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Occupational Wage Survey
WATERLOO, IOWA
NOVEMBER 1963




Bulletin No. 1385-18
February 1964

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W . Willard Wirtz, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D .C., 2 0 4 0 2 - Price 20 cents




Contents

P refa ce

Page
The Bureau of Labor Statistics program of annual
occupational wage surveys in metropolitan areas is de­
signed to provide data on occupational earnings, and e s ­
tablishment practices and supplementary wage provisions.
It yields detailed data by selected industry divisions for
metropolitan area labor markets, for economic regions,
and for the United States.
A major consideration in the
program is the need for greater insight into (a) the move­
ment of wages by occupational category and skill level,
and (b) the structure and level of wages among labor
markets and industry divisions.

Introduction____________________________________
Wage trends for selected occupational groups,
Tables:
1.

Establishments and workers within scope of survey

2.

Indexes of standard weekly salaries and straight-time
hourly earnings for selected occupational groups,
and percents of increase for selected periods________________

A:

*NOTE: Similar tabulations are available for other
areas. (See inside back cover.)

This bulletin presents results of the survey in
Waterloo, Iowa, in November 1963.
It was prepared
in the Bureau's regional office in Chicago, 111. , by
Kenneth Thorsten, under the direction of Woodrow C.
Linn, Assistant Regional Director for Wages and In­
dustrial Relations.

H
i

m no f-

Appendix: Occupational descriptions__________________________________

Eighty-two labor markets currently are included
in the program.
Information on occupational earnings is
collected annually in each area.
Information on estab­
lishment practices and supplementary wage provisions is
obtained biennially in most of the areas.




Occupational earnings:*
A - 1. Office occupations—
men and women______________
A -2 . Professional and technical occupations-men_____
A - 3. Office, professional, and technical occupationsmen and women combined_______________________
A -4 . Maintenance and powerplant occupations_________
A - 5. Custodial and material movement occupations___

2
^ m

A preliminary report and an individual area
bulletin present survey results for each labor market
studied.
After completion of all of the individual area
bulletins for a round of surveys, a two part summary
bulletin is issued. The first part brings data for each of
the labor markets studied into one bulletin.
The second
part presents information which has been projected from
individual labor market data to relate to economic regions
and the United States.

1
3

9




O c c u p a tio n a l W a g e S u rv e y —W a t e r lo o , Iow a
Introduction

Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for
full-time workers, i. e. , those hired to work a regular weekly schedule
in the given occupational classification. Earnings data exclude pre­
mium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late
shifts. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded, but cost-of-living bonuses
and incentive earnings are included. Where weekly hours are reported,
as for office clerical occupations, reference is to the work schedules
(rounded to the nearest half hour) for which straight-time salaries
are paid; average weekly earnings for these occupations have been
rounded to the nearest half dollar.

This area is 1 of 82 labor markets in which the U. S. De­
partment of Labor’ s Bureau of Labor Statistics conducts surveys of
occupational earnings and related wage benefits on an areawide basis.
This bulletin presents current occupational employment and
earnings information obtained largely by mail from the establishments
visited by Bureau field economists in the last previous survey for
occupations reported in that earlier study. Personal visits were made
to nonrespondents and to those respondents reporting unusual changes
since the previous survey.
In each area, data are obtained from representative estab­
lishments within six broad industry divisions: Manufacturing; trans­
portation, communication, and other public utilities; wholesale trade;
retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. Major
industry groups excluded from these studies are government opera­
tions and the construction and extractive industries. Establishments
having fewer than a prescribed number of workers are omitted because
they tend to furnish insufficient employment in the occupations studied
to warrant inclusion. Separate tabulations are provided for each of the
broad industry divisions which meet publication criteria.

Differences in pay levels for selected occupations in which
both men and women are commonly employed may be due to such
factors as (1) differences in the distribution of the sexes among in­
dustries and establishments; (2) differences in length of service or
merit review when individual salaries are adjusted on this basis;
and (3) differences in specific duties performed, although the occu­
pations are appropriately classified within the same survey job de­
scription. Job descriptions used in classifying employees in these
surveys are usually more generalized than those used in individual
establishments. This allows for minor differences among establish­
ments in specific duties performed.

These surveys are conducted on a sample basis because of
the unnecessary cost involved in surveying all establishments. To
obtain optimum accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of
large than of small establishments is studied. In combining the data,
however, all establishments are given their appropriate weight. E s ­
timates based on the establishments studied are presented, therefore,
as relating to all establishments in the industry grouping and area,
except for those below the minimum size studied.

Occupational employment estimates represent the total in
all establishments within the scope of the study and not the number
actually surveyed. Because of differences in occupational structure
among establishments, the estimates of occupational employment
obtained from the sample of establishments studied serve only to
indicate the relative importance of the jobs studied. These differ­
ences in occupational structure do not materially affect the accuracy
of the earnings data.

Occupations and Earnings
The occupations selected for study are common to a variety
of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries, and are of the
following types: (a) Office clerical; (b) professional and technical;
(c) maintenance and powerplant; and (d) custodial and material move­
ment. Occupational classification is based on a uniform set of job
descriptions designed to take account of inter establishment variation
in duties within the la m e job. The occupations selected for study
are listed and described in the appendix. Earnings data for some of
the occupations listed and described are not presented in the A -series
tables because either (1) employment in the occupation is too small
to provide enough data to merit presentation, or (2) there is possi­
bility of disclosure of individual establishment data.




Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Tabulations on selected establishment practices and supple­
mentary wage provisions (B -series tables) are not presented in this
bulletin. Information for these tabulations is collected biennially in
this area.
These tabulations on minimum entrance salaries for
inexperienced women office workers; shift differentials; scheduled
weekly hours; paid holidays; paid vacations; and health, insurance,
and pension plans are presented (in the B -series tables) in previous
bulletins for this area.

1




2

Table 1.

Establishm ents and w orkers within scope of survey and number studied in W aterloo, Iowa , 1
by m ajor industry division, 2 November 1963
Number of establishments

Industry division

A ll division s. —

—

~

W orkers in establishm ents

Within scope
of study*

.

.

.

__

Manufacturing —
- - —
—
Nonmanufacturing______________________________________________
Transportation, communication, and
other public utilities 5 . . . . .
----W holesale trade 6 - - - .
-----------------. . .
—
----Retail t r a d e 6- —
Finance, insurance, and real estate 6-----------------------------S e r v ic e s 6* 7— — -------- — — - — ------------

Studied

Within scope
of study *

Studied

57

45

20 , 220

19, 340

29
28

23

22

16, 430
3, 790

15, 960
3 ,3 8 0

7

1 , 610
240
1, 040
80
410

7

1 , 610

2

2

13

9

240
1, 290
160
490

2

1

4

3

1 The W aterloo Standard Metropolitan Statistical A rea con sists of Black Hawk County. The "w o rk ers within scope of stud y" estim ates shown
in this table provide a reasonably accurate description of the size and composition of the labor force included in the survey. The estim ates are not
intended, however, to serve as a basis of com parison with other employment indexes for the a rea to m easu re employment trends or lev els since
( 1 ) planning of wage surveys requires the use of establishm ent data com piled considerably in advance of the payroll period studied, and ( 2 ) sm all
establishm ents are excluded from the scope of the survey.
2 The 1957 revised edition of the Standard Industrial C lassification Manual was used in classifyin g establishm ents by industry division.
3 Includes all establishm ents with total employment at or above the m inimum lim itation (50 em ploy ees).
A ll outlets (within the area) of
companies in such industries as trade, finance, auto repair service, and motion picture theaters are con sidered as 1 establishm ent.
4 Includes all w orkers in all establishm ents with total employment (within the area) at or above the m inim um lim itation (50 em ployees).
5 Taxicabs and service s incidental to water transportation were excluded.
6 This industry division is represented in estim ates for "a ll indu stries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the Series A tables. Separate presentation
of data for this division is not made for one or m ore of the following reasons: (1) Employment in the division is too sm a ll to provide enough data
to m erit separate study, (2) the sam ple was not designed initially to perm it separate presentation, (3) response was insufficient or inadequate to
perm it separate presentation, and (4) there is possibility of disclosure of individual establishm ent data.
7 H otels; personal s erv ice s; business serv ice s; automobile repair shops; motion pictures; nonprofit m em bership organizations; and engineering
and architectural s e rv ic e s .

Table 2.

Indexes of standard weekly salaries and straight-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupational groups,
and percents of increase for selected periods, W aterloo, Iowa
Index
(Novem ber 1960-100)

Industry and occupational group
Novem ber 1963

A ll industries:
Office clerica l (m en and w om en)-----------------Industrial nurses (m en and women)-------------Skilled maintenance (m en)-----------------------------Unskilled plant (m e n )-------------------------------------Manufacturing:
Office c lerica l (m en and w om en)-----------------Industrial nurses (m en and women)-------------Skilled maintenance (m en)-----------------------------Unskilled plant (m e n )--------------------------------------

Data do not m eet publication criteria.

109.7
(l )

1 13.7
1 15.2

P ercents of increase
November 1962
to
November 1963

4. 3
(l )
5 .2
4 .4

N ovem ber 1961
to
N ovem ber 1962

0 .8
(l )
2 .9
4 .0

4 .4
(l )
5 .0
6. 0

3 .9

3 .6
(|)

2 .5

<!>

(l )

(l )

1 14.3

4. 2

3 .7

1 10.3

N ovem ber I960
to
N ovem ber 1961

!!!

(!)
(l )
5. 7

3
Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups

Presented in table 2 are indexes and percentages of change
in average salaries of office clerical workers and industrial nurses,
and in average earnings of selected plant worker groups.
For office clerical workers and industrial nurses, the per­
centages of change relate to average weekly salaries for normal hours
of work, that is , the standard work schedule for which straight-time
salaries are paid. For plant worker groups, they measure changes
in average straight-time hourly earnings, excluding premium pay for
overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. The
percentages are based on data for selected key occupations and in­
clude most of the numerically important jobs within each group.
The office clerical data are based on men and women in the following
19 jobs: Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B; clerks, accounting,
class A and B; clerks, file, class A , B, and C; clerks, order; clerks,
payroll; Comptometer operators; keypunch operators, class A and B;
office boys and girls; secretaries; stenographers, general; stenogra­
phers, senior; switchboard operators; tabulating-machine operators,
class B; and typists, class A and B. The industrial nurse data are
based on men and women industrial nurses.
Men in the following
8 skilled maintenance jobs and 2 unskilled jobs are included in the
plant worker data: Skilled— carpenters; electricians; machinists; m e­
chanics; mechanics, automotive; painters; pipefitters; and tool and
die makers; unskilled— janitors, porters, and cleaners; and laborers,
material handling.
Average weekly salaries or average hourly earnings were
computed for each of the selected occupations. The average salaries
or hourly earnings were then multiplied by employment in each of
the jobs during the period surveyed in 1961. These weighted earnings




for individual occupations were then totaled to obtain an aggregate for
each occupational group. Finally, the ratio (expressed as a percentage)
of the group aggregate for the one year to the aggregate for the other
year was computed and the difference between the result and 100 is
the percentage of change from the one period to the other. The
indexes were computed by multiplying the ratios for each group
aggregate for each period after the base year (1961).
The indexes and percentages of change measure, principally,
the effects of (1) general salary and wage changes; (2) merit or other
increases in pay received by individual workers while in the same
job; and (3) changes in average wages due to changes in the labor force
resulting from labor turnover, force expansions, force reductions,
and changes in the proportions of workers employed by establishments
with different pay levels.
Changes in the labor force can cause
increases or decreases in the occupational averages without actual
wage changes.
For example, a force expansion might increase the
proportion of lower paid workers in a specific occupation and lower
the average, whereas a reduction in the proportion of lower paid
workers would have the opposite effect. Similarly, the movement of
a high-paying establishment out of an area could cause the average
earnings to drop, even though no change in rates occurred in other
establishments in the area.
The use of constant employment weights eliminates the effect
of changes in the proportion of workers represented in each job in­
cluded in the data. The percentages of change reflect only changes in
average pay for straight-time hours. They are not influenced by
changes in standard work schedules, as such, or by premium pay
for overtime.

A: Occupational Earnings
Table A-l. Office Occupations—Men and Women
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Waterloo, Iowa, November 1963)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF

A vbraqs

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

$ 40
Weekly x a n d
earnings
(Standard) (Standard) u n d e r
$45

$45

$ 50

$ 55

$ 60

$65

$ 70

$75

$80

$85

$? o

$95

$100

$105

$110

$115

$120

$125

$130

$135

$140

$145

$50

$55

$60

$65

$70

$ 75

$80

$ 85

$90

$95

$100

$105

$110

$115

$120

$125

$130

$135

$140

$145

$150

Clerks, accounting, class A_.
Manufacturing___

25
21

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

$ 1 1 9 .0 0

Bookkeeping-machine operators,
class B __________________________

24

4 0 .0

5 9 .0 0

2

5

11

Clerks, accounting, class A _
Manufacturing______ _______

24
20

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 0 5 .5 0
1 1 0 .0 0

-

"

~

-

"

-

Clerks, accounting, class B _______
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing__
Public utilities 2 .

49
22
27
18

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

7 3 .0 0
7 7 .0 0
6 9 .5 0
7 4 .0 0

_

_

_

_
_

3
2
1

5
1
4

-

-

1

8
3
5
5

6
2
4
3

4
3
1

-

5
1
4
1

Clerks, file, class B__

22

4 0 .0

7 3 .0 0

_

_

5

_

_

2

1

Clerks, payroll__
Manufacturing _

33
28

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

8 8 .0 0
8 8 .5 0

-

1
1

3
3

3
3

.

-

Keypunch operators, class B_.
Manufacturing---------- ----------

56
42

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

7 7 .5 0
8 0 .0 0

_

.

7
4

4
4

4
3

2
1
1

-

2

-

-

6

_

-

-

8
6
2
2

6

4

4

3
3

4
3

3
3

4
“

5
3

3

4
2

8
5

!

3
3

5
4
1

10
7
3

21
21

2

.

-

68
51
17

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .5

1 0 0 .5 0
1 0 5 .6 6
8 7 .5 0

Stenographers, general _
Manufacturing---------Nonmanufacturing _

85
65
20

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

8 1 .5 0
8 4 .5 0
7 1 .0 0

_

Stenographers, senior..

66

4 0 .0

9 5 .5 0

_

Switchboard operator-receptionists .
Manufacturing------------ ----------------

21
15

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

6 2 .5 0
6 2 .5 0

_

2

22

4 0 .0

29
27

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

8 5 .5 0
8 7 .0 0

Typists, class B .
Manufacturing

63

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

7 0 .0 0
7 1 .0 6

55

1

“

2
2

2
1

1
1

_

1
1

3
3

_

_

_
_
_

"

-

-

_

_

_

_

.

"

■

1
1

6
6

7
7

1
1

7
7

1
1
-

4
2
2

4
3
1

7
7

5
5

7
7

-

_

-

-

2

_

4
1
3

5

"

5

4
2
2

8
4
4

-

_

1

_

_

1

6

3

4
3

5
2

4
4

3
3

1

~

-

-

3
3

-

-

1

-

!

1

'

6 5 .0 0

Typists, class A _
Manufacturing

-

1

“

-

'

Transcribing-machine operators,
gene ral ________ __ ______________

1
1

-

"

3

2

9

1
x

.

Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing

1

3
2

1 2 3 .5 0

3

1

7
5

1

3
2

6

4

3

3

2

9
9

-

~

1

_

_

11
9

8
8

8
4

2
2

1
1

2
2

2
2

3
3

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_
_

_
_

_

-

_

6
6

_
_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

1

4
4

3
3

1
1

.

.

.

"

“

_

_

_

_

.

_

"

"

-

“

-

-

-

-

5
3
2

5
2
3

5
5

6
5

2
2

6
6

2
2

3
3

_

2
2

-

-

"

-

-

7
3
4

16
14
2

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

*

-

-

-

"

-

-

15

7

10

2

_

_

_

_

_

_

“

”

'

'

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

7

“

_

1

“
'

'

1
1
9
9

5
5

10
10

4
4

1

5
5

1
1

-

1

Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.




2
2

l

3

“

3
3

*

3

5

-

5
5

1

2

7

4
4

1

'

8

2
2

3
3

-

-

-

Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations—Men
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Waterloo, Iowa, November 1963)
Avbbaob
Occupation and industry division

Weekly,
hours 1
(Standard)

46
39

Mannfar.hiring

1

Number
of
workers

40.0
40.0

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

Weekly
earnings 1
(Standard)

$65
and
under
$70

$70

$75

$80

$85

$90

$95

$10 0

$105

$ 110

$75

$80

$85

$90

$95

$10 0

$105

$110

$115

2
1

4
3

4
— 3—

8
8

4
4

7
7

14

$87.50
87.00

j

2
2

10

Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries and the earnings correspond to these

weekly hours.

Table A-3. Office, Professional, and Technical Occupations—
Men and Women Combined
(Average straight-time weekly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Waterloo, Iowa, November 1963)

Number
of
workers

Occupation and industry division

Average
weekly ,
earnings1
(Standard)

___

Clarks, accounting, class B
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing
Public utilities 2 _ _
Clerks, file, class B

_

_

24

_

. . . . .
------

........
..

__

........

_. __

-

49
41

65
-------- Z 3 —
42
33
22

$ 5 9 .0 0

1 1 2 .5 0
1 1 7 .0 6

7 9 .5 0
7 8 .5 T T
8 0 .0 0
8 5 .5 0

Clerks, payroll.
Manufacturing _

_

__ _

Secretaries
.
Manufacturing

__

....

___

___
----

39
-------- 5 3

______ ______

__

_

56
42

69

------ 5 2 -----

17

7 2 .5 0

Stenographers, senior________________________________

66

$ 9 5 .5 0

.Qiirif r K K A o n p e r a t n r . r ^ r A p t i n n i e f

21
15

6 2 .5 0
6 2 ! 50

30

1 0 4 .5 0

22

6 5 .0 0

29
27

8 5 .5 0
8 7 .0 0

65
56

7 0 .5 0
7 1 .5 0

46

8 7 .5 0
8 7 .0 0

a

_

_

7 7 .5 0

Tabulating-machine operators, class B

8 0 .0 0

Transcribing-machine operators, general

1 0 1 .0 0
'T O 5 . 5 6
8 7 .5 0

85

8 1 .5 0
” 8 4 .5 6

Typists, class A
Manufacturing
Typists, class B
Manufacturing

--- ------------------

__
_

.

.

.

_

.

. .

Professional and technical occupations

7 3 .0 0

__

_ _

Nonmanufacturing

Earnings relate to regular straight-time weekly salaries that are paid for standard workweeks.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.




$ 9 3 .0 0
....9 '4 '.6 6

17

.

_

------S3---....

earnings1
(Standard)

Office occupations— Continued
___ ___

_

Keypunch operators, class B _____________
Manufacturing..
....

Number
of

Occupation and industry division

Manufacturing

Stenographers, general.
Clerks. order

w «k »r
earnings
(Standard)

Office occupations— Continued

Office occupations
Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B
Clerks, accounting, class A
Manufacturing
—.

Number
of

Occupation and industry division

20

7 1 .0 0

Draftsmen, junior
Manufacturing

_
. . . .

39

6
Table A-4. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Waterloo, Iowa, November 1963)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Number

Occupation and industry division

Carpenters, maintenance

a
t

workers

__ ________ _ __

30

Averse*
hourly j
earninge

$2.00 $2 .10
Under and
$ 2 . 00 . under
$2 .10 $2.20

$2.20

$2.30

$2.40

$2.50 $2.60 $2.70 $2.80 $2.90

.$3.00

$3.10

$3.20

$3.30

$3.40 $3.50

$3.60

$3.70

$3.80

$2.30

$2.40

$2.50

$2.60 $2.70

$3.10

$3.20 $3.30

$3.40

$3.50 $3.60

$3.70

$3.80

$3.90

2
2

38
38

4

84
80

3.37
3.37 '

-

Engineers, stationary

36

3.10

22

2.90

. . . . .

_

Firemen, stationary boiler __________ _______ _

-

-

j

“

1
1

1
1

9
9

1

3

___

3

_

j

15

2.50

Mechanics, automotive (maintenance)
_____
Manufacturing__ _________
__ __ __ _

41
30

3.07
3.09

-

-

131
129

3.23
3.22

"

54

3.20

.

114
114

1

1

“

-

"

"
.

-

3.51
3.51

Pipefitters, maintenance
Tool and die makers . .
Manufacturing
...




. . . . ____
___ . . .

1

x
1

1

.

1

5

5
5

8
8

1
1

8
8

j

5

4

6

7
7

6

2

1

-

5
3

2
2

10
10

-

18
18

2
2

20
20

6
4

20
20

38
38

13

m

21

_

3
3

3
3

_

3

Helpers, maintenance trades _

Mechanics, maintenance
Manufacturing
---- . . . .

1

12

$3.02

Electricians , maintenance ,T
Manufacturing-----------------------------------------------

$2.80 $2.90 $3.00

3

1

“

2

3
3

-

“

_

1

1

.

Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.

3

-

6
2

3
3

19

x

5

3

15

4
4

-

19
19

!

4

_

1

4

*

_

2

j

2
2

5
5

1

16

6
6

22
22

4
4

-

■

.*
•
•

_
"
_

4
4

4
4

60
60

Table A-5. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Waterloo, Iowa, November 1963)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

Occupation1 and industry division

Nm
u ber
at
w
eaken

Guards and watchmen----------------------------Manufacturing_____________ _____— __ _

10 1

Janitors, porters, and cleaners
(m en)__________________, , , ,

99

$ 1.20 $1.30 $1.40 $1.50 $1.60 $1.70 $1.80 $1.90 $ 2.00 $ 2 .10 $ 2.20 $2.30 $2.40 $2.50 $2.60 $2.70 $2.80 $2.90 $3.00 $3.10 $3.20 $3.30 $3.40 $3.50 $3.60
eS & 23 Undei and
and
$ 1.20 under
$1.30 .$1.40 $1.50 $1.60 $1.70 $1.80 $1.90 $ 2.00 $ 2.10 $ 2.20 $2.30 $2.40 $2.50 $2.60 $2.70 $2.80 $2.90 $3.00 $3.10 $3.20 $3.30 $3.40 $3.50 $3.60 over
A
verage

$ 2 .4 7
2.47

"

1
1

-

1
1

2
2

-

1

2
1
1

4

3

3

-

14
14

2
2

2
2

5

7
&

8
3

2

3
-

1

5
5

2
1

9
9

-

_

8
1

1

3

65
65

4

2

75
75

130
96
34
16

2 . 21

5

2

4

1

2.40
1.69
2.07

35

2

1

-

"

4
"

1

"

1

-

27
26

2.08
2 . 12

1

2
2

1

1

1

-

1

6
6

-

-

-

-

-

-

14
14

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

_

Laborers, material handling —------------Manufacturing-----------------------------------Nonmanufacturing---------------------------- -

504
484

2. 58
2. 58
2. 43

1

_
“

.
"

_
"

2
2

1

12
12

_
■

2

4

12
2

1

6

11
11

225
224

69
69
“

.
“

7
7

.
-

2
2

3
3
-

2
2

“

5
5
■

1
1

3

128
128
“

_
-

1

9
9
"

14

-

"

“

Receiving clerks - — — — — — —
Manufacturing------------------------------------

21

2.63
2.67

.

1

2
2

2
2

.

2
1

_

3
3

9

18

2
2

“

-

-

-

-

-

"

Shipping clerks
..
— — __ _
Manufacturing— — — —
— — -

27
25

2.63
2.67

-

“

“

■

4
4

2
2

_

-

1
1

_

-

-

-

12
12

-

-

1

-

-

Truckdrivers 5 ---------------------------------------Manufacturing— - — — — - — Nonmanufacturing------------------------------

73
55
18

2.69
2 .74
2. 55

.
"

1

3
3

_
“

.

_
“

30
30
“

5
5

_

13

_
”

.

“

_
“

_

“

_
“

21

-

“

-

-

-

“

“

“

Truckdrivers, medium (1*/a to and
including 4 tons)- —
—— — — -

30

2.91

_

_

5

_

21

_

_

_

_

Truckers, power (forklift)-------------------Xiannfarti^ ring

132
131

Nonmanufacturing-----------------------------Public utilities 4 --------------------------Janitors, porters, and cleaners
(wornen) —_____________ ______ ____ _

1
2
3
4
5

20

-

1

"

.

3

2

"

1

2
_

3
3

1
_
_

.

1

.

-

-

-

1
1

3
3

2
1

!

1

1
1

5
5
“

2

“

_
“

-

"

_
“

1

”

3
3
“

1

_

-

_

1

_

1

1

2.60

4

2.60

4

12
12

14
14

6
5

10
10

1

-

_

Data limited to men workers except where otherwise indicated.
Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Workers were distributed as follows: 2 at $ 0 . 60 to $ 0 . 70; 2 at $0. 70 to $ 0 . 80; and 1 at $ 1 to $ 1. 10.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes all drivers regardless of size and type of truck operated.




-

3

7
7

1

-

2

*

8
8

77
77

8

8

-




Appendix: Occupational Descriptions
The primary purpose o f preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to a ssist its
field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety o f payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area.
This permits the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content. Because
o f this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bu­
reau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field economists are in­
structed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped, part-time,
temporary, and probationary workers.

OFFICE
BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statements, b ills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electrom atic typewriter. May a lso keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
cla ssified by type of machine, as follow s:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.

Class A . Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure o f the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution o f debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, bal­
ance sheets, and other records by hand.

Biller , machine (billing machine)• Uses a special billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, etc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
vo ices from custom ers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number o f carbon copies o f
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.

Class B. Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of
a set o f records usually requiring little knowledge o f basic book­
keeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type o f billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation of trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.

Biller , machine (bookkeeping machine), U ses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, etc., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge o f book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types of sales and
credit slips.



CLERK, ACCOUNTING

Class A . Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a com­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase of an establish­
ment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts
9

10

CLERK, ACCOUNTING-Continued
payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper ac­
counting distribution; and requires judgment and experience in
making proper assignations and allocations. May a ssist in preparing,
adjusting, and closin g journal entries; and may direct cla ss B a c­
counting clerks.
Class B. Under supervision, performs one or more routine a c­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or a c­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; and posting subsidiary ledgers con­
trolled by general ledgers, or posting simple co s t accounting data.
This job does not require a knowledge o f accounting and book­
keeping principles but is found in o ffice s in which the more routine
accounting work is subdivided on a functional basis among several
workers.

CLERK, FILE
Class A , In an established filing system containing a number
o f varied subject matter file s, cla ssifie s and indexes file material
such as correspondence, reports, technical documents, etc. May
also file this material. May keep records o f various types in con­
junction with the file s. May lead a small group o f lower level file
clerks.
Class BmSorts, cod es, and files unclassified material by sim­
ple (subject matter) headings or partly cla ssified material by finer
subheadings. Prepares simple related index and cross-reference
aids.
As requested, locates clearly identified material in files
and forwards material. May perform related clerical tasks required
to maintain and service files.

CLERK, ORDER
Receives customers’ orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination o f the follow ing:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing theitems
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities o f items on order
sheet; and distributing order sheets to respective departments to be
filled. May check with credit department to determine credit rating o f
customer, acknowledge receipt o f orders from customers, follow up orders
to see that they have been filled, keep file o f orders received, and check
shipping invoices with original orders.

CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the n eces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers’
earnings based on time or production records; and posting calculated
data on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker’ s name, work­
ing days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due.
May make out paychecks and a ssist paymaster in making up and d is­
tributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that o f statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use o f a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
o f other duties.

DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Class CmPerforms routine filing o f material that has already
been cla ssified or which is easily cla ssified in a simple serial
classification system (e .g ., alphabetical, chronological, or numer­
ica l).
As requested, loca tes readily available material in files
and forwards material; and may fill out withdrawal charge. Per­
forms simple clerical and manual tasks required to maintain and
service files.




Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, reproduces multiple copies o f typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file of used sten cils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

11

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR

Class A. Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or combina­
tion keypunch machine to transcribe data from various source docu­
ments to keypunch tabulating cards. Performs same tasks as lower
level keypunch operator but, in addition, work requires application of
coding skills and the making of some determinations, for example,
locates on the source document the items to be punched; extracts
information from several documents; and searches for and interprets
information on the document to determine information to be punched.
May train inexperienced operators.

Class B. Under clo s e supervision or following sp e cific proce­
dures or instructions, transcribes data from source documents to
punched cards. Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or com­
bination keypunch machine to keypunch tabulating cards. May
verify cards. Working from various standardized source documents,
follow s specified sequences which have been coded or prescribed
in detail and require little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting of
data to be punched. Problems arising from erroneous items or codes,
missing information, e tc., are referred to supervisor.

OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands, opera­
ting minor o ffice machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and d is­
tributing mail, and other minor clerical work.

SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an
administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receiving people coming into o ffice ; answering and




SECRETARY — Continued
making phone ca lls; handling personal and important or confidential
mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative; and taking
dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand
or by Stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the
recorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare
special reports or memorandums for information of superior.

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from one or more persons either in shorthand or by Stenotype
or similar machine; and transcribe dictation. May also type from written
copy. May maintain files, keep simple records, or perform other rela­
tively routine clerical tasks. May operate from a stenographic pool.
Does not include transcribing-machine work. (See transcribing-machine
operator.)
STENOGRAPHER,SENIOR
Primary duty is to take dictation involving a varied technical
or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on scientific
research from one or more persons either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
similar machine; and transcribe dictation. May also type from written
copy. May also set up and maintain files, keep records, etc.

OR

Performs stenographic duties requiring significantly greater
independence and responsibility than stenographers, general as evi­
denced by the following: Work requires high degree of stenographic
speed and accuracy; and a thorough working knowledge o f general busi­
ness and office procedures and o f the specific business operations,
organization, p o licie s, procedures, files, workflow, etc.
Uses this
knowledge in performing stenographic duties and responsible clerical
tasks such as, maintaining followup file s; assembling material for
reports, memorandums, letters, etc.; composing simple letters from general
instructions; reading and routing incoming mail; and answering routine
questions, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work.

12

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or o ffice
ca lls. May record toll ca lls and take m essages. May give information
to persons who call in, or occasion ally take telephone orders. For
workers who a lso act as receptionists see switchboard operatorreceptionist.

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATO R-Continued
Class C. Operates simple tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, e tc.,
with sp ecific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs or re­
petitive operations.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator on a single p osi­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also type
or perform routine clerica l work as part of regular duties. This typing
or clerical work may take the major part o f this worker's time while at
switchboard.
TABULA TING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Class A. Operates a variety of tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator, and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignments without close supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are o f irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating sequences o f long and com plex reports.
Does not include working supervisors performing tabulating-machine
operations and day-to-day supervision o f the work and production
of a group o f tabulating-machine operators.
Class
Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under
sp ecific instructions and may include the performance of some wir­
ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but
small tabulating study, or parts o f a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are well established. May also include the training
of new employees in the basic operation of the machine.




TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal rou­
tine vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May also type from
written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation
involving a varied technical or specia lized vocabulary such as legal
briefs or reports on scien tific research are not included. A worker who
takes dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is
cla ssified as a stenographer, general.
TYPIST
Uses a typewriter to make cop ies o f various material or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May include typing of stencils, mats, or similar materials for use in
duplicating processes. May do clerica l work involving little specia l
training, such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or
sorting and distributing incoming mail.

Class A. Performs one or more o f the follow ing: Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources err responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punc­
tuation, etc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; and planning layout and typing o f com plicated statistical
tables to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type
routine form letters varying details to suit circum stances.
Class B# Performs one or more o f the follow ing: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing o f forms, insurance pol­
icie s , etc.; and setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying
more complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

13

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
DRAFTSMAN

DRAFTSMAN —
Continued

Leader. Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen
in preparation o f working plans and detail drawings from rough or
preliminary sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing
purposes. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Inter­
preting blueprints, sketches, and written or verbal orders; deter­
mining work procedures; assigning duties to subordinates and in­
specting their work; and performing more difficult problems. May
a ssist subordinates during emergencies or as a regular assignment,
or perform related duties of a supervisory or administrative nature.

Senior. Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes,
rough or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manu­
facturing purposes. Duties involve a combination o f the following:
Preparing working plans, detail drawings, maps, cr o s s-s e ctio n s ,
e tc., to sca le by use o f drafting instruments; making engineering
computations such as those involved in strength of materials,
beams, and trusses; verifying completed work, checking dimensions,
materials to be used, and quantities; writing specification s; and
making adjustments or changes in drawings or specification s. May
ink in lines and letters on pencil drawings, prepare detail units o f
complete drawings, or trace drawings. Work is frequently in a spe­
cia lized field such as architectural, electrical, mechanical, or
structural drafting.

Junior (assistant). Draws to scale units or parts of drawings
prepared by draftsman or others for engineering, construction, or
manufacturing purposes. Uses various types o f drafting tools as
required. May prepare drawings from simple plans or sketches, or
perform other duties under direction of a draftsman.
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
A registered nurse who gives nursing service under general
medical direction to ill or injured employees or other persons who be­
come ill or suffer an accident on the premises of a factory or other estab­
lishment. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Givingfirst aid
to the ill or injured; attending to subsequent dressing of employees* in­
juries; keeping records of patients treated; preparing accident reports for
compensation or other purposes; assisting in physical examinations and
health evaluations of applicants and employees; and planning and carry­
ing out programs involving health education, accident prevention, evalu­
ation of plant environment, or other activities affecting the health, wel­
fare, and safety of all personnel.
TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing
tracing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. Uses
T-square, compass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

MAINTENANCE AND POWERPLANT
CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE-Continued

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim
made o f wood in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Planning and laying out o f work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’ s handtools, portable

power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; and selecting materials
necessary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance car­
penter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.




14

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE

HELPER, MAINTENANCE TRADES

Performs a variety o f electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generation, d is­
tribution, or utilization o f electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Installing or repairing any o f a variety
o f electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
outs, or other sp ecification s; locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; and using a variety
of electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In
general, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

A ssists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing sp ecific or general duties o f lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting journeyman by holding materials or tools;
and performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The
kind o f work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade:
In some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding
materials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts o f a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-time basis.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
o f stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors,
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; and keeping a record
o f operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May
also supervise these operations. Head or ch ief engineers in establishments employing more than one engineer are excluded.

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation o f one or more types o f machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines, in the construction o f machine-shop tools, gages,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most o f the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree o f accuracy; using a variety o f pre­
cision measuring instruments; selectin g feeds, speeds, tooling, and
operation sequence; and making necessary adjustments during operation
to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to rec­
ognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils . For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing
shops are excluded from this cla ssifica tion .

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, or gas or oil burner; and checks water
and safety valves. May clean, oil, or a ssist in repairing boilerroom
equipment.




Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs o f
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Interpreting written instructions and
specifications; planning and laying out o f work; using a variety o f ma­
chinist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and
operating standard machine tools; shaping o f metal parts to clo s e toler­
ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions o f
work, tooling, feeds, and speeds o f machining; knowledge o f the working

15

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE—
Continued

MILLWRIGHT

properties o f the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts,
and equipment required for his work; and fitting and assembling parts
into mechanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally
requires a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Installs new machines or heavy equipment, and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout
are required. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying
out o f the work; interpreting blueprints or other specification s; using a
variety o f handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers o f gravity; alining
and balancing o f equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment, and
parts to be used; and installing and maintaining in good order power
transmission equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general,
the millwright’ s work normally requires a rounded training and experi­
ence in the trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs autom obiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors o f an e s ­
tablishment. Work involves most o f the following: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gages, drills, or sp ecia lized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or d efectiv e parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assem blies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; and alining wheels, adjusting brakes
and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work o f the auto­
motive mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually a c­
quired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment o f an establishment.
Work involves most o f the follow ing: Examining machines and mechan­
ica l equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly d is­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use o f
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production o f a replacementpart by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine
shop for major repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs
or for the production o f parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling
machines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In gen­
eral, the work o f a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience. Excluded from this cla ssifica tion are
workers whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.




OILER
Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces o f mechanical equipment o f an establishment.

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an e s ­
tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge o f surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler
in nail holes and interstices; and applying paint with spray gun or brush.
May mix colors, o ils , white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain
proper color or con sisten cy. In general, the work o f the maintenance
painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position o f pipe from draw­
ings or other written sp ecification s; cutting various s iz e s o f pipe to
correct lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe­
cutting machine; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by
hand-driven or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings

16

PIPE FITTE R , MAINTENANCE-Continued

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE-Continued

and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relat­
ing to pressures, flow, and siz e of pipe required; and making standard
tests to determine whether finished pipes meet specification s. In general,
the work o f the maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and
repairing building sanitation or beating system s are excluded.

types of sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety o f handtools in
cutting, bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; and installing
sheet-metal articles as required. In general, the work o f the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.
TOOL AND DIE MAKER
(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gage maker)

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation o f
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; and opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake.
In general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
sh elves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) o f an
establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types o f sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints,
models, or other sp ecification s; setting up and operating all available

Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gages, jig s , fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching, and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most o f the following: Planning and laying out o f work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written sp ecifica tion s;
using a variety of tool and die maker’ s handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding o f the working properties o f common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
o f work, speeds, feeds, and tooling o f machines; heattreating o f metal
parts during fabrication as well as o f finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to c lo s e tolerances; fitting and assem bling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; and selectin g appro­
priate materials, tools, and p rocesses. In general, the tool and die
maker’ s work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom
practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this cla ssifica tio n .

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT
ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

GUARD

Transports passengers between floors of an o ffice building,
apartment house, department store, hotel, or similar establishment.
W'orkers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those o f starters and janitors are excluded.

Performs routine p olice duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate and ch eck on identity o f em ployees and
other persons entering.




17

JANITOR, PO RTER, OR CLEANER

PACKER, SHIPPING

(Sweeper; charwomen; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial
or other establishment.

Duties involve a combination o f the following:

Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance se rv ices; and cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Work­
ers who sp ecia lize in window washing are excluded.

Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the sp e cific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, siz e , and number o f units to be packed, the
type o f container employed, and method o f shipment. Work requires the
placing o f items in shipping containers and may involve one or more o f
the following: Knowledge o f various items o f stock in order to verify
content; selection o f appropriate type and size o f container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closin g and sealing container; and applying labels
or entering identifying data on container.
Packers who also make
wooden boxes or crates are excluded.

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­

A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more o f the follow •
ing:

Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or

from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location;
and transporting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheel­
barrow. Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded.

sible for incoming shipments o f merchandise or other materials.
ping work involves:
routes,

Ship­

A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices,

available means of transportation, and rates; and preparing

records of the goods shipped, making up b ills o f lading, posting weight
and shipping charges, and keeping a file o f shipping records.
direct or assist in preparing the merchandise for shipment.
work involves:

May

Receiving

Verifying or directing others in verifying the correct­

ness o f shipments against bills of lading, invoices, or other records;
checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods; routing merchan­
ORDER FILLE R
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)

dise or materials to proper departments; and maintaining necessary
records and files.

F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, cus­
tomers9 orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders
and indicating items filled or omitted, keep records o f outgoing orders,
requisition additional stock or report short supplies to supervisor, and
perform dther related duties.




For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified as follows:
R eceiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk

18

TRUCKDRIVER

TRUCKER, POWER

Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types o f estab­
lishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers’ houses or places o f business. May a lso load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-tbe-road drivers
are excluded.

Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-pow ered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials o f all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.

For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are cla ssified by size
and type of equipment, as follow s: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis of trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver (combination o f s iz e s listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under 1% tons)
Truckdriver, medium (1% to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)




For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified by type o f
truck, as follows:
Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)

WATCHMAN
Makes rounds o f premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.







Available On Request-----The fourth annual report on salaries for accountants, auditors, attorneys, chemists,
engineers, engineering technicians, draftsmen, tracers, job analysts, directors of
personnel, managers of office services, and clerical employees.
Order as BLS Bulletin 1387, National Survey of Professional, Administrative, Tech­
nical, and Clerical Pay, February—
March 1963. 40 cents a copy.

Occupational W age Survey!
A list of the latest available bulletins is presented below. A directory indicating dates of earlier studies, and the prices of the bulletins
20402,
is available upon request. Bulletins may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.(
or from any of the BUS regional sales offices shown on the inside front cover.
Area

Bulletin
number

Price

1345-81
1345-53
1345-63
1345-45
1345-71
1345-23
1345-67
1345-56
1345-74
1385-16

20
20
20
20
25
25
20
20
20
25

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

1345-30
1345-50
1345-64
1345-61
1345-58
1385-5
1345-65
1345-54
1385-11
1345-28

25
25
20
20
20
20
30
20
25
25

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

D enver, C o l o __ ____ ___________ ______________
Des M o in es, Iowa __________ - ______ —________
D etroit, M ic h 1
________________________________
F ort W orth, T e x 1
____________________________
Green B ay, W i s _________ ____________________
G reen ville, S. C ______________________________
Houston, T e x _________________________________

1385-15
1385-12
1345-35
1345-32
1345-42
1345-47
1345-27
1385-4
1345-68
1345-82

25
20
20
25
20
25
25
20
20
25

Indianapolis, Ind________ ________________
Jackson, M iss___________________________
Jacksonville, F la 1
.______________________
Kansas City, M o.—
Kans__________________
Lawrence—
Haverhill, M ass.— H _______
N.
Little Rock—
North Little Rock, Ark_____
Los Angeles—
Long Beach, Calif1
______...
Louisville, Ky. — 1
Ind _____________________
Lubbock, Tex________ ___________________
Manchester, N. H _______________________
Memphis, Tenn_______________________ ...

1345-26
1345-43
1345-39
1345-22
1345-77
1385-3
1345-62
1345-48
1345-72
1385-1
1345-36

25
20
25
25
20
20
30
25
20
20
25

Akron, O h io ...___ . . . --------- —-----------------------Albany—
Schenectady— r o y , N. Y --------------T
Albuquerque, N. M e x _____________________
Allentown—
Bethlehem — aston, P a .— J.,
E
N.
B a ltim o r e , Md 1____________________________
Beaumont— ort A rthu r, T e x ____ _________
P
Birm ingham , A l a __________ ____ • . . . . . ____
__
B o is e , Id a h o ___ _______ ______ _______________
B oston, M ass 1
________________ . . . __________

Buffalo, N. Y l___________________________
Burlington,, V t 1
_____ _ __________________
Canton, Ohio_________ __________________
Charleston, W. V a ______________________
Charlotte, N. C ___ ___ ___________ ______
Chattanooga,^ Tenn. — a_________________
G
Cincinnati, Ohio—
Ky_____________________
Cleveland, Ohio___ _______ ______________
Columbus, Ohio 1
______________ _____ —
__
Dalla s , T ex_____________ ___ ___________ _______
Davenport—
Rock Island— o lin e, Iowa—
M
111...

Data on establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions are also presented.




Area

Bulletin
number

Price

M iam i, F l a __________________________________________
Milwaukee, W i s 1
_________
M inneapolis-St. Paul, M in n 1 ______. . . _____ _______
.
Muskegon—
Muskegon Heights, M ic h ______________
Newark and Jersey C ity, N. J _____________________
New Haven, C onn ____________________________ . . .
New O rlea n s, La 1__________________________________
New Y ork , N . Y 1____________________________________
Norfolk—
Portsm outh and Newport News—
Hampton, Va 1
______________________________________
Oklahoma C ity, O k la _______ ____ __________________

13 45 -3 3
1345-59
13 45 -3 8
1345-69
1345 -4 6
1345-37
13 45 -4 4
1345-79

20
25
25
20
25
20
25
40

1345-75
13 85 -2

25 cents
20 cents

Omaha, N eb r. —
Iowa1 __ _______________________ _____
Paterson—
Clifton— a s s a ic , N. J ... _______________
P
Philadelphia, Pa. — J 1
N.
____________________________
Phoenix, A r i z ______________
Pittsburgh, P a 1___________________________
Portland, Maine ________________
Portland, O reg. — a sh _________________ . . . ________
W
Providence—
Pawtucket, R. I . — a s s 1_____________
M
Raleigh, N. C 1______________________________________
Richmond, Y a _______________________________________

1385 -1 4
1345 -7 6
1345-31
1345-57
13 45-40
1 3 45 -2 4
1345-7 3
13 45-70
1385-7
1345-19

20
20
30
20
25
20
25
25
25
20

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

Rockford, 111___________________________________ 1345-55
St. Louis, M o .-I ll1____________________________ 1345-17
Salt Lake City, Utah1
___________________________ 1345-25
San Antonio, T ex1______________________________ 1345-78
San Bernardino—
Riverside—
Ontario, Calif1_____ 1385-9
San Diego, Calif________________________________ 1385-13
San Francisco—
Oakland, Calif1__________________ 1345-34
Savannah, Ga . . . ________________________________ 1345-60
Scranton, Pa1__________________________________ 1385-8
Seattle, Wash1
__________________________________ 1385-10

20
25
25
25
25
20
25
20
25
25

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

Sioux Falls, S. Dak____________________________
South Bend, Ind________________________________
Spokane, Wash1________________________________
Toledo, Ohio1
__________________________________
Trenton, N. J 1__________________________________
Washington, D .C .—
Md.— a ____________________
V
Waterbury, Conn_______________________________
Waterloo, Iowa_________________________________
Wichita, Kans__________________________________
Worcester, M ass______________________________
York, Pa_______________________________________

20
20
25
25
25
25
20
20
20
20
20

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents

1345-13
1345-52
1345-66
1345-51
1345-29
1385-17
1345-49
1385-18
1385-6
1345-80
1345-41

cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents
cents


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102