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Occupational Wage Survey
SAVANNAH, GEORGIA
MAY 1964

Bulletin No. 1385-69




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary
BUREAU O F LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




O ccupational Wage Survey
SAVANNAH, GEORGIA




MAY 1964

Bulletin No. 1385-69
July 1964

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clogue, Commissioner
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 2 0 4 0 2 - Price 25 cents




Contents

Preface

Page
The Bureau of Labor Statistics program of annual
occupational wage surveys in metropolitan areas is de­
signed to provide data on occupational earnings, and e s ­
tablishment practices and supplementary wage provisions.
It yields detailed data by selected industry divisions for
metropolitan area labor markets, for economic regions,
and for the United States.
A major consideration in the
program is the need for greater insight into (a) the move­
ment of wages by occupational category and skill level,
and (b) the structure and level of wages among labor
markets and industry divisions.

Wage trends for selected occupational groups------------------------ --------------Tables:
1.
2.

A:
A preliminary report and an individual area bul­
letin present survey results for each labor market studied.
After completion of all of the individual area bulletins for
a round of surveys, a two-part summary bulletin is issued.
The first part brings data for each of the labor markets
studied into one bulletin.
The second part presents in­
formation which has been projected from individual labor
market data to relate to economic regions and the United
States.

B:




Establishments and workers within scope of survey
and number studied___________________________—--------------------------Indexes of standard weekly salaries and straight-time
hourly earnings for selected occupational groups,
and percents of change for selected periods___________________
Occupational earnings:*
A - 1. Office occupations—
men and women----------------------------------A - 2. Professional and technical occupations—
men_____________
A - 3. Office, professional, and technical occupations—
men and women combined-----------------------------------------------A - 4. Maintenance and power plant occupations--------------------------A - 5. Custodial and material movement occupations___________

3
3
5
6
6
7
8

Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions:*
B - l . Minimum entrance salaries for women office
workers___________________________________________________
B -2 .
Shift differentials--------------------------------------------------------------B -3 .
Scheduled weekly hours___________________________________

9
10
11

B -5 .
B -6 .
B -7 .

Eighty-two labor markets currently are included
in the program. Information on occupational earnings is
collected annually in each area. Information on establish­
ment practices and supplementary wage provisions is ob­
tained biennially in most of the areas.
This bulletin presents results of the survey in
Savannah, G a ., in May 1964.
It was prepared in the
Bureau* s regional office in Atlanta, G a ., by George G.
Farish, under the direction of Donald M. Cruse, Regional
Wage Analyst.

4

13
15
16

Appendix:

Paid vacations-------------------------------------------------------------------Health, insurance,and pension plans______________________
Paid sick leave-------------------------------------------------------------------

Occupational descriptions_
_

*NOTE: Similar tabulations are available for other
areas. (See inside back cover.)
Union scales, indicative of prevailing pay levels in
the Savannah area, are also available for seven selected
building trades.

fi
i

17




O ccupational Wage Survey—Savannah, Ga.
Introduction
as for office clerical occupations, reference is to the work schedules
(rounded to the nearest half hour) for which straight-time salaries
are paid; average weekly earnings for these occupations have been
rounded to the nearest half dollar.

This area is 1 of 82 labor markets in which the U. S. De­
partment of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics conducts surveys of
occupational earnings atid related wage benefits on an areawide basis.
In this area, data were obtained by personal visits of Bureau field
economists to representative establishments within six broad industry
divisions: Manufacturing; transportation, communication, and other
public utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and
real estate; and services. Major industry groups excluded from these
studies are government operations and the construction and extractive
industries. Establishments having fewer than a prescribed number of
workers are omitted because they tend to furnish insufficient employ­
ment in the occupations studied to warrant inclusion. Separate tabu­
lations are provided for each of the broad industry divisions which
meet publication criteria.

Differences in pay levels for selected occupations in which
both men and women are commonly employed may be due to such
factors as (1) differences in the distribution of the sexes among in­
dustries and establishments; (2) differences in length of service or
merit review when individual salaries are adjusted on this basis;
and (3) differences in specific duties performed, although the occu­
pations are appropriately classified within the same survey job de­
scription. Job descriptions used in classifying employees in these
surveys are usually more generalized than those used in individual
establishments. This allows for minor differences among establish­
ments in specific duties performed.

These surveys are conducted on a sample basis because of
the unnecessary cost involved in surveying all establishments. To
obtain optimum accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of
large than of sm all establishments is studied. In combining the data,
however, all establishments are given their appropriate weight. E s ­
timates based on the establishments studied are presented, therefore,
as relating to all establishments in the industry grouping and area,
except for those below the minimum size studied.

Occupational employment estimates represent the total in
all establishments within the scope of the study and not the number
actually surveyed. Because of differences in occupational structure
among establishments, the estimates of occupational employment
obtained from the sample of establishments studied serve only to
indicate the relative importance of the jobs studied. These differ­
ences in occupational structure do not materially affect the accuracy
of the earnings data.

Occupations and Earnings
The occupations selected for study are common to a variety
of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries, and are of the
following types: (a) Office clerical; (b) professional and technical;
(c) maintenance and powerplant; and (d) custodial and material move­
ment. Occupational classification is based on a uniform set of job
descriptions designed to take account of inter establishment variation
in duties within the same job. The occupations selected for study
are listed and described in the appendix. Earnings data for some of
the occupations listed and described are not presented in the A -series
tables because either (1) employment in the occupation is too small
to provide enough data to merit presentation, or (2) there is possi­
bility of disclosure of individual establishment data.

Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Information is presented (in the B -series tables) on selected
establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions as they
relate to office and plant workers. Administrative, executive, and
professional employees, and force-account construction workers who
are utilized as a separate work force are excluded. "Office workers"
include working supervisors and nonsupervisory workers performing
clerical or related functions. "Plant workers" include working foremen
and all nonsupervisory workers (including leadmen and trainees) en­
gaged in nonoffice functions. Cafeteria workers and routemen are
excluded in manufacturing industries, but included in nonmanufacturing
industries.

Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for
full-time workers, i. e. , those hired to work a regular weekly schedule
in the given occupational classification. Earnings data exclude pre­
mium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late
shifts. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded, but cost-of-living bonuses
and incentive earnings are included. Where weekly hours are reported,




Minimum entrance salaries (table B -l) relate only to the e s­
tablishments visited. They are presented in terms of establishments
with formal minimum entrance salary policies.

1

2
Shift differential data (table B-2) are limited to plant workers
in manufacturing industries. This information is presented both in
terms of (a) establishment p olicy,1 presented in terms of total plant
worker employment, and (b) effective practice, presented in terms of
workers actually employed on the specified shift at the time of the
survey. In establishments having varied differentials, the amount
applying to a majority was used or, if no amount applied to a majority,
the classification "oth er" was used. In establishments in which some
late-shift hours are paid at normal rates, a differential was recorded
only if it applied to a majority of the shift hours.
The scheduled weekly hours (table B-3) of a majority of the
first-shift workers in an establishment are tabulated as applying to
all of the plant or office workers of that establishment. Paid holidays;
paid vacations; and health, insurance, and pension plans (tables B -4
through B-7) are treated statistically on the basis that these are
applicable to all plant or office workers if a majority of such workers
are eligible or may eventually qualify for the practices listed. Sums
of individual items in tables B -2 through B -7 may not equal totals
because of rounding.
Data on paid holidays (table B-4) are limited to data on
holidays granted annually on a formal basis; i. e. , (1) are provided
for in written form, or (2) have been established by custom. Holidays
ordinarily granted are included even though they may fall on a non­
workday, even if the worker is not granted another day off. The first
part of the paid holidays table presents the number of whole and half
holidays actually granted. The second part combines whole and half
holidays to show total holiday time.
The summary of vacation plans (table B-5) is limited to
formal policies, excluding informal arrangements whereby time off
with pay is granted at the discretion of the employer. Separate
estimates are provided according to employer practice in computing
vacation payments, such as time payments, percent of annual earnings,
or flat-sum amounts. However, in the tabulations of vacation pay,
payments not on a time basis were converted to a time basis; for
example, a payment of 2 percent of annual earnings was considered
as the equivalent of 1 week's pay.
A n establishment was considered as having a policy if it m et either o f the following
conditions: (1) Operated late shifts at the time o f the survey, or (2 ) had formal provisions covering
late shifts. An estaUidiment was considered as having formal provisions if it (1 ) had operated late
diifts during die 12 months prior to die survey, or (2) had provisions in written form for operating
late shifts.




Data are presented for all health, insurance, and pension
plans (tables B -6 and B-7) for which at least a part of the cost is
borne by the employer, excepting only legal requirements such as
workmen's compensation, social security, and railroad retirement.
Such plans include those underwritten by a commercial insurance
company and those provided through a union fund or paid directly
by the employer out of current operating funds or from a fund set
aside for this purpose. Death benefits are included as a form of
life insurance.
Sickness and accident insurance is limited to that type of
insurance under which predetermined cash payments are made directly
to the insured on a weekly or monthly basis during illness or accident
disability.
Information is presented for all such plans to which the
employer contributes. However, in New York and New Jersey, which
have enacted temporary disability insurance laws which require em ­
ployer contributions, 2 plans are included only if the employer (1) con­
tributes more than is legally required, or (2) provides the employee
with benefits which exceed the requirements of the law. Tabulations
of paid sick leave plans are limited to formal plans3 which provide
full pay or a proportion of the worker's pay during absence from work
because of illness.
Separate tabulations are presented according to
(1) plans which provide full pay and no waiting period, and (2) plans
which provide either partial pay or a waiting period. In addition to
the presentation of the proportions of workers who are provided
sickness and accident insurance or paid sick leave, an unduplicated
total is shown of workers who receive either or both types of benefits.
Catastrophe insurance, sometimes referred to as extended
medical insurance, includes those plans which are designed to protect
employees in case of sickness and injury involving expenses beyond
the normal coverage of hospitalization, medical, and surgical plans.
Medical insurance refers to plans providing for complete or partial
payment of doctors' fees. Such plans may be underwritten by com­
mercial insurance companies or nonprofit organizations or they may
be self-insured. Tabulations of retirement pension plans are limited
to those plans that provide monthly payments for the remainder of
the worker's life.

2 The temporary disability laws in California and Rhode Island do not require em ployer
contributions.
9 An establishment was considered as having a formal plan if it established at least the
minimum number o f days o f sick leave that could be expected by each em ployee. Such a plan
need not be written, but informal sick leave allowances, determined on an individual basis, were
excluded.

3

Table 1.

Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied in Savannah, Ga.,
Minimum
employment
in establish­
ments in scope
of study

Industry division

A ll divisions

_____ —

—

—

------

—

— .....

Manuf actur ing
....
. . . .
- _
Nonmanufacturing---------------------------------------------------------------------Transportation, communication, and other
public utilities 5---------------------- ------------------------------------------Wholesale tra d e ------------------------------------------------------------------Re tail tr ade________ __________________________ ___ . . . ___ ____
Finance, insurance, and real estate
Services 8-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

by m ajor industry division, 2 May 1964

Number of establishments

W orkers in establishments
Within scope of study

Within
scope of
study 3

Studied

Studied
T o ta l4

Office

Plant

T otal4

110

62

20. 400

2. 800

14. 800

16. 840

50
-

42
68

26
36

12, 500
7, 900

1, 200
1, 600

9 ,8 0 0
5, 000

11, 160
5, 680

50
50
50
50
50

15
9
29
6
9

11
4
12
3
6

3, 300
500
2, 500
700
900

700

1, 800
(6)
6)
(7)
(6)

3, 120
240
1, 280
430
610

0
(6)
(6)
(6)

1 The Savannah Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area consists of Chatham County.
The “ workers within scope of study" estim ates shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate
description of the size and com position of the labor force included in the survey.
The estim ates are not intended, however, to serve as a basis of com parison with other employment indexes
for the area to m easure employment trends or levels since (1) planning of wage surveys requires the use of establishment data compiled considerably in advance of the payroll period studied,
and (2) sm all establishm ents are excluded from the scope of the survey.
2 The 1957 revised edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual was used in classifying establishments by industry division.
3 Includes all establishm ents with total employment at or above the minimum limitation. A ll outlets (within the area) of companies in such industries as trade, finance, auto repair
service, and motion picture theaters are considered as 1 establishment.
4 Includes executive, professional, and other workers excluded from the separate office and plant categories.
5 Taxicabs and services incidental to water transportation w ere excluded. Savannah's transit system is municipally operated and is excluded by definition from the scope of the study.
6 This industry division is represented in estim ates for "a ll industries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the Series A tables, and for " a l l industries" in the Series B tables. Separate presentation
of data for this division is not made for one or m ore of the following reasons: (1) Employment in the division is too sm all to provide enough data to m erit separate study, (2) the sample
was not designed initially to perm it separate presentation, (3) response was insufficient or inadequate to perm it separate presentation, and (4) there is possibility of disclosure of individual
establishment data.
7 W orkers from this entire industry division are represented in estim ates for " a l l industries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the Series A tables, but from the real estate portion only in
estim ates for " a l l industries" in the Series B tables. Separate presentation of data for this division is not made for one or m ore of the reasons given in footnote 6 above.
8 H otels; personal serv ice s; business services; automobile repair shops; motion pictures; nonprofit m em bership organizations; and engineering and architectural services.




Table 2.

Indexes of standard weekly salaries and straight-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupational groups,
and percents of change1 for selected periods, Savannah, Ga.
Index
(May 1961-100)

Percents of change 1

May 1964

May 1963
to
May 1964

June 1962
to
May 1963

May 1961
to
June 1962

110. 1
(2)
1 1 0 .4
11 0 .0

2 .7
(2)
3 .0
3 .2

2 .3
(2)
1 .4
1 .3

4 .7
(2)
5 .8
5 .3

Occupational group

Office clerical (men and wom en)---------------------Industrial nurses (men and women)-----------------Skilled maintenance (men)--------------------------------Unskilled plant (men)

A ll changes are increases unless otherwise indicated.
Data do not m eet publication criteria.
This decline largely reflects shifts in employment between high- and low-wage

establishments

rather than

June I960
to
May 1961

2. 0
(2)
2 .8
3— .3
2

wage decreases.

4
Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups

Presented in table 2 are indexes and percentages of change
in average salaries of office clerical workers and industrial nurses,
and in average earnings of selected plant worker groups.
For office clerical workers and industrial nurses, the per­
centages of change relate to average weekly salaries for normal hours
of work, that is , the standard work schedule for which straight-time
salaries are paid. For plant worker groups, they measure changes
in average straight-time hourly earnings, excluding premium pay for
overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts* The
percentages are based on data for selected key occupations and in­
clude most of the numerically important jobs within each group.
The office clerical data are based on men and women in the following
19 jobs: Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B; clerks, accounting,
class A and B; clerks, file, class A , B, and C; clerks, order; clerks,
payroll; Comptometer operators; keypunch operators, class A and B;
office boys and girls; secretaries; stenographers, general; stenogra­
phers, senior; switchboard operators; tabulating-machine operators,
class B; and typists, class A and B. The industrial nurse data are
based on men and women industrial nurses.
Men in the following
8 skilled maintenance jobs and 2 unskilled jobs are included in the
plant worker data: Skilled— carpenters; electricians; machinists; m e­
chanics; mechanics, automotive; painters; pipefitters; and tool and
die makers; unskilled— janitors, porters, and cleaners; and laborers,
material handling.
Average weekly salaries or average hourly earnings were
computed for each of the selected occupations. The average salaries
or hourly earnings were then multiplied by employment in each of
the jobs during the period surveyed in 1961. These weighted earnings




for individual occupations were then totaled to obtain an aggregate for
each occupational group. Finally, the ratio (expressed as a percentage)
of the group aggregate for the one year to the aggregate for the other
year was computed and the difference between the result and 100 is
the percentage of change from the one period to the other. The
indexes were computed by multiplying the ratios for each group
aggregate for each period after the base year (1961).
The indexes and percentages of change m easure, principally,
the effects of ( l ) general salary and wage changes; (2) merit or other
increases in pay received by individual workers while in the same
job; and (3) changes in average wages due to changes in the labor force
resulting from labor turnover, force expansions, force reductions,
and changes in the proportions of workers employed by establishments
with different pay levels.
Changes in the labor force can cause
increases or decreases in the occupational averages without actual
wage changes.
For example, a force expansion might increase the
proportion of lower paid workers in a specific occupation and lower
the average, whereas a reduction in the proportion of lower paid
workers would have the opposite effect. Similarly, the movement of
a high-paying establishment out of an area could cause the average
earnings to drop, even though no change in rates occurred in other
establishments in the area.
The use of constant employment weights eliminates the effect
of changes in the proportion of workers represented in each job in­
cluded in the data. The percentages of change reflect only changes in
average pay for straight-time hours. They are not influenced by
changes in standard work schedules, as such, or by premium pay
for overtime.

A: Occupational Earnings
Table A-l. Office Occupations—Men and Women
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Savannah, Ga. , May 1964)
Number of workers receiving straight-time weekly earnings of—

$
Sex, occupation, and industry division

W eekly
hours 1
(standard)

*

Weekly |Under,
earnings * 0
(standard)

50
and
. under

38

55

CLERKS* ACCOUNTING* CLASS A
MANUFACTURING

A3

20

40*5
39*5

*

60

*

$

$

$

$

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

105

110

115

120

125

—

55

*

*

$

$

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

65

70

75

90

95

100

105

80

—

115.50
116 .5 0

$

85

-

-

-

-

2

CLERKS* ACCOUNTING* CLASS B —

$

-

2

$

1
1

-

-

$

1

*

1
1

5

6

110

7

115

5
5

8

—
12C

12
1

3
2

—

5

-

$

$

$

140

145

150

155

—

—

—

—

and

13C

6
2

135

2
1

1

$
135

—

—

125

3

$
130

140

1
-

-

14S

-

-

2

—

-

-

155 over

-

-

-

15C

1

—

-

2

-

-

1
-

WM
O EN
BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATORS4
CLASS B «•
* --------NONMANUFACTURING
CLERKS* ACCOUNTING* CLASS A
MANUFACTURING
NONMANUFACTURING —
—
CLERKS* ACCOUNTING* CLASS B
MANUFACTURING ---------------------NONMANUFACTURING

37
31

40*0
4 0 .5

41
21

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

6 9 .0 0
6 8 .5 0
6 9 .5 0

4
4

8 8 .0 0
9 8 .5 0
7 7 .5 0

3 9 .0
3 9 .5
3 9 .0

12

6 0 .0 0
5 9 .0 0

20

104
38
66

12

—

2
1
1

22
12

9

21
2

10

9

19

6
2
4

1
-

2
—
2

-

2

4
—

2

3

9
5

4 0 .0

9 2 .5 0

1

4 0 .0

7 3 .0 0

9

-

-

-

SECRETARIES -------MANUFACTURING —
NONMANUFACTURING
PUBLIC UTILITIES2—

101

9 0 .5 0
9 3 .0 0
88400
1 0 5 .0 0

10

12

5

3
7

4
8

7
2
5
1

4

54
47
17

39*5
39*0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

11
8
3
1

STENOGRAPHERS* GENERAL
MANUFACTURING
NONMANUFACTURING
PUBLIC UTILITIES2—

128
74
54
36

4 0 .0
3 9 .5
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

8 1 .0 0
7 6 .5 0
8 7 .0 0
9 5 .0 0

13
5

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS* CLASS B -*■

STENOGRAPHERS* SENIOR

25

3 9 .5

35
26

4 2 .5
4 3 .0

6 0 .0 0
5 6 .0 0

3 8 .5
3 8 .0

6 3 .0 0
6 4 .0 0

1

7

31
1
11

2
1

-

2

4

1

4

-

-

-

3

- 1 0
9
7
2
1

9
5
4
2

8
4
4
3

13
5
7

8
5
4

5

4

2

3

5
3

-

1

3

3
-

-

-

5
5
5

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1
—

—
—

-

-

1

-

—
—

-

-

-

-

-

-

3
1

1
1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
11

-

-

—
-

4

-

-

-

3

3
1

-

-

-

-

1
2

-

-

—
-

—
—

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

2

2
2

-

2

2

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

2
-

-

-

-

Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
All workers were at $ 30 to $ 35.




1

-

-

1

-

9

3

-

-

2

2

2
1

-

-

—
-

-

2

13
13
13

2

2
2

2

13

2

15

1
1
—

-

13

1

6
4

-

-

1
—
1

1
3

-

-

-

12
9
5
11
7 4
1
2
1
8
-

1

-

—

-

-

-

-

10

-

2

4
1
-

20
17
3
2

-

TYPISTS. CLASS A
TYPISTS* CLASS B
MANUFACTURING

9
3

13
12
1
1

1

3
1
—

4
—

-

3

8 6 .5 0

SWITCHBOARO OPERATORS-----------NONMANUFACTURING

8
2

12

1

l
1

-

1

1

19
12
7
4

-

4

37

CLERKS* PAYROLL

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations—Men

6

(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Savannah, G a ., May 1964)
Average
Number
of
workers

Occupation and industry division

Number of workers receiving straight-time weekly earnings of—
'

Weekly
hours 1
(standard)

Weekly
earnings 1
(standard)

$
$
95 100

18
15

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

$
1 1 9 .5 0
1 1 3 .5 0

$
110

$
115

<
$
$
$
$
120 125 130
135

$
140

$
145

$
150

155

110

115

120

125

145

150

155

160

and
under
100

DRAFTSMEN* SENIOR------- ------------- *---------nANUrAC 1UKl Nb
J
,“*

$
105

105

—
—

5
5

3

3
3

—
—

3

130

135

140

1

1
1

2
2

- 1
—

-

2
-

—
-

-

1
-

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries and the earnings correspond
to these weekly hours.

Table A-3. Office, Professional, and Technical Occupations—
Men and Women Combined
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Savannah, G a ., May 1964)
Average

Average

Occupation and industry division

Number
of
workers

W eekly
Weekly
hours 1 earnings 1
(standard) (standard)

Occupation and industry division

Number
of
workers

Weekly
Weekly
hours 1 earnings 1
(standard) (standard)

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS— CONTINUED

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS

A verage

Occupation and industry division

Number
of
workers

W eekly
hours 1
(standard)

W eekly
earnings 1
(standard)

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS— CONTINUED
38

4 0 .0

$
7 3 .0 0

39
33

CLERKS* ACCOUNTING* CLASS A — -------------MANUFACTURING-------------------------------- ---------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------- -- ------------PUBLIC UTILITIES2------------- - ----------

OFFICE BOYS AND GIRLS--------------------------------------

15

4 0 .0

7 1 .0 0

SECRETARIES------------------------------------------------ -------------MANUFACTURING---------------------------------««-------------NONMANUFACTURING----------------- ----------PUBLIC UTILITIES2------------- * ---------

111
55
56
26

3 9 .5
3 9 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

9 2 .5 0
9 3 .0 0
9 2 .0 0
1 07.50

7 4 .5 0
7 3 .0 0
7 5 .0 0
7 9 .5 0

STENOGRAPHERS* GENERAL------------— -------MANUFACTURING ------------------------ ----------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------- * ---------PUBLIC UTILITIES2------------- t ----------

133
74
59
41

4 0 .0
3 9 .5
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

8 2 .0 0
7 6 .5 0
8 8 .5 0
9 6 .5 0

9 7 .0 0
9 1 .5 0
1 0 2 .5 0

STENOGRAPHERS* SENIOR--------------*----------

28

3 9 .5

8 8 .0 0

4 0 .0
4 0 .5

$
6 2 .5 0
6 1 .5 0

84
41
43
25

4 0 .0
3 9 .5
4 0 .5
4 0 .0

102 .0 0
1 0 7 .0 0
9 7 .5 0
1 1 0 .5 0

CLERKS* ACCOUNTING* CLASS B -----------MANUFACTURING------- --------------------------NONMANUFACTURING —-------------------------PUBLIC UTILITIES2-------------------------

132
51
81
58

3 9 .0
3 9 .5
3 9 .0
3 8 .5

CLERKS* PAYROLL----------1
-------------------------MANUFACTURING------— ------------- * - -------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------*----------

33
17
16

4 0 .0
3 9 .5
4 0 .0

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS* CLASS B -4 --------------

4 2 .5
4 3 .0

$
6 0 .0 0
5 6 .0 0

SWITCHBOARD OPERATORS---------------------- ---------------NONMANUFACTURING — ------------------------------------

35
26

TYPISTS* CLASS A ------------------------------------

B00KKEEPINO-MACHINE OPERATORS*
CLASS B ------------------ ---------------------------- -w -* ------------NONMANUFACTURING------------------*
----------

40

3 9 .5

8 5 .0 0

TYPISTS* CLASS B ----------- ---------------------- ---------------MANUFACTURING------------------------*----------

27
17

3 9 .0
3 8 .0

6 2 .5 0
6 4 .0 0

18
15

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 1 9 .5 0
1 1 3 .5 0

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
OCCUPATIONS
DRAFTSMEN* SENIOR ----------------------* ---------MANUFACTURING-------- ----------------*----------

Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours,
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.




7

Table A -4. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Savannah, G a ., May 1964)
Number of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings of—
Occupation and industry division

Nm
u ber
of
w rk
o ers

h rly
ou
earn gs 1
in

1 ------- $
T
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
S
$
$
$
<
%
$
$
$
$
S
1 .3 0 1 .4 0 1 .5 0 1 .6 0 1 .7 0 1 .8 0 1 .9 0 2 .0 0 2 .1 0 2 .2 0 2 .3 0 2 .4 0 2 .5 0 2 .6 0 2 .7 0 2 .8 0 2 .9 0 3 .0 0 3 . 1C 3 .2 0 :5.30 3 .4 0 3 .5 0
and
under
1 .4 0 1 .5 0 1 .6 0 1 .7 0 1 .8 0 1 .9 0 2 .0 0 2 • 10 2 .2 0 2 .3 0 2 .4 0 2 .5 0 2.6C 2 .7 0 2 .8 0 2 .9 0 3 .0 0 3.1C 3 . 20 3 .3 0 3
5.40 3 .5 0 3 .6 0

CARPENTERS. MAINTENANCE ---------- * ---------MANUFACTURING-------- — ------------*----------

39
36

$
2 .9 2
2 .9 7

ELECTRICIANS, MAINTENANCE-----------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------

114
110

3 .1 6
3 .1 5

FIREMEN, STATIONARY BOILER ---------------MANUFACTURING----------------------------------

70
65

? .3 4
2 .3 3

10
10

6
6

3
3

_

HELPERS, MAINTENANCE TRAOES —*---------MANUFACTURING ------------------------ * ----------

214
203

2 .4 0
2 .4 1

14
14

_
-

4
4

“

_

~

_
~

MACHINISTS, MAINTENANCE ---------------------MANUFACTURING --------— ------------------------

128
126

3 .2 6
3 .2 6

-

-

_

_

_
“

-

MECHANICS, AUTOMOTIVE
(MAINTENANCE)---------------------------- ----------MANUFACTURING-------------------------------------

42
32

2 .8 3
2 .7 7

—
-

—
-

—
-

~

—

MECHANICS, MAINTENANCE -----------------------MANUFACTURING------------------------ ------------

153
148

2 .8 3
2 .8 2

_

_
~

_

-

-

“

__
OILERS — — _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
MANUFACTURING------------------------ ------------

68
68

2 .4 6
2 .4 6

2
2

_
-

3
3

2
2

PAINTERS, MAINTENANCE -------------------------MANUFACTURING------------------------ * ----------

44
44

2 .8 6
2 .8 6

_

_

«.

_

-

PIPEFITTERS, MAINTENANCE -------------------MANUFACTURING-------------------------------------

89
89

3 .1 9
3 .1 9

_

“

-

_

_

_

-

~

1
1

_

_
-

_

6
3

12
12

*

2
~

25
25

~

~

16
16

54
54

4
4

9
9

-

-

~

6
6

2
2

4
3

_
-

12
12

~

3
3

_

5
3

_

8
8

-

~

•

17
17

4
4

3

4
4

-

~

-

_
“

_

30
20

17
16

54
54

15
15

80
80

-

-

-

-

~

1
1

~

10
10

“

_
“

4
4

73
73

_

“

“

-

~

-

38
38

2
-

2
2

6
6

-

1
1

-

—

—

3
3

2
1

2

1
1

1
•

~

7
3

15
15

-

2
“

-

2
2

-

4
4

2
2

2
2

11
11

4
4

2
2

14
14

_

11
11

33
33

4
1

-

-

-

40
40

20
20

2
2

2
-

_
-

_
“

2
2

_

1
1

_
-

13
13

1
1

_

2
2

12
12

29
29

1
1

~

~

-

_

•

_
“

-

“

_

2
2

1
1

1
1

1
1

-

4
4

3
3

26
26

4
4

1
1

-

-

-

_

~

•

“

-

4
4

1
1

20
20

63
63

-

_

_

-

-

-

1
1

_

Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts,




-

5
5
1
1

l
-

_

~

1
1

“

-

-

-

_

Table A-5. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations

8

(Average straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Savannah, Ga., May 1964)
Number of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings of—
$

Occupation 1 and industry division

of
w ik
b ers

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
S
$
i[
$
$
$
$
$
.7 0
•80 .9 0 1 .0 0 1 .1 0 1 •20 1 .3 0 1 .4 0 1 .5 0 1.6 0 1 .7 0 1 .8 0 1 •90 2 .0 0 2 .1 0 2 .2 0 2 .3 0 2 .4 0 2!.5C 2 .6 0 2 .7 0 2 .8 0 2 .9 0 3 .0 0 3 .1 0
h rly Under
ou
earn gs 2 $
in 3
and
.7 0 under
.8 0

GUARDS AND W
ATCHM
EN -----------------------------MANUFACTURING----------------------- ------------

97
77

$
1 .9 7
1 .9 4

GUARDS:
MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------

•90 1 .0 0 1 .1 0 1 .2 0 1 •30 1 .4 0 1.5 0 1 .6 0 1 .7 0 1 .8 0 1 .9 0 2 .0 0 2 .1 0 2 .2 0 2 .3 0 2.4C 2 .5 0 2
>•60 2.7C 2.8C 2 .9 0 3 .0 0 3 .1 0 3 .2 0

14
14

2
2

8
4

37
40

1 .7 5

-

JANITORS. PORTERS. AND CLEANERS -----MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------- * ---------PUBLIC UTILITIES4 ------------------------5

157
89
68
29

1 .5 3
1 .6 6
1 .3 7
1 .8 3

8
38
-

-

-

“

1
1

17
17

6
—
6
-

-

-

2
—
2

~

-

14

1
1
-

7
7
2

28
13
15
2

2
18
18
—
-

4

6

17

5

~

6

14
14
-

8
6
2
2

5
4
1
1

19
14
5
5

6
—
6
6

1

20
11
9
6

3
1
2
1

_
-

6
6

2
“

18
8

8
8

4
4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

11
11

2
-

2 .1 4

WATCHMEN:
MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------

-

4
2
2

-

-

8

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

7
4
3
3

5
4
1
1

11
5
6

_

8
8
-

12

_
-

-

8
8
-

_
-

—
-

JANITORS. PORTERS. AND CLEANERS
(WOMEN) --------------------------------------- ------------

31

1 .4 2

56

-

-

3

1

2

2

1

-

-

“

9

2

5

LABORERS. MATERIAL HANOLING -------------MANUFACTURING----------------------- - ---------NONMANUFACTURING----------------- -----------

349
274
75

1 .7 3
1 .7 0
1 .8 5

_
-

-

_
—
-

_
—
-

2
—
2

98
69
29

4
4

67
67
-

15
15
-

1
1

—
~

1
1

6
6
-

24
24

ORDER FILLERS--------------------------- — -------MANUFACTURING------- — ------------------------

40
22

1 .9 5
2 .1 2

-

~

*

~

7
4

_

-

3
-

_

*

1
1

9

-

~

-

5
5

6
6

-

„
“

-

RECEIVING CLERKS -----------------------------------

17

2 .2 5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

3

-

-

1

2

1

-

-

TRUCKDRIVERS6 ----------------------------- — -------MANUFACTURING----------------------- -----------NONMANUFACTURING----------------- ------------

173
64
109

1 .9 4
1 .9 1
1 .9 5

_
—
-

_

—
-

2
—
2

12
9
3

2

2

—

-

-

2

3
3
~

_

-

27
3
24

_

2

23
—
23

_

—
-

36
15
21

-

24
24
-

TRUCKDRIVERS. LIGHT (UNDER
1 - 1 /2 TO N S)--------------------------- ------------

25

1 .5 2

2

“

12

3

2

“

-

~

-

-

“

TRUCKDRIVERS. MEDIUM ( 1 - 1 /2 TO
AND INCLUDING 4 TONS) ------------------MANUFACTURING----------------------- -----------NONMANUFACTURING----------------- -— -------

112
43
69

2 .1 0
1 .9 8
2 .1 8

—
-

—
“

—
“

—
—

—

24
12
12

2
2
-

—
-

23
23

“

—
-

-

2
2

3
3
“

TRUCKERS.POWER (FORKLIFT) ------♦--------MANUFACTURING----------------------- — --------

214
191

2 .2 1
2 .1 7

_

_

_

_

8
8

5
5

1
1

_

-

18
18

_

-

•
-

_

-

•
-

-

“

TRUCKERS. POW
ER (OTHER THAN
FORKLIFT)------------------- ----------------*
----------MANUFACTURING------------------------ -----------

111
91

2 .0 2
1 .9 7

-

—

—

4
4

32
32

-

-

-

“

-

-

—
-

-

~

“

-

1
2
3
4
5
6

—

-

—

—

—
—

-

—

—

Data limited to men workers except where otherwise indicated.
Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Workers were distributed as follows: 2 at $0.50 to $0.60; and 6 at $0.60 to $0.70.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Workers were distributed as follows: 4 under $0.40; and 2 at $0.50 to $0.60.
Includes all drivers regardless of size and type of truck operated.




-

-

-

92
68
24

_

12

-

-

6
6

3
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

3

4

1

9
8
1

3
—
3

—
~

_
“

_

_

-

—
-

•
-

-

6

-

-

-

-

-

-

~

24
24
-

1
1

3
—
3

—
—
-

—
-

-

_
_
-

4
4

29
29

8
2

11C
110

1
1

_

27
7

47
47

_

_

-

“

-

-

-

-

15
-

_

_
-

14
14

_
-

-

-

_

_
-

30
2
28

-

-

_
_

-

30
2
28

_

_

2

-

-

B: Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Table B-l. Minimum Entrance Salaries for Women Office Workers
(Distribution of establishments studied in all industries and in industry divisions by minimum entrance salary for selected categories
of inexperienced women office w orkers, Savannah, G a., May 1964)
Other inexperienced clerical workers

Inexperienced typists
Manufacturing
Minimum weekly straight-tim e sa la ry 1
2

Based on standard weekly hours 3 of—

All
industries

A ll
schedules

Establishments studied------

-------- — _ --------

_

-----------

Establishments having a specified minimum _____________
Under
$42.50
$45.00
$47.50
$50.00
$52.50
$55.00
$57.50
$60.00
$62.50
$65.00
$67.50

$ 4 2 .5 0 _______________________________________________
and under $45.00-----------------------------------------------------and under $47.50________
___ - ----------------------and under $50.00-----------------------------------------------------and under $52.50------------------------------------------ --------and under $55.00-------------------------------------------------- _
and under $ 5 7 .5 0 „ _____ __ _
_ _ __
. . .
and under $60.00 ____ ___
____
and under $62 .5 0 __
__ _ _
_____ ___
__
and under $65.00
__ __ _ ______ __ ____ —
and under $67.50
__ __ ____
___ _ _ ______
and over

Establishm ents having no specified minimum _ —
Establishments which did not employ workers
in this category_______________________________________________

Manufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

40

A ll
schedules

A ll
schedules

40

40

A ll
schedules

40

62

26

XXX

36

XXX

62

26

XXX

36

XXX

19

8

5

11

10

30

15

10

15

12

_

_

_

_

2
2
13
1
2
1
3
3
3

1
6
1
1
2
_
3
1

_
_
3
_
1
2
_
3
1

l
2
_
7
1
1
_
1
_
_
2

_
_
2
_
7
_
_
_
1
_
_
2

-

-

-

-

1
9
1
2
1
2
1
2

3
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1

1
6
1
1
1
_
_
1

_
1
6
1
1
1

6

1

XXX

5

XXX

11

2

XXX

9

XXX

37

17

XXX

20

XXX

21

9

XXX

12

XXX

-

-

1 These salaries relate to form ally established minimum starting (hiring) regular straight-tim e salaries that are paid for standard workweeks.
2 Excludes w orkers in subclerical jobs such as m essenger or office girl.
3 Data are presented for a ll standard workweeks combined, and for the m ost common standard workweek reported.




Nonmanufacturing

Based on standard weekly hours 3 of—

A ll
industries

10




Table B-2. Shift Differentials
(Shift differentials of manufacturing plant w orkers by type and amount of differen tial,
Savannah, G a ., M ay 1964)
Percent of manufacturing plant w orkers—

Shift differential

In establishm ents having form al
provisions 1 for—
Second shift
work

Third or other
shift work

Actu ally working on—

Second shift

Third or other
shift

Total -

93.1

79.7

20.5

13.9

With shift pay d iffe re n tia l.

77.9

72.6

15.9

13.5

7 0.4

63.1

15.7

13.3

U niform cents (per hour)..
2 cen ts..
3 cents..

_

1.6
.9

1.6

1.0
5 cents—
6 cents.—__
l l!z ce n ts 8 cents—
9 cen ts10 ce n ts 12 ce n ts ___
13V3 cen ts.__

43.7
17.9

1.0

_

4.8
1

. 0

-

.1
.1
.1
10.8
2.9
.1

_

(2 )

(*)
.1
-

.3
11.9
.6
.3
-

2.4

2.8
44.7
6.0
2.3
-

6.2

6.2

6.2

6.2
1.9

-

-

Other fo rm a l pay d ifferen tial. . . __

1.3

1.3

.2

.1

With no shift pay d iffe re n tia l_________

15.2

7.2

4 .6

.4

Uniform percentage.
7

percent . . . . __

1.9

Fu ll d a y's pay for reduced h o u rs -

_

.4
-

1.3
-

-

1 Includes establishm ents cu rrently operating late shifts, and establishm ents with form al p ro vision s covering late shifts
even though they w ere not currently operating late shifts.
2 L e s s than 0.05 percent.

11
Table B-3. Scheduled Weekly Hours
(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by scheduled weekly hours
of first-shift workers, Savannah, Ga. , May 1964)
OFFICE W O RKERS

PLANT W ORKER8

Weekly hours
All industries 1

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

100

100

18

1
2

All workers------------------ --------------- ------------ — ------

100

100

Under 3772 hours----------------------------------------------3 7 V hours
2
-----Over 37l2 and under 40 hours----------------- ---------/2
4
3
40 hours--------------------------------------------------------------42 hours____
Over 42 and under 45 hours------------------------------45 hours
- —
- Over 45 and under 48 hours------------------------------48 hours —,______________ _______________________
Over 48 hours _ _ _ _ _
_
— —

3
7
1
86

6
5
2
87

1
2
3
4

-

-

80

76
4
6
5
3
4

-

-

-

1
1
1
(4 )

(4)

3
-

-

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

100

100

2
83
4
8
1
2

Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services, in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services, in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Less than 0. 5 percent.




-

96
-

4

12
Table B-4. Paid Holidays
(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by number of paid holidays
provided annually, Savannah, Ga., May 1964)
O FFICE W O RKERS

PLANT W ORKERS

Item
All industries 1

Public utilities2

100
Workers in establishments providing
paid holidays__________________________________
Workers in establishments providing
no paid holidays----------------------------- ------------------

Manufacturing

100

100

100

100

100

98

99

100

87

95

90

■

13

5

10

_

_
-

2

1

All industries

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

Number of days
2 holidays------------ — ------- ------ ----— ------- ------_______
5 holidays_______________________________________
6 holidays_______ __ ____ __ ______________________
7 holidays------------------ —-----------_______-----------------8 holidays-----------------------------------------------------------

4 holidays — -

(4)
1
29
6
56
6

_
1
11
9
69
8

_
3
2
89
6

1
5
10
12
51
8

6
15
60
10

80
7

6
62
68
97
98
98

8
77
86
97

6
95
97
100
100
100

8
60
72
82
86
87

10
70
85
91
95
95

7
86
90
90
90
90

4

4

Total holiday time
8 days or
7 days or
6 days or
5 days or
4 days or
2 days or

1
2
3
4

m ore_________________________________
m ore_________________________________
more - —
- -----more - — — — —
- __
more
_________________ _
more

99
99

Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services, in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services, in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Less than 0.5 percent.




13
Table B-5.

Paid Vacations1

(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, Savannah, G a., May 1964)
O F F IC E W O R K E R S

PLANT WORKERS

Vacation policy
A ll industries 2

Manufacturing

Public utilities3

A ll industries 4

M anufacturing

Publio utilities3

100

A ll w o r k e r s

100

100

100

100

100

100
100

100
100

100
100

-

-

95
91
3
1

95
91
4

94
94

-

Method of payment
W orkers in establishm ents providing
paid vacations
L ength-of-tim e paym ent____________ __ - ___ __
P ercen ta g e

paym ent

...

...............

F la t-su m payment

__

-

-

-

5

_

O th er

5

6

3
9

4
5

25

-

-

-

W orkers in establishm ents providing
no paid vacation s.
Amount of vacation p a y 5
A fter 6 months of service
U nder

1 w eek

(6)

30
2

1 w eek

1
19
4

_

29

_
-

After 1 year of service
_

2 w eek s

------

.

_

82
18

1
80
14

6
94

5
59
36

2

1

-

..... -

_

9
91

2

1 w eek

31
69

6
16
79

Under 1 week

_

_

86
9

72
22

66
3
26

83

42
9
43

-

-

23
1
71

26
69

19
1
75

_

_

76

94

1

_

After 2 years of service
1 w eek

Over 1 and under 2 weeks
2 weeks
. . . . .

-

_

12

After 3 years of service
1 w eek

Over 1 and under 2 w eek s..
2 w eeks
_
... .

_
..............

.

- -

98

98

99

_

.
.

94

After 4 years of service
2

1

-

-

-

98

98

1

_

1

-

-

-

98
1

100

99

-

-

1

_

1

.

_

.

2

1 w eek

Over 1 and under 2 weeks

_

2 w eeks

99

20

.

After 5 years of service
1 w eek
Over 1 and under 2 weeks

-

_

2 w eek s
3 w e e k s ..

_

...

..

5
1
87
3

-

_

95

94

-

A fter 10 years of service
1 w eek

Over 1 and under 2

w eek s

--------

—

___________________

2 w eeks
3 w eeks

See footnotes at end of table.




56
43

33
67

65
35

5
1
45
44

1
.

44
50

.
_

51
43

14
Table B-5.

Paid Vacations1 Continued
—

(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, Savannah, G a ., May 1964)
O F F IC E W O R K E R S

PLANT W ORKERS

Vacation policy
A ll industries

2

M anufacturing

P u blic utilities 3

A ll industries 4

M anufacturing

P u b lic utilities 3

Amount of vacation pay 5— Continued
After 12 years of service
1 w e e k _______________________ _____________________
Over 1 and under 2 w eek s----------------------------------2 w e e k s ____________________________________________________________
3 weeks — ---------------------- ----------------------------------------

1
56
43

_
33
67

1
65
35

5
1
45
44

1
44
50

_
51
43

1
19
79
1

_
23
77
"

1
3
97
■

5
1
23
65
1

1
22
72
“

_
4
90
“

1
19
47
33

1

-

-

23
15
63

3
90
6

5
1
23
28
38

22
24
48

4
80
11

1
19
31
49

-

23
9
68

1
3
73
24

5
1
23
19
47

1
22
17
55

4
59
31

1
19
29
26
25

23
9
12
56

1
3
64
33

5
1
23
18
23
25

1
22
17
17
38

_
4
47
43

After 15 years of service
1 week —------- ------— ------- --------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 w eek s_______________________
2 weeks
3 weeks
- —
- —
4 weeks
—
— — .—

After 20 years of service
1 w e e k _________ ___ _______________________________
Over 1 and under 2 weeks
2 weeks
- ~
3 weeks —
_ - 4 weeks — —
— — _
-----

-

1
-

_
-

After 25 years of service
1 w e e k -------------------------------------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 w eek s----------------------------------2 w eek s------------------------------------------------------------------3 weeks
. — ----4 w eek s------------------ —----------------------- --------------- ------

After 30 years of service
1 w e e k -------------------------------------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 weeks
_
- __
2 w eek s______ __________ _
3 w eek s----------------------- —---------------------------------------4 w eek s------------------------------------------------------------------Over 4 weeks----------

1 Includes basic plans only. Excludes plans such as vacation-savings and those plans which offer "extended" or "sabbatical" benefits beyond basic plans to w orkers with qualifying lengths
of service. Typical of such exclusions are plans recently negotiated in the steel, aluminum, and can industries.
2 Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade, finance, insurance, and real estate; and serv ice s, in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
3 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
4 Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and serv ice s, in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
5 Includes payments other than "length of tim e, " such as percentage of annual earnings or flat-su m payments, converted to an equivalent tim e b a sis; for exam ple, a payment of 2 percent
of annual earnings was considered as 1 w eek's pay. Periods of service were arbitrarily chosen and do not necessarily reflect the individual provisions for pro gression s. For exam ple, the
changes in proportions indicated at 10 y e a rs' service include changes in provisions occurring between 5 and 10 yea rs. Estim ates are cumulative. Thus, the proportion receiving 3 w eek s' pay
or m ore after 5 years includes those who receive 3 w eeks' pay or m ore after fewer years of service.
6 L e ss than 0. 5 percent.




15
Table B-6.

Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans

(Percent of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions employed in establishments providing
health, insurance, or pension b e n e fits ,1 Savannah, G a., May 1964)
2
O F F IC E W O R K E R S

Type of benefit
A ll industries 2

Manufacturing

PLANT W ORKERS

P u blic utilities 3

A ll industries 4

Manufacturing

P u blic utilities 3

100

100

100

100

100

100

Life insurance _ _ _______________ ______________
Accidental death and dism em berm ent
insurance _ _ __________________________ ___
Sickness and accident insurance or
sick leave or both5 ____________________________________

98

100

97

91

93

96

38

22

19

31

32

25

75

85

84

76

85

60

Sickness and accident insurance________ _
Sick leave (full pay and no
waiting period) ______________________________________
Sick leave (partial pay or
waiting period). ------------------------- -----------------------

57

82

62

68

85

38

42

61

20

9

-

20

Hospitalization insurance— ________________ ____
Surgical insurance _________________________________ M edical insurance __________________________________
Catastrophe insurance—______________________ ________
_________ ____________
Retirem ent pension
No health, insurance, or pension plan---------

93
93
66
81
61
2

A ll w orkers__

____

____________

_____ _______

W orkers in establishm ents providing:

6

-

99
99
85
87
90

18

5

1

21

97
97
96
96
33
3

87
87
65
66
61
7

89
89
74
70
74
7

96
96
92
92
43
4

1 Includes those plans for which at least a part of the cost is borne by the em ployer, except those legally required, such as workmen's compensation, social security, and railroad retirement.
2 Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services, in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
3 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
4 Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and service s, in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
5 Unduplicated total of w orkers receiving sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately below. Sick leave plans are limited to those which definitely establish at least
the m inimum number of days' pay that can be expected by each employee. Informal sick leave allowances determined on an individual basis are excluded.




16
Table B-7.

Paid Sick Leave

(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by form al sick leave
provisions, Savannah, G a ., May 1964)
O F F IC E W O R K E R S

PLANT W ORKERS

Sick leave provision
A ll industries 1

Manufacturing

P ublic utilities 2

100. 0

1 00.0

100. 0

4 8 .4

61. 2

3 7 .6

5 1 .6

3 8 .8

6 2 .4

9 .8
9 .8
.2
7 .4
.4
.5
.8
-

2. 8
2 .8
1 .8
-

1. 7
1. 7
1.7
“

5. 7
5 .7
2 .7
1 .2
1. 7
.9
.9

1. 3
1. 3

5 d a y s------------------------------------------------------10 days-----------------------------------------------------28 days___________ __ ____ __ ______________
Full pay plus partial pay----------------------------Waiting period--------------------------------------------------Full pay______________________________________
Partial pay on ly-------------------------------------------

32. 1
3 0 .6
2 7 .8
1. 6
.8
1. 5
6. 5
1 .9
4. 5

5 8 .4
5 8 .4
5 5 .7
1 .9
-

1 8 .4
1 8 .4
12. 0
6 .4
17. 5
1 7.5

3. 8
2 .4
1 .6
.8
1 .4
4. 0
1. 5
2f 4

Graduated plan4— After 10 years of service:
No waiting period---------------------------------------------Full pay®
.
...............................
,
10 days,.--- ------- ■-----------------------------------30 days—
— — —
40 days_______________________ _____ ______
98 days—
— —
Full pay plus partial pay5-------------------------50 da ys---- --------------------- t-------------------------70 days------------------------------------------------------

38. 6
3 0 .6
2 5 .4
2. 3
1. 6
.8
8. 0
1 .9
4. 5

5 8 .4
5 8 .4
5 5 .7
1 .9
-

3 5 .9
1 8 .4
3. 0
9 .0
6 .4
1 7.5
17. 5

7. 7
2 .4
.2
1 .4
.8
5. 3
1. 5
2 .4

3 .0

.2

A ll w orkers-------------------------------------------------------------W orkers in establishments providing
form al paid sick leave---------------------------------------W orkers in establishments providing
no form al paid sick leave-----------------— --------------

A ll industries 3

100.0

M anufacturing

P u b lic u tilities2

100. 0

100. 0

14. 3

1. 3

40. 9

85. 7

98. 7

59. 1

Type and amount of paid
sick leave provided annually
Uniform plan:4
No waiting period------------------------------- -------------Full pay®------------------------------------------------------5 days —. . . __ ___ ____ . . . . ___ ___________ ___
6 d a ys-------------------------------------- ---------------8 d a y s------------------------------------------------------12 days---------------------------------------------------- ___ ___ __ ____
15 days—— —
— ——
Waiting period------------------- —----------------------------Partial pay on ly------------------------------------------Graduated plan4— After 1 year of service:
No waiting period----------------------------------------------

-

-

-

-

-

20. 2
20. 2
13. 6
6. 5
2 0 .7
2 0 .7

40. 9
20. 2
1 .8
1 1 .8
6. 5
-

2 0 .7
-

2 0 .7

Provisions for accumulation
Workers in establishments having
provisions for accumulation of
unused sick le a v e -----—— --------------- ------ --------------

8. 2

1 .8

1 Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services, in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
2 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
3 Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and service s, in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
4 ''Uniform plan s" are defined as those form al plans under which an employee, after 1 year of service, is entitled to the same number
of days' paid sick leave each y ear.
"Graduated
plan s" are defined as those form al plans under which an em ployee's leave varies according to length of service.
Periods of service were
arb itrarily chosen. Estim ates reflect provisions
applicable at the stated length of service but do not reflect provisions for progression. Thus, the proportion receiving 15 days' sick leave after
10 years*of service m ay also receive this amount
after greater or le sse r lengths of service.
* May include provisions other than those presented separately.
Numbers of days shown under "F u ll pay plus partial pay" are days for which w orkers receive sick leave at full pay;
workers are entitled to additional days of sick leave at partial pay.




Appendix: Occupational Descriptions
The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to assist its
field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area.
This permits the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content. Because
of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bu­
reau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field economists are in­
structed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped, part-time,
temporary, and probationary workers.
OFFICE
BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
classified by type of machine, as follows:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.
Class A . Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, bal­
ance sheets, and other records by hand.

Biller, machine (billing machine). Uses a special billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, etc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.

Class B. Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type of billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation of trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.

Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine). Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, etc., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types of sales and
credit slips.




CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A. Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a com­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase of an establish­
ment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts
17

18
CLERK, ACCOUNTING-Continued

payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper ac­
counting distribution; and requires judgment and experience in
making proper assignations and allocations. May assist in preparing,
adjusting, and closing journal entries; and may direct class B ac­
counting clerks.
Class B. Under supervision, performs one or more routine ac­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or ac­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; and posting subsidiary ledgers con­
trolled by general ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data.
This job does not require a knowledge of accounting and book­
keeping principles but is found in offices in which the more routine
accounting work is subdivided on a functional basis among several
workers.

CLERK, FILE
Class A, In an established filing system containing a number
of varied subject matter files, classifies and indexes file material
such as correspondence, reports, technical documents, etc. May
also file this material. May keep records of various types in con­
junction with the files. May lead a small group of lower level file
clerks.
Class B# Sorts, codes, and files unclassified material by sim­
ple (subject matter) headings or partly classified material by finer
subheadings. Prepares simple related index and cross-reference
aids.
As requested, locates clearly identified material in files
and forwards material. May perform related clerical tasks required
to maintain and service files.

CLERK, ORDER

Receives customers'orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination of the following:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; and distributing order sheets to respective departments to be
filled. May check with credit department to determine credit rating of
customer, acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders
to see that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check
shipping invoices with original orders.

CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the neces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers'
earnings based on time or production records; and posting calculated
data on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker's name, work­
ing days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due.
May make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and dis­
tributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Class Cm
Performs routine filing of material that has already
been classified or which is easily classified in a simple serial
classification system (e.g., alphabetical, chronological, or numer­
ical). As requested, locates readily available material in files
and forwards material; and may fill out withdrawal charge. Per­
forms simple clerical and manual tasks required to maintain and
service files.



Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file of used stencils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

19
KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Class A . Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or combina­
tion keypunch machine to transcribe data from various source docu­
ments to keypunch tabulating cards. Performs same tasks as lower
level keypunch operator but, in addition, work requires application of
coding skills and the making of some determinations, for example,
locates on the source document the items to be punched; extracts
information from several documents; and searches for and interprets
information on the document to determine information to be punched.
May train inexperienced operators.

Class BmUnder close supervision or following specific proce­
dures or instructions, transcribes data from source documents to
punched cards. Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or com­
bination keypunch machine to keypunch tabulating cards. May
verify cards. Working from various standardized source documents,
follows specified sequences which have been coded or prescribed
in detail and require little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting of
data to be punched. Problems arising from erroneous items or codes,
missing information, etc., are referred to supervisor.

OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands, opera­
ting minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and dis­
tributing mail, and other minor clerical work.

SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an
administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receiving people coming into office; answering and



SECRETARY— Continued
making phone calls; handling personal and important or confidential
mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative; and taking
dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand
or by Stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the
recorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare
special reports or memorandums for information of superior.

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from one or more persons either in shorthand or by Stenotype
or similar machine; and transcribe dictation. May also type from written
copy. May maintain files, keep simple records, or perform other rela­
tively routine clerical tasks. May operate from a stenographic pool.
Does not include transcribing-machine work. (See transcribing-machine
operator.)
STENOGRAPHER,SENIOR
Primary duty is to take dictation involving a varied technical
or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on scientific
research from one or more persons either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
similar machine; and transcribe dictation. May also type from written
copy. May also set up and maintain files, keep records, etc.
OR

Performs stenographic duties requiring significantly greater
independence and responsibility than stenographers, general as evi­
denced by the following: Work requires high degree of stenographic
speed and accuracy; and a thorough working knowledge of general busi­
ness and office procedures and of the specific business operations,
organization, policies, procedures, files, workflow, etc. Uses this
knowledge in performing stenographic duties and responsible clerical
tasks such as, maintaining followup files; assembling material for
reports, memorandums, letters, etc.; composing simple letters from general
instructions; reading and routing incoming mail; and answering routine
questions, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work.

20

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office
calls. May record toll calls and take messages. May give information
to persons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders. For
workers who also act as receptionists see switchboard operatorreceptionist.

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR-Continued
Class C. Operates simple tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with specific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs or re­
petitive operations.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator on a single posi­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. This typing
or clerical work may take the major part of this worker’ s time while at
switchboard.
TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Class A. Operates a variety of tabulating or electrical ac^
counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator, and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignments without close supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating sequences of long and complex reports.
Does not include working supervisors performing tabula ting-machine
operations and day-to-day supervision of the work and production
of a group o f tabulating-machine operators.
Class B# Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical ac­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under
specific instructions and may include the performance of some wir­
ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but
small tabulating study, or parts o f a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are well established. May also include the training
of new employees in the basic operation of the machine.



TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal rou­
tine vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May also type from
written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation
involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal
briefs or reports on scientific research are not included. A worker who
takes dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is
classified as a stenographer, general.
TYPIST
Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May include typing of stencils, mats, or similar materials for use in
duplicating processes. May do clerical work involving little special
training, such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or
sorting and distributing incoming mail.
Class A. Performs one or more o f the following: Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punc­
tuation, etc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; and planning layout and typing of complicated statistical
tables to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type
routine form letters varying details to suit circumstances.
Class B, Performs one or more o f the following: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance pol­
icies, etc.; and setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying
more complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

21

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
DRAFTSMAN

DRAFTSMAN—
Continued

Leader. Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen
in preparation of working plans and detail drawings from rough or
preliminary sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing
purposes* Duties involve a combination o f the following: Inter­
preting blueprints, sketches, and written or verbal orders; deter­
mining work procedures; assigning duties to subordinates and in­
specting their work; and performing more difficult problems. May
assist subordinates during emergencies or as a regular assignment,
or perform related duties of a supervisory or administrative nature.

Senior. Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes,
rough or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manu­
facturing purposes. Duties involve a combination o f the following:
Preparing working plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-sections,
etc,, to scale by use of drafting instruments; making engineering
computations such as those involved in strength of materials,
beams, and trusses; verifying completed work, checking dimensions,
materials to be used, and quantities; writing specifications; and
making adjustments or changes in drawings or specifications. May
ink in lines and letters on pencil drawings, prepare detail units of
complete drawings, or trace drawings. Work is frequently in a spe­
cialized field such as architectural, electrical, mechanical, or
structural drafting.

Junior (assistant). Draws to scale units or parts of drawings
prepared by draftsman or others for engineering, construction, or
manufacturing purposes. Uses various types of drafting tools as
required. May prepare drawings from simple plans or sketches, or
perform other duties under direction of a draftsman.
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
A registered nurse who gives nursing service under general
medical direction to ill or injured employees or other persons who be­
come ill or suffer an accident on the premises of a factory or other estab­
lishment. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Giving first aid
to the ill or injured; attending to subsequent dressing of employees* in­
juries; keeping records of patients treated; preparing accident reports for
compensation or other purposes; assisting in physical examinations and
health evaluations of applicants and employees; and planning and carry­
ing out programs involving health education, accident prevention, evalu­
ation of plant environment, or other activities affecting the health, wel­
fare, and safety of all personnel.
TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing
tracing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. Uses
T-square, compass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

MAINTENANCE AND POWERPLANT
CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE-Continued

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most of the following:
Planning and laying out o f work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter*s handtools, portable

power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; and selecting materials
necessary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance car­
penter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.




22

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE

HELPER, MAINTENANCE TRADES

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generation, dis­
tribution, or utilization o f electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
outs, or other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the elec­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; and using a variety
of electrician's handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In
general, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

Assists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting journeyman by holding materials or tools;
and performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The
kind of work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade:
In some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding
materials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-time basis.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors,
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; and keeping a record
of operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May
also supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establishments employing more than one engineer are excluded.

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines, in the construction of machine-shop tools, gages,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most o f the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling, and
operation sequence; and making necessary adjustments during operation
to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to rec­
ognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating oils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing
shops are excluded from this classification.

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, or gas or oil burner; and checks water
and safety valves. May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom
equipment.




Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most of the following: Interpreting written instructions and
specifications; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
chinist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and
operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to close toler­
ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of
work, tooling, feeds, and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working

23
MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE—
Continued

MILLWRIGHT

properties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts,
and equipment required for his work; and fitting and assembling parts
into mechanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally
requires a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Installs new machines or heavy equipment, and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout
are required. Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment, and
parts to be used; and installing and maintaining in good order power
transmission equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general,
the millwright’ s work normally requires a rounded training and experi­
ence in the trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an es­
tablishment. Work involves most o f the following: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gages, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves ; reassembling and installing the various assemblies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; and alining wheels, adjusting brakes
and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the auto­
motive mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually ac­
quired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves most o f the following: Examining machines and mechan­
ical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly dis­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a re­
placement part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine
shop for major repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs
or for the production o f parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling
machines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In gen­
eral, the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience. Excluded from this classification are
workers whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.



OILER
Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of. mechanical equipment of an establishment.

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler
in nail holes and interstices; and applying paint with spray gun or brush.
May mix colors, oils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain
proper color or consistency. In general, the work o f the maintenance
painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from draw­
ings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to
correct lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe­
cutting machine; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by
hand-driven or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings

24

PIPE FITTE R , MAINTENANCE—
Continued

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE-Continued

and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relat­
ing to pressures, flow, and size of pipe required; and making standard
tests to determine whether finished pipes meet specifications. In general,
the work of die maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and
repairing building sanitation or beating systems are excluded.

types of sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in
cutting, bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; and installing
sheet-metal articles as required. In general, the work o f the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.
TOOL AND DIE MAKER
(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gage maker)

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; and opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake.
In general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints,
models, or other specifications; setting up and operating all available

Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gages, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching, and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most of the following: Planning and laying out o f work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifications;
using a variety of tool and die maker’ s handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding o f the working properties o f common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating o f metal
parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to close tolerances; fitting and assembling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allowances; and selecting appro­
priate materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die
maker’ s work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom
practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT
ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

GUARD

Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel, or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those o f starters and janitors are excluded.

Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity o f employees and
other persons entering.




25
JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER

PACKER, SHIPPING

(Sweeper; charwomen; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial
or other establishment. Duties involve a combination o f the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance services; and cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Work­
ers who specialize in window washing are excluded.

Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or more of
the following: Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify
content; selection of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; and applying labels
or entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make
wooden boxes or crates are excluded.

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more o f the following: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or
from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location;
and transporting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheel­
barrow. Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded.

ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
Fills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, cus­
tomers9 orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders
and indicating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders,
requisition additional stock or report short supplies to supervisor, and
perform other related duties.



SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­
sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Ship­
ping work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices,
routes, available means of transportation, and rates; and preparing
records of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight
and shipping charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May
direct or assist in preparing the merchandise for shipment. Receiving
work involves: Verifying or directing others in verifying the correct­
ness of shipments against bills of lading, invoices, or other records;
checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods; routing merchan­
dise or materials to proper departments; and maintaining necessary
records and files.

For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:
Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk

26
TRUCKDWVER

TRUCKER, POWER

Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of estab­
lishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers9 houses or places of business. May also load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers
are excluded.

Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.

For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipment, as follows: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis of trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver (combination o f sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under 1% tons)
Truckdriver, medium (1% to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)




For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of
truck, as follows:
Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)

WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.







Available On Request—
The fourth annual report on salaries for accountants, auditors, attorneys, chemists,
engineers, engineering technicians, draftsmen, tracers, job analysts, directors o f
personnel, managers of office services, and clerical employees.
Order as BLS Bulletin 1387, National Survey of Professional, Administrative, Tech*
nical, and Clerical Pay, February—March 1963. 40 cents a copy.

Occupational W age Surveys
A list of the latest available bulletins is presented below. A directory indicating dates of earlier studies, and the prices of the bulletins is
available on request. Bulletins may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D . C. , 20402,
>
or from any of the BLS regional sales offices shown on the inside front cover.
Bulletin
number

Area
Akron, Ohio______________
Albany-Schenectady—
Troy, N. Y __________

Price

__________________________
Omaha, Nebr. —
Iowa 1
Pater son—
Clifton—
Passaic. N. J 1 ____________ _
Philadelphia, Pa.— J 1_______________ ______
N.
Phoenix, Ariz 1
_____________. ___________________
Pittsburgh, Pa _ _
___ _ __
- _
Portland, Maine 1
______________________________
Portland, Oreg. —
Wash 1_______________________
Providence—
Pawtucket, R. I.—
Mass___________ _
Raleigh, N. C 1
_________________________________
Richmond, Va 1
_________________________________

1385-14
1385-62
1385-31
1385-54
1385-38
1385-22
1385-67
1385-65
1385-7
1385-23

25
25
30
25
25
25
25
20
25
25

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

Rockford, 1111_______________________...______. __
St. Louis, M o.—
Ill_____________________________
Salt Lake City, Utah_____________ -____________
San Antonio, Tex1
______________________________
San Bernardino—
Riverside-Ontario, Calif1____
San Diego, Calif_______________________ ______
San Francisco—
Oakland, Calif1
________________
Savannah, Ga1___________ . ____________________
Scranton. P a 1__ _____ ___ ___________ ___
Seattle, Wash1.. _
_ ______ ________ . . . _______

1385-60
1385-2i
1385-28
1345-78
1385-9
1385-13
1385-36
1385-69
1385-8
1385-10

25
25
20
25
25
20
25
25
25
25

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

Sioux Falls, S. Dak1__________________________
South Bend, Ind1___________ ___________ ______
Spokane, Wash1 ____________________ __ _____
.
Toledo, Ohio__________ _______________ ________
Trenton, N. J _
_ __ _______
______
Washington, D. C. —
Md. — a ____________________
V
Waterbury, Conn1_____________ __________ ____
Waterloo. Io w a _____ ____ ____ ________ __ _
Wichita, Kans____________________________ ___
Worce ster, Mas s_______ . . . . ____________ _____ __
York. Pa1_________ ___________ _____ ___________

1385-20
1385-51
1345-66
1385-46
1385-27
1385-17
1385-48
1385-18
1385-6
1345-80
1385-45

25
25
25
20
20
25
25
20
20
20
25

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

1385-33
1385-47
1385-64
1385-57
1385-55
1385-5
1385-66
1385-58
1385-11
1385-25

25
20
25
25
25
20
30
25
25
20

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

1385-15
1385-12
1385-40
1385-34
1385-44
1385-43
1385-19
1385-4
1385-68
1345-82

25
20
25
25
25
25
20
20
25
25

Indianapolis, Ind 1
______________________________ 1385-30
Jackson, M iss1______________________ -______ -__ 1385-41
1385-32
Jacksonville,
1385-26
Kansas City, Mo. —
Kans 1____________________
1345-77
Lawrence— ve rhill, Mas s. — H __________ _
Ha
N.
1385-3
1385-59
1385-50
Louisville, Ky. —
Ind_____________
1345-72
Lubbock, Tex_______________ . ___
1385-1
Manchester, N. H_______________
1385-35

25
25
20
25
20
20
30
20
20
20
25

Beaumont—
Port Arthur, Tex

Buffalo, N. Y ___________________________________
Burlington, V t_________________-________________
Canton, Ohio1______________ -______ _____ ______
Charleston, W. V a 1-----------------------------------------Charlotte, N. C 1________________________________
Chattanooga ^ Tenn. —
Ga____ -_______ ___________
Cincinnati, Ohio— ___ -_______________________
Ky1
Cleveland, Ohio________________________________
Columbus, Ohio________________________________
Dallas, T e x ____________________________________
Davenport—
Rock Island—
Moline, Iowa—
111______
Dayton, Ohio1__________________________________
Denver, Colo 1_________________________ -_____ —
Des Moines, Iowa1 __________________________.__
Detroit, Mich---------------------------------------------------Green Bay, W is________________________________
Greenville, S. C1_______________________________
Houston, T e x __________________________________

Data on establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions are also presented.




Price
25
25
25
20
30
25
25
40

20
25
25
25
25
25
20
25
20
25

;i------

Bulletin
number

Miami f Fla 1
_ __
1385-29
Milwaukee, Wis ____ _____
_
T
1385-56
Minneapolis—
St. Paul, Minn___________________ 1385-39
Muskegon—
Muskegon Heights, M ich___________ 1345-69
Newark and Jersey City, N. J 1
________________ 1385-49
New Haven. Conn 1 ___
1385-37
New Orleans, La_____________
1385-42
New York, N. Y 1
_______________________________ 1345-79
Norfolk—
Portsmouth and Newport News—
Hampton, Va 1_______________________________ - 1345-75
Oklahoma City, Okla _______________
___ 1385-2

1345-81
1385-52
1385-61
1385-53
1345-71
1385-24
1345-67
1385-63
1345-74
1385-16

Allentown—
Bethlehem—
Easton, Pa.

Area

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

25 cents
20 cents


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102