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Occupational Wage Survey

WATERLOO, IOWA
*

NOVEMBER 1962

H u I let i n N o .

1345-20




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Comminioner




Occupational Wage Survey
WATERLOO, IOWA




NOVEMBER 1962

Bulletin No. 1345-20
January 1963

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary
BUREAU O F LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.

Price 25 cents




C ontents

P refa ce

Page
The Labor Market Occupational Wage Survey Program
Eighty-two labor markets currently are included
in the Bureau of Labor Statistics program of annual occu­
pational wage surveys in major labor markets. These
studies provide data on occupational earnings and related
supplementary benefits. Information on related supple­
mentary benefits is obtained biennially in most of the
labor markets.
A preliminary report which presents earnings
trends for selected occupational groups and average earn­
ings in selected jobs is released within a month after the
completion of the study in each area. This bulletin pro­
vides additional data not included in the preliminary report.
A two-part summary bulletin is issued after the
completion of all of the area bulletins for a round of sur­
veys (for the current round of surveys, the first part of
this bulletin will be available late in 1963 and the second
part early in 1964).
The first part presents individual
labor market data. The second part presents data relating
to all metropolitan areas in the United States.
This bulletin was prepared in the Bureau's r e ­
gional office in Chicago, 111., by Kenneth Thorsten, under
the direction of Woodrow C. Linn, Assistant Regional D i­
rector for Wages and Industrial Relations.




Introduction _____________________________________________________________
Wage trends for selected occupational groups ________________________

1
4

Tables:
1.
2.

Establishments and workers within scope of survey __________
Percents of increase in standard weekly salaries and
straight-time hourly earnings for selected
occupational groups, for selected periods ___________________

A: Occupational earnings: *
A -1. Office occupations—
men and women _____________________
A -2 . Professional and technical occupations—
men ___________
A -3 . Office, professional, and technical occupations—
men and women combined ______________________________
A -4 . Maintenance and powerplant occupations _______________
A -5 . Custodial and material movement occupations _________

3
3
5
6
6
7
8

B: Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions:*
B -l. Minimum entrance salaries for women office workers ___
B-2. Shift differentials _________________________________________
B-3. Scheduled weekly hours __________________________________
B-4. Paid holidays _____________________________________________
B-5. Paid vacations ____________________________________________
B-6. Health, insurance, and pension plans ___________________

9
10
10
11
12
14

Appendix: Occupational descriptions __________________________________

15

* NOTE: Similar tabulations are available for other
major areas. (See inside back cover.)

iii




O ccu p a tion a l W age S u rvey—W a terloo, Iowa
Introduction

This area is 1 of 82 labor markets in which the U. S. De­
partment of L ab ors Bureau of Labor Statistics conducts surveys
of occupational earnings and related wage benefits on an areawide
basis.
In this area, data were obtained by personal visits of Bu­
reau field economists to representative establishments within six
broad industry divisions: Manufacturing; transportation, communica­
tion, and other public utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance,
insurance, and real estate; and services.
Major industry groups
excluded from these studies are government operations and the con­
struction and extractive industries.
Establishments having fewer
than a prescribed number of workers are omitted because they
tend to furnish insufficient employment in the occupations studied to
warrant inclusion. Separate tabulations are provided for each of the
broad industry divisions which meet publication criteria.

schedules (rounded to the nearest half hour) for which straight-time
salaries are paid; average weekly earnings for these occupations have
been rounded to the nearest half dollar.
Differences in pay levels for selected occupations in which
both men and women are commonly employed are largely due to
(1) differences in the distribution of the sexes among industries and
establishments; (2) differences in specific duties performed, although
the occupations are appropriately classified within the same survey
job description; and (3) differences in length of service or merit
review when individual salaries are adjusted'on this basis.
Longer
average service of men would result in higher average pay when
both sexes are employed within the same rate range.
Job descrip­
tions used in classifying employees in these surveys are usually more
generalized than those used in individual establishments to allow for
minor differences among establishments in specific duties performed.

These surveys are conducted on a sample basis because of
the unnecessary cost involved in surveying all establishments.
To
obtain optimum accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of
large than of small establishments is studied. In combining the data,
however, all establishments are given their appropriate weight. E s ­
timates based on the establishments studied are presented, therefore,
as relating to all establishments in the industry grouping and area,
except for those below the minimum size studied.

Occupational employment estimates represent the total in all
establishments within the scope of the study and not the number ac­
tually surveyed.
Because of differences in occupational structure
among establishments, the estimates of occupational employment ob­
tained from the sample of establishments studied serve only to indi­
cate the relative importance of the jobs studied.
These differences
in occupational structure do not materially affect the accuracy of the
earnings data.

Occupations and Earnings
The occupations selected for study are common to a variety
of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries, and are of the
following types: (a) Office clerical; (b) professional and technical;
(c) maintenance and powerplant; and (d) custodial and material move­
ment.
Occupational classification is based on a uniform set of job
descriptions designed to take account of interestablishment variation
in duties within the same job.
The occupations selected for study
are listed and described in the appendix. Earnings data for some of
the occupations listed and described are not presented in the A -series
tables because either (1) employment in the occupation is too small
to provide enough data to merit presentation, or (2) there is possi­
bility of disclosure of individual establishment data.

Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Information is presented (in the B -series tables) on selected
establishment practices and supplementary benefits as they relate to
office and plant workers.
The concept "office workers, " as used
in this bulletin, includes working supervisors and nonsupervisory
workers performing clerical or related functions, and excludes ad­
ministrative, executive, and professional personnel. "Plant workers"
include working foremen and all nonsupervisory workers (including
leadmen and trainees) engaged in nonoffice functions.
Administrative,
executive, and professional employees, and force-account construc­
tion employees who are utilized as a separate work force are ex­
cluded.
Cafeteria workers and routemen are excluded in manufac­
turing industries, but included as plant workers in nonmanufacturing
industries.

Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for
full-time workers, i. e. , those hired to work a regular weekly schedule
in the given occupational classification. Earnings data exclude pre­
mium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late
shifts. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded, but cost-of-living bonuses
and incentive earnings are included.
Where weekly hours are r e ­
ported, as for office clerical occupations, reference is to the work




Minimum entrance salaries (table B -l) relate only to the e s­
tablishments visited. They are presented in terms of establishments
with formal minimum entrance salary policies.
1

2
Shift differential data (table B-2) are limited to manufacturing
industries. This information is presented both in terms of (a) estab­
lishment policy, 1 presented in terms of total plant worker employ­
ment, and (b) effective practice, presented in terms of workers ac­
tually employed on the specified shift at the time of the survey.
In
establishments having varied differentials, the amount applying to a
majority was used or, if no amount applied to a majority, the cla s­
sification "other" was used.
In establishments in which some lateshift hours are paid at normal rates, a differential was recorded
only if it applied to a majority of the shift hours.
The scheduled hours (table B-3) of a majority of the firstshift workers in an establishment are tabulated as applying to all of
the plant or office workers of that establishment.
Paid holidays;
paid vacations; and health, insurance, and pension plans (tables B -4
through B-6) are treated statistically on the basis that these are
applicable to all plant or office workers if a majority of such workers
are eligible or may eventually qualify for the practices listed.
Sums
of individual items in tables B-2 through B-6 may not equal totals
because of rounding.
Data on paid holidays (table B-4) are limited to data on
holidays granted annually on a formal basis; i . e . , (l) are provided
for in written form, or (2) have been established by custom.
Holi­
days ordinarily granted are included even though they may fall on a
nonworkday, even if the worker is not granted another day off.
The
first part of the paid holidays table presents the number of whole
and half holidays actually granted. The second part combines whole
and half holidays to show total holiday time.
The summary of vacation plans (table B-5) is limited to
formal policies, excluding informal arrangements whereby time off
with pay is granted at the discretion of the employer. Separate e s ­
timates are provided according to employer practice in computing
vacation payments, such as time payments, percent of annual earn­
ings, or flat-sum amounts. However, in the tabulations of vacation
pay, payments not on a time basis were converted to a time basis;
for example, a payment of 2 percent of annual earnings was con­
sidered as the equivalent of 1 week's pay.

Data are presented for all health, insurance, and pension
plans (table B-6) for which at least a part of the cost is borne by
the employer, excepting only legal requirements such as workmen's
compensation, social security, and railroad retirement.
Such plans
include those underwritten by a commercial insurance company and
those provided through a union fund or paid directly by the employer
out of current operating funds or from a fund set aside for this pur­
pose.
Death benefits are included as a form of life insurance.
Sickness and accident insurance is limited to that type of in­
surance under which predetermined cash payments are made directly
to the insured on a weekly or monthly basis during illness or ac­
cident disability.
Information is presented for all such plans to
which the employer contributes.
However, in New York and New
Jersey, which have enacted temporary disability insurance laws which
require employer contributions, 2 plans are included only if the em ­
ployer (1) contributes more than is legally required, or (2) provides
the employee with benefits which exceed the requirements of the law.
Tabulations of paid sick-leave plans are limited to formal plans 3
which provide full pay or a proportion of the worker's pay during
absence from work because of illness. Separate tabulations are pre­
sented according to (1) plans which provide full pay and no waiting
period, and (2) plans which provide either partial pay or a waiting
period. In addition to the presentation of the proportions of workers
who are provided sickness and accident insurance or paid sick leave,
an unduplicated total is shown of workers who receive either or both
types of benefits.
Catastrophe insurance, sometimes referred to as- extended
medical insurance, includes those plans which are designed to protect
employees in case of sickness and injury involving expenses beyond
the normal coverage of hospitalization, medical, and surgical plans.
Medical insurance refers to plans providing for complete or partial
payment of doctors' fees.
Such plans may be underwritten by com­
mercial insurance companies or nonprofit organizations or they may
be self-insured. Tabulations of retirement pension plans are limited
to those plans that provide monthly payments for the remainder of
the worker's life.

2 The temporary disability laws in California and Rhode Island
An establishment was considered as having a policy if it met not require employer contributions.
do
either of the following conditions: (l) Operated late shifts at the time
3 An establishment was considered as having a formal plan if
of the survey, or (2) had formal provisions covering late shifts.
An
it established at least the minimum number of days of sick leave
establishment was considered as having formal provisions if it (l) had
that could be expected by each employee.
Such a plan need not be
operated late shifts during the 12 months prior to the survey, or
written, but informal sick-leave allowances, determined on an indi­
(2) had provisions in written form for operating late shifts.
vidual basis, were excluded.
1




3

Table 1.

Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied in W aterloo, Iowa, 1 by major industry division, 2 November 1962
Minimum
employment
in establish­
ments in scope
of study

Industry division

Workers in establishments

Number of establishments

Within scope of study

Within
scope of
study3

Studied

Studied
T o ta l4

Office

Plant

T otal4

__________________________________________________

_

61

46

19, 900

2, 400

14,600

18,970

Manufacturing ________________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing __________________________________ _________
Transportation, communication, and other
public utilities 5 _________________________________________
W holesale trade ___________________________________________
Retail trade _______________________________________________
Finance, insurance, and real estate ___________________
S e r v ic e s 8 __________________________________________________

50
-

31
30

24
22

15,900
4, 000

1, 700
700

12, 200
2, 400

15, 550
3, 420

50
50
50
50
50

8
2
14
2
4

8
2
8
1
3

1, 700
300
1, 200
200
600

A ll divisions

200
(?)
(‘ )
(?)
(6)

900
(6)
(6)
0

(6 )

1, 720
250
860
80
510

1 The Waterloo Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area consists of Black Hawk County. The "w orkers within scope of study" estim ates shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate
description of the size and composition of the labor force included in the survey. The estim ates are not intended, however, to serve as a basis of comparison with other employment indexes
for the area to m easure employment trends or levels since (1) planning of wage surveys requires the use of establishment data compiled considerably in advance of the payroll period studied,
and (2) sm all establishm ents are excluded from the scope of the survey.
2 The 1957 revised edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual was used in classifying establishments by industry division.
3 Includes all establishm ents with total employment at or above the minimum limitation. A ll outlets (within the area) of companies in such industries as trade,
finance, auto repair service,
and m otion-picture theaters are considered as 1 establishment.
4 Includes executive, professional, and other workers excluded from the separate office and plant categories.
5 Taxicabs and services incidental to water transportation were excluded.
6 This industry division is represented in estimates for "a ll industries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the Series A tables, and for "a ll industries" in the Series B tables. Separate presen­
tation of data for this division is not made for one or more of the following reasons: (1) Employment in the division is too sm all to provide enough data to m erit separate study, (2) the sample
was not designed initially to permit separate presentation, (3) response was insufficient or inadequate to permit separate presentation, and (4) there is possibility of disclosure of individual
establishment data.
7 W orkers from this entire industry division are represented in estim ates for "a ll industries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the Series A tables, butfrom the real estate portion only in
estim ates for "a l l indu stries" in the Series B tables. Separate presentation of data for this division is not made for one or m ore of the reasons given in footnote 6 above.
8 H otels; personal serv ice s; business services; automobile repair shops; motion pictures; nonprofit mem bership organizations; and engineering and architectural services.




Table 2. Percents of increase in standard weekly salaries and straight-tim e
hourly earnings for selected occupational groups in W aterloo, Iowa,
for selected periods

Industry and occupational group

All industries:
Office clerical (men and women) ________________________
Industrial nurses (men and women) __________________——
Skilled maintenance (men) ______
_____________________
Unskilled plant (men) ______ ________________ ____________
Manufacturing:
Office clerical (men and women) ________________________
Industrial nurses (men and women) _____________________
Skilled maintenance (men) -----------------------------------------------Unskilled plant (men) --------------------------------------------------------

Data do not meet publication criteria.

November 1961
to
November 1962

November I960
to
November 1961

0.8

4.4

(*
>

(l )

2.9
4.0

5.0
6.0

2.5
(*)

3.9
(! )
(*)
5.7

(')

3.7

4

Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups

Presented in table 2 are percentages of change in average
salaries of office clerical workers and industrial nurses, and in av­
erage earnings of selected plant worker groups.
For office clerical workers and industrial nurses, the per­
centages of change relate to average weekly salaries for normal hours
of work, that is, the standard work schedule for which straight-time
salaries are paid. For plant worker groups, they measure changes
in average straight-time hourly earnings, excluding premium pay for
overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. The
percentages are based on data for selected key occupations and in­
clude most of the numerically important jobs within each group. The
office clerical data are based on men and women in the following 19 jobs:
Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B; clerks, accounting, class A
and B; clerks, file, class A, B, and C; clerks, order; clerks, payroll;
Comptometer operators; keypunch operators, class A and B; office
boys and girls; secretaries; stenographers, general; stenographers,
senior; switchboard operators; tabulating-machine operators, class B;
and typists, class A and B. The industrial nurse data are based on
men and women industrial nurses. Men in the following 8 skilled
maintenance jobs and 2 unskilled jobs are included in the plant
worker data: Skilled— carpenters; electricians; machinists; mechanics;
mechanics, automotive; painters; pipefitters; and tool and die makers;
unskilled— janitors, porters, and cleaners; and laborers, material
handling.
Average weekly salaries or average hourly earnings were
computed for each of the selected occupations. The average salaries
or hourly earnings were then multiplied by employment in each of




the jobs during the period surveyed in 1961. These weighted earnings
for individual occupations were then totaled to obtain an aggregate
for each occupational group. Finally, the ratio (expressed as a per­
centage) of the group aggregate for the one year to the aggregate for
the other year was computed and the difference between the result and
100 is the percentage of change from the one period to the other.
The percentages of change measure, principally, the effects
of (1) general salary and wage changes; (2) merit or other increases
in pay received by individual workers while in the same job; and
(3) changes in average wages due to changes in the labor force re­
sulting from labor turnover, force expansions, force reductions, and
changes in the proportions of workers employed by establishments
with different pay levels. Changes in the labor force can cause in­
creases or decreases in the occupational averages without actual wage
changes. For example, a force expansion might increase the pro­
portion of lower paid workers in a specific occupation and lower the
average, whereas a reduction in the proportion of lower paid workers
would have the opposite effect.
Similarly, the movement of a
high-paying establishment out of an area could cause the average
earnings to drop, even though no change in rates occurred in other
establishments in the area.
The use of constant employment weights eliminates the ef­
fect of changes in the proportion of workers represented in each
job included in the data. The percentages of change are not influenced
by changes in standard work schedules or in premium pay for over­
time, since they are based on pay for straight-time hours.

Wage indexes for selected groups of workers based on data from the
labor market surveys were computed for 20 areas between 1953 and I960. In
1961, the labor market occupational wage program was expanded to include
80 Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas which will be surveyed annually. This
expansion made data available for the computation of wage indexes for selected
job groupings in each of the 80 areas. The above text represents the method
used in computing these new wage change indexes. The new series was initiated
last year and the data are not comparable with trends published prior to that time.
The new series covers the same job groupings as the earlier series
with the following exceptions: The clerical and industrial nurse groups, formerly
restricted to women, now include both men and women. Changes were also made
in the jobs included within job groupings in order that an identical list could be
employed in all areas.

5

A: Occupational Earnings
Table A-l. Office Occupations—Men

id Women

(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Waterloo, Iowa, November 1962)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

Average
Sex, occupation, and in du stry division

of
w
orkers

$
S
$
$
S
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
s
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
W
eekly.
Weekly, 40. 00 45 . 00 50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 70 . 00 75. 00 80 . 00 85. 00 90. 00 9 5 .0 0 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 12 5.00 130.00 135.00 140.00
hours
earnin
gs
(Standard) (Standard) under
~
■
“
"
■
“
"
"
"
"
~
■
"
”
45. 00 50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 70, 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90 . 00 95. 00 100.00 105.00 110.00 11 5.00 120.00 125.00 13 0.00 135.00 140.00 145.00

M en
25
23

40 . 0
40. 0

$ 1 1 9 . 50
1 2 1 .5 0

_

-

_

.

_

_

-

-

-

-

~

'

"

"

"

"

_

■

“

■

1
"

2
1

1
1

1
1

3
3

2
2

5
5

6
6

2
2

"

2
2

B ook keep ing-m achin e o p e r a to r s,
c la s s A __ ________________________________
M anufacturing _________________________

20
18

40. 0
40 . 0

83. 00
83. 50

-

-

-

-

4
4

2
1

3
3

1
“

2
2

2
2

1
1

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

3
3

-

-

-

-

“

-

-

B ook keep ing-m achin e o p e r a to r s,
c la s s B ____________ _______________________
N onm anufacturing ______________________

30
21

40. 0
40. 0

56. 00
52. 50

2
2

7
7

5
5

9
3

4
4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
-

-

-

1
~

1

"

-

"

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

C le r k s , accounting, c la s s A ____________
M anufacturing __________________________

29
19

40. 0
40. 0

96. 00
1 0 6 .5 0

_

_

_

_

2

1

_

-

-

-

2
2

4
4

2
2

2
2

_

-

2
1

_

"

2
2

_

"

5
4

_

-

6
1

-

-

1
1

-

-

C le r k s , accounting, c la s s B ____________
M anufacturing __________________________
Nonm anufacturing ______________________
Public u tilities 1 -----------------------------2

48
24
24
15

40 . 0
4 0 .0
40. 0
40 . 0

70.
75.
65.
69.

50
50
50
50

_
-

1
1
-

5
2
3

6
4
2
1

6
5
1
1

5
1
4
4

1
1
-

3
3
-

_
-

_
~

_
-

_
-

-

"

-

_
-

-

-

-

“

3
3
3

2
2
-

-

12
J
9
5

-

-

4
2
2
1

-

-

C le r k s , file , c la s s B

_____________________

19

40. 0

68. 00

_

2

2

2

1

1

4

4

3

_

_

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

C le r k s , p a y ro ll ____________________________
M anufacturing __________________________

29
23

40. 0
40. 0

84. 00
85. 50

_

_

2
2

1
1

2
2

3
2

4
4

1
1

1

1
1

4
4

2
2

_

_

_

-

1
1

_

“

2
2

_

-

2
1

3

"

“

"

-

-

-

Keypunch o p e r a to r s, c la s s A

____________

27

40. 0

85. 00

_

_

3

1

2

_

.

.

_

12

2

3

1

-

3

_

_

_

_

_

_

Keypunch o p e r a to r s, c la s s B ____________
M anufacturing __________________________

63
49

40 . 0.
40 . 0

75. 00
77. 50

.

4
1

1
1

3
3

3
3

7
3

9
5

14
11

11
11

2
2

4
4

5
5

_

_

_

_

_

.

_

.

_

-

~

-

-

"

-

S e c r e ta r ie s _________________________________
M anufacturing ___________ _____________
Nonm anufacturing ______________________

68
51
17

40. 0
40. 0
40. 5

9 7 .0 0
1 0 1 .5 0
83. 50

_

_
-

3
1
2

2
1
1

2
1
1

8
6
2

4
1
3

3
3

7
6
1

5
3
2

2
2

2
2

_
-

2
2

-

4
3
1

5
5

-

4
2
2

7
7

-

1
1
-

5
5

-

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

S tenograp h ers, general __________________
Manufacturing __________________________
Nonm anufacturing ______________________

87
66
21

40. 0
40 . 0
40. 0

77. 00
81. 50
63. 50

_

5
1
4

3
1
2

9
1
8

7
4
3

_
-

8
------8

18
18

.
-

_
-

_
-

.
-

.
-

-

4
3
1

_
-

-

6
3
3

_
-

“

8
8
"

.
-

-

9
9
-

-

-

-

-

“

-

-

-

S tenograp h ers, sen ior ____________________
M anufacturing __________________________

66
58

40 . 0
40 . 0

9 1 .5 0
93. 00

_

_

_

_

4
4

6
4

3
1

17
17

8
6

10
10

7
7

3
3

_

_

.

_

_

-

6
5

-

-

1
1

1

-

-

-

Sw itchboard o p e r a to r -r e c e p tio n ists

___

16

4 0 .0

61. 00

2

2

6

_

1

2

3

_

_

_

-

_

-

_

-

-

_

-

_

_

T r a n scr ib in g -m a c h in e o p e r a to r s,
general _____________________________________

25

40. 0

63. 00

-

4

1

13

3

1

2

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

T y p ists, c la s s A
M anufacturing

__________________________
__________________________

38
35

40. 0
40. 0

82. 00
84. 00

1

2
2

2
2

3
1

7
7

1
1

2
2

2
2

12
12

5
5

1
1

_

.

-

-

-

-

-

T y p ists, c la s s B
Ma nufa c tu r i ng

__________________________

54
42

40. 0
40. 0

66. 50
68. 50

8
7

6
4

9

5
5

3
2

10
10

5

4
4

_

_

_

.

_

_

_

_

_

_

C le r k s , accounting, c la s s A ____________
M anufacturing _______________________ __

_

W om en

-

-

4
1

5

10 !
10

4

"

_

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
2 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.




-

"

-

-

-

-

6
Table A-2.

Professional and Technical Occupations—Men

(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Waterloo, Iowa, November 1962)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

A verage

Number

$

of

Occupation and industry division

Weekly^

workers

Weekly
earnings1
(Standard)

(Standard)

Draftsmen, junior _ ___________ ________ ____

40.0

41

65.00
and
under
70.00

$

$

75.00

r$

$
80.00

85.00

$

90.00

$
95.00
and

75.00

80.00

85.00

90.00

95.00

over

7

4

$ 80.50

70.00

7

9

8

5

1

1
Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries and the earnings correspond to these
weekly hours.

Table A-3. Office, Professional, and Technical Occupations—Men and Women Combined
(Average straight-time weekly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Waterloo, Iowa, November 1962)

Occupation and industry division

Number
of

Number
of

Occupation and industry division

earnings*
(Standard)

earnings*
(Standard)

Number
of

weekly j
earnings
(Standard)

Office occupations— Continued

Office occupations— Continued

Office occupations

Occupation and industry division

Stenographers, senior _______________________________
Manufacturing ___ ____ .___________________________

21
18

$ 8 2 .0 0
83.50

Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B _________
Nonmanufacturing _______________________________

30
21

56.00
52.50

Clerks, accounting, class A
Manufacturing __________

54
42

106.50
114.50

Clerks, payroll _____ ___ ______
I

M a n n f a rtn r in g

64
24
40
31

77.00
75.50
78.00
83.50

_

____

________

Keypunch operators, class A ______________________
Keypunch operators, class B ------------------------------------Manufacturing ___ __ _________________ __________ _

$ 9 3 .0 0
95.50

27

19

68.00

__ _ ___ ___ ____ ______ _____ ____________

N n n m a m ifa r h ir in o

61 .00

63
49

75.00
77.50

99 .00

Transcribing-machine operators, general -----------------

25

6 3 .00

_ ..

__

69
52
17

97.50
102.00 |Typists, class B __________________________________________
Manufacturing
_____ _____________-_______________
83.50

Nonmanufacturing _________________________________
Stenographers, g e n e ra l______ __ __ —------ ------------------£6
Manufacturing
— _____ _______ _______________ _
21
Nonmanufacturing __ .___ ________ ________ ____

1 Earnings relate tq regular straight-time weekly salaries that are paid for standard workweeks.
2 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.




16
30

85.00

87

Clerks, file, class B

$ 9 1 .5 0
93.00

Tabulating-machine operators, class B ______________

41
35

38
Typists, class A __________________________________________
Manufacturing -------------------------------------------------------------- ----- 35------

Secretaries
Clerks, accounting, class B _______________________
Manufacturing ___________________________________
Nonmanufacturing _______________________________
Public utilities2 _____________________________

_

______ _— ---------------- ---

67
59

Switchboard operator-receptionists _________________

Bookkeeping-machine operators, class A ____ ____
Manufacturing ___________________________________

77.00
81.50
63.50

82.00
84.00

58
43
15

68 .50

41

80.50

69.00
67 .00

Professional and technical occupations
Draftsmen, junior -------------------------------------------------------------

7
Table A-4.

Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations

(Average straight-time hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Waterloo, Iowa, November 1962)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF-

Occupation and industry division

Carpenters, maintenance

-------------- --------------------

of
workers

29

hourly ,
earnings

Under
$

$
$
2. 00 2. 10
and
under
2. 10 2. 20

$
2. 20
2. 30

$
2. 30
2. 40

$
$
$
2. 40 2. 50 2. 60
2. 50 _2. 60 . 2^70

3

$ 2 . 96

1

1

$
2. 70
2. 80 .

1

$
2. 80

$
2. 90

-

3. 00

2.

90.

1

5

$
3. 00

$
3. 10

3. 10... 3. 20.

1

$
3. 20

$
$
$
$
:$
3. 30 3. 40
3. 50 3. 60 3. 70
3. 30 _ 3. 40 . 3. 50 _ 3. 60_ _3. 70_ _3, 80

16

1
Electricians, maintenance —------------------------------Manufacturing ________________________________

82
78

3. 22
3. 22

-

-

"

Engineers, stationary ------------------------------------------

35

3. 01

3

.

Firem en, stationary boiler --------------------------------

26

?. 79

1

Helpers, maintenance trades

----------------------------

19

2. 39

1

44
29
15

2. 89
3. 00
2. 68

_
”

_
"

4

M echanics, maintenance -----------------------------------Manufacturing --------------------------------------------------

126
124

3. 05
3. 04

.

.

Pipefitters, maintenance ------------------------------------

49

Tool and die m akers -------------------------------------------Manufacturing --------------------------------------------------

112
112

2
2

"

"

"

4
4

18
18

7
5

14
14

1

11

_

15

.

~

"

9
9

2

_

_

_

_

_

4

10

2

4
4

6
6

7
7

4
~

"

2
2

_

20

.

.

1
1

12
12

-

-

'

'

"

34
34

.

.

_

"

•

_

.

6

5

6

1
1
“

1
1

3
2
1

-

'

"

'

'

2
2

4
4

12
12

9
9

10
10

_

_

'

“

12
12

3. 06

2

1

1

1

8

9

3. 34
3. 34

1
1

8
8

2
2

6

16
16

10
10

1 Excludes premium pay for overtim e and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.




2
2

8
8

1

"

4

6
6

3

4
-

2
2

3
“ 1
3

4

4

Mechanics, automotive
(maintenance) -----------------------------------------------------Manufacturing -------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------------------

8
8

2
2
1

1

-

38
38

-

.

.

-

-

-

-

_
~

2

1
1

6

3
3

3
3

4

4

1
1

5
5

53
53

8
Table A-5.

Custodial and Material Movement Occupations

(Average straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Waterloo, Iowa, November 1962)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Occupation 1 and industry d ivision
3
2

Number
of
workers

$
1. 30

$
1 .4 0

$
1. 50

$
1 .6 0

$
1 .7 0

$
1. 80

%
1 .9 0

$
i$
2. 00 1 2. 10

$
2. 20

$
2. 30

$
2 .4 0

$
2. 50

$
2. 60

$
2. 70

1 .4 0

1. 50

1 .6 0

1. 70

__1.8 0

1 ,9 0

2. 00

| 2. 10 1 2 .2 0

2. 30

2 .4 0

2. 50

2. 60

2. 70

2. 80

“

-

'

4
4

“

~

3
3

12
12

1
1

*

~

"

_

3
2
1
1

2
2
2

10
7
3
1

2
1
1

4
1
3

7
3
4
4

2
2
-

9
2
7
7

2
1
1
1

_

1
1

6
6

_

_

_

_

_

"

~

-

~

2
2

4
3
1

10
9
1

3
3

9
8
1

$
Average
hourly 2 Under i . 2 0
earnings
and
$
1. 20

under
1. 30

Guards and w atchm en _____________________________
Manufacturing ___________________________________

117
115

$ 2 .4 2
2 .4 3

1
1

J a n ito rs, p o r te r s , and clea n ers (men) _________
M anufacturing
_________________________________
Nonm anufacturing ______________________________
Public u t ilit ie s 4 __________________________ _

110
81
29
16

2. 12
2. 28
1 .6 7
1 .9 7

6
36

-

1
1

"

“

"

J a n ito r s, p o r te r s , and clea n ers (women) _____
M anufacturing __________ _________ ___________

27
26

2. 04
2. 07

1
"

1
1

1
1

2
2

1
1

_

L a b o r e r s , m a te r ia l handling _____________________
M anufacturing ___________________________________
Nonm anufacturing ______ ______________________

557
532
25

2 .4 7
2 .4 8
2. 19

2
2

2
2

_

4
2
2

1
1

9
9

_

6

-

6

'

'

2. 61
2751

.

2.
2.
2.
2.

1
1
-

Shipping c le r k s _________________ __________________
Manufacturing ___________________________________

27
------ 25-----

T r u ck d r iv e r s 5 ______________________________________
Manufacturing ___________________________________
Nonm anufacturing ______________________________
Public u tilit ie s 4 _________ __________________

83
54
29
24

T r u c k d r iv e r s , m edium ( I V 2 to and
including 4 tons) ______________________________

30

2. 80

T r u c k e r s , pow er (fork lift) ________________________
Manufacturing _______ _________________________

112
111

2. 54
2. 55

1
2
3
4
5

62
65
56
82

_

-

_

_

.
-

3
3

-

1
1

"

"

-

_
-

-

_

_

~

-

_

1
1
-

-

"

'

1

-

'

-

_
■

_

"

“

-

-

1
1

Data limited to men workers except where otherwise indicated.
Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Workers were distributed as follows: 2 at $ 0. 60 to $ 0. 70; 2 at $ 0. 70 to $ 0. 80; and 2 at $ 1 to $ 1. 10.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes all drivers regardless of size and type of truck operated.




_

2. 90_

$
2. 90

$
3. 00
and

3. 00

over

-

7
7

85
85

2
2

2

62
62
-

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

“

14
14

_

_

_

_

_

_

"

“

-

279
279

145
145

66
66

_

10
10

_

’

"

-

'

"

$
2. 80

"

'

"

1
1

4
4

1
1

_

14
13

_

“

~

~

-

-

"

5
5

2
1

_

2
----- 2 ~ ~

2
2

_

■

1
1
-

1
1
-

2
2
-

3
3
-

2
1
1
1

2
2
-

2
2
-

11
11
-

22
17

5
5

18
18
18

13
13
-

“

5

8

13

-

"

1
1

_

'

-

-

1

-

-

1

1

-

3
3

7
7

9
9

3
3

8
7

6
6

75
75

B: Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions

9

Table B-l. Minimum Entrance Salaries for Women Office Workers
(Distribution of establishments studied in all industries and in industry divisions by minimum entrance salary for selected categories
of inexperienced women office workers, Waterloo, Iowa, November 1962)
Other inexperienced clerical workers

Inexperienced typists
Nonmanufacturing

Manufacturing
Minimum weekly straight-tim e s a la ry 1

All
schedules

40

All
schedules

Nonmanufacturing

Manufacturing
All
industries

Based on standard weekly hours 3 of—

All
industries

40

Based on standard weekly hours3 of--All
schedules

40

All
schedules

40

Establishments studied -------------------------- ----------------------------

46

24

XXX

22

XXX

46

24

XXX

22

XXX

Establishments having a specified minimum ______

_____

12

9

9

3

3

26

\7

17

9

8

_____________________________
________________________________

_

-

-

-

-

_
-

_

_____

_
-

_

_________________ _________

_
-

-

-

_______________ _______________
________ ___________ ________
____________ __________________

4

3

5
1
7
1
1
1
1

5
1
7
1
1
1
1

1
2
2

2
2

-

-

2
1
1
_
-

2
1
1
-

-

-

-

-

6

XXX

6

XXX

1

1

-

-

-

-

-

3
1
1
1
1

3
1
1
1

3
1
1
1

1
1
-

1
1
-

-

-

1
2
7
1
9
2
2
1
1

------------

7

4

XXX

3

XXX

12

Establishments which did not employ workers
in this category ____________________________________________

27

11

XXX

16

XXX

8

$ 3 7 .5 0
$ 4 0 .0 0
$ 4 2 .5 0
$ 4 5 .0 0
$ 4 7 .5 0
$ 5 0 .0 0
$ 5 2 .5 0
$ 5 5 .0 0
$ 5 7 .5 0
$ 6 0 .0 0
$ 6 2 .5 0
$ 6 5 .0 0
$ 6 7 .5 0
$ 7 0 .0 0

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$ 4 0 .0 0
$ 4 2 .5 0
$ 4 5 .0 0
$ 4 7 .5 0
$ 5 0 .0 0
$ 5 2 .5 0
$ 5 5 .0 0
$ 5 7 .5 0
$ 6 0 .0 0
$ 6 2 .5 0
$ 6 5 .0 0
$ 6 7 .5 0
$ 7 0 .0 0
$ 7 2 .5 0

_______________________________ „
_____________ ________________ __
____________________________ _____
___________________________________
___________________________________
_________________ ________________
___________________________________
________________ _________ _____

Establishments having no specified minimum —

-

1

3

-

-

These salaries relate to form ally established minimum starting (hiring) regular straight-tim e salaries that are paid for standard workweeks.
Excludes workers in subclerical jobs such as m essenger or office girl.
Data are presented for all standard workweeks combined, and for the most common standard workweek reported.




XXX

.

XXX

10
Table B-2.

Shift Differentials

(Shift differentials of manufacturing plant workers by type and amount of differential,
Waterloo, Iowa, November 1962)
Percent of manufacturing plant workers—
In establishments having form al
provisions 1 for—

Shift differential

Second shift
work

Actually working on—

Third or other
shift work

Second shift

Third or other
shift

Total _____________________________________________

97.3

91.7

20.6

4.4

With shift pay differential ______________________

97.3

91.7

20.6

4.4

Uniform cents (per hour) ------- ---------------------5 c e n ts ________________________________________
7 cents _____________________________________
10 cents ___________________________________
12 cents ___________________________________
13 cents ___________________________________
13 9/ io cents _______________________________
15 cents ___________________________________
16 cents ___ _______________________________
19 cents ______ ____________________________
19 4/ s cents ________________________________

96.4
4.9
5.0
12.1
30.5
.6
42.4

90.8

20.6
.7
.9
2.3
7.8
_
8.8
_
.1
-

4.4
_

Uniform percentage _______ _______ __________
5 percent __________________________________
10 percent ________________________________

.9
.9
-

.9
.9

-

-

-

-

-

6.6
35.0
_
6.3
.6
42.4

-

1.0
-

With no shift pay differential __________________

-

_
2.9
_
1.5

-

_

-

-

1
Includes establishments currently operating late shifts, and establishments with form al provisions covering late shifts
even though they were not currently operating late shifts.

Table B-3. Scheduled Weekly Hours
(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by scheduled weekly hours
of first-sh ift workers, W aterloo, Iowa, November 1962)
P LA N T W O RK ERS

OFFICE WORKERS

W e ek ly h ours
All industries1

A ll w o r k e r s
3 7 V h ours
2
3 8 V2 h ours

.............. —

..............................................................

___________________________________________
....................... ............................... — ................. ........

383 j h ours
/.
. . ....
40 hours
.. .
_
...
..
Over 40 and under 44 h ours ___________________________
44 hours _________________________________________________________
O ver 44 and under 48 hours
48 hours _________________________________________________________

1
2
3
4

100

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

100

100
_

(4 )
95

All industries 2

_

99

2

(4 )
_

1

-

(4 )
_

100

100

1

1

.

30
-

_

67

66

93

(4 )
2

j

3

2
_

Public utilities2

25
.

_

96

100

j

Manufacturing

2
4

j

3

(4 )
(4 )
2

1
|
1

2

-

Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Less than 0.5 percent.




-

11
Table B-4.

Paid Holidays

(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by number of paid holidays
provided annually, Waterloo, Iowa, November 1962)
PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS

Item
All industries1

All workers

----------------------------------------------------------

Workers in establishments providing
paid holidays -----------------------------------------------------Workers in establishments providing
no paid holidays ________________________________

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

99

100

96

1

4

N um ber of d a y s

6
6
7
8
9

holidays
holidays
holidays
holidays
holidays

----- -----------------------------------------------------plus 1 half day — ------------------ ------------------------------------ — ------------------------------------------ —----- — ------------------ _
------- ---------- — — ------- -----------------

11
1
46
41
1

3
2
51
42
1

13
-

87
-

11
2
56
28
2

3
2
59
34
2

2
30
86
87
99

2
36
95
97
100

‘

9
-

86
-

~

Total h o lid a y time4

9 days --------------------------------------------------------------------8 or m ore days ---------------------------------------------------7 or m ore days ---------------------- --------------------------6 l /z or m ore days ----------------------------------------------6 or m ore days ---------------------- ----------------------- _

1
42
88
89
100

1
44
95
97
100

87
87
100

-

86
86
96

1 Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
2 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
3 Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
4 All combinations of full and half days that add to the same amount are combined; for example, the proportion of workers receiving a total of 7 days includes those with 7 full days and
no half days, 6 full days and 2 half days, 5 full days and 4 half days, and so on. Proportions were then cumulated.




12
Table B-5.

Paid Vacations

(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, Waterloo, Iowa, November 1962)
OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

Vacation policy
All industries1

All workers

_______ ____________________________ _

Manufacturing

100

100

100
98
2

100
99
(4)

All industries3

Manufacturing

100

100

100

100

100
100

100
50
49

100
42
57

100
100

Public utilities2

Public utilities2

Method of payment

Workers in establishments providing
paid vacations _________________________________
Length-of-tim e payment ___________________
Percentage payment ________________________
F lat-su m payment __________________________
Other _________________________________________
Workers in establishments providing
no paid vacations _____________________________

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1

2
36

3
44

37
4

45
4

56
44

55
45

91
9

99
1

99
1

100

9
3
89

9
91

1
27
72

86
2
12

96
4

13
29
58

7
1
92

8
1
91

_
100

11
45
44

10
50
39

_
4
96

7
1
92

8
1
91

10
45
45

9
50
41

_
4
96

(4)
98
(4)
2

_
100
(4 )

1
99
(4)

100
(4 )

Amount of vacatio n p a y 5
After 6 months of service
Under 1 week __________________________ _______
1 week ___________________________________________
After 1 year of service
1 week ___________________________________________
2 weeks
__________________________________________

-

After 2 years of service
1 week ___________________________________________
Over 1 and under 2 weeks ________________ _____
2 weeks
__________________________________________

-

After 3 years of service
1 week ___________ ___________ __________ _______
Over 1 and under 2 weeks ________________ ___ ____
2 weeks ___________________________________________________

-

After 4 years of service
1 week ___________________________________________
Over 1 and under 2 weeks __________________________
2 weeks ___________________________________________________

_

-

100

After 5 years of service
1 week _____________________________________________________
2 weeks ___________________________________________________
Over 2 and under 3 weeks __________________________
3 weeks ___________________________________________________

See footnotes at end of ta b le.




_

100
-

_

_
100
-

13
Table B-5.

Paid Vacations— Continued

(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, Waterloo, Iowa, November 1962)
PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS

Vacation policy
All industries1

Manufacturing

All industries3

Public utilities1
2

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

Amount of vacation p a y 5-----Continued

After 10 years of service
1 week ---------------------------------------------2 weeks --------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 weeks ----------------------3 weeks ------------------------------------------------------------------

_

(4)
28
5
66

13
7
80

(4)
22
5
73

_

_

10
7
83

67

(4)
5
3
91
(4)

_

_

2
5
93
1

13
87
-

100
-

|
!
|
:
1
1

1
27
42
30

_

.

19
48
34

100

1
15
45
38

_

_

9
52
39

69

-

-

After 12 years of service
1 week ------------------------------------------------------------------2 weeks --------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 weeks ______________________
3 weeks ---------------------------------------------

-

33

!

-

31

After 15 years of service
1 week ---------------------------------------------2 weeks --------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 weeks ----------------------3 weeks --------------------------------------------4 weeks ---------------------------------------------

1
4
3
92
-

_

_

2
3
95
-

2
4
93
-

After 20 years of service
1
2
3
4

week
weeks
weeks
weeks

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

_

_

_

_

(4)
4
57
38

1
59
40

13
55
33

1
3
68
28

1
68
30

(4)
4
30
66

_
1
24
75

_
13
36
52

1
3
29
67

-

_

1
25
74

2
35
63

2
67
31

After 25 years of service
1
2
3
4

week
weeks
weeks
weeks

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------

1 Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
2 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
3 Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
4 Less than 0. 5 percent.
5 Includes payments other than "length of time, " such as percentage of annual earnings or flat-su m payments, converted to an equivalent time basis; for example, a payment of 2 percent
of annual earnings was considered as 1 week's pay.
Periods of service were arbitrarily chosen and do not necessarily reflect the individual provisions for progressions.
For example, the
changes in proportions indicated at 10 years' service include changes in provisions occurring between 5 and 10 years.
Estim ates are cumulative.
Thus, the proportion receiving 3 weeks' pay
or m ore after 5 years includes those who receive 3 weeks' pay or more after fewer years of service.




14
Table B-6.

Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans

(Percent of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions employed in establishments providing
health, insurance, or pension benefits, 1 Waterloo, Iowa, November 1962)
OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

Type of benefit
Manufacturing

100

100

99

100

100

88

93

64

65

59

85

Sickness and accident insurance _______
Sick leave (full pay and no
waiting period) --------------------------------------Sick leave (partial pay or
waiting period) ___________________ ____

46

58

33

25

10

65

3

-

Hospitalization insurance ---------------------------Surgical insurance __________________________
Medical insurance __________________________
Catastrophe insurance --------------------------------Retirement pension _________________________
No health, insurance, or pension plan ____

89
89
83
48
83
1

99
99
99
43
91

_____________________________________

Manufacturing

100

100

All workers

100

100

!

Workers in establishments providing:
Life insurance ______________________________
Accidental death and dismemberment
insurance __________________ . ________ — —
Sickness and accident insurance or
sick leave or both 5 ------------------------------------

Public utilities3

All industries4

Public utilities3

All industries2

|

98

99

100

!

89

95

69

89

96

69

85

96

35

3

1

26

19

3

( 6)

32

72
72
34
46
51

94
94
88
7
84
1

98
98
97
2
92

68
68
37
63
63

j

'

!

1 Includes those plans for which at least a part of the cost is borne by the em ployer, excepting only legal requirements such as workm en's compensation, social security, and railroad
retirement.
2 Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
3 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
4 Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
5 Unduplicated total of workers receiving sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately below.
Sick-leave plans are lim ited to those which definitely establish at least
the minimum number of days' pay that can be expected by each employee.
Informal sick-leave allowances determined on an individual basis are excluded.
6 Less than 0. 5 percent.




Appendix: Occupational Descriptions
The primary purpose o f preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to a ssist its
field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety o f payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability o f occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field economists are in­
structed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped, part-time,
temporary, and probationary workers.

OFFICE
BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statements, b ills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electrom atic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
cla ssified by type o f machine, as follows:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record o f business transactions.
Class A —
Keeps a set o f records requiring a knowledge o f
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure o f the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution o f debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, bal­
ance sheets, and other records by hand.

Biller, machine (hilling machine)—
Uses a special billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, e tc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
v oices from custom ers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry o f necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon cop ies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.

Class B—
Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of
a set o f records usually requiring little knowledge o f basic book­
keeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type o f billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation o f trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.

Biller, machine (hookkeeping machine)— ses a bookkeeping
U
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, e tc., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types o f sales and
credit slip s.



CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A—
Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a com­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase of an establish­
ment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

15

16

C L E R K , A C C O U N T IN G -C o n tin u e d

payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper a c­
counting distribution; and requires judgment and experience in
making proper assignations and allocations. May a ssist in preparing,
adjusting and closin g journal entries; and may direct cla ss B a c­
counting clerks.
Class B—
Under supervision, performs one or more routine a c­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or a c­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; and posting subsidiary ledgers con­
trolled by general ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data.
This job does not require a knowledge o f accounting and book­
keeping principles but is found in offices in which the more routine
accounting work is subdivided on a functional basis among several
workers.

CLERK, FILE
Class A — an established filing system containing a number
In
of varied subject matter file s, cla ssifies and indexes file material
such as correspondence, reports, technical documents, etc. May
also file this material. May keep records o f various types in con­
junction with the file s. May lead a small group o f lower level file
clerks.
Class B—
Sorts, cod es, and files unclassified material by sim­
ple (subject matter) headings or partly cla ssified material by finer
subheadings. Prepares simple related index and cross-reference
aids.
As requested locates clearly identified material in files
and forwards material. May perform related clerical tasks required
to maintain and service files.

CLE RK , ORDER

Receives custom ers'orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination o f the follow ing:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities o f items on order
sheet; and distributing order sheets to respective departments to be
filled. May check with credit department to determine credit rating o f
customer, acknowledge receipt o f orders from customers, follow up orders
to see that they have been filled, keep file o f orders received, and check
shipping invoices with original orders.

CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the n e ce s­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers'
earnings based on time or production records; and posting calculated
data on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker’ s name, work­
ing days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due.
May make out paychecks and a ssist paymaster in making up and d is­
tributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that o f statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use o f a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
o f other duties.

DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Class C—
Performs routine filing of material that has already
been cla ssified or which is easily cla ssified in a simple serial
classification system (e.g ., alphabetical, chronological, or numer­
ical).
As requested, locates readily available material in files
and forwards material; and may fill out withdrawal charge. Per­
forms simple clerical and manual tasks required to maintain and
service files.




Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file o f used sten cils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

17

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Class A—
Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or combina­
tion keypunch machine to transcribe data from various source docu­
ments to keypunch tabulating cards. Performs same tasks as lower
level keypunch operator but in addition, work requires application o f
coding skills and the making of some determinations, for example,
locates on the source document the items to be punched; extracts
information from several documents; and searches for and interprets
information on the document to determine information to be punched.
May train inexperienced operators.

C lass B—Under clo s e supervision or following sp e cific proce­
dures or instructions, transcribes data from source documents to
punched cards. Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or com­
bination keypunch machine to keypunch tabulating cards. May
verify cards. Working from various standardized source documents,
follow s specified sequences which have been coded or prescribed
in detail and require little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting
data to be punched. Problems arising from erroneous items or codes,
missing information, e tc., are referred to supervisor.

OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands, opera­
ting minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and d is­
tributing mail, and other minor clerical work.

SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an
administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receiving people coming into office; answering and




SECRETARY— Continued
making phone ca lls; handling personal and important or confidential
mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative; and taking
dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand
or by Stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the
recorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare
special reports or memorandums for information of superior.

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a
normal routine vocabulary; and transcribe dictation. May also type from
written copy. May maintain file s , keep simple records, or perform other
relatively routine clerical tasks. May operate from a stenographic pool.
Does not include transcribing-machine work. (See transcribing-machine
operator.)

STENOGRAPHER,SENIOR
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a var­
ied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or
reports on scien tific research and transcribe dictation. May also type
from written copy. May also set up and maintain file s, keep records, etc.

OR

Performs stenographic duties requiring significantly greater
independence and responsibility than stenographers, general as evi­
denced by the follow ing: Work requires high degree o f stenographic
speed and accuracy; and a thorough working knowledge o f general busi­
ness and office procedures and o f the sp ecific business operations,
organization, p o licie s, procedures, files, workflow, etc.
Uses this
knowledge in performing stenographic duties and responsible clerical
tasks such as, maintaining followup file s; assembling material for
reports, memorandums, letters, e tc.; composing simple letters from general
instructions; reading and routing incoming mail; and answering routine
questions, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work.

18

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or o ffice
ca lls. May record toll ca lls and take m essages. May give information
to persons who call in, or occasion ally take telephone orders. For
workers who a lso act as receptionists see switchboard operatorreceptionist.

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR—
Continued
Class C—
Operates simple tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, e tc .,
with specific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions o f a
work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs or re­
petitive operations.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single p o si­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may a lso type
or perform routine clerica l work as part o f regular duties. This typing
or clerical work may take the major part o f this worker's time while at
switchboard.
TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Class A —
Operates a variety o f tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator, and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignments without clo se supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are o f irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating sequences o f long and com plex reports,
Does not include working supervisors performing tabulating-machine
operations and day-to-day supervision o f the work and production
of a group o f tabulating-machine operators.
Class B—
Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under
s p ecific instructions and may include the performance o f some wir­
ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but
small tabulating study, or parts o f a longer and more com plex report.
Such reports and studies are usually o f a recurring nature where
the procedures are well established. May also include the training
of new employees in the b asic operation of the machine.




TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal rou­
tine vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May a lso type from
written copy and do simple clerica l work. Workers transcribing dictation
involving a varied technical or sp ecia lized vocabulary such as legal
briefs or reports on scien tific research are not included. A worker who
takes dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is
cla ssifie d as a stenographer, general.
TYPIST
Uses a typewriter to make co p ie s o f various material or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May include typing o f sten cils, mats, or similar materials for use in
duplicating p rocesses. May do cle rica l work involving little special
training, such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or
sorting and distributing incoming mail.

Class A—
Performs one or more o f the follow ing: Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources or responsibility for correct spellin g, syllabication, punc­
tuation, etc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; and planning layout and typing o f com plicated statistical
tables to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type
routine form letters varying details to suit circum stances.

Class B—
Performs one or more o f the follow ing: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing o f forms, insurance pol­
ic ie s , etc.; and setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying
more complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

19

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR-Continued

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(A ssistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
U ses various types o f drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
o f a draftsman.

completed work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quan­
tities; writing specification s; and making adjustments or changes in
drawings or specification s. May ink in lines and letters on pencil
drawings, prepare detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings.
Work is frequently in a specialized field such as architectural, e le c­
trical, mechanical, or structural drafting.

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration o f working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Duties involve a combination o f the following: Interpreting blueprints,
sketches, and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures;
assigning duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; and per­
forming more difficult problems. May assist subordinates during emer­
gen cies or as a regular assignment, or perform related duties of a
supervisory or administrative nature.
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing
purposes. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Preparing
working plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-sections, etc., to scale by
use o f drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as
those involved in strength o f materials, beams and trusses; verifying

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises o f a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combina­
tion o f the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of em ployees’ injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants
and employees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.
TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing
tracing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. Uses
T-square, compass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

MAINTENANCE AND POWERPLANT
CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE-Continued

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Planning and laying out o f work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’ s handtools, portable

power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions o f work; and selecting materials
necessary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance car­
penter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.




20

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE

HELPER, MAINTENANCE TRADES

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, d is­
tribution, or utilization o f electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Installing or repairing any o f a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specification s; locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c ­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; and using a variety
of electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In
general, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

A ssists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties o f lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
and performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The
kind o f work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade:
In some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding
materials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts o f a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-time basis.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors,
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; and keeping a record
of operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May
also supervise these operations. Head or ch ief engineers in establish •
ments employing more than one engineer are excluded.

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation o f one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction o f machine-shop tools, gages,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most o f the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree o f accuracy; using a variety o f pre­
cision measuring instruments; selectin g feeds, speeds, tooling and
operation sequence; and making necessary adjustments during operation
to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to rec­
ognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to se le ct proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils . For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing
shops are excluded from this cla ssifica tion .

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
Fire stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; and checks water
and safety valve.
May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom
equipment.




Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs o f
metal parts o f mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Interpreting written instructions and
specifications; planning and laying out o f work; using a variety o f ma­
chinist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and
operating standard machine tools; shaping o f metal parts to clo s e toler­
ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions o f
work, tooling, feeds and speeds o f machining; knowledge o f the working

21

M ACH IN IST, M A IN T E N A N C E -C o n tin u e d

M ILLW RIG H T

properties o f the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts,
and equipment required for his work; and fitting and assembling parts
into mechanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally
requires a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout
are required. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying
out o f the work; interpreting blueprints or other specification s; using a
variety o f handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers o f gravity; alining
and balancing o f equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment and
parts to be used; and installing and maintaining in good order power
transmission equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general,
the millwright’ s work normally requires a rounded training and experi­
ence in die trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience..

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs autom obiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors o f an e s ­
tablishment. Work involves most o f the following: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gages, drills, or sp ecia lized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or d efective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assem blies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; and alining wheels, adjusting brakes
and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the wort: o f the auto­
motive mechanic requires rounded training and- experience usually a c­
quired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment o f an establishment.
Work involves most o f the follow ing: Examining machines and mechan­
ica l equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly d is­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use o f
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production o f a re­
placement part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine
shop for major repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs
or for die production o f parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling
machines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In gen­
eral, the work o f a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and
.experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience. Excluded from this cla ssifica tion are
workers whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.




OILER
Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of. mechanical equipment o f an establishment.

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge o f surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler
in nail holes and interstices; and applying paint with spray gun or brush.
May mix colors, o ils , white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain
proper color or con sisten cy. In general, the work o f the maintenance
painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types o f pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work Involves most o f the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position o f pipe from draw­
ings or other written sp ecification s; cutting various s iz e s o f pipe to
correct lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe­
cutting machine; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by
hand-driven or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings

22

PIPEFIT TER , MAINTENANCE-Continued

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE-Continued

and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relat­
ing to pressures, flow, and s iz e of pipe required; and making standard
tests to determine whether finished pipes meet specification s. In general
the work o f the maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and
repairing building sanitation or beating system s are excluded .

types o f sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety o f handtools in
cutting, bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assem bling; and installing
sheet-metal articles as required. In general, the work o f the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.
TOOL AND DIE MAKER
(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; ghge maker)

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system o f an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation o f
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; and opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake.
In general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) o f an
establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types o f sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints,
models, or other specification s; setting up and operating all available

Constructs and repairs machine-shop to o ls, ga ges, jig s , fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching, and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most o f the following: Planning and laying out o f work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written sp e cifica tio n s;
using a variety of tool and die maker’ s handtools and p recision meas­
uring instruments, understanding o f the working properties o f common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating o f machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
o f work, speeds, feeds, and tooling o f machines; heattreating o f metal
parts during fabrication as well as o f finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to c lo s e tolerances; fitting and assem bling
o f parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; and se le ctin g appro­
priate materials, tools, and p ro ce sse s. In general, the tool and die
maker’ s work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom
practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this cla ssifica tio n .

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT
ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

GUARD

Transports passengers between floors of an o ffice building
apartment house, department store, hotel, or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those o f starters and janitors are excluded.

Performs routine p olice duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where n ecessary. Includes gate men who are stationed at gate and ch eck on identity o f em ployees and
other persons entering .




23

PACKER, SHIPPING

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
(Sweeper; charwomen; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial
or other establishment.

Duties involve a combination o f the following:

Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance services; and cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Work­
ers who specia lize in window washing are excluded.

Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the sp e cific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size , and number o f units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method o f shipment. Work requires the
placing o f items in shipping containers and may involve one or more o f
the following: Knowledge o f various items o f stock in order to verify
content; selection o f appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closin g and sealing container; and applying labels
or entering identifying data on container.
Packers who also make
wooden boxes or crates are excluded.

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­

A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one 'or more o f the follow ­
ing:

Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or

from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location;
and transporting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheel­
barrow.

Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded.

sible for incoming shipments o f merchandise or other materials.
ping work involves:
routes,

Ship­

A knowledge o f shipping procedures, practices,

available means of transportation and rates; and preparing

records of the goods shipped, making up b ills of lading, posting weight
and shipping charges, and keeping a file of shipping records.
direct or a ssist in preparing the merchandise for shipment.
work involves:

May

Receiving

Verifying or directing others in verifying the correct­

ness o f shipments against bills of lading, invoices, or other records;
checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods; routing merchan­
ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)

dise or materials to proper departments; and maintaining necessary
records and files.

F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, cus­
tomers’ orders, or other instructions.

May, in addition to filling orders

and indicating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders
requisition additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and
perform Other related duties.




For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified as follow s:
R eceiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk

24

TRUCKDRIVER

TRUCKER, POWER

Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types o f estab­
lishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers* houses or places o f business. May a lso load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers
are excluded.

Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-pow ered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials o f all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.

For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are cla ssifie d by size
and type o f equipment, as follow s: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis of trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver (combination o f s iz e s listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under Vfa tons)
Truckdriver, medium (1% to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)




For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssifie d by type o f
truck, as follows:
Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)

WATCHMAN
Makes rounds o f premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.

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U. S. G O V E R N M E N T P R IN T IN G O F F I C E : 1 963 O - 6 7 2 9 9 0


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102