View PDF

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

Occupational Wage Survey

RICHMOND, VIRGINIA
N O V E M B E R 1963

1385-23




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS REGIONAL OFFICES

SAN
FRAN CISCO

"JCOLO.

1365 Ontario Street
Cleveland. Ohio 44114
T e l .: 241-7900

V /-

Region V-----Western

g as itsst

630 Sansome Street
San Francisco, Calif. 94111
Tcl. : YUkon 6-3111




C X o l.^ 82S-7226

[0 L
K».
^E.
TX
1
l

' '
!
1
i.

____
1
»K.
K
\
'

fa
(
Region III ------ Southern
1371 Peachtree Street, NE.
Atlanta, Ca. 30309
T e l .: TRinity 6-3311

Occupational Wage Survey
RICHMOND, VIRGINIA




NOVEMBER 1963

Bulletin No. 1385-23
February 1964
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W . Willard Wirtz, Secretary
BUREAU O F LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 2 0402 - Price 25 cents

r v \




P refa ce

C on ten ts
Page

The Bureau of Labor Statistics program of annual
occupational wage surveys in metropolitan areas is de­
signed to provide data on occupational earnings, and e s­
tablishment practices and supplementary wage provisions.
It yields detailed data by selected industry divisions for
metropolitan area labor markets, for economic regions,
and for the United States.
A major consideration in the
program is the need for greater insight into (a) the move­
ment of wages by occupational category and skill level,
and (b) the structure and level of wages among labor
markets and industry divisions.

Introduction__________ ;___________________________________________________
Wage trends for selected occupational groups__________________________
Tables:
1.
2.

A:
A preliminary report and an individual area
bulletin present
survey results for each labor market
studied. After
completion of all of the individual area
bulletins for a round of surveys, a two part summary
bulletin is issued. The first part brings data for each of
the labor markets studied into one bulletin.
The second
part presents information which has been projected from
individual labor market data to relate to economic regions
and the United States.

B:

Eighty-two labor markets currently are included
in the program.
Information on occupational earnings is
collected annually in each area.
Information on estab­
lishment practices and supplementary wage provisions is
obtained biennially in most of the areas.
This bulletin presents results of the survey in
Richmond, Va. , in November 1963. It was prepared in
the Bureau’ s regional office in Atlanta, Ga. , by George G.
Farish, under the direction of Donald M. Cruse. The study
was under the general direction of Louis B. Woytych,
Assistant Regional Director for Wages and Industrial
Relations.




1
4

Establishments and workers within scope of survey
and number studied___________________________________
Indexes of standard weekly salaries and straight-time
hourly earnings for selected occupational groups,
and percents of increase for selected periods_______
Occupational earnings:*
A - 1.
Office occupations—
men and women______________________
A - 2. Professional and technical occupations—
men
and w om en_______________________________________________
A - 3. Office, professional, and technical occupations—
men and women combined_______________________________
A -4 .
Maintenance and powerplant occupations________________
A - 5.
Custodial and material movement occupations__________

8
9
10

Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions:*
B -l.
Minimum entrance salaries for womenoffice workers__
B -2.
Shift differentials_________________________________________
B -3 .
Scheduled weekly hours___________________________________
B -4 .
Paid holidays_____________________________________________
B -5.
Paid vacations_____________________________________________
B -6 .
Health, insurance, and pension plans___________________
B -7.
Paid sick leave____________________________________________

12
13
14
15
16
18
19

Appendix:

Occupational descriptions___________________________________

* NOTE: Similar tabulations are available for other
areas.
(See inside back cover.)
Union scales, indicative of prevailing pay levels, are
also available for building construction, printing, localtransit operating employees, and motortruck drivers
and helpers.

Hi

5
7

21




O c cu p a tio n a l W age S u rv e y —R ic h m o n d , Va.
Introduction

as for office clerical occupations, reference is to the work schedules
(rounded to the nearest half hour) for which straight-time salaries
are paid; average weekly earnings for these occupations have been
rounded to the nearest half dollar.

This area is 1 of 82 labor markets in which the U. S. De­
partment of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics conducts surveys of
occupational earnings alid related wage benefits on an areawide basis.
In this area, data were obtained by personal visits of Bureau field
economists to representative establishments within six broad industry
divisions: Manufacturing; transportation, communication, and other
public utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and
real estate; and services. Major industry groups excluded from these
studies are government operations and the construction and extractive
industries. Establishments having fewer than a prescribed number of
workers are omitted because they tend to furnish insufficient employ­
ment in the occupations studied to warrant inclusion. Separate tabu­
lations are provided for each of the broad industry divisions which
meet publication criteria.

Differences in pay levels for selected occupations in which
both men and women are commonly employed may be due to such
factors as (1) differences in the distribution of the sexes among in­
dustries and establishments; (2) differences in length of service or
merit review when individual salaries are adjusted on this basis;
and (3) differences in specific duties performed, although the occu­
pations are appropriately classified within the same survey job de­
scription. Job descriptions used in classifying employees in these
surveys are usually more generalized than those used in individual
establishments. This allows for minor differences among establish­
ments in specific duties performed.

These surveys are conducted on a sample basis because of
the unnecessary cost involved in surveying all establishments. To
obtain optimum accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of
large than of small establishments is studied. In combining the data,
however, all establishments are given their appropriate weight. E s ­
timates based on the establishments studied are presented, therefore,
as relating to all establishments in the industry grouping and area,
except for those below the minimum size studied.

Occupational employment estimates represent the total in
all establishments within the scope of the study and not the number
actually surveyed. Because of differences in occupational structure
among establishments, the estimates of occupational employment
obtained from the sample of establishments studied serve only to
indicate the relative importance of the jobs studied. These differ­
ences in occupational structure do not materially affect the accuracy
of the earnings data.

Occupations and Earnings
The occupations selected for study are common to a variety
of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries, and are of the
following types: (a) Office clerical; (b) professional and technical;
(c) maintenance and powerplant; and (d) custodial and material move­
ment. Occupational classification is based on a uniform set of job
descriptions designed to take account of inter establishment variation
in duties within the same job. The occupations selected for study
are listed and described in the appendix. Earnings data for some of
the occupations listed and described are not presented in the A -series
tables because either (1) employment in the occupation is too small
to provide enough data to merit presentation, or (2) there is possi­
bility of disclosure of individual establishment data.

Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Information is presented (in the B -series tables) on selected
establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions as they
relate to office and plant workers. Administrative, executive, and
professional employees, and force-account construction workers who
are utilized as a separate work force are excluded. "Office workers"
include working supervisors and nonsupervisory workers performing
clerical or related functions. "Plant workers" include working foremen
and all nonsupervisory workers (including leadmen and trainees) en­
gaged in nonoffice functions. Cafeteria workers and routemen are
excluded in manufacturing industries, but included in nonmanufacturing
industries.

Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for
full-time workers, i. e. , those hired to work a regular weekly schedule
in the given occupational classification. Earnings data exclude pre­
mium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late
shifts. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded, but cost-of-living bonuses
and incentive earnings are included. Where weekly hours are reported,




Minimum entrance salaries (table B -l) relate only to the e s­
tablishments visited. They are presented in terms of establishments
with formal minimum entrance salary policies.

1

2

Shift differential data (table B-2) are limited to plant workers
in manufacturing industries. This information is presented both in
terms of (a) establishment p olicy,1 presented in terms of total plant
worker employment, and (b) effective practice, presented in terms of
workers actually employed on the specified shift at the time of the
survey. In establishments having varied differentials, the amount
applying to a majority was used or, if no amount applied to a majority,
the classification ’’other" was used. In establishments in which some
late-shift hours are paid at normal rates, a differential was recorded
only if it applied to a majority of the shift hours.
The scheduled weekly hours (table B-3) of a majority of the
first-shift workers in an establishment are tabulated as applying to
all of the plant or office workers of that establishment. Paid holidays;
paid vacations; and health, insurance, and pension plans (tables B -4
through B-7) are treated statistically on the basis that these are
applicable to all plant or office workers if a majority of such workers
are eligible or may eventually qualify for the practices listed. Sums
of individual items in tables B -2 through B -7 may not equal totals
because of rounding.
Data on paid holidays (table B-4) are limited to data on
holidays granted annually on a formal basis; i. e. , (1) are provided
for in written form, or (2) have been established by custom. Holidays
ordinarily granted are included even though they may fall on a non­
workday, even if the worker is not granted another day off. The first
part of the paid holidays table presents the number of whole and half
holidays actually granted. The second part combines whole and half
holidays to show total holiday time.
The summary of vacation plans (table B-5) is limited to
formal policies, excluding informal arrangements whereby time off
with pay is granted at the discretion of the employer. Separate
estimates are provided according to employer practice in computing
vacation payments, such as time payments, percent of annual earnings,
or flat-sum amounts. However, in the tabulations of vacation pay,
payments not on a time basis were converted to a time basis; for
example, a payment of 2 percent of annual earnings was considered
as the equivalent of 1 week's pay.

Data are presented for all health, insurance, and pension
plans (tables B -6 and B-7) for which at least a part of the cost is
borne by the employer, excepting only legal requirements such as
workmen's compensation, social security, and railroad retirement.
Such plans include those underwritten by a commercial insurance
company and those provided through a union fund or paid directly
by the employer out of current operating funds or from a fund set
aside for this purpose. Death benefits are included as a form of
life insurance.
Sickness and accident insurance is limited to that type of
insurance under which predetermined cash payments are made directly
to the insured on a weekly or monthly basis during illness or accident
disability.
Information is presented for all such plans to which the
employer contributes. However, in New York and New Jersey, which
have enacted temporary disability insurance laws which require em ­
ployer contributions,2 plans are included only if the employer (1) con­
tributes more than is legally required, or (2) provides the employee
with benefits which exceed the requirements of the law. Tabulations
of paid sick leave plans are limited to formal plans 3 which provide
full pay or a proportion of the worker's pay during absence from work
because of illness.
Separate tabulations are presented according to
(1) plans which provide full pay and no waiting period, and (2) plans
which provide either partial pay or a waiting period. In addition to
the presentation of the proportions of workers who are provided
sickness and accident insurance or paid sick leave, an unduplicated
total is shown of workers who receive either or both types of benefits.
Catastrophe insurance, sometimes referred to as extended
medical insurance, includes those plans which are designed to protect
employees in case of sickness and injury involving expenses beyond
the normal coverage of hospitalization, medical, and surgical plans.
Medical insurance refers to plans providing for complete or partial
payment of doctors' fees. Such plans may be underwritten by com ­
mercial insurance companies or nonprofit organizations or they may
be self-insured. Tabulations of retirement pension plans are limited
to those plans that provide monthly payments for the remainder of
the worker's life.

2 The temporary disability laws in California and Rhode Island do not require employer
1
An establishment was considered as having a policy if it m et either of the following contributions.
conditions: (1) Operated late shifts at the time of the survey, or (2) had formal provisions covering
3 An establishment was considered as having a formal plan if it established at least the
late shifts. An establishment was considered as having formal provisions if it (1) had operated late
minimum number of days of sick leave that could be expected by each employee.
Such a plan
shifts during the 12 months prior to die survey, or (2) had provisions in written form for operating
need not be written, but informal sick leave allowances, determined on an individual basis, were
late shifts.
excluded.




3

Table 1.

Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied in Richmond, V a .,
Number of establishments

Minimum
employment
in establish­
ments in scope
of study

Industry division

by m ajor industry division, 2 November 1963
Workers in establishments
Within scope of study

Within
scope of
study 3

Studied

Studied
Office

T otal4

Plant

Total4

A ll divisions-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

_

383

131

80, 100

16,300

48, 500

52,230

----- — --------- —
__—
_
. . .
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing---------- ---------------__ --------Transportation, communication, and
other public utilities 5 -----------------------------------------------------W holesale trade --------- —
—
— __ __
Retail trade------------- — Finance, insurance, and real e s ta te ____________________
S e r v ic e s 8---------- -----—
— ------ — -------

50

132
251

51
80

3 6 ,8 0 0
43, 300

3, 500
12,800

2 7 ,3 0 0
21, 200

25, 280
26,950

36
58
78
47
32

18
15
18
16
13

11, 200
5,7 0 0
14, 400
8, 300
3 ,7 0 0

-

50
50
50
50
50

3, 100
( 6)
( 6)
( 6)
( 6)

4, 600
( 6)
6)
(7 )
( 6)

9,
2,
7,
5,
2,

900
280
580
120
070

1
The Richmond Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area co n sists-of Richmond City; and Chesterfield and Henrico Counties.
The "w orkers within scope of study" estim ates shown in this
table provide a reasonably accurate description of the size and composition of the labor force included in the survey. The estim ates are not intended, however, to serve as a basis of comparison
with other employment indexes for the area to m easure employment trends or levels since (1) planning of wage surveys requires the use of establishment data compiled considerably in advance
of the payroll period studied, and (2) sm all establishments are excluded from the scope of the survey.
i The 1957 revised edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual was used in classifying establishments by industry division.
3 Includes all establishm ents with total employment at or above the minimum limitation.
A ll outlets (within the area) of companies in such industries as trade, finance, auto repair
service , and motion picture theaters are considered as 1 establishment.
4 Includes executive, professional, and other workers excluded from the separate office and plant categories.
5 Taxicabs and services incidental to water transportation were excluded.
Richmond's gas utility is municipally operated and is excluded by definition from the scope of the study.
6 This industry division is represented in estimates for "a ll indu stries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the Series A tables, and for "a ll indu stries" in the Series B tables.
Separate
presentation of data for this division is not made for one or m ore of the following reasons:
(1) Employment in the division is too sm all to provide enough data to m erit separate study,
(2) the sam ple was not designed initially to permit separate presentation, (3) response was insufficient or inadequate to permit separate presentation, and (4) there is possibility of disclosure
of individual establishment data.
7 W orkers from this entire industry division are represented in estim ates for "a ll indu stries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the Series A tables, but from the real estate portion only in
estim ates for "a ll in d u stries" in the Series B tables. Separate presentation of data for this division is not made for one or m ore of the reasons given in footnote 6 above.
8 H otels; personal serv ice s; business services; automobile repair shops; motion pictures; nonprofit m em bership organizations; and engineering and architectural service s. 1
*

Table 2.

Indexes of standard weekly salaries and straight-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupational groups,
and percents of increase for selected periods, Richmond, Va.
Index
(Decem ber 1960=100)

Industry and occupational group
November 1963

Percents of increase
November 1962
to
November 1963

November 1961
to
November 1962

December I960
to
November 1961

February I960
to
Decem ber I960

A ll industries:
Office clerical (men and women). _______ __
Industrial nurses (men and women)___________
Skilled maintenance (men)____ __ __ _____ . .
Unskilled plant (m en)___________________ __ „

1 09.3
106. 1
10 8 .8
11 5 .3

2 .6
3 .5
2 .3
3. 1

2 .5
1 .0
2 .6
3 .2

3 .9
1.5
3 .5
18. 3

2 .6
3 .7
3 .4
5 .3

Manufacturing:
Office clerical (men and women)______________
Industrial nurses (men and women)___________
Skilled maintenance (men)____ __ _____ __
Unskilled plant (men)
_____ __ __ __ __ —

107.8
105.5
1 08.0
116.0

2 .8
3 .4
1.9
3. 7

2 .0
1 .5
2 .7
3 .2

2 .8
.5
3 .2
18. 4

2 .9
3 .6
3 .2
2 .5

1 The amount of this increase reflected the effect of the new minimum wage and changes in employment among establishments with different
pay levels in addition to general wage changes.




4
Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups

Presented in table 2 are indexes and percentages of change
in average salaries of office clerical workers and industrial nurses,
and in average earnings of selected plant worker groups.
For office clerical workers and industrial nurses, the per­
centages of change relate to average weekly salaries for normal hours
of work, that is, the standard work schedule for which straight-time
salaries are paid. For plant worker groups, they measure changes
in average straight-time hourly earnings, excluding premium pay for
overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. The
percentages are based on data for selected key occupations and in­
clude most of the numerically important jobs within each group.
The office clerical data are based on men and women in the following
19 jobs: Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B; clerks, accounting,
class A and B; clerks, file, class A, B, and C; clerks, order; clerks,
payroll; Comptometer operators; keypunch operators, class A and B;
office boys and girls; secretaries; stenographers, general; stenogra­
phers, senior; switchboard operators; tabulating-machine operators,
class B; and typists, class A and B. The industrial nurse data are
based on men and women industrial nurses.
Men in the following
8 skilled maintenance jobs and 2 unskilled jobs are included in the
plant worker data: Skilled— carpenters; electricians; machinists; m e­
chanics; mechanics, automotive; painters; pipefitters; and tool and
die makers; unskilled— janitors, porters, and cleaners; and laborers,
material handling.
Average weekly salaries or average hourly earnings were
computed for each of the selected occupations. The average salaries
or hourly earnings were then multiplied by employment in each of
the jobs during the period surveyed in 1961. These weighted earnings




for individual occupations were then totaled to obtain an aggregate for
each occupational group. Finally, the ratio (expressed as a percentage)
of the group aggregate for the one year to the aggregate for the other
year was computed and the difference between the result and 100 is
the percentage of change from the one period to the other. The
indexes were computed by multiplying the ratios for each group
aggregate for each period after the base year (1961).
The indexes and percentages of change measure, principally,
the effects of (1) general salary and wage changes; (2) merit or other
increases in pay received by individual workers while in the same
job; and (3) changes in average wages due to changes in the labor force
resulting from labor turnover, force expansions, force reductions,
and changes in the proportions of workers employed by establishments
with different pay levels.
Changes in the labor force can cause
increases or decreases in the occupational averages without actual
wage changes.
For example, a force expansion might increase the
proportion of lower paid workers in a specific occupation and lower
the average, whereas a reduction in the proportion of lower paid
workers would have the opposite effect. Similarly, the movement of
a high-paying establishment out of an area could cause the average
earnings to drop, even though no change in rates occurred in other
establishments in the area.
The use of constant employment weights eliminates the effect
of changes in the proportion of workers represented in each job in­
cluded in the data. The percentages of change reflect only changes in
average pay for straight-time hours.
They are not influenced by
changes in standard work schedules, as such, or by premium pay
for overtime.

A: Occupational Earnings

5

Table A-l. Office Occupations—Men and Women
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Richmond, V a ., November 1963)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

A viraqb

Sex, occupation, and industry division

of
workers

$45
Weekly j
Weekly j
Under and
(Standard) (Standard)
$45 under
$50

$50

$55

$60

$65

$70

$75

$80

$85

$90

$95

$100

$105

$110

$115

$120

$125

$130

$ 135^ $140

$145

$55

$60

$65

$70

$75

$80

$85

$90

$95

$100

$105

$110

$115

$120

$125

$130

$135

$140

$145

over

and

Men
Clerks, accounting, class A ------- __ __
Manufacturing __ _____ —
-----------Nonmanufacturing_____________________
Public utilities3------ ----- ---------- _

161
84
77
35

38. 5
39.0
38. 5
40. 0

$110.50
117.00
103.00
108.50

.
“

_
“

_
-

-

1
1
1

2
2
-

_
-

6
2
4
“

9
4
5
1

16
9
7
1

7
5
2
2

14
6
8
5

16
6
10
2

14
5
9
3

13
3
10
10

15
6
9
4

8
2
6
2

9
7
2
2

6
5
1
1

8
8
-

2
2
-

15
2 14
1
1

Clerks, accounting, class B-------------------Manufacturing __ -------- __ —
Nonmanufacturing-------------------------------Public utilities 3------------------------------

102
47
55
40

39.0
39. 0
39.5
4 0 .0

91.00
99.00
84.00
91.00

_
“

_
-

_
-

6
6
5

11
11
2

6
6
4

8
5
3
2

9
7
2
2

6
3
3
2

7
7
“

7
5
2
2

6
2
4
3

6
3
3
3

9
3
6
6

4
4
4

1
1
-

7
3
4
4

2
1
1
1

_
-

1
1
"

1
1
"

5
*5
-

Clerks, order___
________
______ —
Nonmanufacturing_____________________

91
54

4 0.0
40 .0

88.00
82.50

_

_

_

_

10
6

16
12

2
2

10
1

1
1

2
1

_

-

2
-

_

-

1
1

_

-

27
11

_

"

10
10

_

-

9
9

_

“

1
-

Clerks, payroll

32

39.5

91.50

_

_

_

2

_

_

5

2

5

3

_

5

2

_

_

6

_

_

_

-

_

-

2
-

-

13
13

4
4

7
1
6

4
3
1

13
6
7

11
2
9

9
2
7

2
1

5
1
4

2
2
-

1
1
-

2
1
~

-

1

2
2
-

-

-

9
9

3

1

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

----------- -------

-------------

O ffW h « y Nonmanufacturing--------------------------------

101
80

38. 5
38.0

60.50
59.50

.

Tabulating-machine operators,
class B____________ ____ __________________
Manufacturing---- ---------- __ __ -------Nonmanufacturing--------------------------------

73
26
47

38. 5
39.0
38. 0

93.50
101.00
89.00

Tabulating-machine operators,
class C___ ___
„ _____________ ____
N onmanufac tur ing--------------------------------

64
56

38. 5
38. 5

B illers, machine (billing machine)--------

29

B illers, machine (bookkeeping
machine)_______ ________ _______ _________
Manufacturing--------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing_____________________

2

-

.

-

2
-

52
49

11
6

12
8

5
4

-

-

2
2

1
1

3
3

1

3
1
2

5
2
3

71.00
69.50

-

-

1
1

5
3

15
15

16
16

9
9

2
2

4 0.0

63.00

_

_

4

15

_

3

5

-

-

_

-

_

-

-

2

-

-

-

_

_

-

_

99
25
74

39.0
38. 5
39.0

64.50
76.50
60.50

-

1
1

14
14

31
2
29

4
1
3

22
8
14

7
4
3

3
1
2

9
1
8

1
1

3
3

-

4
4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Bookkeeping-machine operators,
class A _________________________________
Manufacturing_________________________
Nonmanufacturing--------------------------------

87
32
55

38. 5
39. 5
38.0

75.00
77.00
74.00

-

-

-

1
-

14
4
10

13
5
8

15
9
6

7
7

7
4
3

3
3
"

3
1
2

4
1
3

"

“

1
1

-

"

-

-

-

-

1

19
5
14

Bookkeeping-machine operators,
class B__ _____ __ ______ ____________
Manufacturing________ __ ___________
Nonmanufacturing- ------- — -------------

183
25
158

39.0
39. 5
39. 0

64.00
70.00
63.50

"

1
1

18
18

38
7
31

45
4
41

32
3
29

27
27

12
2
10

9
8
1

1
1

C lerks, accounting, class A ____________
Manufacturing_________________________
Nonmanufacturing_____________________

306
40
266

38.0
39.5
38.0

87.00
85.50
87.00

-

-

13
2
11

8
2
6

28
5
23

53
12
41

129
6
123

15
5
10

23
2
21

9
3
6

4
4

6
3
3

4
4

4
4

-

-

_

-

"

-

500
63
437
110

38.0
39. 0
38. 0
39. 0

72.00
84.00
70.00
82.00

62
62
4

10
10

C lerks, accounting, class B_____________
Manufacturing- _ ____________________
Nonmanufacturing-------------------------------Public utilities 3___________________

1

98
4
94
10

77
8
69
13

71
10
61
15

41

53
5
48
26

28

11
4
7
7

3
3
3

2
7
7

6
6
6

_
-

4
4
-

-

-

-

63
55

38.0
38.0

74.50
74.00

2
2

17
17

5
4

3
3

10
8

10
7

4
2

2
2

1
1

1
1

1
1
1
2
2

2
1
1
1

C lerks , file, class A _________ _____ „
Nonmanufacturing----------------------------------------

8
7
1
2
2

9

32
14

-

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

_

■

■

■

“

“

1
-

----- 2
—

Women

See footnotes at end of table,




-

1
-

-

"
6
6
1
1

19
19
2
2

9

9

19
3

_
-

-

_
"
_
-

6
Table A-l. Office Occupations—Men and Women— Continued
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Richmond, V a ., November 1963)
Avkraqk

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF$45

of

Weeklyj
Weekly ,
earnings
hours
(Standard) (Standard)

$45

$50

under

”

$50

S e x , o c c u p a t io n , an d in d u s tr y d iv is io n

$55

$55

$60

$65

$70

$75

$80

“

“

”

“

$70

$75

$80

$85

$85

$90

$95

”

”

$100

"

$105
“

$110

"

$115

$125

$130

$ 135

$140

_

$120

~

“

“

“

and

$135

$140

$145

over

$145

$60

$65

45

26
15

15

11

5

4

7

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

£

1
1

_

11

11

4

-

-

4
4

7
7

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

5
5

-

6

5
"

"

-

-

"

-

-

"

"

1

-

-

-

“

"

_

_

_

-

-

-

_
-

$90

$95

$100

$105

$110

$115

$120

$125

$130

W o m e n — C o n t in u e d
_

_

52

39

-

-

51
3

34
8

38
4

83
67

52
46

15
15

1

4

4

2

3

10

13

_

5

1

6

3
3

20

16

23

13

2

9
3

1
1

6

10
6

8
2

15

7
13

-

2
2

7
5

-

5
5

-

15

17
4
13

6

13

6

-

6

-

2

-

-

-

14

6
1

3

4

1

_

_

_

_

2

4
4
-

4

1

-

-

-

-

1

4

-

6

6

2

6

6

-

N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------------P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 3 --------------------------------- —

205
46
159
39

3 8 .0
39. 5
37. 5
3 9 .0

$ 6 3 . 50
6 7 . 50
6 2 .5 0
7 6 . 50

C l e r k s , f i l e , c l a s s C --------- ~ —
- - —
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g — _______------------------ ------

151
129

3 8 .5
38. 5

5 4 . 50
5 4 . 50

_ ------

48

4 0 .0

7 5 . 00

_

C l e r k s , p a y r o l l -----------__
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------------

145
51
94

3 9 .0
3 9 .0
38. 5

8 2 .0 0
8 5 .0 0
80. 00

C o m p t o m e t e r o p e r a t o r s ----------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g — -------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g — _ __
___________

155
42
113

39. 5
39. 5
39. 5

6 8 . 50
6 9 .0 0
6 8 . 50

35
29

38. 5
38. 5

6 7 . 50
7 0 .0 0
8 1 .0 0

C le r k s , file ,

c la s s B

C le r k s , o r d e r

—

-

—

_ _ _ _ _ _ ------- ----

—

D u p lic a t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s
( M i m e o g r a p h o r D i t t o ) ______________________
8

5

-

"

_

_

-

"
_

-

-

-

-

"

-

-

_

14
3

-

7
14

15
3

12

2
12

44
13
31

21

*

17
4
13

12

11

8

5

-

-

3

4

7

5

8

7

-

1

4

7

2

g

7

-

-

1

16

30

20

15

3

2

13
7

6

14

8
22

16
4
12

9

2
1

1

2

-

-

-

64

40

18

1

20

4

18

_

_

_

_

19
19

4
4

18
18

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

49
72

3 9 .0
4 0 .0
38. 5

8 8 .0 0

_
-

7 5 . 50

“

-

-

1

3
3

3 8 .0
3 9 .5
3 8 .0
3 9 .0

7 0 . 00
7 0 . 00
7 0 .0 0
8 0 .0 0

_

_

11

50

54

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 3 --------------------------------------

282
29
253
94

-

-

O f f i c e g i r l s ______________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------------

53
47

3 8 .0
37. 5

5 6 .0 0
5 5 . 50

-

----------S e c r e ta r ie s
_
_
M a n u fa c tu r in g
------- _
_ _ _ _ _
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g
__
_ ___
_
P u b lic u t il it ie s 3 -

954
343
611
119

3 9 .0
4 0 .0
3 8 .5
39. 5

8 9 . 50
9 4 . 50
8 7 .0 0
1 0 6 .0 0

_

S ten og ra p h ers, g en era l

617
22l
396
143

38. 5
3 9 .5
3 8 .0
39. 5

7 7 .0 0
7 6 .5 0
7 7 .0 0
9 3 . 00

9

229
71
158
43

38. 5
3 9 .5
3 8 .0
3 9 .0

8 4 . 00
9 2 . 50
8 0 .0 0
8 7 .0 0

-

S w it c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s
_ _
M a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g
---------- __
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 3 ------__ _____ ______

152

6 8 . 50

8

124
32

40. 5
*9. 5
40. 5
4 0 .0

8 3 .5 0
6 5 .0 0
8 0 . 50

S w i t c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r - r e c e p t i o n i s t s ------___
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ________ _______________ _______
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------— ____

131
48
83

40. 0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

7 0 . 00
7 6 .0 0
7 0 .0 0

K e y p u n c h o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s A ______________
M a n u fa c tu r in g
_
_
_ _
_
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g
____
_
_ ____

121

K ey p u n ch o p e r a t o r s , c la s s B_

_

__

N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------- ----------------_ __ __ ____
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 3 ----- ----

,

---------_------ ----- _
_
---____
___-------------

S te n o g r a p h e r s s e n io r
M a n u fa c tu r in g
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g
P u b lic u t il it ie s 3

__

------ _

----

See footnotes at end of table,




—

ts

"

-

8

2
11

4

1

1

-

_

-

-

-

-

_
-

"

-

-

“

-

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

_

_

2

3

3

7

5

5

1

2
2

9
-

47
14

51

57

35

13

-

-

10

12

11

6

-

-

15
15

17
14

15
14

-

2

-

-

_

-

-

“

"

4
4

"

“

"

"

-

-

3
3

14
14

58

56

107
30
77

81
40
41

65
37

-

-

53
33
4

44
— Z2

“

147
84
63
5

86

-

52
4
48
3

112

-

_
-

8

22
11

27
14
13
5

39
9
30
25

4
3

27

91

1 14

9

1

2

1

22

18
4

29

n

15
Q

42

12

1

19
9

79
14

92

14
14

42
41

29
29

9
9

1
1

2
2

1

10

49
5

3

23

21

22

14

3

11

9

2

9

8

1

2

12

3

1

2
1

3

6

2
12
2

1

35
•
7

4
18

2
2

3

2
21

15
7
8
2

8
8

9

-

5

5
3

-

-

9
-

_
-

_
“
_
-

_
-

g

11“
47
7

-

-

35

-

11

13

-

9

-

29

8

11

13

9

29

-

-

_
“

_
"

-

-

6

1

1

4

-

16
4

17
14

4

12

3

— rr
45
4

24
------- T~
22
2

37
16
27

71

10

5
5
2

— n r~
94
5
90
63
27
1

8

1

68

26
19
7

59
9
3

8

3

15

3

7

2

30
io

23
13

15
9

20

10
8

6

3

4
17
--------T~ ” T 2 P ------ T ~
1
7
5
2
5
1
6

l

6
2

8

23

-

1
2
2

-

-

9
9

6

6
1

2
1

1
1

13

5

1

19

1
_
-

-

_
-

-

-

1
1

26
—

r~
22

15

-

_

13
7
------- T ~ — z —
10
5
8
5

_
-

-

1
1

1

1

-

1

-

_
-

-

-

-

i

-

-

1

-

9
7

2

1

_
-

_
_
-

_
-

-

-

_
-

_
-

-

1

"

7
“ T 4

_
"
_
-

1

"

2
2

-

_
-

7
Table A-l. Office Occupations—Men and W om en— Continued
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Richmond, Ya. , November 1963)
Avxbaox
Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—
$50

$55

$60

$65

$70

$75

$80

$85

$90

$95

$100

$105

$110

$115

$120

$125

$130

$135

$140

$145

$55

$60

$65

$70

$75

$80

$85

$90

$95

$100

$105

$110

$115

$120

$125

$130

$135

$140

$145

over

2
2

14
14

41
39

”

8
8

-

“

3
3

2

-

4
4

13

-

$45
Weekly 1 Weekly x U n d e r
and
earnings
noun
under
$45
(Standard) (Standard)
$50

-

-

“

“

"

-

7
5

8
8

8
8

19
19

2
2

15
13

H

12

9

8

5
4

2
1

10
8

2
2

39

77

27
3
24
3

2
1

1

_

_

_

_

_

10

41
4
37
3

8

1

-

1

-

_

-

8

_

-

-

51

31
15
16

-

-

-

-

"

-

1

“

-

10

-

-

and

Women— Continued
Tabulating-machine operators,
class B-----------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing----------------------

80

3 8 .0
3 8 .0

$ 8 1 .5 0
8 1 .0 0

Tabulating-machine operators,
class C-----------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing_________ __
_

50
48

36. 5
36. 5

6 5 .0 0
6 5 . 50

Transcribing-machine operators,
gen eral----------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing______________

64
48

39. 0
3 9 .0

6 8 . 50

Typists, class A __________________
Manufacturing__________________
N onmanufactur ing«_------------------Public utilities3-------------------

236
41
195
31

38. 0
38. 5
3 8 .0
3 9 .0

7 1 .0 0
7 7 .0 0
6 9 . 50
7 4 .5 0

549
80
469
48

38. 5
3 9 .0
3 8 .5
4 0 .0

6 0 . 50
6 5 .5 0
6 0 .0 0
7 0 .0 0

88

Typists, class B ---------------------------Manufacturing---------------------------Nonmanufacturing--------------------Public utilities3____________
1
2
3
4

-

“

_

_

-

-

6
6

_

_

4

"

“

_

_

-

-

7
5

7 0 .0 0

.
"

18

18

2

-

-

119

162

3
“

111

38
5

67
4

144
29
115
15

63

8

3

7

8

155

3

8

12

10

5
3
2

1

3
3

6

_

1

4

6
-

5
5

-

-

>

-

-

-

1

4
4

1
1

5
5
"

1

7

3

-

-

-

1

7
7

3
3

“

"

"

-

3
3
"

7
“

_

1

1

-

Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
Workers were distributed as follows: 4 at $145 to $150; 4 at $150 to $155; 3 at $155 to $160; and 3 at $160 and over.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Workers were distributed as follows: 4 at $145 to $150; and 1 at $150 to $155.

Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations—Men and Women
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Richmond, Va. , November 1963)
Avxbaox
Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

Weeklyj
Weekly x
earnings
noun
(Standard) (Standard)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF-

$70
and
under
$75

$75

$80

$85

$90

$95

$100

$105

$110

$115

$120

$125

$130

$135

$140

$145

$150

$155

$160

$80

$85

$90

$95

$100

$105

$110

$115

$120

$125

$130

$135

$140

$145

$150

$155

$160

$165

-

-

-

-

-

4
2

3
1

9
9

11
10

14
14

22
19

11
10

8
4

7
4

19
10

14
14

12

_

2
2

4
4

14
12

12
10

12

12
11

1

8
8

-

4
3

5
2

8
6

9
8

6
4

5
2

-

Men
Draftsmen, senior------------------------------------Manufar.tu r in g

136
no

40 .0
40 .0

$129.00
129.00

__ --- ---------

64
57

40 .0
40 .0

91.50
91.50

Nurses, industrial (registered)__________
Manufacturing________
_ ____________

57
44

39.5
40 .0

104.50
106.50

Draftsmen, junior

__

__

8

_

_

_

_

Women
2
2

4
3

1
1

1
1

3
3

8
8

1
1

Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours,




_

_

_

-

8
Table A-3. Office, Professional, and Technical Occupations—Men and Women Combined
(Average straight-time weekly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Richmond, V a ., November 1963)

N m er
u b
of

Occupation and industry division

A g
vera e
we ly
ek
ea in s1
rn g
(S n a )
ta d rd

Occupation and industry division

N m er
u b
o
f

e rn g
a in s*
(S n a )
ta d rd

e rn g *
a in s
(S n a )
ta d rd

Switchboard operators— ----------------- __ —
— —
Manufacturing -------- -------- — - ------ ------- ----Nonmanufacturing—
— -------- ------ ------ — —
Public utilities 2--------------------------------------------------

153
29
124
32

$68.50
83. 50
65. 00
80. 50

Switchboard operator-receptionists--------------------------Manufacturing----------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing- ----_ _ ----- ------------ --------

131
48
83

70. 00
70. 00
70. 00

Office occupations— Continued

Office occupations— Continued

Office occupations

Nm
u ber
of
w rk
o ers

Occupation and industry division

Nonmanufacturing---------------------------------------------------

Nviunanufactui mg

100
26
74

75.00
77. 00
74. 00

Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B ----------------

201
34
167

64. 50
71. 00
63. 50

Clerks, accounting, class A___

________ __
________ ------------

_

467
124
343

Nonmanufacturing--------------------------------------------------Public utilities2------- —------------------ —------- —-------

602
110
IQ?
‘tyc.
150

Clerks file class A
Nonmanufacturing---------------------—---------------------------

84
76

Clerks » stccounting* cistss ij— ——

241
----- 43---195
59

95.00
107.00
90.50
75.
90.
71.
84.

00
50
50
50

66.
67.
65.
84.

00
50
50
50

151
129

54. 50
54. 50

Clerks, order_______ __________________ __ ___________

139
62
77

83. 50
89. 50
79.00

.___

_____

Nonmanufacturing------------------------------------------------- -

Duplicating-machine operators
(Mimeograph or Ditto)____________________________ —
Nonn\2iTiuf rt1 T Yg
! "* \

50
35

69. 50
“ 68.00

Tabulating-machine operators, class B--------------------Manufacturing_______________ _ __ _______ __ __
Nonmanufacturing----------- ------------------------ _ --------

161
34
127

87. 00
98. 00
84. 00

123
50
73

80. 50
88.00
75.50

Tabulating-machine operators, class C_____________
Nonmanufacturing-----------------------------------------------------

114
104

68. 50
67. 50

Keypunch operators, class B________________________
Manufacturing_______ ____
- _____________ ____
Nonmanufacturing— ___ ____ _
_______ _____
public ntii'tiAQ ^
-

290
29
261
97

70.
70.
70.
80.

Transcribing-machine operators, general---------------Nonmanufac turi ng— — — —
— _______________

64
48

68. 50
70. 00

Office boys and girls_________________________________

Typists, class A _____________ ___ ____ __ ____ __
Manufacturing----------- -------- ------- --------- — _ ___
Nonmanufacturing------- --------------------- -----------------Public utilities2____ ___
_____________

236
41
195
31

71.
77.
69.
74.

Nonmanufacturing---------------------------------------------------

154
27
127

Typists, class B ______________________________________
Manufacturing------------ ------- —-------- - — -------------

Nonmanufacturing----------------------,---------------------------Public utilities 2------------------------------------------------

985
344
641
149

553
82
471
50

61. 00
65. 50
60. 00
71.00

110

129.00
129.00

65
57

91. 50
91. 50

57
44

104.50
106. 50

Keypunch operators, class A -------------------------------------

87. 00
88.00

__ __

Clerks, file, class C ______

68. 50
69. 50
68.50

64. 50
76.00
60. 50

87
32
55

___

158
45
113

$68.50
66. 00

Bookkeeping-machine operators, class A ---------------Manufacturing--------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing---------------------------------------------------

Nonmanufacturing___

$83.50
87. 50
80. 50

Nonmanufacturing-------------------------------------—-----------

Billers, machine (bookkeeping machine)------------------

177
76
101

Nonmanufacturing---------------------------------------------------

36
32

640
Stenographers, general---------------------------------------------Manufacturing_________________ _____ __________ __ “ i i i —
Nonmanufacturing----------------------------- -------------------419
166
Public utilities 2-----------------------------------------------Stenographers, senior__________ ___________ _______ _
Manufacturing--------------------------------------------------------Nonm anufac turing--- ---- ----- _______--------------------------Fablic utilities 2----------------- ----------------------------

Earnings relate to regular straight-time weekly salaries that are paid for standard workweeks.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.




230
158
43

00
00
00
50

59.00
T O O "
58. 00
'

90. 50
94. 50
88. 50
110.00

Public utilities 2--------------------------------------------------

Professional and technical occupations
78. 00
76750” Draftsmen, senior___ ___________ ____ — ________
78. 50
95.00
Draftsmen, junior-------------------------------------------------------84. 00
Manufacturing__ _ _____ ------ —
_____
92. 50
80. 00 Nurses, industrial (registered)—
_ ----------------- _
37. 00

00
00
50
50

9
Table A -4. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Richmond, V a ., November 1963)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

A g $ 1.00 $ 1.10 $ 1.20 $1.30 $1.40 $1.50 $1.60 $1.70 $1.80 $1.90 $ 2.00 $ 2.10 $2.20 $ O o $2.40 $ I 3 o $2.60 $2770 $2.80 $2.90 $3.00 $3.10 $3.20 $3.30 $3.40 $3.50
vera e
h u . and
o rly
ea in s
rn g
and
under
$ 1.10 $ 1.20 $1.30 $1.40 $1.50 $1.60 $1.70 $1.80 $1.90 $ 2.00 $ 2.10 $ 2.20 $2.30 $2.40 $2.50 $2.60 $2.70 $2.80 $2.90 $3.00 $3.10 $3.20 $3.30 $3.40 $3.50 over

Occupation and industry division

Nm
u ber
of
w rk
o ers

Carpenters, maintenance---------------------Manufa ctur ing________________________
Nonmanufacturing------------------------------

91
63
28

$2.84
2.92
2.68

Electricians, maintenance-. __
Manufacturing------------------------------------

236
210

3.11
3.08

Engineers, stationary__________________
Manufacturing------------------------------------

67
48

2.69
2.72

Firemen, stationary boiler ___
Manufacturing
— ____

70
55

Helpers, maintenance trades__________
Manufacturing___________________ ____
Nonmanufacturing— _
------ ------

1
“

-

-

-

1

"

3
1
2

3
2
1

2
2
1
1

.

.

2
2

"

"

-

-

“

-

1.93
2.10

5

5
-

_

3
3

.

-

3
3

6
6

-

130
78
52

2.41
2.33
2.52

.
“

1
-

.
-

3
3

1

2
2
■

7
6
1

2
2

4
3

Machinists, maintenance__________ —__
Manufactur ing

265
262

3.06
3.06

"

-

“

“

~

-

-

~

Mechanics, automotive
(maintenance) -__
____ _________
Manufa ctur ing_______________________
Nonmanufacturing—--------------------------Public utilities2.................................

268
47
221
172

2.46
2.33
2.48
2.53

-

_
-

_
"

_
-

_
•

11

4

7
5
2
2

Mechanics, maintenance----------------------Manufa rfrnring

465
444

Millwrights____
__ - ___
Manufa ctur ing__ ____—_______________

!

1
1

"

2
-

2
2

6
6
-

4
_
4

2
2
-

3
3
-

29
21
8

18
17

6
5

1

1

2
-

3
3

6
6

7
4

38
38

18
18

6
5

88
88

5
4

10
6

7
4

!

-

7
7

4
3

15
14

1
"

“

3
3

8
8

4
4

8
8

-

-

4
4

-

-

5
5

.
-

52
52

7
7

4
4
-

26
26

“

-

8
8

9
8

4
4

3
3

2
2

23
23

3
3

4
3
1

-

11

-

8
8

!

4
4

!

"
3
3

1
1

2
1

3
2
1

1
n

15
13

2

6
1
5

3
2

3
2

2
1

1

1

1

2
2

2
2

!
1

3
3

8
8

10
3
7

5

31
8
23
14

8
4
4
4

38
6
32
32

36
36
36

6
1
5
5

3
2
1
1

3
3
-

33
16
17
16

_
_
"

2
2
-

2.94
2.94

10
10

9
9

30
30

13
13

42
40

9
9

6
2

19
1Q
17

5

119
1 1Q
117

157
157

3.07
3.07

1
1

1

2
2

-

1
1

-

-

-

____
- ____ -

75
74

2.14
2.14

.
“

-

Painters, maintenance-------------------------Manufacturing------------------------------------

96
81

2.85
2.99

_

.

115
115

3.19
3.19

_

.

.

54
54

3.16
3.16

_

.

.

_ __
Oilers _ ___
Manufacturing __

- -

Pipefitters, maintenance——_______________
Mannfarhiring

Sheet-metal workers, maintenance____
Manufacturing

_

_

-

-

11
3

4
-

1

1

-

5
5

2
2

3
3

7
7

j
1

n
11

1

-

_

_

4

2

.

.

_

.

.

.

.

_

.

_

1

6
5

6
6

2
2

30
30

-

-

-

-

6
5

.

2

1

5
1

2
2

!

■

7
7

4
2

2
2

.

87
87

6
6

.

_

1

-

_

.

_

.

.

1
1

1

2
_
2

1
_
1

28
27

19
-

j
-

4
3

-

"

-

-

_
-

_

_

_

-

-

49
49

11
11

136
136

1

2
-

1

46
_
46
30

25

_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_

-

"

193
1
ly j

10

-

7
7

-

25
23

58
58

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3
2

58
58

-

4
4

78
78

1
1

j

24
24

7
7

.

1

11

5
5

36
36
'

1
2

E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y fo r o v e r t im e and fo r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s ,
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , a n d o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .




a n d la te s h ift s .

"

-

"

1
1

_

-

10
Table A-5. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Richmond, Va. , November 1963)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Number
of
workers

Average

Elevator operators, passenger
(women)_______________________________
Nonmanufacturing-----------------------------

40
39

$0. 85
. 84

Guards and watchmen__ ____ ____ — _
Manufacturing___________ —---------------Watchmen------------------ —------------- Nonmanufacturing------— --------------- -

249
153
107
96

1.96
2. 12
1. 81
1.70

Janitors, porters, and cleaners
(men)---------------------------------------------------Manufacturing------- ---------------------------Nonmanufacturing------------------------------------Public utilities 4 _____________________

970
434
536
103

1.
1.
1.
1.

Janitors, porters, and cleaners
(worn en) - ____ ___ _____________________ _
Manufactur ing______________ ________ _
Nonmanufacturing—---------------------------

Occupation 1 and industry division

$0.60 $0.70 $0.80 $0.90 $1.00 $1.10 $1.20 $1.30 $1.40 $1.50 $1.60 $1.70 $1.80 $1.90 $2.00 $2.10 $2.20 $2.30 $2.40 $2.50 $2.60 $2.70 $2.80 $2.90 $3.00
Under and
$0.60 under
$0.70 $0.80 $0.90 $1.00 $1.10 $1.20 $1.30 $1.40 $1.50 $1.60 $1.70 $1.80 $1.90 $2.00 $2.10 $2.20 $2.30 $2.40 $2.50 $2.60 $2.70 $2.80 $2.90 $3.00 $3.10

15
15

3
3

-

-

”

“

55
80
35
80

8
_
8
-

212
46
166

1. 28
1.46
1. 24

Laborers, material handling--------------Manufacturing— ------------ ------- — Nonmanufacturing----------------------------Public utilities4---------------------------

1,235
552
683
183

1.71
1. 77
1.65
2. 13

Order fille r s -----------------------------------------Manufacturing-----------------------------------Nonmanufacturing------------------------

360
75
285

1. 87
2. 17
1. 80

Packers, shipping--------------------------------Manufacturing__________ ______ ______

163
98

1. 57
1.72

Receiving clerk s------- ------- ------------ Mamifartiiring
Nonmanufacturing------------------- ---------

97
57
40

2. 22
2. 44
1.90

Shipping clerks

Nonmanufac turing ------------------------- —

99
64
35

2. 20
2. 26
2. 10

Shipping and receiving clerk s-------------«g

51
28
1, 163
*51
912

1.91
1.76
1.95

3
3

1
1

32
7
7
25

23
13
13
10

12
9
9
3

12
2
2
10

8
7
7
1

13
13
13
"

8
6
6
2

6
5
5
1

16
14
13
2

43
36
32
7

13
3

8
-

9

10

8

49
-

53
53
-

120
18
102

105
49
56
7

77
23
54
13

60
31
29
7

106
50
56
29

70
58
12
3

23
15
8
6

24
18
6
2

86
84
2
2

65
60
5
3

32
2
30
30

31
31

11
11

75
16
59

19
15
4

30
3
27

12
1
11

5
3
2

4
3
1

1
1
"

~

1
1
"

8
2
6

4
4
•

4
4
“

254
53
201
9

120
46
74
”

80
62
18
"

30
29
1
1

200
36
164
1

120
114
6
5

14
14
13

51
45
6
4

18
18
17

35
2
33

24
24

23
1
22

21
6
15

79
79

28
13
15

4
4
“

28
1

11
2

45
39

20
20

6
5

12
12

2
2
-

6
1
5

5
5
"

3

6

5
1
4

7

12
8
4

2
2
-

15
14

_

8
2

5

199
8
191

32
17
15

27
19
8

39
25
14

2. 27
2. 31

Truckdrivers 5 --------------------------------------Manufacturing— ~ — ---- ------- -------Nonmanufacturing-----------------------------

6
5

1

36
6

------- — — — — ---- -

See footnotes at end of table.




4
4

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

-

-

4

28
_
28
“

19
19
-

7
_
7
“

2

49

_

_

2
“

8
8

6
6

_

-

-

■

"

"

-

”

“

-

.
-

2
2

3

4
-

-

-

1

_
-

-

-

-

“

-

-

21 .
1
20

.

.

.

.

_

_

_

22

5
"

-

-

"

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

3
_
3

9

-

-

j

5

1

9

_

_

_

4
-

4

95
12
83

142
48
94

_

56
27
29

_

2
5

9
3

33
33

5
4

1
1

-

-

9

1

-

“

-

36
26
10

_

_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

_

_
-

-

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

126
99
27
27

86
26
60
60

125
42
83
45

3
3

.
■

"

.
■

.
-

1

.
■

.
■

12
12

15
15
■

10
10
•

_
“

57
57

7
7

24
23
1

.
"

_
”

3

3

2
2

_

_

_

_

_

7

2
2

_

3

2
2

7

3

“

"

■

-

“

-

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

4
4
“

14

4
4
-

3
3

3

7
7

7
7

_

22
19

_

_

-

"

-

3

3

-

“

5
5
-

25
4
21

6
6
-

11
11
~

2
2

1

2
2
-

3
3
"

1
1
"

2
2
-

1
1
-

_

1
1

8
8

4
4

_

11
10

1

_

7

1

1
-

3
3

25
25

124
13
111

26
15
11

13
4
9

113
18
95

157
17
140

3
3

.

_

-

-

-

2
1

_

1

104
-

-

104

11
Table A-5. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations— Continued
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Richmond, Va., November 1963)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

Occupation1 and industry division

Number
of
worker*

Avenge

$0.60 $0.70 $0.80 $ 0.90 $ 1.00 $ 1.10 $ 1.20 $1.30 $1.40 $1.50 $1.60 $1.70 $1.80 $1.90 $ 2.00 $ 2.10 $ 2.20 $2.30 $2.40 $2.50 $ 2.60 $2?70 J z M $ 2.96 | X o U
Under and
$0.60 under
$0.70 $0.80 $0.90 $ 1.00 $ 1.10 $ 1.20 $1.30 $1.40 $1.50 $1.60 $1.70 $1.80 $ 1.90 $2.00 $ 2.10 $ 2.20 $2.30 $2.40 $2.50 $2.60 $2.70 $2.80 $2.90 $3.00 $3.10

Truckdrivers 5— Continued
Truckdrivers, light (under
l 1/2 t o n s ) __________________________________
Nonmanufacturing________________

$1.91
1.92

-

-

556
160 ”
396
272

1.91
1.73
1.99
2.29

_
-

_
-

168
146
128

2.53
2.63
2.77

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1.91
1.91
1.90

_
-

_
-

_
-

_

.

-

-

167
149

Truckdrivers, medium ( l 13 to and
/2
Manufactur ing
Nonmanufacturing
PiiKlir iifilitiofi ^

Truckdrivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
trailer type)
Nonmanufacturing — —— — ——— —
Public utilities 4 ---------------------Truckers, power (forklift)______________
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing —

1
2
3
4
5

372
251
121

-

-

"

"

-

.
-

-

-

_
-

6
6

2

1

1

_

_

-

62
62

-

“

-

-

-

'

98
11
87
87

20
15
5
5

10
2
8

69
2
67
67

86
8
78
78

1
_
1

2
2
_

_
_
_

.

6
_

20
20
20

.
-

1
1

32
28
23

1
_
"

_
“

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
-

7
3
4

.
-

6
6

40
40

31
31

5
_
5

7

23
22
1

_

.

_

2
2

22
20

8
8

19
15

8
8

8
7

5
5

10
9

6

_
_
.

2
2

33
10
23

95
24
71

31
23
8

19
8
11

21
14
7

12
9
3
2

28
23
5
4

9
9
-

10
-

1
-

_
-

_
-

.
-

!
.
1

Data limited to men workers except where otherwise indicated.
Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
A ll workers were at $0.50 to $0.60.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes all drivers regardless of size and type of truck operated.




4
4

3
3

5
5

6
4
2

5
5

23
19
4

1
1

7
6

1
1

35
32
3

1
1

38
20
18

47
35
12

90
33
57

"

g

1

-

7

-

_

_
-

20
_
20
20

-

-

84
84
84
6
_

6

B: Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions

12

Table B-l. Minimum Entrance Salaries for Women Office Workers
(Distribution of establishments studied in all industries and in industry divisions by minimum entrance salary for selected categories
of inexperienced women office w orkers, Richmond, V a ., November 1963)
Inexperienced typists

Minimum weekly straight-tim e sa la r y 1

Other inexperienced clerical workers 2

Nonmanufacturing

Manufacturing

A ll
schedules

40

A ll
schedules

37

7*

Nonmanufacturing

Manufacturing

Based on standard weekly hours 3 of—

All
industries

All
industries

Based on standard weekly hours 3 ofA ll
schedules

40

40

A ll
schedules

37

72

40

Establishments studied--------------------------------------------------------------

131

51

XXX

80

XXX

XXX

131

51

XXX

80

XXX

XXX

Establishments having a specified minimum—. --------------------

46

13

10

33

9

18

51

11

9

40

12

21

and under $ 4 0 . 0 0 — --------— —
------ ----and under $ 4 2 . 5 0 -----------------------------------------------------and under $ 4 5 . 0 0 -----------------------------------------------------and under $ 4 7 . 5 0 -----------------------------------------------------and under $ 5 0 . 0 0 -------------- — - --------- - --------and under $ 5 2 . 5 0 -----------------------------------------------------and under $ 5 5 . 0 0 . ------ --------- _ --------- — and under $ 5 7 . 5 0 — ------------------- ------ — and under $ 6 0 . 0 0 -----------------------------------------------------and under $ 6 2 . 5 0 - —
. . .
----------and under $ 6 5 . 0 0 --------------------------------------- — ---------and under $ 6 7 . 5 0 --------------- — — --------and under $ 7 0 . 0 0 ------------- — -------------------------------------------------------------------------and under $ 7 2 . 5 0 __________ __________________________________
and under $ 7 5 . 0 0 __________ ___________ ____________________
and over ______________________________________________________________

.

_
-

-

.
-

-

1

-

1

1
-

1

1

-

-

_
-

1

1

-

$37.
$40.
$42.
$45.
$47.
$50.
$52.
$55.
$57.
$60.
$62.
$65.
$67.
$70.
$72.
$75.

50
00
50
00
50
00
50
00
50
00
50
00
50
00
50
00

1
1

-

1
1

-

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

1

1

-

4

4

11

2

1

25
3
3

7

1
-

1

4

31
4
3

4

1
-

3
4

6

1
1

17
7
3

8

8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

-

1

2

1

-

-

-

-

1
-

3

2

2

-

-

.

1
-

1

1

3

2

1

-

-

-

-

4

3

-

-

2
-

1
-

3

1

1

1

1

-

-

1
1

2

-

-

2

-

2

2

Establishments having no specified m inim um --------------------------------------

19

6

XXX

13

XXX

XXX

22

8

Establishments which did not employ workers
in this category ------------------ -------------------- ------------- ---------------

66

32

XXX

34

XXX

XXX

58

32

-

-

These salaries relate to form ally established minimum starting (hiring) regular straight-tim e salaries that are paid for standard workweeks,
Excludes workers in subclerical jobs such as m essenger or office g irl.
Data are presented for all standard workweeks combined, and for the m ost common standard workweeks reported.




1

-

-

21

-

-----------

1

2

1

1

2

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

1
-

1
-

1

-

1
-

2

-

2

XXX

14

XXX

XXX

XXX

26

XXX

XXX

13
Table B-2.

Shift Differentials

(Shift d ifferentials of manufacturing plant w orkers by type and amount of differential,
Richmond, V a ., N ovem ber 1963)
P ercent of manufacturing plant w orkers—
In establishm ents having form al
provisions 1 for—

Shift differential

Actually working on—

Second shift
work

Third or other
shift work

Second shift

T o t a l --------------------------------------------------------------------------

75.0

54.8

15.7

6 .2

With shift pay d iffe re n tia l-------------------------------------

7 5.0

54.8

15.7

6 .2

U niform cents (per h o u r)_____________________

31.4

23.2

6.2

2.8

1.7
13.0
1.8
3.9
1.4
1.8
2.3
1.5
3.9
"

.
1.3
1.4
2.8
1.0
4 .4
4.7
2.3
1.5
2.2
1.6

.3
2.7
.4
1.1
.1
.3
.2
.5
.7
-

_
.4
.2
.4
.3
.5
.8
(2 )
.1
-

40.6

29.8

8.8

3.5

23.3
17.2

_
29.8

5.3
3.5

_
3.5

3.1

1.8

.6

'

'

4 cents __ ____________ _________ ___
5 c e n t s _______________________ ___________
6 cents ______________________ __ ____ ________
7 c e n t s ____________________________ ________
8 c e n t s ------------------- ------------------------------ —
9 c e n t s _________ ___________________ _____
1 0 c ent s ___ __ _______________________________
12 cen ts-------------------- ----------- --------------------12 Vz cen ts___________ ______________ ___
13 V 3 c e n ts.________________________________
15 cen ts________________________ — _______
15 V2 cen ts___________________________________
16 c e n ts.______________________________________
20 cen ts____________ ________________________
25 c e n ts.___________ _________- __ ___ - _____
U niform p e rcen ta g e___________________________
8 p e r c e n t______ _____ __
10 p e r c e n t _____________ ___

__ _____
____ __ _____

Other fo rm a l pay d iffe r e n t ia l____________

__

With no shift pay d iffe re n tia l____________________

-

Third or other
shift

-

-

1 Includes establishm en ts currently operating late shifts, and establishm ents with form al provisions covering late shifts
even though they w ere not cu rrently operating late shifts.
2 L e s s than 0 .0 5 percent.




14
Table B-3.

Scheduled W eekly Hours

(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by scheduled weekly hours
of first-sh ift w orkers, Richmond, V a ., November 1963)
OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

Weekly hours
All industries 1

35 hours
V4 hours —__________ ______________ — — ___ ____ _______
367* hours
r,,—
36 llz h o u rs --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3 7 V h o u rs --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2
Over 3 7 V2 and under 40 hours -----------------------------------------40 h o u rs --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Over 40 and under 44 hours ----------------------------------------------44 h o u rs ---------- — ------------ — ---------------------------------------------------------45 hours ------------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------------Over 45 and under 48 hours ----------------------------------------------48 h o u rs ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Over 48 hours ------------------------------------------------------------------------

Public utilities 1
2

All industries 3

100

3 6

Manufacturing

100

100

100

1

(4 )

5

10
2
2
24
6
51

1

0
(4 )
_

(4 )

2

Manufacturing

100

100

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

_

1
1
1

38

82

62

-

1

2

-

-

-

-

-

2
2
76
4

1
7
1

5
3

1 Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services, in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
2 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
3 Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and service s, in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
4 L ess than 0.5 percent.




Public utilities 2

1

2
83
2

-

-

79
_

-

-

8

19

_

_

2
2

2

15
Table B-4.

Paid Holidays

(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by number of paid holidays
provided annually, Richmond, Va. , November 1963)
OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

Item
All in u
d stries 1

_____ _

__ _

__

P
ublic utilities 2

100

100

100

100

A ll w orkers_______________

M
anufacturing

100

All in u
d stries 3

M
anufacturing

Public u
tilities 2

100

100

100

100

96

98

100

2

-

6
(4)

9
_
_
22
_
_
41
_
27
_

W orkers in establishm ents providing
W orkers in establishm ents providing
_
__
no paid holidays ____________

__

■

-

-

4

(4)
5
1
35
3
(4)
27
2
20
3
(4)
2

1
1
5
19
3
1
26

.
9
55

7
5
30
1
1
35

Number of days
L ess than 5 holidays—
____ ____ _ _______ __
_
________
5 holidays______ ____ _______
5 holidays plus 1 half day________________________
6 holidays_____________ __________ __ ____ _____ __ __
6 holidays plus 1 half day__ _____ _ _ ______
6 holidays plus 2 half d a y s ________ __ ___________
7 holidays_____ __
__
____ _____________ _
7 holidays plus 1 half day________________________
8 holidays_____ __ __ __ _
____ _________
8 holidays plus 1 half day____
_ ________ __
9 holidays_________________________________________
10 holidays plus 2 half days______
__ ______

-

44

18
2
49

-

-

-

37

16
(4)
"

23
-

-

-

-

-

"

"

-

-

“

Total holiday time 5
u days_____________________________________________
9 days or m o r e ______ _____
__ ___ _ __ _
8 V2 days or m o r e _________________________________
8 days or m o r e ___ ___ ____ __ _________ ________ ___
7V2 days or m ore __
_ ______ _
________
7 days or m o r e __________________________________
61/? days or m ore _ __ ____
_
___ ____
6 days or m o r e __
__ ______ __ _______
Sl!z days or m o r e _________________________________
5 days or m o r e —
__
__ __ ____
4 days or m ore
_
________ _ __ _
3 days or m ore ____ ___ ___ _______ _____ ___________
2 days or m ore __
_ ______

2
3
6
26
29
55
59
93
94
100
100
100
100
100

_
-

44
44
71
74
93
97
99
99
100
100
100

_
-

37
37
91
91
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

_
(!>
(4)
16
16
52
54
84
84
89
90
94
95
96

-

23
23
74
74
92
92
93
93
97
98
98

_
27
27
69
69
91
91
91
100
100
100
100

1 Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and serv ice s, in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
2 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
3 Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and se rv ice s, in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
4 L e ss than 0. 5 percent.
5 A ll combinations of full and half days that add to the same amount are combined; for example, the proportion of workers receiving a total of 7 days includes those with 7 full days and
no half days, 6 full days and 2 half days, 5 full days and 4 half days, and so on. Proportions were then cumulated.




16
Table B-5.

Paid Vacations1

(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, Richmond, V a ., November 1963)
OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

Vacation policy
All industries 2

Manufacturing

Public utilities3

All industries 4

Manufacturing

Public utilities 3

100

100

100

100

100

100

99
99
-

100
100
-

100
100
-

98
94
1
1
2

98
93
1
4

100
100
-

2

2

Method of payment

Workers in establishments providing
paid vacations-----------------------------------------------------Length-of-tim e paym ent— — ------------------ _
Percentage payment ------------- ---------------------F lat-su m paym ent— ------------- ---------------------O th er--------- ----------------------- — ------------------ Workers in establishments providing
no paid vacations— -------------- ----------------------- -

(5)

Amount of vacation pay6

After 6 months of service
Under 1 week— — —— — — — — —
1 week---------------------------------------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 w eek s----------------------------------2 w eek s-------------------------------------------------------------------

9
58
3
3

3
63
8

_
53
-

10
28
4

9
25
6

_
30
(5)
68
2

_
21
2

_
82
18

1
52
1
43
“

45
2
51

-

28

49
7
44

14
30
-

After 1 year of service
Und e r 1 we ek— ——— — — ——— —
1 week____ __ — — — — — — ---------------------Over 1 and under 2 w eek s----------------------------------2 w eek s------------------------------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 w eek s___ — — -------------—

77

■

97

3

After 2 years of service
Under 1 week---------------------------------------------------------1 week---------------------------------------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 w eek s----------------------------------2 w eek s------ ----------------------------------------------—--------—
Over 2 and under 3 w eek s-----------------------------------

_
10
8
81
2

_
14
1
84
-

4

1
33

39
58
-

7

9

58
"

60
-

3
(5)
95
2

8
92
-

1
99
“

18
2
78
"

19
2
77
~

11
89
“

3
(5)
95
2

7

1
99

17
1
80

17
1
80

10
90

"

After 3 years of service
1 week-___________________________________________ —
Over 1 and under 2 w eek s----------------------------------2 w eek s------- ------ --------------------------- —---------------------Over 2 and under 3 w eek s----------------------------------After 4 years of service
1 week---------------------------------------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 w eek s----------------------------------2 w eek s------------------------------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 w eek s-----------------------------------

See footnotes at end of table,




1
92

17
Table B-5.

Paid Vacations1 Continued
—

(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, Richmond, Va., November 1963)
PLANT W ORKERS

O F F IC E W O R K E R S

Vacation policy
A ll industries1
2

M anufacturing

P u blic utilities3

A ll industries4

Manufacturing

P u blic u tilities3

Amount of vacation pay 6— Continued

After 5 years of service
1 week
_
_
Over 1 and under 2
2 weeks
O v*r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s _______
3 weeks
__

1
-----------------------

(5 )

78

______

12
9

1
1
65

_

8
1

9
1
82
2
5

89

_
97
3

9
40

8
37

-

100

-

-

33

-

4
-

96

-

-

1

-

After 10 years of service
1
54
8
37

2 weeks
—
Over 2 and under 3 weeks
3 weeks

1
35

4

-

-

89
-

49

54

8

9
35

8
34

4
60

-

-

-

67

_
81
19

54

57

36

1
20
78
1

1
27
71

_
5
95

9
22
68

8
22
69

4
8
89

-

-

1
18
55
4
22

1
22
27

_
5
95
-

.

63

After 12 years of service
1
50
8
41

1 w eek

2 weeks
Over 2 and under 3 weeks
3 weeks

1
32
-

After 15 years of service
1 week
2 weeks
3 weeks
Over 3 and under 4 weeks

_______

-

-

-

9
20
45
24

8
20
53
18

4
8
79
10

9
20
21
48

8
18
25
47

4
8
25
64

After 20 years of service
1 week
___
__
2 weeks
3 weeks
Over 3 and under 4 weeks_________________________
4 weeks

-

49

(5 )

After 25 years of service
1 week
2 weeks
3 weeks
4 weeks
_
Over 4 weeks

—

1
18
29
51
1

1

22
20
57

_
5
40
55

1 Includes basic plans only. Excludes plans
such as vacation*savings and those plans which offer "extended" or "sab b a tical" benefits beyond basic
plans to w orkers with qualifyinglengths
ofservice.
Typical of such exclusions are plans recently negotiated in the steel, aluminum, and can industries.
2 Includes data for w holesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and service s, in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
3 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
4 Includes data for w holesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services, in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
5 L e ss than 0.5 percent.
6 Includes payments other than "length of t i m e ," such as percentage of annual earnings or flat-su m payments, converted to an equivalent time basis; for example, a payment of 2 percent of
annual earnings was considered as 1 w eek's pay. Periods of service were arbitrarily chosen and do not n ecessarily reflect the individual provisions for progressions. For example, the changes
in proportions indicated at 10 years' service include changes in provisions occurring between 5 and 10 years.
Estim ates are cumulative. Thus, the proportion receiving 3 weeks' pay or more
after 5 years includes those who receive 3 weeks' pay or more after fewer years of service.




18
Table B-6.

Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans

(Percent of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions employed in establishments providing
health, insurance, or pension b e n e fits,1 Richmond, V a ., November 1963)
O F F IC E W O R K E R S

PLANT W ORKERS

Type of benefit
A ll industries2

—

__ —

------

_ —

100

100

93
42

A ll w orkers

Manufacturing

P u blic utilities

3

Ail industries 4

M anufacturing

P u b lic utilities 3

100

100

100

100

90

99

85

86

96

30

42

37

29

47

-

72

-

-

78

-

31

63

6

53

64

25
16

W orkers in establishments providing;
Life insurance - —
Accidental death and dismemberment
Sickness and accident insurance or
sick leave or both 5______ ____ ______________
Sickness and accident insurance
Sick leave (full pay and no

53

52

41

25

18

Sick leave (partial pay or
waiting period)------------------------------------------

-

1

-

12

13

-

Hospitalization insurance
- —
Surgical insurance____________________________
Medical insurance____________________________
Catastrophe insurance__ —
Retirement pension
No health, insurance, or pension plan_~~—

86
86
69
79
73
1

79
78
66
55
73
2

99
99
97
95
55
1

78
75
54
31
59
4

84
79
58
17
64
3

96
96
87
75
64
4

1 Includes those plans for which at least a part of the cost is borne by the em ployer, except those legally required, such as workmen's compensation, social security, and railroad retirem ent.
2 Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services, in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
3 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
4 Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services, in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
5 Unduplicated total of workers receiving sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately below. Sick leave plans are lim ited to those which definitely establish at least
the minimum number of days' pay that can be expected by each employee.
Informal sick leave allowances determined on an individual basis are excluded.




19
Table B-7.

Paid Sick Leave

(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions
by form al sick leave provisions, Richmond, V a ., November 1963)
OFFICE WORKERS
Sick leave provision

PLANT WORKERS

All industries1

M
anufacturing

P
ublic utilities2

100.0

1 00.0

100.0

6 1 .9

5 3 .4

38. 1

46. 6

Uniform plan:4
No waiting period_____________________________ __
Full p a y 5 _
....................... .
5 days
6 days
_
_____
10 days_____________
130 days
.. .
_ ......
Full pay plus partied pay 5_________________
20 days
..... _
Waiting period__________________________________

1 6 .4
15.8
3 .2
.5
9 .4
1.6
.5
.5
-

Graduated p lan 4— After 1 year of service:
No waiting period
Full p a y 5
5 days_______________________________ _____
10 days______ ____
____
___
12 days.____ ______ ____ __ ______ ________
13 days
15 days
20 days____ ____ _________ ___ _________ _
40 to 50 days
Full pay plus partial pay 5_________________
5 days_____________________________________
Waiting period-

A ll w orkers—
W orkers in establishm ents providing
form al paid sick leaveW orkers in establishm ents providing
no form al paid sick leave_______________________

All in u
d stries 3

M
anufacturing

Public utilities2

1 00.0

10 0 .0

100.0

7 7 .5

3 7 .5

3 1 .4

43. 1

2 2 .5

6 2 .5

6 8 .6

5 6 .9

4 4 .5
4 2 .0
3 3 .8
6 .7
2 .5
2 .5
-

2 .2
2 .2
1 .4
.8
_
_
-

15 .6
1 5.3
.7
3 .4
1 .5
8 .9
.3
.3
7 .2

1 6 .4
1 5 .8
_
-

3 7 .4
3 0 .8
6 .5
6 .9
2 .4
6 .0
4 .6
3 .6
.8
6 .5
4 .4
8 .2

7 .9
7 .9
1 .8
2. 3
.
_
3 .9
1 .0

3 8 .7
3 8 .7
6 .9
.
3 1 .8
_
3 6 .6

9 .0
4 .9
3 .5
_
_
_
.8
_
•
4. 1
2 .7
5 .7

4 5 .3
3 0 .7
5 .9
3. 1
2 .4
2 .5
2 .9
3 .6
.8
6 .0
14.6
1 .7
3 .8
6 .9
.2

7 .9
6. 1
-

7 5 .3
3 8 .7
6 .1

1 3.9
4 .9
2. 1
1 .3
_
.2

1 .8
.
_
•

-

-

3 .9
1 .8
1 .0

3 1 .8
3 6 .6
3 6 .6
-

7 .9
2 .7
1 .3
2 .6
1 .0
.8

_
.
_
1 .8
1 .4

18.9

3 4 .4

7 .8

3 .6

”

Type and am
ount of paid aiek leave
provided annually

Graduated p la n 4— After 10 years of service:
No waiting period_______________________________
Full pay 5____________________________________
10 days___________________________________
14 days___________________________________
15 day s_______________ ______________ _
18 days__ __—_____ ____ __ ____ __ ________
20 days____ ___ _____ ____ _____ _____ __
60 days___________________________________
75 days_______________ ___________________
80 to 90 days_____________________________
130 days__________________________________
Full pay plus partial pay 5_________________
15 d a y s

50 days_____________
____________ ___
70 days __
Partial pay only_____________________________
Waiting period.

-

2 .3
-

-

-

.8
-

1 5 .8
.6
.6
11. 7
_
.
.
_
_
_
_
_
3 .2

-

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
15.6
15.6
15.6
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
27.5

43.1
15.6
13.8
.
_
1.8
_
_
_
.
27.5
_
27.5
_
-

P ro v isio n s for accumulation

W orkers in establishm ents having
provisions for accumulation of
unused sick leave

1 Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and service s, in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
2 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
3 Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and serv ice s, in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
4 "U n iform p lan s" are defined as those form al plans under which an employee, after 1 year of service, is entitled to the same number of days' paid

15.6

sick leave each y ea r.
"Graduated
p lan s" are defined as those form al plans under which an em ployee's leave varies according to length of service.
Periods of service w ere arbitrarily chosen.
Estim ates reflect provisions
applicable at the stated length of service but do not reflect provisions for progression.
Thus, the proportion receiving 15 days' sick leave after 10 years of service may also receive this amount
after greater o r l e s s e r lengths of service.
* May include provisions other than those presented separately.
Numbers of days shown under "F u ll pay plus partial pay" are days for which w orkers receive sick leave at full pay;
w orkers are
for FRASER entitled to additional days of sick leave at partial pay.

Digitized





Appendix: Occupational Descriptions
The primary purpose o f preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to a ssist its
field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety o f payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area.
This permits the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content. Because
o f this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bu­
reau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field economists are in­
structed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped, part-time,
temporary, and probationary workers.

OFFICE
BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MA CHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statements, b ills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
cla ssified by type of machine, as follows:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.
Class A . Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, bal­
ance sheets, and other records by hand.

Biller, machine (billing machine). Uses a special billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, etc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from custom ers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of predetermined discounts and shipping charges and entry o f necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.

Class B. Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of
a set o f records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type of billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation of trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.

Biller, machine (bookkeeping m achine).U ses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, etc., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers*
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types of sales and
credit slips.



CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A. Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a com­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase of an establish­
ment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

21

22
CLERK, ACCOUNTING-Continued

payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper ac­
counting distribution; and requires judgment and experience in
making proper assignations and allocations. May a ssist in preparing,
adjusting, and closin g journal entries; and may direct cla ss B a c­
counting clerks.
Class B. Under supervision, performs one or more routine a c­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or a c­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; and posting subsidiary ledgers con­
trolled by general ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data.
This job does not require a knowledge o f accounting and book­
keeping principles but is found in o ffice s in which the more routine
accounting work is subdivided on a functional basis among several
workers.

CLERK, FILE
Class A , In an established filing system containing a number
of varied subject matter file s, cla ssifie s and indexes file material
such as correspondence, reports, technical documents, etc. May
also file this material. May keep records o f various types in con­
junction with the files. May lead a small group of lower level file
clerks.
Class B« Sorts, cod es, and files unclassified material by sim­
ple (subject matter) headings or partly cla ssified material by finer
subheadings. Prepares simple related index and cross-reference
aids.
As requested, locates clearly identified material in files
and forwards material. May perform related clerical tasks required
to maintain and service file s.

CLERK, ORDER

Receives customers’ orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination o f the following:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; and distributing order sheets to respective departments to be
filled. May check with credit department to determine credit rating of
customer, acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders
to see that they have been filled, keep file o f orders received, and check
shipping invoices with original orders.

CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the n eces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers’
earnings based on time or production records; and posting calculated
data on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker’ s name, work­
ing days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due.
May make out paychecks and a ssist paymaster in making up and d is­
tributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that o f statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use o f a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
o f other duties.

DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Class C. Performs routine filing o f material that has already
been cla ssified or which is easily classified in a simple serial
classification system (e.g ., alphabetical, chronological, or numer­
ica l).
As requested, locates readily available material in files
and forwards material; and may fill out withdrawal charge. Per­
forms simple clerical and manual tasks required to maintain and
service files.




Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file of used stencils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

23
KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
C lass A . Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or combina­
tion keypunch machine to transcribe data from various source docu­
ments to keypunch tabulating cards. Performs same tasks as lower
level keypunch operator but, in addition, work requires application of
coding skills and the making of some determinations, for example,
locates on the source document the items to be punched; extracts
information from several documents; and searches for and interprets
information on the document to determine information to be punched.
May train inexperienced operators.

Class B. Under clo s e supervision or following sp e cific proce­
dures or instructions, transcribes data from source documents to
punched cards. Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or com­
bination keypunch machine to keypunch tabulating cards. May
verify cards. Working from various standardized source documents,
follow s specified sequences which have been coded or prescribed
in detail and require little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting of
data to be punched. Problems arising from erroneous items or codes,
missing information, e tc., are referred to supervisor.

OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands, opera­
ting minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and d is­
tributing mail, and other minor clerical work.

SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an
administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receiving people coming into o ffice ; answering and




SECRETARY— Continued
making phone ca lls; handling personal and important or confidential
mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative; and taking
dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand
or by Stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the
recorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare
special reports or memorandums for information of superior.

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from one or more persons either in shorthand or by Stenotype
or similar machine; and transcribe dictation. May also type from written
copy. May maintain file s, keep simple records, or perform other rela­
tively routine clerical tasks. May operate from a stenographic pool.
D oes not include transcribing-machine work. (See transcribing-machine
operator.)
STENOGRAPHER,SENIOR
Primary duty is to take dictation involving a varied technical
or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on scientific
research from one or more persons either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
similar machine; and transcribe dictation. May also type from written
copy. May also set up and maintain files, keep records, etc.

OR

Performs stenographic duties requiring significantly greater
independence and responsibility than stenographers, general as evi­
denced by the following: Work requires high degree of stenographic
speed and accuracy; and a thorough working knowledge o f general busi­
ness and office procedures and o f the sp ecific business operations,
organization, p olicies, procedures, files, workflow, etc.
Uses this
knowledge in performing stenographic duties and responsible clerical
tasks such as, maintaining followup file s; assembling material for
reports, memorandums, letters, etc.; composing simple letters from general
instructions; reading and routing incoming mail; and answering routine
questions, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work.

24
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or o ffice
ca lls. May record toll ca lls and take m essages. May give information
to persons who call in, or occasion ally take telephone orders. For
workers who also act as receptionists see switchboard operatorreceptionist.

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATO R-Continued
Class C. Operates simple tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with specific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs or re­
petitive operations.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator on a single p osi­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also type
or perform routine clerica l work as part of regular duties. This typing
or clerical work may take the major part o f this worker’ s time while at
switchboard.
TABULA TING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Class A. Operates a variety of tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator, and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignments without close supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are o f irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating sequences o f long and complex reports.
Does not include working supervisors performing tabulating-machine
operations and day-to-day supervision o f the work and production
of a group o f tabulating-machine operators.
Class B# Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under
sp ecific instructions and may include the performance of some wir­
ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but
small tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are well established. May also include the training
of new employees in the basic operation of the machine.




TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal rou­
tine vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May also type from
written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation
involving a varied technical or specia lized vocabulary such as legal
briefs or reports on scien tific research are not included. A worker who
takes dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is
cla ssified as a stenographer, general.

TYPIST
Uses a typewriter to make cop ies o f various material or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May include typing of stencils, mats, or similar materials for use in
duplicating processes. May do clerica l work involving little special
training, such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or
sorting and distributing incoming mail.

Class A. Performs one or more o f the following: Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources err responsibility for correct Spelling, syllabication, punc­
tuation, etc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; and planning layout and typing o f com plicated statistical
tables to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type
routine form letters varying details to suit circumstances.
Class B9 Performs one or more o f the following: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing o f forms, insurance pol­
icie s, etc.; and setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying
more complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

25
PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
DRAFTSMAN

DRAFTSMAN-Continued

Leader. Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen
in preparation o f working plans and detail drawings from rough or
preliminary sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing
purposes. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Inter­
preting blueprints, sketches, and written or verbal orders; deter­
mining work procedures; assigning duties to subordinates and in­
specting their work; and performing more difficult problems. May
a ssist subordinates during emergencies or as a regular assignment,
or perform related duties of a supervisory or administrative nature.

Senior. Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes,
rough or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manu­
facturing purposes. Duties involve a combination o f the following:
Preparing working plans, detail drawings, maps, cro ss-se ctio n s,
e tc., to sca le by use o f drafting instruments; making engineering
computations such as those involved in strength of materials,
beams, and trusses; verifying completed work, checking dimensions,
materials to be used, and quantities; writing specification s; and
making adjustments or changes in drawings or specification s. May
ink in lines and letters on pencil drawings, prepare detail units of
com plete drawings, or trace drawings. Work is frequently in a spe­
cia lized field such as architectural, electrical, mechanical, or
structural drafting.

Junior (assistant). Draws to scale units or parts of drawings
prepared by draftsman or others for engineering, construction, or
manufacturing purposes. Uses various types o f drafting tools as
required. May prepare drawings from simple plans or sketches, or
perform other duties under direction of a draftsman.
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
A registered nurse who gives nursing service under general
medical direction to ill or injured employees or other persons who be­
come ill or suffer an accident on the premises of a factory or other estab­
lishment. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Giving first aid
to the ill or injured; attending to subsequent dressing of employees' in­
juries; keeping records of patients treated; preparing accident reports for
compensation or other purposes; assisting in physical examinations and
health evaluations of applicants and em ployees; and planning and carry­
ing out programs involving health education, accident prevention, evalu­
ation o f plant environment, or other activities affecting the health, wel­
fare, and safety of all personnel.
TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing
tracing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. Uses
T-square, compass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

MAINTENANCE AND POWERPLANT
CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE-Continued

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim
made o f wood in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Planning and laying out o f work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter's handtools, portable

power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; and selecting materials
necessary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance car­
penter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.




26
ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE

HELPER, MAINTENANCE TRADES

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair o f equipment for the generation, dis­
tribution, or utilization o f electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Installing or repairing any o f a variety
o f electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
outs, or other specification s; locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; and using a variety
of electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In
general, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

Assists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting journeyman by holding materialsor tools;
and performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The
kind of work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade:
In some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding
materials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts o f a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-time basis.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors,
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; and keeping a record
of operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May
also supervise these operations. Head or ch ief engineers in establish­
ments employing more than one engineer are excluded.

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation o f one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines, in the construction o f machine-shop tools, gages,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most o f the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree o f accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling, and
operation sequence; and making necessary adjustments during operation
to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to rec­
ognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils . For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing
shops are excluded from this cla ssifica tion .

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, or gas or oil burner; and checks water
and safety valves. May clean, oil, or a ssist in repairing boilerroom
equipment.




Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Interpreting written instructions and
specifications; planning and laying out o f work; using a variety o f ma­
chinist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and
operating standard machine tools; shaping o f metal parts to clo se toler­
ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions o f
work, tooling, feeds, and speeds o f machining; knowledge o f the working

27
MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE-Continued

MILLWRIGHT

properties o f the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts,
and equipment required for his work; and fitting and assembling parts
into mechanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally
requires a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Installs new machines or heavy equipment, and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout
are required. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specification s; using a
variety o f handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength o f materials, and centers o f gravity; alining
and balancing o f equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment, and
parts to be used; and installing and maintaining in good order power
transmission equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general,
the millwright’ s work normally requires a rounded training and experi­
ence in the trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors o f an e s ­
tablishment. Work involves most o f the following: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gages, drills, or sp ecia lized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assemblies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; and alining wheels, adjusting brakes
and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work o f the auto­
motive mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually a c­
quired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment o f an establishment.
Work involves most o f the following: Examining machines and mechan­
ica l equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly d is­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production o f a re­
placement part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine
shop for major repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs
or for the production o f parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling
machines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In gen­
eral, the work o f a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience. Excluded from this cla ssifica tion are
workers whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.




OILER
Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of. mechanical equipment o f an establishment.

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an e s­
tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler
in nail holes and interstices; and applying paint with spray gun or brush.
May mix colors, o ils , white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain
proper color or consisten cy. In general, the work o f the maintenance
painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from draw­
ings or other written sp ecification s; cutting various siz e s o f pipe to
correct lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe­
cutting machine; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by
hand-driven or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings

28
PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE-Continued

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE-Continued

and fastening pipe to hangers;making standard shop computations relat­
ing to pressures, flow, and siz e of pipe required; and making standard
tests to determine whether finished pipes meet specification s. In general,
the work of the maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and
repairing building sanitation or heating system s are excluded.

types of sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety o f handtools in
cutting, bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assem bling; and installing
sheet-metal articles as required. In general, the work o f the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.
TOOL AND DIE MAKER
(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gage maker)

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation o f
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; and opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake.
In general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
sh elves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) o f an
establishment. Work involves most o f the follow ing: Planning and lay­
ing out all types o f sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints,
models, or other specification s; setting up and operating all available

Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gages, jig s , fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching, and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most o f the following: Planning and laying out o f work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written sp ecification s;
using a variety of tool and die maker’ s handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding o f the working properties o f common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
o f work, speeds, feeds, and tooling o f machines; heattreating o f metal
parts during fabrication as well as o f finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to clo s e tolerances; fitting and assem bling
o f parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; and selectin g appro­
priate materials, tools, and p rocesses. In general, the tool and die
maker’ s work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom
practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this cla ssifica tio n .

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT
ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

GUARD

Transports passengers between floors of an o ffice building,
apartment house, department store, hotel, or similar establishment.
W'orkers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those o f starters and janitors are excluded.

Performs routine p olice duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate and ch eck on identity o f em ployees and
other persons entering.




29
JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER

PACKER, SHIPPING

(Sweeper; charwomen; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial
or other establishment.

Duties involve a combination o f the following:

Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance services; and cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Work­
ers who sp ecia lize in window washing are excluded.

Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the sp e cific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number o f units to be packed, the
type o f container employed, and method o f shipment. Work requires the
placing o f items in shipping containers and may involve one or more o f
the following: Knowledge o f various items o f stock in order to verify
content; selection o f appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; and applying labels
or entering identifying data on container.
Packers who also make
wooden boxes or crates are excluded.

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­

A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or mote o f the follow ­
ing:

Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or

from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location;
and transporting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheel­
barrow. Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded.

sible for incoming shipments o f merchandise or other materials.
ping work involves:
routes,

Ship­

A knowledge o f shipping procedures, practices,

available means of transportation, and rates; and preparing

records of the goods shipped, making up b ills o f lading, posting weight
and shipping charges, and keeping a file o f shipping records.
direct or assist in preparing the merchandise for shipment.
work involves:

May

Receiving

Verifying or directing others in verifying the correct­

ness o f shipments against bills of lading, invoices, or other records;
checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods; routing merchan­
ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)

dise or materials to proper departments; and maintaining necessary
records and files.

F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, cus­
tomers’ orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders
and indicating items filled or omitted, keep records o f outgoing orders,
requisition additional stock or report short supplies to supervisor, and
perform Other related duties.




For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified as follows:
R eceiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk

30
TRUCKDRIVER

TRUCKER, POWER

Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types o f estab­
lishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers* houses or places of business. May also load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers
are excluded.

Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-pow ered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.

For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are cla ssified by size
and type of equipment, as follow s: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis of trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver (combination
Truckdriver, light (under
Truckdriver, medium ( l l2
/
Truckdriver, heavy (over
Truckdriver, heavy (over




o f s iz e s listed separately)
l / tons)
l2
to and including 4 tons)
4 tons, trailer type)
4 tons, other than trailer type)

For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified by type o f
truck, as follows:
Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)

WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.







Available On Request-----The fourth annual report on salaries for accountants, auditors, attorneys, chemists,
engineers, engineering technicians, draftsmen, tracers, job analysts, directors of
personnel, managers of office services, and clerical employees.
Order as BLS Bulletin 1387, National Survey of Professional, Administrative, Tech­
nical, and Clerical Pay, February—
March 1963* 40 cents a copy.

Occupational W age Surveys
A list of the latest available bulletins is presented below.
A directory indicating dates of earlier studies, and the prices of the bulletins
is available upon request. Bulletins may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. ( , 20402,
or from any of the BLS regional sales offices shown on the inside front cover.
Area

Bulletin
number

Akron, Ohio------------------------------------------------------Albany—
Schenectady—
Troy, N. Y ________________
Albuquerque, N. M e x __________________________
Allentown—
Bethlehem—
Easton, P a.— J________
N.
Atlanta, Ga_____________________________________
Baltimore, Md 1________________________________
Beaumont—
Port Arthur, T e x ___________________
Birmingham, Ala______________________________
Boise, Idaho____ _______________________________
Boston, Mass 1
__________________________________

1345-81
1345-53
1345-63
1345-45
1345-71
1345-23
1345-67
1345-56
1345-74
1385-16

20
20
20
20
25
25
20
20
20
25

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

Buffalo, N. Y 1
__________________________________
Burlington, V t 1
_______«.________________________
Canton, Ohio___________________________________
Charleston, W. V a _____________________________
Charlotte, N. C ___ _____________________________
Chattanooga, Tenn. —
Ga________________________
Chicago, 1111___________________________________
Cincinnati, Ohio—
Ky____________________________
Cleveland, Ohio__________________ _____________
Columbus , Ohio 1
_______________________________

1345-30
1345-50
1345-64
1345-61
1345-58
1385-5
1345-65
1345-54
1385-11
1345-28

25
25
20
20
20
20
30
20
25
25

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

Dallas, T ex ____________________________________
Davenport—
Rock Island—
Moline, Iowa—
111______
Dayton, Ohio___________________________________
Denver, C olo__________________________________
Des Moines, Iowa____ ________-__—
__-___ -_____
Detroit, M ich1
__________________________________
Fort Worth, Tex_______________________________
Green Bay, W is------------------------------------------------Greenville, S. C ________________________________
Houston, T e x __________________________________

1385-15
1385-12
1345-35
1345-32
1345-42
1345-47
1385-19
1385-4
1345-68
1345-82

25
20
20
25
20
25
20
20
20
25

Indianapolis, Ind_______________________________
Jackson, M iss__________________________________
Jacksonville, F la 1
______________________________
Kansas City, Mo. —
Kans________________________
Lawrence—
Haverhill, M ass.— H _____________
N.
Little Rock—
North Little Rock, Ark____________
Los Angeles—
Long Beach, Calif1
_______________
Louisville, Ky. — 1
Ind ___________________________
Lubbock, Tex__________________________________
Manchester, N. H ______________________________
Memphis, Tenn________________________________

1345-26
1345-43
1345-39
1345-22
1345-77
1385-3
1345-62
1345-48
1345-72
1385-1
1345-36

25
20
25
25
20
20
30
25
20
20
25

Price

Bulletin
number

Price

Miami, F la_____________________________________
Milwaukee, W is1
_______________________________
St. Paul, Minn1
___________________
Minneapolis—
Muskegon—
Muskegon Heights , Mich____________
Newark and Jersey City, N. J __________________
New Haven, Conn_______________________________
New Orleans, L a 1______________________________
New York, N. Y 1_______________________________
Norfolk—
Portsmouth and Newport News—
Hampton, Va 1
_________________________________
Oklahoma City, Okla___________________________

1345-33
1345-59
1345-38
1345-69
1345-46
1345-37
1345-44
1345-79

20
25
25
20
25
20
25
40

1345-75
1385-2

25 cents
20 cents

Omaha, Nebr. —
Iowa1___________________________
Pater son—
Clifton—
Passaic, N. J_________________
Philadelphia, P a.-N . J 1
________________________
Phoenix, A r iz _______
Pittsburgh, P a 1 _______________________________
Portland, Maine1______________________________
Portland, Or eg. —
Wash_________________________
Providence—
Pawtucket, R. I.— ass1___________
M
Raleigh, N. C 1__________________________________
Richmond, V a 1_________________________________

1385-14
1345-76
1345-31
1345-57
1345-40
1385-22
1345-7 3
1345-70
1385-7
1385-23

25
20
30
20
25
25
25
25
25
25

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

Rockford, 111___________________________________
St. Louis, M o .-I l l_____________________________
Salt Lake City, Utah1
___________________________
San Antonio, Tex1______________________________
San Bernardino—
Riverside—
Ontario, Calif1
_____
San Diego, C a lif______________________________ San Francisco—
Oakland, Calif1_________________
Savannah, G a __________________________________
Scranton, Pa1__________________________________
Seattle, Wash1
__________________________________

1345-55
1385-21
1345-25
1345-78
1385-9
1385-13
1345-34
1345-60
1385-8
1385-10

20
25
25
25
25
20
25
20
25
25

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

Sioux Falls, S. Dak1___________________________ 1385-20
South Bend, Ind________________________________ 1345-52
Spokane, Wash1________________________________ 1345-66
___________________________ _______ 1345-51
Toledo, Ohio1
Trenton, N. J 1__________________________________ 1345-29
Washington, D .C .—
Md.— a____________________ 1385-17
V
Waterbury, Conn______________________________
1345-49
Waterloo, Iowa_________________________________ 1385-18
Wichita, Kans __________________________________ 1385-6
Worcester, M ass______________________________ 1345-80
York, Pa----------------------------------------------------------- 1345-41

25
20
25
25
25
25
20
20
20
20
20

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

Data on establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions are also presented.




Area

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102