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AUTOMATION
and Employment Opportunities for
O FFICEW O R KER S
A report on the effect of electronic computers on employment of
clerical workers, with a special report on programmers

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V M M

IOWA S TA TE
TEA C H ERS COLLEGE

DEC 1 1958

LIBRARY
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary

BUREAU O F LABOR S TA TIS TIC S
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

in cooperation with Veterans Administration

Occupational Outlook Series



Bulletin No. 1241




A U T O M A T IO N
a n d E m p lo y m e n t O p p o r t u n it ie s f o r
O F F IC E W O R K E R S

A

report on

c le r ic a l

th e

w ork ers,

e ffe c t
w ith

of
a

e le c tr o n ic
s p e c ia l

com p u ters

report on

on

e m p lo y m e n t

p rogram m ers

Bulletin N o . 1241
October 1958

UNITED S T A T E S D EPARTM EN T O F LA B O R
Ja m es P . M itc h e ll, S e c r e t a r y
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ew Clague, Commissioner
an

in c o o p e r a t i o n with
VETERAN S A D M IN ISTR A TIO N
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office
Washington 25, D. C. - Price 15 cents



of

The
in

L ib r a r y o f

w h ic h

th is

C on gress

p u b lic a tio n

U. S. B u r e a u o f L a b o r
Bulletin, no. 1Washington.
no. in

has

c a ta lo g e d

app ears

as

th e

s e r ie s

fo llo w s :

S ta tis tic s .

Nov. 1895-

v. illus. 16-28 cm.

Bimonthly, Nov. 1895-May 1912; irregular, July 1912No. 1-111 issued by the Bureau of Labor.

1. Labor and laboring classes—U. S.— Period.

HD8051.A62
Library of Congress

The

331.06173
[r58t2]

L ib r a r y

p u b lic a tio n




of
as

C on gress

has

c a ta lo g e d

15-23307 rev*t

th is

fo llo w s :

Paschell, William.
Automation and employment opportunities for officeworkers; the effect of electronic computers on employment
of clerical workers, with a special report on programmers
[by William Paschell and Daniel P. Willis, Jr.] in coopera­
tion with Veterans Administration. [Washington] U. S.
Dept, of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1958.
vi,
14 p. illus. 27 cm. (U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Bulletin no. 1241)
1. Electronic data processing. 2. Clerks— U. S. 3. Programming
(Electronic computers) 4. [Occupations— Description (Business)]
i. Willis, Daniel Phillips, joint author, ii . Title.
(Series)

HD8051.A62 no. 1241

651.26

---------------- Copy 3.

HD8039.O32U65

U. S. Dept, of Labor,
for Library of Congress

Library

t

L 58-61

Foreword
T h is b u lle tin on the e f f e c t o f a u to m a tio n on e m p lo y m e n t o f
o f f i c e w o r k e r s is d e s ig n e d p r i m a r i ly f o r u se in v o c a t io n a l g u id a n ce
o f you n g p e o p le c o n s id e r in g the c h o ic e o f a f i e ld o f w o r k .
The
f i r s t p a r t c o n ta in s a g e n e r a l d is c u s s io n o f the im p lic a t io n s o f the
u se o f e l e c t r o n i c d a t a - p r o c e s sin g e q u ip m e n t f o r c l e r i c a l p e r s o n n e l.
T h e s e c o n d p a r t d i s c u s s e s in d e ta il one o f the n ew o c c u p a tio n s
— p r o g r a m m e r — w h ich h a s e m e r g e d w ith the d e v e lo p m e n t o f
automation.
T h e stu d y, fin a n c e d la r g e l y b y the V e te r a n s
A d m in is t r a t io n , w a s o r ig in a lly p r e p a r e d f o r u se in th e ir v o c a t io n a l
r e h a b ilit a t io n and e d u c a tio n p r o g r a m .
B e c a u s e o f the w id e s p r e a d
in t e r e s t in o f f i c e a u to m a tio n , the m a t e r ia l i s b e in g m a d e a v a ila b le
f o r m o r e g e n e r a l d is t r ib u t io n .
T h is study w a s c o n d u c te d b y the U n ited S ta tes D e p a rtm e n t o f
L a b or* s B u re a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s .
T he b u lle tin w a s p re p a re d
b y W illia m P a s c h e l l and D a n ie l P . W i l l i s , J r . , u n d er the
s u p e r v is io n o f C o r a E . T a y lo r .
S in ce th is study c o v e r s a new
fie ld , it w a s n e c e s s a r y to ob ta in m u ch o f the in fo r m a tio n d i r e c t l y
f r o m u s e r s o f e l e c t r o n i c d a t a - p r o c e s s i n g eq u ip m e n t. The B u rea u
w is h e s to a c k n o w le d g e the g e n e r o u s a s s is t a n c e and c o o p e r a t io n
r e c e iv e d in th is c o n n e c t io n f r o m o f f i c i a l s o f b u sin e ss e s ta b lis h m e n ts ,
G o v e r n m e n t a g e n c ie s , and o th e r o r g a n iz a t io n s .







CO N TEN TS
Page
A u to m a tio n and e m p lo y m e n t o p p o r tu n itie s f o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s ............

1

In tr o d u ctio n . . ........................................................................................................

1

D e v e lo p m e n t o f o f f i c e a u t o m a t i o n ......................................... . . . ..............

3

A p p lic a t io n o f a u t o m a t i o n .......... . ..................... .............................................

4

N ew o c c u p a t io n s r e la t e d to o f f i c e a u t o m a t i o n ............ .•........................

4

E f f e c t o f a u to m a tio n on c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s

...................... .......................

6

O c c u p a tio n s a ffe c t e d b y a u t o m a t i o n ...................................................

6

In d u s tr ie s a ffe c t e d b y a u to m a tion

7

......................................

P r o s p e c t iv e e f f e c t s o f a u to m a tion on e m p lo y m e n t ............... ..
P rogram m ers

.............................................................................................................

N a tu re o f w o r k

.........................................................................................

7
9
9

W h e re e m p lo y e d ...................................................................................................... 10
T r a in in g ,

o th e r q u a lific a t io n s , and a d v a n c e m e n t ................................ 10

E m p lo y m e n t o u t l o o k ...............................................................................

12

E a r n in g s and w o r k in g c o n d i t i o n s .........................................................

12

W h e re to go f o r m o r e in fo r m a t io n

................................................................14

CHARTS
1.

E m p lo y m e n t o f c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s ,

1910, 1940, and 1950 ...............

2.

E m p lo y m e n t o f m e n and w o m e n in c l e r i c a l o c c u p a tio n s ,
1 9 4 8 -5 8 ................................................... .. . . ...................................................




1

2

v




A U TO M A TIO N A N D EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES
______________ FOR OFFICEWORKERS_______________
i n t r o d u c t io n
A grea t fo r c e of c le r ic a l w ork ers
- - m o r e than 9 m illio n in m i d - 1 9 5 8 - - i s
e m p lo y e d to take c a r e o f the v a s t am ou n t
o f r e c o r d k e e p in g and o th e r p a p e r w o r k
e s s e n t ia l to the o p e r a t io n o f g o v e r n m e n t
and p r iv a te b u s in e s s . C l e r i c a l w o r k e r s
r e p r e s e n t e d a b ou t 1 o f e v e r y 7 w o r k e r s
in the U n ited S ta tes in 1958, a h ig h e r

p r o p o r t io n than in any p r e v io u s y e a r .
In 1910, o n ly 1 in 20 w o r k e r s w a s in
a c l e r i c a l o c c u p a tio n .
B y 1940, the
p r o p o r t io n o f c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s had r is e n
to 1 in 10, and in 1950 it w a s 1 in 8
e m p lo y e d w o r k e r s . S in ce th en , c l e r i c a l
e m p lo y m e n t ha s g ro w n m o r e s lo w ly , but
it i s s t ill in c r e a s in g f a s t e r than the w o rk
f o r c e a s a w h o le 0
(See ’c h a r ts 1 and
2 .)

Chart 1.

EMPLOYMENT OF CLERICAL WORKERS, 1910, 1940, AND 1950
P e r c e n t o f Total W o m e n E m p l o y e d

P e r c e n t o f To ta l Em p l o y m e n t

4 0

T h e p r o p o r t i o n o f w o r k e r s in

W o m e n in c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s h a v e

cle rical o c c u p a t io n s h a s m o r e

t r i p l e d s i n c e 1910 a s a p r o p o r t i o n

t h a n d o u b l e d s in c e 1910

of a l l w o m e n w o r k e r s

1910

1940

UNITED STATES D EP AR TME NT OF LA BO R

1950

1910

1940

1950

S o u r c e : U .S. D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e , B u r e a u o f the C e n s u s

B U RE A U OF L A BO R S TATI STI CS




1

The r a p id r i s e in c l e r i c a l e m p lo y ­
m e n t r e f l e c t s the e v e r - in c r e a s i n g v o lu m e
and c o m p le x it y o f t h e c l e r i c a l w o rk
h a n d le d b y the N a tio n 1s ex p a n d in g in d u s t r ie s and b y g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c ie s. In th is
w o r k , c l e r i c a l e m p lo y e e s h ave f o r m a n y
y e a r s u s e d t y p e w r it e r s and a v a r ie t y o f
o th e r m a ch in e s, in c lu d in g a d d in g , c a l c u ­
la tin g , b o o k k e e p in g , b illin g , and d u p li­
ca tin g m a c h in e So
M o r e r e c e n t ly , m a n y
la r g e o f f i c e s h ave in s t a lle d p u n c h -c a r d
eqaipm ent-**nachines w h ich r e c o r d d ata on
c a r d s b y pu n chin g h oles in th e m , and w h ich
then s o r t the c a r d s and ta b u la te and p rin t
the data f r o m th e m .
D e s p ite th e s e a d ­
v a n c e s , the n u m b e r o f o f f i c e w o r k e r s h a s
co n tin u e d to c lim l} and e m p lo y e r s a r e con*
sta n tly lo o k in g f o r n ew and im p r o v e d m a ­
ch in es to handle the e v e r-g ro w in g w orkload,,
In the la s t fe w y e a r s , a tte n tio n h as
f o c u s e d on a n e w d e v e lo p m e n t in o f f ic e
m a c h i n e s - - t h e u se o f e l e c t r o n i c c o m ­
p u te r s to h an dle tr e m e n d o u s a m o u n ts o f
data. E l e c t r o n i c c o m p u te r s h ave a tt r a c te d

2




g r e a t i n t e r e s t b e c a u s e o f th e ir c a p a c ity
to p e r f o r m m illio n s o f co m p u ta tio n s - a d d in g , s u b tr a c tin g , d iv id in g , and m u lti­
p l y in g --a u t o m a t ic a lly and w ith lig h tn in g
speed,,
A t a g o v e r n m e n t in s ta lla tio n ,
it w a s e s t im a t e d r e c e n t ly that it w ou ld
take one p e r s o n a y e a r to p e r f o r m c o m ­
p u ta tion s on a d e s k c a lc u la t o r that c o u ld
be done in abou t h a lf an h o u r b y a la r g e
e le c tr o n ic co m p u te r.
W hen a c o m p u te r
i s a s s e m b le d in a unit w ith v a r io u s ty p e s
o f r e la t e d e q u ip m e n t, an e l e c t r o n i c d a ta p r o c e s s in g s y s t e m i s fo r m e d .
Such a
s y s t e m c o n s i s t s o f a c e n t r a l c o m p u te r
a n d " p e r i p h e r a l " e q u ip m e n t in clu d in g
c o n v e r t e r s w h ich t r a n s fe r in fo r m a tio n
f r o m p u n ch ed c a r d s to m a g n e tic tape
(o r the r e v e r s e o p e r a t i o n ) ; r e a d e r s that
m a k e the in s t r u c t io n s on the tape o r
c a r d s u s a b le b y the c o m p u t e r ; and
p r in t e r s that r e c o r d the fin a l r e s u lt s in
a f o r m that ca n be r e a d .
A c o m p u te r
s y s t e m ca n a u to m a tic a lly do su ch jo b s
a s p r e p a r e p a y r o l ls f o r th o u sa n d s o f
e m p lo y e e s , c o n t r o l in v e n to r y on a m u lt i-

Operator placing punched cards in a card-to-tape converter
tude o f i t e m s , o r p r o d u c e s p e e d y r e s u lt s
f r o m m a s s e s o f s t a t is t ic s c o n c e r n in g the
e n tir e p o p u la tio n o f the U n ited S ta te s.
A lth o u g h c o m p u t e r s a r e o fte n d e ­
s c r i b e d a s m a c h in e s that ca n ''t h i n k ,"
th is i s , o f c o u r s e , n o t s o .
L ik e o th e r
m a c h in e s , th e y m u s t b e o p e r a t e d o r
c o n t r o lle d b y p e o p le w ho s ta r t th e m ,
fe e d w o r k in to th e m , m a k e c e r t a in th ey
w o r k p r o p e r ly , r e m o v e the c o m p le t e d
w o r k , and o t h e r w is e te n d th e m .
C om ­
p u te r s a r e u s e l e s s u n le s s th e y a r e g iv e n
the p r o p e r in s t r u c t io n s f o r p e r fo r m in g
the m a n y c o m p u ta tio n s n e c e s s a r y f o r the
fin a l r e s u lt .
T h e p e o p le w ho p r e p a r e
the in s t r u c t io n s a r e c a l le d p r o g r a m m e r s.
O th er w o r k e r s a r e a ls o n e e d e d to a id
in p r e p a r in g the w o r k f o r the m a c h in e s .
T he p u r p o s e o f th is stu dy i s tw o fo ld :
to d i s c u s s the im p lic a t io n s o f a u to m a tio n




f o r e m p lo y m e n t i n o f f i c e o c c u p a tio n s
g e n e r a l l y , and to d e s c r i b e in d e ta il
one o f the m a jo r n ew o c c u p a tio n s that
h a s d e v e lo p e d i n c o n n e c tio n w ith the
u se o f e l e c t r o n i c d a t a -p r o c e s s in g
e q u ip m e n t--th a t o f p r o g r a m m e r .

Devabpmenl oi Office Automation
E le c tr o n ic co m p u te rs w e r e d e ­
v e lo p e d d u rin g W o r ld W ar II a s an a id
in s o lv in g in t r ic a t e s c i e n t i fic and e n ­
g in e e r in g p r o b l e m s su ch a s g u n fire
c o n t r o l, b u t th e ir a p p lic a tio n t o the
p r o c e s s in g o f o f f i c e d ata i s m o r e r e c e n t .
T h e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t le d the w ay in
1951, w hen an e l e c t r o n i c c o m p u te r w a s
in s t a lle d b y the B u re a u o f the C e n s u s to
h e lp c o m p ile the s t a t is t ic s o f the 1950
C en su s o f P o p u la tio n . The f i r s t c o m p u te r
3

in s ta lla t io n in a b u s in e s s f i r m w a s c o m ­
p le te d in 1954.
S in ce th en , the in s t a l­
la tio n o f c o m p u t e r s and r e la t e d e q u ip m e n t
h a s p r o c e e d e d r a p id ly , c o n s id e r in g the
h igh c o s t o f the s y s t e m s . It i s e s t im a t e d
that m o r e than 800 m e d i u m - s c a l e and
200 l a r g e - s c a l e e l e c t r o n i c c o m p u t e r
s y s t e m s had b e e n in s t a lle d b y e a r ly 1958.
A t that t im e , the a v e r a g e m e d i u m - s c a l e
s y s t e m c o s t abou t $ 2 5 0 , 000 o r r e n te d
fo r $7 , 5 0 0 a m on th ; a la r g e - s c a le sy ste m
c o s t m o r e than a m illio n d o lla r s o r r e n te d
f o r at l e a s t $ 2 5 , 000 a m o n th .

Application of Automation
C o m p u t e r s ca n b e u s e d to p e r f o r m
m a n y o f the a c c o u n tin g a n d r e la t e d
fu n c tio n s c o m m o n ly r e q u ir e d in la r g e
b u s i n e s s e s . E l e c t r i c , g a s , and te le p h o n e
c o m p a n ie s , f o r e x a m p le , a r e u sin g c o m ­
pute r s to m a k e up m o n th ly b i l l s f o r m a n y
th o u sa n d s o f c u s t o m e r s ; the c o m p u tin g
s y s t e m d o e s the c o m p le t e j o b o f p rin tin g
the c u s to m e r * s n am e and a d d r e s s on a
b i ll , lis t in g e a c h it e m , fig u r in g the cost^
adding t a x e s and o th e r n e c e s s a r y it e m s ,
and th en adding the to t a l b i l l .
P a y r o ll
w o r k , in c lu d in g c o m p u t a t i o n o f the
a m o u n ts to be p a id and the p rin tin g o f
p a y c h e c k s f o r th o u sa n d s o f e m p lo y e e s ,
i s a c o m m o n a p p lic a t io n o f the c o m p u t e r .
In la r g e in s u r a n c e o p e r a t io n s , the m a ­
c h in e s m a y b e u s e d to p r e p a r e n o t ic e s
o f p r e m iu m s d u e, co m p u te d iv id e n d s ,
c a lc u la t e agen ts* c o m m i s s i o n s , m a k e
the m i ll i o n s o f c o m p u ta tio n s u s e d i n
a c t u a r i a l d e p a r t m e n t s , and p r e p a r e
s t a t is t ic a l t a b le s . S om e b u s in e s s f i r m s
and g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c ie s u se c o m p u t e r s
in in v e n t o r y c o n t r o l so th at th ey m a y
k n ow at any tim e the su p p ly o f it e m s o f
e a c h ty p e in s e v e r a l w a r e h o u s e s o r o th e r
o u tle t s .
C o m p u t e r s a r e a ls o u s e d to
h e lp e m p lo y e r s plan f o r the fu tu re —
f o r e x a m p le , in a n a ly zin g the m a r k e t
f o r g o o d s , f o r e c a s t i n g s a le s , and
e s tim a tin g p r o d u c t i o n r e q u ir e m e n t s .
S om e c o m p u tin g s y s t e m s a r e b u ilt
to d o a s p e c if i c jo b .
A cen tra l c o m ­
p u te r , f o r i n s t a n c e , in s t a lle d b y an
a ir lin e o r h o t e l ch a in , s t o r e s in fo r m a t io n
gath e r e d f r o m m a n y l o c a t io n s and e n a b le s
a c l e r k in one c it y to a n s w e r t r a v e le r s*
q u e s t io n s a b ou t a v a ila b le r e s e r v a t io n s
in a m a t t e r o f s e c o n d s .
In f i r m s d oin g
4




a n a tion w id e b u s in e s s , a c o m p u te r ca n
be lin k e d w ith s p e c ia l c o m m u n ic a tio n s
e q u ip m e n t so that a s a le s o r d e r m a y be
s im u lta n e o u s ly p u n ch ed on p a p e r tape in
a c o m p a n y b r a n c h o f f i c e and in the m a in
o f f i c e ; the tap e m a y then b e p r o c e s s e d
b y the c o m p u te r eq u ip m e n t to p r e p a r e an
u p -t o -t h e -m in u t e s a le s o r i n v e n t o r y
r e p o r t at ab ou t the s a m e tim e the o r d e r
i s b ein g f i ll e d in a c o m p a n y w a r e h o u s e .
In g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c e s , c o m p u t e r s
m a y be u s e d in l a r g e - s c a l e s t a t is t ic a l
o p e r a t io n s o r in p r e p a r in g r e s e a r c h and
o th e r s p e c ia l r e p o r t s .
The tr e m e n d o u s
c l e r i c a l o p e r a t io n o f k e e p in g r e c o r d s
f o r the m illio n s o f w o r k e r s c o v e r e d by
F e d e r a l s o c i a l s e c u r it y and o f d ig e s tin g
m a s s e s o f d ata c o l l e c t e d b y the C e n s u s
B u re a u on the p o p u la tio n o f the U nited
S ta tes a r e a r e a s w h e r e c o m p u t e r s a re
e s p e c ia l l y h e lp fu l. A co m p u tin g s y s te m
in one State k e e p s u p -t o -d a t e r e c o r d s
f o r n e a r ly 5 m illio n a u to m o b ile d r i v e r s
- - b y n a m e , a d d r e s s , date o f b ir th , s e x ,
and d r iv in g r e c o r d — and e v e n d e t e r m in e s
fin e s f o r t r a f f i c v io la t io n s .
In s c i e n t i f ic and e n g in e e r in g f i e ld s ,
c o m p u t e r s a r e u s e d in s o lv in g p r o b le m s
su ch a s th o s e r e la tin g to la u n ch in g and
tr a c k in g e a r t h s a t e llit e s , f o r e c a s t in g
weather, sim u la tin g o i l r e f i n e r y processes,
and c o n t r o llin g the o p e r a tio n o f in d u s tr ia l
m a ch in e to o ls (som etim es c a lle d n u m erica l
c o n t r o l) . S in ce th e s e a p p lic a tio n s in v o lv e
the e m p lo y m e n t o f r e la t iv e ly fe w c l e r i c a l
w o r k e r s , th e y a r e n ot as im p o r ta n t f o r
p u r p o s e s o f th is r e p o r t a s the u se o f c o m ­
p u te r s to p r o c e s s m a s s e s o f o f f i c e data.

New Occupations Related to
Office Automation
The u se o f e l e c t r o n i c co m p u tin g
s y s t e m s h a s c r e a t e d a n u m b e r o f n ew o f ­
f i c e o c c u p a t io n s and h a s ch a n g e d the fu n c ­
tio n s p e r f o r m e d in o t h e r s .
S om e o f the
n ew j o b s , e s p e c ia l l y th o se in p r o g r a m ­
m in g (s e e d e ta ile d r e p o r t on p ro g r a u n m e r s ) , r e q u ir e c o n s id e r a b le r e la t e d e x ­
p e r ie n c e o r e d u c a tio n at the c o l le g e l e v e l .
M any o f the o th e r jo b s r e la t e d to the o p ­
e r a t io n o f co m p u tin g s y s t e m s also r e q u ir e
h ig h e r l e v e l s o f s k ill and tra in in g than
a r e n e e d e d f o r m o s t o th e r types o f c le r ic a l,
w o r k . In g e n e r a l,h ig h s c h o o l g ra d u a tio n
i s the m in im u m e d u c a tio n a l r e q u ir e m e n t .

T h e fo llo w in g i s a b r i e f lis t in g o f
j o b s w h ic h m a y be fo u n d in c o m p a n ie s

with large-scale e l e c t r o n i c
p r o c e s s in g eq u ip m e n t.

d a ta -

E l e c t r o n i c C o m p u tin g S y ste m P e r s o n n e l
D. O. T .
N o .1

J o b d u tie s

P r o j e c t p l a n n e r ......................

0 - 6 8 .5 0 5

S y s te m s a n a l y s t ....................

0 - 6 9 .9 8 5

P la n s and a d m in is t e r s the in s ta lla tio n
o f a d a t a - p r o c e s s i n g s y s te m .
/
D e v is e s b r o a d ou tlin e o f pla n to p r o g r a m
an o p e r a t io n .

P r o g r a m m e r ...........................

0 - 6 9 .9 8 1

W r ite s the d e ta ile d in s t r u c t io n s o r p r o ­
g r a m u s e d to g u id e the m a ch in e s y s t e m .
A s e n io r p r o g r a m m e r m a y h ea d a te a m
o f p r o g r a m m e r s w h o s e a s s ig n m e n ts
d iffe r in c o m p le x it y .

C od in g c l e r k ...........................

1 -3 6 . 05

C o n v e r t s p r o g r a m m e r * s in s t r u c t io n s
in to s p e c ia l m a c h i n e " la n g u a g e " o r
code.

C o n s o le o p e r a t o r ....................

1 -2 5 . 17

O p e r a te s the c e n t r a l c o n t r o l u n i t o r
c o n s o l e o f the e l e c t r o n i c c o m p u t e r .
U s e s p r o g r a m in s t r u c t io n s h e e t s t o
d e t e r m i n e setu p o f eq u ip m e n t a n d
o p e r a tin g p r o c e d u r e s .
K e e p s o p e ra tin g
r e c o r d s su ch as m a ch in e p e r fo r m a n c e
and p r o d u c t io n r e p o r t s .

J o b title

P e r ip h e r a l e q u ip m e n t
op era tor
.................... ..
C a r d -t a p e c o n v e r t e r
op era tor
H ig h -s p e e d p r in t e r
o p e ra to r
K e y -p u n c h o p e r a t o r

D ata t y p is t

......

........................... ..

T ap e lib r a r ia n

......................

1 -2 5 . 60
1 -2 5 . 98

O p e r a t e s c o n v e r t e r s , p r i n t e r s , and
o th e r m a c h in e s w h ich a r e a p a r t o f the
e le c tr o n ic sy ste m .
If m a c h in e s d o n ot
o p e r a te p r o p e r ly , h e r e p o r t s th is to
s u p e r v is o r .

1 -2 5 . 62

O p e r a te s m a ch in e to punch s e r i e s o f
h o le s on c a r d s .
The h o le s r e p r e s e n t
data o r c o d e d i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the
e l e c t r o n i c e q u ip m e n t.

1 - 3 7 .3 2

O p e r a te s e l e c t r i c t y p e w r it e r eq u ip p ed
w ith s p e c ia l k e y b o a r d to t r a n s c r i b e
c o d e d p r o g r a m in s t r u c t io n s o r d ata on
m a g n e tic ta p e .

1 -2 0 . 04

M a in ta in s f i l e s o f ta p e s and i s s u e s th e m
to e l e c t r o n i c m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s w hen
c a lle d f o r .
C l a s s i f i e s , c a t a lo g s , and
c r o s s - i n d e x e s r e e l s o f tape a c c o r d in g
to data c o n te n t.
P re p a re s r e c o r d fo r
f i le r e f e r e n c e .

1T h e D ic t io n a r y o f O c c u p a t io n a l T i t l e s (D . O . T . ) c o d e n u m b e r s , u n p u b l i s h e d w h e n th is
b u lle t in w a s p r e p a r e d , w i l l a p p e a r in a f o r t h c o m i n g p u b lic a t io n o f th e U . S. D e p a r t m e n t o f
L a b o r 's B u r e a u o f E m p lo y m e n t S e c u r i t y , O c c u p a t io n s in E l e c t r o n i c D a t a - P r o c e s s i n g S y s t e m s .




5

B e c a u s e th is i s a n ew f i e ld , jo b
t it le s and d u tie s d o n o t f o l lo w a w e l l d e fin e d p a tte rn . F o r e x a m p le , in so m e
c o m p a n ie s , one p e r s o n m a y p e r f o r m the
dutie s o f b oth the a n a ly st and p r o g r a m m e r
and a d iffe r e n t jo b title m a y b e u s e d .
m a n y c o m p a n ie s do not
Sim ilarly,
e m p lo y c o d in g c l e r k s s in c e t h e ir p r o ­
g r a m m e r s do c o d in g a s w e ll a s p r o ­
g r a m m in g w o r k . In s o m e c a s e s , s p e c ia l
w o r k e r s c a l le d " t a p e h a n d le r s " m a y be
a s s ig n e d to ch a n g e m a g n e tic tape r e e l s
on m a c h in e s ; in o th e r c a s e s , th is jo b
m a y be don e b y the m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s .
In a d d itio n to the w o r k e r s w ith s p e c ia l
t it le s , a fe w c l e r k s , m e s s e n g e r s , and
o th e r o f f i c e w o r k e r s p e r f o r m d u tie s
r e la t e d to the e l e c t r o n i c p r o c e s s in g o f

COURTESY OF NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS

Tape handler changing tape on one o f the
machines in an electro n ic
comput ing system
6




data.
A s in o th e r o f f i c e o p e r a t io n s , a
unit s u p e r v is o r i s u s u a lly in c h a r g e o f
e a c h s p e c i f i c s e c t io n o f w o r k and h ig h e r
g r a d e s u p e r v i s o r s a re r e s p o n s ib le f o r
b ro a d e r a re a s o f w ork .

Effect of Automation on
Clerical Workers
O ccu p a tio n s affected by a u to m a tio n
W h ile n ew o c c u p a tio n s a r e b ein g
c r e a t e d b e c a u s e o f the use o f e l e c t r o n i c
d a t a -p r o c e ss in g s y s t e m s , o th e r jo b s a re
b ein g a b o lis h e d o r the f u n c t i o n s o f
w o r k e r s a r e b e in g ch a n g e d . In g e n e r a l,
c l e r k s e m p lo y e d in ro u tin e and r e p e t it iv e
o f f i c e jo b s a r e the w o r k e r s m o s t lik e ly
to be a f f e c t e d b y the in s ta lla tio n o f
e l e c t r o n i c e q u ip m e n t.
T h e m a c h in e s
d is p la c e m a n y c l e r k s w ho s o r t and f i le
o f f i c e r e c o r d s o r o p e r a te v a r io u s o f f i c e
m a c h i n e s - - a d d r e s s i n g , ad d in g , c a l c u ­
la tin g , b o o k k e e p in g , and b illin g m a c h in e s .
T h is d o e s n ot m e a n that a ll p e o p le in
ro u tin e c l e r i c a l jo b s w ill be d is p la c e d .
F o r e x a m p le , in an in s u r a n c e c o m p a n y
that u s e s e l e c t r o n i c c o m p u t e r s , c l e r k s
a r e s t ill n e e d e d to n u m b e r , ty p e , and
f i l e in s u r a n c e p o l i c i e s ; to c h e c k th is
w o r k f o r a c c u r a c y ; to m ak e ch a n g e s in
a d d r e s s e s o f p o l i c y h o l d e r s ; to k e e p r e ­
c o r d s o f m e d i c a l e x a m in a tio n s ; and f o r
o th e r s im ila r fu n c t io n s . F u r t h e r m o r e ,
c l e r k s in s o m e jo b s m a y be e a s i l y s h ifte d
to w o r k that i s r e la t e d to the u s e o f e l e c ­
t r o n ic co m p u tin g s y s t e m s . F o r e x a m p le ,
c o m p a n ie s that s w itch f r o m m e c h a n ic a l
p u n c h -c a r d eq u ip m e n t u s u a lly u se th e ir
k e y -p u n c h o p e r a t o r s to p r e p a r e the
p u n ch ed c a r d s o r m a g n e tic ta p e s that
a r e fe d in to c o m p u t e r s .
M o r e o v e r , if
a d d itio n a l o p e r a t o r s a r e n e e d e d , ty p is ts
ca n e a s i l y be tr a in e d to do th is w o r k .
T a b u la tin g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s m a y be
u p g ra d e d and r e t r a in e d to w o r k on the
n ew m a c h in e s .
C l e r i c a l w o r k e r s in jo b s r e q u ir in g
the u se o f c o n s id e r a b le ju d g m e n t o r
c o n ta c t w ith o th e r p e o p l e - - s e c r e t a r i e s ,
r e c e p t i o n i s t s , c la im c l e r k s , c o m p la in t
c l e r k s , and b i ll c o l l e c t o r s , to n am e a
f e w - - a r e le a s t a ffe c t e d b y a u to m a tio n .
M o r e o v e r , the la r g e o c c u p a tio n o f s te n o g ­
r a p h e r i s n ot lik e ly to be m u ch a ffe c t e d .
F o r m a n y y e a r s , d icta tin g m a c h in e s
and o th e r r e la t e d e q u ip m e n t h ave b e e n
u s e d , but the n u m b e r o f s te n o g r a p h e r s

e m p lo y e d
id ly .

has

co n tin u e d to g r o w r a p ­

In d u strie s affected b y a u to m a tio n
T h e g r e a t e s t h e a d w a y in the in ­
tr o d u c t io n o f e l e c t r o n i c d a t a - p r o c e s s i n g
e q u i p m e n t i s b e in g m a d e i n la r g e
o r g a n iz a t io n s ,
p a r t ic u la r ly i n t h o s e
w h ich u se a h ig h p r o p o r t io n o f c l e r i c a l
w o r k e r s in r e la t io n to t h e ir to ta l e m ­
p lo y m e n t. So f a r , g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c ie s ,
in s u r a n c e c o m p a n ie s , and p u b lic u t ilit ie s
(g a s , e l e c t r i c , and te le p h o n e c o m p a n ie s )
- - a l l o f w h ich h a ve la r g e c o n c e n t r a t io n s
o f c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s - - h a v e b e e n a m on g the
le a d in g u s e r s o f e l e c t r o n i c c o m p u tin g s y s ­
t e m s ; b a n k s a ls o a r e e x p e c t e d to b e c o m e
m a jo r u s e r s o f c o m p u t e r s in the fu tu r e .
M an y b ig c o r p o r a t io n s in a w id e
r a n g e o f m a n u fa ctu rin g i n d u s t r i e s - e l e c t r i c a l equipment^ p e t r o le u m p ro d u cts,
c h e m i c a ls , a i r c r a f t , a u t o m o b ile s , and
s t e e l - - h a v e a ls o i n s t a l l e d e l e c t r o n i c
com p u ters.
T h e s e c o m p a n ie s n o t o n ly
u se th e ir c o m p u t e r s a s an a id in so lv in g
e n g in e e r in g and s c ie n t if ic p r o b le m s and
in the c o n t r o l o f m a c h in e t o o l s but a ls o
to p e r f o r m o f f i c e fu n c tio n s su ch a s p r o c ­
essing p a y r o lls o r m a in ta in in g in v e n to r ie s ,
A fe w c o m p u t e r c e n t e r s h a ve a ls o
b e e n se t up r e c e n t ly to d o d a t a - p r o c e ss in g
w o r k on a fe e b a s is .
T h ese ce n te rs
p r o v id e a n ew s o u r c e o f e m p lo y m e n t in
the o c c u p a t io n s r e la t e d to o p e r a t i n g
com p u ter sy s te m s .
C o m p u te r centers^
and m o s t o f the c e n t r a l and r e g io n a l
o ffic e s o f b ig c o r p o r a t io n s and g o v e r n m e n t
a g e n c ie s , a r e lo c a t e d in la r g e c it ie s , T he
effects o f a u to m a tio n on employment^ t h e r e ­
fo r e , w ill b e g r e a t e st in the se u rb a n a r e a s .

Prospective effects of a u to m a tio n
on e m p lo y m e n t
B e ca u se e l e c t r o n i c d a ta -^ p rocessin g
m a c h in e s a r e c a p a b le o f p e r fo r m in g v a s t
a m ou n ts o f w o r k w ith r e la t iv e ly fe w w o r k ­
e r s , so m e p e o p le h ave e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n
that a la r g e p a r t o f the c l e r i c a l w o r k
f o r c e m a y be d is p la c e d .
So fa r th e r e
i s litt le e v id e n c e o f t h is .
One o f the
r e a s o n s f o r in s t a llin g the n ew e q u ip m e n t
i s to m a k e p o s s i b le the h a n dlin g o f g r e a t e r
a m ou n ts o f i n c r e a s in g ly c o m p le x d ata and
to p r o v id e a d d ition a l, m o r e t im e ly r e p o r t s




T h u s, the n et e f f e c t m a y be g r e a t e r
output p e r p e r s o n and a d e c lin in g ra te
o f g ro w th in c l e r i c a l e m p lo y m e n t i f the
u se o f e l e c t r o n i c e q u ip m e n t b e c o m e s
w id e s p r e a d .
A lth ou g h it i s s t ill u n c e r ta in w hen
o f f i c e a u to m a tio n w ill h ave the g r e a t e s t
im p a c t on c l e r i c a l e m p lo y m e n t, the
e f f e c t s a re n ot lik e ly to be e x te n s iv e
f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . E v e n in su ch ro u tin e
j o b s a s th o s e o f file c l e r k and a d d in g ,
b illin g , o r c a lc u la tin g m a c h in e o p e r a t o r ,
m a n y e m p lo y m e n t o p p o r tu n itie s sh ou ld
con tin u e to a r i s e th rou g h ou t the e a r ly
I 9 6 0 1 s.
S in ce l a r g e - s c a l e e l e c t r o n i c
d a t a - p r o c e s s i n g e q u ip m e n t i s c o m p le x
and e x p e n s iv e , e v e n b ig c o m p a n ie s take
tim e to w e ig h c a r e fu lly the a d v a n ta g es
o f a co m p u tin g s y s t e m .
It m a y take
m a n y m o n th s to c o m p le t e the stu d ie s
n e e d e d in a r r iv in g at a d e c i s i o n to
in s t a ll a c o m p u t e r . A fte r the e q u ip m e n t
i s o r d e r e d , a g r e a t d e a l o f tim e m u s t be
sp en t b e f o r e the a ctu a l in s ta lla tio n in
o r d e r to p la n f o r a n d to tr a in p e r s o n n e l
in i t s u s e .
F u rth erm ore, m o st c o m ­
p a n ie s sp en d s e v e r a l m o n t h s --s o m e t im e s
a y e a r o r m o r e - - i n s o - c a l l e d n p a r a lle lw
o p e r a t io n s , w hen the r e g u la r c l e r i c a l
s ta ff c o n tin u e s to p e r f o r m a ll o r p a r t
o f the w o r k that i s b ein g run on the
c o m p u t e r . T h is du a l o p e r a tio n g r a d u a lly
t a p e r s o f f as the d e ta ils a r e w o r k e d out
f o r a s m o o th t r a n s fe r o f the fu n c tio n s
to the co m p u tin g s y s t e m .
In the l o n g ru n , it i s e x p e c te d
that an i n c r e a s in g am ou n t o f c l e r i c a l
w o r k in b u s in e s s f i r m s and g o v e r n m e n t
a g e n c ie s w ill b e tak en o v e r b y e le c t r o n i c
co m p u tin g s y s t e m s .
E m p lo y e r s a r e
fa c e d w ith the n e c e s s i t y o f p r o c e s s in g
a lo a d o f o f fic e w o r k that g r o w s h e a v ie r
a s b u s in e s s ex p a n d s and a s fu n c tio n s
su ch a s a c c o u n tin g , b u d g e t i n g , and
m a rk e tin g b e c o m e m o r e c o m p le x .
It
h a s b e e n d e m o n s tr a te d that the c o m p u t e r s
ca n p e r f o r m th is w o r k w ith g r e a t e r
sp eed a n d a c c u r a c y t h a n
a large
c l e r i c a l s ta ff.
A s c o m p a n i e s g a in
e x p e r ie n c e i n u s i n g th is e q u ip m e n t,
th ey w ill be a b le to sh ift m o r e a n d
m o r e o f f i c e fu n c tio n s t o c o m p u t e r s .
S m a lle r and l e s s e x p e n s iv e c o m p u t e r s
a r e e x p e c t e d to be u s e d in a g ro w in g
n u m b e r o f e s ta b lis h m e n ts that ca n n ot
a ffo r d the m o r e e x p e n s iv e c o m p u t e r s .
7

The job o f console operator is one o f the new occupations arising out o f the use o f
ele c tr o n ic computers

M o r e o v e r , o th e r n ew o f f i c e m a c h in e s
w h ic h w ill p r o b a b ly b e c o m e a v a ila b le
m a y b e u s e d a lo n g w ith c o m p u t e r s to
s p e e d up r e c o r d i n g , c o p y in g , an d o th e r
a sp e cts o f o ffic e w ork .
T h e s e d e v e lo p m e n t s w ill n o t o n ly
i n c r e a s e th e output o f c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s
and s lo w d ow n g r o w th in c l e r i c a l e m ­
ployment,
but w ill a ls o ch a n g e the
ch a ra cte r o f m any jo b s .
J u st a s m a ­
ch in e b o o k k e e p e r s h a v e l a r g e l y r e p la c e d
h a n d b o o k k e e p e r s in b i g c o m p a n ie s ,
p r o g r a m m e r s and c o m p u t e r o p e r a t o r s
m a y take o v e r the b o o k k e e p in g fu n c tio n .
T h e d e m a n d f o r w o r k e r s in j o b s r e la t e d
to c o m p u t e r s w i ll co n tin u e to g r o w .
M an y o f the n e w jo b s - - m e t h o d s a n a ly s t,
p r o g r a m m e r , c o m p u t e r -c o n s o le o p e r a to r ,
a n d o th e r c o m p u t in g - s y s t e m m a c h in e
o p e r a t o r s - - w i l l g e n e r a lly p a y b e t t e r and
r e q u ir e h ig h e r l e v e l s o f s k ill and tra in in g
than m o s t o th e r c l e r i c a l j o b s . M o r e o v e r ,
a co n tin u e d i n c r e a s e i s e x p e c t e d in the
lu m b e r o f o f f ic e w o r k e r s in jo t s n o t g r e a t ly
a ffe cte d b y o f f i c e a u t o m a t io n -^ o r exam ple,
secreta ry ,
ste n o g ra p h e r, m e s s e n g e r ,
r e c e p t i o n i s t and oth e rs in v o lv in g c o n t a c t s
w ith c u s t o m e r s and the p u b lic .
8




In the fu tu r e , a s in the p a s t, the
g r e a t e s t n u m b e r o f e m p lo y m e n t o p p o r tu ­
n it ie s in c l e r i c a l w o r k w ill c o m e f r o m
e m p lo y e e t u r n o v e r .
T u rn ov er is e x ­
c e p t io n a lly h igh in the c l e r i c a l f ie ld ,
b e c a u s e so m a n y o f the w o r k e r s in these
j o b s a r e y ou n g w o m e n w h o, a fte r a fe w
y e a r s , stop w o r k in g to m a r r y o r to c a r e
f o r c h ild r e n .
E m p lo y e r s h a v e c it e d the
h ig h ra te o f tu r n o v e r a m o n g o f f i c e w o r k e r s a s on e o f the f a c t o r s in flu ­
e n cin g th e ir d e c i s i o n to in s t a ll e l e c t r o n i c
co m p u tin g m a c h in e s .
The fa c t that th e s e m a c h in e s a r e
lik e ly to be u s e d to a g r o w in g ex ten t
on a sh ift b a s i s - - s o m e t i m e s a ro u n d the
c l o c k - - p o i n t s to in c r e a s in g e m p lo y m e n t
of m en.
M o r e o v e r , the e x t e n s iv e u se
o f co m p u tin g e q u ip m e n t m a y r e d u c e the
n u m b e r o f p a r t -t im e c l e r i c a l j o b s - - m o s t
o f w h ich a r e n ow f i l l e d b y w o m e n .
T he
w id e s p r e a d u s e o f e l e c t r o n i c d a ta p r o c e s s in g e q u ip m e n t m a y r e d u c e the
p r o p o r t io n o f w o m e n e m p lo y e d in c le r i c a l
o c c u p a t io n s . N e v e r t h e le s s , w o m e n w ill
con tin u e to p r e d o m in a te in the c l e r i c a l
fi e ld and t u r n o v e r w ill p r o v id e th ou sa n d s
o f jo b o p e n in g s e a c h y e a r .

'P ’io y i4 * K m € > u

Nature of Work
T he o c c u p a t io n o f p r o g r a m m e r i s
on e o f the n e w e s t in the c o u n tr y . P e o p le
in th is o c c u p a t io n p r e p a r e " p r o g r a m s "
f o r the g r e a t n ew e l e c t r o n i c c o m p u t e r s ,
s p e c ify in g e x a c t ly w hat s te p s th e s e m a ­
c h in e s sh ou ld take to g e t the d e s ir e d
r e s u l t s . The " p r o g r a m " i s put on c a r d s
o r t a p e s , a s in d ic a te d in the f i r s t s e c t io n
o f th is r e p o r t , and a c o m p le t e o p e r a t io n
su ch a s p r e p a r in g b i l l s f o r m a n y th ou ­
sa n d s o f c u s t o m e r s ca n th en be don e
at a m a z i n g s p e e d b y the e l e c t r o n i c
c o m p u t e r and it s p e r ip h e r a l e q u ip m e n t
( " r e a d e r s , " c o n v e r t e r s , and p r i n t e r s ) .
P r o g r a m m e r s u s u a lly s p e c ia l i z e in 1 o f
the 2 m a in ty p e s o f w o r k on w h ich c o m ­
p u te r s a r e u s e d - - p r o c e s s i n g the g r e a t
m a s s e s o f d ata w h ic h h a v e to b e h a n d led
in l a r g e b u s in e s s and g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c e s ,
o r so lv in g s c i e n t i f ic a n d e n g in e e r in g
p r o b le m s .
T h e r e a r e fo u r m a in s t e p s in
p r o g r a m m in g - - a n a ly z in g t h e p r o b le m ,
p r e p a r in g a flo w d ia g r a m , w r itin g d e ­
ta ile d i n s t r u c t io n s , and m a k in g su r e the
p r o g r a m w o r k s on the c o m p u t e r .
The
p r o g r a m m e r u s e s h is k n o w le d g e o f w hat
the c o m p u t e r ca n do and h is f a m ilia r it y
w ith the s u b je c t m a t t e r o f a p r o b le m to
plan the m o s t e f f ic ie n t w a y o f u sin g the
co m p u te r.
F o r e x a m p le , in plan n in g
to u se an e l e c t r o n i c c o m p u t e r to do the
v a s t a m ou n t o f c l e r i c a l w o r k in v o lv e d in
m a k in g up a p a y r o l l- - c o m p u t in g g r o s s
and n et p a y , ty p in g and s o r tin g p a y c h e c k s , and k e e p i n g r e c o r d s — the
p r o g r a m m e r a n a ly ze s h o w p a y r o ll r e c o r d s
are p rep a red .
T o u n d e r s ta n d the k in d s
o f r e p o r t s n e e d e d and t h e ir tim in g , he
m a y h a v e d is c u s s i o n s w ith c o m p a n y
p e r s o n n e l at a ll l e v e l s .
W hen a ll the
in fo r m a t io n i s a s s e m b le d , the p r o g r a m ­
m e r p r e p a r e s a f lo w c h a r t sh ow in g the
l o g i c a l o r d e r in w h ich v a r io u s o p e r a t io n s
m u st be p e r f o r m e d b y the m a c h in e s . He
then w r it e s the m a n y h u n d r e d s - - s o m e ­
tim e s th ou s a n d s - - o f p r o g r a m in stru ctio n s.
The fin a l in s t r u c t io n s a r e c o d e d in to
s p e c ia l m a c h in e la n g u a g e w h ic h i s c o n ­
v e r t e d in to h o le s on p u n ch ed c a r d s and
p a p e r ta p e s o r m a r k s on m a g n e t ic t a p e s .




F in a lly , the p r o g r a m m e r m u s t have
s e v e r a l t r i a l r u n s o f the c a r d s o r ta p e s
m a d e on the c o m p u te r in o r d e r to " d e b u g "
h is p r o g r a m (c h e c k it s a c c u r a c y ) .
To
c o m p le t e th is e n tir e p r o c e s s m a y take
a fe w m o n th s o r a y e a r o r lo n g e r , and
the i n s t r u c t i o n s p r e p a r e d m a y f i l l
s e v e r a l bu lk y v o lu m e s .
P r o g r a m m e r s e n g a g e d in s o lv in g
s c i e n t i f ic o r e n g in e e r in g p r o b le m s a ls o
p e r f o r m a n a ly tic a l w o r k , p r e p a r e flo w
c h a r t s , w r ite in s t r u c t io n s , and t e s t their
p rogram s.
In th is w o r k , h o w e v e r , the
p r o g r a m m e r d e a ls c h ie fly w ith s c ie n t is t s
and m a th e m a tic ia n s w ho g iv e h im the
p r o b le m i n c o m p lic a t e d m a th e m a tic a l
fo r m u la s w h ich he h a s to s im p lify in to
a r it h m e t ic f o r m s the c o m p u t e r s ca n
h a n d le . T h is " n u m e r i c a l a n a ly s is " ca n
b e a p p lie d to m a n y ty p e s o f r e s e a r c h
p r o b le m s ; f o r e x a m p le , in c o n n e c tio n
w ith m i s s i l e d e s ig n in g , the c o m p u t e r ca n
be u s e d to g iv e a n s w e r s to a v a r ie t y o f
s im u la te d flig h t p r o b l e m s .
The b a s ic
id e a i s to m a t h e m a t ic a lly i m i t a t e a
p h y s ic a l situ a tio n and, b y s o lv in g the
e q u a tio n s , a n ticip a te the r e s u lt s w ith ou t
a c tu a lly s e e in g o r d o in g an e x p e r im e n t.
In on e o f the n e w e s t a p p lic a t io n s , a fe w
p r o g r a m m e r s p r e p a r e in s t r u c t io n s f o r
the e l e c t r o n i c d e v i c e s that c o n t r o l m a ­
ch in e t o o l s in f a c t o r i e s ; th e s e d e v i c e s
m a k e it p o s s i b le t o p r o d u c e a i r c r a f t
p a r ts and o th e r p r o d u c t s w ith g r e a t e r
p r e c i s i o n and s p e e d than w hen m a c h in e s
a r e c o n t r o ll e d b y h um an b e in g s . In t h i s
ty p e o f w ork , s o m e tim e s c a l l e d 'h u m e r i c a l
c o n t r o l" o f m a c h in e t o o l s , p r o g r a m m e r s
o fte n w o r k c l o s e l y w ith e n g in e e r s and
s k ille d m a c h in is t s .
In b ig o f f i c e s w ith la r g e co m p u tin g
system s,
several program m ers a t
d iffe r e n t l e v e l s o f r e s p o n s ib ilit y m a y
w o r k a s a te a m on one p r o b le m .
A
s e n io r p r o g r a m m e r m a y h ave o v e r a ll
r e s p o n s ib ilit y f o r the e n tir e p r o g r a m
a n d m a y d i r e c t o th e r p r o g r a m m e r s .
B eg in n in g o r ju n io r p r o g r a m m e r s a r e
u s u a lly a s s ig n e d to w r ite s p e c i f i c p a r ts
o f b r o a d p r o g r a m s . M e th o d s , s y s t e m s ,
o r p r o c e d u r e a n a ly s ts a re s o m e t im e s
e m p lo y e d to d o m o s t o f the a n a ly tic a l

9

w o r k r e q u ir e d f o r p r o g r a m m in g and to
m a k e r e c o m m e n d a t io n s a s to w h e th e r a
p a r t ic u la r o p e r a t i o n ca n be h a n d led
e ffic ie n t ly b y a c o m p u t e r .

Where Employed
S e v e r a l th ou sa n d p r o g r a m m e r s
w e r e e m p lo y e d in 1958, c h ie fly in m e t ­
r o p o lit a n a r e a s w h e r e the m a in o f f i c e s o f
c o r p o r a t io n s and g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c ie s a r e
lo c a t e d .
In s u ra n c e c o m p a n ie s , p u b lic
u t ilit ie s , and g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c ie s a r e
a m on g the le a d in g e m p l o y e r s . P r o g r a m ­
m e r s a r e a ls o e m p lo y e d in m a n y m a n ­
u fa ctu r in g i n d u s t r i e s - - e l e c t r i c a l e q u ip ­
m e n t, p e t r o le u m , c h e m i c a ls , a i r c r a f t ,
a u t o m o b ile s , and o t h e r s - - a n d in s c i e n ­
t i f ic and e n g in e e r in g l a b o r a t o r i e s , and
in n e w ly e s t a b lis h e d c o m p u t e r c e n t e r s .
The n u m b e r o f p r o g r a m m e r s e m ­
p lo y e d b y a c o m p a n y d e p e n d s n ot o n ly

on the s iz e and n u m b e r o f e l e c t r o n i c
c o m p u t e r s in u s e , but a ls o on the num ­
b e r and c o m p le x it y o f the o p e r a t io n s
b ein g p r o g r a m m e d .
A c o m p a n y w ith
1 la r g e c o m p u te r m a y e m p lo y f r o m
10 to 30 o r m o r e p r o g r a m m e r s ; one
w ith a m e d i u m - s i z e d c o m p u t e r m a y
h a v e o n ly 2 o r 3 p r o g r a m m e r s .
A
n u m b e r o f la r g e c o m p a n ie s h ave s e v e r a l
gian t c o m p u t e r s , alth ou gh u s u a lly on ly
one i s at any on e o f f i c e o r plan t. A t e a c h
lo c a t io n , one o r m o r e m e d i u m - s i z e d
o r s m a ll c o m p u t e r s m a y a ls o be u s e d .

Training, Other Qualifications,
and Advancement
C o m p a n ie s h ave b e e n fillin g m o s t
p o s it io n s in t h i s n ew o c c u p a tio n b y
s e le c t in g e m p lo y e e s f a m ilia r w ith the
s u b je c t m a tte r to be p r o g r a m m e d and
g iv in g th em tra in in g i n p r o g r a m m in g
w o r k . S in ce m a n y o f the o f f i c e o p e r a tio n s

COURTESY OF

S e n i o r programmer p o i n t i n g o u t

10




s t e p s in a f l o w diagram
program m er team

VETERANS

AD M IN ISTR ATIO N

to o t h e r m em bers o f a

w h ich a r e b e in g ta k en o v e r b y e l e c t r o n i c
c o m p u t e r s in v o lv e a c c o u n t i n g w o r k ,
e m p lo y e e s w ith e x p e r ie n c e in a c c o u n tin g
d e p a r tm e n ts h a v e o fte n b e e n s e le c t e d
f o r p r o g r a m m e r tr a in in g .
H ow ever,
n ew c o l le g e g r a d u a te s a r e s o m e t im e s
h ir e d a s t r a i n e e s , p a r t ic u la r ly f o r
p r o g r a m m in g s c i e n t i f ic w o r k .
M en a re p r e fe r r e d as p ro g r a m m e r
t r a in e e s in m o s t a r e a s o f w o r k .
A l­
th ou gh m a n y e m p lo y e r s r e c o g n i z e the
a b ility o f w o m e n to d o p r o g r a m m in g ,
th ey a r e r e l u c t a n t to pa y f o r th e ir
tra in in g in v ie w o f the la r g e p r o p o r t io n
o f w o m e n w h o sto p w o r k in g w h en th ey
m a r r y o r w h en th e y h a v e c h i l d r e n .
O p p o rtu n itie s f o r w o m e n to be s e le c t e d
a s t r a in e e s a r e lik e ly to be b e t t e r in
g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c i e s than in p r iv a te
in d u s tr y .
T o fin d ou t w h ich in d iv id u a ls h ave
an aptitu d e f o r p r o g r a m m in g and sh ou ld
t h e r e fo r e b e s e le c t e d f o r tr a in in g , m o s t
c o m p a n ie s g iv e g e n e r a l in t e llig e n c e te sts
and s p e c ia l t e s t s w h ich m e a s u r e t h e
a b ility to think l o g i c a l l y and d o a b s t r a c t
r e a s o n in g , and th en in t e r v ie w the p e o p le
With the h ig h e s t t e s t s c o r e s .
P erson al
c h a r a c t e r is t i c s c o n s id e r e d im p o r ta n t f o r
th is o c c u p a t i o n in c lu d e p a t ie n c e , a
l o g i c a l and s y s t e m a t ic a p p r o a c h to the
s o lu tio n o f p r o b l e m s , and the a b ilit y
to w o r k w ith e x t r e m e a c c u r a c y , payin g
c l o s e a tten tion to d e t a il.
Im a g in a tio n
i s a ls o an a s s e t , s in c e p r o g r a m m e r s
o fte n h a v e to d e v i s e n e w w a y s o f
a tta ck in g a p r o b le m .
T r a in in g in p r o g r a m m in g i s u s u a lly
g iv e n at com pa n y e x p e n s e --o ft e n in s p e c ia l
s c h o o ls e s t a b lis h e d b y the m a n u fa c t u r e r s
o f e l e c t r o n i c c o m p u tin g e q u ip m e n t, a l­
though l a r g e c o m p a n ie s w h ic h h a v e u s e d
c o m p u te r s f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s a r e b e g in n in g
to d e v e lo p t h e ir ow n tr a in in g p r o g r a m s .
T r a in e e s u s u a lly sp en d a fe w w e e k s i n
l e c t u r e c o u r s e s , c o m b in e d w ith p r a c t i c a l
d e m o n s t r a t io n s o f the e l e c t r o n i c c o m ­
puting s y s t e m u s e d b y th e ir c o m p a n y .
A f t e r c o m p le t in g th e b a s ic p r o g r a m ,
t r a in e e s p r a c t i c e w r itin g and c o d in g
in s t r u c t io n s and t e s t i n g th e m on the
com p u ters.
T h o s e w h o c o m p le t e th is
b a s ic p r o g r a m s a t i s f a c t o r i l y a r e fin a lly
s e le c t e d a s p r o g r a m m e r s and a r e u s u a lly
g iv e n s e v e r a l w e e k s o f a d d itio n a l p r e p ­




a r a tio n at the co m p a n y b e f o r e sta rtin g
on th e ir f i r s t r e g u l a r a s s ig n m e n ts .
F u r th e r tra in in g i s g e n e r a lly n e c e s s a r y
w hen a c o m p a n y in t r o d u c e s a new type
of com p u ter.
E d u c a tio n a l re q u irem en ts h ave b e e n
ch a n g in g r a p id ly in th is new o c c u p a tio n
and m a y con tin u e to do s o .
A c o lle g e
d e g r e e o r e q u iv a le n t e x p e r ie n c e i s r e ­
q u ir e d f o r a ll e n tr y p r o g r a m m in g p o ­
s itio n s in the F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t.
In
p r iv a te e m p lo y m e n t, c o l le g e g ra d u a tio n
i s l e s s lik e ly to b e r e q u ir e d f o r p r o ­
g r a m m e r s o f o f f i c e data, a lth ou gh c o u r s e s
in b u s i n e s s a d m in is tr a tio n in clu d in g ]
a cco u n tin g and s t a t is t ic s a r e v e r y h e lp fu l.
M any e m p lo y e r s n o l o n g e r s t r e s s a
stro n g b a c k g r o u n d in m a th e m a tic s f o r
p r o g r a m m in g o f b u s in e s s o r o th e r m a s s
d a ta i f ca n d id a te s ca n d e m o n s tr a te an
aptitude f o r the w o r k .
H ow ever, p ro ­
g r a m m e r s o f s c ie n t ific and e n g in e e r in g
p r o b le m s a re u s u a lly c o l le g e g ra d u a te s
w ith a m a jo r in one o f the s c i e n c e s o r
in e n g in e e r in g and s o m e c o u r s e s in
m a th e m a tic s.
A g r o w in g n u m b e r o f c o u r s e s in
e l e c t r o n i c d a t a - p r o c e s s i n g a re b e c o m in g
a v a ila b le in c o l l e g e s and u n iv e r s it ie s .
Such c o u r s e s h e lp you n g p e o p le t o
d e c id e w h eth er th ey lik e th is type o f
w o r k and m a y a ls o h e lp e x p e r ie n c e d
p r o g r a m m e r s to a d v a n ce to h ig h e r l e v e l
j o b s . A b ou t 15 c o l l e g e s and u n iv e r s it ie s
h ave co m p u tin g c e n t e r s and o ffe r p r o ­
g r a m s o f c o m p u te r tra in in g in clu d in g
b a s ic c o u r s e s su ch a s the m e c h a n ic s
o f c o m p u t e r s , the g e n e r a l l o g i c o f
p r o g r a m m in g , and c o d i n g f o r c o m ­
p u te r s , and a ls o a d v a n ce d c o u r s e s f o r
m a n a g e r ia l p e r s o n n e l.
Many other
c o l l e g e s o f f e r one o r m o r e c o u r s e s
r e la tin g to the u se o f e l e c t r o n i c c o m ­
p u ter s.
C h a n c e s f o r a d v a n ce m e n t a r e g o o d
in th is ex p a n d in g o c c u p a tio n .
I n la r g e
c o m p a n ie s , the ju n io r p r o g r a m m e r m a y
b e c o m e a f u l l- f l e d g e d p r o g r a m m e r a fte r
a y e a r o r tw o o f e x p e r ie n c e and la t e r
m a y be p r o m o t e d to s e n io r p r o g r a m m e r
in c h a r g e o f a te a m o f p r o g r a m m e r s ,
o r p e r h a p s to m e th o d s , s y s t e m s , o r
p r o c e d u r e s a n a ly s t.
P r o m o t io n i s a ls o
p o s s ib le to h ig h e r p o s i t i o n s su ch a s
m a n a g e r in c h a r g e o f p r o g r a m a n a ly s is ,
11

m a n a g e r o f the co m p u tin g c e n t e r , and
v i c e p r e s id e n t in c h a r g e o f m e th o d s
research .

Employment Outlook
E m p lo y m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r
p r o g r a m m e r s a r e e x p e c t e d to r e m a in
v e r y fa v o r a b le th ro u g h the e a r ly 1960*s.
A d d itio n a l p r o g r a m m e r s w ill be n e e d e d
both b y e m p lo y e r s a lr e a d y u sin g e l e c ­
t r o n i c c o m p u t e r s , and b y th o s e plan n ing
to in s t a ll su ch e q u i p m e n t .
Few er
o p e n in g s a r e a n tic ip a te d in the s c i e n t i fic
and e n g in e e r in g fie ld than in p r o g r a m ­
m in g o f o f f i c e and o th e r m a s s data.
However,
t h e n u m b e r o f q u a lifie d
c a n d id a te s f o r p r o g r a m m e r jo b s m a y
a ls o b e s m a lle r in the t e c h n ic a l fie ld ,
s in c e c o l le g e g r a d u a te s w ith a b a c k ­
g ro u n d in m a t h e m a t ic s , s c i e n c e , and
e n g in e e r in g --w h o a r e p r e f e r r e d f o r th e s e
p r o g r a m m in g j o b s - - w i l l be in s t r o n g
d em a n d f o r m a n y o th e r ty p e s o f w o r k .
C o n tin u e d e x p a n s io n in e m p lo y m e n t
o f p r o g r a m m e r s i s e x p e c t e d o v e r the
lon g ru n , ow in g to the s a m e g e n e r a l
f a c t o r s w h ich h a ve le d to the i n c r e a s e d
u s e o f e l e c t r o n i c c o m p u tin g s y s t e m s
in the r e c e n t p a s t.
In o f f i c e s w h e re
the v o lu m e o f r e c o r d k e e p in g i s g r e a t ,
th e r e w i ll co n tin u e to b e n e e d to r e d u c e
the c o s t o f p r o c e s s i n g t r e m e n d o u s
a m o u n ts o f data and to p r o d u c e b e t t e r ,
m o re t im e ly r e p o r ts on w h ich m a n a g e m e n t
d e c i s i o n s ca n be b a s e d .
E x p e n d itu r e s
f o r s c i e n t if ic and e n g in e e r in g r e s e a r c h
and d e v e lo p m e n t a r e e x p e c t e d to r e m a in
h igh , and e l e c t r o n i c c o m p u t e r s w ill be
u s e d a s an a id in s o lv in g , w ith e x t r a o r ­
d in a r y s p e e d , m o r e and m o r e s c i e n t i fic
and e n g in e e r in g p r o b l e m s .
C om p u ters
w ill a ls o be u s e d i n c r e a s in g ly to w o r k
out p r o b le m s c o n n e c t e d w ith a u to m a tio n
o f f a c t o r y p r o c e s s e s . T h u s, e m p lo y m e n t
o f p r o g r a m m e r s w ill g r o w , a s a d d itio n a l
b u s in e s s e s t a b lis h m e n t s and g o v e r n m e n t
a g e n c ie s in s t a ll t h e ir f i r s t c o m p u t e r s
and o t h e r s e x p a n d t h e ir c o m p u t i n g
systems.
The F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t,
w h ich had a p p r o x im a t e ly 100 a u to m a tic
d a t a - p r o c e ss in g in s t a lla t io n s o p e r a tin g
in c o n n e c t io n w ith o f f i c e - t y p e w o r k in
June 1957, pla n n ed to in s t a ll abou t 35
m o r e s h o r t ly t h e r e a ft e r . A n i n c r e a s in g
n u m b e r o f s m a ll c o m p a n ie s a r e e x p e c t e d
12




to a c q u ir e c o m p u t e r s and e m p lo y p r o ­
g r a m m e r s , ow in g to the d e v e lo p m e n t o f
s m a l l e r , l e s s e x p e n s iv e e q u ip m e n t d e ­
sig n e d f o r u se w h e re the v o l u m e o f
w o r k is n ot l a r g e en ou g h to w a r r a n t the
pu rch ase o f e l a b o r a t e e q u i p m e n t .
F u r t h e r m o r e , r e p la c e m e n t n e e d s r e ­
su ltin g f r o m r e t ir e m e n t and d ea th o f
p r o g r a m m e r s w ill p r o v id e an in c r e a s in g
n u m b e r o f j o b o p e n in g s in the y e a r s
a h ead , s in c e m a n y p e r s o n s tr a in e d in
the 1950* s w e r e m a tu re e m p lo y e e s w ith
s e v e r a l y e a r s o f w o rk in g e x p e r ie n c e .
N ew t e c h n o lo g ic a l and o th e r d e ­
v e lo p m e n ts m a y a ffe c t the a m ou n t and
q u a lity o f the w o r k o f the p r o g r a m m e r .
F o r e x a m p le , the u se o f p r o g r a m m in g
l i b r a r i e s (file s o f t e s t e d p r o g r a m s ) and
a u t o m a t i c p r o g r a m m in g h as a lr e a d y
e lim in a te d s o m e o f the ro u tin e w o r k
n e c e s s a r y in p r o g r a m m in g .
E x te n s iv e
u se o f su ch a id s m a y r e d u c e the n e e d
f o r so m e ty p e s o f p r o g r a m m e r s and
r a is e t h e q u a lific a t io n s r e q u ir e d f o r
oth ers.
A n o th e r d e v e lo p m e n t w h i c h
m a y a ffe c t e m p lo y m e n t o p p o r tu n itie s in
th is o c c u p a tio n i s the e s ta b lis h m e n t o f
a d d itio n a l co m p u tin g c e n t e r s w h ich w ou ld
p e r f o r m s e r v i c e s f o r c lie n t s on a fe e
b a s is . P o o lin g o f w o r k in th e s e c e n t e r s
m a y l e a d to s o m e r e d u c t io n s in the
n u m b e r of p ro g ra m m e rs needed b y
in d iv id u a l c o m p a n ie s .
Any d e c r e a s e s
o f th is k in d , h o w e v e r , a re lik e ly to be
m o r e than o f f s e t b y e x p a n s io n in the
p r o g r a m m in g s ta ff s o f the c e n t e r s, w h ich
lo o k f o r w a rd to a g r e a t am ou n t o f b u s in e s s
f r o m s m a ll c o m p a n ie s .

Earnings and Working Conditions
In fo r m a tio n o n p r o g r a m m e r s ' s a l­
a r i e s in c o m p a n ie s w h ich u se l a r g e
e l e c t r o n i c co m p u tin g s y s t e m s m a in ly f o r
o f f i c e - t y p e o p e r a t io n s in d ic a t e s a w id e
ra n g e in s a la r y l e v e l s .
T h is r e s u lt s
p a r tly f r o m d i f fe r e n c e s in the c o m p le x it y
o f p r o g r a m m in g o p e r a t io n s and the fa c t
that s a la r y l e v e l s h ave n ot y e t b e c o m e
w e ll e s t a b lis h e d in th is n ew o c c u p a t io n .
J u n io r o r b e g in n in g p r o g r a m m e r s had
sta rtin g s a la r i e s ra n g in g f r o m $ 3 ,6 0 0 to
$ 5 ,4 0 0 in 1957. S a la r ie s a r e g e n e r a lly
i n c r e a s e d a n n u ally f o r a fe w y e a r s - - u p
to a m a x im u m o f $ 4 , 500 to $ 7 , 100 f o r
ju n io r p r o g r a m m e r s . M in im u m s a la r ie s

C O U R T E S Y O F U. S. W E A T H E R B U R E A U

Programmer

"d e b u g g in g " h e r program on a m e d iu m -s iz e d e l e c t r o n i c

o f e x p e r ie n c e d p r o g r a m m e r s p r o m o t e d
to the s e m is e n io r l e v e l g e n e r a lly r a n g e d
f r o m $ 4 , 500 to $ 6 , 500, and th e ir m a x ­
im u m s a la r ie s w e r e f r o m a p p r o x im a t e ly
$ 6 ,0 0 0 to m o r e than $ 8 , 500.
A t the
s e n io r p r o g r a m m e r le v e l , the ra n g e o f
m in im u m s a la r i e s w a s f r o m $ 5 ,2 0 0 to
n e a r ly $ 8 , 000 a n n u a lly , and m a x im u m
e a r n in g s w e r e f r o m abou t $ 7 ,0 0 0 to
a p p r o x im a t e ly $ 1 2 ,0 0 0 . H ig h e r s a la r ie s
a re e a r n e d b y t o p - l e v e l a d m in is t r a t o r s
r e s p o n s ib le f o r p r o g r a m m in g w o r k .
T h e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t p a id m o s t
b eg in n in g p r o g r a m m e r s $ 4 ,0 4 0 a y e a r
in m i d - 1958.
S om e w ith h ig h e r q u a l­
ific a t io n s r e c e i v e d a sta rtin g s a la r y o f
$ 4 ,9 8 0 .
The sta n d a rd w o r k w e e k f o r p r o ­
g r a m m e r s i s u s u a lly 35 to 40 h o u r s ,
d ep en d in g on the in d u s t r y . A lth ou g h the




com p u ter

o p e r a t o r s o f co m p u tin g s y s t e m s (th ose
at the c o m p u t e r 1 s c o n t r o l p a n e l, o r
o p e r a t o r s o f the m a c h in e s that c o n v e r t
and p r in t in fo r m a t io n ) m a y be on a 2 o r 3 - sh ift b a s i s , p r o g r a m m e r s o n ly
o c c a s i o n a l ly w o r k e v e n in g s o r w e e k e n d s
- - f o r e x a m p le , w hen th ey h ave d iffic u lt y
'•debugging1' a p r o g r a m .
L ik e m o s t
o th e r o f f i c e w o r k e r s, p r o g r a m m e r s
u s u a lly r e c e i v e l ib e r a l v a c a t io n s , p a id
h o lid a y s , and s ic k le a v e , and a re a ls o
.c o v e r e d b y life in s u r a n c e , p e n s io n , h o s ­
p ita l, m e d i c a l , and o t h e r e m p l o y e e b e n e fit p la n s.
P r o g r a m m e r s u s u a lly w o r k in w e l llig h te d , a i r -c o n d it io n e d , m o d e r n o f f i c e s.
E m p lo y e r s m ak e s p e c ia l e f f o r t s to p r o ­
v id e b e tte r than a v e r a g e s u r r o u n d in g s f o r
p r o g r a m m e r s , so that th ey m a y c o n c e n ­
tra te to a c h ie v e the e x t r e m e a c c u r a c y
n e c e s s a r y f o r p r o g r a m m in g .
13

Where To Go for More Information
P e r soils i n t e r e s t e d in p r o g r a m m in g
jo b s ca n a p p ly d i r e c t l y to la r g e c o m p a n ie s
th a t h a ve o r a r e plan n in g to i n s t a l l
e l e c t r o n i c c o m p u tin g s y s t e m s .
In fo r m a tio n on c o m p a n ie s that had
e l e c t r o n i c d a t a - p r o c e s s in g e q u ip m e n t
e a r ly in 1957 i s a v a ila b le in A S e co n d
S u rv e y o f D o m e s t ic E l e c t r o n i c D ig ita l

C om p u tin g S y s te m s , U„ S. D e p a r tm e n t o f
C o m m e r c e , O ffic e o f T e c h n ic a l S e r v i c e s ,
1957.
(A v a ila b le f r o m the D e p a rtm e n t
o f C o m m e r c e , W a sh in g ton 25, D . C .
P r ic e $7. )
In fo r m a tio n abou t p r o g r a m m e r job s
in g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c ie s ca n be o b ta in e d
f r o m the U. S. C iv il S e r v ic e C o m m is s io n
and f r o m the a p p r o p r ia te l o c a l c i v i l s e r v i c e a g e n c ie s .

14




U S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1958 0—485182
.

O c c u p a t io n a l O u t lo o k
P u b lic a tio n s

A coordinated g ro u p of publications designed to provide counselors
and students with accurate, up-to-date occupational information
Occupational Outlook
Handbook

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Outlook Quarterly

Separate reports

Comprehensive reference

Periodical to keep

Free material

handbook users

presenting highlights

up-to-date o n .. .

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for those with
specific fields
of interest.

book cov erin g ...
• 5 0 0 occupations
• 25 major industries
• Also available os

Wall Charts,
Summaries

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• Trends

.

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* 7 6 t O ccttfu tfi& u U

O u ttw A

B a s ic in fo r m a t io n f o r c a r e e r p la n n in g,

'% a * ct6 * o 4
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tr a in in g ,

f9 5 7

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The new O cc u p a tio n a l O u tlook H an dbook h as b een c o m p le t e ly r e v is e d .
N ew s e c tio n s
on p h y s ic a l and b i o lo g i c a l s c ie n c e s , s o c ia l s c ie n c e s , a to m ic e n e r g y , e le c t r o n i c s , in d u s tr ia l
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The new d e v e lo p m e n ts that
have b rou g h t s ig n ific a n t c h a n g e s in A m e r ic a n in d u stry d u rin g the 6 y e a r s sin c e the p u b lica tio n
o f the p r e v io u s e d itio n a r e a n a ly z e d and ev a lu a ted , and th e ir im p a c t on e a c h in d u str y and
o c c u p a tio n is a p p r a is e d .
The 1957 e d itio n r e p o r t s on a p p r o x im a te ly 500 o c c u p a t io n s and 25
in d u s t r ie s .
M an y o f th e se a re lis t e d b e lo w .
E a ch r e p o r t d e s c r ib e s the e m p lo y m e n t ou tlo o k , the tra in in g and q u a lific a t io n s r e ­
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P o p u la tio n and e m p lo y m e n t tr e n d s , and tr e n d s
'i n the b r o a d in d u s tr ia l and o c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p s a r e g iv e n as b a ck g ro u n d f o r an u n d ersta n d in g
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h a n dbook to w o r k " in g u id a n ce , an a lp h a b e tic a l in d e x to o c c u p a tio n s w ith c r o s s r e f e r e n c e s ,
and a lis t o f the o c c u p a tio n s a p p ro p r ia te to e a c h c o u n s e l e e 's a b ilitie s i o r fie ld s o f in t e r e s t .
B u lletin N o.

1215.

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I llu s tr a te d .

$4 .

For the first time, occupational information in the Handbook is available as
separate
EMPLOYMENT
OUTLOOK FO R--

on 65 fields of work
Bull.
No.

Accountants ..................................................
A g ricu ltu ral Occupations..........................
A i r T r a n s p o r t a t io n .....................................
A i r c r a ft Manufacturing
Occupations................................................
A rchitects .....................................................
Atomic Energy Field .................................
Automobile I n d u s t r y ...................................
Automobile M e c h a n i c s ...............................
Banking Occupations...................................
B a r b e r s ...........................................................
Beauty O perators .......................................
Biological Sciences ...................................
Blacksmiths ..................................................
Boilermaking Occupations........................
Bookkeepers ..................................................
Building T r a d e s ...........................................
Business Machine Servic em en .............
C om m ercial A r t is ts .................................
Department Store Occupations .............
Diesel Mechanics.........................................
Dietitians and Home Economis ts...........
Dispensing Opticians and
Optical M e c h a n ic s...................................
D r a f t s m e n ......................................................
E le ctric Light and Pow er I n d u s t r y . . . .
Electro nic Technicians ............................
E lectro nics Manufacturing
Occupations
............................................
Electopla ter s ................................................
Engineering ..................................................
F o r e s t e r s ....................................................
Forge Shop Occupations ........................
Foundry Occupations .................................
Health Serv ic e Occupations ....................
Hotel O ccu p a tion s.......................................

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$

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EMPLOYMENT
OUTLOOK FO R-Industrial Chemic als I n d u s t r y ...............
Industrial Machinery R e p a ir m e n ...........
Instrument M a k e r s .....................................
Insurance Occupations ............................
Interior Designers and D ecorators . . .
Iron and Steel I n d u s t r y .............................
J e w e le r s and J e w e lr y Repairm en . . . .
Lawyers .........................................................
L ib rarian s ....................................................
Machining Occupations.............................
Maintenance E lectrician s ........................
Men's Tailored Clothing I n d u str y .........
M i l l w r i g h t s ....................................................
Newspaper R ep orte rs ...............................
Personnel W o r k e r s .......................... . ' . . . .
Petroleum Production and
Refining O c c u p a t io n s ............................
Physical and Earth S c i e n c e s ..................
Plastic Products M a n u fa c tu r in g ...........
Printing Occupations .................................
Psychologists ..............................................
Radio and Television Broadcasting
Occupations ..............................................
R ailroad Occupations ...............................
R efrig eratio n and A i r Conditioning M e c h a n ic s ........................
Restaurant O ccu p a tion s.............................
S e c r e t a ri e s , Stenographers,
and Typists ..............................................
Social S cie nces..............................................
Social W o r k e r s ..............................................
Sta tistician s....................................................
Teaching .........................................................
Telephone Occupations...............................
Watch Repairmen .....................................
Welders and Oxygen C u t t e r s ..................

Bull.
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P rice

12 1 5 - 2 1
12 1 5 - 5 8
12 1 5 - 5 9
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12 1 5 - 2 3
1215-60
12 1 5 - 4 0
1215-41
1215-9
1215-61
1215-24
1215-62
1215-42
1 2 15 - 4 3

15$
5$
5^
15£
5$
15$
5$
5^
5$
20$
5$
i5£
5$
5$
5$

1215-25
1215-4
1215-26
1215-8
1215-44

20$
20$
10£
25$
5$

12 1 5 - 2 7
1215-28

15£
25$

1 2 15 - 6 3
1 2 15 - 2 9

5£
15$

1215-45
1215-6
1215-46
1215-47
1215-1
1215-30
1215-64
1215-65

5$
15£
5$
5$
15£
20$
5$
IO9

Available from the Superintendent of Documents, Washington 25, D. C., or any of the following regional offices
of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U. S. Department of Labor:
630 Sansome St., San Francisco 11, Calif.

105 West Adams St., Chicago 3, III.

50 Seventh St. NE., Atlanta 23, Ga.

18 Oliver St., Boston 10, Mass.




341 Ninth A ve., New York 1, N. Y.


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102