 381
1 ,5 8 7

1 ,0 0 0
1 ,1 5 1
1,364
1,583

916
1 ,0 5 0
1 ,2 5 0
1,442

1 ,1 6 1
1 ,266
1 ,5 0 0
1 ,6 9 9

12,289
14,135
16,577
19,046

12,000
13,812
16,368
18,996

10,992
12,600
15,000
17,304

13,932
15,192
18,000
20,388

4.
8.
4.
0.

218
959
1,110
1,657
1,428
691
408

778
858
1 ,0 5 0
1 ,274
1 ,495
1,846
2,403

736
806
1,003
1 ,2 5 1
1 ,4 4 7
1,833
2, 373

683
760
912
1 ,1 1 0
1 ,3 0 0
1,625
2 ,0 8 1

875
912
1 ,166
1 ,3 9 1
1 ,666
2 ,083
2,765

9, 338
10,293
12,602
15,283
17,936
22,152
28,841

8 ,832
9 ,672
12,036
15,012
17,364
21,996
28,476

8,1 9 6
9 ,120
10,944
13,320
15,600
19,500
24,972

10,500
10,944
13,992
16,692
19,992
24,996
33,180

(6)
7. 0
6. 4
6 .0
4. 2
3. 4
5. 7

I _______
I I ______
II I ______
I V ______

282
721
381
62

765
912
1 ,142
1 ,358

766
916
1 ,1 1 7
1 ,304

683
833
1 ,0 0 0
1 ,2 0 0

810
990
1,292
1,429

9 ,183
10,948
13,707
1 6, 2 9 1

9,1 9 2
10,992
13,404
15,648

8 ,196
9,996
12,000
14,400

9,720
11,880
15, 504
17,148

7.
5.
5.
5.

3
3
3
7

I _______________________________
I I ______________________________
II I _____________________________
I V --------------------------------------------

2,395
9, 132
12,878
4 ,599

612
722
855
1 ,036

608
715
845
1,015

541
641
759
925

670
783
939
1,120

7 , 344
8,660
10,260
1 2, 4 3 1

7, 296
8, 580
10,140
12,180

6,4 9 2
7 ,692
9 ,108
11,100

8,040
9,3 9 6
11,268
13,440

4.
5.
4.
5.

5
5
5
3

384
682
523

735
867
1,048

733
859
1 ,038

650
770
925

819
950
1 ,166

8,820
1 0, 4 0 1
12,577

8,7 9 6
10,308
12,456

7,800
9 ,240
11,100

9 ,8 2 8
11,400
13,992

8. 1
8. 1
5. 1

1,153
1 ,733
1,132
391

919
1 ,1 0 1
1 ,334
1,643

900
1,0 8 3'
1 ,316
1 ,5 2 1

825
966
1 ,133
1,3 7 4

990
1 ,208
1,499
1,875

11,029
13,215
16,005
19,715

10,800
12,966
15,792
18,252

9 ,900
11,592
13,596
16,488

11,880
14,496
17,988
22,500

6. 0
6 .6
4. 5
2.8

Accountants
Accountants
Accountants
Accountants
Accountants
Auditors
Auditors
A uditors
Auditors
C hief
C hief
Chief
Chief

a cc o u n t a n ts
a cc o u n t a n ts
a cc ou n t a n ts
a cc o u n t a n ts

I __________________
I I _________________
II I ________________
I V ________________

6
8
5
8
8

4
4
4
8

Attorneys
A t t o r n e y I_________
______ ____
A t t o r n e y s I I __________________________
A t t o r n e y s I I I _________________________
A t t o r n e y s IV__________________________
A t t o r n e y s V ---------- ------------------------------A t t o r n e y s V I _________________________
A t t o r n e y s V I I ________________________
Office s e r v ic e s
M anagers,
M anagers,
M anagers,
M anagers,

office
office
office
office

services
services
services
services

Buyers
Buyers
Buyers
Buyers
Buyers

P erson n el managem ent7
J o b a n a l y s t s I I _______________________
J o b a n a l y s t s III_______________________
J o b a n a l y s t s I V ______________________
D irectors
D irectors
D irectors
D irectors

of
of
of
of

personnel
personnel
personnel
personnel

I -----------------I I ___________
II I__________
I V - _______

C h e m i s t s and e n g i n e e r s
C hem ists
C hem ists
C hem ists
C hem ists
C hem ists
C hem ists
C hem ists
C hem ists

I ____________________________
I I ___________________________
II I __________________________
I V _______________ ________
V ___________________________
V I __________________________
V I I _________________________
V I II ________________________

1,768
4 ,419
9 ,292
10,395
8,015
4,340
1,897
508

672
744
849
1,063
1,272
1 ,444
1,713
2 ,118

660
740
833
1 ,0 4 0
1 ,2 7 0
1 ,4 3 1
1,666
2,0 5 4

615
687
775
939
1 ,145
1,300
1 ,533
1,8 3 3

734
800
912
1,180
1 ,3 9 1
1 ,5 8 1
1 ,875
2, 382

8 ,0 6 1
8 ,9 3 1
10,187
12,751
15,263
17,324
20,561
25,416

7,920
8,880
9,9 9 6
12,480
15,240
17,172
19,992
24,648

7 , 380
8, 244
9,3 0 0
11,268
13,740
15,600
18,396
21,996

8,808
9, 600
10,944
14,160
16,692
18,396
22,500
28,584

6. 2
5. 3
4. 8
5 .9
6 .0
4. 5
2. 2
3. 0

Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
E ngineers

I ___________________________
I I __________________________
II I _________________________
I V _________________________
V __________________________
V I _________________________
V I I ------------------------------------V I II ________ _____________

12,361
32,113
82,667
109,538
71,257
38,444
12,789
2 ,9 7 1

752
814
914
1 ,0 9 1
1,269
1,447
1 ,685
1,940

760
808
910
1,083
1 ,2 5 1
1 ,4 4 7!
1 ,6 7 0
1 ,895

716
765
841
990
1,130
1 ,2 9 1
1 ,505
1 ,708

788
858
980
1 ,185
1,380
1 ,596
1 ,834
2,120

9 ,0 2 3
9 ,7 7 1
10,963
13,095
15,223
17,361
20,216
23,280

9 ,120
9 ,6 9 6
10,920
12,996
15,012
17,364
20,040
22,740

8,5 9 2
9,180
10,092
11,880
13,560
15,492
18,060
20,496

9 ,456
10,296
11,760
14,220
16,560
19,152
22,008
25,440

7.
7.
6.
5.
4.
4.
4.
4.

See f o o t n o t e s at e nd o f table,




6
6
1
4
8
6
6
7

15

Table 1. Average Salaries:

United States— Continued

( E m p l o y m e n t and a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s f o r s e l e c t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , t e c h n i c a l , and c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s in
p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y , 1 United States e x c e p t A l a s k a and H a w a i i, June 1968,
and p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e in m e a n s a l a r i e s d u ri n g the y e a r 2 )
M o n th ly s a l a r i e s 4
O c c u p a t io n and c l a s s
(S ee definition's in a p p e n d i x C)

Number
of
em ployees 3

Annual s a l a r i e s 4

Middle range 5
Me a n

M e d ia n

First
Third
qua i*t ile q u a rt i le

M id d le •r a n g e 5
Mean

M e d ia n

First
q u a rt i le

Third
q u a rt i le

Percent
increase
in
mean
salaries 2

Engineering technicians
I _________
II _ ______
I I I _______
I V _______
V__

5,809
15,711
27,976
30,347
15,555

$465
555
633
731
816

$458
552
630
721
804

$413
508
578
672
750

$512
597
688
782
883

$5,585
6 ,6 6 1
7, 596
8,767
9 ,?6 8

$5,496
6 ,624
7 ,560
8 ,652
9 ,648

$4,956
6 ,096
6,9 3 6
8,0 6 4
9 ,000

$6,144
7,1 6 4
8 ,256
9 , 384
10,596

4. 1
5. 6
5 .0
5. 4
4. 8

D r a f t s m e n - t r a c e r s ____ __ __ ____
D r a f t s m e n I __ _ _ _ ___ ___ __
D r a f t s m e n II
- —
-----D r a f t s m e n III __ __
___ ___ ___

6,557
21,828
33,447
25,628

412
509
629
769

401
501
625
750

356
450
561
681

457
565
695
839

4 ,9 5 1
6,110
7 ,548
9 ,2 3 3

4,811
6,00.7
7,4 9 4
8,998

4, 269
5,399
6 ,736
8,1 7 6

5,487
6,778
8 ,338
10,073

4 .6
6. 0
4. 6
5 .9

79,082
55,873
3 1, 8 9 1
28,750
8,720
59,919
40,687
28,163
79,943
76,825
46,403
15,057
73,720
56,347
15,056
10,293

392
515
306
342
421
380
432
334
463
522
557
606
405
468
382
454

376
501
299
330
413
366
425
321
456
520
552
600
395
460
369
448

330
435
280
300
355
326
382
293
410
460
478
521
350
408
325
400

435
587
324
369
474
415
478
358
515
586
627
680
452
524
425
50 3

4,7 0 8
6,179
3,6 7 4
4,110
5 ,055
4,5 6 6
5 ,189
4 ,0 1 1
5,563
6 ,272
6, 692
7 ,2 7 1
4 ,8 6 1
5,6 1 4
4,587
5,445

4 ,5 1 6
6 ,0 1 1
3,592
3 ,9 5 9
4 ,953
4, 391
5 ,0 9 9
3,852
5,475
6,239
6, 622
7 ,198
4,739
5 ,5 1 9
4 ,432
5,370

3,963
5, 214
3, 359
3 ,5 9 9
4 ,259
3 ,9 1 1
4,5 8 8
3,519
4,9 1 9
5,5 1 6
5 ,7 4 1
6, 257
4,199
4 ,9 0 1
3 ,904
4 ,797

5,219
7,039
3,884
4,4 3 2
5,6 8 3
4 ,985
5 ,735
4, 302
6,179
7 ,027
7, 524
8,158
5,4 2 3
6, 291
5, 102
6 ,035

5. 3
4. 1
7.9
6. 0
5 .9
5. 1
4 .6
6. 2
4. 6
4. 2
5.0
4. 8
5. 5
4. 1
5. 4
4. 0

7,3 6 2

392

378

334

435

4,7 0 2

4, 540

4,004

5, 214

4.9

12,756

481

475

421

537

5,779

5,699

5,058

6,450

5. 2

6,033
89,523
45,848

584
350
407

574
340
392

513
308
356

643
380
446

7 ,008
4, 206
4,8 9 0

6,882
4 ,079
4 ,705

6,160
3,702
4, 269

7 ,717
4 , 559
5 ,353

4. 8
6 .6
4. 4

Engineering
E ngineering
E ngineering
E ngineering
Engineering

technicians
technicians
technicians
technicians
technicians
Draftsm en

C lerical
C l e r k s , a c c o u n t in g I _______________
C l e r k s , a c c o u n t in g I I __
_ ____
C l e r k s , f i l e I _ ___ __
C l e r k s , f i l e I I _________ ___________
C l e r k s , f i l e I I I ______________________
K ey p u n c h o p e r a t o r s I ______________
K e y p u n c h o p e r a t o r s I I _____________
O f f i c e b o y s o r g i r l s ________________
S e c r e t a r i e s I ________________________
S e c r e t a r i e s I I _______________________
S e c r e t a r i e s II I ____________________ _
S e c r e t a r i e s I V ______________________
S t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l _ _________
S t e n o g r a p h e r s , s e n i o r _____________
S w i tc h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s I _ _
S w i tc h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s I I __________
Tabulating-m achine
o p e r a t o r s I ________________________
T abulating-m achine
o p e r a t o r s I I _____________________ _
Ta b ul at in g - m a c h i n e
o p e r a t o r s I I I ______________________
T y p i s t s I _____________________________
Typists H

1 F o r s c o p e o f stu dy, s e e ta b le in a p p e n d i x A.
2 F o r l i m i t a t i o n s o f p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e in a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s as a m e a s u r e o f ch an ge in s a l a r y s c a l e s , s e e p. 5 o f text.
3 O c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t e s t i m a t e s r e l a t e to the tota l in a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s within s c o p e o f the s u r v e y and not to the
n u m b er actually surveyed .
F o r f u r t h e r e xp l a n a t io n , s e e p. 35.
4 S a l a r i e s r e p o r t e d r e l a te to the s ta nd a rd s a l a r i e s that w e r e pa id f o r st a n d a rd w o r k s c h e d u l e s ; i. e. , the s t r a i g h t - t i m e
s a l a r y c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the e m p l o y e e ' s n o r m a l w o r k s c h e d u l e ex c l u d i n g o v e r t i m e h o u r s . N o n p r o d u c t i o n b o n u s e s a r e e x c l u d e d ,
but c o s t - o f - l i v i n g p a y m e n t s and i n c e n t i v e e a r n i n g s a r e in cl u d e d .
5 Th e m i d d l e ra ng e ( i n t e r q u a r t i l e ) u s e d h e r e is the c e n t r a l p a r t o f the a r r a y e x c l u d i n g the u p p e r and l o w e r f o u r th s of
the e m p l o y e e d i s t r i b u t i o n .
6 No t r e p o r t e d in 1967.
7 I n s u f f i c i e n t data w e r e o b ta i n e d f o r l e v e l I to w a r r a n t p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s .




16

Table 2.

Average Salaries:

Metropolitan Areas

( E m p l o y m e n t and a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s f o r s e l e c t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , t e c h n i c a l , and c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s
in p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y , m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s , 1 June 1968)
M o n th ly s a l a r i e s 3
Number
of
em ployees 2

O c c u p a t i o n and c l a s s
(See d ef i n i ti on s in a p p e n d ix C)

An nu al s a l a r i e s 3

M i d d l e ra ng e 4
Mean

Median

F irst
q u a rt i le

Third
q u a r t i le

M i d d l e r a ng e 4
Mean

Median

F irst
q ua rt ile

Third
q u a rt ile

A c c o u n t a n t s and au d ito r s
A ccountants
Accountants
A ccountants
Accountants
Accountants
A uditors
A uditors
A uditors
A uditors
Chief
Chief
Chief
Chief

I----- ------ ------ - _
II________________________
III__ _____
___
_ _
IV------------- ~ — —
V ________________________

4, 125
8, 829
20,863
1 4, 7 71
5, 776

a cc o u n t a n ts
a cc o u n t a n ts
a cc o u n t an ts
a cc o u n t an ts

$575
626
710
850
1 ,0 0 9

$ 669
750
840
1 ,0 1 0
1 ,2 4 0

$7,479
8 ,2 9 1
9,400
11,284
13,539

$ 7 , 500
8, 196
9, 300
11,124
13,296

$6,900
7, 512
8, 520
10,200
12,108

$8,028
9 ,000
10,080
12,120
14,880

637
728
831
1 ,0 2 9

625
725
816
1 ,0 1 0

575
655
739
931

700
801
910
1, 100

7, 642
8,741
9,9 6 8
12,343

7, 500
8, 700
9 ,7 9 2
12,120

6, 900
7 ,860
8, 868
11, 172

8,400
9, 612
10,920
13,200

671
1 ,0 3 7
714
269

1 ,0 3 9
1, 193
1 ,3 7 9
1 ,5 8 7

1 ,0 0 0
1, 175
1, 364
1 ,5 8 3

932
1 ,0 7 1
1 ,2 5 0
1 ,4 1 6

1, 193
1 ,2 9 5
1 ,5 0 0
1 ,6 8 8

12,470
14,314
16,542
19,044

12,000
14,100
16,368
18,996

11, 184
12,852
15,000
16,992

14,316
15,540
18,000
20,256

217
950
1 1 ,0 6 8
1 ,6 2 6
1, 395
665
408

I ____________ ____
I I ____________ ___
II I________________
IV____________

$ 62 5
683
775
927
1, 108

691
1 ,6 9 2
3, 564
2,478

I ___
_ — - ___
I I ____ __ _______ ________
II I — — — ------ —
-----I V __ __ __ _______ _

$623
691
783
940
1, 128

777
859
1 ,0 5 2
1 ,2 7 4
1 ,4 9 4
1 ,8 4 9
2 ,403

736
806
1 ,0 0 3
1 ,2 5 1
1 ,4 4 9
1 ,8 2 8
2 ,37 3

683
760
916
1 ,1 1 0
1 ,3 0 0
1 ,6 2 5
2, 081

875
912
1, 166
1, 396
1 ,6 4 8
2, 083
2,765

9, 328
10,302
12,620
15,292
17,923
22,189
28,841

8,832
9, 672
12,036
15,012
17,388
21,936
28,476

8, 196
9, 120
10,992
13,320
15,600
19,500
24,972

10,500
10,944
13,992
16,752
19,776
24,996
33,180

236
618
374
58

779
912
1, 141
1 ,3 6 0

766
919
1, 113
1 ,2 7 2

700
833
1 ,0 0 0
1, 196

810
989
1 ,2 8 2
1 ,4 6 5

9, 350
10,943
13, 692
16,321

9, 192
11,028
13,356
15,264

8,4 0 0
9,9 9 6
12,000
14,352

9, 720
11,868
15,. 384
17,580

2, 085
7, 319
10,683
4, 209

615
732
856
1 ,0 3 9

608
725
847
1 ,0 1 9

543
650
760
927

675
794
939
1, 121

7, 382
8, 779
10,276
12,472

7, 296
8, 700
10,164
12,228

6, 516
7 ,800
9, 120
11,124

8, 100
9, 528
11,268
13,452

364
620
464

738
872
1 ,0 5 0

753
866
1 ,0 3 8

658
769
930

820
965
1, 165

8,8 6 0
10,461
12,602

9, 036
10,392
12,456

7, 896
9, 228
11, 160

9, 840
11,580
13,980

761
1 ,3 4 8
921
350

937
1, 120
1 ,3 3 7
1 ,6 3 6

900
1, 100
1, 316
1 ,5 0 5

830
991
1, 130
1 ,3 7 4

1 ,0 7 7
1 ,2 5 0
1 ,4 9 9
1 ,8 7 5

11,243
13,440
16,044
19,629

10,800
13,200
15,792
18,060

9,960
11,892
13_, 560
16,488

12,924
15,000
17,988
22,500

8, 113
8,9 5 9
1 0, 2 61
12,835
15,410
17,402
20,849
25,711

7,992
8 ,904
10,080
12,600
15,420
17,388
20,436
24,960

7,440
8, 280
9, 360
11,400
13,896
15,600
18,492
21,996

8 ,820
9, 600
11,052
14,292
16,800
19,140
23,004
28,668

9, 033

9, 120
9, 708
10,980
13,032
15, 120
17,460
20,292
22,872

8, 592
9, 180
10, 188
11,928
13,644
15,600
18,408
20,580

9 ,444
10,320
11,820
14,292
16,680
19,200
22,128
25,680

Attorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys
A ttorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys

I ___________________________
II-----------------------------------------III__ ______________________
IV— _____ _ _____________
V _____________________ — _
VI---------------------------------------VII— -------------- — ---------O ffice s e r v ic e s

M anagers,
M anagers,
M anagers,
M anagers,

office
office
office
office

services
services
services
services

I _______
II —
II I___ I V ______

i
1

Buyers
Buyers
Buyers
Buyers
Buyers

I ----------------------------------------------II—
II I--------------------------------------------I V ____ ________ ____________

P ersonnel m anagem ent5
J o b a na ly s ts I I -----------------------------------J ob a n a ly s ts II I_____________ _ _____
J o b a n a ly s ts I V — ________ — _____
Directors
D irectors
D irectors
D irectors

of
of
of
of

personnel
personnel
personnel
personnel

I ____________
I I ___________
III__________
I V __________

C h e m i s t s and e n g i n e e r s
C hem ists
C hem ists
C hem ists
C hem ists
C hem ists
C hem ists
C hem ists
C hem ists

I -------------------------------------------II ___
______ ______
III________________________ —
I V _________________ - _______
V __ - — __ — — _____
V I ___
— ______ - —
V I I - — — - ____ ___ VIII ____________ __ ____

1 ,4 4 6
3,837
7, 855
8, 797
6 ,8 0 3
3, 785
1 ,5 6 9
458

676
747
855
1 ,0 7 0
1 ,2 8 4
1 ,4 5 0
1 ,7 3 7
2, 143

666
742
840
1 ,0 5 0
1 ,2 8 5
1 ,4 4 9
1 ,7 0 3
2, 080

620
690
780
950
1, 158
1 ,3 0 0
1 ,5 4 1
1 ,8 3 3

735
800
921
1, 191
1 ,4 0 0
1 ,5 9 5
1 ,9 1 7
2, 389

Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
E ngineers
Engineers
E ngineers
Engineers
Engineers

I — ___ _______ __ _
I I ---------------------------------------II I _______- __ _____ _ — —
I V _______ - __ —
V ___ __________ — — —
V I - - __
___ — —
V I I _______________________ _
V I I I _______________________

11,176
29,903
74,156
100,151
64,609
35,121
11,367
2,638

753
816
918
1 ,0 9 6
1 ,2 7 7
1 ,4 5 4
1 ,7 0 0
1, 957

760
809
915
1 ,0 8 6
1 ,2 6 0
1 ,4 5 5
1 ,6 9 1
1 ,9 0 6

716
765
849
994
1, 137
1 ,3 0 0
1, 534
1 ,7 1 5

787
860
985
1, 191
1, 390
1 ,6 0 0
1 ,8 4 4
2, 140

See f o o t n o t e s




at end o f table,

9, 790
11,022
13,158
15,319
17,451
20,394
23,480

17
Table 2.

Average Salaries:

Metropolitan Areas— Continued

( E m p l o y m e n t and a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s f o r s e l e c t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , t e c h n i c a l , and c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s
in p r i v a t e i n d u s t ry , m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s , 1 June 1968)
M o n th ly s a l a r i e s 3
O c c u p a t io n and c l a s s
(See d ef i n i ti on s in ap p e nd ix C)

Number
of
em ploy ees 2

Annual s a l a r i e s 3

M i d d l e ra ng e 4
Mean

Median

F i f st
q ua rt ile

Third
q u a rt i le

M i d d l e r a ng e 4
Mean

Median

First
q ua rt ile

Third
q u a rt i le

E n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n ic ia n s
I __________
II _________
III - _____
IV_________
V __ __ __

5, 177
1 3, 0 57
23,157
27,090
1 3 ,9 61

$ 46 8
558
635
732
816

$461
552
630
721
804

$ 41 7
510
578
671
749

$ 51 3
600
691
787
885

$ 5 ,616
6, 690
7, 615
8, 786
9 ,7 9 1

$ 5 , 532
6, 624
7,560
8, 652
9, 648

$ 5 , 004
6, 120
6,9 3 6
8, 052
8 ,988

$ 6 ,156
7, 200
8, 292
9,4 4 4
10,620

D r a f t s m e n - t r a c e r s __
____ __
D r a f t s m e n I - - ____ __ _______ _
D r a f t s m e n II ______ -___
_ __ _ __
D r a f t s m e n III ___ —

5 ,653
18,776
28,578
23, 187

415
515
637
777

405
506
630
758

355
454
568
690

463
570
696
850

4 ,987
6, 185
7, 642
9, 333

4,859
6, 077
7, 560
9 ,097

4, 259
5 ,454
6,820
8, 278

5, 555
6, 839
8, 356
10,198

69,619
48,628
29,159
26,416
8, 338
52,988
36, 152
26,622
73,578
70,236
42,954
13,799
66, 187
50,513
14,154
9,516

397
520
307
344
422
386
437
335
467
526 1
561
614
408
471
38 3
456

383
509
300
334
413
370
429
322
460
521
556
608
400
464
369
450

337
440
280
301
355
330
390
294
413
465
487
539
352
413
326
401

442
588
325
370
477
423
480
360
519
586
630
690
455
527
427
505

4 , 762
6, 238
3, 686
4, 129
5, 065
4, 629
5, 246
4 ,018
5, 604
6, 313
6, 740
7, 375
4, 895
5, 650
4, 600
5 ,4 7 9

4, 595
6, 114
3, 598
4, 009
4, 953
4 ,439
5, 150
3 ,8 5 8
5, 519
6, 257
6, 674
7, 300
4 , 797
5, 563
4,4 3 2
5, 399

4,041
5, 279
3, 359
3, 606
4 , 259
3, 963
4 , 679
3, 532
4, 953
5, 579
5, 840
6,4 6 5
4 , 223
4, 953
3 ,9 1 1
4,8 1 6

5, 309
7, 055
3, 904
4 ,442
5, 725
5, 078
5,759
4, 323
6, 226
7,028
7, 560
8, 278
5,459
6, 321
5, 118
6,065

6, 624

394

378

337

437

4, 726

4, 536

4, 041

5, 246

1 1, 4 8 1

482

476

421

542

5, 791

5, 706

5, 058

6, 502

5,519
81, 116
4 2, 372

585
352
409

575
344
395

515
310
356

648
382
448

7, 022
4, 231
4 ,910

6 ,899
4, 129
4, 739

6, 179
3 .7 1 5
4 , 275

7, 779
4, 588
5, 370

E ngineering
Engineering
Engineering
Engineering
Engineering

technicians
technicians
t e c h n ic ia n s
technicians
t e c h n ic ia n s
Draftsmen

C lerical
C l e r k s , a c c o u n t in g I _______ _____
C l e r k s , a c c o u n t in g I I — __
C l e r k s , f i l e I ________________________
C l e r k s , f i l e I I _______________________
C l e r k s , f i l e I I I _____________ _________
K e y p u n c h o p e r a t o r s I -----------------------K e y p u n c h o p e r a t o r s II — — _ _
O ffice boys or girls _
S e c r e t a r i e s I ___ — - _ ----- —
S e c r e t a r i e s II ---------------S e c r e t a r i e s I I I_______________ —______
S e c r e t a r i e s I V ______ _____ — — —
S t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l ----- — —
S t e n o g r a p h e r s , s e n i o r ----- --------S w i t c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s I — — -------S w i t c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s I I -------------- —
T abxilating - m achine
o p e r a t o r s I ------ ------------------- —
Tabulating-m ach in e
o p e r a t o r s II _____ _ __ — ___
T abulating - m a c h i n e
o p e r a t o r s I I I _______________________
T y p i s t s I ________—__________ ____ ____
T y p i s t s I I ------------- ----- — -------------

1 F o r s c o p e o f study, s e e tabl e in ap p e nd ix A .
2 O c c u p a t io n a l e m p l o y m e n t e s t i m a t e s r e l a t e to the tota l in all e s t a b l i s h m e n t s withi n s c o p e of the s u r v e y and not to the
n u m b e r a ct u a l ly s u r v e y e d .
F o r f u r t h e r ex p l a n a t io n , s e e a p p e nd ix A , p. 35.
3 S a l a r i e s r e p o r t e d r e l a t e to the sta nd a rd s a l a r i e s that w e r e pa id f o r s ta nd a rd w o r k s c h e d u l e s ; i . e . , the s t r a i g h t - t i m e
s a l a r y c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the e m p l o y e e ' s n o r m a l w o r k s ch e d u l e e x c l u d i n g o v e r t i m e h o u r s . N o n p r o d u c t i o n b o n u s e s a re e x c l u d e d ,
but c o s t - o f - l i v i n g p a y m e n t s and i n c e n ti v e e a r n i n g s a re i n cl u d e d .
4 Th e m i d d l e r a ng e ( i n t e r q u a r t i le ) u s e d h e r e is the c e n t r a l p ar t of the a r r a y e x c l u d i n g the up p er and l o w e r f o u r th s of
the e m p l o y e e d i s t r i b u t i o n .
5 I n s u f f i ci e n t data w e r e ob ta in ed f o r l e v e l I to w a r r a n t p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s .




18
Table 3.

Average Salaries:

Establishments Employing 2,500 or More

( E m p l o y m e n t and a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s f o r s e l e c t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , t e c h n i c a l , and c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s
in p r i v a t e i n d u s t ry 1 in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s e m p l o y i n g 2, 500 w o r k e r s o r m o r e , 2 Uni te d States e x c e p t
A l a s k a and H a w a i i, June 1968, p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e in m e a n s a l a r i e s d ur in g the y e a r , 3
and c o m p a r i s o n with l e v e l s in a ll e s t a b l i s h m e n t s c o m b i n e d )
M o n th ly s a l a r i e s 5
Number
of
em ploy ees 4

O c c u p a t i o n and c l a s s
(Se e d e f i n i ti o n s in a p p e n d i x C)

M i d d l e r a ng e 6
Mean

Median

F irst
q u a rt i le

Third
q u a rt i le

P e r c e n t L e v e l s in l a r g e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
i n c r e a s e e x p r e s s e d as p e r c e n t of t h o s e
in
in a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s c o m b i n e d
mean
Mean
s ala ries 3 E m ploym ent
salaries

A c c o u n t a n t s and a u d i to r s
Accountants
Accountants
A ccountants
A c c o u n ta n ts
A ccountants

2, 262
4, 393
8, 678
5 ,9 0 0
2, 636

TV
V

A u d i t o r s T T .................
T

A u d itor s IV

...........

________________________

C h i e f a c c o u n t a n ts IV

$ 69 5
780
869
1,0 3 4
1,265

8. 5
6.0
6. 0
6. 7
6.9

48
45
36
35
40

105
104
104
103
102

766
855
1 ,0 3 1

771
846
1,018

690
752
931

840
950
1 ,1 3 0

7. 4
4. 4
5. 5

45
41
47

106
103
101

1 ,5 0 7
1,694

1 ,5 2 7
1,625

1 ,3 3 1
1,498

1 ,7 1 1
1 ,866

3. 4
4. 1

25
39

109
107

224
436
464
471
275
223

969
1,149
1 ,3 7 7
1 ,544
1 ,902
2, 371

923
1,125
1, 374
1 ,516
1,863
2, 325

847
1 ,0 0 0
1 ,2 4 1
1 ,3 4 1
1,648
2,083

1 ,0 5 1
1 ,2 7 0
1,512
1,748
2,129
2,625

8.9
7. 4
5 .9
4.9
3. 2
7. 1

23
39
28
33
40
55

113
109
108
103
103
99

1,098

1 ,0 9 7

980

1,245

7. 8

38

96

587
2 ,915
5, 379
2,759

_

$ 600
657
740
883
1 ,034

145

A u d i t o r s II___________________________

$ 65 0
709
804
961
1, 133

196
116

_____ _ ________
_______________________

$ 650
720
812
967
1 ,1 4 9

802
1 ,5 3 7
1 ,2 2 7

I _ __ _____________
II
_ _________
III _ ______________

694
759
873
1 ,0 3 8

680
750
869
1 ,0 2 1

617
673
775
9 30

765
817
967
1 ,1 2 1

8.
5.
4.
5.

4
7
3
4

25
32
42
60

113
105
102
100

195
534
417

771
884
1,046

791
877
1 ,0 4 0

691
780
929

859
996
1 ,1 6 7

10. 1
8. 3
5. 4

51
78
80

105
102
100

165
135

1 ,5 7 7
1,842

1 ,6 0 7
1 ,8 0 0

1 ,3 5 0
1,635

1,780
2,089

2. 6
9 .4

15
35

118
112

529
1,562
3,193
3 ,8 2 0
3, 266
1 ,7 8 1
804
274

728
791
901
1,099
1, 300
1 ,452
1 ,733
2,159

7 30
786
887
1,077
1,285
1,445
1,6 9 4
2 ,0 8 7

67 6
735
809
960
1 ,1 7 0
1 ,282
1 ,5 5 0
1 ,852

780
850
980
1,225
1,417
1 ,583
1 ,875
2,438

7.
6.
4.
6.
4.
3.
2.
4.

5
6
8
1
6
0
3
1

30
35
34
37
41
41
42
54

108
106
106
103
102
101
101
102

7 ,1 9 1
21,053
48,764
68,645
43,944
23,436
6, 699
1 ,7 0 1

761
821
932
1,113
1 ,2 8 7
1 ,4 7 0
1,744
1,978

761
816
929
1,108
1,285
1 ,482
1 , 7 38
1,916

726
769
865
1,008
1,1 6 4
1 ,3 2 0
1 ,583
1,725

800
869
995
1 ,2 0 1
1 ,4 0 0
1,616
1 ,9 0 0
2,168

6.
8.
6.
5.
5.
4.
4.
4.

6
2
3
8
1
7
1
5

58
66
59
63
62
61
52
57

101
101
102
102
101
102
104
102

2,840
8, 233
14,297
19,092
11,731

482
565
644
736
815

482
561
642
730
805

445
521
591
682
751

523
605
695
788
883

5.0
6 .4
4 .9
5. 4
5. 0

49
52
51
63
75

104
102
102
101
100

A ttorneys
A tto rn e y s T _
T
_
A t t o r n e y s T T ..... _
T

... __________

A t t o r n e y s I V _ ________
_
...........
A t t o r n e y s V ______________________ _
A t t o r n e y s VI
_________________
A t t o r n e y s VTT

_ ------

Office s e rv ice s
M an agers,

o ffic e s e r v ic e s T T
T

Buyers
B uyers T

B u y e r s I I _ _______________________
B u y e r s III
_______________________
B u y e r s TV

P e rs o n n e l managem ent
Job a n a ly s t s T
T
Job a n a ly s t s T T
T

...

_ . ..
___ _____

J ob a n a l y s t s IV

______

________

_

D i r e c t o r s o f p e r s o n n e l TTT-------------D i r e c t o r s o f p e r s o n n e l TV _ _

C h e m i s t s and e n g i n e e r s
C hem ists T _ _ _ _
C h e m i s t s I I_________ _________________
C h e m is ts T T T . . .
C h e m i s t s I V _ _____
C h e m is ts V
_
C h e m i s t s VT
-------

C h e m i s t s VII

_

____________________

C h e m i s t s VTTT

Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers

__ __ __
II
______________________
III
_________________
IV
_____________________
V _____________________
VI _____________________
V I I ________________________
VIII
_______________

I

E ngineering technicians

E n g in e e r in g te c h n ic ia n s T
T

.... _

E n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n i c i a n s III
E n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n i c i a n s TV

Engin eering technicians V

____

See f o o t n o t e s at end o f table.




19
Table 3.

Average Salaries:

Establishments Employing 2,500 or More--- Continued

( E m p l o y m e n t and a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s f o r s e l e c t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , t e c h n i c a l , and c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s
in p r i v a t e i n d u s t r y 1 in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s e m p l o y i n g 2 ,5 0 0 w o r k e r s o r m o r e , 2 United States e x c e p t
A l a s k a and H a wa ii, June 1968, p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e in m e a n s a l a r i e s d ur in g the y e a r , 3
and c o m p a r i s o n wit h l e v e l s in a ll e s t a b l i s h m e n t s c o m b i n e d )

O c c u p a t i o n and c l a s s
(Se e de f i n i ti on s in a p p en d ix C)

Number
of
em ploy ees 4

M o n th ly s a l a r i e s 5
M i d d l e ra ng e 6
Mean

M e d ia n

F irst
qua r tile

Third
q u a rt i le

P e r c e n t L e v e l s in l a r g e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
i n c r e a s e e x p r e s s e d as p e r c e n t of t h o s e
in
in all e s t a b l i s h m e n t s c o m b i n e d
mean
Mean
E m ploym ent
salaries 3
salaries

D raftsm en
D raftsm en -tracers
D r a f t s m e n I _ _____________ ____
D r a f t s m e n II
_________________
D r a f t s m e n TTT ....
...
_ .. ... . ....

2 ,726
8,199
12,806
12,229

$ 440
539
656
806

$ 43 5
536
651
777

$ 36 7
478
587
707

$5 0 9
593
716
905

16,362
1 2, 4 71
5,448
7 ,115
2 ,9 4 1
16,310
12,904
7 ,620
22,163
31,630
11,902
3 ,4 7 1
25,178
23,097
3 ,0 4 7
3, 622

436
574
339
379
467
421
465
360
489
559
626
678
432
496
400
485

425
569
326
368
461
405
456
341
486
560
617
655
426
498
395
482

369
493
304
330
409
359
408
313
438
497
556
60 2
378
437
342
426

497
647
367
420
526
480
520
39 3
539
610
685
745
481
554
452
546

5.
4.
4.
5.

8
3
1
5

38
38
48
42

106
104
105
107

5. 3
4. 7
9. 7
5. 3
8. 4
4. 7
4. 5
5. 3
3. 8
4. 5
5. 7
5. 6
4. 3
4. 0
2. 6
3.9

21
22
17
25
34
27
32
27
28
41
26
23
34
41
20
35

111
111
111
111
111
111
108
108
106
107
112
112
107
106
105
107

C lerical
_
C l e r k s , a c c o u n t in g II_
C le r k s, file I
_____ ______
C l e r k s , file T
T
.
..._
C l e r k s , f i l e III
C lerks,

a r c m in tin g T

_____

K eypun ch o p e ra to rs T

K e y p u n c h o p e r a t o r s II
O ffic e b o y s o r g ir ls

S e c r e t a r i e s II
S e c r e ta r ie s T T
T

_ ..........
_

..

S e c r e t a r i e s IV
S tenographers, gen eral
S te n o g ra p h e rs,

s e n io r

Switchboard o p e ra to rs I
S w it c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s T
T

T abu lating - m a c h i n e
operators I
T abu lating - m a chine
op era to rs T
T

_

T abu lati ng - m a chine
o p e r a t o r s III
Typists I
T y p i s t s II

_
.... ... ...................

2, 576

421

411

352

477

5. 0

35

107

5, 318

489

482

426

550

4. 0

42

102

2,638
20,534
17,054

608
381
429

595
367
414

537
331
368

661
41 3
482

3.9
5. 5
2.9

44
23
37

104
109
105

1 F o r s c o p e o f study, s e e table in ap p e nd ix A.
2 In clu de s data f o r a fe w e s t a b l i s h m e n t s with f e w e r than 2, 500 e m p l o y e e s o f 6 l a r g e c o m p a n i e s s tu die d that p r o v i d e d
c o m p a n y w i d e data u n id e n ti fi e d by s i z e o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t .
T h i s a p p li e s o n l y to data f o r o c c u p a t i o n s o t h e r than d ra f t in g and
clerical.
3 F o r l i m i t a t i o n s o f p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e in a v e r a g e s a l a r i e s as a m e a s u r e o f ch an ge in s a l a r y s c a l e s , s e e p. 5.
4 O c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t e s t i m a t e s r e l a t e to the total in all e s t a b l i s h m e n t s wit hin s c o p e o f the s u r v e y and not to the
n u m b e r a ct u a l ly s u r v e y e d .
F o r f u r t h e r e xp la na t io n , s e e p. 35.
5 S a l a r i e s r e p o r t e d r e l a t e to the s ta n d a rd s a l a r i e s that w e r e paid f o r s ta n d a rd w o r k s c h e d u l e s ; i. e ., the s t r a i g h t - t i m e
s a l a r y c o r r e s p o n d i n g to the e m p l o y e e ' s n o r m a l w o r k s c h e d u l e e x c l u d i n g o v e r t i m e h o u r s . N o n p r o d u c t i o n b o n u s e s a r e e x c l u d e d ,
but c o s t - o f - l i v i n g p a y m e n t s and i n c e n t i v e e a r n i n g s a r e in cl u d e d .
6 Th e m i d d l e ra n g e ( i n t e r q u a r t i le ) u s e d h e r e is the c e n t r a l p a rt o f the a r r a y e x c l u d i n g the up p er and l o w e r f o u r th s o f
the e m p l o y e e d i s t r i b u t i o n .

331-982 0 - 69




20

Table 4.

Employment Distribution by Salary:

Professional and Administrative Occupations

( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f e m p l o y e e s in s e l e c t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n s , b y a v e r a g e
m o n t h l y s a l a r i e s , United States e x c e p t A la s k a and H a wa ii, 1 June 1968)
A c c o u n ta n ts

A uditors

C h i e f a cc o u n t a n ts

A v e ra g e monthly s ala rie s
I

Und er $450___________________________
$450 and u n d er $475
$475 and un d er $500

III

IV

(1 .0 )

-

-

-

- i
(1.5)
1. 1

-

_
-

_
(0 .6 )
1 .0

_
_
-

II

0. 8
1. 3
3.0

V

I

II

III

IV

I

II

III

1.7
5. 8

_

-

_

_

(0.7)

"
"

_

“
_

-

-

-

6.5
1.9
9. 3
12.4

1 .6
.2
1. 1
5.7

_

-

-

-

-

_
-

_
_

-

-

11.7
7. 2
9. 1
9 .5

5.9
6. 9
11. 5
10. 1

(2.1)
1. 5
5. 1
4. 1

-

1 .8
-

-

_
_
_

_
_
_

7. 7
4. 4
3. 2
1 .8

7. 6
8.9
9.0
5. 3

6.
7.
7.
8.

4
8
4
4

6. 6

-

_

-

2. 2
1.0
1. 2
1.9

6 .0
10. 1
3. 6
1 .4

7.
8.
7.
7.

8
3
3
2

2.
3.
4.
3.

3
7
0
6

5.
.
4.
4.

1
4
5
5

1.6
1.6

_
-

-

4.
3.
5.
2.

4
5
8
9

7.
4.
5.
12.

1
7
7
6

3.
4.
4.
14.

3
8
9
2

4.
1.
4.
1.

_
0. 4
1. 5
-

_
(0.3)

11.
14.
9.
5.
4.

6
0
4
6
5

13. 6
6. 8
2. 6
7.9
1 3. 1

$500
$525
$550
$575

and
and
and
and

un d e r
un d er
un de r
under

$525________________
$550________________
$575
_
.... _
......
$600

4.
6.
10.
13.

0
1
1
8

1 .6
1. 6
4. 1
5. 5

$600
$625
$650
$675

and
and
and
and

un d e r
un d e r
un d e r
u n d er

$625
$650 _
$675________________
$700

11. 8
11.7
15. 4
9. 1

9.6
10. 1
13. 7
10. 6

$700
$725
$750
$775

and
arid
and
and

un d e r
under
un d e r
under

$725________________
$750
$775 __ ______________
$800 ________________

4. 2
3. 7
1.7
1. 2

9 .8
8. 4
6. 2
5. 5

9 .7
9.6
10. 3
9. 2

1.
2.
2.
4.

$800
$825
$850
$875

and
and
and
and

u n d er
un de r
un d er
un de r

$825
$850
$875________________
$900
_ _

1. 2
(.8 )
-

3.
4.
1.
1.

8.
10.
5.
4.

2
1
1
1

4. 7
7. 5
8 .9
7. 5

$900
$925
$950
$975

and
and
and
and

u n d er
un d e r
un d e r
un d er

$925
$950________________
$975________________
$ 1 , 0 0 0 ______________

_
-

(2. 0)
-

3. 3
2. 2
2. 2
1 .4

8. 7
7. 1
6. 5
8 .9

2,.
2,.
4,.
5,.

5
5
8
5

1. 2
. 1
"

(4. 4)
-

14,.
11,.
9,.
9,.
9,.

3
1
6
8
7

_
“

-

5. 0
2. 1
2. 1
(.8 )

7,. 3
5,.9
3,. 9
2. 7
1. 1 .

-

-

~

3. 3
1. 7
1. 1
1. 2
( • 1)

1.9
1 .2
(2. 6)
- ,
■

_
-

1. 2
(1 . 1)
_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

.9
1 .9
. 3
4. 2
(.7 )

-

-

~

-

3
0
5
6

2.
3.
6.
6.

4
6
2
2

-

-

2
1
8
5
(2 .4 )
1,. 5
1,. 4
1,. 6

$1. 000
$1, 050
$1. 100
$1, 150
$1.200

and
and
and
and
and

un d e r
u n d er
u n d er
un d er
un d er

$1. 050_ _
$1, 100___________
$1. 150_________ _
$1, 200___________
$1.250

-

_
-

1. 8
(1.8)
"

9 .2
7. 3
4. 2
4. 0
1 .6

$1,250
$1,300
$1,350
$1.400
$1.450

and
and
and
and
and

un de r
un de r
un d er
un d er
un d er

$1.300
$ 1 , 3 5 0 ___________
$ 1 , 4 0 0 ___________
$1.450
$1.500

-

_
"

_
_
-

1 .0
(.7 )
-

$1,500
$1,550
$1,600
$1,650
$1,700

and
and
and
and
and

un de r
un de r
un d e r
un d er
un d er

$ 1 , 5 5 0 ___________
$1,600
$ 1 , 6 5 0 ___________
$1,700
$1.750

_
-

_
_
_
_

_
_
_

-

-

$1,750
$1,800
$1,850
$1,900
$1,950

and
and
and
and
and

un d er
under
un d er
un d e r
un d e r

$1,800
$ 1 , 8 5 0 ___________
$ 1 , 9 0 0 ___________
$1,950
$2,000

_
-

_

_

"

-

_
-

_
-

>
*

~

-

-

-

-

-

-

■

~
-

-

-

-

“

-

“

-

-

“
“
-

$ 2 ,000
$ 2 , 050
$ 2 , 100
$ 2 , 150
$ 2 ,200

and
and
and
and
and

un d er
un d er
un d e r
un d e r
un d er

$ 2 , 0 5 0 __________
$ 2 , 100__________
$ 2 , 150__________
$ 2 , 200__________
$ 2 , 2 5 0 __________

-

"

-

$ 2,250
$ 2,300
$2,350
$2,400

and
and
and
and

un d e r $ 2 , 3 0 0 __________
un de r $ 2 , 3 5 0 __________
un d er $ 2 , 4 0 0 __________
o v e r _____________________

-

-

T o t a l ------------------------------------------

100.0

N u m b e r o f e m p l o y e e s ______________

4 , 693

A v e r a g e m o n t h l y s a l a r i e s --------------

$621

See fo ot n ot e at end o f t ab le .




-

100.0

_

100. 0

100.0

$ 69 0

$781

100 . 0

100. 0

~

i

(2. 3)
1. 5

-

-

_

7
4
0
3

10. 1
12. 1
11.6
15. 5
9. 8

_
-

100.0

“

~

“
“
-

_
-

-

8
6
2
7
4

4. 0
1.0
1.7
4. 3

10. 2
6 .0
13. 5
7 .4
6. 8

2 .0
6. 3
2. 3
4 .0
10. 0

9.
3.
1.
4.
4.

2
1
8
2
5

6.0
15.9
6. 3
14. 3
1. 3

2.0
1. 5
(1.3)
-

1.7
6. 3
2. 7
2. 0
1. 3

-

-

“

.7
1.0
.7
-

4.
5.
3.
3.
.

5
6
8
8
7

“
-

-

-

“

“
“

“

2.
2.
5.
3.
12.

_
_
-

"

“

-

-

1.0
1. 7
(1.3)

100. 0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100 .0 1

837

1 ,343

784

301

$1, 024 $1,178

$1,381

$1,587

6,557

724

1,795

3,773

2,637

$ 93 9 $ 1 , 1 2 8

$6 3 7

$ 72 6

$831

$1,025

9 , 6 8 3 2 4, 119 ! 1 6 , 6 6 9

IV

100.0

21
Table 4.

Employment Distribution by Salary:

Professional and Administrative Occupations--- Continued

( P e r c e n t d is tr ib u tio n of e m p lo y e e s in s e le c te d p r o f e s s io n a l an d a d m in is tr a tiv e o c c u p a tio n s , b y a v e r a g e m o n th ly
s a l a r i e s , U n ite d S ta te s e x c e p t A la s k a a n d H a w a ii, 1 Ju n e 1968)
A tt o r n e y s
I
U n d er $ 60 0 ........... ........................ —

II

1. 4

$ 60 0
$ 62 5
$650
$67 5

and
and
and
and

un der
u n d er
un d er
u n d er

$ 6 2 5 ----------------------$ 6 5 0 ----------------------$67 5----------------------$ 7 0 0 -----------------------

3.
11.
6.
11.

7
5
4

$ 70 0
$725
$7 50
$775

and
and
and
and

un d er
u n d er
un d er
un der

$ 7 2 5 ----------------------$ 7 5 0 ----------------------$77 5----------------------$ 8 0 0 -----------------------

14.
5.
4.
6.

2
0
1

$800
$825
$850
$875

and
and
and
and

un d er
un d er
u n d er
u n d er

$ 8 2 5 ----------------------$ 8 5 0 ----------------------$ 8 7 5 ----------------------$ 9 0 0 -----------------------

3.
3.
1.
13.

7
2
4

$ 90 0
$925
$950
$975

and
and
and
and

un d er
u n d er
un d er
un d er

$ 9 2 5 ----------------------$ 9 5 0 ----------------------$ 9 7 5 ----------------------$ 1, 0 0 0 ------------------

$ 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,
$1,

000 and un d er
050 and un d er
1 00 and u n d er
150 and u n d er
200 and u n d er

$ 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,
$1,
$ 1,

0 5 0 -------------100--------------150-------------2 0 0 -------------2 50--------------

$ 1 , 250
$ 1 , 300
$ 1, 350
$ 1 ,4 0 0
$ 1, 450

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
un d er
un d er
un d er

$1, 3 0 0 -------------$ 1, 3 5 0 -------------$ 1 ,4 0 0 -------------$ 1 ,4 5 0 -------------$ 1, 5 00 --------------

$ 1 , 500
$ 1, 550
$ 1 , 600
$ 1 ,6 5 0
$ 1 , 700

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
un der
u n d er
u n d er

$1, 550-------------$ 1, 6 00 -------------$1, 6 5 0 -------------$ 1 , 7 0 0 -------------$1, 7 5 0 --------------

$ 1 ,7 5 0
$ 1, 800
$ 1, 850
$ 1 , 900
$ 1, 950

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
un d er
u n d er
un d er

$ 1 , 8 0 0 -------------$1, 8 5 0 -------------$ 1 , 9 0 0 -------------$ 1 , 9 5 0 -------------$ 2 , 0 00 --------------

0

000 and un d er
050 and un d er
1 00 and un d er
150 and un d er
200 and un d er

$2,
$ 2,
$ 2,
$ 2,
$2,

0 5 0 -------------100-------------150 -------------2 00-------------2 5 0 --------------

$2,
$2,
$2,
$2,
$ 2,

250
300
350
400
450

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
un der
u n d er
un d er
u n d er

$2,
$ 2,
$ 2,
$ 2,
$2,

3 0 0 -------------3 5 0 -------------4 0 0 -------------4 5 0 -------------5 0 0 --------------

$ 2,
$2,
$2,
$2,
$2,

500
550
600
650
700

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
un der

$ 2,
$ 2,
$2,
$ 2,
$2,

5 5 0 -------------6 0 0 --------------6 5 0 -------------7 0 0 -------------7 5 0 --------------

$ 2, 7 50
$ 2 ,8 0 0
$ 2, 8 50
$ 2 , 900
$ 2 , 950

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
un d er
u n d er
un d er
u n d er

$ 2, 8 0 0 -- --------$ 2 , 8 5 0 ----$ 2, 9 0 0 -------------$ 2, 9 5 0 -------------$ 3, 0 0 0 --------------

$ 3,
$3,
$3,
$3,
$ 3,

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
un d er
un der
un der
u n d er

$ 3,
$ 3,
$ 3,
$ 3,
$3,

0 5 0 -------------100 -------------150 -------------2 0 0 -------------2 5 0 --------------

$ 3 , 250 and un d er $3, 3 00 -------------$ 3, 300 and o v e r -------------------------------

_

_

_

_

_

_
_
_
( 1. 8)

_
_
( 1. 1)

_
1. 4
1. 2

_
_
-

4. 0
12. 6

11. 7
10. 4

8

10.
1.
2.
2.

5

4.
1.
1.
.
.

9
9

5
5

_
-

VII

_
( 1 .3 )
3. 7

4. 1
•9
. 5
1
3

VI

_
(o . 9)
1. 1
2. 7

7
3

4.
2.
.
.

V

IV

_

10.
5.
8.
2.

1. 8

$ 2,
$ 2,
$ 2,
$2,
$ 2,

000
050
100
150
200

0

III

1
1
1

3
5

1

4
5

1. 9
1. 6
( 1 .5 )
_
-

-

.
7.
4.
1.

9
4
1
7

9.
3.
5.
8.

3
0
3

15.
8.
5.
5.
5.

1
2

0

4
8

9

4.
4.
1.
1.
(3.

6

0
6
6
2)

-

3.
.
2.
3.

2

7.
4.
5.
6.
12.

7
5
3
5

2
2

5

9

12. 1
10. 0

5. 4
3. 7
4. 7
3.
4.
1.
1.
2.

9
2
7
4
5

1. 3
1. 0
( . 6)
-

1.
1.
1.
4.
4.

5
3
5
4
8

4.
16.
7.
6.
8.

6

7.
4.
4.
3.
3.

1
9
0
2
9

3.
3.
2.
1.
1.

2
1

5
9
7
3

2
6
8

2. 2
1. 7
(2. 3)
-

2.
3.
1.
2.

3
0
7
5

0. 2
1. 5

2. 3

. 5

6. 4
9. 6

1. 0

9. 7
2. 2

. 5
7. 4
. 2

4.
7.
8.
3.
2.

4.
2.
2.
1.
1.

4

1.
4.
2.
3.
5.

7
7
5
4
4

4.
4.
2.
2.
8.

7
7

1
1
1
6

9

2.
9.
3.
2.
2.

6

1.
2.
.
1.
1.

9
7
9

7
2
5
9

2

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

1. 0
( 2. 2)
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1.
4.
2.
2.
3.

-

-

-

-

-

1.
.
3.
1.

-

-

-

-

-

7
0

0
2
1

2. 2
1. 2

-

-

-

0
0

3. 2
. 7
5. 1
5
7
7
0

4
7
7
9
0

. 7
(3. 7)

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

-

218

959

i, no

1, 657

1, 428

691

408

A v e r a g e m on th ly s a l a r i e s -------------

$778

$858

$ 1, 050

$ 1, 274

$ 1, 495

$ i, 846

$ 2 , 403

T o t a l --------------------------------------N u m b er o f e m p l o y e e s ------

------

S ee fo o tn o te a t end of ta b le .




100. 0

22

Table 4.

Employment Distribution by Salary:

Professional and Administrative Occupations--- Continued

( P e r c e n t d is tr ib u tio n of e m p lo y e e s in s e le c te d p r o f e s s io n a l a n d a d m in is tr a tiv e o c c u p a tio n s , b y a v e r a g e
m o n th ly s a l a r i e s , U n ite d S ta te s e x c e p t A la s k a a n d H a w a ii, 1 Ju n e 1968)
M a n a g e r s , o f f ic e s e r v i c e s

B uye r s

A v e r a g e m on th ly s a la r ie s
I

II

III

IV

I

II

III

IV

(0. 8 )

-

_
_

-

-

..
-

-

$400
$425
$450
$475

and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$425______ __________
$450_________________
$475
$500

-

-

-

-

1.
4.
3.
5.

3
5
4
0

$500
$5 25
$550
$575

and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$525
$550..
$575_________________
$600_________________

_
( 0 .7 )
2. 5
2. 1

_
-

_
-

_
-

5.
7.
4.
11.

7
5

$600
$625
$650
$675

and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$625_________________
$650_________________
$675_________________
$700

7.
3.
4.
10.

_
1. 0
1. 2
2. 6

_
_

_
-

12. 0
12. 1
8. 1

-

-

5. 5

$700
$725
$750
$775

and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$725_________________
$750_________________
$775
$800

7. 8
7. 1
12. 4
6. 7

2. 6
1. 8

_
_
_

6. 6

2. 5
3. 3

_
_
(1. 3)
1. 6

$800
$825
$850
$875

and
and
and
and

u n d er
un d er
u n d er
u n d er

$825_________________
$850_________________
$875_________________
$900_________________

15. 2
5. 3
.7
1 .4

4. 9
12. 9
7 .4
4. 3

.3
3. 7
.5

_
_
-

1.
1.
1.
(1.

$900
$925
$950
$975

and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$925
$950_________________
$975_________________
$ 1 ,0 0 0

3. 2
4. 3
.7
-

12. 2
11. 0

6. 3
1. 0

4. 7
6. 0

5. 5
3. 7

_
_
_

.
_
_

1. 1

-

.7

1
5
6
6

1.8

8

7

3. 3
1. 5
1. 6

-

-

6
0
0
8)

_

$ 1 ,0 0 0
$ 1 ,0 5 0
$1, 100
$1, 150
$1, 200

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$ 1 ,0 5 0
$1, 100 _ _
$1, 150_______ ____
$1, 200____________
$ 1 ,2 5 0

.4
2. 1
-

$1, 250
$ 1 , 300
$1, 350
$1, 400
$1. 450

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$1, 300____________
$1, 350____________
$ 1 , 400____________

1.8

$ 1 ,4 5 0 ____________
$ 1 .5 0 0

_
1 .4
-

-

4.
4.
1.
8.

$1, 500
$1, 550
$1. 600
$1, 650
$1, 700

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$ 1 ,5 5 0
$ 1 , 600____________
$ 1 .6 5 0
$ 1 ,7 0 0 ____________
$ 1 ,7 5 0 ____________

-

_
-

4. 7
-

4. 8
3. 2
-

-

_

_

_

6. 5

_

_

_

_

4. 8

_

$ 1 ,7 5 0 and u n d er $ 1 ,8 0 0 -----------------$ 1 ,8 0 0 and u n d er $ 1 ,8 5 0 -----------------$ 1 ,8 5 0 and o v e r ---------------------------------

10.
3.
2.
3.
1.

3
2
2

1
1

4.
15.
13.
8.
3.

5
0
4
9
4

6. 0

2
2
0

9

1. 6
8. 1

9. 7
9 .7
9. 7
9.
11.
6.
9.
4.

7
3
5
7
8

_
_
-

1.
1.
2.
5.

9
4
2

5

6. 0
8. 9

10. 4
7. 1

(2 .
1.
3.
2.

9.
9.
8.
8.

1
5
4

4.
6.
7.
7.

5.
4.
2.
2.

2
4

2

6
1

1. 0

1 .4

1. 1
(1. 2)

-

_
1)

_

7
1

_
_

8

-

9
8

2
1

8. 5

_
(2. 5)
1. 4

7. 1
7. 8
5. 9

1.
3.
4.
3.

6.
4.
5.
4.

6. 7
8. 5

7
7
0
9

6. 0

3.
1.
1.
(1.

2
9
3
2)

6

2
5
9

7. 3
5. 3

13. 4
1 1 .9
9. 3
6. 7
5. 0

_

_

_
-

_
-

1. 7
( 2 .5 )

_

_

_

_

-

_
_

_
_
_

-

_
_
-

_
_

_
_

_

_
-

2. 8
1. 8

_

T o t a l ------------------------------------------

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

N u m b e r o f e m p l o y e e s -----------------------

282

721

381

62

2, 395

9, 132

1 2 ,8 7 8

4 , 599

$ 1 ,3 5 8

$612

$722

$ 85 5

$ 1 ,0 3 6

A v e r a g e m on th ly s a l a r i e s ----------------

S e e fo o tn o te a t en d of ta b le .




$76 5

$91 2

$ 1 ,1 4 2

23
Table 4.

Employment Distribution by Salary:

Professional and Administrative Occupations--- Continued

(P e r c e n t d is tr ib u tio n o f e m p lo y e e s in s e le c t e d p r o f e s s io n a l and a d m in is tr a t iv e o c c u p a t io n s , b y a v e r a g e
m o n th ly s a l a r i e s , U nited S tates e x c e p t A la s k a .a n d H a w a ii, 1 June 1968)
J ob a n a ly sts 2

D ir e c t o r s o f p e r s o n n e l

A v e r a g e m on th ly s a la r ie s
IV

III

II

I

II

III

IV

U n d er $500-------------------------------------------

0. 3

-

-

-

-

-

-

$500
$525
$550
$575

and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$525_________________
$550_________________
$575_________________
$600_________________

2. 6
1. 0

0. 3

-

0. 2
2. 1

-

-

-

$600
$625
$650
$675

and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$625_________________
$650_________________
$675_________________
$700_________________

_

.4

9 .6
7. 6

1.
.
3.
1.

_
-

-

_
-

$700
$725
$750
$775

and
and
and
and

u n d er
un d er
u n d er
u n d er

$725_________________
$750_________________
$775_________________
$800_________________

5.
4.
7.
8.

8
1

6. 7
5. 6
7. 8
7. 8

_
-

_
-

-

-

$800
$825
$850
$875

and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$825_________________
$850_________________
$875_________________
$900_________________

8. 6

6. 5

7. 3
4. 2
4. 4

8. 5

-

-

$900
$925
$950
$975

and
and
and
and

u n d er
un d er
u n d er
u n d er

$925_________________
$950_________________
$975_________________
$1, 000______________

3.
1.
.
1.

_
( 2. 2 )
3. 4
2. 2

-

7. 3
4. 4
2. 6
6. 0

7
7

5
9
1
3

5. 1
5. 7

1

5. 3

6
8

8. 5

3

4. 0
2. 3
8.
6.
2.
1.

5
3
9

$1, 000
$ 1 ,0 5 0
$1, 100
$ 1 , 150
$ 1 ,2 0 0

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
un d er

$1, 050____________
$ 1 ,1 0 0 ____________
$1, 150____________
$ 1 , 200 ____________
$ 1 ,2 5 0 ____________

1. 0

-

. 3

$ 1 ,2 5 0
$ 1 ,3 0 0
$ 1 ,3 5 0
$ 1 ,4 0 0
$ 1 ,4 5 0

and
and
and
and
and

un d er
u n d er
un der
u n d er
u n d er

$1, 300____________
$ 1 ,3 5 0 ____________
$ 1 ,4 0 0 ____________
$ 1 ,4 5 0 ____________
$ 1 ,5 0 0 ____________

_
_
_

_
_

-

-

$1, 500
$1, 550
$ 1 ,6 0 0
$ 1 ,6 5 0
$ 1 ,7 0 0

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
un d er
u n d er
u n d er

$ 1 ,5 5 0 ____________
$ 1 ,6 0 0 ____________
$ 1 ,6 5 0 ____________
$ 1 ,7 0 0 ____________
$ 1 ,7 5 0 ____________

_

_

_
_

_
_

$ 1 ,7 5 0
$ 1 ,8 0 0
$ 1 ,8 5 0
$ 1 , 900
$ 1 ,9 5 0

and
and
and
and
and

un d er
u n d er
u n d er
un d er
u n d er

$ 1 ,8 0 0 ____________
$ 1 ,8 5 0 ____________
$ 1 ,9 0 0 ____________
$ 1 , 950____________
$ 2 ,0 0 0 ____________

$ 2 ,0 0 0
$ 2 ,0 5 0
$2, 100
$ 2 , 150
$2, 200

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$ 2 ,0 5 0 ____________
$ 2 ,1 0 0 ____________
$2, 150____________
$2, 200____________
$ 2 , 250____________

$ 2 ,2 5 0 and un d er $2, 300____________
$ 2 ,3 0 0 and u n d er $ 2 ,3 5 0 -----------------$2, 350 and o v e r _____________________

-

_

2

_

1. 2

( 0. 6 )
1. 0
1. 1

.4
1. 0
2. 5

2. 3
2.
1.
3.
4.

3
4
2
0

_
(0 . 9)
2. 5
. 7

7
4

6. 9
13. 1
6. 1
8. 8

2.
2.
1.
2.

6
0
0
0

3. 6
6 .9
5. 2
3. 8

5. 4

5.
3.
6.
6.

8

10. 1
4. 6
4. 8

10.
10.
8.
8.

2
6
0

2.
4.
2.
3.

3
6

13.
9.
9.
8.
6.

6
2
2
0
1

7.
4.
1.
1.
( 1.

5
2
1
1
0)

_

2.
4.
5.
2.
6.

3
4
6

3
9

( 1 .9 )
„

2
1

4

3
7. 1

9.
4.
2.
3.
.

1
0
4
2
5

_

_
_

1. 4
1. 0
( 1 .3 )

_

_

5.
5.
9.
5.
10.

4
7
2

7
8

3. 0
8. 6
4. 8
6. 7

5. 3
2. 7
3. 8
1 .9
2. 3

2. 8
9. 0
1. 0

2.
1.
.
.
.

3. 6
2. 6
5 .9
4. 3
2. 3

-

-

-

_

_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_

_

-

-

-

-

-

_
_
_

_

_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_
_

_
_
-

(.4 )

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_
-

_
-

_
_

_

_

_

-

4. 9
9. 5
10. 0

-

_

5. 6
9. 2

9. 4

-

_
_

1. 5
1. 0
4. 1

9
1
2

5
4

. 3
1. 2

5. 9
1. 5

1.
1.
1.
.
5.

0

5
8

3
1

.8
2. 0
( 2. 8 )

T o ta l____„
_________ ______________

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

N u m b er o f e m p lo y e e s _______________

384

682

523

1, 153

1, 733

1, 132

391

A v e r a g e m on th ly s a l a r i e s __________

$ 735

$867

$ 1 , 048

$919

$ 1 , 1 01

$ 1 ,3 3 4

$ 1 , 643

S ee fo o t n o t e s at end o f ta b le.




24

Table 4.

Employment Distribution by Salary:

Professional and Administrative Occupations--- Continued

(P e r c e n t d is t r ib u t io n o f e m p lo y e e s in s e le c t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l and a d m in is tr a t iv e o c c u p a t io n s , b y a v e r a g e m on th ly
s a l a r i e s , U nited S tates e x c e p t A la s k a and H aw aii, 1 June 1968)
C h e m is ts
A v e r a g e m on th ly s a la r ie s
I
$45 0 and un der $ 4 7 5 ----------------------$ 47 5 and un d er $ 5 0 0 -----------------------

1. o
1. 8
1. 1

. 5

$50 0
$ 52 5
$ 55 0
$ 575

and
and
and
and

un der
under
un der
un d er

$ 5 2 5 ----------------------$ 5 5 0 ----------------------$ 5 7 5 ----------------------$ 6 0 0 -----------------------

4. 9
10. 7

( 2. 1 )
1. 4

$ 60 0
$ 62 5
$650
$ 67 5

and
and
and
and

un der
un der
un der
un der

$ 6 2 5 ----------------------$ 6 5 0 ----------------------$ 6 7 5 ----------------------$ 7 0 0 -----------------------

13.
11.
7.
8.

9
3
7

3.
3.
10.
10.

$70 0
$725
$ 75 0
$ 77 5

and
and
and
and

un d er
un d er
un d er
un der

$ 7 2 5 ----------------------$ 7 5 0 ----------------------$ 7 7 5 ----------------------$ 8 0 0 -----------------------

7.
11.
7.
5.

8
1

12. 1

0
1

$80 0
$ 82 5
$ 85 0
$ 87 5

and
and
and
and

un d er
un der
un der
un d er

$ 8 2 5 ----------------------$ 8 5 0 ----------------------$ 8 7 5 ----------------------$ 9 0 0 -----------------------

$90 0
$ 92 5
$95 0
$97 5

and
and
and
and

un der
under
under
un der

$ 9 2 5 ----------------------$ 9 5 0 ----------------------$ 9 7 5 ----------------------$ 1 , 0 0 0 -------------------

4. 1
1. 8
( 1 . 6)
_
-

$1,
$ 1,
$ 1,
$ 1,
$1,

000
050
100
150
200

and
and
and
and
and

un der
un d er
un d er
un d er
u n d er

$1,
$1,
$1,
$1,
$1,

$ 1 , 250
$ 1 , 300
$ 1 ,3 5 0
$ 1 ,4 0 0
$ 1 ,4 5 0

and
and
and
and
and

un d er
un d er
un d er
un d er
un d er

$1, 3 0 0 -------------$ 1, 3 5 0 -------------$ 1 ,4 0 0 -------------$ 1 , 4 5 0 -------------$ 1 , 5 0 0 --------------

$ 1 ,5 0 0
$ 1 ,5 5 0
$ 1 ,6 0 0
$ 1 ,6 5 0
$1, 700

and
and
and
and
and

un d er
un d er
un d er
un d er
un der

$ 1 , 5 5 0 -------------$ 1 , 6 0 0 -------------$ 1 ,6 5 0 -------------$ 1 ,7 0 0 -------------$ 1 , 7 5 0 --------------

$
$
$
$
$

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
un d er
under
un d er
u n d er

$ 1 , 8 0 0 -------------$ 1 ,8 50----------- —
$ 1 . 9 0 0 —-----------$ 1 , 9 5 0 -------------$ 2 , 0 0 0 --------------

1, 7 50
1, 800
1, 850
1 , 900
1 ,9 5 0

$2,
$2,
$ 2,
$ 2,
$2,

000 and un der
050 and un d er
1 00 and un d er
150 and un d er
200 and un der

$ 2,
$ 2,
$ 2,
$ 2,
$2,

0 5 0 -------------100 -------------150-------------2 0 0 -------------2 5 0 --------------

0 5 0 -------------100-------------150-------------2 0 0 -------------2 5 0 --------------

6

IV

III

11

0
3

:
8)
0
2

10. 6
8. 4

4.
5.
7.
9.

5
4
3
7

6.
6.
4.
3.

9.
11.
9.
7.

2
6

12. 5

9
0

5
7

-

-

-

7

0

3

5. 5

-

-

-

-

_
-

_
_
-

_
_
_
-

_
_
_
-

( 1 .5 )
2. 0

( 0. 6 )

2.
2.
4.
5.

0

3
0
1

6. 3

5. 6
5. 1

3. 9
3. 0

6. 2
6. 2

-

_
-

4. 2
2. 1
1. 4
( 1 .7 )
_
-

-

VIII

_
(1. 9)
1. 1

1. 3
1. 4
(1 .3 )

_
-

VI

-

(o .
1.
1.
4.

6
8

-

VII

-

V

13.
9.
7.
8.
8.
5.
3.
2.
(2.

3
0

5
2
0
8
8

5
5)

(1.
1.
1.
1.

8)
0
1
8

5. 8
6. 7
7. 5
9. 9
10. 8
9. 6
10. 2
10. 0
7. 1
5. 8

_
-

4. 5
2. 1
1. 8
1. 0
(1. 4)
-

( 0.
1.
5.
4.
6.

8)
2
8

0
4

6.
11.
9.
6.
9.

4
3
7
9

8.
6.
6.
6.

8
6
8
1

9. 2
8. 8
9. 6

3. 3

8. 6

4. 1
5. 5
2. 8

5.
5.
3.
4.
5.

3.
6.
4.
4.
5.

0

.
1.
3.
6.
5.

7
4
5
3
0

5. 2

-

2. 0
1. 9
(2 . 9)
_
_
-

1. 1
1. 3
(1 -9 )
-

-

9
2
5
1
0

7
7
1
3
9

3. 1

4. 3

2.
1.
2.
1.

8. 9

$ 2 , 250
$ 2 , 300
$ 2, 350
$ 2 , 400
$ 2 ,4 5 0

and
and
and
and
and

un der
u n d er
un d er
un d er
u n d er

$ 2 , 3 0 0 -------------$ 2 , 3 5 0 -------------$2, 4 0 0 -------------$ 2 , 4 5 0 -------------$ 2 , 5 0 0 --------------

$ 2,
$ 2,
$2,
$2,
$2,

500
550
600
650
700

and
and
and
and
and

un der
un der
u n d er
un der
un der

$2,
$ 2,
$2,
$2,
$2,

5 5 0 -------------6 0 0 -------------6 5 0 -------------7 0 0 -------------7 5 0 --------------

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

$ 2,
$2,
$2,
$2,
$2,

750
800
850
900
950

and
and
and
and
and

un d er
un d er
un d er
un d er
un d er

$ 2,
$ 2,
$2,
$ 2,
$ 3,

8 0 0 -------------8 5 0 -------------9 0 0 -------------9 5 0 -------------0 0 0 --------------

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

_

_

2
2
1
8

-

-

_

2. 2
2. 8

$ 3 , 000 and o v e r -------------------------------

2. 4
3. 9
4. 9
3. 3
. 4
6. 9

3 .9
2. 6
2.
1.
1.
2.

0
6
2
0
.6

3.
.
1.
1.
.

1
A
4
8
0
2

2. 0

T o t a l ---------------------------------------

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

N u m b er o f e m p lo y e e s ---------------------

1, 768

4, 419

9, 29 2

10, 395

8 , 015

4, 340

1, 897

508

A v e r a g e m on th ly s a l a r i e s --------------

$67 2

$744

$849

$ 1, 063

$ 1, 272

$ 1 , 444

$ 1, 713

$ 2 , 118

S ee fo o tn o te at end o f ta b le .




100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

25
Table 4.

Employment Distribution by Salary:

Professional and Administrative Occupations--- Continued

(P e r c e n t d is tr ib u tio n o f e m p lo y e e s in s e le c t e d p r o f e s s io n a l and a d m in is tr a tiv e o c c u p a t io n s , b y a v e r a g e
m on th ly s a l a r i e s , U nited States e x c e p t A la s k a and H a w a ii, 1 June 1968)

A v e r a g e m on th ly s a la r ie s
I
U nd er $575-----------------------------------------$575 and u n d er $600-------------------------

II

(0. 8 )
1. 0

$600
$625
$650
$675

and
and
and
and

u n d er
un d er
u n d er
u n d er

$625________________
$650________________
$675________________
$700_________ _______

2.
2.
4.
8.

$700
$725
$750
$775

and
and
and
and

un der
u n d er
un d er
u n d er

$725________________
$750________________
$775________________
$800_________ _______

8. 3
12. 9

$800
$825
$850
$875

and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
under

$825________________
$850________________
$875________________
$900________________

10. 0

$900
$925
$950
$975

and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
un d er
u n d er

$925________________
$950________________
$975________________
$1, 000___ ____ ______

$1,
$1.
$1,
$1,
$1,

3
4
2
5

III

IV

V

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

(1. 2)
1 .4
2. 3

( 1 . 0)

*

-

-

-

-

1. 1
2. 2

-

-

-

-

-

( 1 .7 )
1 .4
2. 3
2. 5

-

-

(1. 1)
1 .7

(2 . 2 )
2. 9

4.
9.
11.
13.

4
1
3
1
5

6. 5
8. 3

0
6

9. 5
9. 3

( 1 . 0)
-

4. 4
3. 5
2. 1
1. 2

9 .8
8. 6
9. 0
7. 3

4.
4.
5.
6.

1 .4
( . 6)

8. 9
6. 0

13.
13.
12.
11.
8,

000
050
100
150
200

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
un d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$1, 050 _________
$1. 100
$1, 150___________
$1, 200___________
$ 1 ,2 5 0 ..

$ 1 ,2 5 0
$1, 300
$1, 350
$1, 400
$1, 450

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$1, 300______ ____
$1, 350___________
$ 1 ,4 0 0
$ 1 ,4 5 0 ._
$1, 500_________

$1, 500
$ 1 ,5 5 0
$1, 600
$ 1 ,6 5 0
$ 1 ,7 0 0

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
un d er
u n d er

$1, 550___________
$ 1 ,6 0 0 ___________
$1, 650___________
$1, 700___________
$ 1 ,7 5 0 ___________

-

$ 1 ,7 5 0
$1, 800
$ 1 ,8 5 0
$ 1 ,9 0 0
$1, 950

and
and
and
and
and

un d er
u n d er
u n d er
un d er
u n d er

$ 1 ,8 0 0 ___________
$ 1 ,8 5 0 ___________
$ 1 ,9 0 0 ___________
$ 1 ,9 5 0 ___________
$2, 000_______ ___

$ 2 ,0 0 0
$2, 050
$2, 100
$2, 150
$2, 200

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
un der

$2, 250
$2, 300
$2, 350
$ 2 ,4 0 0
$ 2 ,4 5 0

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
un der
u n d er
un d er

VIII

_

8

4. 9
2. 2
1 .4

VII

-

3. 4
4. 5

19. 1
21. 0

VI

14.
13.
10.
5.

0
0
8
2

( 1 .7 )
i. 0
1. 8

8

7 .4

0

8. 1

2
0

7. 7
8. 9
1 1 .9

( 1 .9 )
2 .4
6 .4
3. 8
5. 4

-

2. 3
1. 7
(-4 )

-

-

5. 0
4. 1
2. 2
1. 2
(1 .4 )

-

-

-

(2 . 1 )

-

-

-

-

“

1. 5
(2 . 6 )
-

$ 2 ,0 5 0 ___________
$2, 100___________
$2, 150___________
$2, 200___________
$2, 250___________

-

-

-

-

-

-

2. 6

$2, 300___________
$2, 350___________
$2, 400___________
$ 2 ,4 5 0 ___________
$ 2 ,5 0 0 ___________

_

_
_

_
-

_
-

-

_

-

-

( 2 . 0)
_
_

$ 2 ,5 0 0 and u n d er $ 2 ,5 5 0 ----------------$ 2 ,5 5 0 and o v e r --------------------------------

-

3

10. 8

9.
8.
6.
4.

9
6
6

3

3. 3
2. 4
1 .9
1.6

-

100. 0

6. 3
8. 0
7. 8

8 .4
9 .4
8. 3

7.
6.
5.
4.

4
3
5
0

2. 6
2. 0

100. 0

2. 2

2.
4.
6.
5.

7
0
3
9

6.
7.
7.
8.
8.

7
1
0

7.
7.
4.
4.
3.
2.
1.
.
1.

8

3
8

5
5
1
8

7
5
8
0

2.
3.
4.
7.
7.

5
9
1
3

5.
7.
6.
7.
4.

9
4
5
1
4

7.
4.
3.
4.
3.

0
2

8

8

1
3

3. 7
2. 2

1. 5
1. 1
1. 3
1. 0
(4. 7)

T o t a l ----------------------------------------

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

N u m b er o f e m p lo y e e s ---------------------

12,3 61

32, 113

8 2 ,6 6 7

109 ,53 8

7 1 ,2 5 7

3 8 ,4 4 4

1 2 ,7 8 9

2, 971

A v e r a g e m on th ly s a l a r i e s --------------

$ 752

$ 81 4

$ 91 4

$ 1 ,0 9 1

$ 1 ,2 6 9

$ 1 ,4 4 7

$ 1 ,6 8 5

$ 1 ,9 4 0

100. 0

100. 0

1 F o r s c o p e o f stu dy, s e e ta b le in a p p en d ix A .
T o a v o id sh ow in g s m a ll p r o p o r t io n s o f e m p lo y e e s s c a tt e r e d at o r n ea r
the e x t r e m e s o f the d is t r ib u t io n f o r s o m e o c c u p a t io n s , the p e r c e n ta g e s o f e m p lo y e e s in th e s e in t e r v a ls have b e e n a ccu m u la te d
and a re show n in the in t e r v a l a b ov e o r b e lo w the e x t r e m e in te r v a l con ta in in g at le a s t 1 p e r c e n t. T he p e r c e n ta g e s r e p r e s e n t in g
th e s e e m p lo y e e s a r e show n in p a r e n t h e s e s .
2 I n s u fficie n t data w e r e ob ta in ed fo r le v e l I to w a rr a n t p r e s e n ta tio n o f s a la r y d is t r ib u t io n s .

NOTE:

B e ca u s e o f rou n d in g ,




su m s o f in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y not e q u a l 100.

26
Table 5.

Employment Distribution by Salary:

Engineering Technicians

(P e r c e n t d is t r ib u t io n o f e n g in e e r in g te c h n ic ia n s , b y a v e ra g e m o n th ly s a la r ie s ,
U nited S tates e x c e p t A la s k a and H aw aii, 1 June 1968)
E n g in e e rin g te c h n ic ia n s
A v e r a g e m on th ly s a la r ie s

I

II

III

IV

V

-

"

-

_
-

"

3
7
1
7

_
( 1 .4 )
2. 0
3. 4

_
-

12. 2
11. 3
12. 2
8. 7

4. 6
5. 8
8. 9
12. 0

( 1 . 8)
1. 2

13. 0
1 1 .4

6.
8.
11.
10.

U nd er $ 3 2 5 ------------------------------------------$ 3 2 5 and u n d er $ 3 5 0 ________________
$ 3 5 0 and u n d er $ 3 7 5 _________________
$ 37 5 and u n d er $ 4 0 0
______
____

( 0 .7 )
1. 3
4. 2
10. 3

$400
$425
$450
$475

and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$ 4 2 5 ____ __ ____ ___
$ 4 5 0 ____
_ __
$ 4 7 5 __ _____ ___ ____
$ 5 0 0 _________________

12.
14.
12.
13.

$500
$525
$550
$ 57 5

and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$ 5 2 5 . ______________
$ 550_ ______________
$ 575__ _______________
$600

10. 3
8. 1
5 .9
3. 8

$600
$625
$650
$67 5

and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$ 6 2 5 _________________
$ 6 5 0 _______ _________
$675
$ 7 0 0 _________________

1. 2
(.9 )
-

8. 4
6. 5

$725
$ 7 50_________________
$ 7 7 5 _________________
$800

-

1. 1
(2 .4 )
“

8. 1
4. 8
3. 6

$ 8 2 5 _________________
$ 8 5 0 _________________
$875
$ 9 0 0 _________________

-

-

1 .9
( . 8)
-

$ 9 2 5 _________________
$950 _
$ 9 7 5 _________________
$ 1, 000______________

-

-

$ 1 ,0 0 0 and u n d er $ 1 ,0 5 0 -----------------$ 1 ,0 5 0 and un d er $ 1 ,1 0 0 ____________

_
-

_
-

$700
$725
$750
$775
$800
$825
$850
$87 5
$900
$925
$950
$975

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

T o ta l ------------------------------------------N u m b er

of

( 1 .4 )

4

1.8

_

2

3. 3
5. 6
9 .6

(0 . 6 )
1. 1
2. 1

7
8

100. 0

12.
14.
16.
12.

2
1

3
0

3. 5
1 .7

100. 0

e m p lo y e e s _______________ _

5 ,8 0 9

1 5,7 11

A v e r a g e m on th ly s a l a r i e s ___________

$465

$55 5

4.
6.
9.
10.

1.6

_

10. 1
6. 6
6. 5
4. 8
3. 7

2. 8
4. 3
2

4
3
7

10. 8
8. 5

6 .9

2.0

6. 2

-

1.
.
.
.

5 .0
5. 4
4. 8

_
-

. i
1 .4

100. 0

7
5
1
1

1.8

3. 5
( . 2)

100. 0

100. 0

2 7 ,9 7 6

3 0 ,3 4 7

1 5 ,5 5 5

$ 63 3

$731

$816

1 F o r s c o p e o f study, see tab le in a p p en d ix A .
To a void show ing s m a ll p r o p o r t io n s o f e m p lo y e e s s c a tt e r e d at o r n ea r
the e x t r e m e s o f the d is t r ib u t io n s f o r s o m e o c c u p a t io n s , the p e r c e n ta g e s o f e m p lo y e e s in th e s e in t e r v a ls have b e e n a c c u m u ­
la ted and a r e show n in the in te r v a l a b ov e o r b e lo w the e x tr e m e in te r v a l co n ta in in g at le a s t 1 p e r c e n t. T he p e r c e n ta g e s r e p ­
r e s e n tin g th ese e m p lo y e e s a r e show n in p a r e n t h e s e s .

NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f rou n d in g,




su m s o f in d iv id u a l ite m s m ay n ot eq u a l 100.

27

Table 6.

Employment Distribution by Salary:

Drafting and Clerical Occupations

(P e r c e n t d is t r ib u t io n o f e m p lo y e e s in s e le c t e d d ra ftin g and c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t io n s , by a v e r a g e w e e k ly s a la r ie s ,
U nited S ta tes e x c e p t A la s k a and H a w a ii, 1 June 1968)

A v e r a g e -weekly s a la r ie s

D r a fts ­
m entra cers

I

III

II

I

II

$50
$55
$60
$65
$70

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$ 5 5 ------------------------------$ 6 0 -----------------------------$65__............. ...... ............
$ 7 0 ....... -.................... ......
$ 7 5 ____________________

.

.

-

-

-

-

(0 . 8)
3 .9
5. 7

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

0.
3.
7.
10.

$75
$80
$85
$90
$ 95

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$ 8 0 -----------------------------$ 8 5 ------ --------- ------------$ 9 0 ____________________
$ 9 5 . __________________
$ 1 0 0 ----------------------------

7. 6
13. 3
10. 4
1 3 .5
9 .8

( 1 .3 )
2. 5
3. 2
5. 0
6. 5

_

_

_
_
(0 . 8 )
1. 1

_
_
-

9 .7
5. 4
5. 4
5 .9

10. 8

$
$
$
$
$

100 and u n d er
105 and u n d er
1 1 0 and unde r
115 and u n d er
1 20 and u n d er

$
$
$
$
$

105_________________
1 1 0 _________________
115_________________
120-------------------------1 2 5 ------ -------------

$
$
$
$
$

125
130
135
140
145

130_________________
135-------------------------140_________________
145__. _ -----------------150------------------ --------

$
$
$
$
$

150
160
170
180

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$
$
$
$
$

and
and
and
and
1 90 and

un d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$
$
$
$

$ 200 and
$ 2 1 0 and
$ 2 2 0 and
$ 2 3 0 and
$ 2 4 0 and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
un d er

$ 2 1 0 _________________
$ 2 2 0 _________________

160-------------------------170-------------------------180_________________
190_________________
$ 2 0 0 --------------------------

$ 2 3 0 -------------------------$ 2 4 0 _________________
$ 2 5 0 _________________

$ 2 5 0 and un d er $ 2 6 0 _________________
$ 260 and o v e r -------------------- ---------------T o t a l ------------------------------------- - ....
N u m b er o f e m p lo y e e s ----------------- ------A v e r a g e w e e k ly s a l a r i e s --------------------

See fo o tn o te

3 3 1 -9 8 2

O




at end o f ta b le .

2.8
2. 2
1.8
1. 1

(.9 )
_

9.
9.
9.
9.
7.
7.
5.
4.
2.

3
5
8
6

3
3
2
0
5

_
_
_

3. 3
1. 3
( 1 . 6)

-

-

_
_

_
_

1. 2
2. 1

2. 5
4. 4
6. 1
7. 4
8. 2
8. 8
9 .9
7 .9
14. 6
11. 2
6. 6
4. 3
l.d

_
_
_

_

( 1 .9 )

3
2
2
7

11. 3
1 1 .4
11.6
10. 8

7. 3
6.
4.
4.
3.
2.

0. 7
4. 1
23. 5
2 8 .9
19. 3

0.
1.
7.
17.
18.

1 .4
3. 2
4. 2
6. 2
6. 6

10. 1
6. 1

15.
13.
8.
5.
4.

7. 5
7 .9
8. 4
6. 6

2

1.2

1.6

1 .9
( 2 .4 )
-

_
_
_
_

7. 4

-

_
_
_

_

-

-

-

_

_

_

1. 3
.6

_

_

_
( 0 .5 )
1. 3

8. 3

_

_

II

5
1
4

1 .5
2 .9
4. 2
4. 4
12. 6
16. 0
15. 8
11. 6

I

1

5 .0
5. 3
3. 7
2 .9
1 .7

( 1 . 0)

C le r k s ,
f ile

C le r k s ,
a cco u n tin g

D r a fts m e n

-

7.
6.
5.
5.
3.

0
0

5
1
7

4. 9
3. 2
1. 1
(1 .4 )
-

3 .0
2.0

(2 . 3)

_

III
3
5
6

2
8

_
(o .i)
2. 1
5. 2
6. 6

3

7. 5

8

8. 5
10. 8

5
1
2

8 .7
8. 8

-

2. 5
1 .9
1 .5
( 1 .9 )
-

10. 5
7 .0
5. 1
3 .9
4. 1

_

_

3. 4
4. 2
1 .4
( 1 .9 )
-

_
_

_
-

-

-

-

-

_

-

_
_
_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

-

_
_
_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

_

_
_
_

_
_
100. 0

.

_
..LQO^

.

100.0

100.0

100. 0

100. 0

100.0

100. 0

100.0

6 ,5 5 7

2 1 ,8 2 8

3 3 ,4 4 7

2 5 ,6 2 8

7 9 ,0 8 2

5 5 ,8 7 3

3 1 ,8 9 1

2 8 ,7 5 0

8 ,7 2 0

$ 9 0 .5 0

$ 1 1 8 .5 0

$ 7 0 , 50

$ 7 9 .0 0

$ 9 7 .0 0

$ 9 5 .0 0

$ 1 1 7 .0 0

$ 1 4 5 .0 0

$ 1 7 7 .0 0

28
Table 6.

Employment Distribution by Salary:

Drafting and Clerical Occupations--- Continued

(P e r c e n t d is t r ib u t io n o f e m p lo y e e s in s e le c t e d d ra ftin g and c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t io n s , b y a v e r a g e w e e k ly s a la r ie s ,
U nited S tates e x c e p t A la sk a and H a w a ii, 1 June 1 9 6 8 )
K eyp u n ch
op era tors

A v e r a g e w e e k ly s a la r ie s
I

O ffic e
boys
or
g i r ls

II

$ 5 5 ______ ______ _____

.
(0 . 3)

0. 1

$ 50
$ 55
$ 60
$65
$ 70

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
unde r

$ 65___.......................... .
$ 7 0 _________________
$ 7 5 _______________ ____

8.0

1.2

1 2 .9

2. 4

$75
$ 80
$ 85
$90
$95

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$ 8 0 ___________ ________
$ 8 5 ____________________
$ 9 0 ___________________
$ 9 5 __________________
$ 1 0 0 __________ _______

1 1 .7
15. 3
12. 0
10. 6
6. 8

5. 2
9. 3
1 0 .7
13. 1
12. 7

14. 7
9 .7
6. 6
4. 4
3. 1

5.
3.
2.
2.
2.

1 1 .9

1.8
1.8
2.0

( 0 .3 )
2, 6

$
$
$
$
$

1 00 and unde:r $ 105_________________
105 and unde:r $ 1 1 0 _________________
1 1 0 and unde:r $ 115_________________
115 and unde:r $ 1 2 0 ________ _______

$
$
$
$
$

125
130
13 5
140
145

and
and
and
and
and

unde:r
unde:r
unde r
unde r
unde r

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

150
160
170
180
190

and
and
and
and
and

unde r
unde r
unde r
u n d er
u n d er

$ 160__............................
$ 170______ ____ ______
$ 180___
$ 190............ ...................
$200

_
-

$ 2 0 0 and unde]r $ 2 1 0 --------------------------$ 2 1 0 and o v e r -

-

120 and u n d er $ 125_________________
130_________________
135_________________
140_________________
145______
150....

8

2
5
3
5

1. 3
( 2. 2)
-

8.0

6 .7
6. 8
4. 0

2.
13.
18.
19.

4
5
7
3

(1 .9 )
-

S e c r e t a r ie s
I

II

III

_
( 1 . 0)
1. 5

_

2. 4
5 .0
7. 1
9 .2
10. 4

( 1 .9 )
1 .5
2. 7
4. 1
5. 5

12.
10.
8.
8.
6.

7.
8.
8.
10.
9.

2

5
8

7
6

_
_
-

IV
_
_

_
_

-

-

5
4
8
0

1

(1 .
1.
2.
3.
3.

2)
1
6
6
8

2. 7
3 .9
3. 8
5. 7
5 .8

8. 1
8. 5
6. 7

7.
7.
7.
7.
7.

3
4
1
7
5

10.
8.
6.
3.

7
4

5. 6
4. 4
2. 7
1 .5
1. 0

7 .9
9 .0
' 6. 7
4 .9
3. 2

_
-

~

( 1 .4 )
-

4. 8
2. 3
1 .4
(.3 )
-

7 .9
5. 5
2. 5
1. 5
( 1 . 2)

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

_
_

( 1 .4 )
1 .7
2. 4
2. 1

5 .9
5. 3
5. 5
7. 5
8. 8

_
-

4. 2
1. 6
( 1 .9 )

_

7. 3
5. 6

1

7

2.0
1. 2
( 1 .3 )

T o t a l---------------------------------------------

100.0

100.0

100.0

100. 0

10 0 . 0

100.0

100.0

N u m b e r o f e m p lo y e e s -------------------------

5 9 ,9 1 9

4 0 ,6 8 7

2 8 ,1 6 3

7 9 ,9 4 3

7 6 ,8 2 5

4 6 ,4 0 3

1 5 ,0 5 7

A v e r a g e w e e k ly s a l a r i e s --------------------

$ 8 7 . 50

$ 9 9 .5 0

$ 7 7 .0 0

$ 1 0 6 . 50

$ 1 2 0 .5 0

$ 1 2 8 . 50

$ 1 3 9 . 50

S ee fo o tn o te




at end o f ta b le .

29

Table 6.

Employment Distribution by Salary:

Drafting and Clerical Occupations— Continued

(P e r c e n t d is t r ib u t io n o f e m p lo y e e s in s e le c t e d d ra ftin g and c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t io n s , b y a v e r a g e w e e k ly s a l a r i e s ,
U nited S ta tes e x c e p t A la s k a and H a w a ii , 1 June 1968)

S te n o g ­
ra p h ers,
gen era l

A v e r a g e w e e k ly s a la r ie s

U nd er $ 5 5
$ 5 5 and u n d er
$ 6 0 and u n d er
$ 6 5 and u n d er
$ 7 0 and u n d er

$60
$ 65
$ 7 0 _ $ 7 5 __
-

$ 75
$ 80
$85
$90
$95

$ 80
$ 85 _ _
$90.
$ 9 5__
$ 100

and
and
and
and
and

$ 100
$ 105
$110
$ 115
$ 120

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

_

_
-

—

..... .
........
___ ___

$ 10 5 _ _
$110
___
_ .. .
$ 115
$ 120_
$ 125 _
_____

$ 1 3 5 and u n d er $ 140
$ 140 and u n d er $ 145
$ 145 and u n d er $ 150
150
160
170
180
190

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er

$
$
$
$
$

160
170
180
190
200

-

1 .5
3. 7
7. 8

(0 .9
1. 3

9 .0
12. 5
1 1 .9
12. 2
9 .7

2. 0
4 .9
8. 2
9. 2
9. 5

8.0
5. 8

12. 2

5. 3
3. 6
4. 5

9.
8.
8.
6.

2
1
6

1 .9

_

( 0 .1 )

8. 7

1. 1

j
_ _______ j

$ 125 and u n d er $ 130_

$
$
$
$
$

S te n o g ­
rap h ers,
s e n io r

3 .9
2. 4

( 1 .3 )
_

1

1.8
2. 1

...

... .

.

$ 200 and o v e r —---------------------------------

I

T a bu lating - m a ch in e
op era tors
I

II

( 0 .4 )
1. 1
4 .9
8. 0
10. 7
9.
14.
10.
10.
6.

3
6
9
8

3

1 3 .9
14. 1
10. 2
11.2
7. 8

2. 5
3. 5
6. 0
8. 2
8 .9

3
4
3

6. 7

12. 1

5 .4

6

3. 4
2. 5

9. 1
9 .4
7. 0
8. 1

3. 8
3. 3
5 .7
9 .9
9 .7

6. 7

0

9 .0
6. 8
8. 9
7. 1

2. 4
1. 2
. 1

10. 3
5. 2
2. 5

2. 3
5. 5
7. 8
1 1 .9
10. 1

1. 1
( . 6)

5 .9
3. 5
1. 6
2. 2
( 1 . 2)

2

2. 2

2. 2
1.2
( 1 . 6)

_

_

-

_

_
_

-

-

-

_

_

3
9
4

_

_

_

_
_
_

II

(2 )

9. 2

5.
3.
2.
2.

1.0
2. 8

_

-

I

_
_
(0 . 2 )
1. 1

12.
10.
8.
7.
5.

-

III

(2 )
1. 2
5. 8
10. 7

7 .9
4. 5
4. 1
3 .0
1 .7

_

II

T y p is ts

.
_
(0 . 2 )

(l.D

_

_
_

S w itc h b o a r d
op era tors

_
( 0 .9 )
1. 3
2.0

1 2 .9
17. 7

_
(0 . 8)
2. 3
5 .9

15.
14.
11.
8.
4.

9 .8
14. 5
14. 2
12. 5
10. 2

1.0
6. 2

4
7
7
4
2

2. 8
1. 2
1. 1

1. 5
( l .D -

7.
5.
4.
3.
3.

1 .9
_

_
_

1.8
.8
1.2

-

( .2)

_
_

_

2.0

-

7
2
1
7
3

_

_
_

1 .9

-

-

.

„

. 5

T o t a l ------------------------------------------

100. 0

100.0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

N u m b er o f e m p l o y e e s -----------------------

7 3, 720

5 b , 347

1 5 ,0 5 6

1 0 ,2 9 3

7 ,3 6 2

1 2 ,7 5 6

6 ,0 3 3

8 9 ,5 2 3

4 5 ,8 4 8

A v e r a g e w e e k ly s a l a r i e s --------------------

$ 9 3 . 00

$ 1 0 7 . 50

$ 8 8 . 00

$ 1 0 4 .5 0

$ 9 0 . 00

$ 111.00

$ 1 3 4 . 50

$ 8 0 . 50

$ 9 4 .0 0

1 F o r s c o p e of s tu d y , s e e t a b l e in a p p e n d i x A . T o a v o id s h o w in g s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n s of e m p l o y e e s s c a t t e r e d a t o r n e a r
th e e x t r e m e s of th e d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r s o m e o c c u p a t i o n s , th e p e r c e n t a g e s of e m p l o y e e s in t h e s e i n t e r v a l s h a v e b e e n a c c u m u l a t e d
a n d a r e sh o w n in th e i n t e r v a l a b o v e o r b e lo w th e e x t r e m e i n t e r v a l c o n ta in in g a t l e a s t 1 p e r c e n t . T h e p e r c e n t a g e s r e p r e s e n t i n g
t h e s e e m p l o y e e s a r e sh o w n in p a r e n t h e s e s .
2

L e s s than 0. 05 p e r c e n t.

N O T E : B e c a u s e of r o u n d in g , s u m s of in d iv id u a l i t e m s m a y n o t e q u a l 100.




30

Table 7.

Occupational Employment Distribution:

By Industry Division

( P e r c e n t d is t r ib u t io n o f e m p lo y e e s in s e le c t e d p r o f e s s io n a l, a d m in is tr a t iv e , te c h n ic a l, and c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t io n s , 1
b y in d u s try d iv is io n , 2 U nited S ta tes e x c e p t A la s k a and H aw aii, June 1968)

O c cu p a tio n

M anu­
fa c tu r in g

P u b lic
u t ilit ie s 3

69
40
60

12

W h o le sa le
tra d e

R e ta il
tra d e

F in a n ce ,
in s u r a n c e ,
and
r e a l e sta te

S e le c te d
s e r v ic e s 4

P r o f e s s i o n a l and a d m in is tr a tiv e
A c c o u n ta n ts ____________________________
A u d ito r s _______________________________
C h ie f a c c o u n t a n t s -------------- ------ ---------A tt o r n e y s ______________________________
M a n a g e r s , o f f i c e s e r v i c e s __________
B u y e r s _________________________________
J o b a n a l y s t s ________________ _____ _____
D i r e c t o r s o f p e r s o n n e l ______________
C h e m is t s ______________________________
E n g i n e e r s ______________________________

64

19
7
17
7

86

6

77
75
92
79

4
(5)
(5 )

78
80

26

7
7
9

(5 )
6
8

6

(*)

7

(5)

8

27
13
48
17

(!)
(!)
( !)

()
(!)
(5)
6

(!)

(*)
(5 )
6

10

(5 )
5
(5 )
(5)

( 5)
(5)

9
(5)
(5)

5
7

(!)
(5 )

(5)
(5)

-

17

(5 )

11

12

17
52
24

(!)

(5 )
12

(5)
6
11

T e c h n ic a l
E n g in e e rin g t e c h n ic ia n s _____________
D r a ft s m e n ______________________________
C le r i c a l
C le r k s , a c c o u n t in g ___________________
C le r k s , f i l e _________ _____ __ ____ ______
K ey p u n ch o p e r a t o r s __________________
O ffic e b o y s o r g i r l s ---------------------------S e c r e t a r i e s ____________________________
S tenog rap he r s---------- ----------------- ---------S w itch b oa rd o p e r a t o r s -----------------------T a b u la tin g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s _____
T y p is ts _________________________ ____ ___

41
24
43
35
51
51
32
40
40

16

5

7

11
10

12
12

11
8

8
5

9
13

7
7
7

12
21

8

7

6

(5 )

33
22
22

14
4
4

27
26
38

4

o

(5 )
6
6

5
7
(5 )

4

1 E a c h o c c u p a t io n in c lu d e s the w o r k l e v e l s , as d e fin e d f o r the s u r v e y , f o r w h ich e m p lo y m e n t e s tim a t e s in a ll in d u s t r ie s
w ithin s c o p e o f the study a r e show n in tab le 1 .
2 F o r s c o p e o f study, see ta b le in a p p en d ix A .
3 T r a n s p o r t a t io n (lim it e d to r a ilr o a d , lo c a l and su b u rb a n p a s s e n g e r , d e e p s e a w a te r, and a ir t r a n s p o r ta t io n in d u s t r ie s ),
c o m m u n ic a t io n , e l e c t r i c , g a s , and s a n ita ry s e r v i c e s .
4 E n g in e e rin g and a r c h it e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s ; and c o m m e r c i a l ly o p e r a t e d r e s e a r c h ,
d e v e lo p m e n t, and te stin g l a b o r a ­
t o r i e s o n ly .
5 L e s s than 4 p e r c e n t.




31

Table 8.

Relative Salary Levels:

Occupation by Industry Division

(R e la tiv e s a la r y le v e ls fo r s e le c t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m in is tr a t iv e , t e c h n ic a l, and c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s 1
b y in d u s try d iv is io n . U n ited S ta tes e x c e p t A la s k a and H a w a ii, June 1968)
(A v e r a g e s a la r y f o r e a c h occuraation in a ll in d u s t r ie s * 100)
M anufa c tu r in g

O c cu p a tio n

P u b lic
u t ilit ie s 3

W h o le sa le
tra d e

R e ta il
tra d e

F in a n c e ,
in s u r a n c e ,
and
r e a l e sta te

S e le c te d
s e r v ic e s 4

P r o f e s s i o n a l and a d m in is tr a tiv e
99
102
100
107
100
99
102
99
100
101

103
102
100
101
105
102
99
112
(5)
97

101
104
95

—

99
99

C le r k s , a c c o u n t in g - _
—
_ —
C le r k s , f i l e - ______
K e y p u n ch o p e r a t o r s — — _ —
O ffic e b o y s o r g i r ls
—
___
S e cre ta rie s _
—
— — S te n o g r a p h e r s __
— _
S w itc h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s . - — —
T a b u la tin g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s _____
T y p is ts

103
107
102
103
103
103
104
106
104

A cco u n ta n ts ---- ----- ----------- -------A u d ito r s —
____
— __
C h ief a c c o u n t a n ts - - _
_ _
_ _
A tt o r n e y s — __
_ _ - ___
M a n a g e r s , o ffi c e s e r v i c e s
B uyers —
— — —— —
__ _____
J ob a n a ly s t s ________________________ _
D i r e c t o r s o f p e r s o n n e l --------------------C h e m is ts - _ — ___ ___ — _ _ —
E n g in e e r s —
___
_ - ___

101
109
96
(5 )
106
100
99
105
100
98

(5)
105
(5 )
99
(*)
(5 )

97
101
(5)
96
(5)
111
90
100
(5)
(5)

97
94
102
95
97
(5)
86
108
(5)
(5 )

106
101

(5)
100

(5 )
96

(* )
(5)

103
102

105
119
108

111

105
102
102
100

106
108
112
98
106

102
104
102
102

90
94
95
96
91
91
86
94
96

91
95
94
94
93
90
97
94
95

101
103
101
97
104
100
96

T e c h n ic a l
E n g in e e r in g t e c h n ic ia n s D r a ft s m e n - —
— __

—__

C le r ic a l

99

99
104

1
E a ch o c c u p a tio n in clu d e s the w o r k le v e ls , as d e fin e d f o r the s u rv e y , f o r w h ich d ata a re p r e s e n t e d in ta b le 1. In co m p u tin g
r e la tiv e s a la r y l e v e ls fo r e a ch o c c u p a tio n b y in d u s try d iv is io n , the to ta l e m p lo y m e n t in e a ch w o r k l e v e l in a ll in d u s tr ie s s u r ­
v e y e d w a s u s e d as a con sta n t e m p lo y m e n t w eig h t to e lim in a te the e f f e c t o f d if f e r e n c e s in the p r o p o r t io n o f e m p lo y m e n t in
v a r io u s w o r k le v e ls w ith in e a ch o c c u p a tio n .
z
F o r s c o p e o f stu d y , s e e ta b le in a p p en d ix A .
3 T r a n s p o r t a t io n (lim it e d to r a i l r o a d , l o c a l and su b u rb a n p a s s e n g e r , d e e p s e a w a t e r , and a ir t r a n s p o r ta t io n in d u s t r ie s ) ,
c o m m u n ic a t io n , e l e c t r i c , g a s , and s a n ita r y s e r v i c e s .
4 E n g in e e rin g and a r c h it e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s ; and c o m m e r c i a l ly o p e r a te d r e s e a r c h , d e v e lo p m e n t, and te stin g la b o r a t o r ie s o n ly .
5 I n s u ffic ie n t e m p lo y m e n t in 1 w o r k l e v e l o r m o r e to w a rr a n t s e p a ra te p r e s e n t a t io n o f data.




32
Table 9.

Average Weekly Hours:

Occupation by Industry Division

(A v e r a g e w e e k ly h o u r s 1 f o r e m p lo y e e s in s e le c t e d p r o f e s s io n a l, a d m in is tr a tiv e , t e c h n ic a l, and c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t io n s 2
b y in d u s try d iv is io n , 3 U nited S tates e x c e p t A la s k a and H aw aii, June 1968)

O ccu p a tio n

M anu­
fa c t u r in g

P u b lic
u t ilit ie s 4

W h o le sa le
tra d e

R e ta il
tra d e

F in a n ce ,
in s u r a n c e ,
and
r e a l e s ta te

S e le c te d
s e r v ic e s 5

P r o f e s s i o n a l and a d m in is tr a tiv e
A c c o u n ta n ts ___________ ______________
A u d i t o r s _____________ ________________
C h ie f a cco u n ta n ts _ ________ _______
___
A tt o r n e y s ________________________
M a n a g e r s , o f f i c e s e r v i c e s ________ _
B u y e r s -------------------------------------------------J o b a n a l y s t s ___ ______________________
D i r e c t o r s o f p e r s o n n e l ______________
C h e m is t s ______________________________
_________________________
E n g in e e r s ..

3 9 .5
39. 5
39. 5
39. 0
39. 5
40. 0
3 9 .5
40. 0
3 9 .5
40. 0

3 9 .5
39. 5
40. 0
39. 5
39. 0
39. 5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
(6)
3 9 .5

3 9 .5
39. 5
40. 0
(M
( 6)
3 9 .5
(6)
39. 5
(6)
(6)

39. 5
39. 0
( 6)
40. 0
(6)
39. 5
39. 5
40. 5
(6)
(6)

38. 0
38. 0
38. 0
37. 5
38. 0
(6)
37. 5
38. 5
(M
(6)

39. 5
3 9 .5
40. 0
(6)
39. 5
3 9 .5
40. 0
40. 0
3 9 .5
39. 5

40. 0
4 0. 0

39. 0
3 9 .5

(6)
39. 5

( 6)
37. 5

(J)

(6)

3 9 .5
3 9 .5

3 9 .5
39. 0
39. 5
39. 0
39. 0
39. 5
39. 5
39. 5
39. 5

40.
38.
39.
39.
38.
39.
39.
38.
39.

39.
39.
39.
39.
38.
38.
39.
39.
38.

39. 5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
39. 0
39. 0
38. 5
39. 0
3 9 .5
39. 0

T e c h n ic a l
E n g in e e r in g t e c h n ic ia n s ______________
D r a ft s m e n ______________________________
C le r i c a l
C le r k s , a c c o u n t in g ___________________
C le r k s , f i l e _____ _____________________
K ey p u n ch o p e r a t o r s ------------ ------------O ffic e b o y s o r g i r l s ________ _______
S e c r e t a r i e s ___________________________
S te n o g ra p h e r s ________________________
S w itch b o a rd o p e r a t o r s _______________
T a b u la tin g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s ______
T y p is t s ______ ________________________

0
5
0
0

5
5
0

5
0

5
0

5
0

5
5
0
0

5

38.
38.
38.
38.
38.
38.
38.
37.
37.

0
0
0
0
0
0
5
$
5

39. 5
38. 5
39. 5
38. 5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
39. 5
39. 0
39. 0

1 B a s e d on the s ch e d u le d w o r k w e e k f o r w h ich e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv e th e ir reg\ilar s t r a ig h t -t im e s a la r y .
The avera g e fo r
e a c h jo b c a t e g o r y w as rou n d ed to the n e a r e s t h a lf h ou r.
2 E a c h o c c u p a t io n in c lu d e s the w o r k l e v e l s , a s d e fin e d f o r the s u rv e y , f o r w h ich d ata a r e p r e s e n t e d in ta b le 1.
3 F o r s c o p e o f study, s e e tab le in a p p en d ix A .
4 T r a n s p o r ta tio n (lim it e d to r a ilr o a d , lo c a l and su burban p a s s e n g e r , d e e p s e a w a te r, and a i r t r a n s p o r ta t io n in d u s t r ie s ),
c o m m u n ic a t io n , e l e c t r i c , g a s , and s a n ita ry s e r v i c e s .
5 E n g in e e rin g and a r c h it e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s ; and c o m m e r c i a l ly o p e r a t e d r e s e a r c h , d e v e lo p m e n t, and te stin g l a b o r a ­
t o r i e s o n ly .
6 I n s u ffic ie n t e m p lo y m e n t in 1 w o r k l e v e l o r m o r e to w a rr a n t s e p a ra te p r e s e n t a t io n o f data.




Appendix A.

Scope and Method o f Survey

Scope of Survey
T h e s u r v e y r e l a t e s to e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in the U nited S ta tes e x c e p t A l a s k a and H a w a ii
in the f o l l o w i n g i n d u s t r i e s :
M a n u f a c t u r in g ; t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , e l e c t r i c , g a s ,
and s a n i t a r y s e r v i c e s ; w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e ;
e n g i n e e r i n g and a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s ; and c o m m e r c i a l l y o p e r a t e d r e s e a r c h , d e v e l o p m e n t ,
and t e s t in g l a b o r a t o r i e s .
E x c l u d e d a r e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s e m p l o y i n g f e w e r than the m i n i m u m
n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s , as i n d ic a t e d in the a c c o m p a n y i n g ta b le f o r e a c h i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , at
the t i m e o f r e f e r e n c e o f the u n i v e r s e data ( g e n e r a l l y , f i r s t q u a r t e r o f 1967).
The v a r ia b le
m i n i m u m e m p l o y m e n t s i z e , w h i c h w a s a d o p te d in the 1966 s u r v e y , m o r e n e a r l y e q u a l i z e s
the m i n i m u m w h i t e - c o l l a r e m p l o y m e n t o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a m o n g the v a r i o u s in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s .
T h e e s t i m a t e d n u m b e r o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s and the to t a l e m p l o y m e n t w ith in s c o p e o f this
s u r v e y , and w ith in the s a m p l e s a c t u a l l y s tu d ie d , a r e sh ow n f o r e a c h m a j o r i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n
in the a c c o m p a n y i n g t a b l e .
T h e s e e stim a te s a ls o a r e shown s e p a r a te ly fo r esta b lish m e n ts
e m p l o y i n g 2, 500 w o r k e r s o r m o r e and t h o s e l o c a t e d in S ta n d a rd M e t r o p o l i t a n S t a t i s t i c a l
A r e a s . 16
A s i n d i c a t e d in the t a b l e , the s c o p e o f the stu d y w a s the s a m e f o r a ll o c c u p a t i o n s ;
h o w e v e r , the c l e r i c a l and d r a f t i n g o c c u p a t i o n s w e r e stu d ie d in a l a r g e r n u m b e r o f e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t s than w e r e the p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , and e n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n i c i a n o c c u p a t i o n s .
T h e s a m p l i n g m e t h o d s u s e d f o r s tu d y in g e a c h o f t h e s e o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s a r e d e s c r i b e d
in d e t a i l u n d e r S a m p li n g and E s t i m a t i n g P r o c e d u r e s .
T im in g o f S u rvey
S u r v e y c o l l e c t i o n w a s t i m e d s o that the data w o u ld r e f l e c t an a v e r a g e r e f e r e n c e p e r i o d
o f June 1968. 1
7
T h e data f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , and e n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n i c i a n
o c c u p a t i o n s w e r e o b t a i n e d b y p e r s o n a l v i s i t s to a n a t io n w id e s a m p l e o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s l a r g e l y
b e t w e e n la te M a r c h and e a r l y S e p t e m b e r .
V i s i t s w e r e t i m e d s o that e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v in g
m o r e than o n e - h a l f o f the s u r v e y ’ s w h i t e - c o l l a r e m p l o y m e n t had b e e n c o n t a c t e d b y the end
o f J u ne.
T he m o s t r e c e n t i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e at the t i m e o f the v i s i t w a s o b ta in e d .
T he a v e r a g e r e f e r e n c e m o n t h f o r c l e r i c a l and d r a ft i n g o c c u p a t i o n s w a s a l s o June 1968.
Data f o r t h e s e o c c u p a t i o n s w e r e o b t a i n e d f r o m tw o s o u r c e s :
T he B u r e a u ' s o c c u p a t i o n a l
w a g e s t u d ie s in 48 m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s w h i c h h ad r e f e r e n c e d a te s o f M a r c h t h r o u g h
S e p t e m b e r 1968; and in a l l o t h e r a r e a s , f r o m the s a m e s a m p l e o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s that w e r e
v i s i t e d f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o c c u p a t i o n s .
M e th o d o f C o l l e c t i o n
Data w e r e o b t a i n e d b y p e r s o n a l v i s i t s o f B u r e a u f i e l d e c o n o m i s t s to r e p r e s e n t a t i v e
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s with in the s c o p e o f the s u r v e y . 18
E m p l o y e e s w e r e c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g to
o c c u p a t i o n and l e v e l , w ith the a s s i s t a n c e o f c o m p a n y o f f i c i a l s , on the b a s i s o f u n i f o r m j o b
d efin ition s.
In c o m p a r i n g a c t u a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f e m p l o y e e s w ith t h o s e in the
s u r v e y d efin ition s, e x ten siv e use was m a d e o f co m p a n y o ccu p a tio n a l d e s c r i p t i o n s , o r g a n i­
z a t i o n c h a r t s , and o t h e r p e r s o n n e l r e c o r d s .
T he o c c u p a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s u s e d in c l a s s i f y ­
ing e m p l o y e e s a p p e a r in a p p e n d ix C.

The metropolitan area data in the 1968 survey relate to all 227 SMSA's (within the 48 States surveyed) as revised through
April 1967 by the Bureau of the Budget. Earlier surveys represented SMSA's ranging in numbers from 188 in 1962 and earlier surveys
to 227 in the 1967 survey.
17 Prior to the 1967 study, the average reference period for clerical and drafting jobs was February, and it was March for all
other occupations. Until 1963, reports listed "Winter" as the reference period. From 1963 through 1966, the more specific desig­
nation, "February-March, " was used. Beginning with 1967, the reference period was changed to June.
18 The surveys in metropolitan areas, used to develop the nationwide estimates for the drafting and clerical occupations, pro­
vide for collection by a combination of mail and personal visits in alternate years.




33

34
N u m ber of E sta blish m en ts and W o rk ers Within Scope of S u r v e y 1 and N um ber Studied by Industry D iv isio n , June 1968
Within scope of s u r v e y 1
M inim um
em ploym ent
in estab ­
lish m en ts
in scope of
su rvey

Industry d ivision

W^r k ers in
Num ber
of estab ­
lish m en ts

establ ish m en ts
P r o fe ssio n a l,
a d m in is­
Total
tra tiv e ,
su p e r v iso r y ,
and c le r i c a l3

Studied for
p r o fe ssio n a l an>. ad m in istra tiv e occupations
N u m ber
of e sta b ­
lish m en ts

Total
w ork ers
in e sta b ­
lish m en ts

Studied for drafting
and c le r ic a l
occupations 2
Num ber
of estab ­
lish m en ts

Total
w ork ers
in e sta b ­
lish m en ts

3 1 ,0 4 9
M a n u fa c tu r in g ------------------------------------------Nonm anuf actur in g:
T ran sp ortation , 4 com m u nication,
e le c t r ic , g a s , and san itary
s e r v i c e s ________ _ _ — --------------------W h o lesa le t r a d e _______________________
R e ta il trade -------------------------------------------- —
F in an ce, in su ran ce , and r ea l
estate _________________________________
S e r v ic e s :
E ngin eering and architectu al
s e r v ic e s ; and c o m m e r c ia lly
op erated r e s e a r c h , d eve lop ­
m e n t, and testing la b o r a ­
t o r ie s o n ly _______________________

M e tr o p o lita n

18, 7 2 5 ,2 6 6

6 ,8 3 0 ,0 6 3

3, 012

6, 5 7 1 ,6 2 9

5 ,4 3 5

8 ,2 0 1 ,2 4 7

250

1 3 ,5 5 8

1 2 ,0 9 4 ,3 9 4

3 ,3 3 6 ,4 5 3

1 ,8 3 6

4 ,5 8 1 , 0 9 9

2 ,7 2 1

5 ,2 7 3 ,5 1 2

100
100
250

2 ,8 5 5
3, 625
2 , 102

2 , 0 6 3 ,5 3 0
7 8 0 ,2 0 4
1 ,9 1 6 ,2 9 0

9 7 5 ,1 9 1
3 7 4 ,8 5 9
4 1 5 ,2 2 6

315
179
201

9 1 4 ,1 7 4
6 5 ,5 3 4
4 6 3 ,9 9 0

634
506
610

1, 1 7 1 ,8 4 4
1 6 8 ,2 5 2
8 9 1 ,4 4 3

50

8 ,4 6 0

1 ,6 3 5 ,8 3 4

1 ,5 7 3 ,4 7 9

388

4 1 3 ,0 3 4

826

5 5 6 ,6 6 8

100

449

2 3 5 ,0 1 4

1 5 4 ,8 5 5

93

1 3 3 ,7 9 8

138

1 3 9 ,5 2 8

2 4 ,6 4 3

1 5 ,4 3 0 ,0 0 4

6 ,1 2 6 ,7 6 0

2 ,4 0 1

5, 8 9 3 , 849

4 , 824

7 523 467

250

9 , 191

9 , 1 8 4 ,9 0 6

2 ,8 2 9 ,9 3 6

1 ,3 3 3

3 ,9 5 0 ,6 8 2

2 , 218

4 , 6 4 3 ,0 9 5

100
100
250

2 , 110
3, 366
2 ,0 0 9

1 ,8 8 9 ,9 0 4
7 2 9 ,3 1 2
1 ,8 7 4 ,7 5 8

9 1 6 ,8 8 4
3 5 8 ,3 3 2
4 0 7 ,6 2 9

278
163
187

8 9 5 ,9 4 6
6 1 ,9 7 5
4 5 4 ,9 3 9

597
490
596

1, 1 5 3 ,6 1 6
1 6 4 ,6 9 3
8 8 2 ,3 9 2

50

7, 542

1 ,5 4 4 ,2 5 0

1 ,4 7 7 ,5 7 9

354

4 0 7 ,2 0 5

792

5 5 0 ,8 3 9

100

425

2 0 6 ,8 7 4

1 3 6 ,4 0 0

86

1 2 3 ,1 0 2

131

1 2 8 ,8 3 2

1, 170

6 ,7 6 5 ,8 9 2

2 , 5 7 5 ,1 8 4

687

4 ,9 8 1 ,4 0 6

779

5 , 1 7 1 ,4 2 1

776

4 , 6 7 2 ,6 6 7

1 ,5 5 7 ,1 9 5

466

3 ,5 7 8 ,6 8 6

491

3, 5 4 0 ,0 3 7

a r e a s ----- a l l i n d u s t r i e s *

M a n u fa c tu r in g ------------------------------------------------------Nonm anufacturing;
T ran sp ortation , 4 com m u nication,
e le c tr ic , g a s , and san itary
s e r v i c e s __
_____ ___
W h o lesa le t r a d e _______________________
R e ta il trade
__
— _ ________
Fin an ce, in su ran ce , and r ea l
e s t a t e __ _ ___________ ___ _____
S e r v ic e s :
E ngin eering and arch itectu ral
s e r v ic e s ; and c o m m e r c ia lly
op erated r e s e a r c h , d eve lop ­
m ent and testing la b o r a ­
to r ie s o n ly ________________________

E sta b lish m e n ts em ploying 2, 500
w ork ers or m o r e — all in d u s t r ie s __
M anufacturing __ _

_ ______

_

__ _ _

■
----------------------

‘ The study r ela te s to estab lish m en ts in in du stries liste d , w i t h total em ploym en t at or above the m in im u m lim itation indicated in
the f ir s t colum n, in the United States except A la sk a and H aw aii.
2 The drafting and c le r ic a l occupations w ere studied in the sa m e sam p le o f estab lish m en ts as w ere the p r o fe ssio n a l and ad m in istrative
occu pation s, except in 48 S M S A 's .
F o r these a r e a s , the drafting and c le r ic a l data w ere obtained fro m the B u re a u 's m o re in ten sively sam p led
su rve ys of sep arate m etrop olitan a r e a s .
(F o r a m o r e detailed explanation, se e Sam pling and E stim atin g P r o c e d u r e s, p. 36.
3 Includes ex ecu tive, a d m in istra tiv e, p r o fe ssio n a l, s u p e r v iso r y , and c le r ic a l e m p lo y e e s, but excludes technicians and d r a ftsm e n , and
sa le s p erson n e l.
4 L im ited to r a ilr o a d , lo c a l and suburban p a sse n g e r , deep sea w ater (foreign and d o m e stic ), and a ir transp ortation in du stries as defined
in the 1967 edition of the Standard Industrial C la ssific a tio n M anual.
5 Standard M etrop olitan S ta tistical A r e a s in the United S tates, except A la sk a and H aw aii, as r ev ise d through A p r il 1967 by the Bureau
o f the Budget.




35

N a tu re o f D ata C o lle c t e d and P r e s e n t e d
T h e r e p o r t e d s a la r i e s
i. e. , to the s t r a i g h t -t i m e
e x c lu d in g o v e r t im e h o u r s .
and in c e n t iv e e a r n in g s a r e
e m p lo y e e s f o r w h o m s a la r y

r e la t e to s ta n d a r d s a la r i e s p a id f o r s ta n d a r d w o r k s c h e d u l e s ,
s a la r y c o r r e s p o n d in g to the e m p l o y e e 's n o r m a l w o r k s c h e d u le
N o n p r o d u c tio n b o n u s e s a r e e x c lu d e d , but c o s t - o f - l i v i n g p a y m e n ts
in c lu d e d .
T h e a v e r a g e s a la r i e s p r e s e n t e d r e la t e to f u l l - t i m e
d ata w e r e a v a ila b le .

A b o u t 4 p e r c e n t o f the e s t a b lis h m e n t s a s k e d to su p p ly data on p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m i n i s t r a ­
t iv e , and t e c h n ic a l o c c u p a t io n s w o u ld n o t d o s o . T h e s e c o r r e s p o n d e d to an e s t im a t e d to ta l
in the u n iv e r s e stu d ie d o f a p p r o x im a t e ly 6 6 4 ,0 0 0 w o r k e r s , a b o u t 3. 5 p e r c e n t o f 1 8 ,7 2 5 , 000.
A lo w e r r e f u s a l r a te w a s fou n d in the s u r v e y s o f c l e r i c a l an d d r a ftin g o c c u p a t io n s . T h e n o n ­
c o o p e r a t in g u n its w e r e r e p la c e d b y o t h e r s in the s a m e i n d u s t r y - s i z e - l o c a t i o n c l a s s e s . W h e r e
n o s u ch s u b s titu te s w e r e a v a ila b le , s in c e a ll s im il a r u n its w e r e a lr e a d y in the s a m p le , the
w e ig h ts o f the in c lu d e d e s t a b lis h m e n t s w e r e in c r e a s e d to a c c o u n t f o r the m is s in g u n its .

U n d er e s t a b lis h e d p o l i c i e s o f s o m e c o m p a n ie s , o f f i c i a l s w e r e n o t a u t h o r iz e d to p r o ­
v id e in fo r m a t io n r e la t in g to s a l a r i e s f o r a ll o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d .
In n e a r ly a ll in s t a n c e s ,
h o w e v e r , in fo r m a t io n w a s p r o v id e d on the n u m b e r o f s u c h e m p lo y e e s an d the a p p r o p r ia t e
o c c u p a t io n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .
It w a s thus p o s s ib l e to e s t im a t e the p r o p o r t io n o f e m p lo y e e s
f o r w h om s a la r y data w e r e n ot a v a ila b le .
A s in d ic a t e d b e lo w , th e s e p o l i c i e s m o r e o fte n
r e la t e d to the h ig h e r l e v e l p o s it io n s , m a in ly b e c a u s e o f p o l i c i e s n ot to d i s c l o s e p a y data
f o r e m p lo y e e s c o n s id e r e d a p a r t o f the m a n a g e m e n t g r o u p o r c l a s s i f i e d in o c c u p a t io n a l l e v e l s
in v o lv in g a s in g le e m p lo y e e .

Number of job categories

Percent of employees classified in professional
and administrative occupations surveyed for
whom salary data were not available

1

10 percent or more
Directors of personnel IV (13 percent)

3 ------------------------------------------

5 to 9. 9 percent
Attorneys VII
Directors of personnel III
Engineers VIII

1 5

----------------------------------------

3 2 ----------------------------------------

1 to 4. 9 percent
Less than 1 percent

C o m p a r is o n s b e tw e e n e s t a b lis h m e n t s that p r o v id e d s a la r y d ata fo r e a c h s p e c i f i c o c ­
c u p a tio n l e v e l and th o s e n ot d o in g s o in d ic a t e d that the tw o c l a s s e s o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s d id
n ot d if f e r m a t e r ia ll y in in d u s t r ie s r e p r e s e n t e d , e m p lo y m e n t , o r p a y s t r u c t u r e f o r o th e r jo b s
in th is s e r i e s f o r w h ich d ata w e r e a v a ila b le .
O c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t e s t im a t e s r e la t e to the to t a l in a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith in the
s c o p e o f the s u r v e y and n ot the n u m b e r a c t u a lly s u r v e y e d . E m p lo y e e s f o r w h o m s a la r y d ata
w e r e n ot a v a ila b le w e r e n o t ta k en in to a c c o u n t in the e s t i m a t e s . 19
T h e s e e s t im a t e s w e r e
d e r iv e d b y w e ig h tin g f u l l - t i m e e m p lo y e e s in the o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d in e a c h s a m p le e s t a b l is h ­
m e n t in p r o p o r t io n to the n u m b e r o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s it r e p r e s e n t e d w ith in the s c o p e o f the
su rvey.
F o r e x a m p le , i f the s a m p le e s t a b lis h m e n t w a s s e l e c t e d f r o m a g r o u p o f fo u r e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t s w ith s i m i l a r e m p lo y m e n t in the s a m e in d u s tr y and r e g io n , e a c h f u l l - t i m e e m p lo y e e
fou n d in an o c c u p a t io n s tu d ie d w a s c o u n te d a s fo u r e m p lo y e e s in c o m p ilin g the e m p lo y m e n t

19

Also not taken into account were a few instances in which salary data were available for employees in an occupation, but
where there was no satisfactory basis for classifying the employees by the appropriate work levels.
3 3 1 -9 8 2

0 - 6 9 - 6




36

e s t im a t e s f o r the o c c u p a t io n s .
In a d d itio n , the p r o f e s s i o n a l and a d m in is t r a t iv e o c c u p a t io n s
w e r e lim it e d to e m p lo y e e s m e e t in g the s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a in e a c h s u r v e y d e fin it io n an d w e r e
n ot in te n d e d to in c lu d e a ll e m p lo y e e s in e a c h fi e ld o f w o r k . 20
F o r th e s e r e a s o n s , an d
b e c a u s e o f d if f e r e n c e s in o c c u p a t io n a l s t r u c t u r e a m o n g e s t a b lis h m e n t s , th e e s t im a t e s o f
o c c u p a t io n a l e m p lo y m e n t o b ta in e d f r o m the s a m p le o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s stu d ie d s e r v e o n ly to
in d ic a t e the r e la t iv e im p o r t a n c e o f the o c c u p a t io n s and l e v e l s a s d e fin e d f o r the s u r v e y .
T h e s e q u a lif ic a t io n s o f the e m p lo y m e n t e s t im a t e s d o n o t m a t e r ia ll y a f f e c t the a c c u r a c y o f
the e a r n in g s d a ta .
In the o c c u p a t io n s s u r v e y e d , b o th m e n an d w o m e n w e r e c l a s s i f i e d an d in c lu d e d in the
o c c u p a t io n a l e m p lo y m e n t an d e a r n in g s e s t i m a t e s .
In the p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m in is t r a t iv e , an d
t e c h n ic a l o c c u p a t io n s , m e n w e r e s u ffi c ie n t l y p r e d o m in a n t to p r e c lu d e p r e s e n t a t io n o f s e p a r a t e
d ata b y s e x .
F o r th o s e c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t io n s in w h ic h b o th m e n and w o m e n a r e c o m m o n ly
e m p lo y e d , s e p a r a t e d ata b y s e x a r e a v a ila b le f r o m the a r e a w a g e s u r v e y r e p o r t s c o m p i le d
b y m e t r o p o lit a n a r e a .
T h e o c c u p a t io n s and w o r k l e v e l s in c lu d e d in th is stu d y , an d in w h ic h
w o m e n a c c o u n t e d f o r 5 p e r c e n t o r m o r e o f the e m p lo y m e n t , w e r e d is t r ib u t e d a c c o r d in g to
the p r o p o r t io n o f w o m e n e m p l o y e e s , a s f o l lo w s :

Women (percent)
90 or m ore---------------------------------

85-89 ---------------------------------------6 0 -6 4 ---------------------------------------55-59 ---------------------------------------4 5 -4 9 ---------------------------------------35-39 ---------------------------------------2 0 -2 4 ---------------------------------------1 5 -1 9 ---------------------------------------1 0 -1 4 ---------------------------------------5 -9

-------------------------------------------

Occupation and level
All levels of file clerks, keypunch operators,
secretaries, stenographers, switchboard operators,
and typists
Accounting clerks I
Accounting clerks II
Tabulating-machine operators I
Office boys or girls
Tabulating-machine operators II
Tabulating-machine operators III, chemists I,
engineering technicians I, and draftsmen-tracers
Chemists II
Accountants I, managers o f office services I,
buyers I, and job analysts II
Accountants II, attorneys I and II, managers of
office services II, buyers II, job analysts III,
chemists III, engineering technicians II, and
draftsmen I

S a m p lin g an d E s tim a tin g P r o c e d u r e s
A s in d ic a t e d e a r l i e r , th is s u r v e y r e la t e s to a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s in th e U n ite d S ta te s ,
e x c e p t A la s k a and H a w a ii, w ith in the in d u s tr y and m in im u m s i z e s c o p e . A lth o u g h o n e s a m p le
o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s w a s s e le c t e d f o r stu d y in g the p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m in is t r a t iv e , a n d e n g in e e r in g
te c h n ic ia n o c c u p a t io n s , and a n o th e r f o r the d r a ftin g an d c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t io n s , b o th r e la t e
to the s a m e p o p u la tio n o f g e o g r a p h i c , in d u s t r y , and s i z e - o f - e s t a b l i s h m e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .
T h e p r o c e d u r e s u s e d f o r s e le c t in g s a m p le s f o r t h e s e tw o g r o u p s o f o c c u p a t io n s a r e e x p la in e d
in the fo llo w in g p a r a g r a p h s .
P r o f e s s i o n a l , A d m in is t r a t iv e , a n d E n g in e e r in g T e c h n ic ia n O c c u p a t io n s .
The sa m ­
p lin g p r o c e d u r e s c a ll e d f o r the d e t a ile d s t r a t ifi c a t io n o f a l l e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith in s c o p e
o f the s u r v e y b y lo c a t io n , in d u s t r y , a n d s i z e o f e m p lo y m e n t .
F r o m th is u n i v e r s e , a
n a tio n w id e s a m p le o f a b o u t 3 ,0 0 0 e s t a b lis h m e n t s (n ot c o m p a n ie s ) w a s s e le c t e d s y s t e m a t ­
i c a l l y . 21
E a c h in d u s tr y w a s s a m p le d s e p a r a t e l y , the s a m p lin g r a t e s d e p e n d e n t on th e i m ­
p o r t a n c e o f the in d u s tr y a s an e m p l o y e r h a v in g the s u r v e y j o b s .
W ith in e a c h in d u s t r y , a
20 Engineers, for example, are defined to permit classification of employees engaged in engineering work within a band of
eight levels, starting with inexperienced engineering graduates and excluding only those within certain fields of specialization or in
positions above those covered by level VIII. By way of contrast, such occupations as chief accountants and directors of personnel
are defined to include only those with responsibility for a specified program and with duties and responsibilities as indicated for each
of the more limited number of work levels selected for study.
21 A few of the largest employers, together employing approximately one and a quarter million workers, gave data on a company­
wide basis. These companies were eliminated from the universe to which the preceding procedure applies. The sample count includes
the establishments of these companies within the scope of the survey.




37
g r e a t e r p r o p o r t io n o f la r g e than o f s m a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s w a s in c lu d e d .
In c o m b in in g the
d a ta , e a c h e s t a b lis h m e n t w a s w e ig h te d a c c o r d in g to it s p r o b a b ilit y o f s e le c t io n , s o that u n ­
b ia s e d e s t im a t e s w e r e g e n e r a t e d .
T o illu s t r a t e the p r o c e s s , w h e r e on e e s t a b lis h m e n t out
o f fo u r w a s s e le c t e d , it w a s g iv e n a w e ig h t o f 4 , thus r e p r e s e n t in g i t s e l f p lu s th r e e o t h e r s .
In in s t a n c e s w h e r e d ata w e r e n o t a v a ila b le f o r the o r ig i n a l s a m p le m e m b e r , an a lt e r n a t e
o f the s a m e o r ig i n a l p r o b a b ilit y o f s e le c t i o n w a s c h o s e n in the s a m e i n d u s t r y - s i z e c l a s s i f i ­
c a t io n .
W h e r e th e r e w a s n o s u ita b le su b s titu tio n f o r the o r ig i n a l s a m p le m e m b e r , the
m i s s in g u n it w a s a c c o u n t e d f o r b y a s s ig n in g a d d itio n a l w e ig h t to an e x is t in g s a m p le m e m b e r
that w a s a s n e a r ly s i m i l a r a s p o s s i b l e to the m is s in g u n it.

C l e r i c a l and D r a ftin g O c c u p a t io n s .
T h e n a tio n w id e e s t im a t e s f o r the c l e r i c a l and d r a f t ­
in g o c c u p a t io n s a r e , in la r g e p a r t , a b y p r o d u c t o f the B u r e a u 's s u r v e y s o f th e s e o c c u p a t io n s
in 89 m e t r o p o lit a n a r e a s .
D ata f r o m 4 8 o f th e s e a r e a w a g e s u r v e y s w e r e a d ju s te d to th e
s c o p e o f th e n a tio n a l s u r v e y and w e r e in c lu d e d to r e p r e s e n t t h e m s e l v e s . 22 T h e s a m p lin g
o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith in e a c h o f th e s e a r e a s w a s d e s ig n e d to y ie ld e s t im a t e s o f th e a r e a
as a w h o le , and f o r m a j o r in d u s tr y d iv is io n s w ith in the a r e a .
A s d e s c r ib e d in the p r e ­
c e d in g s e c t i o n , th e e s t a b lis h m e n t s w e r e s t r a t ifie d b y in d u s tr y an d
e m p lo y m e n t s i z e , an d
s a m p le m e m b e r s s e l e c t e d at r a n d o m f o r e a c h s tr a tu m .

F o r a ll re m a in in g a r e a s , c l e r i c a l and d r a ftin g d ata w e r e o b ta in e d f r o m the s a m e n a tio n ­
w id e s a m p le o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s u s e d f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m in is t r a t iv e , and e n g in e e r in g
t e c h n ic ia n o c c u p a t io n s .
W ith in th is s a m p le th e r e w e r e a p p r o x im a t e ly 800 e s t a b lis h m e n t s in
a r e a s w h e r e l o c a l i t y s tu d ie s h a d b e e n d on e b e tw e e n O c t o b e r 1967 and F e b r u a r y 1968. W h e r e
p o s s i b l e , c l e r i c a l an d d r a ftin g data r e p o r t e d in th e s e s tu d ie s w e r e u p d a te d to r e f l e c t g e n e r a l
in c r e a s e s o c c u r r i n g to the tim e p r o f e s s i o n a l and a d m in is t r a t iv e data w e r e c o l l e c t e d . In a ll
o th e r e s t a b lis h m e n t s , c l e r i c a l and d r a ftin g data w e r e c o l l e c t e d in c o n ju n c t io n w ith p r o f e s ­
s io n a l an d a d m in is t r a t iv e d a ta .
C o n v e r s io n o f S a la r y R a te s
S a la r y d ata f o r the s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s w e r e c o l l e c t e d in the f o r m in w h ic h it w a s
m o s t r e a d il y a v a ila b le f r o m c o m p a n y r e c o r d s , i. e. , on a w e e k ly , b iw e e k ly , s e m im o n t h ly ,
m o n th ly , o r an nu al b a s i s .
F o r the in itia l ta b u la t io n s , the s a la r y d ata w e r e f i r s t c o n v e r t e d
to a w e e k ly b a s is f o r the c l e r i c a l an d d r a ftin g o c c u p a t io n s and to a m o n th ly b a s is f o r the
p r o f e s s i o n a l , a d m in is t r a t iv e , and e n g in e e r in g t e c h n ic ia n o c c u p a t io n s .
T h e f a c t o r s u s e d to
c o n v e r t th e s e d a ta f o r the tw o g r o u p s o f o c c u p a t io n s w e r e a s f o l lo w s :

Time interval
represented by
salary
Weekly-----------------------------------Biweekly — ----------- ---------------Semimonthly-------------------------M on th ly--------------------------------A n n u al-----------------------

Salaries for clerical and
drafting occupations to
weekly basis

Salaries for professional
and administrative occupations and for engineering
technicians to
monthly basis

1.0000
. 5000
. 4602
.2301
.0192

4.3450
2. 1725
2.0000
1.0000
.0833

A v e r a g e m o n th ly s a l a r i e s p r e s e n t e d in ta b le s 1, 2, and 3 and a n n u a l s a la r i e s p r e s e n t e d in
t a b le s 1 an d 2 f o r the c l e r i c a l and d r a ftin g o c c u p a t io n s a r e d e r iv e d f r o m the a v e r a g e w e e k ly
s a la r i e s (to the n e a r e s t p en n y ) b y u s e o f f a c t o r s 4 . 345 and 52. 14, r e s p e c t i v e l y , an d r o u n d ­
in g r e s u lt s to th e n e a r e s t d o ll a r .
A v e r a g e w e e k ly s a la r i e s f o r th e s e o c c u p a t io n s , p r e s e n t e d
in ta b le 6, a r e r o u n d e d to the n e a r e s t h a lf d o ll a r .
A vera g e^ m o n th ly s a la r i e s p r e s e n t e d in .
t a b le s 1, 2, and 3 f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l an d a d m in is t r a t iv e o c c u p a t io n s an d f o r e n g in e e r in g
t e c h n ic ia n s a r e ro u n d e d to the n e a r e s t d o ll a r .
T o o b ta in the an n u a l s a l a r i e s , a v e r a g e
m o n th ly s a la r i e s (to the n e a r e s t p en n y ) a r e m u lt ip lie d b y 12 and r o u n d e d to the n e a r e s t d o ll a r .

These were the 48 area wage surveys (excluding Cleveland and San Jose) which had payroll reference dates of March through
September 1968, and were, therefore, representative o f the same collection time period that applied for the national survey.




38
M e th o d o f D e t e r m in in g M e d ia n an d Q u a r t ile V a lu e s
M e d ia n an d q u a r t ile v a lu e s p r e s e n t e d in th is r e p o r t w e r e d e r iv e d f r o m d is t r ib u t io n s
o f e m p lo y e e s b y s a la r y u s in g $ 1 c l a s s in t e r v a ls .
W e e k ly s a la r y c l a s s in t e r v a ls w e r e u s e d
f o r d r a ft s m e n an d c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t io n s and m o n th ly s a la r y c l a s s in t e r v a ls w e r e u s e d f o r a ll
o th e r o c c u p a t io n s .
T h e w e e k ly v a lu e s w e r e m u lt ip lie d b y 4 . 345 to o b ta in m o n th ly v a lu e s
and b y 52. 14 to o b ta in an nu al v a lu e s .
T h e an n u a l v a lu e s f o r o th e r than d r a ft s m e n and
c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t io n s w e r e o b ta in e d b y m u ltip ly in g m o n th ly v a lu e s b y 12.
E s t im a t e s o f S a m p lin g E r r o r
T h e s u r v e y p r o c e d u r e y ie ld s e s t im a t e s w ith w id e ly v a r y in g s a m p lin g e r r o r s , d e p e n d in g
on the f r e q u e n c y w ith w h ic h the jo b o c c u r s , and the d is p e r s i o n o f s a l a r i e s .
T h u s , f o r the
p r o f e s s i o n a l an d a d m in is t r a t iv e and e n g in e e r in g te c h n ic ia n o c c u p a t io n w o r k l e v e l s , the r e l a ­
tiv e s ta n d a r d e r r o r s o f the a v e r a g e s a la r i e s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d a s f o l lo w s :
30 w e r e u n d e r
2 p e r c e n t ; 13 w e r e 2 and u n d e r 4 p e r c e n t ; 6 w e r e 4 and u n d e r 6 p e r c e n t ; and 7 w e r e 6 p e r ­
c e n t an d o v e r . 23 T h e n a tio n w id e e s t im a t e s f o r the c l e r i c a l an d d r a ftin g r o o m o c c u p a t io n s ,
b a s e d on the m u c h l a r g e r s a m p le , a r e s u b je c t to s m a l le r s a m p lin g e r r o r — 2 p e r c e n t o r l e s s
in a ll c a s e s e x c e p t f o r s e n io r s t e n o g r a p h e r s (2. 3 p e r c e n t ), t a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s I
(2. 5 p e r c e n t ) an d d r a f t s m e n - t r a c e r s (3. 2 p e r c e n t ).
T h e s e s a m p lin g e r r o r s m e a s u r e the
v a lid it y o f th e b a n d w ith in w h ic h the tr u e a v e r a g e is lik e ly to fa ll. T h u s , f o r an o c c u p a t io n
w ith a s a m p le a v e r a g e m o n th ly s a la r y o f $ 1 ,0 0 0 and a s a m p lin g e r r o r o f 4 p e r c e n t , the
c h a n c e s a r e 19 out o f 20 that the tr u e a v e r a g e li e s w ith in the ban d f r o m $ 9 6 0 to $ 1 ,0 4 0 .

23 The 6 percent and over group included: Attorneys VI— 6.0 percent; auditors 1 6. 9 percent; chief accountants IV— 7. 3 percent;
—
attorneys II— 9.0 percent; directors of personnel IV— 9.3 percent; attorneys I— 10. 2 percent; managers, office services IV— 12.7 percent.




Appendix B.

Survey Changes in 1968

C h a n g e s in O c c u p a tio n a l D e fin it io n s

R e v i s e d s u r v e y d e fin it io n s w e r e u s e d f o r c l a s s i f y i n g a ll l e v e l s o f c h e m is t s and e n g i­
n e e r s in th e 1968 s u r v e y .
T h e s e d e fin it io n s w e r e r e v i s e d to fa c i lit a t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n b y
b e t t e r r e la t in g the d e fin it io n s to d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a s th e y e x is t in p r iv a t e in ­
d u s t r y , p a r t i c u l a r ly at the h ig h e r l e v e l s .
T h e w o r k le v e l s o f e a c h o c c u p a t io n w e r e in te n d e d
to r e p r e s e n t the s a m e ty p e s o f jo b s a s d id the s a m e l e v e l s o f th e p r e v io u s d e fin it io n s .
An
e v a lu a tio n o f th e s u r v e y d ata and th e c o l l e c t i o n e x p e r ie n c e r e v e a le d that th e r e v i s e d d e f i n i ­
t io n s h ad lit t le e ff e c t in c h a n g in g m a t c h e s that h ad b e e n m a d e in th e p a s t.
C o m p a r is o n s
o f data f o r tr e n d p u r p o s e s , t h e r e f o r e , w e r e n ot a f f e c t e d s e r io u s l y .




39

Appendix C. Occupational Definitions

T h e p r im a r y p u r p o s e o f p r e p a r in g jo b d e fin it io n s f o r the
B u r e a u 1s w a g e s u r v e y s is to a s s i s t its f i e ld s t a ff in c l a s s i f y i n g in to
a p p r o p r ia t e o c c u p a t io n s , o r l e v e l s w ith in o c c u p a t io n s , w o r k e r s w h o
a r e e m p lo y e d u n d e r a v a r ie t y o f p a y r o ll tit le s and d if f e r e n t w o r k
a r r a n g e m e n t s f r o m e s t a b lis h m e n t to e s t a b lis h m e n t and f r o m a r e a to
a rea.
T h is p e r m i t s th e g r o u p in g o f o c c u p a t io n a l w a g e r a t e s r e p r e ­
s e n tin g c o m p a r a b le jo b c o n te n t.
T o s e c u r e c o m p a r a b i lit y o f jo b
c o n te n t, s o m e o c c u p a t io n s and w o r k le v e l s a r e d e fin e d to in c lu d e
o n ly th o s e w o r k e r s m e e t in g s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a a s to tr a in in g , jo b
fu n c tio n s , and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .
B e c a u s e o f th is e m p h a s is o n in t e r e s t a b lis h m e n t and in t e r a r e a c o m p a r a b ilit y o f o c c u p a t io n a l c o n te n t,
the B u r e a u ’ s o c c u p a t io n a l d e fin it io n s m a y d if f e r s ig n ific a n t ly f r o m
th o s e in u s e in in d iv id u a l e s t a b lis h m e n t s o r th o s e p r e p a r e d f o r o th e r
p u r p o s e s . A l s o s e e n o te r e f e r r i n g to the d e fin it io n s f o r the d r a ftin g
and c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t io n s o n p a g e 80.

A C C O U N T A N T S A N D A U D IT O R S

ACCOUNTANT
P e r f o r m s p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t in g w o r k r e q u ir in g k n o w le d g e o f the t h e o r y and p r a c ­
t ic e o f r e c o r d in g , c l a s s i f y i n g , e x a m in in g , and a n a ly z in g the d a ta and r e c o r d s o f fin a n c ia l
t r a n s a c t io n s .
T h e w o r k g e n e r a lly r e q u ir e s a b a c h e l o r ’ s d e g r e e in a c c o u n t in g o r , in r a r e
in s t a n c e s , e q u iv a le n t e x p e r ie n c e and e d u c a tio n c o m b in e d . P o s it i o n s c o v e r e d b y th is d e fin it io n
a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y th e in c lu s io n o f w o r k that is a n a ly t ic a l, c r e a t i v e , e v a lu a tiv e , and a d ­
v i s o r y in n a tu r e .
T h e w o r k d r a w s u p on and r e q u ir e s a th o r o u g h k n o w le d g e o f th e fu n d a ­
m e n ta l d o c t r i n e s , t h e o r ie s , p r i n c ip l e s , and t e r m in o lo g y o f a c c o u n t a n c y , and o ft e n e n ta ils
s o m e u n d e r s ta n d in g o f s u c h r e la t e d f i e ld s a s b u s in e s s la w , s t a t is t i c s , and g e n e r a l m a n a g e ­
m e n t.
(S e e a ls o c h ie f a c c o u n t a n t .)
P r o f e s s i o n a l r e s p o n s ib i lit ie s in a c c o u n ta n t
m e n ta l l e v e l s in c lu d e s e v e r a l s u c h d u tie s a s :

p o s it io n s a b o v e th e e n tr y and

d e v e lo p ­

A n a ly z in g th e e f f e c t s o f t r a n s a c t io n s u p o n a c c o u n t r e la t io n s h ip s ;
E v a lu a tin g a lt e r n a t iv e m e a n s o f tr e a t in g t r a n s a c t i o n s ;
P la n n in g the m a n n e r in w h ic h a c c o u n t s t r u c t u r e s sh o u ld b e d e v e lo p e d o r m o d i f ie d ;
A s s u r in g
m a n a g e m e n t;

the

ad eq u a cy

of

the

a c c o u n t in g

sy stem

as

the

b a s is

fo r

r e p o r t in g

to

C o n s id e r in g the n e e d f o r n e w o r ch a n g e d c o n t r o l s ;
P r o je c t i n g a c c o u n t in g d a ta to sh o w the e f f e c t s o f p r o p o s e d p la n s o n c a p it a l i n v e s t ­
m e n t s , i n c o m e , c a s h p o s it io n , and o v e r a l l fin a n c ia l c o n d itio n ;
In te r p r e tin g the m e a n in g o f a c c o u n t in g r e c o r d s ,

re p o rts,

and s t a t e m e n t s ;

A d v is in g o p e r a tin g o f f i c i a l s o n a c c o u n t in g m a t t e r s ; and
R e c o m m e n d in g
and p r o c e d u r e s .

im p r o v e m e n t s ,

a d a p ta tio n s ,

or

r e v is i o n s

in

the a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m

(E n tr y and d e v e lo p m e n t a l l e v e l p o s it io n s p r o v id e o p p o r tu n ity to d e v e lo p a b ilit y to p e r f o r m p r o ­
f e s s i o n a l d u tie s s u c h a s th o s e e n u m e r a te d a b o v e .)




40

41
A C C O U N T A N T— C o n tin u ed

In a d d itio n to s u c h p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k , m o s t a cc o u n ta n ts a r e a ls o r e s p o n s ib l e f o r
a s s u r in g the p r o p e r r e c o r d in g and d o c u m e n ta tio n o f t r a n s a c t io n s in the a c c o u n t s .
T hey,
t h e r e f o r e , fr e q u e n t ly d i r e c t n o n p r o f e s s io n a l p e r s o n n e l in the a c tu a l d a y - t o - d a y m a in t e n a n c e
o f b o o k s o f a c c o u n t s , the a c c u m u la t io n o f c o s t o r o th e r c o m p a r a b le d a ta , th e p r e p a r a t io n
o f s ta n d a rd r e p o r t s and s ta t e m e n ts , and s i m i l a r w o r k . ( P o s it io n s in v o lv in g s u c h s u p e r v i s o r y
w o r k b u t n o t in c lu d in g p r o f e s s i o n a l d u tie s a s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , a r e n o t in c lu d e d in th is
d e s c r ip t io n .)
E x c lu d e d a r e a c c o u n ta n ts w h o s e p r in c ip a l o r s o le d u tie s c o n s i s t o f d e s ig n in g o r
im p r o v in g a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m s o r o th e r n o n o p e r a t in g s ta ff w o r k , e . g. , fin a n c ia l a n a ly s is ,
fin a n c ia l f o r e c a s t in g , ta x a d v is in g , e t c .
(T h e c r i t e r i a that f o l lo w f o r d is t in g u is h in g a m o n g
the s e v e r a l l e v e l s o f w o r k a r e in a p p r o p r ia t e f o r s u c h j o b s . )
N o te , h o w e v e r , that p r o f e s ­
s io n a l a c c o u n ta n t p o s it io n s w ith r e s p o n s ib i lit y f o r r e c o r d i n g o r r e p o r t in g a c c o u n t in g d a ta
r e la t iv e to ta x e s a r e in c lu d e d , as a r e o p e r a tin g o r c o s t a cc o u n ta n ts w h o s e w o r k in c lu d e s ,
but is n ot lim it e d to , im p r o v e m e n t o f th e a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m .

S o m e a c c o u n ta n ts u s e e l e c t r o n i c d a ta p r o c e s s i n g e q u ip m e n t to p r o c e s s , r e c o r d , and
r e p o r t a c c o u n t in g d a ta .
In s o m e s u c h c a s e s the m a c h in e u n it is a s u b o r d in a te s e g m e n t o f
the a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m ; in o t h e r s it is a s e p a r a t e e n tity o r is a tta c h e d to s o m e o th e r o r g a n i ­
z a tio n .
In e it h e r in s ta n c e , p r o v id in g the p r im a r y r e s p o n s ib i lit y o f the p o s it io n is p r o f e s ­
s io n a l a c c o u n t in g w o r k o f the ty p e o t h e r w is e in c lu d e d , the u s e o f d a ta p r o c e s s i n g e q u ip m e n t
o f a n y ty p e d o e s n o t o f i t s e l f e x c lu d e a p o s it io n f r o m the a c c o u n ta n t d e s c r i p t i o n n o r d o e s it
ch a n g e its le v e l .

A c c o u n ta n t I
G en eral c h a r a c te r is t ic s .
A t th is b e g in n in g p r o f e s s i o n a l le v e l , th e a c c o u n ta n t le a r n s
to a p p ly the p r i n c i p l e s , t h e o r ie s , and c o n c e p t s o f a c c o u n t in g to a s p e c i f i c s y s t e m .
T he
p o s it io n is d is t in g u is h a b le f r o m n o n p r o f e s s io n a l p o s it io n s b y the v a r ie t y o f a s s ig n m e n t s ; r a te
and s c o p e o f d e v e lo p m e n t e x p e c t e d o f the in c u m b e n t; and the e x is t e n c e , i m p lic i t o r e x p li c it ,
o f a p la n n e d tr a in in g p r o g r a m d e s ig n e d to g iv e th e e n te r in g a c c o u n ta n t p r a c t i c a l e x p e r ie n c e .
( T e r m i n a l p o s it io n s a r e e x c lu d e d .)
D ir e c tio n r e c e iv e d .
W o r k s u n d e r c l o s e s u p e r v is io n o f an e x p e r ie n c e d a c c o u n ta n t
w h o s e g u id a n ce is d ir e c t e d p r i m a r i l y to the d e v e lo p m e n t o f th e tr a in e e * s p r o f e s s i o n a l a b ility
and to the e v a lu a tio n o f h is p o te n tia l f o r a d v a n c e m e n t.
L im it s o f a s s ig n m e n t s a r e c l e a r l y
d e fin e d , m e t h o d s o f p r o c e d u r e a r e s p e c if ie d , and k in d s o f it e m s to b e n o te d and r e f e r r e d
to s u p e r v i s o r a r e id e n t ifie d .
T y p ic a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .
P e r f o r m s a v a r ie t y o f a c c o u n t in g ta s k s s u ch
as:
E x a m in in g a v a r ie t y o f fin a n c ia l s ta te m e n ts f o r c o m p l e t e n e s s , in te r n a l a c c u r a c y , and
c o n fo r m a n c e w ith u n ifo r m a c c o u n t in g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o r o th e r s p e c i f i c a c c o u n t in g r e q u i r e ­
m e n t s ; r e c o n c i l i n g r e p o r t s and fin a n c ia l d a ta w ith fin a n c ia l s ta t e m e n ts a lr e a d y o n f i l e , and
p o in tin g ou t a p p a r e n t in c o n s is t e n c i e s o r e r r o r s ; c a r r y in g o u t a s s ig n e d s te p s in an a c c o u n t in g
a n a ly s is , s u ch as c o m p u tin g s ta n d a r d r a t i o s ; a s s e m b lin g and s u m m a r iz in g a c c o u n t in g l i t e r a ­
tu r e on a g iv e n s u b je c t ; p r e p a r in g r e la t iv e ly s im p le fin a n c ia l s ta t e m e n ts , n ot in v o lv in g p r o b ­
le m s o f a n a ly s is o r p r e s e n t a t io n ; and p r e p a r in g c h a r t s , t a b le s , and o th e r e x h ib it s to b e u s e d
in r e p o r t s .
In a d d itio n to s u c h w o r k , m a y a ls o p e r f o r m s o m e n o n p r o f e s s io n a l ta s k s f o r
tr a in in g p u r p o s e s .
R e s p o n s i b ili t y f o r d i r e c t i o n o f o t h e r s .

U s u a lly n o n e .

A c c o u n ta n t II
G en eral c h a r a c te r is t ic s .
A t th is c o n tin u in g d e v e lo p m e n t a l le v e l th e p r o f e s s i o n a l
a c c o u n ta n t m a k e s p r a c t i c a l a p p lic a t io n s o f t e c h n ic a l a c c o u n t in g p r a c t i c e s and c o n c e p t s b e y o n d
the m e r e a p p lic a t io n o f d e t a ile d r u le s and in s t r u c t i o n s .
A s s ig n m e n t s a r e d e s ig n e d to ex p a n d
h is p r a c t i c a l e x p e r ie n c e and to d e v e lo p h is p r o f e s s i o n a l ju d g m e n t in the a p p lic a t io n o f b a s i c




42

A C C OU N T A N T— C on tin u ed

a c c o u n t in g te c h n iq u e s to s im p le p r o f e s s i o n a l p r o b l e m s .
He is e x p e c t e d to b e c o m p e t e n t in
the a p p lic a t io n o f s ta n d a r d p r o c e d u r e s and r e q u ir e m e n t s to ro u tin e t r a n s a c t io n s , to r a is e
q u e s tio n s a b ou t u n u su a l o r q u e s tio n a b le it e m s , and to s u g g e s t s o lu t io n s . ( T e r m i n a l p o s it io n s
a r e e x c lu d e d .)

D ir e c tio n r e c e iv e d .
W o r k is r e v ie w e d c l o s e l y to v e r i f y its g e n e r a l a c c u r a c y and
c o v e r a g e o f u n u su a l p r o b le m s , to in s u r e c o n fo r m a n c e w ith r e q u ir e d p r o c e d u r e s and s p e c ia l
in s t r u c t io n s , and to a s s u r e h is p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o w t h . H is p r o g r e s s is e v a lu a te d in t e r m s o f
h is a b ilit y to a p p ly h is p r o f e s s i o n a l k n o w le d g e to b a s i c a c c o u n t in g p r o b le m s in the d a y - t o - d a y
o p e r a t io n s o f an e s t a b lis h e d a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m .

T y p ic a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .
P e r f o r m s a v a r ie t y o f a c c o u n t in g ta s k s , e . g . ,
p r e p a r e s r o u tin e w o r k in g p a p e r s , s c h e d u le s , e x h ib it s , and s u m m a r ie s in d ic a tin g the e x te n t o f
h is e x a m in a t io n , and p r e s e n t in g and s u p p o r tin g h is fin d in g s and r e c o m m e n d a t io n s . E x a m in e s
a v a r ie t y o f a c c o u n t in g d o c u m e n ts to v e r i f y a c c u r a c y o f c o m p u ta tio n s and to a s c e r t a i n that
a ll t r a n s a c t io n s a r e p r o p e r l y s u p p o r te d , a r e in a c c o r d a n c e w ith p e r tin e n t p o l i c i e s and p r o c e ­
d u r e s , and a r e c l a s s i f i e d and r e c o r d e d a c c o r d i n g to a c c e p t a b le a c c o u n t in g s t a n d a r d s .
R e s p o n s i b ili t y f o r d i r e c t i o n o f o t h e r s .
a fe w c l e r k s .

U s u a lly

none,

a lth o u g h

he m a y

s u p e r v is e

A c c o u n ta n t III
G en eral c h a r a c te r is t ic s .
P e r f o r m s p r o f e s s i o n a l o p e r a t in g o r c o s t a c c o u n t in g w o r k
r e q u ir in g the s ta n d a r d iz e d a p p lic a t io n o f w e ll e s t a b lis h e d a c c o u n t in g p r i n c i p l e s , t h e o r ie s ,
c o n c e p t s , and p r a c t i c e s .
R e c e iv e s d e t a ile d in s t r u c t io n s c o n c e r n in g the o v e r a l l a c c o u n t in g
s y s t e m and its o b je c t i v e s , th e p o l i c i e s and p r o c e d u r e s u n d e r w h ic h it is o p e r a t e d , and the
n a tu re o f c h a n g e s in th e s y s t e m o r its o p e r a t io n . C h a r a c t e r is t i c a lly , th e a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m
o r a s s ig n e d s e g m e n t is s ta b le and w e ll e s t a b lis h e d (i. e . , the b a s ic c h a r t o f a c c o u n t s , c l a s ­
s if ic a t i o n s , the n a tu r e o f the c o s t a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m , th e r e p o r t r e q u ir e m e n t s , and the p r o ­
c e d u r e s a r e ch a n g e d in fr e q u e n t ly ).

D e p e n d in g u p on th e w o r k lo a d in v o lv e d , the a c c o u n ta n t m a y h a v e s u c h a s s ig n m e n t s
as s u p e r v is io n o f the d a y - t o - d a y o p e r a t io n o f :
(a ) T he e n t ir e s y s t e m o f a s u b o r d in a te e s ­
ta b lis h m e n t, o r (b ) a m a j o r s e g m e n t ( e . g . , g e n e r a l a c c o u n t in g ; c o s t a c c o u n t in g ; o r fin a n c ia l
s ta t e m e n ts and r e p o r t s ) o f a s o m e w h a t l a r g e r s y s t e m , o r (c ) in a v e r y la r g e and c o m p l e x
s y s t e m , m a y b e a s s ig n e d to a r e la t iv e ly n a r r o w and s p e c i a l i z e d s e g m e n t d e a lin g w ith s o m e
p r o b le m , fu n c tio n , o r p o r t io n o f w o r k w h ic h is i t s e l f o f th e l e v e l o f d if fic u lt y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c
o f th is l e v e l .

D ir e c tio n r e c e iv e d .
A
to fu r n is h a d v ic e and a s s i s t a n c e
q u a cy o f p r o f e s s i o n a l ju d g m e n t,
p r a i s a l o f r e s u lt s , s u b s e q u e n t
a p p r o p r ia t e m e a n s .

h ig h e r le v e l p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n ta n t n o r m a lly is a v a ila b le
as n e e d e d . W o r k is r e v ie w e d f o r t e c h n ic a l a c c u r a c y , a d e ­
and c o m p lia n c e w ith in s t r u c t io n s th r o u g h s p o t c h e c k s , a p ­
p r o c e s s i n g , a n a ly s is o f r e p o r t s and s ta t e m e n ts , and o th e r

T y p ic a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .
T he p r im a r y r e s p o n s ib i lit y o f m o s t p o s it io n s
at th is l e v e l is to a s s u r e that th e a s s ig n e d d a y - t o - d a y o p e r a t io n s a r e c a r r i e d ou t in a c c o r d ­
a n c e w ith e s t a b lis h e d a c c o u n t in g p r in c i p l e s , p o l i c i e s , and o b j e c t i v e s . T h e a c c o u n ta n t p e r f o r m s
s u c h p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k a s : D e v e lo p in g n o n s ta n d a r d r e p o r t s and s ta te m e n ts ( e . g . , th o s e c o n ­
ta in in g c a s h f o r e c a s t s r e f l e c t in g the in t e r r e la t io n s o f a c c o u n t in g , c o s t b u d g e tin g , o r c o m p a ­
r a b le in fo r m a t io n ); in t e r p r e t in g and p o in tin g ou t tr e n d s o r d e v ia t io n s f r o m s t a n d a r d s ; p r o ­
je c t in g d a ta in to the fu t u r e ; p r e d ic t in g the e f f e c t s o f c h a n g e s in o p e r a t in g p r o g r a m s ; o r
id e n tify in g m a n a g e m e n t in fo r m a t io n a l n e e d s , and r e fin in g a c c o u n t s t r u c t u r e s o r r e p o r t s
a c c o r d in g ly .




43
A C C O U N T A N T — C on tin u ed

W ith in the lim it s o f h is d e le g a t e d r e s p o n s ib i lit y , m a k e s d a y - t o - d a y d e c i s i o n s c o n ­
c e r n in g the a c c o u n t in g tr e a t m e n t o f fin a n c ia l t r a n s a c t i o n s .
Is e x p e c t e d to r e c o m m e n d s o l u ­
tio n s to c o m p l e x p r o b le m s and p r o p o s e c h a n g e s in th e a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m f o r a p p r o v a l at
h ig h e r l e v e l s .
S u ch r e c o m m e n d a t io n s a r e d e r iv e d f r o m h is o w n k n o w le d g e o f the a p p lic a t io n
o f w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d p r in c ip l e s and p r a c t i c e s .
R e s p o n s ib ilit y f o r th e d i r e c t i o n o f o t h e r s .
o f a s u b o r d in a te n o n p r o f e s s io n a l s t a ff.

In m o s t

in s t a n c e s he d i r e c t s

the w o r k

A c c o u n ta n t IV
G en eral c h a r a c te r is t ic s .
P e r f o r m s p r o f e s s i o n a l o p e r a t in g o r c o s t a c c o u n t in g w o r k
w h ic h r e q u ir e s th e a p p lic a t io n o f w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d a c c o u n t in g p r in c i p l e s , t h e o r ie s , c o n c e p t s ,
and p r a c t i c e s to a w id e v a r ie t y o f d if f ic u lt p r o b l e m s .
R e c e iv e s in s t r u c t io n s c o n c e r n in g the
o b je c t i v e s and o p e r a t io n s o f the o v e r a l l a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m .
A t th is le v e l , c o m p a r e d w ith
l e v e l III, the a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m o r a s s ig n e d s e g m e n t is m o r e c o m p le x , i. e . , (a ) is r e la t iv e ly
u n s ta b le , (b ) m u s t a d ju s t to n e w o r ch a n g in g c o m p a n y o p e r a t io n s , ( c ) s e r v e s o r g a n iz a t io n s
o f u n u su a lly l a r g e s i z e , £ r (d ) is c o m p l ic a t e d b y th e n e e d to p r o v id e and c o o r d in a t e s e p a r a te
o r s p e c i a l i z e d a c c o u n t in g tr e a t m e n t and r e p o r t in g ( e . g. , c o s t a c c o u n t in g u s in g s ta n d a r d c o s t ,
p r o c e s s c o s t , and j o b o r d e r te c h n iq u e s ) f o r d if fe r e n t o p e r a t io n s o r d iv i s io n s o f c o m p a n y .
D e p e n d in g u p o n th e w o r k lo a d and d e g r e e o f c o o r d in a t io n in v o lv e d , the a c c o u n ta n t IV
m a y h a v e s u ch a s s ig n m e n t s a s th e s u p e r v is io n o f th e d a y - t o - d a y o p e r a t io n o f : (a) T h e e n tir e
a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m o f a s u b o r d in a te e s t a b lis h m e n t , o r (b ) a m a j o r s e g m e n t ( e . g . , g e n e r a l
a c c o u n t in g ; c o s t a c c o u n t in g ; o r fin a n c ia l s ta t e m e n ts and r e p o r t s ) o f an a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m
s e r v in g a l a r g e r and m o r e c o m p l e x e s ta b lis h m e n t, o r ( c ) the e n t ir e a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m o f
a l a r g e ( e . g . , e m p lo y in g s e v e r a l th o u sa n d p e r s o n s ) s u b o r d in a te e s t a b lis h m e n t w h ic h in o th e r
r e s p e c t s h as an a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m o f th e c o m p le x it y th at c h a r a c t e r i z e s le v e l III.
D i r e c t i o n r e c e i v e d . A h ig h e r l e v e l a c c o u n ta n t n o r m a lly is a v a ila b le to fu r n is h a d v ic e
and a s s i s t a n c e as n e e d e d .
W o r k is r e v ie w e d b y s p o t c h e c k s and a p p r a is a l o f r e s u lt s f o r
a d e q u a c y o f p r o f e s s i o n a l ju d g m e n t, c o m p lia n c e w ith in s t r u c t io n s , and o v e r a l l a c c u r a c y and
q u a lit y .
T y p ic a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .
A s at l e v e l III, a p r im a r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f
m o s t p o s it io n s at th is l e v e l is the r e s p o n s ib i lit y o f o p e r a t in g an a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m o r m a j o r
s e g m e n t o f a s y s t e m in th e in te n d e d m a n n e r .
T h e a c c o u n ta n t IV e x e r c i s e s p r o f e s s i o n a l ju d g m e n t in m a k in g fr e q u e n t a p p r o p r ia t e
r e c o m m e n d a t io n s f o r : N e w a c c o u n t s ; r e v is i o n s in th e a c c o u n t s t r u c t u r e ; n ew ty p e s o f l e d g e r s ;
r e v is i o n s in r e p o r t in g s y s t e m o r s u b s id ia r y r e c o r d s ; c h a n g e s in in s t r u c t io n s r e g a r d in g the
u s e o f a c c o u n t s ; n ew o r r e fin e d a c c o u n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o r d e fi n i t io n s ; e t c .
He a ls o m a k e s
d a y - t o - d a y d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n in g th e a c c o u n t in g tr e a t m e n t o f fin a n c ia l t r a n s a c t io n s and is
e x p e c t e d to r e c o m m e n d s o lu tio n s to c o m p l e x p r o b le m s b e y o n d th e s c o p e o f h is r e s p o n s ib i lit y .
R e s p o n s i b ili t y f o r *d i r e c t i o n o f o t h e r s .
in c lu d e p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a n t s .

A c c o u n t in g s t a f f h e s u p e r v is e s , i f a n y, m a y

A c c o u n ta n t V
G en eral c h a r a c te r is t ic s .
P e r f o r m s p r o f e s s i o n a l o p e r a t in g o r c o s t a c c o u n t in g w o r k
w h ic h is o f g r e a t e r than a v e r a g e p r o f e s s i o n a l d if fic u lt y and r e s p o n s ib i lit y b e c a u s e o f the
p r e s e n c e o f u n u su a l and n o v e l p r o b le m s o r the u n u su a l m a g n itu d e o r im p a c t o f the a c c o u n t in g
p rogram .
T y p ic a lly th is l e v e l o f d if fic u lt y a r i s e s f r o m (a ) the la r g e s i z e o f th e a c c o u n t in g
and o p e r a t in g o r g a n iz a t io n , (b) the a t y p ic a l n a tu r e o f the a c c o u n t in g p r o b le m s e n c o u n te r e d ,
o r (c ) th e u n u s u a lly g r e a t in v o lv e m e n t in a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m s d e s ig n and d e v e lo p m e n t .
E x a m p le s o f a s s ig n m e n t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f th is le v e l a r e the s u p e r v is io n o f the
d a y - to -d a y o p e r a t io n o f :
(a ) T h e e n tir e a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m o f a s u b o r d in a te e s t a b lis h m e n t
h a v in g an u n u su a lly n o v e l and c o m p l e x a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m , o r (b) the e n t ir e a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m
o f a l a r g e ( e . g . , e m p lo y in g s e v e r a l th ou sa n d p e r s o n s ) s u b o r d in a te e s t a b lis h m e n t w h ic h in




44
A C C O U N T A N T — C o n tin u ed

o t h e r r e s p e c t s h a s an a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m o f the c o m p l e x i t y th at c h a r a c t e r i z e s l e v e l IV , o r
(c ) the e n t ir e a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m o f a c o m p a n y o r c o r p o r a t i o n that h a s a r e la t iv e ly s ta b le
and c o n v e n t io n a l a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m and e m p lo y s s e v e r a l th o u sa n d p e r s o n s and h a s a fe w
s u b o r d in a te e s t a b lis h m e n t s w h ic h in c lu d e a c c o u n t in g u n its, o r (d) a m a j o r s e g m e n t o f an
a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m that s u b s ta n tia lly e x c e e d s th e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e s c r i b e d in any o n e o f the
p r e c e d in g e x a m p le s .

D ir e c tio n r e c e iv e d .
A n a c c o u n ta n t o f h ig h e r l e v e l n o r m a lly is a v a ila b le to fu r n is h
a d v ic e and a s s i s t a n c e a s n e e d e d .
W o rk is r e v ie w e d f o r a d e q u a c y o f p r o f e s s i o n a l ju d g m e n t,
c o m p l ia n c e w ith in s t r u c t io n s , and o v e r a l l q u a lity .

T y p ic a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . T h e w o r k is c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y its u n u su a l d if fic u lt y
o r r e s p o n s ib i lit y . A c c o u n ta n ts V t y p ic a lly a r e d i r e c t l y c o n c e r n e d o n a r e la t iv e ly c o n tin u o u s
b a s is w ith w h at th e n a tu re o f the a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m sh o u ld b e , w ith th e d e v is in g o r r e v is i n g
o f the o p e r a t in g a c c o u n t in g p o l i c i e s and p r o c e d u r e s th at a r e n e c e s s a r y , and w ith th e m a n a ­
g e r i a l as w e ll as the a c c o u n t in g m e a n in g o f th e r e p o r t s and s ta te m e n ts f o r w h ic h h e is r e ­
s p o n s ib l e .
A c c o u n ta n ts V a r e n e c e s s a r i l y d e e p ly in v o lv e d in fu n d a m e n ta l and c o m p l e x a c ­
co u n tin g m a t t e r s and in th e m a n a g e r ia l p r o b le m s that a r e a ff e c t e d .

R e s p o n s i b ili t y f o r d i r e c t i o n o f o t h e r s .
c lu d e s p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a n t s .

A c c o u n t in g s t a ff he s u p e r v is e s g e n e r a lly i n ­

A U D IT O R

P e r f o r m s p r o f e s s i o n a l a u d itin g w o r k r e q u ir in g a b a c h e l o r 's d e g r e e in a c c o u n t in g o r ,
in r a r e in s t a n c e s , e q u iv a le n t e x p e r ie n c e and e d u c a tio n c o m b in e d . A u d its the fin a n c ia l r e c o r d s
and p r a c t i c e s o f a c o m p a n y , o r o f d iv i s io n s o r c o m p o n e n ts o f th e c o m p a n y , to a p p r a is e
s y s t e m a t ic a l ly and v e r i f y the a c c o u n t in g a c c u r a c y o f r e c o r d s and r e p o r t s and to a s s u r e the
c o n s is t e n t a p p lic a t io n o f a c c e p t e d a c c o u n t in g p r i n c i p l e s . E v a lu a te s th e a d e q u a c y o f th e a c ­
c o u n tin g s y s t e m and in t e r n a l fin a n c ia l c o n t r o l.
M a k e s a p p r o p r ia t e r e c o m m e n d a t io n s f o r
im p r o v e m e n t a s n e c e s s a r y .
T o the e x te n t d e t e r m in e d n e c e s s a r y , e x a m in e s th e t r a n s a c t io n s
e n te r in g in to th e b a la n c e s h e e t and th e t r a n s a c t io n s e n te r in g in to in c o m e , e x p e n s e , and c o s t
a ccou n ts.
D e t e r m in e s :

(1)
T h e e x is t e n c e o f r e c o r d e d a s s e t s (in c lu d in g th e o b s e r v a t i o n o f
p h y s ic a l in v e n t o r ie s ) and th e a l l - i n c l u s i v e n e s s o f r e c o r d e d l i a b i l i t i e s .

th e

ta k in g

of

(2)
T he a c c u r a c y o f fin a n c ia l s ta t e m e n ts o r r e p o r t s and th e f a i r n e s s o f p r e s e n t a t io n
o f f a c t s t h e r e in .
(3)

T he p r o p r ie t y o r le g a lit y o f t r a n s a c t io n s ,

(4)
T h e d e g r e e o f c o m p l ia n c e w ith e s t a b lis h e d p o l i c i e s
fin a n c ia l t r a n s a c t io n s .

and p r o c e d u r e s

c o n c e r n in g

E x c lu d e d a r e p o s it io n s w h ic h d o n ot r e q u ir e fu ll p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t in g tr a in in g
b e c a u s e the w o r k is c o n fin e d o n a r e la t iv e ly p e r m a n e n t b a s is to r e p e t it iv e e x a m in a t io n s o f
a lim it e d a r e a o f c o m p a n y o p e r a t io n s and a c c o u n t in g p r o c e s s e s , e . g . , o n ly a c c o u n t s p a y a b le
and r e c e i v a b l e ; d e m u r r a g e r e c o r d s and r e la t e d fu n c t io n s , o r s ta t io n o p e r a t io n s o n ly o f a r a i l ­
r o a d c o m p a n y ; b r a n c h o f f i c e s w h ic h d o n o t e n g a g e in th e fu ll r a n g e o f b a n k in g and a c c o u n t in g
a c t i v it i e s o f th e m a in b a n k ; w a r e h o u s e o p e r a t io n s o n ly o f a m a i l o r d e r c o m p a n y ; c h e c k in g
t r a n s a c t io n s to d e t e r m in e w h e th e r o r n o t th e y c o n f o r m to p r e s c r i b e d r o u tin e s o r p r o c e d u r e s .
(E x a m in a tio n s o f s u c h r e p e t it iv e o r lim it e d n a tu r e n o r m a lly d o n o t r e q u ir e o r p e r m i t p r o ­
f e s s i o n a l au d it w o r k to b e p e r f o r m e d . )




45
A U D IT O R — C on tin u e d

A u d ito r I
G en era l c h a r a c te r is t ic s .
A s a t r a in e e a u d ito r a t
p e r f o r m s a v a r ie t y o f r o u tin e a s s ig n m e n t s .
T y p ic a lly , h e
ta s k s u n d e r a p la n n e d tr a in in g p r o g r a m d e s ig n e d to p r o v id e
the p r i n c i p l e s , t h e o r ie s , and c o n c e p t s o f a c c o u n t in g and
(T e r m i n a l p o s it io n s a r e e x c lu d e d .)

the e n te r in g p r o f e s s i o n a l le v e l ,
is r o ta t e d th r o u g h a v a r ie t y o f
p r a c t i c a l e x p e r ie n c e in a p p ly in g
a u d itin g to s p e c i f i c s it u a t io n s .

D ir e c tio n r e c e iv e d .
W o r k s u n d e r c l o s e s u p e r v is io n o f an e x p e r ie n c e d a u d ito r w h o s e
g u id a n ce is d ir e c t e d p r i m a r i l y to the d e v e lo p m e n t o f th e tr a in e e * s p r o f e s s i o n a l a b ilit y and to
the e v a lu a tio n o f h is p o te n tia l f o r a d v a n c e m e n t.
L im it s o f a s s ig n m e n t s a r e c l e a r l y d e fin e d ,
m e t h o d s o f p r o c e d u r e a r e s p e c if ie d , and k in d s o f it e m s to b e n o te d and r e f e r r e d to s u p e r ­
v i s o r a r e id e n t ifie d .
T y p ic a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .
A s s i s t s in m a k in g a u d its b y p e r f o r m i n g s u c h
ta s k s a s : V e r if i c a t i o n o f the a c c u r a c y o f the b a la n c e s in v a r io u s r e c o r d s ; e x a m in a t io n o f
a v a r ie t y o f ty p e s o f d o c u m e n ts and v o u c h e r s f o r a c c u r a c y o f c o m p u t a t io n s ; c h e c k in g t r a n s ­
a c t io n s to a s s u r e th ey a r e p r o p e r l y d o c u m e n te d and h a v e b e e n r e c o r d e d in a c c o r d a n c e w ith
c o r r e c t a c c o u n t in g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s ; v e r if y in g the c o u n t o f in v e n t o r ie s ; p r e p a r in g d e t a ile d
s ta t e m e n ts , s c h e d u le s , and s ta n d a r d a u d it w o r k in g p a p e r s ; c o u n tin g c a s h and o t h e r a s s e t s ;
p r e p a r in g s im p le r e c o n c i l i a t i o n s ; and s im il a r fu n c t io n s .
A u d it o r II
G en eral c h a r a c te r is t ic s .
A t th is c o n tin u in g d e v e lo p m e n t a l le v e l th e p r o f e s s i o n a l
a u d ito r s e r v e s a s a ju n io r m e m b e r o f an a u d it te a m , in d e p e n d e n tly p e r f o r m i n g s e le c t e d p o r ­
tio n s o f the au d it w h ic h a r e lim it e d in s c o p e and c o m p l e x i t y .
A u d it o r s at th is l e v e l t y p ic a lly
h a v e a c q u ir e d k n o w le d g e o f c o m p a n y o p e r a t io n s , p o l i c i e s , and p r o c e d u r e s . ( T e r m i n a l p o s i ­
tio n s a r e e x c lu d e d .)

D ir e c tio n r e c e iv e d .
D e t a ile d in s t r u c t io n s a r e fu r n is h e d and th e w o r k is r e v ie w e d
to the e x te n t n e c e s s a r y to v e r i f y it s g e n e r a l a c c u r a c y and c o v e r a g e o f u n u su a l p r o b l e m s , to
in s u r e c o n f o r m a n c e w ith r e q u ir e d p r o c e d u r e s and s p e c i a l in s t r u c t io n s , and to a s s u r e th e
au d itor* s p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o w t h .
A n y t e c h n ic a l p r o b le m s n o t c o v e r e d b y in s t r u c t io n s a r e
b r o u g h t to the a tte n tio n o f a s u p e r i o r . H is p r o g r e s s is e v a lu a te d in t e r m s o f h is a b ilit y to
a p p ly h is p r o f e s s i o n a l k n o w le d g e to b a s i c a u d itin g s it u a t io n s .

T y p ic a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .
A p p lie s k n o w le d g e o f a c c o u n t in g t h e o r y and
au d it p r a c t i c e s to a v a r ie t y o f r e la t iv e ly s im p le p r o f e s s i o n a l p r o b le m s in h is a u d it a s s i g n ­
m e n ts , in c lu d in g s u c h ta s k s a s :
T h e v e r i f i c a t i o n o f r e p o r t s a g a in s t s o u r c e a c c o u n t s and
r e c o r d s to d e t e r m in e t h e ir r e l i a b i l i t y ; r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f b a n k and o th e r a c c o u n t s and v e r i ­
fy in g the d e t a il o f r e c o r d e d t r a n s a c t i o n s ; d e t a ile d e x a m in a t io n s o f c a s h r e c e ip t s and d i s b u r s e ­
m e n t v o u c h e r s , p a y r o l l r e c o r d s , r e q u is it io n s , w o r k o r d e r s , r e c e iv i n g r e p o r t s , and o th e r
a c c o u n t in g d o c u m e n ts to a s c e r t a i n th at t r a n s a c t io n s a r e p r o p e r l y s u p p o r te d and a r e r e c o r d e d
c o r r e c t l y f r o m an a c c o u n t in g o r r e g u la t o r y sta n d p o in t; o r p r e p a r in g w o r k in g p a p e r s , s c h e d ­
u le s , and s u m m a r i e s .

A u d ito r III
G en eral c h a r a c te r is t ic s .
W o r k at th is l e v e l c o n s is t s o f th e a u d it o f o p e r a t io n s and
a c c o u n t in g p r o c e s s e s that a r e r e l a t i v e l y s ta b le , w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d , and t y p ic a l o f th e in d u s tr y .
T h e a u d its p r i m a r i l y in v o lv e the c o l l e c t i o n and a n a ly s is o f r e a d ily a v a ila b le fin d in g s ; t h e r e is*
p r e v io u s a u d it e x p e r ie n c e that is d i r e c t l y a p p lic a b le ; th e a u d it r e p o r t s a r e n o r m a ll y p r e p a r e d
in a p r e s c r i b e d f o r m a t u s in g a s ta n d a r d m e th o d o f p r e s e n t a t io n ; and fe w i f any m a j o r p r o b ­
le m s a r e a n tic ip a te d . T h e w o r k p e r f o r m e d r e q u ir e s the a p p lic a t io n o f s u b s ta n tia l k n o w le d g e s
o f a c c o u n t in g p r in c ip l e s and p r a c t i c e s , e . g . , b a s e s f o r d is t in g u is h in g a m o n g c a p it a l m a i n ­
te n a n c e and o p e r a tin g e x p e n s e s ; a c c r u in g r e s e r v e s f o r t a x e s ; and o t h e r a c c o u n t in g c o n s i d e r a ­
tio n s o f an e q u iv a le n t n a tu r e .




46
A U D IT O R — C on tin u e d

D ir e c tio n r e c e iv e d .
W o r k is n o r m a lly w ith in an e s t a b lis h e d a u d it p r o g r a m and
s u p e r v is io n is p r o v id e d b y a h ig h e r l e v e l a u d ito r w h o o u tlin e s and d i s c u s s e s a s s ig n m e n t s .
W o r k is s p o t - c h e c k e d in p r o g r e s s .
C o m p le te d a s s ig n m e n t s a r e r e v ie w e d f o r a d e q u a c y o f
c o v e r a g e , s o u n d n e s s o f ju d g m e n t, c o m p lia n c e w ith p r o f e s s i o n a l s ta n d a r d s , and a d h e r e n c e
to p o l i c i e s .

T y p ic a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .
T h e a u d ito r e x a m in e s tram s a c t io n s and v e r i f i e s
a c c o u n t s ; o b s e r v e s and e v a lu a te s a c c o u n t in g p r o c e d u r e s and in te r n a l c o n t r o l s ; p r e p a r e s a u d it
w o r k in g p a p e r s and s u b m its an a u d it r e p o r t in th e r e q u ir e d p a tte r n c o n ta in in g r e c o m m e n d a ­
tio n s f o r n e e d e d c h a n g e s o r im p r o v e m e n t s .
He is u s u a lly r e s p o n s ib l e f o r s e le c t in g th e d e ­
t a ile d au d it m e t h o d s to fo l lo w , c h o o s in g the a u d it s a m p le and its s i z e , d e t e r m in in g th e e x te n t
to w h ic h d i s c r e p a n c i e s n e e d to b e in v e s tig a te d , and d e c id in g th e d e p th o f th e a n a ly s e s r e q u ir e d
to s u p p o r t r e p o r t e d fin d in g s and c o n c lu s io n s .

E x a m p le s o f a s s ig n m e n t s in v o lv in g w o r k o f th is l e v e l :
(1)
A s a te a m le a d e r o r w o r k in g
p le t e a c c o u n t s and r e la t e d o p e r a t io n s
v o lv in g a c e n t r a li z e d a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m
a c c o u n t in g r e c o r d s ) o r o f c o m p a r a b l e

a lo n e , in d e p e n d e n tly c o n d u c t s a u d its o f the c o m ­
o f s m a l l e r o r l e s s c o m p l e x c o m p a n ie s ( e . g . , i n ­
w ith fe w o r no s u b o r d in a te , s u b s id ia r y , o r b r a n c h
s e g m e n ts o f l a r g e r c o m p a n ie s .

(2)
A s a m e m b e r o f an a u d it te a m in d e p e n d e n tly a c c o m p l is h e s v a r ie d a u d it a s s i g n ­
m e n ts o f the a b o v e d e s c r i b e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t y p ic a lly m a j o r s e g m e n ts o f c o m p le t e
a u d its , o r a s s ig n m e n t s o t h e r w is e lim it e d in s c o p e o f l a r g e r and m o r e c o m p l e x c o m p a n ie s
( e . g . , c o m p l e x in that the a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m e n ta ils c o s t , in v e n to r y , and c o m p a r a b le
s p e c i a l i z e d s y s t e m s in te g r a t e d w ith the g e n e r a l a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m ).

I llu s t r a t iv e o f s u c h a s s ig n m e n t s a r e th e a u d it and in itia l r e v ie w o f a c c o u n t in g t r e a t m e n t and
v a lid it y o f r e p o r t in g o f o v e r h e a d e x p e n s e s in a la r g e m a n u fa c tu r in g o r m a in te n a n c e o r g a n i ­
z a tio n ( e . g . , m a j o r r e p a ir y a r d o f a r a i l r o a d ) ; o r , the c h e c k in g , v e r i f i c a t i o n , and b a la n c in g
o f a ll a c c o u n t s r e c e i v a b l e and a c c o u n t s p a y a b le ; o r , th e a n a ly s is and v e r i f i c a t i o n o f a s s e t s
and r e s e r v e s ; o r , th e in s p e c t io n and e v a lu a tio n o f a c c o u n t in g c o n t r o ls and p r o c e d u r e s .

A u d it o r IV
G e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A u d it o r s at th is l e v e l a r e e x p e r ie n c e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s w h o
a p p ly th o r o u g h k n o w le d g e o f a c c o u n t in g p r in c ip l e s and t h e o r y in c o n n e c t io n w ith a v a r ie t y o f
a u d its .
W o rk at th is l e v e l is c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y the a u d it o f o r g a n iz a t io n s and a c c o u n t in g
p r o c e s s e s w h ic h a r e c o m p l e x and d i f f ic u lt b e c a u s e o f s u c h f a c t o r s a s : P r e s e n c e o f n e w o r
c h a n g e d p r o g r a m s and a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m s ; e x is t e n c e o f m a j o r s p e c i a l i z e d a c c o u n t in g fu n c tio n s
( e . g . , c o s t a c c o u n tin g , in v e n t o r y a c c o u n t in g , s a le s a c c o u n t in g ), in a d d itio n to g e n e r a l a c ­
c o u n t in g ; n e e d to c o n s id e r e x t e n s iv e and c o m p l ic a t e d r e g u la t o r y r e q u ir e m e n t s ; la c k o f o r
d if fic u lt y in o b ta in in g in fo r m a t io n ; and o th e r s i m i l a r f a c t o r s . T y p ic a lly , a v a r ie t y o f d if f e r e n t
a s s ig n m e n t s a r e e n c o u n te r e d o v e r a p e r io d o f t im e , e . g . , 1 y e a r . T h e a u d it r e p o r t s p r e p a r e d
a r e c o m p r e h e n s iv e , e x p la in i r r e g u l a r i t i e s , c it e r u le s o r r e g u la t io n s v io la t e d , r e c o m m e n d
r e m e d i a l a c t io n s , and c o n ta in a n a ly s e s o f it e m s o f s p e c ia l im p o r t a n c e o r in t e r e s t to c o m p a n y
m a n a g e m e n t.
D ir e c tio n r e c e iv e d .
W ith in an e s t a b lis h e d a u d it p r o g r a m , h a v e r e s p o n s ib i lit y f o r
in d e p e n d e n tly p la n n in g and e x e c u tin g a u d its .
U n u su a lly d if f ic u lt p r o b le m s a r e d is c u s s e d w ith
the s u p e r v is o r w h o a ls o r e v ie w s c o m p le t e d a s s ig n m e n t s f o r a d h e r e n c e to p r in c i p l e s and
s ta n d a r d s and the s o u n d n e s s o f c o n c lu s io n s .
T y p ic a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .
A u d it o r s at th is l e v e l h a v e fu ll r e s p o n s ib i lit y
f o r p la n n in g th e a u d it, in c lu d in g d e t e r m in a t io n o f the a s p e c t s to e m p h a s iz e , m e th o d s to b e
u s e d , d e v e lo p m e n t o f n o n s ta n d a r d o r s p e c i a l i z e d a u d it a id s s u c h a s q u e s t io n n a ir e s , e t c . ,
w h e r e p r e v io u s a u d it e x p e r ie n c e and p la n s a r e o f lim it e d a p p li c a b ili t y .




47
A U D IT O R — C on tin u e d

In clu d e d in the s c o p e o f w o r k that c h a r a c t e r i z e s th is le v e l a r e s u c h fu n c tio n s a s :
E v a lu a tio n o f m e t h o d s u s e d f o r d e t e r m in in g d e p r e c ia t i o n r a t e s o f e q u ip m e n t; e v a lu a tio n o f
a s s e t s w h e r e o r ig i n a l c o s t s a r e u n k n ow n ; e v a lu a tio n o f the r e li a b il it y o f a c c o u n t in g and r e ­
p o r t in g s y s t e m s ; a n a ly s is o f c o s t a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m s and c o s t r e p o r t s to e v a lu a te th e b a s is
f o r c o s t and p r i c e s e tt in g ; e v a lu a tio n o f a c c o u n t in g p r o c u r e m e n t and su p p ly m a n a g e m e n t
r e c o r d s , c o n t r o l s , and p r o c e d u r e s ; and m a n y o t h e r s .

E x a m p le s o f a s s ig n m e n t s in v o lv in g w o r k at th is l e v e l :
(1)
A s a te a m le a d e r o r w o r k in g a lo n e , in d e p e n d e n tly p la n s and c o n d u c t s a u d its o f
th e c o m p le t e a c c o u n t s and r e la t e d o p e r a t io n s o f r e la t iv e ly l a r g e and c o m p l e x c o m p a n ie s
( e . g . , c o m p l e x in that the a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m e n ta ils c o s t , in v e n to r y , and c o m p a r a b le
s p e c i a l i z e d a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m s in te g r a t e d w ith th e g e n e r a l a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m ) o r o f c o m ­
p an y b r a n c h , s u b s id ia r y , o r a ffilia t e d o r g a n iz a t io n s w h ic h a r e in d iv id u a lly o f c o m p a r a b le
s i z e and c o m p le x it y , o r
(2)
A s a m e m b e r o f an a u d it te a m in d e p e n d e n tly p la n s and a c c o m p l is h e s a u d it a s ­
s ig n m e n ts that c o n s tit u t e m a j o r s e g m e n ts o f a u d its o f v e r y la r g e and c o m p l e x o r g a n i z a ­
t io n s , f o r e x a m p le , th o s e w ith fin a n c ia l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s s o g r e a t a s to in v o lv e s p e c ia l iz e d
s u b o r d in a te , s u b s id ia r y , o r a ff ilia t e a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m s that a r e c o m p le t e in t h e m s e l v e s .
N O T E : E x c lu d e d f r o m l e v e l IV a r e a u d ito r s w h o, a s te a m le a d e r o r w o r k in g a lo n e ,
c o n d u c t c o m p le t e a u d its o f v e r y la r g e and c o m p l e x o r g a n iz a t io n s , f o r e x a m p le , t h o s e w ith
fin a n c ia l r e s p o n s ib i lit ie s s o g r e a t a s to in v o lv e s p e c i a l i z e d s u b o r d in a te , s u b s id ia r y , o r a f ­
fi lia t e a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m s that a r e c o m p le t e in t h e m s e l v e s ; o r a r e te a m m e m b e r s a s s ig n e d
to m a j o r s e g m e n ts o f a u d its o f e v e n la r g e r o r m o r e c o m p l e x o r g a n iz a t io n s .

C H IE F A C C O U N T A N T
A s the to p t e c h n ic a l e x p e r t in a c c o u n t in g , is r e s p o n s ib l e f o r d ir e c t in g the a c c o u n t in g
p r o g r a m f o r a c o m p a n y o r f o r an e s t a b lis h m e n t o f a c o m p a n y .
T h e m in im u m a c c o u n t in g
p r o g r a m in c l u d e s : (1) G e n e r a l a c c o u n t in g ( a s s e t s , l i a b i l i t i e s , in c o m e , e x p e n s e , and c a p it a l
a c c o u n t s , in c lu d in g r e s p o n s ib i lit y f o r p r o f i t and l o s s and b a la n c e s h e e t s t a t e m e n t s ); and
(2) at le a s t on e o th e r m a j o r a c c o u n t in g a c t iv it y , t y p ic a lly ta x a c c o u n t in g , c o s t a c c o u n t in g ,
p r o p e r t y a c c o u n tin g , o r s a le s a c c o u n t in g . It m a y a ls o in c lu d e s u c h o th e r a c t i v it i e s a s p a y r o ll
and tim e k e e p in g , and m e c h a n ic a l o r e l e c t r o n i c d a ta p r o c e s s i n g o p e r a t io n s w h ic h a r e an a d ju n ct
o f the a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m .
( R e s p o n s ib il it y f o r an in te r n a l a u d it p r o g r a m is t y p ic a lly n ot
in c l u d e d .)
The r e s p o n s ib ilit ie s

o f the c h ie f a c c o u n ta n t in c lu d e a ll o f th e f o l lo w in g :

(1)
On ow n r e s p o n s ib i lit y , d e v e lo p in g o r a d a p tin g o r r e v is i n g an a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m
to m e e t the n e e d s o f th e o r g a n iz a t io n .
(2)
S u p e r v is in g , e it h e r d i r e c t l y o r th r o u g h s u b o r d in a te s u p e r v i s o r s , th e o p e r a t io n
o f th e s y s t e m w ith fu ll m a n a g e m e n t r e s p o n s ib i lit y f o r the q u a lity and q u a n tity o f w o r k
p e r f o r m e d , tr a in in g and d e v e lo p m e n t o f s u b o r d in a t e s , w o r k s c h e d u lin g and r e v ie w , c o ­
o r d in a t io n w ith o th e r p a r ts o f the o r g a n iz a t io n s e r v e d , e t c .

ic e s

(3)
P r o v id in g d i r e c t l y o r th r o u g h an o f f i c i a l s u c h a s a c o m p t r o l l e r , a d v is o r y s e r v ­
to the to p m a n a g e m e n t o f f i c i a l s o f th e o r g a n iz a t io n s e r v e d a s t o :
(a )
T h e sta tu s o f fin a n c ia l r e s o u r c e s
o p e r a t io n s a s r e v e a le d b y a c c o u n t in g d a ta ,
that is m e a n in g fu l to m a n a g e m e n t.

and the fin a n c ia l tr e n d s o r r e s u lt s o f
and s e le c t in g a m a n n e r o f p r e s e n t a t io n

(b )
M e th o d s f o r im p r o v in g o p e r a t io n s a s s u g g e s te d b y h is e x p e r t k n o w le d g e
o f a c c o u n t in g , e . g . , p r o p o s a l s f o r im p r o v in g c o s t c o n t r o l, p r o p e r t y m a n a g e m e n t,
c r e d i t and c o l l e c t i o n , ta x r e d u c tio n , o r s i m i l i a r p r o g r a m s .




48

C H IE F A C C O U N T A N T — C o n tin u e d

E x c lu d e d a r e p o s it io n s w ith r e s p o n s ib i lit y f o r th e a c c o u n t in g p r o g r a m i f th ey a ls o
in c lu d e (a s a m a j o r p a r t o f th e jo b ) r e s p o n s ib i lit y f o r b u d g e tin g ; w o r k m e a s u r e m e n t ; o r g a n i ­
z a tio n , m e t h o d s and p r o c e d u r e s s t u d ie s ; o r s i m i l a r n o n a c c o u n tin g fu n c t io n s .
( P o s it io n s o f
s u c h b r e a d t h a r e s o m e t im e s t itle d c o m p t r o l l e r , b u d g e t and a c c o u n t in g m a n a g e r , fin a n c ia l
m an ager, e t c . )
S o m e p o s it io n s r e s p o n s ib l e f o r s u p e r v is in g g e n e r a l a c c o u n t in g and o n e o r m o r e o th e r
m a j o r a c c o u n t in g a c t i v it i e s b u t w h ic h d o n ot fu lly m e e t a ll o f the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f a c h ie f
a c c o u n t a n t s p e c if ie d a b o v e m a y b e c o v e r e d b y th e d e s c r ip t io n s f o r a c c o u n ta n t.
C h ie f a c c o u n ta n t jo b s w h ic h m e e t the a b o v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e c l a s s i f i e d b y l e v e l 24
o f w o r k a c c o r d in g to (a ) a u th o r ity and r e s p o n s ib i lit y and (b) t e c h n ic a l c o m p l e x i t y , u s in g the
c h a r t w h ich f o l lo w s the d e fin it io n s b e lo w .

A u t h o r ity and R e s p o n s i b ili t y

A R - 1.
T h e a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m ( i . e . , a c c o u n t s , p r o c e d u r e s , and r e p o r t s to b e u s e d )
h as b e e n p r e s c r i b e d in c o n s id e r a b le d e t a il by h ig h e r le v e l s in the c o m p a n y o r o r g a n iz a t io n .
T h e c h ie f a c c o u n ta n t h a s fin a l, u n r e v ie w e d a u th o r ity w ith in the p r e s c r i b e d s y s t e m , to ex p a n d
it to f i t the p a r t i c u l a r n e e d s o f th e o r g a n iz a t io n s e r v e d , e . g . , in th e fo llo w in g o r c o m p a ­
r a b le w a y s ;
P r o v id e s

g r e a t e r d e t a il in a c c o u n t s and r e p o r t s o r fin a n c ia l s t a t e m e n t s ;

E s t a b lis h e s
r e c o r d s ; and

a d d itio n a l

a c c o u n t in g

c o n tr o ls ,

a ccou n ts,

su b a ccou n ts,

and s u b s id ia r y

P r o v id e s s p e c i a l o r in t e r im r e p o r t s and s ta te m e n ts n e e d e d b y th e m a n a g e r r e s p o n ­
s ib le f o r th e d a y - t o - d a y o p e r a t io n s o f the o r g a n iz a t io n s e r v e d .

A R -2 .
T h e b a s i c a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m is p r e s c r i b e d in b r o a d o u tlin e s r a t h e r than in
s p e c i f i c d e t a il.
W h ile c e r t a in m a j o r fin a n c ia l r e p o r t s , o v e r a l l a c c o u n t s , and g e n e r a l p o l i c i e s
a r e r e q u ir e d b y the b a s i c s y s t e m , th e c h ie f a c c o u n ta n t h a s b r o a d la titu d e and a u th o r ity to
d e c id e the s p e c i f i c m e t h o d s , p r o c e d u r e s , a c c o u n t s , r e p o r t s , e t c . — to b e u s e d w ith in the
o r g a n iz a t io n a l s e g m e n t s e r v e d .
He m u s t s e c u r e p r i o r a p p r o v a l f r o m h ig h e r le v e l s f o r o n ly
th o s e c h a n g e s w h ic h w o u ld b a s i c a l l y a ff e c t th e b r o a d r e q u ir e m e n t s p r e s c r i b e d b y s u c h h ig h e r
le v e ls .
T y p ic a l r e s p o n s ib i lit ie s in c lu d e :

E v a lu a tin g and ta k in g fin a l a c t io n o n r e c o m m e n d a t io n s p r o p o s e d b y s u b o r d in a te e s ­
ta b lis h m e n ts f o r c h a n g e s in a s p e c t s o f the a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m o r a c t i v it i e s n o t p r e s c r i b e d
b y h ig h e r a u th o r ity ;
E x te n d in g c o s t a c c o u n t in g o p e r a t io n s to a r e a s n o t p r e v io u s ly c o v e r e d ;
C h a n gin g f r o m

o n e c o s t a c c o u n t in g m e t h o d to a n o th e r ;

E x p a n d in g the u t iliz a t io n o f c o m p u t e r s w ith in

the a c c o u n t in g p r o c e s s ;

and

P r e p a r in g a c c o u n t in g r e p o r t s and s ta te m e n ts r e f l e c t in g th e e v e n ts and p r o g r e s s o f
th e e n t ir e o r g a n iz a t io n f o r w h ic h h e is r e s p o n s i b l e ; o fte n c o n s o lid a t in g d a ta su b m itte d by
s u b o r d in a te s e g m e n t s .
T h is d e g r e e o f a u th o r ity is m o s t t y p ic a lly fou n d at in t e r m e d ia t e o r g a n iz a t io n a l l e v e l s s u c h as
r e g io n a l o f f i c e s , o r d iv i s io n o r s u b s id ia r y h e a d q u a r t e r s .
It is a ls o fou n d in s o m e c o m p a n y
l e v e l s itu a tio n s w h e r e th e .a u th o r ity o f the c h ie f a c c o u n ta n t is l e s s e x t e n s iv e than is d e s c r i b e d
in A R - 3 .
M o r e r a r e l y it is fou n d in p la n t l e v e l c h ie f a c c o u n ta n ts w h o h a v e b e e n d e le g a t e d
m o r e a u th o r ity than u s u a l f o r s u c h p o s it io n s as d e s c r i b e d in A R - 1 .
24 Insufficient data were obtained for level V to warrant presentation of average salaries.




49
C H IE F A C C O U N T A N T — C o n tin u e d

A R - 3 . H as c o m p le t e r e s p o n s ib i lit y f o r e s t a b lis h in g and m a in ta in in g the f r a m e w o r k
f o r the b a s i c a c c o u n tin g s y s t e m u s e d in the c o m p a n y , s u b je c t o n ly to g e n e r a l p o l i c y g u id a n ce
and c o n t r o l f r o m a h ig h e r le v e l c o m p a n y o f f i c i a l r e s p o n s ib l e f o r g e n e r a l fin a n c ia l m a n a g e ­
m e n t.
T y p ic a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s in c lu d e :
D e t e r m in in g the b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
s p e c i f i c a c c o u n t s to b e u s e d ;

of

the c o m p a n y 's

a c c o u n t in g

sy stem

and the

D e v is in g and p r e p a r in g a c c o u n t in g r e p o r t s and s ta te m e n ts r e q u ir e d to m e e t m a n a g e ­
m e n t 's n e e d s f o r d ata;
E s t a b lis h in g b a s ic a c c o u n t in g p o l i c i e s ,

tem

in t e r p r e t a t io n s ,

and p r o c e d u r e s ;

R e v ie w in g and ta k in g a c t io n on p r o p o s e d r e v i s i o n s to the c o m p a n y 's a c c o u n t in g s y s ­
s u g g e s t e d b y s u b o r d in a te u n its ; and
T a k in g fin a l a c t io n on a ll t e c h n ic a l a c c o u n t in g m a t t e r s .

C h a r a c t e r is t i c a lly , p a r t ic ip a t e s e x t e n s iv e l y in b r o a d c o m p a n y m a n a g e m e n t p r o c e s s e s
b y p r o v id in g a c c o u n t in g a d v ic e , in t e r p r e t a t io n s , o r r e c o m m e n d a t io n s b a s e d on d a ta a c c u m u ­
la t e d in the a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m an d on h is p r o f e s s i o n a l ju d g m e n t and e x p e r ie n c e .

T e c h n ic a l C o m p le x it y

T C - 1.
T h e o r g a n iz a t io n w h ic h the a c c o u n t in g p r o g r a m s e r v e s h a s r e l a t i v e l y fe w
fu n c t io n s , p r o d u c t s , w o r k p r o c e s s e s , e t c . , and th e s e ten d to b e s ta b le and u n ch a n g in g . T h e
a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m o p e r a t e s in a c c o r d a n c e w ith w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d p r in c ip l e s and p r a c t i c e s o r
th o s e o f e q u iv a le n t d if fic u lt y w h ic h a r e t y p ic a l o f that in d u s tr y .

T C -2 .
T h e o r g a n iz a t io n w h ic h the a c c o u n t in g p r o g r a m s e r v e s h as a r e l a t i v e l y la r g e
n u m b e r o f fu n c t io n s , p r o d u c t s , w o r k p r o c e s s e s , e t c . , w h ic h r e q u ir e s u b s ta n tia l and fr e q u e n t
a d a p ta tio n s o f the b a s i c s y s t e m to m e e t m a n a g e m e n t n e e d s ( e . g . , a d o p tio n o f n ew a c c o u n t s ,
s u b a c c o u n t s , and s u b s id ia r y r e c o r d s ; r e v i s i o n o f in s t r u c t io n s f o r the u s e o f a c c o u n t s ; i m ­
p r o v e m e n t o r e x p a n s io n o f m e th o d s f o r a c c u m u la tin g and r e p o r t in g c o s t d a ta in c o n n e c t io n
w ith n ew o r ch a n g e d w o r k p r o c e s s e s ) .

T C -3 .
T h e o r g a n iz a t io n w h ic h the a c c o u n t in g p r o g r a m s e r v e s pu ts a h e a v y d e m a n d
on the a c c o u n t in g o r g a n iz a t io n f o r s p e c i a l i z e d and e x t e n s iv e a d a p ta tio n s o f th e b a s i c s y s t e m
to m e e t m a n a g e m e n t n e e d s .
S u ch d e m a n d s a r i s e b e c a u s e the fu n c t io n s , p r o d u c t s , w o r k
p r o c e s s e s , e t c . , o f the o r g a n iz a t io n a r e v e r y n u m e r o u s , d i v e r s e , u n iq u e , o r s p e c i a l i z e d , o r
th e r e a r e o th e r c o m p a r a b le c o m p l e x i t i e s . C o n s e q u e n tly , the a c c o u n t in g s y s t e m , to a c o n s i d ­
e r a b le d e g r e e , is d e v e lo p e d w e l l b e y o n d e s t a b lis h e d p r i n c i p l e s and a c c o u n t in g p r a c t i c e s in
o r d e r to:
P r o v id e

fo r

the

s o lu t io n

of

p r o b le m s

fo r

w h ic h

no

c le a r

p reced en ts

e x is t ;

or

P r o v id e f o r the d e v e lo p m e n t o r e x t e n s io n o f a c c o u n t in g t h e o r ie s and p r a c t i c e s to
d e a l w ith p r o b le m s to w h ic h t h e s e t h e o r ie s and p r a c t i c e s h a ve n ot p r e v i o u s l y b e e n a p p lie d .

S u b o rd in a te S ta ff
In the c h a r t that f o l l o w s , the n u m b e r o f p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n ta n ts s u p e r v is e d is r e c ­
o g n iz e d to b e a r e l a t i v e l y c r u d e c r i t e r i o n f o r d is t in g u is h in g b e tw e e n v a r io u s c l a s s e s . It is
to b e c o n s id e r e d le s s im p o r ta n t in the m a tc h in g p r o c e s s than the o th e r c r i t e r i a .
In a d d itio n
to the s ta ff o f p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n ta n ts in the s y s t e m f o r w h ic h the c h ie f a c c o u n ta n t is r e ­
s p o n s ib le , th e r e a r e c l e r i c a l , m a c h in e o p e r a t io n , b o o k k e e p in g , and r e la t e d p e r s o n n e l.




50

C H IE F A C C O U N T A N T — C o n tin u e d

C la s s

A u t h o r ity
and
r e s p o n s ib i lit y *

T e c h n ic a l
c o m p le x ity *

S u b o r d in a te s ta ff o f p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n ta n ts in
the s y s t e m f o r w h ic h h e is r e s p o n s ib l e .

I

A R -1

T C -l

O n ly on e o r tw o p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a n t s , w h o
d o n ot e x c e e d the a c c o u n ta n t III jo b d e fin it io n .

II

A R -l

T C -2

A b o u t 5 to 10 p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a n t s , w ith at
le a s t o n e o r tw o m a tc h in g the a c c o u n ta n t IV
jo b d e fin it io n .

A R -2

T C -1

A b o u t 5 to 10 p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a n t s .
M ost
o f th e s e m a tc h the a c c o u n ta n t III jo b d e fin it io n ,
but o n e o r tw o m a y m a t c h the a c c o u n ta n t IV
jo b d e fin it io n .

A R -3

T C -1

O n ly o n e o r tw o p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a n t s , w h o
d o n o t e x c e e d the a c c o u n ta n t IV jo b d e fin it io n .

A R -1

T C -3

A b o u t 15 to 20 p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n ta n ts .
At
le a s t on e o r tw o m a t c h the a c c o u n ta n t V jo b
d e fin it io n .

A R -2

T C -2

A b o u t 15 to 20 p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a n t s . M a n y
o f th e s e m a tc h th e a c c o u n ta n t IV jo b d e fin it io n ,
but s o m e m a y m a t c h the a c c o u n ta n t V jo b d e fin it io n .

A R -3

T C -1

A b o u t 5 to 10 p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a n t s . M o s t o f
t h e s e m a tc h the a c c o u n ta n t III jo b d e fin it io n , bu t
o n e o r tw o m a y m a t c h as h ig h as a c c o u n ta n t V .

A R -2

T C -3

A b o u t 25 to 40 p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a n t s . M a n y
o f th e s e m a t c h the a c c o u n ta n t V jo b d e fin it io n ,
but s e v e r a l m a y e x c e e d that le v e l .

A R -3

T C -2

A b o u t 15 to 20 p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a n t s . M o s t o f
th e s e m a tc h the a c c o u n ta n t IV jo b d e fin it io n , but
s e v e r a l m a y m a tc h the a c c o u n ta n t V and o n e o r
tw o m a y e x c e e d that le v e l .

A R -3

T C -3

A b o u t 25 to 40 p r o f e s s i o n a l a c c o u n t a n t s . M a n y
o f th e s e m a tc h the a cc o u n ta n t V jo b d e fin it io n ,
but s e v e r a l m a y e x c e e d that le v e l .

or

or

III

or

or

IV

V

AR-1, -2, and -3; and TC-1, -2, and -3 are explained on the preceding pages.




51
ATTORNEYS
ATTORNEY
P e r f o r m s c o n s u lt a t io n and a d v is o r y w o r k and
s a r y to e f f e c t th e r ig h t s , p r i v i l e g e s , and o b lig a t io n s o f
q u ir e s c o m p le t io n o f la w s c h o o l w ith an L L . B . d e g r e e
b a r . R e s p o n s i b ili t ie s o r fu n c tio n s in c lu d e o n e o r m o r e

c a r r i e s ou t th e le g a l p r o c e s s e s n e c e s ­
the c o m p a n y . T h e w o r k p e r f o r m e d r e ­
( o r th e e q u iv a le n t) and a d m i s s io n to the
o f th e fo llo w in g o r c o m p a r a b le d u tie s :

P r e p a r in g and r e v ie w in g v a r io u s le g a l in s tr u m e n ts and d o c u m e n t s , s u c h a s c o n t r a c t s ,
le a s e s , lic e n s e s , p u r c h a s e s , s a le s , r e a l esta te, e tc . ;
A c tin g as a g en t o f th e , c o m p a n y in its t r a n s a c t io n s ;
E x a m in in g m a t e r ia l (e . g . , a d v e r t is e m e n t s , p u b lic a t io n s , e t c . ) f o r le g a l im p lic a t io n s ;
a d v is in g o f f i c i a l s o f p r o p o s e d le g i s la t i o n w h ic h m ig h t a ff e c t the c o m p a n y ;
A p p ly in g f o r p a te n ts , c o p y r ig h t s , o r r e g is t r a t io n o f c o m p a n y ’ s p r o d u c t s , p r o c e s s e s ,
d e v ic e s and t r a d e m a r k s ; a d v is in g w h e th e r to in s tig a te o r d e fe n d la w s u its ;
C o n d u c tin g p r e t r i a l p r e p a r a t io n s ; d e fe n d in g th e c o m p a n y in la w s u its ; and
A d v is in g o f f i c i a l s on ta x m a t t e r s , G o v e r n m e n t r e g u la t io n s , a n d /o r c o r p o r a t e r ig h t s .
E x c lu d e d f r o m

th is d e fin it io n a r e :

P a te n t w o r k w h ic h r e q u ir e s p r o f e s s i o n a l tr a in in g in a d d itio n to le g a l tr a in in g ( t y p i­
c a l l y , a d e g r e e in e n g in e e r in g o r in a s c i e n c e ) ;
C la im s e x a m in in g , c la i m s in v e s tig a tin g o r s i m i l a r w o r k fo r w h ic h p r o f e s s i o n a l le g a l
tr a in in g and b a r m e m b e r s h ip is n ot e s s e n t i a l ;
A t t o r n e y s , fr e q u e n t ly t it le d " g e n e r a l c o u n s e l" (a n d t h e ir im m e d ia te fu ll a s s o c i a t e s
o r d e p u t ie s ), w h o s e r v e a s c o m p a n y o f f i c e r s o r the e q u iv a le n t and a r e r e s p o n s ib l e f o r
p a r t ic ip a t in g in the o v e r a l l m a n a g e m e n t and fo r m u la t io n o f p o l i c y f o r the c o m p a n y in
a d d itio n to d ir e c t in g its le g a l w o r k .
(T h e d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f s u c h p o s it io n s
e x c e e d le v e l V II as d e s c r i b e d b e l o w .)
A t t o r n e y jo b s w h ic h m e e t th e a b o v e d e fin itio n s a r e
a c c o r d a n c e w ith th e c h a r t b e lo w .
C la s s and
code
I

to b e

c la s s ifie d

and

cod ed

in

R e s p o n s i b ili t y
E x p e r ie n c e r e q u ir e d
l e v e l o f jo b *
A s a tr a in e e w ith lit t le o r no p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r ie n c e a s s i s t s h ig h e r l e v e l a t­
t o r n e y s and r e c e i v e s a s s ig n m e n ts s u c h a s : P r e p a r in g v a r io u s s ta n d a rd o r u n ­
c o m p lic a t e d le g a l d o c u m e n t s ; p r e p a r in g te n ta tiv e d r a fts o f le g a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ;
r e a d in g and c h e c k in g le g a l r e p o r t s f o r u s e fu l it e m s ; p r e p a r in g u n c o m p lic a t e d
p le a d in g s ; p e r f o r m i n g m i s c e ll a n e o u s le g a l r e s e a r c h .
( R e c e iv e s c o n s id e r a b le
p r e li m in a r y in s t r u c t io n , g u id a n c e , and c l o s e s u p e r v is io n in h is w o r k .
H as n e g ­
li g ib le r e s p o n s ib i lit y f o r fin a l a c tio n on le g a l m a t t e r s . )
D i ffi c u lt y le v e l
o f le g a l w o r k *

D -l

R -l

A t le a s t 1 y e a r
e x p e r ie n c e .

D -l

R -2

D -2

R -l

S u ffic ie n t p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r ie n c e , at le a s t
2 y e a r s but u s u a lly m o r e , to a s s u r e c l e a r
c o m p e t e n c e as an a t t o r n e y .

D -2

R -2

D -3

R -l

D -2

R -3

D -3

R -2

VI

D -3

V II

D -3

II

III
or

IV
or

V

a tt o r n e y

A t le a s t 1 y e a r , u s u a lly m o r e , o f p r o f e s ­
s io n a l e x p e r ie n c e at the D - 2 l e v e l .

e x p e r ie n c e

at

the

R -3

E x t e n s iv e p r o f e s s i o n a l
D - 3 le v e l .

e x p e r ie n c e

at

the

R -4

E x t e n s iv e p r o f e s s i o n a l
D - 3 and R -3 le v e l s .

e x p e r ie n c e

at

the

D -l, D-2, D-3 and R -l, R-2, e tc., are explained on the following pages.




p r o fe s s io n a l

E x t e n s iv e p r o f e s s i o n a l
D - 2 o r a h ig h e r le v e l .

or

*

of

52
A T T O R N E Y — C o n tin u e d

D iffic u lt y L e v e l O f L e g a l W o r k

D - 1. L e g a l q u e s tio n s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y : F a c t s that a r e w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d ; c l e a r l y
a p p lic a b le le g a l p r e c e d e n t s ; and m a t t e r s n ot o f s u b s ta n tia l im p o r t a n c e to th e o r g a n iz a t io n .
(U s u a lly r e la t iv e ly lim it e d s u m s o f m o n e y , e . g . , a fe w th o u sa n d d o l l a r s , a r e i n v o lv e d .)

E x a m p le s o f D -1 w o r k :
(a)
L e g a l in v e s t ig a t io n , n e g o t ia t io n , and r e s e a r c h p r e p a r a t o r y to d e fe n d in g th e o r ­
g a n iz a tio n in p o te n tia l o r a c tu a l la w s u its in v o lv in g a lle g e d n e g lig e n c e w h e r e th e fa c t s c a n
b e f i r m l y e s t a b lis h e d and t h e r e a r e p r e c e d e n t c a s e s d i r e c t l y a p p lic a b le to th e s itu a tio n .
(b)
S e a r c h in g c a s e r e p o r t s , le g a l d o c u m e n t s , p e r i o d i c a l s , t e x t b o o k s , and o th e r
le g a l r e f e r e n c e s ; and p r e p a r in g d r a ft o p in io n s on e m p lo y e e c o m p e n s a t io n o r b e n e fit q u e s ­
tio n s w h en t h e r e is a s u b s ta n tia l a m ou n t o f c l e a r l y a p p lic a b le s t a t u t o r y , r e g u la t o r y , and
c a s e m a t e r ia l.
(c )
D r a w in g up c o n t r a c t s and o th e r le g a l d o c u m e n ts in c o n n e c t io n w ith r e a l p r o p e r t y
t r a n s a c t io n s r e q u ir in g th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f d e t a ile d in fo r m a t io n but n ot in v o lv in g s e r io u s
q u e s tio n s r e g a r d in g t it le s to p r o p e r t y o r o th e r m a jo r fa c t u a l o r le g a l i s s u e s .

D - Z. L e g a l w o r k is r e g u la r ly d if fic u lt b y r e a s o n o f o n e o r m o r e o f th e fo llo w in g :
T h e a b s e n c e o f c l e a r and d i r e c t l y a p p lic a b le le g a l p r e c e d e n t s ; th e d if fe r e n t p o s s i b l e i n t e r p r e ­
ta tio n s that c a n b e p la c e d on e it h e r th e f a c t s , th e la w s , o r th e p r e c e d e n t s in v o lv e d ; th e s u b ­
s ta n tia l im p o r t a n c e o f th e le g a l m a t t e r s to the o r g a n iz a t io n ( e . g . , s u m s a s la r g e a s on e
h u n d re d th ou sa n d d o ll a r s a r e g e n e r a lly d i r e c t l y o r in d ir e c t ly in v o lv e d ); and the m a t te r is
b e in g s t r o n g ly p r e s s e d o r c o n t e s t e d in f o r m a l p r o c e e d in g s o r in n e g o tia t io n s b y th e in d iv id ­
u a ls , c o r p o r a t i o n s , o r G o v e r n m e n t a g e n c ie s in v o lv e d .
E x a m p le s o f D - 2 w o r k :
(a)
A d v is in g on th e le g a l im p lic a t io n s o f a d v e r t is in g r e p r e s e n t a t io n s w h en th e fa c t s
s u p p o r tin g the r e p r e s e n t a t io n s and th e a p p lic a b le p r e c e d e n t c a s e s a r e s u b je c t to d if fe r e n t
in t e r p r e t a t io n s .
(b)
R e v ie w in g and a d v is in g on the im p lic a t io n s o f n ew o r r e v i s e d la w s a ff e c t in g th e
o r g a n iz a t io n .
(c )
P r e s e n t in g th e o r g a n iz a t i o n 's d e fe n s e in c o u r t in a n e g lig e n c e la w s u it w h ic h is
s t r o n g ly p r e s s e d b y c o u n s e l f o r an o r g a n iz e d g r o u p .
(d)
P r o v id in g le g a l c o u n s e l on ta x q u e s tio n s c o m p l ic a t e d b y th e a b s e n c e o f p r e c e d e n t
d e c i s i o n s that a r e d i r e c t l y a p p lic a b le to the o r g a n iz a t i o n 's s itu a tio n .
D -3 .
L e g a l w o r k is t y p ic a l ly c o m p l e x and d if fic u lt b e c a u s e o f on e o r m o r e o f the
fo llo w in g : T h e q u e s tio n s a r e u n iq u e and r e q u ir e a h ig h o r d e r o f o r ig i n a l and c r e a t i v e le g a l
e n d e a v o r f o r t h e ir s o lu tio n ; th e q u e s tio n s r e q u ir e e x t e n s iv e r e s e a r c h and a n a ly s is and th e
o b ta in in g and e v a lu a tin g o f e x p e r t t e s t im o n y r e g a r d in g c o n t r o v e r s i a l is s u e s in a s c i e n t i f i c ,
fin a n c ia l, c o r p o r a t e o r g a n iz a t io n , e n g in e e r in g , o r o th e r h ig h ly t e c h n ic a l a r e a ; and th e le g a l
m a t te r is o f c r i t i c a l im p o r t a n c e to th e o r g a n iz a t io n and is b e in g v ig o r o u s l y p r e s s e d o r c o n ­
t e s t e d ( e . g . , s u m s s u c h a s a m i lli o n d o ll a r s o r m o r e a r e g e n e r a lly d i r e c t l y o r i n d ir e c t ly
in v o lv e d ) .
E x a m p le s

o f D -3 w ork :

(a)
A d v is in g on the le g a l a s p e c t s and im p lic a t io n s o f F e d e r a l a n titr u s t la w s to p r o ­
je c t e d g r e a t ly e x p a n d e d m a r k e tin g o p e r a t io n s in v o lv in g jo in t v e n tu r e s w ith s e v e r a l o th e r
o r g a n iz a t i o n s .




53
A T T O R N E Y — C o n tin u e d

(b)
P la n n in g le g a l s t r a t e g y and r e p r e s e n t in g a u tility c o m p a n y in r a te o r G o v e r n ­
m e n t f r a n c h is e c a s e s in v o lv in g a g e o g r a p h ic a r e a in c lu d in g p a r ts o r a ll o f s e v e r a l S ta te s .
(c )
P r e p a r in g and p r e s e n t in g a c a s e b e f o r e an a p p e lla te c o u r t w h e r e th e c a s e is
h ig h ly im p o r ta n t to th e fu tu re o p e r a t io n o f th e o r g a n iz a t io n and is v i g o r o u s l y c o n t e s t e d
b y v e r y d is t in g u is h e d ( e . g . , h a v in g a b r o a d r e g io n a l o r n a tio n a l re p u ta tio n ) le g a l ta le n t.
(d)
S e r v in g a s th e p r in c ip a l c o u n s e l to the o f f i c e r s and s t a ff o f an in s u r a n c e c o m ­
p an y on th e le g a l p r o b le m s in the s a le , u n d e r w r itin g , and a d m in is t r a t io n o f g r o u p c o n ­
t r a c t s in v o lv in g n a tio n w id e o r m u lt is ta t e c o v e r a g e s and la w s .
(e)
P e r f o r m i n g th e p r in c ip a l le g a l w o r k in a n o n r o u tin e m a jo r r e v i s i o n o f the c o m ­
p a n y 's c h a r t e r o r in e ffe c tu a tin g n ew m a jo r fin a n c in g s t e p s .
R e s p o n s ib ilit y L e v e l o f J o b
R - 1.
R e s p o n s i b ili t y f o r fin a l a c t io n is u s u a lly lim it e d to m a t t e r s c o v e r e d b y le g a l
p r e c e d e n t s and in w h ic h lit t le d e v ia tio n f r o m s ta n d a r d p r a c t i c e is in v o lv e d .
A n y d e c is i o n s
o r a c t io n s h a v in g a s ig n ific a n t b e a r in g on th e o r g a n iz a t i o n 's b u s in e s s a r e r e v ie w e d .
(Is
g iv e n g u id a n ce in th e in it ia l s ta g e s o f h is a s s ig n m e n t ( e . g . , in p la n n in g and o r g a n iz in g le g a l
r e s e a r c h and s t u d ie s ). A s s ig n m e n t s a r e th en c a r r i e d out w ith m o d e r a t e in d e p e n d e n c e a lth o u g h
g u id a n ce is g e n e r a lly a v a ila b le and is sou g h t f r o m t i m e - t o - t i m e on p r o b le m p o i n t s .)
R -2 .
U s u a lly w o r k s in d e p e n d e n tly in in v e s tig a tin g th e f a c t s , s e a r c h in g le g a l p r e c e ­
d e n ts , d e fin in g the le g a l and fa c t u a l i s s u e s , d r a ftin g the n e c e s s a r y le g a l d o c u m e n t s , and d e ­
v e lo p in g c o n c lu s io n s and r e c o m m e n d a t io n s .
D e c i s io n s h a v in g an im p o r ta n t b e a r in g on the
o r g a n iz a t i o n 's b u s in e s s a r e r e v ie w e d .
( R e c e iv e s in fo r m a t io n f r o m s u p e r v is o r r e g a r d in g
u n u su a l c ir c u m s t a n c e s o r im p o r ta n t p o l i c y c o n s id e r a t io n s p e r ta in in g to a l e g a l p r o b le m . If
t r i a ls a r e in v o lv e d , m a y r e c e i v e g u id a n c e f r o m a s u p e r v is o r r e g a r d in g p r e s e n t a t io n , lin e o f
a p p r o a c h , p o s s i b l e lin e o f o p p o s it io n to b e e n c o u n t e r e d , e t c .
In the c a s e o f n o n r o u tin e
w r itte n p r e s e n t a t io n s th e fin a l p r o d u c t is r e v ie w e d c a r e f u l l y , but p r i m a r i l y f o r o v e r a l l s o u n d ­
n e s s o f le g a l r e a s o n in g and c o n s i s t e n c y w ith o r g a n iz a t io n p o l i c y . S o m e , but not a ll a t t o r n e y s ,
m a k e a s s ig n m e n t s to o n e o r m o r e lo w e r l e v e l a t t o r n e y s , a id s , o r c l e r k s . )
R -3 .
C a r r i e s out a s s ig n m e n t s in d e p e n d e n tly and m a k e s fin a l le g a l d e t e r m in a t io n s
in m a t t e r s o f s u b s ta n tia l im p o r t a n c e to h is o r g a n iz a t io n .
S u ch d e t e r m in a t io n s a r e s u b je c t
to r e v ie w o n ly f o r c o n s i s t e n c y w ith c o m p a n y p o l i c y , p o s s i b l e p r e c e d e n t e f f e c t , and o v e r a l l
e ffe c tiv e n e s s .
T o c a r r y ou t h is a s s ig n m e n t s he d e a ls r e g u la r ly w ith c o m p a n y o f f i c e r s and
to p l e v e l m a n a g e m e n t o f f i c i a l s and c o n f e r s o r n e g o tia t e s r e g u la r ly w ith s e n io r a t t o r n e y s and
o f f i c i a l s in o th e r c o m p a n ie s o r in G o v e r n m e n t a g e n c ie s on v a r io u s a s p e c t s o f h is a s s ig n e d
w ork .
( R e c e i v e s little o r n o p r e li m in a r y in s t r u c t io n o n le g a l p r o b le m s and a m in im u m o f
t e c h n ic a l le g a l s u p e r v is io n . M a y a s s i g n and r e v ie w w o r k o f a fe w a t t o r n e y s , but th is is n ot
a p r im a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .)
R -4 .
C a r r i e s ou t a s s ig n m e n t s w h ic h e n ta il in d e p e n d e n tly p la n n in g in v e s t ig a t io n s and
n e g o tia t io n s on le g a l p r o b le m s o f th e h ig h e s t im p o r t a n c e to h is o r g a n iz a t io n and d e v e lo p in g
c o m p le t e d b r i e f s , o p in io n s , c o n t r a c t s , o r o th e r le g a l p r o d u c t s . T o c a r r y ou t h is a s s ig n m e n t s
he r e p r e s e n t s h is o r g a n iz a t io n at c o n f e r e n c e s , h e a r in g s , o r t r i a l s ; and p e r s o n a lly c o n f e r s
and n e g o tia t e s w ith to p a tt o r n e y s and to p ra n k in g o f f i c i a l s in p r iv a t e c o m p a n ie s o r in G o v ­
e r n m e n t a g e n c ie s .
On v a r io u s a s p e c t s o f h is a s s ig n e d w o r k m a y g iv e a d v ic e d i r e c t l y and
p e r s o n a lly to c o r p o r a t i o n o f f i c e r s and to p le v e l m a n a g e r s , o r m a y w o r k th r o u g h th e g e n e r a l
c o u n s e l o f th e c o m p a n y in a d v is in g o f f i c e r s . (G e n e r a lly r e c e i v e s n o p r e li m in a r y in s t r u c t io n
o n le g a l p r o b l e m s .
On m a t t e r s r e q u ir in g th e c o n c e n t r a t e d e f f o r t s o f s e v e r a l a tt o r n e y s o r
o th e r s p e c ia l is t s is r e s p o n s ib l e f o r d ir e c t in g , c o o r d in a t in g , and r e v ie w in g the w o r k o f the
a tt o r n e y s i n v o lv e d .)
OR
A s a p r im a r y r e s p o n s ib i lit y , d ir e c t s th e w o r k o f a s t a f f o f a t t o r n e y s , o n e , but u s u a lly m o r e ,
o f w h o m r e g u la r ly p e r f o r m D - 3 le g a l w o r k . W ith r e s p e c t to th e w o r k d i r e c t e d , g iv e s a d v ic e
d i r e c t l y to c o r p o r a t i o n o f f i c e r s and to p m a n a g e r ia l o f f i c e r s , o r m a y g iv e s u c h a d v ic e th r o u g h




54
A T T O R N E Y — C o n tin u e d

th e g e n e r a l c o u n s e l.
( R e c e i v e s g u id a n c e
v is i o n o r a s s i s t a n c e e x c e p t w h e n he m ig h t
a p p r o a c h to th e m o s t d if f ic u lt , n o v e l, o r
U s u a lly r e p o r t s to th e g e n e r a l c o u n s e l o r

a s to o r g a n iz a t io n p o l i c y but n o t e c h n ic a l s u p e r ­
r e q u e s t a d v ic e f r o m , o r b e b r i e f e d o n , th e o v e r a l l
im p o r ta n t le g a l q u e s tio n s b y th e g e n e r a l c o u n s e l.
h is d e p u t y .)

O F F IC E S E R V IC E S

M ANAGER,

O F F IC E S E R V IC E S

R e s p o n s ib le f o r p la n n in g , d ir e c t in g , and c o n t r o ll in g o f o f f i c e s e r v i c e s , s u b je c t o n ly
to th e m o s t g e n e r a l p o l i c y s u p e r v is io n . P la y s an a c t iv e r o l e in a n tic ip a tin g and p la n n in g to
m e e t o f f i c e s e r v i c e s n e e d s o f th e o p e r a t in g o r g a n iz a t io n s e r v e d . S u p e r v is e s a g r o u p o f e m ­
p lo y e e s e n g a g e d in p r o v id in g o f f i c e s e r v i c e s o f a s u p p o r tin g o r " h o u s e k e e p in g " n a tu r e to th e
p r i m a r y o p e r a t io n o f a c o m p a n y , an e s t a b lis h m e n t , o r an o r g a n iz a t io n a l unit o f a c o m p a n y
o r e s t a b lis h m e n t . (M a y p e r s o n a lly p e r f o r m s o m e o f the f u n c t io n s .)
O f fic e s e r v i c e s in c lu d e :

(a)
R e c e ip t , d is t r ib u t io n , an d d is p a t c h o f m a il.
(b)
M a in te n a n c e o f c e n t r a l f i l e s .
(c )
P r in tin g o r d u p lic a t io n and d is t r ib u t io n o f f o r m s , p u b lic a t io n s , e t c .
(M a y b e
lim it e d to o r d e r in g th e p r in tin g o r d u p lic a t io n o f it e m s .
D o e s n ot n e c e s s a r i l y h a v e
c h a r g e o f a p r in t s h o p o r d u p lic a t io n f a c i l i t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y in la r g e o p e r a t i o n s , but c o ­
o r d in a t e s the flo w to and f r o m th e r e p r o d u c t io n u n i t s .)
(d)
P u r c h a s in g o f f i c e s u p p lie s and e q u ip m e n t. (M a k e s d ir e c t p u r c h a s e s o f r u n - o f t h e - m i l l o f f i c e s u p p lie s .
M a y b e r e s p o n s ib l e f o r d i r e c t p u r c h a s e o f o th e r it e m s f r o m
o u t s id e s u p p lie r s o r m a y r e q u is it io n th r o u g h e s ta b lis h m e n t p u r c h a s in g d e p a r t m e n t s .)
(e )
R e c o r d s c o n t r o l and d is p o s a l .
(f)
C o m m u n ic a tio n s (t e le p h o n e s w it c h b o a r d a n d /o r te le t y p e s e r v i c e ) .
(g)
T y p in g o r s t e n o g r a p h ic p o o l.
(h)
O f fic e e q u ip m e n t m a in te n a n c e and r e p a i r . (M a y h a v e d i r e c t s u p e r v is io n o f m a i n ­
te n a n c e and r e p a ir p e r s o n n e l o r m a y c o o r d in a t e th e o r d e r in g o f s u c h s e r v i c e s f r o m
o u t s id e s e r v i c e s u p p lie r s o r f r o m a c e n t r a l s e r v i c e unit w ith in th e e s t a b l is h m e n t .)
(i)
S p a c e c o n t r o l o v e r o f f i c e f a c i l i t i e s — la y o u t an d a r r a n g e m e n t o f o f f i c e s . ( T y p i ­
c a l l y s e r v e s a s a s t a ff a s s is t a n t to m a n a g e m e n t o f f i c i a l s in p e r f o r m i n g th is fu n c t io n .)

M an ager,

O f fic e S e r v ic e s

I

S u p e r v is e s a s t a f f o f e m p l o y e e s e n g a g e d in p e r f o r m i n g a fe w ( e . g . , fo u r o r fiv e ) o f
th e a b o v e fu n c tio n s a s a s e r v i c e to a s m a l l o r g a n iz a t io n (e . g . , 300 to 600 e m p l o y e e s , e x c lu d in g
n o n s u p e r v is o r y p la n t w o r k e r s ) .

M an ager,

O f fic e S e r v ic e s

II

A.
S u p e r v is e s a s t a ff o f e m p lo y e e s e n g a g e d in p e r f o r m i n g a fe w ( e . g . , fo u r o r
fiv e ) o f th e a b o v e fu n c tio n s a s a s e r v i c e to a m o d e r a t e l y la r g e o r g a n iz a t io n ( e . g . , 600 to
1 , 5 0 0 e m p l o y e e s , e x c lu d in g n o n s u p e r v is o r y p la n t w o r k e r s ) .

OR

B.
S u p e r v is e s a s t a ff o f e m p lo y e e s e n g a g e d in p e r f o r m i n g m o s t ( e . g . , s e v e n o r
eig h t) o f th e a b o v e fu n c tio n s a s a s e r v i c e to a s m a ll o r g a n iz a t io n ( e . g . , 300 to 600 e m p l o y e e s ,
e x c lu d in g n o n s u p e r v is o r y p la n t w o r k e r s ) .




55
M A N A G E R , O F F IC E S E R V IC E S — C o n tin u e d

M an ager,

O f fic e S e r v ic e s

III

A.
S u p e r v is e s a s t a ff o f e m p lo y e e s e n g a g e d in p e r f o r m i n g a fe w ( e . g . , fo u r o r
fiv e ) o f th e fu n c tio n s a s a s e r v i c e to a la r g e o r g a n iz a t io n ( e . g . , 1 , 5 0 0 t o 3 , 0 0 0 e m p l o y e e s ,
e x c lu d in g n o n s u p e r v is o r y p la n t w o r k e r s ) .
OR
B.
S u p e r v is e s a s t a ff o f e m p lo y e e s e n g a g e d in p e r f o r m i n g m o s t ( e . g . ,
seven or
eig h t) o f th e a b o v e fu n c tio n s a s a s e r v i c e to a m o d e r a t e l y la r g e o r g a n iz a t io n ( e . g . , 600 to
1 , 5 0 0 e m p l o y e e s , e x c lu d in g n o n s u p e r v is o r y p la n t w o r k e r s ) .

M an ager,

O f fic e S e r v ic e s

IV

S u p e r v is e s a s t a f f o f e m p lo y e e s e n g a g e d in p e r f o r m i n g m o s t ( e . g . , s e v e n o r eig h t)
o f the a b o v e fu n c tio n s a s a s e r v i c e to a la r g e o r g a n iz a t io n ( e . g . , 1 , 5 0 0 to 3 , 0 0 0 e m p l o y e e s ,
e x c lu d in g n o n s u p e r v is o r y p la n t w o r k e r s ) .

BUYERS

BUYER

P u r c h a s e s m a t e r i a l s , s u p p lie s , e q u ip m e n t, and s e r v i c e s ( e . g . , u t il it i e s , m a in t e n a n c e ,
and r e p a i r ) . In s o m e in s t a n c e s it e m s a r e o f ty p e s that m u st b e s p e c i a l l y d e s ig n e d , p r o d u c e d ,
o r m o d ifie d b y th e v e n d o r in a c c o r d a n c e w ith d r a w in g s o r e n g in e e r in g s p e c i f i c a t i o n s .
S o li c it s b id s , a n a ly z e s q u o ta tio n s r e c e i v e d , and s e l e c t s o r r e c o m m e n d s s u p p lie r .
M a y in t e r v ie w p r o s p e c t i v e v e n d o r s .
P u r c h a s e s it e m s and s e r v i c e s at th e m o s t fa v o r a b l e
p r i c e c o n s is t e n t w ith q u a lity , q u a n tity , s p e c if ic a t i o n r e q u ir e m e n t s , and o th e r f a c t o r s . P r e ­
p a r e s o r s u p e r v is e s p r e p a r a t io n o f p u r c h a s e o r d e r s f r o m r e q u is i t io n s . M a y e x p e d ite d e l i v e r y
and v is i t v e n d o r s ’ o f f i c e s an d p la n ts .
N o r m a lly , p u r c h a s e s a r e u n r e v ie w e d w h en th e y a r e c o n s is t e n t w ith p a s t e x p e r ie n c e ,
and a r e in c o n fo r m a n c e w ith e s t a b lis h e d r u le s and p o l i c i e s . P r o p o s e d p u r c h a s e t r a n s a c t io n s
that d e v ia te f r o m th e u s u a l o r f r o m p a s t e x p e r ie n c e in t e r m s o f p r i c e s , q u a lity o f it e m s ,
q u a n t itie s , e t c . , o r that m a y s e t p r e c e d e n t s f o r fu tu r e p u r c h a s e s , a r e r e v ie w e d b y h ig h e r
a u th o r ity p r i o r to fin a l a c t io n .
In a d d itio n to th e w o r k d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , s o m e (but n ot a ll) b u y e r s d i r e c t th e w o r k
o f on e o r a fe w c l e r k s w h o p e r f o r m r o u tin e a s p e c t s o f th e w o r k . A s a s e c o n d a r y and s u b ­
s id i a r y d u ty , s o m e b u y e r s m a y a ls o s e l l o r d is p o s e o f s u r p lu s , s a lv a g e , o r u s e d m a t e r i a l s ,
e q u ip m e n t, o r s u p p lie s .

NOTE:
S o m e b u y e r s a r e r e s p o n s ib l e f o r th e p u r c h a s in g o f a v a r ie t y o f it e m s and
m a t e r ia ls .
W h en th e v a r ie t y in c lu d e s it e m s an d w o r k d e s c r i b e d at m o r e - t h a n o n e o f th e
fo llo w in g l e v e l s , th e p o s it io n s h o u ld b e c o n s i d e r e d to e q u a l th e h ig h e s t l e v e l that c h a r a c t e r i z e s
at le a s t a s u b s ta n tia l p o r t io n o f th e b u y e r * s t im e .

E x c lu d e d a r e :
(a)
B u y e r s o f it e m s f o r d i r e c t s a le , e it h e r w h o le s a le o r r e t a i l;
(b)
B r o k e r s and d e a le r s b u y in g f o r c lie n t s o r f o r in v e s tm e n t p u r p o s e s ;
(c )
P o s it i o n s that s p e c i f i c a l l y r e q u ir e p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a tio n and q u a lific a t io n s in
a p h y s ic a l s c i e n c e o r in e n g in e e r in g ( e . g . , c h e m is t , m e c h a n ic a l e n g in e e r );




56

B U Y E R — C o n tin u e d

(d)
B u y e r s w h o s p e c i a l i z e in p u r c h a s in g a s in g le o r a fe w r e la t e d it e m s o f h ig h ly
v a r ia b l e q u a lit y s u c h a s r a w c o tt o n o r w o o l, t o b a c c o , c a t t le , o r le a t h e r f o r s h o e u p p e r s ,
etc.
E x p e r t p e r s o n a l k n o w le d g e o f th e it e m is r e q u ir e d to ju d g e th e r e la t iv e v a lu e o f
th e g o o d s o f f e r e d , and to d e c id e th e q u a n tity , q u a lity , and p r i c e o f e a c h p u r c h a s e in
t e r m s o f its p r o b a b le e f f e c t on th e o r g a n iz a t i o n ’ s p r o f i t and c o m p e t it iv e s ta tu s ;
(e )
B u y e r s w h o s e p r in c ip a l r e s p o n s ib i lit y is th e s u p e r v is io n o f o th e r b u y e r s o r th e
m a n a g e m e n t, d ir e c t i o n , o r s u p e r v is io n o f a p u r c h a s in g p r o g r a m ;
(f)
P e r s o n s p r e d o m in a n t ly c o n c e r n e d w ith c o n t r a c t o r s u b c o n t r a c t a d m in is t r a t io n ;
(g)
P e r s o n s w h o s e m a j o r d u tie s c o n s i s t o f o r d e r in g , r e o r d e r i n g , o r r e q u is it io n in g
it e m s u n d e r e x is t in g c o n t r a c t s ; and
(h)
P o s it i o n s r e s t r i c t e d to th e c l e r i c a l fu n c tio n s o r to p u r c h a s e e x p e d itin g w o r k .

B uyer I

p lie s ,

P u r c h a s e s " o f f - t h e - s h e l f ” ty p e s o f r e a d il y a v a ila b le , c o m m o n l y u s e d m a t e r i a l s , s u p ­
t o o l s , fu r n it u r e , s e r v i c e s , e t c .

T r a n s a c t io n s u s u a lly in v o lv e l o c a l
t u r e r s ’ s a le s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .

r e ta ile r s ,

w h o le s a le r s ,

jo b b e r s ,

an d

m a n u fa c ­

Q u a n titie s p u r c h a s e d a r e g e n e r a lly s m a l l a m o u n ts , e . g . , th o s e a v a ila b le f r o m

lo c a l

sou rces.
E x a m p le s o f it e m s p u r c h a s e d in c lu d e : C o m m o n s t a t io n e r y and o f f i c e s u p p lie s ; s ta n d ­
a r d ty p e s o f o f f i c e fu r n itu r e and f i x t u r e s ; s ta n d a r d n u ts , b o l t s , s c r e w s ; j a n i t o r i a l and
c o m m o n b u ild in g m a in te n a n c e s u p p lie s ; and c o m m o n b u ild in g m a in te n a n c e o r c o m m o n
u t ilit y s e r v i c e s .

B u y e r II
P u rch ases "o ff-th e -s h e lf"
m a t e r i a l s , and s e r v i c e s .

jo b b e r s ,

T r a n s a c t io n s
e tc.

u s u a lly

ty p e s o f

in v o lv e

s ta n d a r d ,

d e a lin g

d ir e c tly

g e n e r a lly

w ith

a v a ila b le

t e c h n ic a l

m a n u fa c t u r e r s ,

Q u a n titie s o f it e m s and m a t e r ia ls p u r c h a s e d m a y b e r e la t iv e ly l a r g e ,
in th e c a s e o f c o n t r a c t s f o r c o n tin u in g s u p p ly o v e r a p e r io d o f t im e .

ite m s ,

d is t r ib u to r s ,

p a r t i c u l a r ly

M a y b e r e s p o n s ib l e f o r lo c a t in g o r p r o m o t in g p o s s i b l e n ew s o u r c e s o f s u p p ly . U s u ­
a ll y is e x p e c t e d to k e e p a b r e a s t o f m a r k e t t r e n d s , c h a n g e s in b u s in e s s p r a c t i c e s in th e
a s s ig n e d m a r k e t s , n ew o r a lt e r e d ty p e s o f m a t e r ia ls e n te r in g th e m a r k e t , e t c .
E x a m p le s o f it e m s p u r c h a s e d in c lu d e : In d u s tr ia l ty p e s o f h a n d t o o ls ; e l e c t r o n i c tu be
and c o m p o n e n t t e s t in s tr u m e n ts ; s ta n d a r d e l e c t r o n i c p a r ts an d c o m p o n e n t s ; e l e c t r i c
m o t o r s ; g a s o lin e s e r v i c e s ta t io n e q u ip m e n t; P B X o r o th e r s p e c i a l i z e d te le p h o n e s e r v i c e s ;
an d r o u tin e p u r c h a s e s o f c o m m o n r a w m a t e r ia ls s u c h a s sta n d a r d g r a d e s and s i z e s o f
s t e e l b a r s , r o d s , and a n g le s .
A l s o in c lu d e d at th is le v e l a r e b u y e r s o f m a t e r ia ls o f th e ty p e s d e s c r i b e d f o r b u y e r I w h en
the q u a n titie s p u r c h a s e d a r e la r g e s o that l o c a l s o u r c e s o f s u p p ly a r e g e n e r a lly in a d e q u a te
and th e b u y e r m u s t d e a l d i r e c t l y w ith m a n u fa c t u r e r s on a b r o a d e r than l o c a l s c a l e .

B u y e r III
P u r c h a s e s it e m s , m a t e r i a l s , o r s e r v i c e s o f a t e c h n ic a l and s p e c i a l i z e d n a tu r e . T h e
i t e m s , w h ile o f a c o m m o n g e n e r a l ty p e , a r e u s u a lly m a d e , a lt e r e d , o r c u s t o m i z e d to m e e t
th e u s e r ’ s s p e c i f i c n e e d s and s p e c i f i c a t i o n s .




57

B U Y E R — C on tin u e d

T r a n s a c t io n s u s u a lly r e q u ir e d e a lin g w ith m a n u fa c t u r e r s . T h e n u m b e r o f p o te n tia l
v e n d o r s is lik e ly to b e s m a ll and p r i c e d if fe r e n t ia l s o fte n r e f l e c t im p o r ta n t f a c t o r s (q u a lity ,
d e l i v e r y d a t e s , and p l a c e s , e t c . ) that a r e d if fic u lt to e v a lu a te .
T h e q u a n titie s p u r c h a s e d o f an y it e m o r

s e r v i c e m a y b e la r g e .

M a n y o f th e p u r c h a s e s in v o lv e on e o r m o r e o f
that d e t a il, in t e c h n ic a l t e r m s , th e r e q u ir e d p h y s ic a l,
r a b le p r o p e r t i e s ; s p e c i a l t e s t in g p r i o r to a c c e p t a n c e ;
a w a r d s ; s p e c i a l i z e d p r o c e s s i n g , p a c k in g , o r p a c k a g in g
p o r t d if f e r e n t ia l s ; e t c .

s u c h c o m p l ic a t i o n s a s : S p e c ific a t io n s
c h e m ic a l , e l e c t r i c a l , o r o th e r c o m p a ­
g r o u p in g o f it e m s f o r lo t b id d in g and
r e q u ir e m e n t s ; e x p o r t p a c k s ; o v e r s e a s

Is e x p e c t e d to k e e p a b r e a s t o f m a r k e t and p r o d u c t d e v e lo p m e n t s .
to lo c a t e n ew s o u r c e s o f s u p p ly .

M a y b e r e q u ir e d

S o m e p o s it io n s m a y in v o lv e a s s i s t in g in th e tr a in in g o r s u p e r v is in g o f lo w e r le v e l
b u yers or c le r k s .
E x a m p le s o f it e m s p u r c h a s e d in c lu d e : C a s t in g s ; s p e c i a l e x tr u d e d s h a p e s o f n o r m a l
s i z e and m a t e r ia l; s p e c i a l fo r m u la p a in ts ; e l e c t r i c m o t o r s o f s p e c i a l sh a p e o r s p e e d ;
s p e c i a l p a c k a g in g o f it e m s ; and r a w m a t e r ia ls in s u b s ta n tia l q u a n titie s .
B u y e r IV
P u r c h a s e s h ig h ly c o m p l e x and t e c h n ic a l it e m s , m a t e r ia ls , o r s e r v i c e s , u s u a lly th o s e
s p e c i a l l y d e s ig n e d and m a n u fa c tu r e d e x c l u s i v e l y f o r th e p u r c h a s e r .
T r a n s a c t io n s r e q u ir e d e a lin g w ith m a n u fa c t u r e r s and o ft e n in v o lv e p e r s u a d in g p o t e n ­
t ia l v e n d o r s to u n d e r ta k e th e m a n u fa c tu r in g o f c u s t o m d e s ig n e d ite m s a c c o r d in g to c o m p l e x
and r ig id s p e c i f i c a t i o n s .
Q u a n titie s o f it e m s and m a t e r ia ls p u r c h a s e d a r e o fte n la r g e in o r d e r to s a t i s fy th e
r e q u ir e m e n t s f o r an e n t ir e la r g e o r g a n iz a t io n f o r an e x te n d e d p e r io d o f t i m e .
C o m p le x
s c h e d u le s o f d e l i v e r y a r e o ft e n in v o lv e d . B u y e r d e t e r m in e s a p p r o p r ia t e q u a n titie s to b e c o n ­
t r a c t e d f o r at a n y g iv e n p e r io d o f t im e .
T r a n s a c t io n s a r e o fte n c o m p l ic a t e d b y th e p r e s e n c e o f on e o r m o r e s u c h m a t t e r s as
in c lu s io n o f: R e q u ir e m e n t s f o r s p a r e p a r t s , p r e p r o d u c t io n s a m p le s and t e s t in g , o r t e c h n ic a l
lit e r a t u r e ; o r p a ten t and r o y a lt y p r o v i s i o n s .
K e e p s a b r e a s t o f m a r k e t and p r o d u c t d e v e lo p m e n t s .

D e v e lo p s n ew s o u r c e s o f s u p p ly .

In a d d itio n to th e w o r k d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , a fe w p o s it io n s m a y a ls o r e q u ir e s u p e r v is io n
o v e r a fe w lo w e r l e v e l b u y e r s o r c l e r k s . (N o p o s it io n is in c lu d e d in th is le v e l s o l e l y b e c a u s e
s u p e r v i s o r y d u tie s a r e p e r f o r m e d . )
E x a m p le s o f it e m s p u r c h a s e d in c lu d e : S p e c ia l p u r p o s e h ig h c o s t m a c h in e t o o ls and
p r o d u c t io n f a c i l i t i e s ; r a w m a t e r ia ls o f c r i t i c a l l y im p o r ta n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o r q u a lity ;
p a r t s , s u b a s s e m b l ie s , c o m p o n e n t s , e t c . , s p e c i a l l y d e s ig n e d and m a d e to o r d e r ( e . g . ,
c o m m u n ic a t io n s e q u ip m e n t f o r in s t a lla t io n in a i r c r a f t b e in g m a n u fa c tu r e d ; c o m p o n e n t
a s s e m b l i e s f o r m i s s i l e s and r o c k e t s ; and m o t o r v e h ic le f r a m e s ) .
B u y e r V 25
P u r c h a s e s it e m s o r m a t e r i a l s , e it h e r t e c h n ic a l o r n o n t e c h n ic a l, in s u c h u n u su a lly
la r g e q u a n titie s that in d iv id u a l p u r c h a s e s c a n a ff e c t th e o v e r a l l m a r k e t p r i c e o f th e c o m ­
m o d it y .
(N O T E : O n ly th e v e r y la r g e s t o r g a n iz a t i o n s , e . g . , th o s e e m p lo y in g m o r e than
1 0 ,0 0 0 p e r s o n s , a r e a b le to b u y in the q u a n titie s c o n t e m p la t e d in th is p a r a g r a p h . E v e n in
th e v e r y la r g e o r g a n iz a t io n s th is l e v e l o f b u y in g is o fte n a b s e n t and e v e n w h en p r e s e n t , is
r e s t r i c t e d to a v e r y fe w b u y e r s o r is a s s ig n e d , n ot to a b u y e r but to s o m e h ig h e r ra n k in g
o ff ic ia l.)
25

Insufficient data were obtained for level V to warrant presentation of average salaries.




58
B U Y E R — C o n tin u e d

A lt e r n a t i v e ly , m a y p u r c h a s e it e m s o f e x t r a o r d in a r y t e c h n ic a l c o m p l e x i t y ( e . g . , m i s ­
s il e g u id a n ce s y s t e m s ; it e m s that in v o lv e th e o u t e r m o s t lim it s o f th e p h y s ic a l s c i e n c e s o r
e n g in e e r in g ) o r o f u n u s u a lly h ig h in d iv id u a l v a lu e ( e . g . , m u ltie n g in e je t a i r c r a f t ; la r g e c a ­
p a c it y c o m p u t e r s ; and h ig h c a p a c it y tu r b in e - g e n e r a t o r s ) .
U s u a lly is

r e q u ir e d to id e n t ify and c o n s id e r a ll p o s s i b l e

sou rces

o f s u p p ly .

T h e t r a n s a c t io n s a r e s o la r g e that th e y o fte n a ff e c t a c o n s id e r a b le p o r t io n o f th e
in d u s tr y o r t r a d e c o n c e r n e d , r e s u lt in g in c o m p l e x s c h e d u lin g and d if f ic u lt y in n e g o tia tin g
m u tu a lly a c c e p t a b le a r r a n g e m e n t s .

fa ctu re rs

F r e q u e n t ly is r e q u ir e d to d e v e lo p n ew s o u r c e s o f su p p ly th r o u g h p e r s u a s io n o f m a n u ­
o r o t h e r c o n c e r n s to e x p a n d o r c o n v e r t p la n ts and f a c i l i t i e s .

In a d d itio n to th e w o r k d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , a fe w p o s it io n s m a y a ls o r e q u ir e s u p e r ­
v is i o n o v e r a fe w lo w e r g r a d e b u y e r s o r c l e r k s . (N o p o s it io n is in c lu d e d in th is l e v e l s o l e l y
b e c a u s e s u p e r v i s o r y d u tie s a r e p e r f o r m e d . )

PERSON N EL M ANAGEM ENT

JO B A N A L Y S T
P e r f o r m s w o r k in v o lv e d in c o l l e c t i n g , a n a ly z in g , and d e v e lo p in g o c c u p a t io n a l d ata
r e la t iv e to j o b s , jo b q u a lif ic a t i o n s , and w o r k e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s a b a s is f o r c o m p e n s a t in g
e m p lo y e e s in a f a i r , e q u ita b le , and u n ifo r m m a n n e r . P e r f o r m s s u c h d u tie s a s stu d y in g and
a n a ly z in g jo b s and p r e p a r in g d e s c r ip t io n s o f d u tie s and r e s p o n s ib i lit ie s and o f the p h y s ic a l
and m e n ta l r e q u ir e m e n t s n e e d e d b y w o r k e r s ; e v a lu a tin g jo b s and d e te r m in in g a p p r o p r ia t e
w a g e o r s a la r y le v e l s in a c c o r d a n c e w ith t h e ir d if fic u lt y and r e s p o n s ib i lit y ; in d e p e n d e n tly
c o n d u c t in g o r p a r t ic ip a t in g w ith r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f o th e r c o m p a n ie s in c o n d u c t in g c o m p e n ­
s a tio n s u r v e y s w ith in a l o c a l i t y o r la b o r m a r k e t a r e a ; a s s is t in g in a d m in is t e r in g m e r i t r a tin g
p r o g r a m ; r e v ie w in g c h a n g e s in w a g e s and s a la r i e s in d ic a t e d b y s u r v e y s and r e c o m m e n d in g
c h a n g e s in p a y s c a l e s ; and a u d itin g in d iv id u a l jo b s to c h e c k th e p r o p r i e t y o f e v a lu a tio n s and
to a p p ly c u r r e n t jo b c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s .

J o b A n a ly s t I
A s a t r a i n e e , p e r f o r m s w o r k in d e s ig n a te d a r e a s and o f lim it e d o c c u p a t io n a l s c o p e .
R e c e iv e s im m e d ia t e s u p e r v is io n in a s s ig n m e n t s d e s ig n e d to p r o v id e tr a in in g in th e a p p lic a t io n
o f e s t a b lis h e d m e th o d s and te c h n iq u e s o f jo b a n a ly s is .
S tu d ie s the le a s t d if fic u lt jo b s and
p r e p a r e s r e p o r t s f o r r e v ie w b y a jo b a n a ly s t o f h ig h e r le v e l .

J o b A n a ly s t II
S tu d ie s , d e s c r i b e s , and e v a lu a te s jo b s in a c c o r d a n c e w ith e s t a b lis h e d p r o c e d u r e s .
Is u s u a lly a s s ig n e d to th e s im p le r k in d s o f b o th w a g e and s a la r i e d jo b s in th e e s t a b lis h m e n t .
W o r k s in d e p e n d e n tly on s u c h a s s ig n m e n t s but is lim it e d b y in s t r u c t io n s o f h is s u p e r io r and
b y d e fin e d a r e a o f a s s ig n m e n t .

J o b A n a ly s t III
A n a ly z e s and e v a lu a te s a v a r ie t y o f w a g e and s a la r i e d jo b s in a c c o r d a n c e w ith
e s t a b lis h e d e v a lu a tio n s y s t e m s and p r o c e d u r e s . M a y c o n d u c t w a g e s u r v e y s w ith in th e l o c a l i t y
o r p a r t ic ip a t e in c o n d u c tin g s u r v e y s o f b r o a d c o m p e n s a t io n a r e a s .
M a y a s s i s t in d e v e lo p in g
s u r v e y m e th o d s and p la n s . R e c e iv e s g e n e r a l s u p e r v is io n but r e s p o n s ib i lit y f o r fin a l a c t io n
is lim it e d .




59

JO B A N A L Y S T — C on tin u ed

J o b A n a ly s t IV
A n a ly z e s and e v a lu a te s a v a r ie t y o f jo b s in a c c o r d a n c e w ith e s t a b lis h e d e v a lu a tio n
s y s t e m s and p r o c e d u r e s , and is g iv e n a s s ig n m e n t w h ic h r e g u la r ly in c lu d e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r
the m o r e d if fic u lt k in d s o f j o b s .
( " M o r e d if f ic u lt " m e a n s jo b s w h ic h c o n s is t o f h a r d - t o u n d e rs ta n d w o r k p r o c e s s e s ; e . g . , p r o f e s s i o n a l , s c i e n t i f i c , a d m in is t r a t iv e , o r t e c h n ic a l; or_
jo b s in n ew o r e m e r g in g o c c u p a t io n a l f i e l d s ; or_ j o b s w h ic h a r e b e in g e s t a b lis h e d as p a r t o f
the c r e a t i o n o f new o r g a n iz a t io n s ; o r w h e r e o th e r s p e c ia l c o n s id e r a t io n s o f th e s e ty p e s a p p ly .)
R e c e i v e s g e n e r a l s u p e r v is io n , but r e s p o n s ib i lit y f o r fin a l a c t io n is lim it e d . M a y p a r t ic ip a t e
in the d e v e lo p m e n t and in s t a lla t io n o f e v a lu a tio n o r c o m p e n s a t io n s y s t e m s , w h ic h m a y in c lu d e
th o s e f o r m e r i t r a tin g p r o g r a m s .
M a y p la n s u r v e y m e th o d s and c o n d u c t o r d i r e c t w a g e
s u r v e y s w ith in a b r o a d c o m p e n s a t io n a r e a .

D IR E C T O R O F P E R S O N N E L

D i r e c t s a p e r s o n n e l m a n a g e m e n t p r o g r a m f o r a c o m p a n y o r fo r a p la n t o r e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t o f a c o m p a n y . F o r a jo b to b e c o v e r e d b y th is d e fin it io n , the p e r s o n n e l m a n a g e ­
m e n t p r o g r a m m u s t in c lu d e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y fo r a ll th r e e o f the fo llo w in g fu n c tio n s :
(1)
A d m in is t e r in g a f o r m a l jo b e v a lu a tio n s y s t e m ; i . e . , a s y s t e m in w h ic h th e r e
a r e e s t a b lis h e d p r o c e d u r e s b y w h ic h jo b s a r e a n a ly z e d and e v a lu a te d on the b a s is o f
th e ir d u t ie s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and q u a lific a t io n r e q u ir e m e n t s in o r d e r to p r o v id e a
fo u n d a tio n f o r e q u ita b le c o m p e n s a t io n . T y p ic a ll y , s u c h a s y s t e m in c lu d e s the u s e o f one
o r m o r e s e ts o f jo b e v a lu a tio n f a c t o r s and the p r e p a r a t io n o f f o r m a l j o b d e s c r ip t io n s .
It m a y a ls o in c lu d e s u c h r e la t e d fu n c tio n s a s w a g e and s a la r y s u r v e y s o r m e r i t r a tin g
s y s t e m a d m in is t r a t io n . T h e jo b e v a lu a tio n s y s t e m (s ) d o e s not n e c e s s a r i l y c o v e r a ll jo b s
in the o r g a n iz a t io n , but d o e s c o v e r a s u b s ta n tia l p o r t io n o f the o r g a n iz a t io n .
(2)
E m p lo y m e n t and p la c e m e n t fu n c tio n s ; i . e . , r e c r u it i n g a c t i v e ly f o r at le a s t s o m e
k in d s o f w o r k e r s th r o u g h a v a r ie t y o f s o u r c e s ( e . g ., s c h o o ls o r c o l l e g e s , e m p lo y m e n t
a g e n c ie s , p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t i e s , e t c . ) ; e v a lu a tin g a p p lic a n ts a g a in s t d e m a n d s o f p a r t i c ­
u la r j o b s b y u s e o f s u c h te c h n iq u e s as jo b a n a ly s is to d e t e r m in e r e q u ir e m e n t s , i n t e r ­
v ie w s , w r it t e n t e s t s o f a p titu d e , k n o w le d g e , o r s k il l, r e f e r e n c e c h e c k s , e x p e r ie n c e
e v a lu a t io n s , e t c .; r e c o m m e n d in g s e le c t io n s and jo b p la c e m e n t s to m a n a g e m e n t, e t c .
(3)
E m p lo y e e r e la t io n s and s e r v i c e s fu n c tio n s ; i . e . , fu n c tio n s d e s ig n e d to m a in ta in
e m p l o y e e s ' m o r a l e and p r o d u c t iv it y at a h ig h le v e l (f o r e x a m p le , a d m in is t e r in g a fo r m a l
o r in fo r m a l g r ie v a n c e p r o c e d u r e ; id e n tify in g and r e c o m m e n d in g s o lu tio n s fo r p e r s o n n e l
p r o b le m s s u c h a s a b s e n t e e is m , h ig h t u r n o v e r , lo w p r o d u c t iv it y , e t c .; a d m in is t r a t io n o f
b e n e f ic i a l s u g g e s t io n s s y s t e m , r e t i r e m e n t , p e n s io n , o r in s u r a n c e p la n s , m e r i t r a tin g
s y s t e m , e t c .; o v e r s e e in g c a f e t e r ia o p e r a t io n s , r e c r e a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s , in d u s t r ia l h e a lth
o r s a fe t y p r o g r a m s , e t c .) .

E m p lo y e e tr a in in g and d e v e lo p m e n t fu n c tio n s m a y o r m a y n ot b e p a r t o f the p e r ­
s o n n e l m a n a g e m e n t p r o g r a m f o r p u r p o s e s o f m a tc h in g th is d e fin itio n .

L a b o r r e la t io n a c t i v i t i e s , if a n y , a r e c o n fin e d m a in ly to the a d m in is t r a t io n , in t e r ­
p r e t a t io n , and a p p lic a t io n o f la b o r u n io n c o n t r a c t s and a r e e s s e n t i a lly s im il a r to th o s e d e ­
s c r i b e d u n d er (3) a b o v e .
If r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a c tu a l c o n t r a c t n e g o tia t io n w ith la b o r u n io n s
as the p r in c ip a l c o m p a n y r e p r e s e n t a t iv e is c o n s id e r e d a s ig n ific a n t on e in the jo b , i . e . , the
on e w h ic h s e r v e s a s the p r i m a r y b a s is f o r q u a lific a t io n r e q u ir e m e n t s and c o m p e n s a t io n , the
jo b is e x c lu d e d f r o m b e in g m a t c h e d w ith th is d e fin itio n .
P a r t ic i p a t io n in b a r g a in in g o f a
l e s s s ig n ific a n t n a tu r e , e . g . , to n e g o tia t e d e t a ile d s e tt le m e n t o f su c h m a t t e r s a s s p e c i f i c
r a t e s , jo b c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , w o r k r u l e s , h ir in g o r la y o f f p r o c e d u r e s , e t c . , w ith in the b r o a d
t e r m s o f a g e n e r a l a g r e e m e n t r e a c h e d at h ig h e r l e v e l s , o r to s u p p ly a d v ic e and in fo r m a t io n
on t e c h n ic a l p o in ts to the c o m p a n y 's p r in c ip a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , w ill not h a ve the e f f e c t o f e x ­
clu d in g the jo b f r o m c o v e r a g e .




60

D IR E C T O R O F P E R S O N N E L /— C o n tin u e d

T h e d i r e c t o r o f p e r s o n n e l n ot o n ly d i r e c t s a p e r s o n n e l m a n a g e m e n t p r o g r a m o f th e
in te n s ity and s c o p e o u tlin e d p r e v i o u s l y , but (to b e a p r o p e r m a tch ) he is r e c o g n iz e d b y the
to p m a n a g e m e n t o f f i c i a l s o f th e o r g a n iz a t io n he s e r v e s a s th e s o u r c e o f a d v ic e an d a s s i s t a n c e
on p e r s o n n e l m a n a g e m e n t m a t t e r s and p r o b le m s g e n e r a lly .
F o r e x a m p le , h e is t y p ic a l ly
c o n s u lt e d on th e p e r s o n n e l im p lic a t io n s o f p la n n e d c h a n g e s in m a n a g e m e n t p o l i c y o r p r o ­
g r a m , th e e f f e c t s on th e o r g a n iz a t io n o f e c o n o m ic o r m a r k e t t r e n d s , p r o d u c t o r p r o d u c t io n
m e th o d c h a n g e s , e t c . ; he r e p r e s e n t s m a n a g e m e n t in e x t e r n a l c o n t a c t s w ith o t h e r c o m p a n ie s ,
t r a d e a s s o c i a t i o n s , g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c ie s , e t c . , w h en th e p r i m a r y s u b je c t m a t te r o f th e c o n ­
ta c t is on p e r s o n n e l m a n a g e m e n t m a t t e r s .

T y p ic a ll y , th e d i r e c t o r o f p e r s o n n e l r e p o r t s to a c o m p a n y o f f i c e r o r a h ig h m a n a g e ­
m e n t o f f i c i a l w h o h as r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r th e o p e r a t io n o f a p la n t o r e s t a b lis h m e n t o f a c o m ­
p a n y ; o r , at c o m p a n y h e a d q u a r t e r s l e v e l , he m a y r e p o r t to a c o m p a n y o f f i c e r in c h a r g e o f
in d u s t r ia l r e la t io n s and p e r s o n n e l m a n a g e m e n t a c t i v it i e s o r a s i m i l a r o f f i c i a l .

D i r e c t o r s o f p e r s o n n e l jo b s w h ic h m e e t the a b o v e d e fin it io n a r e c l a s s i f i e d b y l e v e l 26
o f w o r k in a c c o r d a n c e w ith th e fo llo w in g ta b u la tio n :

Personnel program
operations level 1
______
Number of employees in
work force serviced
250-750--------------------------------------------------------1.000- 5,000----------------------------------------------6 .0 0 0 - 12,000--------------------------------------------15.000- 25,000-------------------------------------------

Organization
serviced—
type A 3
I
II
III
IV

Organization
serviced—
type B 4
II
III
IV
V

Personnel program
_____ development le v e l2
Organization
serviced—
type A 3
II
III
IV
V

Organization
serviced—
type B 4
III
IV
V
-

Personnel program operations level—director of personnel servicing an organizational segment (e .g . , a plant)
of a company, where the basic personnel program policies, plans, objectives, e t c ., are established at company head­
quarters or at some other higher level between the plant and the company headquarters level. The personnel di­
rector's responsibility is to put these into operation at the local level, in such a manner as to most effectively serve
the local management needs.
2 Personnel program development level—director of personnel servicing an entire company (with or without
subordinate establishments) where the personnel director plays an important role in establishment of basic personnel
policies, plans, objectives, etc. , for the company, subject to policy direction and control from company officers.
There may be instances in which there is such relatively complete delegation of personnel program planning and
development responsibility below the company level to an intermediate organization, e . g . , a subsidiary or a division,
that a job of personnel director for such an organization should be matched as though it were a company level job.
Organization serviced— type A —jobs serviced are (almost exclusively) types which are common in the labor
market generally, and consist of relatively easy-to-understand work processes, or for similar reasons do not present
particularly difficult recruitment, job evaluation, or training problems. Work force, organizational structure, and
other organizational characteristics are relatively stable.
Organization serviced— type B—jobs serviced include a substantial number of types which are largely peculiar
to the organization serviced, consist of hard-to-understand work processes ( e .g ., professional, scientific, administra­
tive, or technical), are jobs in new or emerging occupational fields, are in extremely short supply, have hard-tomatch skill requirements, or for similar reasons present difficult recruitment, job evaluation, or training problems.
Work force, organizational structure, or other organizational characteristics are complicated, unstable, subject to wide
seasonal fluctuations, etc.
NOTE: There are gaps between different degrees of all three elements used to determine job level matches.
These gaps have been provided purposely to allow room for judgment in getting the best overall job level match for
each job. Thus, a job which services a work force of 850 employees should be matched with level II if it is a
personnel program operations level job where the nature of the organization serviced seems to fall slightly below the
definition for the type B degree. However, the same job should be matched with level I if the nature of the organi­
zation serviced clearly falls well within the definition for the type A degree.

26

Ibid.




©1
C H E M IS T S A N D E N G IN E E R S
C H E M IS T
P e r f o r m s p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k in r e s e a r c h , d e v e lo p m e n t , in t e r p r e t a t io n , and a n a ly s is
to d e t e r m in e th e c o m p o s i t io n , m o l e c u l a r s t r u c t u r e , and p r o p e r t i e s o f s u b s t a n c e s ; to d e v e lo p
o r in v e s tig a te n e w m a t e r ia ls and p r o c e s s e s ; and to in v e s tig a te th e t r a n s fo r m a t io n w h ich
s u b s ta n c e s u n d e r g o .
W o r k t y p ic a l ly r e q u ir e s a B . S. d e g r e e in c h e m is t r y o r e q u iv a le n t in
a p p r o p r ia t e and s u b s ta n tia l c o l l e g e l e v e l stu d y o f c h e m is t r y p lu s e x p e r ie n c e .
C h e m is t I
G en era l c h a r a c te r is t ic s .
T h is is th e e n tr y l e v e l o f p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k r e q u ir in g a
b a c h e lo r * s d e g r e e in c h e m is t r y and n o e x p e r ie n c e , o r the e q u iv a le n t (to a d e g r e e ) in a p p r o ­
p r ia t e e d u c a tio n and e x p e r ie n c e .
P e r f o r m s a s s ig n m e n t s d e s ig n e d to d e v e lo p p r o f e s s i o n a l
c a p a b il it i e s and to p r o v id e e x p e r ie n c e in the a p p lic a t io n o f t r a in in g in c h e m is t r y a s it r e la t e s
to the c o m p a n y l s p r o g r a m s .
M a y a ls o r e c e i v e f o r m a l c l a s s r o o m o r s e m in a r ty p e tr a in in g .
(T e r m i n a l p o s it io n s a r e e x c lu d e d . )
D i r e c t io n r e c e i v e d .
W o r k s u n d e r c l o s e s u p e r v is io n .
R e c e i v e s s p e c i f i c and d e ta ile d
in s t r u c t io n s a s to r e q u ir e d t a s k s and r e s u lt s e x p e c t e d .
W o r k is c h e c k e d d u r in g p r o g r e s s ,
and is r e v ie w e d f o r a c c u r a c y u p on c o m p le t io n .
T y p ic a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .
P e r f o r m s a v a r ie t y o f r o u tin e ta s k s that a r e
p la n n ed to p r o v id e e x p e r ie n c e and fa m ili a r iz a t i o n w ith th e c h e m is t r y s ta ff, m e t h o d s , p r a c ­
t i c e s and p r o g r a m s o f th e c o m p a n y .
T h e w o r k in c lu d e s a v a r ie t y o f ro u tin e q u a lit a tiv e and
q u a n tita tiv e a n a ly s e s ; p h y s ic a l t e s t s to d e t e r m in e p r o p e r t ie s su c h a s v i s c o s i t y , t e n s ile s tr e n g th ,
an d m e ltin g p o in t; and a s s i s t in g m o r e e x p e r ie n c e d c h e m is t s to g a in a d d itio n a l k n o w le d g e th r o u g h
p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t io n and d is c u s s i o n .
R e s p o n s i b ili t y f o r the d ir e c t io n o f o t h e r s .

U s u a lly n o n e .

C h e m is t II
G en era l c h a r a c te r is t ic s .
A t th is c o n tin u in g d e v e lo p m e n t a l le v e l , p e r f o r m s r o u tin e
c h e m ic a l w o r k r e q u ir in g s e le c t io n and a p p lic a t io n o f g e n e r a l and s p e c ia l iz e d m e t h o d s , t e c h ­
n iq u e s , and in s tr u m e n ts c o m m o n ly u s e d in the la b o r a t o r y and th e a b ilit y to c a r r y out in ­
s t r u c t io n s w h en l e s s c o m m o n o r p r o p o s e d m e t h o d s o r p r o c e d u r e s a r e n e c e s s a r y .
R e q u ir e s
w o r k e x p e r ie n c e a c q u ir e d in an e n tr y l e v e l p o s it io n , o r a p p r o p r ia t e g ra d u a te l e v e l stu d y .
F o r tr a in in g an d d e v e lo p m e n t a l p u r p o s e s , a s s ig n m e n t s m a y in c lu d e s o m e w o r k that is t y p ic a l
o f a h ig h e r l e v e l .
( T e r m i n a l p o s it io n s a r e e x c lu d e d . )
D ir e c t io n r e c e i v e d .
S u p e r v is o r e s t a b lis h e s the n a tu re and e x te n t o f a n a ly s is r e ­
q u ir e d , s p e c i f i e s m e t h o d s and c r i t e r i a on n e w ty p e s o f a s s ig n m e n t s , and r e v ie w s w o r k f o r
th o r o u g h n e s s o f a p p lic a t io n o f m e t h o d s and a c c u r a c y o f r e s u lt s .
T y p ic a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .
C a r r i e s ou t a w id e v a r ie t y o f s ta n d a r d iz e d
m e t h o d s , t e s t s , and p r o c e d u r e s .
In a c c o r d a n c e w ith s p e c i f i c in s t r u c t io n s m a y c a r r y out
p r o p o s e d and le s s c o m m o n o n e s .
Is e x p e c t e d to d e t e c t p r o b le m s in u s in g s ta n d a r d iz e d p r o ­
c e d u r e s b e c a u s e o f the c o n d it io n o f th e s a m p le , d i f f ic u lt ie s w ith the e q u ip m e n t, e t c .
R ec­
o m m e n d s m o d i f ic a t i o n s o f p r o c e d u r e s , e . g . , e x te n d in g o r c u r t a ilin g the a n a ly s is o r u s in g
a lt e r n a t e p r o c e d u r e s , b a s e d on h is k n o w le d g e o f the p r o b le m and p e r tin e n t a v a ila b le l i t e r a ­
t u r e . C o n d u cts s p e c if ie d p h a s e s o f r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s as an a s s is t a n t to an e x p e r ie n c e d c h e m is t .
R e s p o n s i b ili t y
t e c h n ic i a n s .

fo r

the

d ir e c t io n

of

oth ers.

M ay

be

a s s is te d

by

a

fe w

a id s

or

C h e m is t III
G en eral c h a r a c te r is t ic s .
P e r f o r m s a b r o a d r a n g e o f c h e m ic a l t e s t s and p r o c e ­
d u r e s u t iliz e d in th e l a b o r a t o r y , u s in g ju d g m e n t in the in d e p e n d e n t e v a lu a tio n , s e le c t io n ,
and a d a p ta tio n o f s ta n d a rd m e t h o d s and t e c h n iq u e s .
M a y c a r r y th r o u g h a c o m p l e t e s e r i e s
o f t e s t s on a p r o d u c t in it s d iffe r e n t p r o c e s s s t a g e s .
S o m e a s s ig n m e n t s r e q u ir e a s p e ­
c i a l i z e d k n o w le d g e o f on e o r tw o c o m m o n c a t e g o r i e s o f r e la t e d s u b s t a n c e s .
P e r fo r m a n c e
at th is le v e l r e q u ir e s d e v e lo p m e n t a l e x p e r ie n c e in a p r o f e s s i o n a l p o s it io n , o r e q u iv a le n t
g ra d u a te le v e l e d u c a tio n .




62
C H E M IS T — C o n tin u e d
D ir e c tio n r e c e iv e d .
On r o u tin e w o r k , s u p e r v is io n is v e r y g e n e r a l. A s s i s t a n c e is
fu r n is h e d on u n u su a l p r o b le m s an d w o r k i s r e v ie w e d f o r a p p lic a t io n o f sou n d p r o f e s s i o n a l
ju d g m e n t.
T y p ic a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . In a c c o r d a n c e w ith in s t r u c t io n s a s to th e n a tu re
o f th e p r o b le m , s e l e c t s s ta n d a r d m e t h o d s , t e s t s o r p r o c e d u r e s ; w h en n e c e s s a r y , d e v e lo p s
o r w o r k s out a lt e r n a t e o r m o d i f ie d m e t h o d s w ith s u p e r v i s o r ^ c o n c u r r e n c e . A s s i s t s in r e ­
s e a r c h b y a n a ly z in g s a m p le s o r t e s t in g n e w p r o c e d u r e s that r e q u ir e s p e c i a l i z e d t r a in in g
b e c a u s e (a ) s ta n d a r d m e t h o d s a r e in a p p lic a b le , (b ) a n a ly t ic a l fin d in g s m u s t b e in t e r p r e t e d
in t e r m s o f c o m p l ia n c e o r n o n c o m p lia n c e w ith s ta n d a r d s , o r ( c ) s p e c i a l i z e d an d a d v a n c e d
e q u ip m e n t an d t e c h n iq u e s m u s t b e a d a p te d .
R e s p o n s i b ili t y f o r th e d i r e c t io n o f o t h e r s .
M a y s u p e r v is e o r c o o r d in a t e th e w o r k
o f a fe w t e c h n ic ia n s o r a id s , and b e a s s i s t e d b y lo w e r l e v e l c h e m i s t s .
C h e m is t IV
G en era l c h a r a c te r is tic s .
A s a fu lly c o m p e te n t c h e m is t in a ll c o n v e n t io n a l a s p e c t s
o f th e s u b je c t - m a t t e r o r th e fu n c tio n a l a r e a o f the a s s ig n m e n t s , p la n s an d c o n d u c t s w o r k
r e q u ir in g (a) m a s t e r y o f s p e c i a l i z e d te c h n iq u e s o r in g e n u ity in s e le c t in g an d e v a lu a tin g a p ­
p r o a c h e s to u n f o r e s e e n o r n o v e l p r o b l e m s , and (b) a b ilit y to a p p ly a r e s e a r c h a p p r o a c h to
th e s o lu tio n o f a w id e v a r ie t y o f p r o b le m s and to a s s i m il a t e th e d e t a ils and s ig n i fic a n c e o f
c h e m i c a l an d p h y s ic a l a n a ly s e s , p r o c e d u r e s , and t e s t s .
R e q u ir e s s u ffic ie n t p r o f e s s i o n a l
e x p e r ie n c e to a s s u r e c o m p e t e n c e a s a fu lly t r a in e d w o r k e r ; o r , f o r p o s it io n s p r i m a r i l y o f
a r e s e a r c h n a tu r e , c o m p le t io n o f a ll r e q u ir e m e n t s f o r a d o c t o r a l d e g r e e m a y b e s u b s titu te d
fo r e x p e r ie n c e .
D i r e c t i o n r e c e i v e d . In d e p e n d e n tly p e r f o r m s m o s t a s s ig n m e n t s w ith in s t r u c t io n s a s
to th e g e n e r a l r e s u lt s e x p e c t e d .
R e c e i v e s t e c h n ic a l g u id a n c e on u n u su a l o r c o m p l e x p r o b ­
le m s an d s u p e r v i s o r y a p p r o v a l on p r o p o s e d p la n s f o r p r o j e c t s .
T y p ic a l d u tie s an d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . C o n d u c ts la b o r a t o r y a s s ig n m e n t s r e q u ir in g th e
d e t e r m in a t io n an d e v a lu a tio n o f a lt e r n a t iv e p r o c e d u r e s and th e s e q u e n c e o f p e r fo r m i n g t h e m .
P e r f o r m s c o m p l e x , e x a c t in g , o r u n u su a l a n a ly t ic a l a s s ig n m e n t s r e q u ir in g s p e c ia l iz e d k n o w l­
e d g e o f t e c h n iq u e s o r p r o d u c t s .
I n t e r p r e t s r e s u l t s , p r e p a r e s r e p o r t s , an d m a y p r o v id e
t e c h n ic a l a d v ic e in h is s p e c i a l i z e d a r e a .
R e s p o n s i b ili t y f o r the d ir e c t i o n o f o t h e r s .
an d t e c h n ic i a n s .

M a y s u p e r v is e a s m a ll s ta ff o f c h e m is t s

C h e m is t V
G e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . P a r t ic i p a t e s in p la n n in g la b o r a t o r y p r o g r a m s on th e b a s is
o f s p e c i a l i z e d k n o w le d g e o f p r o b le m s an d m e t h o d s and p r o b a b le v a lu e o f r e s u l t s . M a y s e r v e
a s an e x p e r t in a n a r r o w s p e c ia lt y (e . g . , c l a s s o f c h e m ic a l c o m p o u n d s , o r a c l a s s o f p r o d ­
u c t s ) , m a k in g r e c o m m e n d a t io n s and c o n c lu s io n s w h ic h s e r v e a s th e b a s is f o r u n d e r ta k in g
o r r e je c t in g im p o r ta n t p r o j e c t s .
D e v e lo p m e n t o f th e k n o w le d g e and e x p e r t is e r e q u ir e d f o r
th is l e v e l o f w o r k u s u a lly r e f l e c t s p r o g r e s s i v e e x p e r ie n c e th r o u g h c h e m is t IV .
D i r e c t i o n r e c e i v e d . S u p e r v is io n and g u id a n c e r e la t e s la r g e l y t o o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e s ,
c r i t i c a l i s s u e s , n e w c o n c e p t s , an d p o l i c y m a t t e r s .
C o n s u lt s w ith s u p e r v is o r c o n c e r n in g
u n u su a l p r o b le m s and d e v e lo p m e n t s .
T y p ic a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s.

(O ne o r b o th o f th e fo llo w in g . )

(1)
In a s u p e r v is o r y c a p a c it y p la n s , o r g a n i z e s , and d i r e c t s a s s ig n e d la b o r a t o r y
p r o g r a m s . In d e p e n d e n tly d e fin e s s c o p e and c r i t i c a l e le m e n t s o f the p r o j e c t s and s e l e c t s
a p p r o a c h e s to b e ta k e n . A s u b s ta n tia l p o r t io n o f the w o r k s u p e r v is e d is c o m p a r a b le to
that d e s c r i b e d f o r c h e m is t IV .
(2)
A s in d iv id u a l r e s e a r c h e r o r w o r k e r , c a r r i e s out p r o j e c t s r e q u ir in g d e v e l o p ­
m e n t o f n ew o r h ig h ly m o d i f ie d s c ie n t i f i c te c h n iq u e s and p r o c e d u r e s , e x t e n s iv e k n o w l­
e d g e o f h is s p e c ia l t y , and k n o w le d g e o f r e la t e d s c i e n t i f i c f i e l d s .




63

C H E M I S T — C on tin u e d
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the d i r e c t i o n o f o t h e r s .
S u p e r v i s e s , c o o r d i n a t e s , and r e v i e w s
the w o r k o f a s m a l l sta ff o f c h e m i s t s and t e c h n i c i a n s e n g a g e d in v a r i e d r e s e a r c h and d e ­
v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s , o r a l a r g e r g r o u p p e r f o r m i n g r o u t in e a n a l y t i c a l w o r k . E s t i m a t e s m a n ­
p o w e r n e e d s and s c h e d u l e s and a s s i g n s w o r k to m e e t c o m p l e t i o n d a te .
O r , a s in d iv i d u a l
r e s e a r c h e r o r w o r k e r , m a y be a s s i s t e d on p r o j e c t s b y o t h e r c h e m i s t s o r t e c h n i c i a n s .
C h e m i s t VI
G eneral ch a ra cte ristics.
P e r f o r m s w o r k r e q u i r i n g l e a d e r s h i p and e x p e r t k n o w l ­
e d g e in a s p e c i a l i z e d f i e l d , p r o d u c t , o r p r o c e s s .
F o r m u l a t e s and c o n d u c t s a s y s t e m a t i c
a t t a c k on a p r o b l e m a r e a o f c o n s i d e r a b l e s c o p e and c o m p l e x i t y w h i c h m u s t b e a p p r o a c h e d
t h r o u g h a s e r i e s o f c o m p l e t e and c o n c e p t u a l l y r e l a t e d s t u d i e s , o r a n u m b e r o f p r o j e c t s o f
le ss e r scope.
T h e p r o b l e m s a r e c o m p l e x b e c a u s e th e y a r e d i f f i c u l t to d e fin e and r e q u i r e
u n c o n v e n t i o n a l o r n o v e l a p p r o a c h e s o r h a v e o t h e r d i f f i c u l t f e a t u r e s . M a in t a i n s l i a i s o n w ith
in d iv i d u a l s and u nits w ith in and o u t s i d e h is o r g a n i z a t i o n w ith r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a c t i n g i n ­
d e p e n d e n t l y on t e c h n i c a l m a t t e r s p e r t a i n i n g to h is f i e l d . W o r k at th is l e v e l u s u a l l y r e q u i r e s
e x t e n s i v e p r o g r e s s i v e e x p e r i e n c e in c l u d i n g w o r k c o m p a r a b l e to c h e m i s t V .
D i r e c t i o n r e c e i v e d . S u p e r v i s i o n r e c e i v e d is e s s e n t i a l l y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , w ith a s s i g n ­
m e n t s g iv e n in t e r m s o f b r o a d g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e s and l i m i t s .
T y p i c a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .

(O ne o r b o th o f the f o l l o w i n g . )

(1)
In a s u p e r v i s o r y c a p a c i t y (a) p l a n s , d e v e l o p s , c o o r d i n a t e s , and d i r e c t s a n u m ­
b e r o f l a r g e and im p o r t a n t p r o j e c t s o r a p r o j e c t o f m a j o r s c o p e and i m p o r t a n c e , o r
(b) i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the e n t i r e c h e m i c a l p r o g r a m o f a c o m p a n y , w h en the p r o g r a m is
o f l i m i t e d c o m p l e x i t y and s c o p e .
A c t i v i t i e s u n d e r h is l e a d e r s h i p a r e o f a s c o p e that
th e y r e q u i r e a f e w (3 to 5) s u b o r d in a t e s u p e r v i s o r s o r t e a m l e a d e r s w ith at l e a s t one
in a p o s i t i o n c o m p a r a b l e to l e v e l V .
(2)
A s in d iv i d u a l r e s e a r c h e r o r
p r o j e c t s o f m a j o r i m p o r t a n c e to the
in g e n u ity in a d a p tin g , e x t e n d in g , and
n iq u e s in to o r i g i n a l c o m b i n a t i o n s and
c h e m i s t s in h is s p e c i a l t y .

w o r k e r d e t e r m i n e s , c o n c e i v e s , p l a n s , and c o n d u c t s
c o m p a n y . A p p l i e s a h ig h d e g r e e o f o r i g i n a l i t y and
s y n t h e s i z i n g e x i s t i n g t h e o r y , p r i n c i p l e s , and t e c h ­
c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . M a y s e r v e a s a c o n s u lt a n t to o t h e r

R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the d i r e c t i o n o f o t h e r s . P l a n s , o r g a n i z e s , and s u p e r v i s e s th e w o r k
o f a s ta f f o f c h e m i s t s and t e c h n i c i a n s . E v a l u a t e s p r o g r e s s o f the s ta f f and r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d ,
and r e c o m m e n d s m a j o r c h a n g e s to a c h i e v e o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e s . O r , a s in d iv id u a l w o r k e r o r
r e s e a r c h e r m a y be a s s i s t e d on in d iv i d u a l p r o j e c t s b y o t h e r c h e m i s t s o r t e c h n i c i a n s .
C h e m i s t VII
G e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . M a k e s d e c i s i o n s and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s that a r e r e c o g n i z e d
a s a u t h o r it a t iv e an d h a v e an im p o r t a n t i m p a c t on e x t e n s i v e c h e m i c a l a c t i v i t i e s .
I n it ia t e s and
m a i n t a i n s e x t e n s i v e c o n t a c t s w ith k e y c h e m i s t s and o f f i c i a l s o f o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s and c o m ­
p a n i e s , r e q u i r i n g s k i l l in p e r s u a s i o n and n e g o t i a t i o n o f c r i t i c a l i s s u e s . A t th is l e v e l i n d i ­
v i d u a l s w i l l h a v e d e m o n s t r a t e d c r e a t i v i t y , f o r e s i g h t , and m a t u r e ju d g m e n t in a n t ic i p a t in g
and s o l v i n g u n p r e c e d e n t e d c h e m i c a l p r o b l e m s , d e t e r m i n i n g p r o g r a m o b j e c t i v e s and r e q u i r e ­
m e n t s , o r g a n i z i n g p r o g r a m s a n d p r o j e c t s , and d e v e l o p i n g s t a n d a r d s and g u id e s f o r d i v e r s e
ch e m ica l a ctivities.
D irection r e c e iv e d .

R e ce iv e s

gen eral adm inistrative direction .

T y p i c a l d u t ie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .

(One o r b o th o f the f o l l o w i n g . )

(l)
In a s u p e r v i s o r y c a p a c i t y i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r (a ) an i m p o r t a n t s e g m e n t o f a
c h e m i c a l p r o g r a m o f a c o m p a n y w ith e x t e n s i v e and d i v e r s i f i e d s c i e n t i f i c r e q u i r e m e n t s ,
o r (b) the e n t i r e c h e m i c a l p r o g r a m o f a c o m p a n y w h e r e the p r o g r a m i s m o r e l i m i t e d
in s c o p e .
T h e o v e r a l l c h e m i c a l p r o g r a m c o n t a i n s c r i t i c a l p r o b l e m s the s o lu t i o n o f
w h i c h r e q u i r e s m a j o r t e c h n o l o g i c a l a d v a n c e s and o p e n s the w a y f o r e x t e n s i v e r e l a t e d
d ev elop m en t.
M a k e s a u t h o r it a t iv e t e c h n i c a l r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the s c i e n t i f i c




64
C H E M I S T — C o n t in u e d
o b j e c t i v e s and l e v e l s o f w o r k w h i c h w i l l b e m o s t p r o f i t a b l e in the li g h t o f c o m p a n y r e ­
q u i r e m e n t s an d s c i e n t i f i c a n d i n d u s t r i a l t r e n d s and d e v e l o p m e n t s .
R ecom m ends fa cil­
i t i e s , p e r s o n n e l , and fu nds r e q u i r e d .
(Z)
A s in d iv i d u a l r e s e a r c h e r and c o n s u lt a n t s e l e c t s p r o b l e m s f o r r e s e a r c h to
f u r t h e r the c o m p a n y ^ o b j e c t i v e s .
C o n c e i v e s and p la n s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s in w h i c h the
p h e n o m e n a and p r i n c i p l e s a r e not a d e q u a t e ly u n d e r s t o o d , a n d w h e r e f e w o r c o n t r a ­
d i c t o r y s c i e n t i f i c p r e c e d e n t s o r r e s u l t s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e . O u ts ta n d in g c r e a ­
t i v it y an d m a t u r e ju d g m e n t a r e r e q u i r e d to d e v i s e h y p o t h e s e s and t e c h n i q u e s o f e x p e r i ­
m e n t a t i o n and to i n t e r p r e t r e s u l t s .
A s a l e a d e r and a u t h o r it y in h is c o m p a n y , in a
b r o a d a r e a o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , o r in a n a r r o w but i n t e n s e l y s p e c i a l i z e d o n e , a d v i s e s the
h e a d o f a l a r g e l a b o r a t o r y o r c o m p a n y o f f i c i a l s on c o m p l e x a s p e c t s o f e x t r e m e l y b r o a d
and i m p o r t a n t p r o g r a m s .
H a s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e x p l o r i n g , e v a lu a t i n g , and j u s t i f y i n g
p r o p o s e d and c u r r e n t p r o g r a m s and p r o j e c t s and fu r n i s h i n g a d v i c e on u n u s u a ll y c o m p l e x
and n o v e l p r o b l e m s in the s p e c i a l t y f i e l d .
T y p i c a l l y w i l l h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d i n n o v a t io n s
( e . g . , te ch n iq u e s, p r o d u c ts , p r o c e d u r e s ) which a r e r e g a r d e d as sig n ifica n t a d v a n ces
in the f i e l d .
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the d i r e c t i o n o f o t h e r s . D i r e c t s s e v e r a l s u b o r d i n a t e s u p e r v i s o r s
o r t e a m l e a d e r s , s o m e o f w h o m a r e in p o s i t i o n s c o m p a r a b l e to c h e m i s t V I; o r , as i n d i ­
v id u a l r e s e a r c h e r and c o n s u lt a n t , m a y b e a s s i s t e d on in d iv i d u a l p r o j e c t s b y o t h e r c h e m i s t s
and t e c h n i c i a n s .
C h e m i s t VIII
G e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . M a k e s d e c i s i o n s and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s that a r e a u t h o r it a t iv e
and h a v e a f a r - r e a c h i n g i m p a c t on e x t e n s i v e c h e m i c a l and r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s o f the c o m p a n y .
N e g o t i a t e s c r i t i c a l and c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s w ith to p l e v e l c h e m i s t s and o f f i c e r s o f o t h e r
o r g a n i z a t i o n s an d c o m p a n i e s .
I n d iv id u a ls at th is l e v e l h a v e d e m o n s t r a t e d a h ig h d e g r e e o f
c r e a t i v i t y , f o r e s i g h t , and m a t u r e ju d g m e n t in p la n n in g , o r g a n i z i n g , and g u id in g e x t e n s i v e
c h e m i c a l p r o g r a m s and a c t i v i t i e s o f o u ts ta n d in g n o v e l t y and i m p o r t a n c e .
D irection r e c e iv e d .

R e ce iv e s

general adm inistrative d irection .

T y p i c a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .

(O ne o r b o th o f the f o l l o w i n g . )

(1)
In a s u p e r v i s o r y c a p a c i t y i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r (a) the e n t i r e c h e m i c a l p r o g r a m o f
a c o m p a n y w h i c h i s o f m o d e r a t e s c o p e , ~or (b) an i m p o r t a n t s e g m e n t o f a c h e m i c a l p r o ­
g r a m o f a c o m p a n y w ith v e r y e x t e n s i v e and h ig h ly d i v e r s i f i e d s c i e n t i f i c r e q u i r e m e n t s ,
w h e r e p r o g r a m s a r e o f s u ch c o m p l e x i t y and s c o p e that th e y a r e o f c r i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e
to o v e r a l l o p e r a t i o n s and in c l u d e p r o b l e m s o f e x t r a o r d i n a r y d i f f i c u l t y that h a v e r e s i s t e d
solu tion .
D e c i d e s the kind and exte n t o f c h e m i c a l p r o g r a m s n e e d e d to a c c o m p l i s h the
o b j e c t i v e s o f the c o m p a n y , f o r c h o o s i n g the s c i e n t i f i c a p p r o a c h e s , f o r p la n n in g and
o r g a n i z i n g f a c i l i t i e s and p r o g r a m s , and f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g r e s u l t s .
(Z)
A s in d iv i d u a l r e s e a r c h e r and c o n s u lt a n t f o r m u l a t e s and g u id e s the a t t a c k on
p r o b l e m s o f e x c e p t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t y and m a r k e d i m p o r t a n c e to th e c o m p a n y a n d / o r i n ­
dustry.
P r o b l e m s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y the l a c k o f s c i e n t i f i c p r e c e d e n t s and s o u r c e
m a t e r i a l s , o r the l a c k o f s u c c e s s o f p r i o r r e s e a r c h and a n a l y s i s so that t h e i r s o lu t i o n
w o u l d r e p r e s e n t an a d v a n c e o f g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e and i m p o r t a n c e .
P e r fo r m s a d v isory
a n d c o n s u lt i n g w o r k f o r the c o m p a n y a s a r e c o g n i z e d a u t h o r it y f o r b r o a d p r o g r a m a r e a s
o f c o n s i d e r a b l e n o v e lt y and i m p o r t a n c e . H a s m a d e c o n t r i b u t i o n s s u c h a s n e w p r o d u c t s
o r tech n iq u es, d evelop m en t o f p r o c e s s e s , e t c . , w h ich a r e r e g a r d e d as m a jo r a d va n ces
in the f i e l d .
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the d i r e c t i o n o f o t h e r s .
S u p e rv is e s s e v e r a l su bordin ate s u p e r ­
v i s o r s o r t e a m l e a d e r s s o m e o f w h o s e p o s i t i o n s a r e c o m p a r a b l e to c h e m i s t YII o r in d iv i d u a l
r e s e a r c h e r s s o m e o f w h o s e p o s i t i o n s a r e c o m p a r a b l e to c h e m i s t VII a n d s o m e t i m e s c h e m i s t
VIII. A s an in d iv i d u a l r e s e a r c h e r and c o n s u lt a n t m a y b e a s s i s t e d on in d iv i d u a l p r o j e c t s b y
other ch e m ists o r tech n ician s.




65

C H E M I S T — C o n t in u e d
N O T E : In d iv id u a ls in c h a r g e o f a c o m p a n y 1s c h e m i c a l p r o g r a m m a y m a t c h any o f
s e v e r a l o f the s u r v e y j o b l e v e l s , d e p e n d in g on the s i z e and c o m p l e x i t y o f c h e m i c a l p r o ­
gram s.
E x c l u d e d f r o m l e v e l VIH a r e c h e m i s t s in c h a r g e o f p r o g r a m s so e x t e n s i v e and
c o m p l e x ( e . g. , c o n s i s t i n g o f h ig h ly d i v e r s i f i e d o r u n u s u a ll y n o v e l p r o d u c t s and p r o c e d u r e s )
that o n e o r m o r e s u b o r d in a t e s u p e r v i s o r y c h e m i s t s a r e p e r f o r m i n g at l e v e l VIH.
A lso
e x c l u d e d f r o m l e v e l VIII a r e in d iv i d u a l r e s e a r c h e r s and c o n s u l t a n t s w h o a r e r e c o g n i z e d as
n a t io n a l a n d / o r in t e r n a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s and s c i e n t i f i c l e a d e r s in v e r y b r o a d a r e a s o f s c i e n t i f i c
i n t e r e s t and i n v e s t i g a t i o n .
ENGINEER
P e r f o r m s p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k in r e s e a r c h , d e v e l o p m e n t , d e s i g n , t e s t i n g , a n a l y s i s ,
p r o d u c t i o n , c o n s t r u c t i o n , m a i n t e n a n c e , o p e r a t i o n , p la n n in g , s u r v e y , e s t i m a t i n g , a p p l i c a t i o n ,
o r stan d ard ization o f en g in eerin g fa c ilit ie s ,
s y s t e m s , s t r u c t u r e s , p r o c e s s e s , e q u ip m e n t
d e v i c e s , o r m a t e r i a l s r e q u i r i n g k n o w l e d g e o f the s c i e n c e and a r t b y w h i c h m a t e r i a l s , n a tu ra l
r e s o u r c e s , and p o w e r a r e m a d e u s e f u l .
W o rk t y p i c a l l y r e q u i r e s a B . S. d e g r e e in e n g i ­
n e e r i n g o r the e q u iv a le n t in c o m b i n e d e d u c a t io n and e x p e r i e n c e . ( E x c l u d e d a r e : S a fety e n g i ­
n e e r s , in d u s t r i a l e n g i n e e r s , q u a lit y c o n t r o l e n g i n e e r s , s a l e s e n g i n e e r s , and e n g i n e e r s w h o s e
p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y is to b e in c h a r g e o f n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l m a i n t e n a n c e w o r k . )
E ngineer I
G eneral ch a ra cte ristics.
T h i s is the e n t r y l e v e l o f p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k r e q u i r i n g a
b a c h e l o r s d e g r e e in e n g i n e e r i n g and no e x p e r i e n c e , o r the e q u iv a le n t (to a d e g r e e ) in a p ­
p r o p r i a t e e d u c a t i o n and e x p e r i e n c e . P e r f o r m s a s s i g n m e n t s d e s i g n e d to d e v e l o p p r o f e s s i o n a l
w o r k k n o w l e d g e s and a b i l i t i e s . M a y a l s o r e c e i v e f o r m a l c l a s s r o o m o r s e m i n a r ty p e t r a i n i n g .
(T e rm in a l p osition s a re e x clu d e d .)
D i r e c t i o n r e c e i v e d . W o r k s u n d e r c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n . R e c e i v e s s p e c i f i c and d e t a i l e d
i n s t r u c t i o n s as to r e q u i r e d t a s k s and r e s u l t s e x p e c t e d .
W o r k is c h e c k e d d u rin g p r o g r e s s ,
and i s r e v i e w e d f o r a c c u r a c y u p o n c o m p l e t i o n .
T y p i c a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .
P e r f o r m s a v a r i e t y o f r o u t in e t a s k s that a r e
p la n n e d to p r o v i d e e x p e r i e n c e an d f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n w ith the e n g i n e e r i n g s ta f f, m e t h o d s , p r a c ­
t i c e s , and p r o g r a m s o f th e c o m p a n y .
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the d i r e c t i o n o f o t h e r s .

U s u a l ly n o n e .

E n g i n e e r II
G eneral ch a ra cte ristics.
At th is c o n tin u in g d e v e l o p m e n t a l l e v e l , p e r f o r m s ro u tin e
e n g i n e e r i n g w o r k r e q u i r i n g a p p l i c a t i o n o f s t a n d a r d t e c h n i q u e s , p r o c e d u r e s , and c r i t e r i a in
c a r r y i n g out a s e q u e n c e o f r e l a t e d e n g i n e e r i n g t a s k s .
L i m i t e d e x e r c i s e o f j u d g m e n t is
r e q u i r e d o n d e t a i l s o f w o r k and in m a k in g p r e l i m i n a r y s e l e c t i o n s and a d a p ta tio n s o f e n g i ­
n eerin g a ltern a tiv es.
R e q u i r e s w o r k e x p e r i e n c e a c q u i r e d in an e n t r y l e v e l p o s i t i o n , o r
a p p r o p r i a t e g r a d u a t e l e v e l s tu d y .
F o r tr a in in g and d e v e l o p m e n t a l p u r p o s e s , a s s i g n m e n t s
m a y in c l u d e s o m e w o r k that i s t y p i c a l o f a h i g h e r l e v e l . ( T e r m i n a l p o s i t i o n s a r e e x c l u d e d . )
D irection receiv ed .
S u p e r v i s o r s c r e e n s a s s i g n m e n t s f o r u n u su a l o r d i f f i c u l t p r o b ­
l e m s and s e l e c t s t e c h n i q u e s and p r o c e d u r e s to b e a p p l i e d on n o n r o u t i n e w o r k .
R eceiv es
c l o s e s u p e r v is io n on new a s p e c ts o f a s s ig n m e n ts .
T y p i c a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .
U sin g p r e s c r i b e d m e t h o d s , p e r f o r m s s p e c i f i c
and l i m i t e d p o r t i o n s o f a b r o a d e r a s s i g n m e n t o f an e x p e r i e n c e d e n g i n e e r . A p p l i e s s ta n d a r d
p r a c t i c e s and t e c h n i q u e s in s p e c i f i c s it u a t i o n s , a d ju s t s and c o r r e l a t e s d a ta , r e c o g n i z e s d i s ­
c r e p a n c i e s in r e s u l t s , and f o l l o w s o p e r a t i o n s th r o u g h a s e r i e s o f r e l a t e d d e t a i l e d s te p s o r
processes.
R esp on sib ility
tech n ician s.




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E N G I N E E R — C o n t in u e d
E n g i n e e r III
G eneral ch a ra cte ris tics .
I n d e p e n d e n tly e v a l u a t e s , s e l e c t s , and a p p l i e s s t a n d a r d
e n g i n e e r i n g t e c h n i q u e s , p r o c e d u r e s , and c r i t e r i a , u s in g ju d g m e n t in m a k in g m i n o r a d a p t a ­
t i o n s and m o d i f i c a t i o n s .
A s s i g n m e n t s h a v e c l e a r and s p e c i f i e d o b j e c t i v e s and r e q u i r e the
i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f a l i m i t e d n u m b e r o f v a r i a b l e s . P e r f o r m a n c e at th is l e v e l r e q u i r e s d e v e l o p ­
m e n t a l e x p e r i e n c e in a p r o f e s s i o n a l p o s i t i o n , o r e q u iv a le n t g r a d u a t e l e v e l e d u c a t i o n .
D ir e c tio n r e c e i v e d . R e c e iv e s in stru ctio n s on s p e c ific a ssig n m e n t o b je c t iv e s , c o m ­
p l e x f e a t u r e s , and p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s .
A s s i s t a n c e is f u r n i s h e d on u n u su a l p r o b l e m s and
w o r k is r e v ie w e d fo r a p p lica tio n o f sound p r o fe s s i o n a l ju d g m e n t.
T y p i c a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .
P e r f o r m s w o r k which in v o lv e s con ven tion a l
t y p e s o f p l a n s , i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , s u r v e y s , s t r u c t u r e s , o r e q u ip m e n t w ith r e l a t i v e l y f e w c o m ­
p l e x f e a t u r e s f o r w h i c h t h e r e a r e p r e c e d e n t s . A s s i g n m e n t s u s u a l l y in c l u d e on e o r m o r e o f
the f o l l o w i n g :
E q u i p m e n t d e s i g n and d e v e l o p m e n t , t e s t o f m a t e r i a l s , p r e p a r a t i o n o f s p e c i ­
f i c a t i o n s , p r o c e s s stu d y , r e s e a r c h i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , r e p o r t p r e p a r a t i o n , and o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s
o f l i m i t e d s c o p e r e q u i r i n g k n o w l e d g e o f p r i n c i p l e s and t e c h n i q u e s c o m m o n l y e m p l o y e d in the
sp e cific n a rrow area of assign m en ts.

of

R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the d i r e c t i o n o f o t h e r s .
M a y s u p e r v i s e o r c o o r d i n a t e the w o r k
d r a f t s m e n , t e c h n i c i a n s , and o t h e r s w h o a s s i s t in s p e c i f i c a s s i g n m e n t s .
E n g i n e e r IV

G e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A s a fu ll y c o m p e t e n t e n g i n e e r in a l l c o n v e n t i o n a l a s p e c t s
o f the s u b j e c t - m a t t e r o r th e f u n c t io n a l a r e a o f the a s s i g n m e n t s , p la n s and c o n d u c t s w o r k
r e q u i r i n g j u d g m e n t in the in d e p e n d e n t e v a lu a t i o n , s e l e c t i o n , and s u b s t a n t ia l a d a p ta tio n and
m o d i f i c a t i o n o f s t a n d a r d t e c h n i q u e s , p r o c e d u r e s , and c r i t e r i a .
D e v ise s new a p p ro a ch e s
to p r o b l e m s e n c o u n t e r e d . R e q u i r e s s u f f i c i e n t p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e to a s s u r e c o m p e t e n c e
a s a fu ll y t r a i n e d w o r k e r ; o r , f o r p o s i t i o n s p r i m a r i l y o f a r e s e a r c h n a t u r e , c o m p l e t i o n o f a ll
r e q u ir e m e n ts fo r a d o c t o r a l d e g r e e m a y be substituted fo r e x p e r ie n c e .
D i r e c t i o n r e c e i v e d . I n d e p e n d e n t l y p e r f o r m s m o s t a s s i g n m e n t s w ith i n s t r u c t i o n s as
to the g e n e r a l r e s u l t s e x p e c t e d .
R e c e i v e s t e c h n i c a l g u id a n c e on u n u su a l o r c o m p l e x p r o b ­
l e m s and s u p e r v i s o r y a p p r o v a l on p r o p o s e d p la n s f o r p r o j e c t s .
T y p i c a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .
P lan s, sch ed u les, con d u cts, o r coord in a tes
d e t a i l e d p h a s e s o f the e n g i n e e r i n g w o r k in a p a r t o f a m a j o r p r o j e c t o r in a to t a l p r o j e c t
of m oderate scop e.
P e r f o r m s w o r k w h i c h i n v o l v e s c o n v e n t i o n a l e n g i n e e r i n g p r a c t i c e but
m a y in clude a v a r ie t y o f c o m p l e x fe a tu r e s such as c o n flictin g d e s ig n r e q u ir e m e n t s , u n su ita ­
b i l i t y o f s t a n d a r d m a t e r i a l s , and d i f f i c u l t c o o r d i n a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s . W o r k r e q u i r e s a b r o a d
k n o w l e d g e o f p r e c e d e n t s in the s p e c i a l t y a r e a and a g o o d k n o w l e d g e o f p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c ­
t ic e s o f rela ted s p e c ia ltie s .
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r th e d i r e c t i o n o f o t h e r s .
n icia n s on a s s ig n e d w o rk .

May

su p erv ise

a fe w e n g i n e e r s

or tech ­

E ngineer V
G e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A p p l i e s i n t e n s i v e and d i v e r s i f i e d k n o w l e d g e o f e n g i n e e r i n g
p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s in b r o a d a r e a s o f a s s i g n m e n t s and r e l a t e d f i e l d s . M a k e s d e c i s i o n s
i n d e p e n d e n t l y on e n g i n e e r i n g p r o b l e m s and m e t h o d s , and r e p r e s e n t s the o r g a n i z a t i o n in c o n ­
f e r e n c e s to r e s o l v e i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s and to p la n and c o o r d i n a t e w o r k . R e q u i r e s th e u s e
o f a d v a n c e d t e c h n i q u e s and the m o d i f i c a t i o n and e x t e n s i o n o f t h e o r i e s , p r e c e p t s an d p r a c ­
t i c e s o f h is f i e l d and r e l a t e d s c i e n c e s and d i s c i p l i n e s . T h e k n o w l e d g e and e x p e r t i s e r e q u i r e d
f o r t h is l e v e l o f w o r k u s u a l l y r e s u l t s f r o m p r o g r e s s i v e e x p e r i e n c e , in c l u d i n g w o r k c o m p a r a b l e
to e n g i n e e r I V .
D i r e c t i o n r e c e i v e d . S u p e r v i s i o n and g u id a n c e r e l a t e s l a r g e l y to o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e s ,
c r i t i c a l i s s u e s , n e w c o n c e p t s , and p o l i c y m a t t e r s .
C o n s u l t s w ith s u p e r v i s o r c o n c e r n i n g
u n u s u a l p r o b l e m s and d e v e l o p m e n t s .




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E N G I N E E R — C o n t in u e d
T y p i c a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .

(O ne o r m o r e

o f the f o l l o w i n g . )

(1)
In a s u p e r v i s o r y c a p a c i t y p l a n s , d e v e l o p s , c o o r d i n a t e s , and d i r e c t s a l a r g e
and i m p o r t a n t e n g i n e e r i n g p r o j e c t o r a n u m b e r o f s m a l l p r o j e c t s w ith m a n y c o m p l e x
f e a t u r e s . A s u b s ta n tia l p o r t i o n o f the w o r k s u p e r v i s e d i s c o m p a r a b l e to that d e s c r i b e d
fo r en g in eer IV.
(2)
A s in d iv i d u a l r e s e a r c h e r o r w o r k e r c a r r i e s out c o m p l e x o r n o v e l a s s i g n m e n t s
r e q u i r i n g the d e v e l o p m e n t o f n e w o r i m p r o v e d t e c h n i q u e s and p r o c e d u r e s . W o r k i s e x ­
p e c t e d to r e s u l t in the d e v e l o p m e n t o f n ew o r r e f i n e d e q u ip m e n t , m a t e r i a l s , p r o c e s s e s ,
p ro d u cts, a n d /o r scien tific m ethod s.
(3)
A s s ta f f s p e c i a l i s t d e v e l o p s and e v a l u a t e s p la n s and c r i t e r i a f o r a v a r i e t y o f
p r o j e c t s an d a c t i v i t i e s to b e c a r r i e d out b y o t h e r s . A s s e s s e s the f e a s i b i l i t y and s o u n d ­
n e s s o f p r o p o s e d e n g i n e e r i n g e v a lu a t i o n t e s t s , p r o d u c t s , o r e q u ip m e n t w h en n e c e s s a r y
data a r e i n s u f f i c i e n t o r c o n f i r m a t i o n b y t e s t in g i s a d v i s a b l e .
U s u a l ly p e r f o r m s a s a
s ta f f a d v i s o r and c o n s u lt a n t a s to a t e c h n i c a l s p e c i a l t y , a ty p e o f f a c i l i t y o r e q u ip m e n t ,
o r a p r o g r a m f u n c t io n .
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the d i r e c t i o n o f o t h e r s .
S u p e r v i s e s , c o o r d i n a t e s , and r e v i e w s
the w o r k o f a s m a l l s t a f f o f e n g i n e e r s and t e c h n i c i a n s ; e s t i m a t e s m a n p o w e r n e e d s and s c h e d ­
u l e s and a s s i g n s w o r k to m e e t c o m p l e t i o n d a te . O r , a s in d iv i d u a l r e s e a r c h e r o r s t a f f s p e ­
c ia lis t m a y be a s s is t e d on p r o je c t s b y o th e r e n g in e e r s o r te c h n ic ia n s .
E n g i n e e r VI
G e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . H a s fu ll t e c h n i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g , o r g a n i z ­
in g , e x e c u t i n g , and c o o r d i n a t i n g a s s i g n m e n t s . P la n s and d e v e l o p s e n g i n e e r i n g p r o j e c t s c o n ­
c e r n e d w ith u nique o r c o n t r o v e r s i a l p r o b l e m s w h i c h h a v e an i m p o r t a n t e f f e c t on m a j o r c o m ­
p an y p r o g r a m s . T h i s i n v o l v e s e x p l o r a t i o n o f s u b j e c t a r e a , d e f i n i t i o n o f s c o p e and s e l e c t i o n
o f p r o b l e m s f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n , an d d e v e l o p m e n t o f n o v e l c o n c e p t s and a p p r o a c h e s . M a in ta in s
l i a i s o n w ith in d iv i d u a l s and u nits w ith in o r o u t s i d e h is o r g a n i z a t i o n w ith r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r
a c tin g in d e p e n d e n t l y on t e c h n i c a l m a t t e r s p e r t a i n i n g to h is f i e l d . W o r k at th is l e v e l u s u a l l y
r e q u i r e s e x t e n s i v e p r o g r e s s i v e e x p e r i e n c e in c l u d i n g w o r k c o m p a r a b l e to e n g i n e e r V .
D i r e c t i o n r e c e i v e d . S u p e r v i s i o n r e c e i v e d i s e s s e n t i a l l y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , w ith a s s i g n ­
m e n t s g iv e n in t e r m s o f b r o a d g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e s and l i m i t s .
T y p i c a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .

(One o r

m o r e o f the f o l l o w i n g . )

(1)
In a s u p e r v i s o r y c a p a c i t y (a) p l a n s , d e v e l o p s , c o o r d i n a t e s , and d i r e c t s a n u m ­
b e r o f l a r g e and i m p o r t a n t p r o j e c t s o r a p r o j e c t o f m a j o r s c o p e and i m p o r t a n c e , o r
(b) i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the e n t i r e e n g i n e e r i n g p r o g r a m o f a c o m p a n y w h e n the p r o g r a m
i s o f l i m i t e d c o m p l e x i t y and s c o p e . T h e ex te n t o f h is r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r e
a fe w (3 to 5) s u b o r d i n a t e s u p e r v i s o r s o r t e a m l e a d e r s w ith at l e a s t on e in a p o s i t i o n
c o m p a r a b l e to l e v e l V .
(2)
A s in d iv i d u a l r e s e a r c h e r o r w o r k e r c o n c e i v e s , p l a n s , and c o n d u c t s r e s e a r c h in
p r o b l e m a r e a s o f c o n s i d e r a b l e s c o p e an d c o m p l e x i t y . T h e p r o b l e m s m u s t b e a p p r o a c h e d
t h r o u g h a s e r i e s o f c o m p l e t e and c o n c e p t u a l l y r e l a t e d s t u d i e s , a r e d i f f i c u l t to d e f i n e , r e ­
q u i r e u n c o n v e n t i o n a l o r n o v e l a p p r o a c h e s ; and r e q u i r e s o p h i s t i c a t e d r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s .
A v a i l a b l e g u id e s and p r e c e d e n t s c o n t a in c r i t i c a l g a p s , a r e o n ly p a r t i a l l y r e l a t e d to the
p r o b l e m , o r m a y b e l a r g e l y l a c k i n g due to the n o v e l c h a r a c t e r o f the p r o j e c t . At th is
l e v e l , the in d iv i d u a l r e s e a r c h e r g e n e r a l l y w i l l h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d i n v e n t i o n s , n e w d e s i g n s ,
o r t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h a r e o f m a t e r i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e in the s o l u t i o n o f i m p o r t a n t p r o b l e m s .
(3)
A s a s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t s e r v e s a s the t e c h n i c a l s p e c i a l i s t f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n
( d i v i s i o n o r c o m p a n y ) in the a p p l i c a t i o n o f a d v a n c e d t h e o r i e s , c o n c e p t s , p r i n c i p l e s , and
p r o c e s s e s f o r an a s s i g n e d a r e a o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y (i. e . , s u b j e c t m a t t e r , f u n c t io n , ty p e
o f f a c i l i t y o r e q u ip m e n t , o r p r o d u c t ) . K e e p s a b r e a s t o f n ew s c i e n t i f i c m e t h o d s and d e ­
v e l o p m e n t s a f f e c t i n g h is o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r the p u r p o s e o f r e c o m m e n d i n g c h a n g e s in e m ­
p h a s i s o f p r o g r a m s o r n ew p r o g r a m s w a r r a n t e d b y s u c h d e v e l o p m e n t s .




68

E N G I N E E R — C o n t in u e d
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r th e d i r e c t i o n o f o t h e r s .
P l a n s , o r g a n i z e s , and s u p e r v i s e s the
w o r k o f a s t a f f o f e n g i n e e r s and t e c h n i c i a n s .
E v a l u a t e s p r o g r e s s o f the s ta f f and r e s u l t s
o b t a i n e d , and r e c o m m e n d s m a j o r c h a n g e s to a c h i e v e o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e s .
O r , a s in d iv i d u a l
r e s e a r c h e r o r s ta f f s p e c i a l i s t m a y b e a s s i s t e d on i n d iv i d u a l p r o j e c t s b y o t h e r e n g i n e e r s o r
tech n icia n s.
E n g i n e e r VII
G e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . M a k e s d e c i s i o n s a n d r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s that a r e r e c o g n i z e d
a s a u t h o r i t a t i v e and h a v e an i m p o r t a n t i m p a c t o n e x t e n s i v e e n g i n e e r i n g a c t i v i t i e s . I n it ia t e s
and m a i n t a i n s e x t e n s i v e c o n t a c t s w ith k e y e n g i n e e r s and o f f i c i a l s o f o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s and
c o m p a n i e s , r e q u i r i n g s k i l l in p e r s u a s i o n and n e g o t i a t i o n o f c r i t i c a l i s s u e s .
A t th is l e v e l
in d i v i d u a l s w i l l h a v e d e m o n s t r a t e d c r e a t i v i t y , f o r e s i g h t , and m a t u r e e n g i n e e r i n g ju d g m e n t
in a n t ic i p a t in g and s o lv i n g u n p r e c e d e n t e d e n g i n e e r i n g p r o b l e m s , d e t e r m i n i n g p r o g r a m o b ­
j e c t i v e s and r e q u i r e m e n t s , o r g a n i z i n g p r o g r a m s and p r o j e c t s , and d e v e l o p i n g s t a n d a r d s and
g u id e s f o r d i v e r s e e n g i n e e r i n g a c t i v i t i e s .
D irection r e c e iv e d .

R e c e iv e s gen eral adm in istrative d ire ctio n .

T y p i c a l d u tie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .

(O ne o r b o t h o f the f o l l o w i n g . )

(1)
In a s u p e r v i s o r y c a p a c i t y i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r (a) an i m p o r t a n t s e g m e n t o f the
e n g i n e e r i n g p r o g r a m o f a c o m p a n y w ith e x t e n s i v e and d i v e r s i f i e d e n g i n e e r i n g r e q u i r e ­
m e n t s , o r (b) th e e n t i r e e n g i n e e r i n g p r o g r a m o f a c o m p a n y w h e n it i s m o r e l i m i t e d in
s c o p e . T h e o v e r a l l e n g i n e e r i n g p r o g r a m c o n t a i n s c r i t i c a l p r o b l e m s the s o lu t i o n o f w h i c h
r e q u i r e s m a j o r t e c h n o l o g i c a l a d v a n c e s and o p e n s the w a y f o r e x t e n s i v e r e l a t e d d e v e l o p ­
m e n t . T h e e x ten t o f h is r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s g e n e r a l l y r e q u i r e s e v e r a l s u b o r d i n a t e o r g a n i ­
zational seg m en ts o r te a m s .
R e c o m m e n d s f a c i l i t i e s , p e r s o n n e l , and fu n d s r e q u i r e d to
c a r r y out p r o g r a m s w h i c h a r e d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d w ith and d i r e c t e d t o w a r d f u l f i l l m e n t o f
o v e ra ll com pany ob je ctiv e s.
(2)
A s in d iv i d u a l r e s e a r c h e r and c o n s u lt a n t i s a r e c o g n i z e d l e a d e r an d a u t h o r it y
in h is c o m p a n y in a b r o a d a r e a o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o r in a n a r r o w but i n t e n s e l y s p e c i a l i z e d
field .
S e l e c t s r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m s to f u r t h e r th e c o m p a n y ' s o b j e c t i v e s .
C o n c e i v e s and
p la n s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f b r o a d a r e a s o f c o n s i d e r a b l e n o v e l t y and i m p o r t a n c e f o r w h i c h
e n g i n e e r i n g p r e c e d e n t s a r e la c k i n g in a r e a s c r i t i c a l to the o v e r a l l e n g i n e e r i n g p r o g r a m .
I s c o n s u l t e d e x t e n s i v e l y b y a s s o c i a t e s and o t h e r s w ith a h ig h d e g r e e o f r e l i a n c e p l a c e d
o n h is s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and a d v i c e . T y p i c a l l y , w i l l h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d in v e n t i o n s ,
n e w d e s i g n s , o r t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h a r e r e g a r d e d a s m a j o r a d v a n c e s in the f i e l d .
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the d i r e c t i o n o f o t h e r s . D i r e c t s s e v e r a l s u b o r d i n a t e s u p e r v i s o r s
o r t e a m l e a d e r s , s o m e o f w h o m a r e in p o s i t i o n s c o m p a r a b l e to e n g i n e e r VI; o r , a s i n d i ­
v id u a l r e s e a r c h e r and c o n s u lt a n t , m a y b e a s s i s t e d o n in d iv i d u a l p r o j e c t s b y o t h e r e n g i n e e r s
and t e c h n i c i a n s .
E n g i n e e r VIII
G e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . M a k e s d e c i s i o n s and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s that a r e r e c o g n i z e d
a s a u t h o r it a t iv e and h a v e a f a r - r e a c h i n g i m p a c t on e x t e n s i v e e n g i n e e r i n g and r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s
o f the c o m p a n y .
N e g o t i a t e s c r i t i c a l and c o n t r o v e r s i a l i s s u e s w ith to p l e v e l e n g i n e e r s and
o f f i c e r s o f o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s and c o m p a n i e s . I n d iv id u a ls at th is l e v e l d e m o n s t r a t e a h ig h
degree
o f c r e a t i v i t y , f o r e s i g h t , and m a t u r e ju d g m e n t in p la n n in g , o r g a n i z i n g , a n d gu id in g
e x t e n s i v e e n g i n e e r i n g p r o g r a m s and a c t i v i t i e s o f ou ts ta n d in g n o v e l t y and i m p o r t a n c e .
D irection r e c e iv e d .

R e ce iv e s

general adm inistrative d irection .

T y p i c a l du t ie s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .

(O ne o r b o th o f the f o l l o w i n g . )

(l)
In a s u p e r v i s o r y c a p a c i t y i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r (a) an i m p o r t a n t s e g m e n t o f a v e r y
e x t e n s i v e and h ig h ly d i v e r s i f i e d e n g i n e e r i n g p r o g r a m o f a c o m p a n y , o r (b) the e n t i r e
e n g i n e e r i n g p r o g r a m o f a c o m p a n y w h e n the p r o g r a m i s o f m o d e r a t e s c o p e . T h e p r o ­
g r a m s a r e o f s u c h c o m p l e x i t y and s c o p e that th ey a r e o f c r i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e to o v e r a l l
o b j e c t i v e s , i n c l u d e p r o b l e m s o f e x t r a o r d i n a r y d i f f i c u l t y that o ft e n h a v e r e s i s t e d s o lu t i o n ,
a n d c o n s i s t o f s e v e r a l s e g m e n t s r e q u i r i n g s u b o r d i n a t e s u p e r v i s o r s . Is r e s p o n s i b l e f o r




E N G I N E E R — C o n t in u e d
d e c i d i n g the kind and e x ten t o f e n g i n e e r i n g and r e l a t e d p r o g r a m s n e e d e d to a c c o m p l i s h
the o b j e c t i v e s o f the c o m p a n y , f o r c h o o s i n g the s c i e n t i f i c a p p r o a c h e s , f o r p la n n in g and
o r g a n i z i n g f a c i l i t i e s and p r o g r a m s , and f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g r e s u l t s .
(2) A s in d iv i d u a l r e s e a r c h e r and c o n s u lt a n t f o r m u l a t e s and g u id e s the a t t a c k o n p r o b ­
l e m s o f e x c e p t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t y and m a r k e d i m p o r t a n c e to th e c o m p a n y o r i n d u s t r y . P r o b ­
l e m s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y t h e i r l a c k o f s c i e n t i f i c p r e c e d e n t s and s o u r c e m a t e r i a l , o r
l a c k o f s u c c e s s o f p r i o r r e s e a r c h and a n a l y s i s s o that t h e i r s o l u t i o n w o u l d r e p r e s e n t an
a d v a n c e o f g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e and i m p o r t a n c e .
P e r f o r m s a d v i s o r y and c o n s u lt i n g w o r k
f o r the c o m p a n y a s a r e c o g n i z e d a u t h o r it y f o r b r o a d p r o g r a m a r e a s o r in an in t e n s e l y
s p e c i a l i z e d a r e a o f c o n s i d e r a b l e n o v e l t y and i m p o r t a n c e .
R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the d i r e c t i o n o f o t h e r s .
S u p e r v i s e s s e v e r a l s u b o r d in a t e s u p e r ­
v i s o r s o r t e a m l e a d e r s s o m e o f w h o s e p o s i t i o n s a r e c o m p a r a b l e to e n g i n e e r VII, o r i n d i ­
v id u a l r e s e a r c h e r s s o m e o f w h o s e p o s i t i o n s a r e c o m p a r a b l e to e n g i n e e r VII and s o m e t i m e s
e n g i n e e r VIII.
A s an in d iv id u a l r e s e a r c h e r and c o n s u lt a n t m a y b e a s s i s t e d on in d iv i d u a l
p r o je c t s by other e n g in eers o r te ch n icia n s.
N O T E : I n d iv id u a ls in c h a r g e o f a c o m p a n y ' s e n g i n e e r i n g p r o g r a m m a y m a t c h any
o f s e v e r a l o f the s u r v e y j o b l e v e l s d e p e n d in g on the s i z e and c o m p l e x i t y o f e n g i n e e r i n g p r o ­
gram s.
E x c l u d e d f r o m l e v e l VIII a r e e n g i n e e r s in c h a r g e o f p r o g r a m s so e x t e n s i v e and
c o m p l e x ( e . g . , c o n s i s t i n g o f r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t on a v a r i e t y o f c o m p l e x p r o d u c t s o r
s y s t e m s w ith n u m e r o u s n o v e l c o m p o n e n t s ) that o n e o r m o r e s u b o r d i n a t e s u p e r v i s o r y e n g i ­
n e e r s a r e p e r f o r m i n g at l e v e l VIII. A l s o e x c l u d e d f r o m l e v e l VIII a r e i n d iv i d u a l r e s e a r c h e r s
and c o n s u lt a n t s w h o a r e r e c o g n i z e d a s n a tio n a l a n d / o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s a n d s c i e n t i f i c
l e a d e r s in v e r y b r o a d a r e a s o f s c i e n t i f i c i n t e r e s t and i n v e s t i g a t i o n .

E N G I N E E R IN G T E C H N IC IA N S

E N G I N E E R IN G T E C H N I C IA N
T o b e c o v e r e d b y t h e s e d e f i n i t i o n s , e m p l o y e e s m u s t m e e t a l l o f the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a ;

as

( 1 ) P r o v i d e s s e m i p r o f e s s i o n a l t e c h n i c a l s u p p o r t f o r e n g i n e e r s w o r k i n g in s u c h a r e a s
r e s e a r c h , d e s i g n , d e v e l o p m e n t , te s t in g o r m a n u f a c t u r i n g p r o c e s s i m p r o v e m e n t .
(2)

W o r k p e r t a i n s to e l e c t r i c a l , e l e c t r o n i c , o r m e c h a n i c a l c o m p o n e n t s o r e q u ip m e n t .

(3)

R e q u i r e d to h a v e s o m e k n o w l e d g e o f s c i e n c e o r

(E x clu d es p rod u ction o r m aintenan ce w o r k e r s ,
d r a f t s m e n , d e s i g n e r s , and e n g i n e e r s . )

en gin eerin g.

q u a lit y

control

testers,

craftsm en ,

E ngineering T e ch n icia n I
P e r f o r m s s i m p l e r o u t in e ta s k s u n d e r c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n o r f r o m d e t a i l e d p r o c e d u r e s .
W o r k is c h e c k e d in p r o c e s s o r on c o m p l e t i o n .
P e r f o r m s at th is l e v e l , on e o r a c o m b i n a ­
tio n o f s u c h t y p i c a l d u tie s a s :
A sse m b le s
con n ectin g.

o r in sta lls

equ ipm en t

o r parts req u irin g

sim p le

w irin g ,

so ld e rin g ,

or

P e r f o r m s s i m p l e o r r o u t in e ta s k s o r t e s t s s u c h a s t e n s i l e o r h a r d n e s s t e s t s ; o p ­
e r a t e s , and a d ju s t s s i m p l e t e s t e q u ip m e n t ; r e c o r d s t e s t d a ta .
G a t h e r s and m a i n t a i n s s p e c i f i e d r e c o r d s o f e n g i n e e r i n g d a ta s u c h as t e s t s , and
d r a w i n g s ; p e r f o r m s c o m p u t a t i o n s b y s u b s titu tin g n u m b e r s in s p e c i f i e d f o r m u l a s ; p lo t s
d a ta and d r a w s s i m p l e c u r v e s and g r a p h s .




70
E N G I N E E R IN G T E C H N I C IA N — C o n t in u e d

E n g i n e e r i n g T e c h n i c i a n II
P e r f o r m s s t a n d a r d i z e d o r p r e s c r i b e d a s s i g n m e n t s , i n v o lv i n g a s e q u e n c e o f r e l a t e d
operations.
F o llo w s standard w o r k m ethod s o r e x p licit in stru ction s; tech n ica l adequacy o f
r o u t in e w o r k is r e v i e w e d o n c o m p l e t i o n ; n o n r o u t i n e w o r k m a y a l s o b e r e v i e w e d in p r o c e s s .
P e r f o r m s at th is l e v e l , o n e o r a c o m b i n a t i o n o f s u c h t y p i c a l d u tie s a s :
A s s e m b l e s o r c o n s t r u c t s s i m p l e o r s t a n d a r d e q u ip m e n t o r p a r t s .
r e p a i r s i m p l e in s t r u m e n t s o r e q u ip m e n t .

May s e rv ice

C onducts a v a r ie ty o f sta n d a rd ized te sts; m a y p r e p a r e te st s p e c im e n s ;
o p e r a t e s s t a n d a r d t e s t e q u ip m e n t ; r e c o r d s t e s t d ata.
E x t r a c t s e n g i n e e r i n g d a ta f r o m v a r i o u s p r e s c r i b e d s o u r c e s ; p r o c e s s e s
lo w in g w e l l d e f i n e d m e t h o d s ; p r e s e n t s the d a ta in p r e s c r i b e d f o r m .

or

s e t s up and

the d ata f o l ­

E n g i n e e r i n g T e c h n i c i a n III
P e r f o r m s a s s i g n m e n t s that a r e n o t c o m p l e t e l y s t a n d a r d i z e d o r p r e s c r i b e d .
S elects
o r a dapts s t a n d a r d p r o c e d u r e s o r e q u ip m e n t .
R e c e i v e s in i t ia l i n s t r u c t i o n s , e q u i p m e n t r e ­
q u i r e m e n t s and a d v i c e f r o m s u p e r v i s o r o r e n g i n e e r ; t e c h n i c a l a d e q u a c y o f c o m p l e t e d w o r k
is c h e c k e d .
P e r f o r m s at this l e v e l , o n e o r a c o m b i n a t i o n o f s u c h t y p i c a l d u tie s a s :
C o n s t r u c t s c o m p o n e n t s , su b u n its o r s i m p l e m o d e l s
M a y t r o u b l e s h o o t and c o r r e c t m a l f u n c t i o n s .

or

ad a p ts

standard

equ ipm en t.

C o n d u c t s v a r i o u s t e s t s o r e x p e r i m e n t s w h i c h m a y r e q u i r e m i n o r m o d i f i c a t i o n s in
t e s t s e tu p s o r p r o c e d u r e s ; s e l e c t s , s e t s up and o p e r a t e s s t a n d a r d t e s t e q u i p m e n t and
r e c o r d s t e s t d a ta .
E x t r a c t s and c o m p i l e s a v a r i e t y o f e n g i n e e r i n g d ata; p r o c e s s e s o r c o m p u t e s d a ta
u s i n g s p e c i f i e d f o r m u l a s and p r o c e d u r e s .
P e r f o r m s r o u t in e a n a l y s i s to c h e c k a p p l i ­
c a b i l i t y , a c c u r a c y , and r e a s o n a b l e n e s s o f d a ta .
E n g i n e e r i n g T e c h n i c i a n IV
P e r f o r m s n o n r o u t i n e a s s i g n m e n t s o f s u b s t a n t ia l v a r i e t y and c o m p l e x i t y .
R e ce iv e s
o b j e c t i v e s and t e c h n i c a l a d v i c e f r o m s u p e r v i s o r o r e n g i n e e r ; w o r k is r e v i e w e d f o r t e c h n i c a l
adequacy.
M a y be a s s i s t e d b y l o w e r l e v e l t e c h n i c i a n s .
P e r f o r m s at th is l e v e l , o n e o r a
c o m b i n a t i o n o f s u c h t y p i c a l d u tie s a s :
W o r k s on l i m i t e d s e g m e n t o f d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t ; c o n s t r u c t s e x p e r i m e n t a l o r p r o ­
to t y p e m o d e l s to m e e t e n g i n e e r i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s ; c o n d u c t s t e s t s o r e x p e r i m e n t s ; r e c o r d s
and e v a l u a t e s data and r e p o r t s fi n d i n g s .
C o n d u c t s t e s t s o r e x p e r i m e n t s r e q u i r i n g s e l e c t i o n and a d a p ta tio n o r m o d i f i c a t i o n o f
t e s t e q u i p m e n t and t e s t p r o c e d u r e s ; s e t s up and o p e r a t e s e q u ip m e n t ; r e c o r d s d ata; a n a ­
l y z e s d a ta and p r e p a r e s t e s t r e p o r t s .
C o m p i l e s and c o m p u t e s a v a r i e t y o f e n g i n e e r i n g data; m a y a n a l y z e t e s t and d e s i g n
d a ta ; d e v e l o p s o r p r e p a r e s s c h e m a t i c s , d e s i g n s , s p e c i f i c a t i o n s , p a r t s l i s t s o r m a k e s
r e c o m m e n d a tio n s r e g a r d in g these it e m s .
M ay rev iew d esig n s o r sp e c ific a tio n s for
adequacy.
E ngineering T e ch n icia n V
P e r f o r m s n o n r o u t i n e and c o m p l e x a s s i g n m e n t s in v o lv i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p la n n in g
and c o n d u c t i n g a c o m p l e t e p r o j e c t o f r e l a t i v e l y l i m i t e d s c o p e o r a p o r t i o n o f a l a r g e r and
m o re d iv erse p ro je ct.
S e l e c t s and a d a p ts p l a n s , t e c h n i q u e s , d e s i g n s o r l a y o u t s .
M ay c o ­
o r d i n a t e p o r t i o n s o f o v e r a l l a s s i g n m e n t ; r e v i e w s , a n a l y z e s and i n t e g r a t e s the t e c h n i c a l w o r k




71
E N G I N E E R IN G T E C H N I C IA N — C o n t in u e d

of others.
S u p e r v i s o r o r p r o f e s s i o n a l e n g i n e e r o u t l i n e s o b j e c t i v e s , r e q u i r e m e n t s and d e s i g n
a p p r o a c h e s ; c o m p l e t e d w o r k is r e v i e w e d f o r t e c h n i c a l a d e q u a c y and s a t i s f a c t i o n o f r e q u i r e ­
m ents.
M ay be a s s is te d by lo w e r le v e l tech n icia n s.
P e r f o r m s at th is l e v e l , o n e o r a c o m ­
b in a t i o n o f s u c h t y p i c a l d u tie s a s ;
D e s i g n s , d e v e l o p s and c o n s t r u c t s m a j o r u n i t s , d e v i c e s o r e q u ip m e n t ; c o n d u c t s t e s t s
o r e x p e r i m e n t s ; a n a l y z e s r e s u l t s and r e d e s i g n s o r m o d i f i e s e q u ip m e n t to i m p r o v e p e r ­
form a n ce; rep orts resu lts.
P l a n s o r a s s i s t s in p la n n in g t e s t s to e v a lu a t e e q u ip m e n t p e r f o r m a n c e .
D eterm in es
t e s t r e q u i r e m e n t s , e q u ip m e n t m o d i f i c a t i o n and t e s t p r o c e d u r e s ; c o n d u c t s t e s t s , a n a l y z e s
and e v a lu a t e s d a ta and p r e p a r e s r e p o r t s on fi n d in g s and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s .
R e v i e w s and a n a l y z e s a v a r i e t y o f e n g i n e e r i n g d a ta to d e t e r m i n e r e q u i r e m e n t s to
m e e t e n g i n e e r i n g o b j e c t i v e s ; m a y c a l c u l a t e d e s i g n data; p r e p a r e s l a y o u t s , d e t a i l e d s p e c i ­
fica tio n s, parts lis ts , e stim a te s , p r o c e d u r e s , etc.
M a y c h e c k and a n a ly z e d r a w i n g s
o r e q u ip m e n t to d e t e r m i n e a d e q u a c y o f d r a w i n g s and d e s i g n .

DRAFTSMEN
D raftsm an -tracer
C o p i e s p la n s and d r a w i n g s p r e p a r e d b y o t h e r s b y p l a c i n g t r a c i n g c l o t h o r p a p e r
o v e r d r a w i n g s and t r a c i n g w ith p e n o r p e n c i l .
( D o e s n ot in c l u d e t r a c i n g l i m i t e d to p la n s
p r i m a r i l y c o n s i s t i n g o f s t r a i g h t li n e s and a l a r g e s c a l e n ot r e q u i r i n g c l o s e d e l i n e a t i o n . )
a n d /o r
P r e p a r e s sim p le o r rep etitiv e d raw ings o f e a sily v isu a liz ed ite m s.
v i s e d d u r in g p r o g r e s s .

W o r k is c l o s e l y

super­

D raftsm an I
P r e p a r e s d e t a i l d r a w i n g s o f s i n g l e units o r p a r t s f o r e n g i n e e r i n g , c o n s t r u c t i o n ,
m a n u fa ctu rin g, o r re p a ir p u r p o s e s .
T y p e s o f d r a w i n g s p r e p a r e d in c l u d e i s o m e t r i c p r o j e c ­
tio n s ( d e p i c t i n g t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s in a c c u r a t e s c a l e ) and s e c t i o n a l v i e w s t o c l a r i f y p o s i t i o n i n g
o f c o m p o n e n t s and c o n v e y n e e d e d i n f o r m a t i o n .
C on so lid a te s d eta ils f r o m a n u m b er of s o u r c e s
and a d ju s t s o r t r a n s p o s e s s c a l e as r e q u i r e d .
D r a f t s m a n II
P e r f o r m s n o n r o u t i n e and c o m p l e x d r a f t i n g a s s i g n m e n t s that r e q u i r e the a p p l i c a t i o n
o f m o s t o f the s t a n d a r d i z e d d r a w i n g t e c h n i q u e s r e g u l a r l y u s e d . D u tie s t y p i c a l l y i n v o l v e su c h
w o rk as;
P r e p a r e s w o r k i n g d r a w i n g s o f s u b a s s e m b l i e s w ith i r r e g u l a r s h a p e s , m u l t i p l e
f u n c t i o n s , and p r e c i s e p o s i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n c o m p o n e n t s ; p r e p a r e s a r c h i t e c t u r a l
d r a w i n g s f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a b u ild in g i n c l u d i n g d e t a i l d r a w i n g s o f f o u n d a t i o n s , w a l l s e c t i o n s ,
f l o o r p l a n s , and r o o f .
U s e s a c c e p t e d f o r m u l a s and m a n u a ls in m a k in g n e c e s s a r y c o m p u ­
ta t io n s to d e t e r m i n e q u a n t itie s o f m a t e r i a l s to b e u s e d , lo a d c a p a c i t i e s , s t r e n g t h s , s t r e s s e s ,
etc.
R e c e i v e s *in i t ia l i n s t r u c t i o n s , r e q u i r e m e n t s , and a d v i c e f r o m s u p e r v i s o r .
C om p leted
w o r k is c h e c k e d f o r t e c h n i c a l a d e q u a c y .
D r a f t s m a n III
P l a n s the g r a p h i c p r e s e n t a t i o n o f c o m p l e x i t e m s h a v in g d i s t i n c t i v e d e s i g n f e a t u r e s
that d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m e s t a b l i s h e d d r a f t i n g p r e c e d e n t s .
W o r k s in c l o s e s u p p o r t w ith
the d e s i g n o r i g i n a t o r , and m a y r e c o m m e n d m i n o r d e s i g n c h a n g e s .
A n a l y z e s the e f f e c t o f
e a c h ch a n g e o n the d e t a i l s o f f o r m , f u n c t i o n , and p o s i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f c o m p o n e n t s and
p arts.
W o rk s with a m in im u m o f s u p e r v is o r y a s s is t a n c e .
C o m p l e t e d w o r k is r e v i e w e d b y
d e s i g n o r i g i n a t o r f o r c o n s i s t e n c y w ith p r i o r e n g i n e e r i n g d e t e r m i n a t i o n s .
M ay eith er p r e p a r e
d r a w in g s , o r d i r e c t th eir p r e p a ra tio n by lo w e r le v e l d r a fts m e n .




72
C LE RICA L

CLERK,

A CCOUN TING

C le rk ,

A ccoun ting I

U n d e r s u p e r v i s i o n , p e r f o r m s o n e o r m o r e r o u t in e a c c o u n t i n g o p e r a t i o n s s u c h as
p o s t i n g s i m p l e j o u r n a l v o u c h e r s o r a c c o u n t s p a y a b le v o u c h e r s , e n t e r i n g v o u c h e r s in v o u c h e r
r e g i s t e r s ; r e c o n c i l i n g ba n k a c c o u n t s ; and p o s t i n g s u b s i d i a r y l e d g e r s c o n t r o l l e d b y g e n e r a l
l e d g e r s , o r p o s t i n g s i m p l e c o s t a c c o u n t i n g d a ta .
This jo b d o e s not r e q u ir e a k n ow led ge o f
a c c o u n t i n g and b o o k k e e p i n g p r i n c i p l e s , but is fo u n d in o f f i c e s in w h i c h the m o r e r o u t in e a c ­
co u n t in g w o r k is s u b d i v i d e d o n a f u n c t i o n a l b a s i s a m o n g s e v e r a l w o r k e r s .
C lerk ,

A c c o u n t i n g II

U n d e r g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n o f a b o o k k e e p e r o r a c c o u n t a n t , has r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r k e e p i n g
o n e o r m o r e s e c t i o n s o f a c o m p l e t e s e t o f b o o k s o r r e c o r d s r e l a t i n g to on e p h a s e o f an
e s t a b l i s h m e n t ' s b u s i n e s s t r a n s a c t i o n s . W o r k i n v o l v e s p o s t i n g and b a l a n c i n g s u b s i d i a r y l e d g e r
o r l e d g e r s s u c h as a c c o u n t s r e c e i v a b l e o r a c c o u n t s p a y a b l e ; e x a m i n i n g and c o d i n g i n v o i c e s
o r v o u c h e r s w ith p r o p e r a c c o u n t i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n ; r e q u i r e s j u d g m e n t and e x p e r i e n c e in m a k i n g
p r o p e r a s s i g n a t i o n s and a l l o c a t i o n s . M a y a s s i s t in p r e p a r i n g , a d ju s t i n g , and c l o s i n g j o u r n a l
e n t r i e s ; m a y d i r e c t a c c o u n t in g c l e r k s I.

CLERK,

F IL E

C lerk ,

F ile

I

P e r f o r m s r o u t in e fi lin g o f m a t e r i a l that h a s a l r e a d y b e e n c l a s s i f i e d o r w h i c h is
e a s i l y c l a s s i f i e d in a s i m p l e s e r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m ( e . g. , a l p h a b e t i c a l , c h r o n o l o g i c a l ,
or n u m erica l).
A s r e q u e s t e d , l o c a t e s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l in f i l e s and f o r w a r d s m a ­
t e r i a l ; m a y f i l l o u t w i t h d r a w a l c h a r g e . P e r f o r m s s i m p l e c l e r i c a l and m a n u a l ta s k s r e q u i r e d
to m a i n t a i n and s e r v i c e f i l e s .
C le rk ,

F i l e II

S o r t s , c o d e s , and f i l e s u n c l a s s i f i e d m a t e r i a l b y s i m p l e ( s u b j e c t m a t t e r ) h e a d in g s
o r partlyc la s s ifie d m a t e r ia l by
fin e r su bheadings.
P r e p a r e s s im p le re la t e d in dex
and
c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e a i d s . A s r e q u e s t e d , l o c a t e s c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d m a t e r i a l in f i l e s and f o r w a r d s
m a teria l.
M a y p e r f o r m r e l a t e d c l e r i c a l t a s k s r e q u i r e d to m a i n t a i n
and s e r v i c e f i l e s .
C lerk ,

F i l e III

In an e s t a b l i s h e d f i lin g s y s t e m c o n t a in i n g a n u m b e r o f v a r i e d s u b j e c t m a t t e r f i l e s ,
c l a s s i f i e s and i n d e x e s f i l e m a t e r i a l s u c h as c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , r e p o r t s , t e c h n i c a l d o c u m e n t s ,
etc.
M ay
a l s o f i l e th is m a t e r i a l . M a y k e e p r e c o r d s
o f v a r i o u s t y p e s in c o n j u n c t i o n w ith
the f i l e s .
M ay lead a s m a ll grou p o f lo w e r le v e l file c l e r k s .

KEYPUNCH O PERATOR

Keypunch O p erator I
U nder c lo s e s u p e r v is io n o r follow in g s p e c if ic p r o c e d u r e s o r in s tr u c tio n s , t r a n s c r ib e s
d a ta f r o m s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s to p u n c h e d c a r d s .
O p era tes a n u m e r ic a l a n d /o r alp h a b etical o r
c o m b i n a t i o n k e y p u n c h m a c h i n e to k e y p u n c h ta b u la tin g c a r d s .
M ay v e rify ca rd s.
W ork in g
fr o m v a rio u s sta n d a rd ized s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s , fo llo w s s p e c ifie d s e q u e n ce s w h ich have b e e n
c o d e d o r p r e s c r i b e d in d e t a i l and r e q u i r e little o r no s e l e c t i n g , c o d i n g , o r i n t e r p r e t i n g o f
d a ta to b e p u n c h e d . P r o b l e m s a r i s i n g f r o m e r r o n e o u s i t e m s o r c o d e s , m i s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ,
e t c . , a r e r e f e r r e d to s u p e r v i s o r .




73

K E Y P U N C H O P E R A T O R — C o n t in u e d

K e y p u n c h O p e r a t o r II
O p e r a t e s a n u m e r i c a l a n d / o r a l p h a b e t i c a l o r c o m b i n a t i o n k e y p u n c h m a c h i n e to t r a n ­
s c r i b e d a ta f r o m v a r i o u s s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s to k e y p u n c h ta b u la tin g c a r d s .
P e r fo r m s sam e
ta s k s as l o w e r l e v e l k e y p u n c h o p e r a t o r but in a d d it i o n , w o r k r e q u i r e s a p p l i c a t i o n o f c o d i n g
s k i l l s and the m a k in g o f s o m e d e t e r m i n a t i o n s , f o r e x a m p l e , l o c a t e s o n the s o u r c e d o c u m e n t
the i t e m s to b e p u n c h e d ; e x t r a c t s i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m s e v e r a l d o c u m e n t s ; s e a r c h e s -for and
i n t e r p r e t s i n f o r m a t i o n o n the d o c u m e n t to d e t e r m i n e i n f o r m a t i o n to be p u n c h e d .
M ay train
in e x p e rie n ce d o p e r a to r s .

O F F IC E ROY OR GIRL
P e r f o r m s v a r i o u s r o u t in e d u tie s s u c h as ru nn ing e r r a n d s ; o p e r a t i n g m i n o r o f f i c e
m a c h i n e s , s u c h as s e a l e r s o r m a i l e r s ; o p e n in g and d i s t r i b u t i n g m a i l ; and o t h e r m i n o r
cle rica l w ork.

SECRETARY
A s s i g n e d as p e r s o n a l s e c r e t a r y , n o r m a l l y to on e in d iv i d u a l .
M a in t a i n s a c l o s e and
h ig h ly r e s p o n s i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p to the d a y - t o - d a y w o r k a c t i v i t i e s o f the s u p e r v i s o r .
W orks
f a i r l y in d e p e n d e n t l y r e c e i v i n g a m i n i m u m o f d e t a i l e d s u p e r v i s i o n and g u i d a n c e .
P erform s
v a r i e d c l e r i c a l and s e c r e t a r i a l d u t i e s , u s u a l l y in c lu d in g m o s t o f the f o l l o w i n g :
(a )
R e c e i v e s te l e p h o n e c a l l s , p e r s o n a l c a l l e r s , and i n c o m i n g m a i l , a n s w e r s r o u t in e
i n q u i r i e s , and r o u t e s the t e c h n i c a l i n q u i r i e s to the p r o p e r p e r s o n s ;
(b )
E s t a b l i s h e s , m a i n t a i n s , and r e v i s e s the s u p e r v i s o r ' s f i l e s ;
( c ) M a in t a i n s the s u p e r v i s o r ' s c a l e n d a r and m a k e s a p p o in tm e n ts as i n s t r u c t e d ;
(d )
R e l a y s m e s s a g e s f r o m s u p e r v i s o r to s u b o r d i n a t e s ;
(e)
R e v i e w s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , m e m o r a n d a , and r e p o r t s p r e p a r e d b y o t h e r s f o r the
s u p e r v i s o r ' s s ig n a t u r e to a s s u r e p r o c e d u r a l and t y p o g r a p h i c a c c u r a c y ;
(f)
P e r f o r m s s t e n o g r a p h i c and typing w o r k .
M a y a l s o p e r f o r m o t h e r c l e r i c a l and s e c r e t a r i a l t a s k s o f c o m p a r a b l e n a tu re and
d ifficu lty.
T he w o r k t y p i c a l l y r e q u i r e s k n o w l e d g e o f o f f i c e r o u t in e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the
o r g a n i z a t i o n , p r o g r a m s , and p r o c e d u r e s r e l a t e d to the w o r k o f the s u p e r v i s o r .
E xclu sio n s
N ot a ll p o s i t i o n s that a r e ti t le d " s e c r e t a r y " p o s s e s s the a b o v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .
E x a m p l e s o f p o s i t i o n s w h i c h a r e e x c l u d e d f r o m the d e f i n i t i o n a r e as f o l l o w s :
(a )
P o s i t i o n s w h i c h do n o t m e e t the " p e r s o n a l " s e c r e t a r y c o n c e p t d e s c r i b e d a b o v e ;
(b )
S t e n o g r a p h e r s n ot fu ll y t r a i n e d in s e c r e t a r i a l type d u t ie s ;
( c ) S t e n o g r a p h e r s s e r v i n g as o f f i c e a s s i s t a n t s to a g r o u p o f p r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l ,
o r m an a g eria l p e rso n s;
(d )
S e c r e t a r y p o s i t i o n s in w h i c h the d u tie s a r e e it h e r s u b s t a n t i a l l y m o r e r o u t in e o r
s u b s t a n t ia l ly m o r e c o m p l e x and r e s p o n s i b l e than t h o s e c h a r a c t e r i z e d in the d e f i n i t io n ;
(e)
A s s i s t a n t type p o s i t i o n s w h i c h in v o l v e m o r e d i f f i c u l t o r m o r e r e s p o n s i b l e t e c h ­
n i c a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , s u p e r v i s o r y , o r s p e c i a l i z e d c l e r i c a l d u tie s w h i c h a r e n o t t y p i c a l
of secreta ria l w ork.
NOTE:
T h e t e r m " c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r , " u s e d in the l e v e l d e f i n i t i o n s f o l l o w i n g , r e f e r s
to t h o s e o f f i c i a l s w h o h a v e a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r p o r a t e - w i d e p o l i c y m a k i n g r o l e w ith r e g a r d to
m a jo r com pan y a ctiv ities.
T h e title " v i c e p r e s i d e n t , " thou gh n o r m a l l y i n d i c a t i v e o f this
r o l e , d o e s n ot in a l l c a s e s i d e n t i f y s u c h p o s i t i o n s .
V ice p resid en ts w h ose p r im a r y r e s p o n ­
s i b i l i t y is to a c t p e r s o n a l l y o n in d iv i d u a l c a s e s o r t r a n s a c t i o n s ( e . g . , a p p r o v e o r d e n y i n d i ­
v id u a l lo a n o r c r e d i t a c t i o n s ; a d m i n i s t e r in d iv i d u a l t r u s t a c c o u n t s ; d i r e c t l y s u p e r v i s e a c l e r i ­
c a l sta ff) a r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d to b e " c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r s " f o r p u r p o s e s o f a p p ly in g the f o l l o w i n g
le v e l d efin ition s:




74
S E C R E T A R Y — C o n t in u e d

S ecretary I

(a )
S e c r e t a r y to the s u p e r v i s o r o r h e a d o f a s m a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u nit ( e . g. , f e w e r
than a b ou t 25 o r 30 p e r s o n s ) ; o r

(b)
S e c r e t a r y to a n o n s u p e r v i s o r y s t a f f s p e c i a l i s t , p r o f e s s i o n a l e m p l o y e e , a d m i n i s ­
trative o f f i c e r , o r a s s is ta n t, s k ille d tech n icia n o r e x p e rt.
(N O TE:
Many com p a n ies a ssign
s t e n o g r a p h e r s , r a t h e r than s e c r e t a r i e s as d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , to this l e v e l o f s u p e r v i s o r y o r
n on su p erv isory w o r k e r .)

S e c r e t a r y II

(a )
S e c r e t a r y to an e x e c u t i v e o r m a n a g e r i a l p e r s o n w h o s e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y is n ot
e q u iv a le n t to o n e o f the s p e c i f i c l e v e l s it u a t io n s in the d e f i n i t i o n f o r l e v e l III, b u t w h o s e s u b ­
o r d i n a t e s t a f f n o r m a l l y n u m b e r s at l e a s t s e v e r a l d o z e n e m p l o y e e s and is u s u a l l y d i v i d e d into
o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e g m e n t s w h i c h a r e o f t e n , in tu r n , f u r t h e r s u b d iv id e d .
In s o m e c o m p a n i e s ,
this l e v e l i n c l u d e s a w i d e r a n g e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e c h e l o n s ; in o t h e r s , o n ly o n e o r tw o ; o r
(b )
S e c r e t a r y to the h e a d o f an in d iv i d u a l p la n t, f a c t o r y , e t c . , ( o r o t h e r e q u iv a le n t
l e v e l o f o f f i c i a l ) that e m p l o y s , in a l l , f e w e r than 5, 000 p e r s o n s .

S e c r e t a r y III

in a l l ,

(a)
S e c r e t a r y to the c h a i r m a n o f the b o a r d o r p r e s i d e n t o f a c o m p a n y that e m p l o y s ,
f e w e r than 100 p e r s o n s ; o r

(b)
S e c r e t a r y to a c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r ( o t h e r than c h a i r m a n o f the b o a r d o r p r e s i d e n t )
o f a c o m p a n y that e m p l o y s , in a l l , o v e r 100 but f e w e r than 5 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n s ; o r
(c)
S e c r e t a r y to the h e a d ( i m m e d i a t e l y b e l o w the o f f i c e r le v e l ) o v e r e i t h e r a m a j o r
c o r p o r a t e - w i d e fu n ction al a ctivity ( e . g . , m a r k e tin g , r e s e a r c h , o p e r a t i o n s , in d u stria l r e l a ­
tio n s , e t c . ) o ~ a m a j o r g e o g r a p h i c o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e g m e n t ( e . g . , a r e g i o n a l h e a d q u a r t e r s ;
a m a j o r d i v i s i o n ) o f a c o m p a n y that e m p l o y s , in a l l , o v e r 5 , 0 0 0 but f e w e r than 2 5 , 0 0 0
em p loyees; or
(d)
S e c r e t a r y to the h e a d o f an in d iv i d u a l p la n t , f a c t o r y ,
l e v e l o f o f f i c i a l ) that e m p l o y s , in a l l , o v e r 5 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n s ; o r

etc.

( o r o t h e r e q u iv a le n t

(e)
S e c r e t a r y to the h e a d o f a l a r g e and i m p o r t a n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e g m e n t ( e . g . ,
a m i d d l e m a n a g e m e n t s u p e r v i s o r o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e g m e n t o f t e n i n v o lv i n g as m a n y as
s e v e r a l h u n d r e d p e r s o n s ) o f a c o m p a n y that e m p l o y s , in a l l , o v e r 2 5 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n s .

S e c r e t a r y IV

in a l l ,

dent)

m a jor

(a )
over

of

S e c r e t a r y to the c h a i r m a n o f the b o a r d o r p r e s i d e n t o f a c o m p a n y that e m p l o y s ,
100 but f e w e r than 5 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n s ; o r

(b )
S e c r e t a r y to a c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r ( o t h e r than the c h a i r m a n o f the b o a r d o r p r e s i ­
a c o m p a n y that e m p l o y s , in a ll , o v e r 5, 000 but f e w e r than 25, 000 p e r s o n s ; o r

( c ) S e c r e t a r y to the h e a d , i m m e d i a t e l y b e l o w the c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r l e v e l , o f a
s e g m e n t o r s u b s i d i a r y o f a c o m p a n y that e m p l o y s , in a l l , o v e r 2 5 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n s .




75
STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL

P r i m a r y duty is to take and t r a n s c r i b e d ic t a t i o n f r o m o n e o r m o r e p e r s o n s e i t h e r
in s h o r th a n d o r b y S te n oty p e o r s i m i l a r m a c h i n e , i n v o lv i n g a n o r m a l r o u t in e v o c a b u l a r y .
M a y a l s o ty p e f r o m w r i t t e n c o p y .
M a y m a i n t a in f i l e s , k e e p s i m p l e r e c o r d s o r p e r f o r m o t h e r
r e l a t i v e l y r o u t in e c l e r i c a l t a s k s .
M ay op era te fr o m a sten ograp h ic p o o l.
D o e s n o t in c l u d e
tra n scrib in g -m a ch in e w ork .

STENOGRAPHER,

S EN IO R

P r i m a r y duty is to take and t r a n s c r i b e d ic t a t i o n f r o m o n e o r m o r e p e r s o n s e i t h e r
in s h o r t h a n d o r b y S te n oty p e o r s i m i l a r m a c h i n e , in v o lv i n g a v a r i e d t e c h n i c a l o r s p e c i a l i z e d
v o c a b u l a r y s u c h as in l e g a l b r i e f s o r r e p o r t s o n s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h .
M a y a l s o type f r o m
w ritten cop y.
M a y a l s o s e t up and m a i n t a i n f i l e s , k e e p r e c o r d s , e t c .

OR

P e r f o r m s s t e n o g r a p h i c d u tie s r e q u i r i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r in d e p e n d e n c e and r e ­
s p o n s i b i l i t y than s t e n o g r a p h e r , g e n e r a l as e v i d e n c e d b y the f o l l o w i n g :
W o r k r e q u i r e s h ig h
d e g r e e o f s t e n o g r a p h i c s p e e d and a c c u r a c y ; a t h o r o u g h w o r k i n g k n o w l e d g e o f g e n e r a l b u s i n e s s
and o f f i c e p r o c e d u r e and o f the s p e c i f i c b u s i n e s s o p e r a t i o n s , o r g a n i z a t i o n , p o l i c i e s , p r o ­
c e d u r e s , file s , w o rk flo w , etc.
U s e s this k n o w le d g e in p e r f o r m i n g s t e n o g r a p h i c d u tie s and
r e s p o n s i b l e c l e r i c a l ta s k s s u c h as m a i n t a in in g f o l l o w u p f i l e s ; a s s e m b l i n g m a t e r i a l f o r r e ­
p o r t s , m e m o r a n d u m s , and l e t t e r s ; c o m p o s i n g s i m p l e l e t t e r s f r o m g e n e r a l i n s t r u c t i o n s ;
r e a d i n g and r o u t in g i n c o m i n g m a i l ; a n s w e r i n g r o u t in e q u e s t i o n s , e t c .
D o e s n ot in c l u d e
tra n scrib in g -m a ch in e w o r k .

NOTE:
T h i s j o b is d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m that o f a s e c r e t a r y in that the s e c r e t a r y
n o r m a l l y w o r k s in a c o n f i d e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p to o n ly o n e m a n a g e r o r e x e c u t i v e and p e r f o r m s
m o r e r e s p o n s i b l e and d i s c r e t i o n a r y t a s k s as d e s c r i b e d in that j o b d e f i n i t io n .

SW ITCH B O A R D O P E R A T O R

S w itchboard O p era tor I

O p e r a t e s a s i n g l e - o r m u l t i p l e - p o s i t i o n te l e p h o n e s w i t c h b o a r d h a n d lin g i n c o m i n g ,
o u t g o i n g , in t r a p l a n t o r o f f i c e c a l l s .
M a y h a n d le r o u t in e lo n g d i s t a n c e c a l l s and r e c o r d t o l l s .
M a y p e r f o r m l i m i t e d te l e p h o n e i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e .
( " L i m i t e d " te l e p h o n e i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v ­
i c e o c c u r s if the fu n c t io n s o f the e s t a b l i s h m e n t s e r v i c e d a r e r e a d i l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e f o r
te l e p h o n e i n f o r m a t i o n p u r p o s e s , o r if the r e q u e s t s a r e r o u t i n e , e . g . , g iv i n g e x t e n s i o n n u m b e r s
w h e n s p e c i f i c n a m e s a r e f u r n i s h e d , o r i f c o m p l e x c a l l s a r e r e f e r r e d to a n o th e r o p e r a t o r . )

S w i t c h b o a r d O p e r a t o r II

O p e r a t e s a s i n g l e - o r m u l t i p l e - p o s i t i o n te l e p h o n e s w i t c h b o a r d h a n d lin g i n c o m i n g ,
o u t g o i n g , in t r a p l a n t o r o f f i c e c a l l s .
P e r f o r m s fu ll te l e p h o n e i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e o r h a n d le s
c o m p l e x c a l l s , s u c h as c o n f e r e n c e , c o l l e c t , o v e r s e a s , o r s i m i l a r c a l l s , e it h e r in a d d it i o n
to d o in g r o u t in e w o r k as d e s c r i b e d f o r s w i t c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r I, o r as a f u l l - t i m e a s s i g n ­
m ent.
( " F u l l " te l e p h o n e i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e o c c u r s w h e n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t has v a r i e d f u n c ­
tio n s that a r e n o t r e a d i l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e f o r t e le p h o n e i n f o r m a t i o n p u r p o s e s , e . g . , b e c a u s e
o f o v e r l a p p i n g o r i n t e r r e l a t e d f u n c t i o n s , and c o n s e q u e n t l y p r e s e n t fr e q u e n t p r o b l e m s a s to
w h ich exten sion s are a p p rop ria te fo r c a lls .)




76
T A B U L A T IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R

T a b u la tin g-M ach in e O p era tor I
O p e r a t e s s i m p l e ta b u la tin g o r e l e c t r i c a l a c c o u n t i n g m a c h i n e s , s u c h as the s o r t e r ,
r e p r o d u c i n g p u n c h , c o l l a t o r , e t c . , w ith s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s .
M a y in c l u d e the p e r f o r m a n c e
o f s o m e s i m p l e w i r i n g f r o m d i a g r a m s and s o m e fi l i n g w o r k .
The w o r k ty p ica lly in v olv es
p o r t i o n s o f a w o r k u n it, f o r e x a m p l e , in d iv i d u a l s o r t i n g o r c o l l a t i n g r u n s , o r r e p e t i t i v e
op eration s.

T a b u la tin g -M ach in e

O p e r a t o r II

O p e r a t e s m o r e d i f f i c u l t ta b u la tin g o r e l e c t r i c a l a c c o u n t in g m a c h i n e s , s u c h as the
ta b u la t o r and c a l c u l a t o r , in a d d it i o n to the s o r t e r , r e p r o d u c e r , and c o l l a t o r .
T h i s w o r k is
p e r f o r m e d u n d e r s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s and m a y in c l u d e the p e r f o r m a n c e o f s o m e w i r i n g f r o m
d ia g ra m s.
T h e w o r k t y p i c a l l y i n v o l v e s , f o r e x a m p l e , ta b u la t io n s i n v o lv i n g a r e p e t i t i v e a c ­
c o u n t in g e x e r c i s e , a c o m p l e t e but s m a l l ta b u la tin g stu d y , o r p a r t s o f a l o n g e r and m o r e
com plex report.
Su ch r e p o r t s and s t u d ie s a r e u s u a l l y o f a r e c u r r i n g n a tu r e w h e r e the p r o ­
c e d u r e s are w e ll e sta b lish ed .
M a y a l s o in c l u d e the t r a in in g o f n ew e m p l o y e e s in the b a s i c
o p e r a t i o n o f the m a c h i n e .

T a b u l a t i n g - M a c h i n e O p e r a t o r III

O p e r a t e s a v a r i e t y o f ta b u la tin g o r e l e c t r i c a l a c c o u n t i n g m a c h i n e s , t y p i c a l l y i n ­
c lu d in g s u c h m a c h i n e s as the t a b u l a t o r , c a l c u l a t o r , i n t e r p r e t e r , c o l l a t o r , and o t h e r s .
P er­
f o r m s c o m p l e t e r e p o r t i n g a s s i g n m e n t s w ith o u t c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n , and p e r f o r m s d i f f i c u l t
w i r i n g as r e q u i r e d .
T h e c o m p l e t e r e p o r t i n g and ta b u la tin g a s s i g n m e n t s t y p i c a l l y in v o l v e a
v a r i e t y o f lon g and c o m p l e x r e p o r t s w h i c h o f t e n a r e o f i r r e g u l a r o r n o n r e c u r r i n g type r e ­
q u ir i n g s o m e p la n n in g and s e q u e n c i n g o f s te p s to b e ta k e n .
As a m o r e ex p erien ced op era tor,
is t y p i c a l l y i n v o l v e d in t r a in in g new o p e r a t o r s in m a c h i n e o p e r a t i o n s , o r p a r t i a l l y t r a i n e d
o p e r a t o r s in w i r i n g f r o m d i a g r a m s and o p e r a t i n g s e q u e n c e s o f lo n g and c o m p l e x r e p o r t s .
D o e s n o t in c l u d e w o r k i n g s u p e r v i s o r s p e r f o r m i n g t a b u l a t i n g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t i o n s and d a y - t o d a y s u p e r v i s i o n o f the w o r k and p r o d u c t i o n o f a g r o u p o f t a b u l a t i n g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s .

TYPIST

U s e s a t y p e w r i t e r to m a k e c o p i e s o f v a r i o u s m a t e r i a l s o r to m a k e ou t b i l l s a f t e r
c a lcu la tio n s have b e e n m a d e b y another p e r s o n .
M a y in c l u d e ty p in g o f s t e n c i l s , m a t s , o r
s i m i l a r m a t e r i a l s f o r u s e in d u p l ic a t in g p r o c e s s e s .
M a y do c l e r i c a l w o r k i n v o l v i n g little
s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g , s u c h as k e e p i n g s i m p l e r e c o r d s , filin g r e c o r d s and r e p o r t s , o r s o r t i n g
and d i s t r i b u t i n g i n c o m i n g m a i l .

T yp ist I
P e r f o r m s o n e o r m o r e o f the f o l l o w i n g : C o p y ty p in g f r o m r o u g h o r c l e a r d r a f t s ;
r o u t in e ty p in g o f f o r m s , i n s u r a n c e p o l i c i e s , e t c . ; s e ttin g up s i m p l e s t a n d a r d t a b u l a t i o n s ,
o r c o p y i n g m o r e c o m p l e x t a b l e s a l r e a d y s e t up and s p a c e d p r o p e r l y .

T y p i s t II
P e r f o r m s o n e o r m o r e o f the f o l l o w i n g :
T y p in g m a t e r i a l in fi n a l f o r m w h e n it i n ­
volv es com binin g m a te ria l fr o m s e v e r a l s o u rce s o r resp o n sib ility for c o r r e c t sp ellin g, s y l ­
l a b i c a t i o n , p u n c t u a t io n , e t c . , o f t e c h n i c a l o r u n u s u a l w o r d s o r f o r e i g n la n g u a g e m a t e r i a l ;
p la n n in g la y o u t and typing o f c o m p l i c a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l t a b l e s to m a i n t a i n u n i f o r m i t y and b a l a n c e
in s p a c i n g .
M a y type r o u t in e f o r m l e t t e r s , v a r y i n g d e t a i l s to s u it c i r c u m s t a n c e s .




77

NOTE:
T he d e fin it io n s f o r the d r a ftin g and c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t io n s sh o w n in th is b u l­
le t in a r e the s a m e as th o s e u s e d in the B u r e a u 's p r o g r a m o f o c c u p a t io n a l w a g e s u r v e y s in
m e t r o p o lit a n a r e a s .
(S e e the l i s t o f a r e a s in the o r d e r f o r m at the b a c k o f th is b u ll e t in .)
T he le v e l d e s ig n a t io n s u s e d in th is b u lle t in , h o w e v e r , d if f e r f r o m th o s e u s e d in the a r e a
b u lle t in s .
T h e e q u iv a le n t l e v e l d e s ig n a t io n s f o r the o c c u p a t io n s c o n c e r n e d a r e a s f o l l o w s :

O c c u p a tio n

N a tio n a l S u r v e y o f
P r o f e s s i o n a l , A d m in is t r a t iv e , T e c h n i c a l, and
C le r ic a l P ay

O c c u p a tio n a l
W a g e S u r v e y s in
M e t r o p o lit a n
A reas

D r a ft s m a n ____________________________

I
II
III

C
B
A

C le r k , a c c o u n t in g ___________________

I
II

B
A

C le r k , f i l e ___________________________

I
II
III

C
B
A

K e y p u n ch o p e r a t o r __________________

I
II

B
A

S e c r e t a r y _____________________________

I
II
III
IV

D
C
B
A

S w itc h b o a r d o p e r a t o r ______________

I
II

B
A

I

C
B
A

T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e
o p e r a t o r ___________

II
III
T y p i s t ..




I
II

B
A

Appendix D. Comparison o f Average Annual Salaries in Private Industry,
June 1968, with Corresponding Salary Rates for Federal Employees
Under the General Schedule
T h e s u r v e y w a s d e s ig n e d , a m o n g o th e r u s e s , to p r o v id e a b a s i s f o r c o m p a r in g F e d e r a l
s a la r i e s u n d er the G e n e r a l S ch e d u le w ith g e n e r a l p a y le v e l s in p r iv a t e in d u s tr y .
To assu re
c o m p ila t io n o f p a y data f o r w o r k l e v e l s that w o u ld b e e q u iv a le n t to the F e d e r a l g r a d e s , the
C iv il S e r v ic e C o m m is s io n c o ll a b o r a t e d w ith th e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s to p r e p a r e the
o c c u p a t io n w o r k l e v e l d e fin it io n s u s e d in the s u r v e y .
A l l d e fin it io n s w e r e g r a d e d b y the
C o m m is s io n a c c o r d in g to th e s ta n d a r d s e s t a b lis h e d f o r e a c h g r a d e .
F o r e a c h o f the o c c u ­
p a tio n w o r k l e v e l s s u r v e y e d b y th e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s , the e q u iv a le n t G e n e r a l
S ch e d u le g r a d e , a s d e t e r m in e d b y the C o m m is s io n , is id e n t ifie d in th e fo llo w in g t a b le .




78

79

C o m p a riso n o f A v era ge Annual S alaries in P rivate In d u s tr y ,1 June 1968, W ith S alary Rates
fo r F e d e ra l E m p loyees Under the G en eral Schedule 2
A v era g e
annual
sa la r ie s
in private
industry 4

Occupation and c la s s
su rveyed by BL.S 3

C le r k s, file I ____________________________
O ffice boys or g ir ls _______
__ _____

$ 3 , 674
4 , O il

S a la ry rates for F e d e ra l em p loyee s under the G e n e ral Schedule 2
P er annum rates and steps 6
Grade 5
1
GS 1

2

4

5

6

7

8

10

9

$ 4 , 028
4, 149

$ 4 , 154
4 , 279

$ 4 , 280
4 ,4 0 8

$ 4 , 406
j 4 , 5 38

$ 4 , 532
4 ,6 6 8

4 ,2 4 5
4, 372

: 4, 382
4, 513

4, 519
4 ,6 5 5

4 , 656
4 , 796

4, 793
4 , 937

4, 930
5, 078

5, 067
5 ,2 1 9

5, 204
5, 360

5, 341
5, 501

$ 3, 776 1$ 3, 902
3 ,8 8 9 j 4 , 019

$ 4 , 658 |$ 4 , 7 8 4 ' ’ $ 4 , 910
4 , 798
4 , 928
5, 057

C le r k s, file I I ________________ ___________
Keypunch o p erators I __________________
Sw itchboard op erators I _______________
T ab u latin g-m ach ine o p erators I _____
T yp ists I _ _______
_____ __
__ __

4,
4,
4,
4,
4,

110
566
587
702
206

GS 2

C le r k s, accounting I ________ __ __ __
C le r k s , file III _ -------- ---------------------D r a f t s m e n -t r a c e r s __ _____ _______
E ngineering technicians I _____________
Keypunch op erators II - ________
Sten ograp h ers, g en eral _____________
Sw itchboard o p erators II _____ __ __
T ab u latin g-m ach ine op erators I I ____
T yp ists I I ---------- ---------------- ----------

4, 708
5, 055
4, 951
5, 585
5, 189
4 , 861
5 ,4 4 5
5 ,7 7 9
4 , 890

GS 3

4 ,4 6 6
4 ,6 1 5
4 ,6 0 0 | 4 ,7 5 3

4, 764
4, 907

4 , 913
5, 060

5, 062
5, 214

5, 211
5, 367

5, 360
5, 521

5, 509
5 ,6 7 4

5 ,6 5 8
5, 828

5, 807
5, 981

C le r k s , accounting II -------------------------D raftsm en I ______________________________
Engineering technicians II __ ____
S e c r e ta r ie s I _
_______ __ __
Sten ograp h ers, sen ior —
T ab u latin g-m ach ine op erators III ___

6 , 179
6 , 110
6 ,6 6 1
5, 563
5 ,6 1 4
7, 008

GS 4

4 , 995
5, 145

5, 161
5, 316

5, 327
5, 487

5 ,4 9 3
5 ,6 5 8

5 ,6 5 9
5, 829

5, 825
6, 000

5, 991
6 , 171

6 , 157
6, 342

6 , 323
6, 513

6 ,4 8 9
6 ,6 8 4

A ccountants I ______ „ __ __
A u d itors I __ __
_ _
___
__
B uyers I _ _____
_______ __ _____ ___
C h e m ists I
_
__
___ __
D raftsm en I I --------------------------------------------

GS 5

5, 565
5, 732

5 ,7 5 1
5, 924

5, 937
6 , 115

6 , 123
6 , 307

6, 309
6 , 498

6 ,4 9 5
6 , 690

6 , 681
6 , 881

6, 867
7, 073

7, 053
7, 265

7 ,2 3 9
7 ,4 5 6

E ngin eering technicians I I I -----------------S ec r e ta r ie s T
J
..............

7 ,4 5 1
7, 645
7 , 344
8, 061
7 , 548
9, 023
7, 596
6 ,2 7 2

S e c r e ta r ie s III

6 ,6 9 2

GS 6

A ccountants II
_
A ttorn eys I
A u d itors I I ___
__ __ _____ —
B uyers II
__
__ -------C h e m ists II _ __ „ __ _______
„ __
__ _____ _____
D raftsm en I I I __
E ngin eers II
__ _____ __ __ __ ~ __
Engineering technicians I V ------ — „
Job an alysts I I __________________________
S e c r e ta r ie s IV ____ __ __ __ _____ „

8,
9,
8,
8,
8,
9,
9,
8,
8,
7,

277
338
707
660
931
233
771
767
820
271

GS 7

6, 137
6, 321
6 ,7 3 4
6, 981

6, 342
6 , 532
6, 959
7 ,2 1 4

6,
6,
7,
7,

6,
6,
7,
7,

752
955
409
680

6 , 957
7 , 166
7 ,6 3 4
7, 913

7,
7,
7,
8,

7,
7,
8,
8,

7,
7,
8,
8,

7,
8,
8,
8,

7,
8,
8,
9,

9, 367
10, 293
9, 977
10, 260
1 0 ,1 8 7
1 0 ,9 6 3
9, 788
10, 401

GS 9

8, 054
8 ,4 6 2

8, 323
8, 744

8, 592
9, 026

8, 861
9, 308

9, 130
9, 590

9, 399
9, 872

9, 668
10, 154

9, 937
10, 436

10, 206
10, 718

1 0 ,4 7 5
1 1 ,0 0 0

A uditors III _
__ __ — _ --------B uyers III — __ _____ ~ — ------------C h e m ists I I I _____________________________
E n gin ee rs I I I __
__ __ _____
Engineering technicians V ------------------Job a n alysts III
__ _____
__ __
Accountants IV _
_____ __ __ -------A ttorn eys III ___ ___ —
— —
A uditors IV
—
________ _____
B uyers I V __ __ __ __ __
----- __ —
C h e m ists IV _______ _____ __ _________
C hief accountants I __ _____ __ __ __
D ir e c to r s of p erson n el I __ -------- __
E ngin eers IV ____________________________
Job an alysts IV
__
_
_________ ___

1 1 ,2 7 3
1 2 ,6 0 2
1 2 ,3 0 3
12, 431
1 2 ,7 5 1
1 2 ,2 8 9
1 1 ,0 2 9
13, 095
1 2 ,5 7 7

GS 11

9, 657
10, 203

9, 979
10, 543

10, 301
1 0 ,8 8 3

10, 623
1 1 ,2 2 3

10, 945
11, 56 3

1 1 ,2 6 7
1 1 ,9 0 3

1 1 ,5 8 9
1 2 ,2 4 3

1 1 ,9 1 1
1 2 ,5 8 3

12, 233
1 2 ,9 2 3

1 2 ,5 5 5
13, 263

Accountants III __

__ __ __ __

-----

See footn otes at end o f table.




4, 108
4 ,2 3 1 i

3

i
1

547
743
184
447

162
377
859
146

367
588
084
379

572
799
309
612

777
010
534
845

982
221
759
078

80
C om p arison of A verage Annual S a la ries in P rivate I n d u s tr y ,1 June 1968, W ith S alary Rates
for F e d e ra l E m p loye es Under the G en eral Schedule 2— Continued

Occupation and c la ss
su rveyed by BLS 3

S alary rates for F e d e ra l em p loyee s under the G en e ral Schedule 2

A v era g e
annual
s a la r ie s

P er annum ra tes and steps 6
G rade 5

industry 4

1

2

3

$ 1 1 ,4 6 l $1 1, 843 $ 1 2 ,2 2 5
12, 174
1 2 ,9 8 6
1 2 ,5 8 0

4

5

6

8

9

10

$ 1 4 ,5 1 7
1 5 ,4 2 2

$ 1 4 ,8 9 9
1 5 ,8 2 8

Accountants V ___________________________
A ttorn eys I V _____________________ _____
C h e m ists V __________________________ __
C hief accountants II _____ ____________
D ir e c to r s of p erson nel II _____________
E n gin eers V _
_ ...........

$1 3, 531
1 5 ,2 8 3
1 5 ,2 6 3
14, 135
13, 215
1 5 ,2 2 3

GS 12

A ttorn eys V _____________________________
C h e m ists VI _____________________________
C hief accountants III ___________________
D ir e c to r s of p erson nel III ____________
E n gin eers V I __ _______________________

17, 936
1 7 ,3 2 4
1 6 ,5 7 7
16, 005
17, 361

GS 13

1 3, 507
1 4 ,4 0 9

1 3 ,9 5 7
1 4 ,8 8 9

1 4 ,4 0 7
1 5 ,3 6 9

1 4 ,8 5 7
1 5 ,8 4 9

1 5 ,3 0 7
1 6 ,3 2 9

1 5 ,7 5 7
1 6 ,8 0 9

1 6 ,2 0 7
1 7 ,2 8 9

1 6 ,6 5 7
1 7 ,7 6 9

1 7 ,1 0 7
1 8 ,2 4 9

1 7 ,5 5 7
1 8 ,7 2 9

A ttorn eys VI
C h e m ists VII __________ _________ _____
C hief accountants IV ____ ____________
D ir e c to r s of p erson n el IV ______________
E ngin eers VII ___________________________

2 2 ,1 5 2
2 0 ,5 6 1
1 9 ,0 4 6
1 9 ,7 1 5
20, 216

GS 14

15 ,8 4 1
16, 946

16, 369
17 ,511

1 6 ,8 9 7
1 8 ,0 7 6

1 7 ,4 2 5
1 8 ,6 4 1

1 7 ,9 5 3
19, 206

1 8 ,4 8 1
19, 771

19, 009
20, 336

1 9 ,5 3 7
2 0 ,9 0 1

20, 065
2 1 ,4 6 6

20, 593
2 2 ,0 3 1

A ttorn eys V I I ____________________________
C h e m ists VIII ____________ ____________
E n gin eers VIII __________________________

28, 841
25, 416
23, 280

GS 15

18, 404
19, 780

1 9 ,0 1 7
20, 439

19, 630
2 1 ,0 9 8

20, 243
2 1 ,7 5 7

20, 856
22, 416

2 1 ,4 6 9
23, 075

2 2 ,0 8 2
2 3 ,7 3 4

2 2 ,6 9 5
2 4 ,3 9 3

23, 308
2 5 ,0 5 2

23, 921
2 5 ,7 1 1

$ 1 2, 607 $ 1 2 ,9 8 9 $1 3, 371
13, 392
13, 798
1 4 ,2 0 4

$13, 753 $ 1 4 ,1 3 5
1 4 ,6 1 0
1 5 ,0 1 6

1 F or scope of su rv e y , see appendix A .
2 F ir s t line---- salary rates under Section 20 2 of the F e d e r a l S alary A ct of 1967 which w ere in effe ct in June 1968, the refe ren c e date for
the B LS su rve y; and, second line— sa la r y rates prom ulgated by E xecutive O rd er 11413 issu ed under the authority of Section 212 of the F e d e ra l
Salary A ct of 1967 which b ecam e effective on the fir s t day of the fir s t pay period beginning on or after July 1, 1968.
3 F o r defin ition s, see appendix C.
4 Survey findings as su m m a rized in table 1 of this rep ort.
5 C orresponding grad es in the G en eral Schedule w ere supplied by the U .S . C ivil S ervice C o m m issio n .
6 Section 5335 of title 5 of the U .S . Code p rovides for w ithin -grad e in c r e a se s on condition that the em p lo y e e 's
work is of an acceptable
le vel of com p eten ce as defined by the head of the agency.
For em p loyee s who m e et this condition, the se r v ic e req u irem en ts are 52 calendar
w eeks each for sa la ry rates 1, 2, and 3; 104 w eeks each for sa la r y rates 4, 5, and 6; and 156 weeks each for sa la r y rates 7, 8, and 9Section 5336 provides that an additional w ithin -grad e in crea se m a y b e granted within any period of 52 weeks in recognition of high quality p e r ­
form an ce above that ord in arily found in the type of position concerned.

Under section 5303 of title 5 of the U .S . C ode, higher m in im u m rates (but not exceeding the m axim u m s a la r y
rate p r esc r ib e d in the G e n e ra l Schedule for the grade or level) and a corresp ond ing new sa la r y range m ay be e s ta b ­
lish ed for positions or occupations under certain conditions.
The conditions include a finding that the sa la r y rates in
private industry are so substantially above the sa la r y rates of the statutory pay schedu les as to handicap sign ifican tly
the G o v e rn m en t's recru itm en t or retention of w e ll-q u a lifie d p erso n s.
Such special pay s c a le s have been estab lish ed for
sp ec ific grades or le v els of certain occupations (including accountants, au d itors, c h e m ists, and en g in eers).
Inform ation on
sp ec ia l higher pay sc a le s curren tly in effe ct, and the occupations and areas to which they apply, m ay be obtained from the
U .S . C ivil S ervice C o m m issio n , W ashington, D. C. , 20 4 1 5 , or its regional o ffic e s.




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1966-67 AREA WAGE SURVEY SUMMARY BULLETINS

Bulletin 1530-87.
1966-67 (1967).

Wages and Related Benefits, Part I: 85 Metropolitan Areas,

Consolidates information from the individual area bulletins for surveys made during
the period July 1966 to June 1967.
Contains average weekly earnings for o ffice
occupations, average hourly earnings for plant occupations, and establishment prac­
tices and supplementary wage provisions by industry division and area. Price 50 cents.
Bulletin 1530-87. Wages and Related Benefits, Part II: Metropolitan Areas,
United States and Regional Summaries, 1966-67 (1968).

Presents information on occupational earnings, establishment practices, and supple­
mentary wage provisions for all metropolitan areas com bined and separately by
industry division and region. Also provides analyses o f wage differences and trends
o f occupational earnings.
Price 65 cents.

1967—68 AREA WAGE SURVEY BULLETINS:*
BLS
bulletin
number

Price
(in
cents)

Akron (July 1968)— -------------- Albany—Schenectady—Troy
(Apr. 1968)--------------Albuquerque (Apr. 1968) —---Allentown—Bethlehem —
Easton (June 1968)------------ —
Atlanta (May 1968)---------------Baltimore (Oct. 1967)------------Beaumont—Port ArthurOrange (May 1968)-------------Binghamton (July 1968)---------Birmingham (Apr. 1968)------ -

1575-84

35

1575-68
1575-58

30
30

1575-86
1575-71
1575-18

40
35
25

1575-75
1625-3
1575-59

30
35
30

Boise City (July 1968)------------Boston (Sept. 1967)---------------Buffalo (Dec. 1967)---------------Burlington (Mar. 1968)----------Canton (June 19 6 8)---------------Charleston (Apr. 1 9 6 8 )---------Charlotte (Apr. 1968)------ -----Chattanooga (Sept. 1968)---- —
Chicago (Apr. 1968)--------------

1625-6
1575-13
1575-41
1575-48
1575-65
1575-63
1575-57
1625-14
1575-81

35
30
30
20
30
30
30
35
50

Cincinnati (Mar. 1968)— -------Cleveland (Sept. 1967)—
—
Columbus (Oct. 1967)------ -—
Dallas (Nov. 1967) — ................
Davenport—Rock Island—
Moline (Oct. 1967)-------------Dayton (Jan. 1968)---------------Denver (Dec. 1967)----------------

1575-62
1575-14
1575-23
1575-20

30
25
25
25

1575-12
1575-51
1575-38

25
30
25

Des Moines (Feb. 1968) — -----Detroit (Jan. 1968)-------------- Forth Worth (Nov. 1967)--------Green Bay (July 1968)------------Greenville(May 1968) -----------Houston (June 1968)— ------------Indianapolis (Dec. 1967)------Jackson (Feb. 1 9 6 8 )-------------

1575-52
1575-45
1575-22
1625-7
1575-66
1575-82
1575-36
1575-49

30
35
25
35
30
45
30
30

Jacksonville (Jan. 1968)--------Kansas City (Nov. 1967)--------Lawrence—
Haverhill
(June 1968)-------------------------Little Rock—North Little Rock
(July 1968)-------------------------Los Angeles—Long Beach and
Anaheim—Santa Ana —
Garden Grove (Mar. 1968)-—

1575-33
1575-30

20
25

1575-74

30

1625-11

35

1575-64

30

Louisville (Feb. 1968)------------Lubbock (June 1968)-------------Manchester (July 1968) ----------Memphis (Jan. 1968)-------------Miami (Dec. 1967) — ----------- Midland and Odessa
(June 1 9 6 8 )-----------------------Milwaukee (Apr. 1968)— ------Minneapolis—St. Paul
(Jan. 1 9 6 8 )---------------- --------

1575-50
1575-77
1625-4
1575-32
1575-28

30
30
35
25
25

1575-72
1575-67

30
30

1575-47

30

Area and payroll period

Area and payroll period
Muskegon—Muskegon Heights
(May 1968) ---------------------------Newark and Jersey City
(Feb. 1968)............. ....................
New Haven (Jan. 1968)------------ New Orleans (Feb. 1968) —-------New York (Apr. 1968)--------------Norfolk—Portsmouth and Newport
News—Hampton
(June 1968)....................................
Oklahoma City (July 1968)— ---- -

BLS
bulletin
number

Price Number
(in
of
cents) copies

1575-60

30

1575-54
1575-34
1575-46
1575-78

35
25
30
50

1575-85
1625-9

30
30

—

1575-21

25

— —

1575-83
1575-40
1575-55
1575-44
1575-16
1575-80

40
30
30
30
25
40

—

1575-61

30

—

Raleigh (Aug. 1968)---------------Richmond (Nov. 1967).-------------Rochester (July 1968) —------------Rockford (May 1968)----------- -----St. Louis (Jan. 1968)-----------------Salt Lake City (Dec. 1967) —---San Antonio (June 1968)------------San Bernardino—Riverside —
Ontario (Aug. 1967)----------------

1625-13
1575-27
1625-2
1575-70
1575-39
1575-35
1575-69

35
25
35
30
30
20
30

—

1575-10

30

San Diego (Nov. 1967) -----------—
San Francisco—Oakland
(Jan. 1968)-------------- -------- -----San Jose (Sept. 1967) ---------------Savannah (May 1968)---------------Scranton (July 1968) -----------------Seattle—Everett (Nov. 1967) — —
Sioux Falls (Oct. 1967)......... ........

1575-19

20

1575-37
1575-15
1575-73
1625-12
1575-29
1575-17

25
25
30
35
25
25

_________

South Bend (Mar. 1968)------------Spokane (June 1968)-----------------Syracuse (July 1968)-----------------T ampa —St. Petersburg
(Aug. 1968) -------------------------Toledo (Feb. 1968)------------------Trenton (Nov. 1967)------------------

1575-56
1575-79
1625-5

30
3 9 -"
*35

—

1625-10
1575-43
1575-24

30
30
20

Utica—Rome (July 1968)
Washington, D.C.
(Sept. 1 9 6 7 )-------------Waterbury (Apr. 1968) —
Waterloo (Nov. 1967) —
Wichita (Dec. 1967)----Worcester (June 1968) —
York (Feb. 1968).............
Y oungstow n—Warre n
(Nov. 1967) — - .............

1625-1

35

1575-11
1575-53
1575-26
1575-31
1575-76
1575-42

25
30
20
20
30
30

1575-25

25

Omaha (Oct. 1967)------------------Paterson—Clifton—Passaic
(May 1 9 6 8 )........... - ................—
Philadelphia (Nov. 1967)--------- Phoenix (Mar. 1968)— -------------Pittsburgh (Jan. 1968) — ------------Portland (Maine) (Nov. 1967) -■—
Portland (Oreg. ) (May 1968)---- Providence—
-Pawtucket—
Warwick (May 1968)-------------- -

* Bulletins dated prior to July 1965 were entitled "Occupational Wage Surveys. "

Name
Address

^

City_______________________________________ State_____________________________ Zip Code_




U . S. G O V E R N M E N T

P R IN T IN G

O F F I C E : 1969 O - 3 3 1 -9 8 2

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—

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—

—

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Region I
1603-B Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: 223-67G2 (Area Code 617)

Region II
341 Ninth Ave.
New York, N .Y . 10001
Phone: 97 1-540 5 (Ayea Code 212)

Region III
406 Penn Square Building
1317 Filbert St.
Philadelphia, Pa. 19107
Phone: 597-7716 (Area Code 215)

Region IV
Suite 540
1371 Peachtree St. NE.
Atlanta, Ga. 30309
Phone: 526-5418 (Area Code 404)

Region V
219 South Dearborn St.
Chicago, 111. 60604
Phone: 353-723 0 (Area Code 312)

Region VI
Federal Office Building
911 Walnut St. , lOtli Floor
Kansas City, Mo. 641Q6
Phone: 374-2481 (Area Code 816)

Region VII
337 Mayflower Building
411 North Akard St.
Dallas, T ex. 75201
Phone: 7 4 9-361 6 (Area Code 214)

Region VIII
450 Golden Gate Ave.
Box 36017
San Francisco, C alif. 94102
Phone: 556-4678 (Area Code 415)




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