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u. S. DOCUMENT COLLECTION

D a y to n & M o n tg o m e ry Co.

J®
-

1 83

Occupational Wage Survey

BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA
APRIL 1963

Bulletin No. 1345-56




UNITED STA TES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W . Willard W irtz, Secretary
BUREA U O F LABOR S TA TIS TIC S
Ewan Clogue, Commissioner




Occupational Wage Survey
BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA




APRIL 1963

Bulletin No. 1345-56
June 1963

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W . Willard W irtz, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STA TISTIC S
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.

Price 20 cents




Contents

Preface

Page
The L a b o r M a rk e t O ccu p a tio n a l W a ge S u rv e y P r o g r a m
E ig h ty -tw o la b o r m a r k e ts c u r r e n t ly a r e in clud ed
in th e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s p r o g r a m o f a nn ua l o c ­
c u p a t i o n a l w a g e s u r v e y s in m a j o r l a b o r m a r k e t s .
These
stu dies p r o v id e d a t a .o n o c c u p a t io n a l e a rn in g s and r e la te d
sup plem en ta ry b en efits.
In fo r m a tio n on r e la t e d s u p p le ­
m e n t a r y b e n e f i t s i s o b t a i n e d b i e n n i a l l y in m o s t o f the
labor m ark ets.
A p r e lim in a r y r e p o r t w hich p r e s e n ts earnings
t r e n d s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s a nd a v e r a g e e a r n ­
in g s in s e l e c t e d j o b s i s r e l e a s e d w it h in a m o n t h a f t e r the
c o m p l e t i o n o f the s t u d y in e a c h a r e a .
T h is bu lletin p r o ­
v i d e s a d d i t i o n a l da ta n ot i n c l u d e d in the p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t .
A t w o - p a r t s u m m a r y b u l l e t i n i s i s s u e d a f t e r the
c o m p l e t i o n o f a l l o f the a r e a b u l l e t i n s f o r a r o u n d o f s u r ­
v e y s ( f o r the c u r r e n t r o u n d o f s u r v e y s , the f i r s t p a r t o f
th is b u l l e t i n w i l l b e a v a i l a b l e l a t e in 1963 a n d the s e c o n d
p a r t e a r l y in 1 9 6 4).
The f i r s t pa rt p r e s e n ts in dividual
l a b o r m a r k e t da ta .
T h e s e c o n d p a r t p r e s e n t s data r e ­
la t i n g to a ll m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s in the U n ite d S t a t e s .

I n t r o d u c t i o n _______________________________________________________________________
W a g e t r e n d s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s _____________________________
T ables:
1.
2.

A:

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s a n d w o r k e r s w it h in s c o p e o f s u r v e y _____________
P e r c e n t s o f c h a n g e in s t a n d a r d w e e k l y s a l a r i e s and
s tra ig h t-tim e h ou rly earn ings fo r s e le cte d
o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s , f o r s e l e c t e d p e r i o d s _______________________
O ccupational e a rn in g s:*
A - 1. O f f i c e o c c u p a t i o n s — e n and w o m e n
m
________________________
A -2.
P r o f e s s i o n a l a nd t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s —
m e n and w o m e n _________________________________________________
A - 3. O f f i c e , p r o f e s s i o n a l , and t e c h n i c a l
o c c u p a t i o n s —m e n a n d w o m e n c o m b i n e d _____________________
A -4 .
M a i n t e n a n c e a n d p o w e r p l a n t o c c u p a t i o n s ____________________
A - 5. C u s t o d i a l a n d m a t e r i a l m o v e m e n t o c c u p a t i o n s ____________

Appendix:

O c c u p a t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n s ________________________________________

* N O T E : S im ila r tabu lation s a r e a v a ila b le f o r
m a jor area s.
(See in s id e b a c k c o v e r . )

T h is b u l l e t i n w a s p r e p a r e d i n the B u r e a u ' s r e ­
g i o n a l o f f i c e in A t la n t a , G a. , b y W i l l i a m L . D a n s b y ,
u n d e r the d i r e c t i o n o f D o n a l d M . C r u s e .
The study was
u n d e r the g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n o f L o u i s B. W o y t y c h , A s s i s t a n t
R e g io n a l D i r e c t o r f o r W a ge s and In d u stria l R e la tio n s .




1
3

oth er

A c u r r e n t r e p o r t o n o c c u p a t i o n a l e a r n i n g s and s u p ­
p l e m e n t a r y w a g e p r a c t i c e s in the B i r m i n g h a m a r e a i s a l s o
a v a i l a b l e f o r the c a s t i r o n p i p e f o u n d r i e s i n d u s t r y ( N o v e m ­
ber
1 9 6 2).
U n io n s c a l e s , i n d i c a t i v e o f p r e v a i l i n g pay
l e v e l s , a r e a l s o a v a i l a b l e f o r th e f o l l o w i n g t r a d e s o r i n d u s ­
tries:
B u ild in g c o n s t r u c t i o n , p r i n t i n g , l o c a l - t r a n s i t o p ­
e r a t i n g e m p l o y e e s , a n d m o t o r t r u c k d r i v e r s and h e l p e r s .

iii

Z

2

4
6
7
8
9
11




Occupational Wage Survey—Birmingham, Ala.
Introduction
T h i s a r e a i s 1 o f 82 l a b o r m a r k e t s in w h i c h th e U.S. D e ­
p a r t m e n t of L a b o r ' s B u re a u of L a b o r S t a t is t ic s co n d u c ts s u r v e y s of
o c c u p a t i o n a l e a r n i n g s and r e l a t e d w a g e b e n e f i t s o n an a r e a w i d e b a s i s .

O c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t and e a r n i n g s da t a a r e s h o w n f o r
f u l l - t i m e w o r k e r s , i .e ., th ose h ir e d to w o r k a r e g u la r w e e k ly sch ed u le
in the g i v e n o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .
E a r n i n g s da ta e x c l u d e p r e ­
m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e a n d f o r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s , h o l i d a y s , and
late s h ift s.
N on prod u ction
bonuses
are
exclu ded,
but c o s t - o f l i v i n g b o n u s e s and i n c e n t i v e e a r n i n g s a r e i n c l u d e d .
W here w eekly
h o u r s a r e r e p o r t e d , as f o r o f f i c e c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s , r e f e r e n c e is
t o the w o r k s c h e d u l e s ( r o u n d e d t o the n e a r e s t h a lf h o u r ) f o r w h i c h
s tr a ig h t -t im e s a la r ie s a re paid; a v e r a g e w e e k ly ea rn in gs fo r these
o c c u p a t i o n s h a v e b e e n r o u n d e d t o the n e a r e s t h a l f d o l l a r .

T h i s b u l l e t i n p r e s e n t s c u r r e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t and
e a r n i n g s i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d l a r g e l y b y m a i l f r o m the e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
v i s i t e d b y B u r e a u f i e l d e c o n o m i s t s in the l a s t p r e v i o u s s u r v e y f o r
o c c u p a t i o n s r e p o r t e d in th at e a r l i e r s tu d y .
P e r so n a l visits w e re m ade
t o n o n r e s p o n d e n t s and t o t h o s e r e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t i n g u n u s u a l c h a n g e s
s i n c e the p r e v i o u s s u r v e y .
In e a c h a r e a , d a t a a r e o b t a i n e d f r o m r e p r e s e n t a t i v e e s t a b ­
lis h m e n ts w ith in s ix b r o a d in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s : M a n u fa ctu rin g ; t r a n s ­
p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a nd o t h e r p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s ; w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ;
r e t a i l t r a d e ; f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e ; and s e r v i c e s . M a j o r
in d u stry g ro u p s e x c lu d e d f r o m th ese stu dies a re g o v e r n m e n t o p e r a ­
t i o n s a nd the c o n s t r u c t i o n and e x t r a c t i v e i n d u s t r i e s .
E stablish m en ts
h a v i n g f e w e r th an a p r e s c r i b e d n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s a r e o m i t t e d
b e c a u s e t h e y te n d t o f u r n i s h i n s u f f i c i e n t e m p l o y m e n t in the o c c u p a ­
tion s stu died to w a r r a n t in clu sio n .
S ep arate tabulations a re p r o v id e d
f o r e a c h o f the b r o a d i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s w h i c h m e e t p u b l i c a t i o n
criteria .

D i f f e r e n c e s in p a y l e v e l s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s in w h i c h
b o t h m e n a nd w o m e n a r e c o m m o n l y e m p l o y e d a r e l a r g e l y due to
(1) d i f f e r e n c e s in the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the s e x e s a m o n g i n d u s t r i e s and
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ; (2) d i f f e r e n c e s in s p e c i f i c d u t i e s p e r f o r m e d , a lth o u g h
the o c c u p a t i o n s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e l y c l a s s i f i e d w it h i n the s a m e s u r v e y
j o b d e s c r i p t i o n ; and (3) d i f f e r e n c e s in l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e o r m e r i t
r e v i e w w h e n i n d i v i d u a l s a l a r i e s a r e a d j u s t e d on th is b a s i s .
Longer
a v e r a g e s e r v i c e o f m e n w o u l d r e s u l t in h i g h e r a v e r a g e p a y w h e n
b o t h s e x e s a r e e m p l o y e d w i t h i n the s a m e r a t e r a n g e .
Job d e s c r i p ­
t i o n s u s e d in c l a s s i f y i n g e m p l o y e e s in t h e s e s u r v e y s a r e u s u a l l y
m o r e g e n e r a l i z e d than t h o s e u s e d in i n d i v i d u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s to
a l l o w f o r m i n o r d i f f e r e n c e s a m o n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in s p e c i f i c d u tie s
p erform ed .

T h e s e s u r v e y s a r e c o n d u c t e d on a s a m p le b a s i s b e c a u s e of
the u n n e c e s s a r y c o s t i n v o l v e d in s u r v e y i n g a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s .
To
o b t a i n o p t i m u m a c c u r a c y at m i n i m u m c o s t , a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f
l a r g e th an o f s m a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i s s t u d i e d . In c o m b i n i n g the da ta ,
h o w e v e r , all e s t a b lis h m e n t s a r e g iv en th e ir a p p r o p r ia t e w eigh t.
E sti­
m a t e s b a s e d o n th e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s t u d i e d a r e p r e s e n t e d , t h e r e f o r e ,
as r e l a t i n g t o a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in th e i n d u s t r y g r o u p i n g a n d a r e a ,
e x c e p t f o r t h o s e b e l o w the m i n i m u m s i z e s t u d ie d .
O ccu pations

O c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t e s t i m a t e s r e p r e s e n t the to t a l in a l l
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w it h i n the s c o p e o f the s t u d y a nd n ot the n u m b e r a c t u ­
a l l y s u r v e y e d . B e c a u s e o f d i f f e r e n c e s in o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e a m o n g
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , the e s t i m a t e s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l
e m p l o y m e n t
o b
f r o m the s a m p l e o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s t u d i e d s e r v e o n l y to i n d i c a t e the
r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f the j o b s s t u d ie d .
T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s in o c c u ­
p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e d o n o t m a t e r i a l l y a f f e c t the a c c u r a c y o f the e a r n ­
i n g s data.

and E a r n i n g s

T h e o c c u p a t i o n s s e l e c t e d f o r s t u d y a r e c o m m o n to a v a r i e t y
o f m a n u f a c t u r i n g a n d n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s , and a r e o f the
f o l l o w i n g t y p e s : (a) O f f i c e c l e r i c a l ; (b) p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d t e c h n i c a l ;
(c) m a i n t e n a n c e a n d p o w e r p l a n t ; a n d (d) c u s t o d i a l a n d m a t e r i a l m o v e ­
m ent.
O c c u p a t io n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n is b a s e d on a u n if o r m set of jo b
d e s c r i p t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o ta k e a c c o u n t o f i n t e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t v a r i a t i o n
in d u t i e s w i t h i n the s a m e j o b .
The o c c u p a t io n s s e le c t e d f o r study are
l i s t e d and d e s c r i b e d in the a p p e n d i x .
E a r n i n g s da t a f o r s o m e o f the
o c c u p a t i o n s l i s t e d and d e s c r i b e d a r e n o t p r e s e n t e d in the A - s e r i e s
t a b l e s b e c a u s e e i t h e r (1) e m p l o y m e n t in the o c c u p a t i o n i s t o o s m a l l
t o p r o v i d e e n o u g h d a t a t o m e r i t p r e s e n t a t i o n , o r (2) t h e r e i s p o s s i ­
b i l i t y o f d i s c l o s u r e o f i n d i v i d u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t data.




E stablish m en t P r a c t ic e s

and S u p p l e m e n t a r y W a g e P r o v i s i o n s

T a b u l a t i o n s o n s e l e c t e d e s t a b l i s h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and s u p p l e ­
m e n t a r y w a g e p r o v i s i o n s ( B - s e r i e s t a b l e s ) a r e not p r e s e n t e d in th is
b ulletin .
I n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e s e t a b u l a t i o n s i s c o l l e c t e d b i e n n i a l l y in
this a re a .
T h e s e tabu lation s on m i n im u m e n tra n ce s a la r ie s fo r in ­
e x p e rie n ce d w om en office w o r k e r s ;
s h if t d i f f e r e n t i a l s ; s c h e d u l e d
w e e k l y h o u r s ; p a i d h o l i d a y s ; p a i d v a c a t i o n s ; a n d h e a lt h , i n s u r a n c e ,
a n d p e n s i o n p l a n s a r e p r e s e n t e d (in the B - s e r i e s t a b l e s ) in p r e v i o u s
b u l l e t i n s f o r th is a r e a .

1

t a i n e d




T a b l e 1.

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s a n d w o r k e r s w it h in s c o p e o f s u r v e y a n d n u m b e r s t u d ie d in B i r m i n g h a m , A l a . , 1 b y m a j o r i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , 2 A p r i l 1963
N u m b e r o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s
In d u s try d iv is io n

W it h in s c o p e
o f stu d y 3

W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s

W it h in s c o p e
o f stu d y *

S tu d ie d

S tu d ie d

399

M a n u fa c t u r in g
____
— ------------------ — N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _ __________ _
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , a n d o th e r
__
_______
____
p u b lic u t ilit ie s 5 _
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e 6 ____________________________________________________
R e t a i l t r a d e 6 ________________ _________ _____________________ F i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e 6 _______________________
S erV 1C 6S

129

93, 200

64, 560

143
256

48
81

5 2, 500
4 0 , 700

39, 800
24, 760

41
64

20
15
24
12
10

12,
6,
11,
6,
3,

10, 640
2, 090
6, 930
3, 500
1 ,6 0 0

81
42
28

500
700
800
300
400

.................................................................................... .................

1 T h e B ir m in g h a m S ta n d a rd M e t r o p o lit a n S t a tis t ic a l A r e a c o n s is t s o f J e ffe r s o n C o u n ty .
T h e " w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e o f s tu d y " e s t im a t e s s h o w n
in t h is t a b le p r o v id e a r e a s o n a b ly a c c u r a t e
d e s c r i p t i o n o f th e s i z e a n d c o m p o s i t i o n o f th e la b o r f o r c e in c lu d e d in th e s u r v e y .
T h e e s tim a te s a re
n o t in t e n d e d , h o w e v e r , t o s e r v e a s a b a s i s o f c o m p a r i s o n w it h o t h e r e m p l o y m e n t in d e x e s f o r th e a r e a t o m e a s u r e
e m p lo y m e n t tr e n d s o r le v e ls
s i n c e (1 ) p la n n in g o f w a g e s u r v e y s
r e q u ir e s th e u s e o f e s t a b lis h m e n t d a ta c o m p ile d
c o n s i d e r a b l y in a d v a n c e o f th e p a y r o l l p e r i o d s t u d ie d , a n d
(2 ) s m a ll e s t a b l is h m e n t s a r e e x c l u d e d f r o m th e s c o p e o f th e s u r v e y .
2 T h e 1957 r e v is e d
e d i t io n o f th e S t a n d a r d I n d u s t r ia l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a n u a l w a s u s e d in c l a s s i f y i n g
e s t a b lis h m e n t s b y in d u s tr y d iv is io n .
3 I n c lu d e s a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s w it h t o ta l e m p lo y m e n t a t o r a b o v e th e m in im u m
lim it a t io n (5 0 e m p l o y e e s ) .
A l l o u t le t s (w ith in th e a r e a ) o f
c o m p a n i e s in s u c h in d u s t r ie s a s t r a d e , fin a n c e , a u to r e p a i r s e r v i c e , a n d m o t io n p i c t u r e t h e a t e r s a r e c o n s i d e r e d a s 1 e s t a b lis h m e n t .
4 Includes
a ll w o r k e r s
in a ll e s t a b l is h m e n t s w it h t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t (w it h in th e a r e a ) a t o r a b o v e th e m in i m u m
l i m it a t io n (5 0 e m p l o y e e s ) .
5 T a x ic a b s a n d s e r v i c e s in c id e n t a l to w a te r t r a n s p o r t a t io n w e r e e x c lu d e d .
6 T h i s i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n is r e p r e s e n t e d in e s t i m a t e s f o r " a l l i n d u s t r i e s " a n d " n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g " in t h e S e r i e s A t a b l e s .
S e p a r a te p r e s e n t a t io n
o f d a t a f o r t h is d i v i s i o n is n o t m a d e f o r o n e o r m o r e o f th e f o l lo w i n g r e a s o n s : (1 ) E m p lo y m e n t in th e d i v i s i o n is t o o s m a l l t o p r o v id e e n o u g h d a ta
t o m e r i t s e p a r a t e s tu d y , (2 ) th e s a m p l e w a s n o t d e s ig n e d in i t i a l l y t o p e r m i t s e p a r a t e p r e s e n t a t io n , (3 ) r e s p o n s e w a s in s u f f i c i e n t o r
in a d e q u a te to
p e r m i t s e p a r a t e p r e s e n t a t io n , a n d (4 ) t h e r e is p o s s i b i l i t y o f d i s c l o s u r e o f in d iv id u a l e s t a b l is h m e n t d a ta .
7 H o t e ls ; p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s ; b u s in e s s s e r v i c e s ; a u to m o b ile r e p a ir s h o p s ; m o t io n p ic t u r e s ; n o n p r o fit m e m b e r s h ip o r g a n iz a t io n s ; a n d e n g in e e r in g
and a rch ite ctu r a l s e r v ic e s .

T a b le

2.

P e r c e n t s o f ch a n g e 1 in s ta n d a r d w e e k ly s a la r i e s a n d s t r a i g h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r
s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p s in B ir m in g h a m , A l a . , f o r s e l e c t e d p e r io d s

A p r il 1962
to
A p r il 1963

A p r i l 1961
to
A p r il 1962

M a r c h I9 6 0
to
A p r il 1961

A ll in d u s t r ie s :
O f f ic e c l e r i c a l (m e n a n d w o m e n )
.
.
In d u s tr ia l n u r s e s (m e n a n d w o m e n ) . . .
. . ______ ______
S k i l l e d m a i n t e n a n c e ( m e n ) ___________ _
__ . . . .
.. ..
U n s k i l l e d p l a n t ( m e n ) _______________________ _________ _________________

2. 7
. 5
. 7
1 .3

3. 4
3. 1
5. 1
3 .8

2. 6
1 .6
3 .2
1 .5

M a n u fa c tu r in g :
O ffic e c l e r i c a l (m e n a n d w o m e n ) . . . . .
__________ . . . .
In d u s tr ia l n u r s e s (m e n a n d w o m e n ) _. _
. . . . ______ . .
S k i l l e d m a i n t e n a n c e ( m e n ) _______ ______ __ ______ ______ _ .
U n s k i l l e d p l a n t ( m e n ) ___________________________________________ _____

1 .9
- . 5
.4
2. 1

2 .3
4 .0
5 .6

2. 7
1 .5
3 .0
. 2

I n d u s tr y a n d o c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p

A ll c h a n g e s a r e in c r e a s e s u n le s s o t h e r w is e in d ic a t e d .

2. 7

3

Wage Trends for Selected Occnpatlonal Groups
P r e s e n t e d in t a b l e 2 a r e p e r c e n t a g e s o f c h a n g e in a v e r a g e
s a l a r i e s o f o f f i c e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s and i n d u s t r i a l n u r s e s , and in a v ­
e r a g e e a rn in g s o f s e l e c t e d plant w o r k e r g r o u p s .
F o r o f f i c e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s a n d i n d u s t r i a l n u r s e s , the p e r ­
c e n t a g e s o f c h a n g e r e l a t e to a v e r a g e w e e k l y s a l a r i e s f o r n o r m a l h o u r s
o f w o r k , that i s , the s t a n d a r d w o r k s c h e d n l e f o r w h i c h s t r a i g h t - t i m e
s a l a r i e s a r e p a id .
F o r plan t w o r k e r g r o u p s , th ey m e a s u r e ch a n ges
in a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s , e x c l u d i n g p r e m i u m p a y f o r
o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s , h o l i d a y s , and l a t e s h i f t s .
The
p e r c e n t a g e s a r e b a s e d o n d a t a f o r s e l e c t e d k e y o c c u p a t i o n s and i n ­
c l u d e m o s t o f the n u m e r i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t j o b s w it h in e a c h g r o u p . T h e
o f f i c e c l e r i c a l da t a a r e b a s e d on m e n and w o m e n in the f o l l o w i n g 19 j o b s :
B o o k k e e p i n g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B; c l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g , c l a s s A
and B; c l e r k s , f i l e , c l a s s A , B, and C; c l e r k s , o r d e r ; c l e r k s , p a y r o l l ;
C o m p t o m e t e r o p e r a t o r s ; k e y p u n c h o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s A and B; o f f i c e
b o y s a nd g i r l s ; s e c r e t a r i e s ; s t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l ; s t e n o g r a p h e r s ,
s e n i o r ; s w i t c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s ; t a b u l a t i n g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B;
and t y p i s t s , c l a s s A and B.
T h e i n d u s t r i a l n u r s e da ta a r e b a s e d on
m e n a nd w o m e n i n d u s t r i a l n u r s e s .
M e n in the f o l l o w i n g 8 s k i l l e d
m a i n t e n a n c e j o b s and 2 u n s k i l l e d j o b s a r e i n c l u d e d
in the p la n t
w o r k e r data: S k ille d — c a r p e n t e r s ; e l e c t r i c i a n s ; m a c h i n i s t s ; m e c h a n i c s ;
m e c h a n i c s , a u t o m o t i v e ; p a i n t e r s ; p i p e f i t t e r s ; a n d t o o l a nd d ie m a k e r s ;
u n sk illed— ja n ito r s ,
p o r t e r s , a n d c l e a n e r s ; and l a b o r e r s , m a t e r i a l
h a n d lin g .
A v e r a g e w e e k ly s a l a r i e s or a v e r a g e h o u r ly e a rn in g s w e r e
c o m p u t e d f o r e a c h o f the s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s .
The a v e r a g e s a la r ie s
o r h o u r l y e a r n i n g s w e r e th e n m u l t i p l i e d b y e m p l o y m e n t in e a c h o f




th e j o b s d u r i n g th e p e r i o d s u r v e y e d in 1 9 6 1 . T h e s e w e i g h t e d e a r n i n g s
f o r i n d i v i d u a l o c c u p a t i o n s w e r e th e n t o t a l e d to o b t a i n an a g g r e g a t e
f o r e a c h o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p . F i n a l l y , the r a t i o ( e x p r e s s e d as a p e r ­
c e n t a g e ) o f the g r o u p a g g r e g a t e f o r th e o n e y e a r to the a g g r e g a t e f o r
th e o t h e r y e a r w a s c o m p u t e d and the d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n the r e s u l t and
100 i s the p e r c e n t a g e o f c h a n g e f r o m the o n e p e r i o d to the o t h e r .
T h e p e r c e n t a g e s o f c h a n g e m e a s u r e , p r i n c i p a l l y , the e f f e c t s
o f (1) g e n e r a l s a l a r y and w a g e c h a n g e s ; (2) m e r i t o r o t h e r i n c r e a s e s
in p a y r e c e i v e d b y i n d i v i d u a l w o r k e r s w h i l e in the s a m e j o b ; and
(3) c h a n g e s in a v e r a g e w a g e s due to c h a n g e s in the l a b o r f o r c e r e ­
s u l t i n g f r o m l a b o r t u r n o v e r , f o r c e e x p a n s i o n s , f o r c e r e d u c t i o n s , and
c h a n g e s in the p r o p o r t i o n s o f w o r k e r s e m p l o y e d b y e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
w it h d i f f e r e n t p a y l e v e l s .
C h a n g e s in the l a b o r f o r c e c a n c a u s e i n ­
c r e a s e s o r d e c r e a s e s in the o c c u p a t i o n a l a v e r a g e s w it h o u t a c t u a l w a g e
changes.
F o r e x a m p l e , a f o r c e e x p a n s i o n m i g h t i n c r e a s e the p r o ­
p o r t i o n o f l o w e r p a i d w o r k e r s in a s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n a nd l o w e r the
a v e r a g e , w h e r e a s a r e d u c t i o n in the p r o p o r t i o n o f l o w e r p a id w o r k e r s
w o u l d h a v e the o p p o s i t e e f f e c t .
S im ilarly,
the m o v e m e n t o f a
h i g h - p a y i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t out o f an a r e a c o u l d c a u s e the a v e r a g e
e a r n i n g s t o d r o p , e v e n t h o u g h n o c h a n g e in r a t e s o c c u r r e d in o t h e r
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in the a r e a .
T h e u s e o f c o n s t a n t e m p l o y m e n t w e i g h t s e l i m i n a t e s the e f ­
f e c t o f c h a n g e s in the p r o p o r t i o n o f w o r k e r s r e p r e s e n t e d in e a c h
j o b i n c l u d e d in the da ta .
T h e p e r c e n t a g e s o f c h a n g e a r e not i n f l u e n c e d
b y c h a n g e s in s t a n d a r d w o r k s c h e d u l e s o r in p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r ­
t i m e , s i n c e t h e y a r e b a s e d on p a y f o r s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r s .

W a g e i n d e x e s f o r s e l e c t e d g r o u p s o f w o r k e r s b a s e d on d a t a f r o m the
l a b o r m a r k e t s u r v e y s w e r e c o m p u t e d f o r 20 a r e a s b e t w e e n 1953 a n d I 9 6 0 .
In
1 9 6 1 , the l a b o r m a r k e t o c c u p a t i o n a l w a g e p r o g r a m w a s e x p a n d e d t o i n c l u d e
80 S t a n d a r d M e t r o p o l i t a n S t a t i s t i c a l A r e a s w h i c h w i l l b e s u r v e y e d a n n u a lly . T h i s
e x p a n s i o n m a d e da ta a v a i l a b l e f o r the c o m p u t a t i o n o f w a g e i n d e x e s f o r s e l e c t e d
j o b g r o u p i n g s in e a c h o f the 80 a r e a s .
T h e a b o v e t e x t r e p r e s e n t s the m e t h o d
u s e d in c o m p u t i n g t h e s e n e w w a g e c h a n g e i n d e x e s .
The new s e r i e s w a s initiated
l a s t y e a r and th e da ta a r e n o t c o m p a r a b l e w i t h t r e n d s p u b l i s h e d p r i o r t o that t i m e .
T h e n e w s e r i e s c o v e r s the s a m e j o b g r o u p i n g s a s th e e a r l i e r s e r i e s
w i t h the f o l l o w i n g e x c e p t i o n s : T h e c l e r i c a l a n d i n d u s t r i a l n u r s e g r o u p s , f o r m e r l y
r e s t r i c t e d t o w o m e n , n o w i n c l u d e b o t h m e n and w o m e n .
Changes w ere a lso m ade
in the j o b s i n c l u d e d w i t h i n j o b g r o u p i n g s in o r d e r that an i d e n t i c a l l i s t c o u l d b e
e m p l o y e d in a l l a r e a s .

A: Occupational Earnings

Table A-l. Office Occupations—Men and Women
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a rn in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s tr y d iv is io n , B ir m in g h a m , A l a ., A p r i l 1963)
Average

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
workers

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF

* 40
Weekly.
Weekly j * 3 5
hours 1
and
(Standard) (Standard) u n d e r
40
45

C lerk s, accounting, cla s s A ____
M anufacturing ------------------------Nonmanufacturing ____________

119
61
58

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

$ 1 1 0 .5 0
1 1 7 .5 0
1 0 8 .0 0

C lerk s, accounting, c la s s B ____
M anufacturing ________________

45
26

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

C lerk s, ord er
Nonmanufacturing ________________

68
58

C lerk s, p a yroll ____________________
M a n u fa c tu r in g __________________

* 45

‘ 50

* 55

* 60

* 65

* 70

’ 75

* 80

' 85

1 90

* 95

*100

*105

*110

*115

*120

*125

*1 3 0

*135

* 140

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

10 5

110

115

12 0

125

130

135

14 0

145

1
1

4
4

2
2
-

4
4

7

-

7

15
5
10

4
4

10
5
5

14
4
10

9
4
5

6
5
1

5
2
3

16
14
2

9
4
5

5
4
1

6

6

4

3
1

2
2

_

-

5
3

_

-

3
3

_

-

2
1

2

6

5
3

-

-

-

1
1

5
3

12
8

11
11

5
5

8
8

_

_

2

_

_

_

-

-

-

10
10

-

-

_

_

_

6
6

1
1

8
8

4
4

1
-

4
4

2
2

3
3

4

3

2

4

1

_

_

_

7
5

'

.

and

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

8 5 .5 0
8 5 .5 0

_

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

5
5

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

8 1 .5 0
8 1 .5 0

_

_

_

-

-

-

9
9

3
3

-

1
1

43
40

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

9 9 .0 0
1 0 0 .5 0

_

_

_

_

2

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

O ffice boys __
Nonmanufacturing ___________________

58
44

4 0 .0
3 9 .5

6 2 .5 0
6 2 .0 0

13
10

3
2

9
8

2

9
7

2

Tabulating-m achine op e ra to rs,
cla s s A ______________________

31

4 0 .0

1 1 1 .0 0

48
30

3 9 .5
3 9 .0

8 5 .5 0
8 2 .0 0

-

27
27

3 8 .0
3 8 .0

6 0 .5 0
6 0 .5 0

8
8

97
25
72
38

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .5
3 9 .0

7 0 .5 0
8 3 .0 0
6 6 .0 0
7 2 .0 0

i

28
27

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

5 9 .0 0
5 7 .5 0

Nonmanufacturing ______________

45
30

4 1 .0
4 1 .5

8 2 .0 0
7 9 .0 0

Bookkeeping-m ach ine op e ra to rs,
cla s s B ___________________________
Nonmanufacturing ______________

251
230

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

6 1 .5 0
6 0 .5 0

M anufacturing __________________
Nonmanufacturing ______________
Public utilities 2 ____________

236
44
192
63

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .5
3 9 .0

C lerk s, accounting, cla s s B ______
M anufacturing __________________
Nonmanufacturing ______________

579
88
491

3 8 .5
4 0 .0
3 8 .5

-

-

-

6
6

_

_

5
4

12
10

2

-

“

-

1

.

5

1

4
2

2
1

5
4

over

5
5

3
3

-

_

-

1
1

_

_

_

_

-

*

-

-

-

1
1

_

_

-

-

2
2

3
3

11

2

.

.

.

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

"

"

"

.

.

_

-

3
3

2

-

*145

Tabulating-m achine op e ra to rs,
Nonmanufacturing _______________

1
1

1
1

3
2

19
13

5
4

3
2

2
2

6
6

3
3

3
3

3
3

1
1

1
1

15

10

9

n

8
6
2
2

15

2
2

9
9

-

-

8
7
1
1

.

.

.

.

5
5

16
9

3

T abulating-m achine o p e ra to rs,
Nonm anufacturing _______________
Women
B ille r s , m achine (billin g m achine)
M anufacturing __________________
Nonmanufacturing ______________
Pu blic utilities 2 _____________
B ille r s , m achine (bookkeeping
N onm anufacturing ______________

-

a cco u n tin g ,

c la s s A

_______

See fo o t n o t e s at end o f ta b le .




-

-

-

-

1

15

10
8

9
9

15
1
14
2

3
3

6
6

7
7

1
1

3
2

8
8

63
63

40
37

50
44

36
32

25
24

7
7

.

16
4
12
1

38
5
33

15
1
14

-

42
18
24

114
6
108

4
4

2
2

3
3

.

.

.

“

"

-

i
i

18
16

8 7 .5 0
9 5 .5 0
8 5 .5 0
1 0 4 .0 0

_

7 0 .0 0
7 5 .0 0
6 9 .0 0

3
8
4

2
2

.

_

_

1

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

22
6
16

35

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

14
4
10
5

_

5

17

-

-

-

5

17

51
1
50

70
4
66

102
18
84

38
15
23

74
11
63

-

35

6

1

2

-

1
1

2
2

.

1

.

6
6

-

Bookkeeping-m ach ine op e ra to rs,

C le r k s ,

-

2

-

"
2

.

3

.

.

.

.

.

-

24
3
21
15

10
1
9
5

18
7
11
7

4
1
3
3

2

1

3
3

_

-

-

-

1
1

8
7
1
1

_

-

2
2

25
2
23
23

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

11
4
7

19
1
18

27
1
26

1
1

-

6

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

1
1

_

6

1
1

-

-

-

5

Table A-l. Office Occupations—Men and Women---- Continued
(A verage straigh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings fo r se le cte d occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division , Birm ingham , A la. , A p ril 1963)

See fo o t n o t e s at end o f ta b le.




6

Table A-l. Office Occupations—Men and Women---- Continued
(A verage straigh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings fo r se le cte d occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Birm ingham , A la ., A p ril 1963)

1 Standard hours re fle c t the w orkweek fo r which em ployees re ce iv e their regular straigh t-tim e sa la rie s and the earnings c o rre sp o n d to these w eekly hours.
2 T ransportation, com m unication, and other public utilities.

Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations—Men and Women
(A verage straigh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings fo r se le cte d occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division , Birm ingham , A la. , A p ril 1963)

1 Standard hours r e fle c t the w orkw eek fo r which em ployees r e c e iv e their regular straigh t-tim e sa la rie s and the earnings co rre s p o n d to these w eekly hours.
2 W orkers w ere distributed as follow s: 6 at $200 to $210; and 4 at $210 to $220.
3 All w ork ers w ere at $65 to 70.




7
Table A-3. Office, Professional, and Technical Occupations—Men and Women Combined
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e w e e k ly e a rn in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s tr y d iv is io n , B ir m in g h a m , A la . , A p r il 1963)

O ccupation and industry division

Number
of
worker*

Average
weekly j

O ffice occupations
B ille r s , m achine (billin g machine) _________________
M anufacturing ___________________________________
Nonmanufacturing -----------------------------------------------Public utilities 2 ----------------------------------------------

Number
of

O ccupation and industry division

(Standard)

Average
weekly l
earnings
(Standard)

O ffice occupations— Continued
112
26
86
52

$ 70.
83.
66.
70.

00
50
00
50

C lerks, p a yroll

O ccupation and industry division

Number
of

Average
weekly j
earning*
(Standard)

O ffice occupations— Continued

--------

—

___

—

-------------------------------------

—

—

—

217
124
93

—

----

B ille r s , m achine (bookkeeping m achine) __________
Nonmanufacturing _______________________________

28
27

59. 00
57. 50

B ookkeeping-m achine op e ra to rs, cla s s A
Nonmanufacturing __________ i---------------

54
39

84. 00
82. 50

Keypunch o p erators, cla s s A

251
230

61. 50
60. 50

177
29
148

Keypunch op e ra to rs, cla s s B ______________________
Manufacturing -------------------------------- ---------------------------------------

B ookkeeping-m achine op e ra to rs, cla s s B _________
Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------------------

Public u t ilit ie s 2
C lerks, accounting, cla s s A
M anufacturing ---------------Nonmanufacturing _______
Public utilities 2 _____

355
105
250
84
624
114
510

--------------------------------

----------

71. 00
77. 50
69. 50

Nonmanufacturing

C lerk s, file, cla s s A ______
Manufacturing ---------------Nonmanufacturing ----------

--------

------------------------------------------------------

00
00
00
00

62.
75.
58.
62.

111. 00

Tabulating-m achine op era tors, c la s s B ----------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------ -------------------------------------------Public utilities 2 ---------------------------------------------------------------

87
65
33

82. 00
78. 50
79. 50

42
39

61.00
60. 50

T ran scribin g-m ach in e op era tors, general ________

67
36

69. 50
72. 50

113
50
63

75. 00
90. 00
63. 00

355
81
274
68

59.
70.
56.
62.

50
00
50
50

749
309
440
111

178
45
133

58. 50
75. 50
53. 00

C lerks, file, cla ss C -----------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------------------

94
89

51. 00
50. 50

Manufacturing ----------------------- ---------------------------Nonmanufacturing ----- -------------------------------------

C lerks, o rd e r ----------------------------------------------------------Manufacturing -----------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------------------

116
27
89

77. 00
84. 50
75. 00

Switchboard op erators --------------------------------------------------------------Manufacturing -------------------------------- ---------------------------------------

92.
100.
87.
104.

50
00
50
50

706
224
482
166

Manufacturing ---------- — --------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -----------------------------------------------Public utilities 2 -------------- ---------------------------------------

74. 50
88. 00
64. 50

$ 70. 00

76.
88.
70.
76.

00
50
00
50

50
00
50
50

P rofession a l and technical occupations

— __ __ ----------------------- ------ ---------------------------- ------ -------------------------

158
64
94
■

93. 00
84. 00
99. 00

145
38
107

69. 00
91. 50
61. 50

---------------------------------------------------

42
39

171.50
172.50

Manufacturing --------------------------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------------------------------------------

Manufacturing __
Nonmanufacturing

Earnings relate to regular straigh t-tim e weekly sa la rie s that are paid fo r standard w orkw eeks.
Transportation, com m unication, and other public utilities.




66. 00

32

M anufacturing --------------------------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ----------- -------------------------------------

77
32
45

C lerks, file, cla s s B
Manufacturing ___
Nonmanufacturing

63.
77.
60.
65.

112
26
86
37

----------

58

86. 50

190
32
158
54

95. 50
108. 50
89. 50
106.00

C lerks, accounting, cla s s B
Manufacturing __________
Nonmanufacturing ----------

---------------------------------------

65. 50
75. 00
63. 50

88

Manufacturing ----------------------- --------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -------- ------------------------------------- — —

___

$80 . 50
87. 00
72. 50

105

Typists, cla s s A ____________________________________

Nonmanufacturing

—

Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------------------

Tabulating-m achine op era tors, cla s s C ----------------------Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------------------------------------------

—

Switchboard op er a to r -r e c e p tio n ists ________________

Tabulating-m achine o p era tors, cla s s A ___________

—

367
311
56

137.50
140.00
124.50

D raftsm en, junior ----------------------------------------------------M anufacturing --------------------------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------------------------------------

175
137
38

99. 00
100. 50
94. 00

40
28

100.50
102.50

M anufacturing

-------------

—

N urses, industrial (reg istered )

------------------------------------------

Table A-4. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s fo r m e n in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s tr y d iv is io n , B irm in g h a m , A la ., A p r i l 1963)
NUM BER OF W O RK ERS RECE IVIN G STR AIG H T-TIM E HOURLY EARN ING S OF—

O ccupation and industry division

N ber
um
of
w
orkers

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Average Under $1.60 $1.70
*1.80 1.90 2.00 2.10 2.20 2.30 2.40 2.50 2.60 2.70 2.80 2.90 3.00 3.10 3.20 3.30 3.40 3.50 3.60 3.70 3.80 3.90 4.00
hourly j
and
earnings $
and
1.60 under
1.70 1.80 1.90 2.00 2.10 2.20 2.30 2.40 2.50 2.60 2.70 2.80 2.90 3.00 3.10 3.20 3.30 3.40 3.50 3.60 3.70 3.80 3.90 4.00 over

C a rp enters, m aintenance ______________
Manuf actur ing ______ _____ __ __ __
Nonmanufacturing ___________________

297
272
25

$3.00
3.07
2.16

5
25

4
4

-

E lectricia n s , m aintenance
_
_ _ _
M anufacturing ------------------------------------

715
698

3.45
3.48

8
"

_

_

En gin eers, stationary
_
—
---M anufacturing
—
N onm anufacturing ___ _ __ __ __ __

207
170
37

3.18
3.36
2.36

-

F irem en , stationary bo ile r ____________
M anufacturing _______________________

63
56

2.71
2.91

H elpers, m aintenance trades
_ ______
M anufacturing
_ ____ _ _ _______

543
495

2.61
2.68

M achinists, m aintenance ____ __ _ ___
M anufacturing __
_______________ __

596
590

M echanics, autom otive
(maintenance)
___ ____ _ _ _ _ _ _
M anufacturing __ — -------- __ —
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g ___________________

3
3
_

2
2

“

"

4
4

6
6

-

-

3
3

5
5

2
2
"

4
i
3

7
7
‘

21
17
4

9
8
1

13
13
"

173
173

"

10
10

8
8

1
1

3
3

62
62

21
21

79
79

17
13
4

.

2
2

12
11
1

32
32
"

3

14
14

-

41
40
1

32
32

"

8
8

14
14

“

“

"

87
87

24
21

11
8

-

16
16
"

21
20
1

20
19
1

-

-

_
_

-

~

-

"

-

_

90
90

28
28

226
226

30
30

-

"

8
8
"

8
8
-

8
8
-

8
8

_

_

_

_

-

2
2

-

4
4

1
1

4
4

3
3

6
6

6
6
“

8
8

-

2
2

-

38
1

_

_

_

5
5

_

_

_

_

_

•

-

4
4

_

"

13
13

19
3
4 16

10
10

.
-

20
-

31
26

66
65

20
18

20
16

56
56

4
4

57
57

102
102

49
49

64
64

3
3

.
-

20
20

.
-

.
-

-

-

-

-

-

3.48
3.50

■

“

"

6
6

_

6
“

~

4
4

10
10

6
6

“

32
32

24
24

73
73

49
49

47
47

28
28

“

2
2

14
14

11
11

12
12

272
272

“

306
95
211

2.70
2.70
2.71

-

_
-

1
1

4
4

16
13
3

15
8
7

4
4

17
16
1

40
40

6
3
3

15
3
12

20
4
16

30
4
26

22
5
17

15
11
4

65
9
56
56

-

-

10
10

-

26
19
7

_
-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

M echanics, m aintenance _______________
M anufacturing _______________________
Nonmanufacturing

651
591
60

3.19
3.24
2.70

2
2
_

"

"

-

-

3
3
"

2
2

24
23
i

~

19
19
"

19
7
12

30
8
22

41
36
5

42
33
9

11
10
1

75
68
7

134
134

31
30
1

4
4

10
10

28
28

8
8
-

no
no

38
38

-

20
20

M illw rights ___ _________ ________ —
M anufacturing __ __ ___ ____
__ __

391
391

3.22
3.22

2
2

4
4

8
8

32
32

22
22

28
28

171
171

40
40

O ile rs
---- ----- ------ ------- --- -----------M anufacturing _______________________

210
210

2.64
2.64

4
4

2
2

2
2

2
2

.
-

-

P a in ters, m aintenance _________________
M anufacturing _______________________

64
57

2.97
2.97

-

2
2

16
16

3
2

“

T ool and die m akers __ ___ __ _____ __
M anufacturing _______________________

74
74

3.02
3.02

6
6

6
6

-

2
2

3
3

_

-

_

5.........................

1
2
3
4
5

.

i
‘

.

•
.

.

•

_

2
2

.
“

6
6

5
5

20
20

18
18

34
34

30
30

6
6

9
9

10
10

52
52

8
8

.

.

.

.

5
5

.

2
2

2
2

2
2

9
8

10
10

8
8

“

4
4

2
2

1
1

6
6

"

E xcludes prem ium pay fo r overtim e and fo r w ork on w eekends, holidays, and late shifts.
W orkers w ere distributed as fo llo w s:
1 at $ 1 . 3 0 to $ 1 . 4 0 ; and 4 at $ 1 . 4 0 to $ 1 . 5 0 .
W orkers w ere distributed as fo llo w s: 4 at $ 0 . 9 0 to $ 1; 3 at $ 1 . 3 0 to $ 1 . 4 0 ; and 1 at $ 1 . 5 0 to $ 1 . 6 0 .
W orkers w ere distributed as fo llo w s:
1 at $ 1 to $ 1 . 1 0 ; 8 at $ 1 . 2 0 to $ 1 . 3 0 ; and 7 at $ 1 . 5 0 to $ 1 . 6 0 .
Tran sportation, com m unication, and other public utilities.




15
15

4

_

34
34

■

-

84
84

-

-

"

-

-

-

-

9
Table A-5. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s fo r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s tr y d iv is io n , B irm in g h a m , A l a ., A p r i l 1963)
NUM B ER OF WORKERS R E CE IVIN G ST R AIG H T-TIM E HOURLY EARN ING S OF—

O ccu p ation 1 and industry division

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings2

Under
3.60

$
0 .6 0

and
under
.7 0

E levator op era tors, passenger

100

$ 0 .7 8

332

16

-

-

$

$

$

$

0 .70

0 .8 0

0 .9 0

.8 0

.9 0

_

_

_

-

-

$

$

1.00 1.10 1.20

1.00 1.10 1.20

44

$

$

$

$

$

1 .30

1 .40

1 .50

1 .60

1.70

1 .80

1.90 2.00 2.10 2.20

1 .40

1 .30

6

s

$

$

$

$

1.50

1 .60

1 .70

1.80

1.90

2.00 2.10 2.20

4

22

20

4

16

3

17

3

3

-

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

2 .3 0

2 .4 0

2 .5 0

2 .6 0

2.80

3 .00

3 .20

3 .40

2 .3 0

2 .4 0

2 .5 0

2 .6 0

2 .8 0

3 .0 0

3 .20

3 .40

and
over

25

32

2
2

29
29

-

30

2

1^0T |kha Muff) Cttl V i||g
"i
"

Guards and w atchmen __ _______________
Manufacturing _______________________
Guards _ __________________________
Watchmen _________________________
Nonmanufacturing ___________________

347

77

1.91
2 .1 8
2.53
1.72

169

1 ,0 0 4

24

16

Janitors, p o rte rs , and cleaners
(women) _______________________________

-

-

-

-

-

-

9

1.63

-

-

16

-

-

24

-

2.00

1.62

15

24

-

-

14

15

24

8
8

92

70

109

1.26
1 .8 1

-

*

-

-

-

-

320

1.02

-

115

-

-

-

80

1 .64

487
517

-

1
1

-

42

42

-

92

84

1

87

3

52

41

4

7
34
3

9

3

21

16
5

6

3

31

12
1

43

3

9

75

1

6

9

27

26

Janitors, p orters, and cleaners
(men) ----------------------------------------------------Manufacturing _______________________
Nonmanufacturing ___________________
Pu blic utilities 4 __________________

10

37

9
9

10
10

178

101

1

37

-

-

61
34

139

68
68

326
14

50

312

27

-

-

-

-

60

-

_

_

2

109

49

36

6

3

5

1
1

15

3

15

3

1 ,6 0 9
681
928
302

1.96
1 .6 1
2 .15

O rder fille r s ____________________________

396

1.55

P a ck ers, shipping

231

2 .19

R eceiving clerk s ________________________

132

2 .13

3

N on m a n u fa ctu rin g ___________________

60

1.70

3

105
89

153

2 .83

_

_

_

Nonmanufacturing _ _________________

56

2 .3 9

-

-

-

-

11

3

81
42

46
34

39
26

37
3

1

12
6
-

Shipping clerk s ________
Manufacturing

_______________

1.76

T ru ck d rivers 7 __________________________

1 ,6 7 3

2.11

Nonmanufacturing ___________________

1, 1 9 8
441

2 .0 4
2 .7 4

50

-

-

-

-

-

-

'

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

139




3
17

60
41

32

19
4

27
27

1

5

_

-

2
1
1

.

.

-

_

_

_

_

28

92

29

106
16

7

57
35

23

21

51
51

3
17

-

11

-

2
2

6
4
2
2

2
2

4

6

4

266
264

24
24

56
46

162

3
3

-

21
21
13
8

-

-

-

_
_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

40

2
2

29

-

-

24
24

-

117
84

6

2

183

-

73
34

132
130

9
9
-

_
-

3

30
30
30

2
2

-

-

_
_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

62
24

40

-

10
6

6

11

1
1

10
6

4

68

6

5

3

13

3

3

4

5

1

12

3

1

9

_

.

12

-

-

-

9

124

87

173

42

124

71

58

8

4

2
2

7

1
1

2
2

11
2

1
1

.

-

-

4

4

_

_

.

15

6

10

4

5

1

24
23

3

2

3

11
10

4
4

2
2

_

1

9

_
_

-

26
26

15
15

3
3

4
4

24

18

13

4

16

4

4

5 18

-

20

15

-

15

2

2
2

87

102

11 6

67

152

60

338

92

56
52

13

139
84

55

222

.

18

10

72
72

1

13

3

5

9

-

44

18

13

38

2

8

6

-

9

3

52

8
8

-

_

11

-

-

146

31

12
12

38

-

9

9

12

10
10
-

-

39
36

6

21
21

162

-

27

-

10

-

34

183

9

25
14

-

-

34

-

9

11
8

12
21

1
21

.

1
1

_

-

6
6

_

16

28

33
33

7

6
1

4

1

See fo o t n o t e s at en d o f ta b le.

17
5

122

2 .82
2 .96

Shipping and receivin g cle rk s __________

-

34

-

L a b orers, m aterial handling ___________
Manufacturing ______ __ ___________
Nonmanufacturing ________
Public u tilit ie s 4 __________________

11

222

632

_

10

Table A-5. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations— Continued
(A verage straigh t-tim e hourly earnings fo r s elected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division , Birm ingham , A la., A p ril 1963)1
7
6
5
4
3
2

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Data lim ited to m en w o rk e rs except w here otherw ise indicated.
E xcludes prem iu m pay fo r overtim e and fo r w ork on w eekends, holidays, and late shifts.
W orkers w ere distributed as fo llo w s : 4 at $ 0 . 3 0 to $ 0 . 4 0 ; 2 6 at $ 0 . 4 0 to $ 0 . 5 0 ; and 2 at $ 0 . 5 0 to $ 0 . 6 0 .
Tran sportation, com m unication, and other public utilities.
W orkers w ere distributed as fo llo w s: 2 at $ 3 . 6 0 to $ 3 . 8 0 ; 6 at $ 3 . 8 0 to $ 4 ; 4 at $ 4 to $ 4 . 2 0 ; 4 at $ 4 . 2 0 to $ 4 . 4 0 ; and 2 at $ 4 . 4 0 to $ 4 . 6 0 .
W orkers w ere distributed as fo llo w s : 2 at $ 3 . 4 0 to $ 3 . 6 0 ; 4 at $ 3 . 6 0 to $ 3 . 8 0 ; 1 8 at $ 4 to $ 4 . 2 0 ; and 8 at $ 4 . 2 0 to $ 4 . 4 0 .
Includes all d riv e rs re g a rd le ss of size and type of truck operated.




Appendix:

Occupational Descriptions

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to assist its
field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field economists are in­
structed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped, part-time,
temporary, and probationary workers.

OFFICE
BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
classified by type of machine, as follows:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.
C la s s A—
Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, bal­
ance sheets, and other records by hand.

B i ll e r , m a ch in e (b illin g m a c h in e )—U s e s a special billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, etc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.

C l a s s B —Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping.
Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type of billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation of trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.

B i l l e r , m a ch in e (b o o k k e e p in g m a c h in e )—Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, etc., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types of sales and
credit slips.




CLERK, ACCOUNTING
C l a s s A—
Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a com­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase of an establish­
ment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

11

12
CLERK , A C C O U N T IN G -C ontinued
payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper ac­
counting distribution; and requires judgment and experience in
making proper assignations and allocations. May assist in preparing,
adjusting and closing journal entries; and may direct class B ac­
counting clerks.
C l a s s B —Under supervision, performs one or more routine ac­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or ac­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; and posting subsidiary ledgers con­
trolled by general ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data.
This job does not require a knowledge of accounting and book­
keeping principles but is found in offices in which the more routine
accounting work is subdivided on a functional basis among several
workers.

CLERK, FILE
C la s s A —
In an established filing system containing a number
of varied subject matter files, classifies and indexes file material
such as correspondence, reports, technical documents, etc. May
also file this material. May keep records of various types in con­
junction with the files. May lead a small group of lower level file
clerks.

C l a s s B —Sorts, codes, and files unclassified material by sim­

ple (subject matter) headings or partly classified material by finer
subheadings.
Prepares simple related index and cross-reference
aids.
As requested locates clearly identified material in files
and forwards material. May perform related clerical tasks required
to maintain and service files.

CLERK, ORDER
Receives customers’ orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve a n y co m b in a tio n o f th e f o llo w in g :
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; and distributing order sheets to respective departments to be
filled. May check with credit department to determine credit rating of
customer, acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders
to see that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check
shipping invoices with original orders.

CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the neces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers’
earnings based on time or production records; and posting calculated
data on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker’ s name, work­
ing days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due.
May make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and dis­
tributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
C la s s

C —Performs routine filing of material that has already

been classified or which is easily classified in a simple serial
classification system (e.g., alphabetical, chronological, or numer­
ical).
As requested, locates readily available material in files
and forwards material; and may fill out withdrawal charge. Per­
forms simple clerical and manual tasks required to maintain and
service files.




Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file of used stencils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

13
SECRETARY— Continued

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
C l a s s /l —
Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or combina­

tion keypunch machine to transcribe data from various source docu­
ments to keypunch tabulating cards.

Performs same tasks as lower

level keypunch operator but in addition, work requires application of
coding skills and the making of some determinations, for example,

making phone calls; handling personal and important or confidential
mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative; and taking
dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand
or by Stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the
recorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare
special reports or memorandums for information of superior.

locates on the source document the items to be punched; extracts
information from several documents; and searches for and interprets
information on the document to determine information to be punched.
May train inexperienced operators.

C la s s 6 —
Under close supervision or following specific proce­

dures or instructions,
punched cards.

transcribes data from source documents to

Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or com­

bination keypunch machine to keypunch

tabulating cards.

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a
normal routine vocabulary; and transcribe dictation. May also type from
written copy. May maintain files, keep simple records, or perform other
relatively routine clerical tasks. May operate from a stenographic pool.
Does not include transcribing-machine work. (See transcribing-machine
operator.)

May

verify cards. Working from various standardized source documents,
follows specified sequences which have been coded or prescribed
in detail and require little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting
data to be punched. Problems arising from erroneous items or codes,
missing information, etc., are referred to supervisor.

OFFICE BOY OR GIRL

STENOGRAPHER, SENIOR
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a var­
ied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or
reports on scientific research and transcribe dictation. May also type
from written copy. May also set up and maintain files, keep records, etc.

OR

Performs various routine duties such as running errands, opera'
ting minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and dis­
tributing mail, and other minor clerical work.

SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an
administrative or executive position.

Duties include making appoint­

ments for superior; receiving people coming into office; answering and




Performs stenographic duties requiring significantly greater
independence and responsibility than stenographers, general as evi­
denced by the following: Work requires high degree of stenographic
speed and accuracy; and a thorough working knowledge of general busi­
ness and office procedures and of the specific business operations,
organization, policies, procedures, files, workflow, etc.
Uses this
knowledge in performing stenographic duties and responsible clerical
tasks such as, maintaining followup files; assembling material for
reports, memorandums, letters, etc.; composing simple letters from general
instructions; reading and routing incoming mail; and answering routine
questions, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work.

14
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office
calls. May record toll calls and take messages. May give information
to persons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders. For
workers who also act as receptionists see switchboard operatorreceptionist.

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR-Continued
C l a s s C —Operates simple tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with specific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs or re­
petitive operations.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single posi­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. This typing
or clerical work may take the major part of this worker’ s time while at
switchboard.
TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
C l a s s A—
Operates a variety of tabulating or electrical ac­
counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator, and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignments without close supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating sequences of long and complex reports,
D o e s not in c lu d e working supervisors performing tabulating-machine
operations a n d day-to-day supervision of the work and production
of a group of tabulating-machine operators.
C l a s s B —Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical ac­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under
specific instructions and may include the performance of some wir­
ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but
small tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are well established. May also include the training
of new employees in the basic operation of the machine.




TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal rou­
tine vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May also type from
written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation
involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal
briefs or reports on scientific research are not included. A worker who
takes dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is
classified as a stenographer, general.

TYPIST
Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May include typing of stencils, mats, or similar materials for use in
duplicating processes. May do clerical work involving little special
training, such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or
sorting and distributing incoming mail.

C l a s s A—Performs o n e o r m ore o f the f o l l o w in g : Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources err responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punc­
tuation, etc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; and planning layout and typing of complicated statistical
tables to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type
routine form letters varying details to suit circumstances.

C l a s s B —Performs o n e o r m ore o f th e f o l l o w in g : Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance pol­
icies, etc.; and setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying
more complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

15

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR-Continued

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.

completed work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quan­
tities; writing specifications; and making adjustments or changes in
drawings or specifications.
May ink in lines and letters on pencil
drawings, prepare detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings.
Work is frequently in a specialized field such as architectural, elec­
trical, mechanical, or structural drafting.

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration of working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Duties involve a c o m b in a tio n o f the f o llo w in g : Interpreting blueprints,
sketches, and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures;
assigning duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; and per­
forming more difficult problems. May assist subordinates during emer­
gencies or as a regular assignment, or perform related duties of a
supervisory or administrative nature.
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing
purposes. Duties involve a c o m b in a tio n o f the fo llo w in g : Preparing
working plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-sections, etc., to scale by
use of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as
those involved in strength of materials, beams and trusses; verifying

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a c o m b in a ­
tion o f the f o llo w in g : Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of employees’ injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants
and employees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.
TRACER
Copies
plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing
tracing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. Uses
T-square, compass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

MAINTENANCE AND POWERPLANT
CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE-Continued

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves m o st o f the f o llo w in g :
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’ s handtools, portable

power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; and selecting materials
necessary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance car­
penter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.




16
ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE

HELPER, MAINTENANCE TRADES

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, dis­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the elec­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; and using a variety
of electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In
general, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

A ssists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
and performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The
kind of work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade:
In some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding
materials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-time basis.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors,
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; and keeping a record
of operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May
a ls o supervise these operations. H e a d or c h i e f e n g in e e r s in e s t a b l i s h -

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools, gages,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves m o st o f th e f o llo w in g : Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and
operation sequence; and making necessary adjustments during operation
to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to rec­
ognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating oils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing
shops are excluded from this classification.

m en ts e m p lo y in g more than o n e e n g in e e r are e x c lu d e d .

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
Fire stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; and checks water
and safety valve.
May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom
equipment.




Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves m o st o f the f o l l o w in g : Interpreting written instructions and
specifications; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
chinist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and
operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to close toler­
ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of
work, tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working

17
MACHINIST, M A INTEN ANC E-Continued

MILLWRIGHT

properties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts,
and equipment required for his work; and fitting and assembling parts
into mechanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally
requires a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout
are required. Work involves m o st o f the f o llo w in g : Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment and
parts to be used; and installing and maintaining in good order power
transmission equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general,
the millwright’ s work normally requires a rounded training and experi­
ence in die trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an es­
tablishment. Work involves m o st o f th e f o llo w in g : Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gages, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assemblies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; and alining wheels, adjusting brakes
and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the auto­
motive mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually ac­
quired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves m o st o f the f o l l o w in g : Examining machines and mechan­
ical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly dis­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a re­
placement part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine
shop for major repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs
or for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling
machines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In gen­
eral, the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience.
Excluded from this classification are
workers whose p rim a ry d u t ie s involve setting up or adjusting machines.




OILER
Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of. mechanical equipment of an establishment.

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work i n v o l v e s th e f o llo w in g : Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler
in nail.holes and interstices; and applying paint with spray gun or brush.
May mix colors, oils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain
proper color or consistency. In general, the work of the maintenance
painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves m o st o f th e f o llo w in g :
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from draw­
ings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to
correct lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe­
cutting machine; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by
hand-driven or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings

18
P IP E F IT T E R , M AIN T EN A N C E-C ontinued

SHEET-M ETAL WORKER, M A IN T EN A N C E-C ontinued

and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relat­
ing to pressures, flow, and size of pipe required; and making standard
tests to determine whether finished pipes meet specifications. In general
the work of the maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience. W orkers p r im a r ily e n g a g e d in in s t a l l in g a n d

types of sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in
cutting, bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; and installing
sheet-metal articles as required. In general, the work of the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually,
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

r e p a ir in g b u ild in g s a n it a t io n or h e a tin g s y s t e m s a re e x c lu d e d .

TOOL AND DIE MAKER
(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gage maker)

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; and opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake.
In general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishment. Work involves m o st o f the f o l l o w in g : Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints,
models, or other specifications; setting up and operating all available

Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gages, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching, and other metal-forming work. Work
involves m o st o f th e f o l l o w in g : Planning and laying out of work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifications;
using a variety of tool and die maker’ s handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding of the working properties of common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to close tolerances; fitting and assembling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allowances; and selecting appro­
priate materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die
maker’ s work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom
practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT
ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

GUARD

Transports passengers between floors of an office building
apartment house, department store, hotel, or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. I n c l u d e s g a t e -




m en w h o are s t a t i o n e d at g a t e a n d c h e c k on id e n t it y o f e m p lo y e e s a n d
o th e r p e r s o n s e n te r in g .

19
PACKER, SHIPPING

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
(Sweeper; charwomen; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial
or other establishment.

Duties involve a co m b in a tio n o f the f o llo w in g :

Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance services; and cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Work­
ers who specialize in window washing are excluded.

Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and m ay in v o lv e o n e or m ore o f
the fo llo w in g : Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify
content; selection of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; and applying labels
or entering identifying data on container.
P a c k e r s w h o a ls o m ake
w o o d e n b o x e s or c r a t e s a re e x c lu d e d .

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­

A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve o n e or more o f the f o l l o w ­
in g :

Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or

from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location;
and transporting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheel­
barrow.

L o n g s h o r e m e n , w ho lo a d a n d u n lo a d s h ip s are e x c lu d e d .

sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials.
p in g

w ork i n v o l v e s :

routes,

S h ip ­

A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices,

available means of transportation and rates; and preparing

records of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight
and shipping charges, and keeping a file of shipping records.
direct or assist in preparing the merchandise for shipment.
w ork

in v o lv e s :

May

R e c e iv in g

Verifying or directing others in verifying the correct­

ness of shipments against bills of lading, invoices, or other records;
checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods; routing merchan­
ORDER FILLER

dise

(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)

or materials to proper departments; and maintaining necessary

records and files.

Fills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, cus­
tomers’ orders, or other instructions.
and indicating items filled or omitted,

May, in addition to filling orders
keep records of outgoing orders

requisition additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and
perform Other related duties.




For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:
R e c e i v i n g c le r k
S h ip p in g c le r k
S h ip p in g a n d r e c e iv in g c le r k

20
TRUCKDRIVER

TRUCKER, POWER

Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of estab­
lishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers* houses or places of business. May also load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. D r iv e r -s a le s m e n a n d o v e r -t h e -r o a d d r iv e r s

Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.

are e x c lu d e d .

For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipment, as follows: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis of trailer capacity.)

For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of
truck, as follows:

T r u c k e r , p o w e r (f o r k lif t )
T r u c k e r , p o w e r (o th e r than f o r k lif t )

T r u c k d r iv e r (c o m b in a tio n o f s i z e s l i s t e d s e p a r a t e l y )
T r u c k d r iv e r , lig h t (u n d e r 1% to n s)

WATCHMAN

T r u c k d r iv e r , m ediu m ( 1% to a n d in c lu d in g 4 to n s )
T r u c k d r iv e r , h e a v y ( o v e r 4 to n s, tr a ile r t y p e )
T r u c k d r iv e r , h e a v y (o v e r 4 to n s, oth er than tr a ile r t y p e )




Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.

Occupational Wage Surveys
A l is t o f the la t e s t a v a ila b le b u lle tin s is p r e s e n t e d b e l o w .
A d i r e c t o r y in d ica t in g d a te s o f e a r l i e r s t u d i e s , and the p r i c e s o f the b u lle tin s
is a v a ila b le upon r e q u e s t . B u lle tin s m a y be p u r c h a s e d f r o m the S u p e rin te n d e n t o f D o c u m e n t s , U. S. G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c
Va shin gto n 25, D. C. ,
o r f r o m any o f the B L S r e g i o n a l s a l e s o f f i c e s s ho w n on the in s i d e f r o n t c o v e r .

A rea

B u lle tin
num ber

P rice

A l b u q u e r q u e , N. M e x . ____________________
A lle n to w n — e t h l e h e m — a s t o n , P a . — J.
B
E
N.
A tla n ta, G a. ________________________________
B a l t i m o r e , M d. ____________________________
B e a u m o n t— o r t A r t h u r , T e x . ____________
P
B i r m i n g h a m , A la . _________________________
B o i s e , Idaho ________________ ______________
B o s t o n , M a s s . _____________________________

1303-81
1 3 4 5 -5 3
130 3-6 7
1 3 4 5 -4 5
1 3 0 3-6 5
1 3 4 5 -2 3
1 3 0 3 -7 8
1 3 4 5-5 6
130 3-7 7
1 3 4 5-1 5

25
20
25
20
30
25
25
20
25
25

cen ts
ce n ts
cen ts
ce n ts
cen ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts

B u f f a l o , N. Y ............................................................
B u r lin g t o n , Vt. ____________________________
C a nton, O hio ______________________________
C h a r l e s t o n , W. V a . ______________________
C h a r l o t t e , N. C. ____________________________
C h a t ta n o o g a , T e n n . —
Ga. __________________
C h i c a g o , 111. _______________________________
C in c in n a ti, Ohio—Ky. ______________________
C l e v e l a n d , O hio ____________________________
C o l u m b u s , Ohio ____________________________

1 3 4 5-3 0
1 3 4 5-5 0
1 3 0 3-6 2
1303-61
13 0 3-6 0
13 4 5-8
1 3 0 3 -6 4
1345-54
1 3 4 5 -1 4
1 3 4 5-2 8

25
25
25
25
25
25
30
20
25
25

ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts

D a l l a s , T e x . _______________________________
D a v e n p o r t — o c k Island— o l i n e , Iowa—111.
R
M
D a y to n , Ohio _______________________________
D e n v e r , C o l o . ______________________________
D es M o i n e s , Iowa _________________________
D e t r o i t , M ic h . _____________________________
F o r t W o r t h , T e x . _________________________
G r e e n B a y , W is . ___________________________
G r e e n v i l l e , S. C. __________________________
H o u s to n , T e x . ______________________________

1 345-21
1 3 4 5-1 8
1 3 4 5-3 5
1 3 4 5-3 2
1 3 4 5 -4 2
1 3 4 5-4 7
1 345-27
1 3 4 5 -3
130 3-7 0
130 3-7 9

25
25
20
25
20
25
25
25
25
25

ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
cen ts
cen ts
cen ts

J a c k s o n , M i s s . _______________________
J a c k s o n v i l l e , F la . ___________________
K a n s a s C it y , M o . — a n s . ___________
K
L a w r e n c e — a v e r h i l l , M a s s . — H. .
H
N.
L ittle R o c k — o rth L it tle R o c k , A rk .
N
_
L o s A n g e l e s —L o n g B e a c h , C a lif . _
L o u i s v i l l e , Ky. —
Ind. _________________
L u b b o c k , T e x . ________________________
M a n c h e s t e r , N. H. ____________________

1 3 4 5 -2 6
1 3 4 5 -4 3
134 5-3 9
1 3 4 5-2 2
1 3 0 3-7 6
1345-7
1 3 0 3 -5 3
1 3 4 5-4 8
1 3 0 3 -7 4
1 3 4 5-2
1 3 4 5-3 6

25
20
25
25
25
25
30
25
25
25
25

ce n ts
ce n ts
cen ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts

A k r o n , Ohio




Area

B u lle tin
num ber

P rice

M i a m i , F la . __________________________________
M i l w a u k e e , W i s . ___________________________
M in neap olis—
St. P a u l , Min n. _____________
M u s k e g o n — u s k e g o n H e ig h t s , M ic h . ____
M
N e w a r k and J e r s e y C it y , N. J. ____________
New H av e n , Con n. ___________________________
New O r l e a n s , L a . ___________________________
New Y o r k , N. Y ..........................................................
N o r f o l k — o r t s m o u t h and N e w p o r t N e w s —
P
H a m p t o n , V a . ______________________________
O k la h o m a C it y , O kla. ______________________

1345-33
1 3 0 3-5 7
1 3 4 5 -3 8
1 3 0 3 -6 8
1 3 4 5 -4 6
1 3 4 5-3 7
1 3 4 5 -4 4
1 3 0 3 -5 8

20
25
25
25
25
20
25
30

1 3 0 3 -7 5
1 3 4 5 -6

20 ce n ts
25 ce n ts

O m a h a , N e b r . —Iow a ________________________
P a t e r s o n — lif t o n — a s s a i c , N. J. __________
C
P
P h i l a d e l p h i a , P a . — J. ____________________
N.
P h o e n i x , A r i z . ______________________________
P i t t s b u r g h , P a . _____________________________
P o r t l a n d , M a in e _____________________________
P o r t l a n d , O r e g . — a s h . ____________________
W
P r o v i d e n c e — a w t u c k e t , R. I . — a s s . _____
P
M
R a l e i g h , N. C. _______________________________
R i c h m o n d , V a . ______________________________

1 3 4 5 -1 2
1303-71
134 5-3 1
1345-57
1 3 4 5 -4 0
1 3 4 5 -2 4
1 3 0 3 -7 2
1 3 0 3 -6 6
1 3 45-1
1 3 4 5 -1 9

20
25
30
20
25
20
25
25
20
20

ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
c e n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts

R b c k f o r d , 111. ________________________________
St. L o u i s , M o . —111. _________________________
Salt L a k e C it y , Utah ________________________
San A n t o n io , T e x . ___________________________
San B e r n a r d i n o — i v e r s i d e — n t a r io , C a lif .
R
O
San D i e g o , C a lif . ____________________________
San F r a n c i s c o — a kla nd , C a lif . ____________
O
Savannah, Ga. _______________________________
S c r a n t o n , P a . _______________________________
S e a t t le , W a s h . _______________________________

1 3 0 3-6 9
1 3 4 5-1 7
1 3 4 5 -2 5
1 3 0 3 -6 3
13 4 5-9
1 3 4 5-1 0
1 3 4 5 -3 4
1 3 0 3-8 0
13 4 5-5
1 3 4 5 -4

30
25
25
25
20
25
25
25
15
25

ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
cen ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts

S io u x F a l l s , S. Dak. _______________________
South B e n d , Ind. _____________________________
S p o k a n e , W a s h . ______________________________
T o l e d o , O hio ________________________________
T r e n t o n , N. J. _______________________________
W a s h in g t o n , D . C . —M d . — a . _______________
V
W a t e r b u r y , Conn. ___________________________
W a t e r l o o , Iowa _______________________________
W i c h i t a , K a n s . _______________________________
W o r c e s t e r , M a s s . __________________________
Y o r k , P a . _____________________________________

1 3 4 5 -1 3
1 3 4 5 -5 2
1 3 0 3 -7 3
1345-51
1 3 4 5-2 9
1 3 4 5 -1 6
1 3 4 5-4 9
1 3 4 5-2 0
1 345-11
1 3 0 3-8 2
1 345-41

20
20
20
25
25
25
20
25
25
25
20

cen ts
ce n ts
cen ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
cents
cen ts
cen ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
cen ts

ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
cen ts
ce n ts
ce n ts
ce n ts




C/^ T y t i °

3VA-L


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102