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Occupational Wage Survey
RICHMOND, VIRGINIA
NOVEMBER 1962

B ulletin No. 1 345-19




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




Occupational Wage Survey
RICHMOND, VIRGINIA




NOVEMBER 1962

Bulletin No. 1345-19
January 1963

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary
BUREAU O F LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.

Price 20 cents




P r efa ce

Contents
Page

The Labor Market Occupational Wage Survey Program
Eighty-two labor markets currently are included
in the Bureau of Labor Statistics program of annual occu­
pational wage surveys in major labor markets. These
studies provide data on occupational earnings and related
supplementary benefits. Information on related supple­
mentary benefits is obtained biennially in most of the labor
markets.
A preliminary report which presents earnings
trends for selected occupational groups and average earn­
ings in selected jobs is released within a month after the
completion of the study in each area. This bulletin pro­
vides additional data not included in the preliminary report.
A two-part summary bulletin is issued after the
completion of all of the area bulletins for a round of sur­
veys (for the current round of surveys, the first part of
this bulletin will be available late in 1963 and the second
part early in 1964). The first part presents individual
labor market data. The second part presents data relating
to all metropolitan areas in the United States.
This bulletin was prepared in the Bureau's r e ­
gional office in Atlanta, G a., by William L. Dansby, under
the direction of Donald M. Cruse. The study was under
the general direction of Louis B. Woytych, Assistant R e­
gional Director for Wages and Industrial Relations.




Introduction _______________________________________ _____ ___________
Wage trends for selected occupational groups _______________ _______

1
3

Tables:
1.
2.

Establishments and workers within scope of survey __________
Percents of increase in standard weekly salaries and
straight-time hourly earnings for selected
occupational groups, for selected periods ___________________

A: Occupational earnings:*
A - 1. Office occupations—
men and women _____________________
A -2. Professional and technical occupations—
men
and women _______________________________________________
A -3. Office, professional, and technical occupations—
men
and women combined ___________________________
A -4. Maintenance and powerplant occupations ________________
A -5 . Custodial and material movement occupations ___ ____9
Appendix:

Occupational descriptions ____________________

* NOTE: Similar tabulations are available for other
major areas.
(See inside back cover. )
Union scales, indicative of prevailing pay levels, are
also available for the following trades or industries: Build­
ing construction, printing, local-transit operating employ­
ees, and motortruck drivers and helpers.

2
2
4
6
7
8
11




O c c u p a t i o n a l W a g e S u r v e y —R i c h m o n d , Y a .
Introduction

This area is 1 of 82 labor markets in which the U.S. De­
partment of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics conducts surveys of
occupational earnings and related wage benefits on an areawide basis.

Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for
full-time workers, i.e ., those hired to work a regular weekly schedule
in the given occupational classification. Earnings data exclude pre­
mium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and
late shifts.
Nonproduction bonuses are excluded, but cost-ofliving bonuses and incentive earnings are included. Where weekly
hours are reported, as for office clerical occupations, reference is
to the work schedules (rounded to the nearest half hour) for which
straight-time salaries are paid; average weekly earnings for these
occupations have been rounded to the nearest half dollar.

This bulletin presents current occupational employment and
earnings information obtained largely by mail from the establishments
visited by Bureau field economists in the last previous survey for
occupations reported in that earlier study. Personal visits were made
to nonrespondents and to those respondents reporting unusual changes
since the previous survey.
In each area, data are obtained from representative estab­
lishments within six broad industry divisions: Manufacturing; trans­
portation, communication, and other public utilities; wholesale trade;
retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. Major
industry groups excluded from these studies are government opera­
tions and the construction and extractive industries. Establishments
having fewer than a prescribed number of workers are omitted
because they tend to furnish insufficient employment in the occupa­
tions studied to warrant inclusion. Separate tabulations are provided
for each of the broad industry divisions which meet publication
criteria.

Differences in pay levels for selected occupations in which
both men and women are commonly employed are largely due to
(1) differences in the distribution of the sexes among industries and
establishments; (2) differences in specific duties performed, although
the occupations are appropriately classified within the same survey
job description; and (3) differences in length of service or merit
review when individual salaries are adjusted on this basis. Longer
average service of men would result in higher average pay when
both sexes are employed within the same rate range. Job descrip­
tions used in classifying employees in these surveys are usually
more generalized than those used in individual establishments to
allow for minor differences among establishments in specific duties
performed.

These surveys are conducted on a sample basis because of
the unnecessary cost involved in surveying all establishments. To
obtain optimum accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of
large than of small establishments is studied. In combining the data,
however, all establishments are given their appropriate weight. Esti­
mates based on the establishments studied are presented, therefore,
as relating to all establishments in the industry grouping and area,
except for those below the minimum size studied.

Occupational employment estimates represent the total in all
establishments within the scope of the study and not the number actu­
ally surveyed. Because of differences in occupational structure among
establishments, the estimates of occupational employment obtained
from the sample of establishments studied serve only to indicate the
relative importance of the jobs studied. These differences in occu­
pational structure do not materially affect the accuracy of the earn­
ings data.

Occupations and Earnings
The occupations selected for study are common to a variety
of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries, and are of the
following types: (a) Office clerical; (b) professional and technical;
(c) maintenance and power plant; and (d) custodial and material move­
ment. Occupational classification is based on a uniform set of job
descriptions designed to take account of inter establishment variation
in duties within the same job. The occupations selected for study are
listed and described in the appendix. Earnings data for some of the
occupations listed and described are not presented in the A -se rie s
tables because either (1) employment in the occupation is too small
to provide enough data to merit presentation, or (2) there is possi­
bility of disclosure of individual establishment data.




Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Tabulations on selected establishment practices and supple­
mentary wage provisions (B -series tables) are not presented in this
bulletin. Information for these tabulations is collected biennially in
this area. These tabulations on minimum entrance salaries for in­
experienced women office workers; shift differentials; scheduled
weekly hours; paid holidays; paid vacations; and health, insurance,
and pension plans are presented (in the B -series tables) in previous
bulletins for this area.
1

2




Table 1.

Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied in Richmond, Va. ,

by major industry division, 2 November 1962

Number of establishments
Industry division

Workers in establishments
Within scope
of study4

Within scope
of study3

Studied

All divisions ---------------------- ----------------------------------------------

373

123

77,600

51,160

Manufacturing ____________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ________________________ ______________
Transportation, communication, and other
public utilities5 ___________________ ___ __________
Wholesale trade 6 _____________________________________
Retail trade 6 _ _______________________________________
Finance, insurance, and real estate 6 _______________
Services6*7 -------------------------------------------------------------------

127
246

48
75

36,700
40,900

24,660
26,500

38
52
79
45
32

18
13
19
15
10

11.600
4, 700
13, 500
7, 300
3, 800

10, 060
1,960
7, 990
4, 700
1,790

Studied

1 The Richmond Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area consists of Richmond City; and Chesterfield and Henrico Counties. The "workers
within scope of study" estimates shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate description of the size and composition of the labor force in­
cluded in the survey.
The estimates are not intended, however, to serve as a basis of comparison with other employment indexes for the area
to measure employment trends or levels since (1) planning of wage surveys requires the use of establishment data compiled considerably in advance
of the payroll period studied, and (2) small establishments are excluded from the scope of the survey.
2 The 1957 revised edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual was used in classifying establishments by industry division.
3 Includes all establishments with total employment at or above the minimum limitation (50 employees).
All outlets (within the area) of
companies in such industries as trade, finance, auto repair service, and motion-picture theaters are considered as 1 establishment.
4 Includes all workers in all establishments with total employment (within the area) at or above the minimum limitation (50 employees).
5 Taxicabs and services incidental to water transportation were excluded.
Richmond's gas utility is municipally operated and is excluded
by definition from the scope of the study.
6 This industry division is represented in estimates for "all industries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the Series A tables. Separate presentation
of data for this division is not made for one or more of the following reasons: (1) Employment in the division is too small to provide enough data
to merit separate study, (2) the sample was not designed initially to permit separate presentation, (3) response was insufficient or inadequate to
permit separate presentation, and (4) there is possibility of disclosure of individual establishment data.
7 Hotels; personal services; business services; automobile repair shops; motion pictures; nonprofit membership organizations; and engineering
and architectural services.

Table 2.

Percents of increase in standard weekly salaries and straight-time hourly earnings for
selected occupational groups in Richmond, Va. , for selected periods

Industry and occupational groups

November 1961
to
November 1962

December I960
to
November 1961

February i960
to
December I960

All industries:
Office clerical (men and women) _______________________
Industrial nurses (men and women) ______________________
Skilled maintenance (men) ________________________________
Unskilled plant (m en)_____________________________________

2.
1.
2.
3.

5
0
6
2

3 .9
1. 5
3. 5
1 8. 3

2.
3.
3.
5.

Manufacturing:
Office clerical (men and women)______________________
Industrial nurses (men and women)
____________________
Skilled maintenance (men) _________ ________________ __
Unskilled plant (men) _____________________________________

2.
1.
2.
3.

0
5
7
2

2. 8
.5
3 .2
l 8 .4

2 .9
3. 6
3. 2
2. 5

6
7
4
3

1
The amount of this increase reflects the effect of the new minimum wage and changes in employment among estab­
lishments with different pay levels in addition to general wage changes.

Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups

Presented in table 2 are percentages of change in average
salaries of office clerical workers and industrial nurses, and in av­
erage earnings of selected plant worker groups.
For office clerical workers and industrial nurses, the per­
centages of change relate to average weekly salaries for normal hours
of work, that is, the standard work schedule for which straight-time
salaries are paid. For plant worker groups, they measure changes
in average straight-time hourly earnings, excluding premium pay for
overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. The
percentages are based on data for selected key occupations and in­
clude most of the numerically important jobs within each group. The
office clerical data are based on men and women in the following 19 jobs:
Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B; clerks, accounting, class A
and B; clerks, file, class A, B, and C; clerks, order; clerks, payroll;
Comptometer operators; keypunch operators, class A and B; office
boys and girls; secretaries; stenographers, general; stenographers,
senior; switchboard operators; tabulating-machine operators, class B;
and typists, class A and B. The industrial nurse data are based on
men and women industrial nurses. Men in the following 8 skilled
maintenance jobs and 2 unskilled jobs are included in the plant
worker data: Skilled— carpenters; electricians; machinists; mechanics;
mechanics, automotive; painters; pipefitters; and tool and die makers;
unskilled— janitors, porters, and cleaners; and laborers, material
handling.
Average weekly salaries or average hourly earnings were
computed for each of the selected occupations. The average salaries
or hourly earnings were then multiplied by employment in each of




the jobs during the period surveyed in 1961. These weighted earnings
for individual occupations were then totaled to obtain an aggregate
for each occupational group. Finally, the ratio (expressed as a per­
centage) of the group aggregate for the one year to the aggregate for
the other year was computed and the difference between the result and
100 is the percentage of change from the one period to the other.
The percentages of change measure, principally, the effects
of (1) general salary and wage changes; (2) merit or other increases
in pay received by individual workers while in the same job; and
(3) changes in average wages due to changes in the labor force re­
sulting from labor turnover, force expansions, force reductions, and
changes in the proportions of workers employed by establishments
with different pay levels. Changes in the labor force can cause in­
creases or decreases in the occupational averages without actual wage
changes. For example, a force expansion might increase the pro­
portion of lower paid workers in a specific occupation and lower the
average, whereas a reduction in the proportion of lower paid workers
would have the opposite effect.
Similarly, the movement of a
high-paying establishment out of an area could cause the average
earnings to drop, even though no change in rates occurred in other
establishments in the area.
The use of constant employment weights eliminates the ef­
fect of changes in the proportion of workers represented in each
job included in the data. The percentages of change are not influenced
by changes in standard work schedules or in premium pay for over­
time, since they are based on pay for straight-time hours.

Wage indexes for selected groups of workers based on data from the
labor market surveys were computed for 20 areas between 1953 and I960. In
1961, the labor market occupational wage program was expanded to include
80 Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas which will be surveyed annually. This
expansion made data available for the computation of wage indexes for selected
job groupings in each of the 80 areas. The above text represents the method
used in computing these new wage change indexes. The new series was initiated
last year and the data are not comparable with trends published prior to that time.
The new series covers the same job groupings as the earlier series
with the following exceptions: The clerical and industrial nurse groups, formerly
restricted to women, now include both men and women. Changes were also made
in the jobs included within job groupings in order that an identical list could be
employed in all areas.

A:

Occupational Earnings

Table A-l. Office Occupations—Men and Women
(A verage stra igh t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Richmond, V a ., Novem ber 1962)

and

in d u s tr y

d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

Weekly
hours 1
(Standard)

- 'M ; KK <‘ F W O R K E R S R E C E IV IN G S T R A IG H T -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S O F

—

W eekly . U n d e r
earnings 1
(Standard) $
4 5 .0 0

$
4 5 .0 0
p nd
under
5 0 .0 0

$
5 0 .0 0
5 5 .0 0

S
5 5 .0 0
-

$
6 0 .0 0
-

6 0 .0 0

$
i$
6 5 ,0 0
7 0 .0 0

6 5 .0 0

!$
B v .O O

7 5 .0 0
|

'
7 0 .0 0

00

o c c u p a tio n ,

b
o

Average

Sex,

|
$
$
$
$
$
s
$
$
$
$
1 0 0 .0 0 1 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 1 2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 .0 0 1 4 0 .0 0 1 4 5 .0 0
j
1
and
1
!
over
1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 1 0 .0 0 11 5 .0 0 ! 1 2 0 . 0 0 1 2 5 . 0 0 1 3 0 . 0 0 1 3 5 . 0 0 1 4 0 . 0 0 1 4 5 . 0 0

$

Is
I 9 0 .0 0
1

9 5 .0 0

-

-

j
7 5 .0 0 ! 8 0 .0 0 i 8 5 .0 0 ! 9 0 .0 0 1 9 5 .0 0

M en

i
171

3 9 .0

$ 1 0 9 .5 0

_

_____________________________________

84

3 9 .0

1 1 5 .0 0

-

-

-

______________________________

87

3 9 .0

1 0 4 .0 0

-

-

36

4 0 .0

1 0 7 .5 0

107

3 9 .0

8 8 .0 0

_

1

a c c o u n tin g ,

M a n u fa c t u r in g

c la s s

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

A

_________________

.

____________ ______ __________________

56

9 3 .0 0

-

-

______________________________

51

3 9 .5

8 3 .0 0

-

1

36

M a n u fa c t u r in g

4 0 .0

9 0 .0 0

87

4 0 .5

8 7 .5 0

.

72

4 1 .0

8 2 .5 0

-

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

C le r k s ,

ord er

__________________________________________

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

______________________________

3 9 .0

_

_

2

2

2

-

-

-

-

!

-

-

2

2
_

2

j

2

1

14

3

6

S

25

1

-

-

4
4

10
!

i

9

20

11

20

16

!

4

12

6

8

2

i

12
2

1

4

5

8

5

12

14

1
j

io
8

j
1
1

2

1

6
!
I

-

4

21

\

3

2

!

4

1

2

3

1

|

4

6

8

!

6

15

4

4

6

8

!

6

13

1

1

7

4
2

i

1
!

O ffic e

_______ ________________________________

35

3 9 .5

8 8 .0 0

.

_

2

2

1

_

_______________________________________________

115

3 8 .0

5 8 .5 0

2

38

26

19

5

4

p a y r o ll

boys

P u b lic

A

98

3 8 .0

5 7 .5 0

-

38

23

15

3

2

3 9 .5

7 6 .0 0

-

-

5

3

-

-

-

o p e ra to rs,

T a b u la tin g -m a c h in e
c la s s

B

M a n u fa c t u r in g

76

3 8 .5

!

1 0 5 .5 0

-

-

1

1

-

9 4 .0 0

-

-

1

2

2

1

3

i

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1

-

1

2

2

1

2

27

3 9 .0

1 0 1 .5 0

3 8 .0

8 9 .5 0

-

4

i

1

8

1

7

|

1

1

4
3

12
6

1
1

15
1

9

i
|

6
2

1
1

5
3
_

12

3

2 12

_

2

1

2

j

”

1
1

3
3

-

_

!

5

7

7

_

_

6

1

6

1

-

_

_

-

-

_

_

_

2
3

2

1

2

2

1

1

1

1

-

1

_

1

_

1

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

1

8

"

2

7

1

-

1

6

3

1
i

3

1

2

17

i
!

17

2

8

4

8

12

18

!

!
I
j

2

i

49

1

_

-

i

6

12

-

-

-

______________________________

3
8
8

7

3

!
|

-

____________________________________

T a b u la tin g -m a c h in e
C

28

3 9 .5

o p e ra to r s ,

___________________________________________________

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

c la s s

!

-

25

___________________________________________________

2
13

2
i

1

______________________________

T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e
c la s s

1

u t i l i t i e s 3 _____________________________

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

3
4

1
.

!
C le r k s ,

1
11

6

3
2

4

4

5

i
1
:

7

13

2
2

|

1

t
C le r k s ,

!

4

-

i

9

11

!

2

1
2

1
!

2

7

3

2

_

1

_

5

4

6

3

1

2

-

2

-

[
6

15

1

7

2

I

3

I

1

2

9

|

12

j

1

i

5

2

1

3

1

2

-

2

-

1

2

5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

.

_

_

.

_

_

-

-

5

o p e ra to r s ,

________ __________________________________________

44

3 8 .0

6 8 .5 0

______________________________

30

3 7 .0

6 1 .5 0

31

4 0 .0

109
26
83

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

-

-

2

9

13

7

-

-

2

9

13

5

-

4
1

2

-

6 1 .5 0

_

3

2

16

2

6

.

_

.

3 9 .0

6 2 .5 0

-

-

47

3

12

22

5

11

1

4

3 8 .0

7 5 .5 0

-

-

1

1

3

6

3

3

1

4

3 9 .0

5 8 .5 0

-

-

46

2

9

16

2

8

-

-

7 1 .5 0

-

1

2

20

17

13

2

2
"

5

i
1

!

-

W om en
B ille r s ,

m a c h in e

(b illin g

B ille r s ,

m a c h in e

m a c h in e )

m a c h in e )

_______

_

_

_

_

-

3

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

(b o o k k e e p in g
............................. ...........

M a n u fa c t u r in g

_____________________________________

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g
B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e
c la s s

A

.

_____________________________________

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

______________________________

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e
c la s s

B

_____________________________________

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g
a c c o u n tin g ,

M a n u fa c t u r in g

______________________________
c la s s

C le r k s ,

file ,

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5

6

9

-

5

1

3

2

-

-

-

1

2

15

11

4

2

4

-

1

1

-

219

3 9 .0

6 1 .5 0

-

20

41

31

49

31

30

12

4

1

26

3 9 .0

6 7 .5 0

-

-

2

5

6

2

1

8

1

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

193

3 9 .0

6 0 .5 0

-

20

39

26

43

29

29

4

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

248

3 8 .0

8 4 .0 0

-

-

-

-

23

18

23

43

85

19

3

_

31

3 9 .5

8 3 .5 0

-

-

-

-

-

2

7

217

3 8 .0

8 4 .0 0

-

-

-

-

7

21

11

22

45

119

107

65

9

-

-

-

3

7 4 .5 0
6 9 .0 0

j
|

1

-

64

7

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

10

5

5

-

-

-

5

2

1

2

1

2

-

3
-

-

4

-

-

_

_

_

18

39

80

17

3

8

4

3

3

3

-

-

-

-

-

62

77

14

10

11

5

5

3

2

-

1

1

-

-

72

3 9 .0

8 1 .5 0

_

-

-

-

8

8

8

14

10

-

1

2

-

1

_

_

6 8 .5 0

3

22

45

64

111

99

57

48

67

8

3

21

2

-

-

-

1
_

_

3 8 .0

5
5

2

560

9
5

3

______________________________

-

_

_

u t i l i t i e s 3 _____________________________

153

3 9 .0

7 9 .5 0

-

-

2

6

14

21

17

20

42

1

2

6

2

19

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

______________________________

92

3 7 .5

7 3 .5 0

-

2

1

10

19

10

2

14

9

21

1

_

1

1

1

-

_

.

_

_

_

_

______________________________

83

3 7 .5

7 3 .0 0

-

2

1

10

18

11

7

20

1

'

1

1

1

“

-

-

-

"

a c c o u n tin g ,

M a n u fa c t u r in g

C le r k s ,

_________________

_______________I ______________
c la s s

..

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g
P u b lic

A

_____________________________________

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

-

-

4

3 9 .5
3 8 .5

73

3 9 .0

-

1

31
42

o p e ra to rs,

___________________________________________________

M a n u fa c t u r in g

C le r k s ,

o p e ra to rs,

------------------------------------------------------------

M a n u fa c t u r in g

!

c la s s

A

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

B

_________________

..............

_

See footnotes at end of table.




632

3 8 .0

7 0 .0 0

3

1
0

21

Table A-l.

Office Occupations—Men and W om en-----Continued

(A verage stra ight-tim e-w eek ly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry d ivision, Richmond, V a ., Novem ber 1962)
Average
Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

Weekly
(Standard)

Weekly
earnings1
(Standard)

NUM BER OF W O RK ERS RECEIVING ST R AIG H T-TIM E W EEKLY EARN ING S OF

$
$
$
$
Under 45.00 50.00 55.00 6 0 . 0 0
and
$
45.00 under
50J3Q. 55.00 60.00 65.00

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
S
$
$
$
$
$
70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 1 0 0 . 0 0 105.00 1 1 0 . 0 0 115.00 1 2 0 . 0 0 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00
and
70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 1 0 0 . 0 0 105.00 1 1 0 . 0 0 115.00 1 2 0 . 0 0 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00

65.00

Wom en— Continued
C le r k s, file , c la s s B ______________________
Manufacturing „__________________________
Nonmanufacturing ______________________

303
46
257

38.0
39.0
38.0

$ 6 0 .5 0
67.00
59.50

4
4

52
52

15
15

83

C le r k s, file , c la s s C ______________________
Nonmanufacturing ______________________

91
73

38.5
38.0

51.50
51.00

-

33
27

43
37

C le r k s, order

44

40.0

72.00

-

_

C le r k s, p ayroll _____________________________
Manufacturing ___________________________
Nonmanufacturing ______________________

150
51
99

39.0
39.0
38.5

78.00
84.50
74.50

_
-

C om ptom eter op erators ___________________
Manufacturing ___________________________
Nonmanufacturing ______________________

159
48

66.50
66.50

-

2

111

39.5
39.5
39.5

D u plicatin g-m achin e op erators
(M im eograph or Ditto) ___________________
Nonmanufacturing ______________________

36
30

38.5
38.5

65.50
67.00

Keypunch op era to rs, c la ss A ____________
Manufacturing ___________________________
Nonmanufacturing ______________________

106
45
61

38.5
40.0
37.5

78.50

Keypunch op era to rs, c la s s B ____________
Manufacturing ___________________________
Nonmanufacturing ______________________
Public u tilities 3 ____________ ____ ____

224
32
192
90

O ffice g ir ls __________________________________
Nonmanufacturing -------------- -------------------

62

64
15
49

38
32

28
15
13

13
7

2

-

7

1

3

_
-

3
3

17
2

3
1

23
5
18

-

2
2

70.50

-

38.0
39.5
37.5
39.0

69.50
67.50
70.00
80.50

56

37.5
37.5

S ec reta ries __________________________________
Manufacturing ___________________________
Nonmanufacturing ______________________
Public u tilities 3 _____________________

879
350
529
123

Stenographers, general ___________________
Manufacturing ___________________________
Nonmanufacturing ______________________
Public u tilities 3 _____________________

1
i

5
1
3 i...... 1
[
2
-

-

_

_
"

-

-

3

12

_

3

21

12

29

12

8

14
3

15

15

4

8
21

11
1
10

8

6

29
7

40
18

11

10
6

16

22

22

8

13
13

7
4

2
2

5

3
3

7
7

9
9

-

-

2

14
14

14

29
7

11

2

-

3
3
-

28

37
3
34
14

39
9
30
7

20

1

42
7
35
17

53.50
53.00

1
1

25
23

13

12

12

12

7
5

2
1

39.0
39.5
38.5
39.5

87.50
90.50
85.00
104.00

_
-

_
-

17
3
14
-

13
13
-

59
25
34
4

53

623
234
389
143

39.0
39.5
38.0
40.0

76.00
74.50
77.00
96.50

8

4
4

20
6

68

-

-

2

51
18
33
4

Stenographers, senior ____________________
Manufacturing ___________________________
Nonmanufacturing ______________________
Public u tilities 3 _____________________

219

82.50

-

-

3
3
-

4
4
-

24
3

151
49

38.5
39.5
38.5
39.0

Switchboard op erators ____________________
Manufacturing ___________________________
Nonmanufacturing .......................................
Public u tilities 3 _____________________

154
26
128
31

40.5
39.5
41.0
40.0

64.50
80.50
61.50
82.50

25
25
-

13
13
-

12

-

-

10
2

12

Switchboard o p er a to r -r ec ep tio n ists _____
Manufacturing ___________________________
Nonmanufacturing ______________________

127
47
80

39.5
39.5
39.5

66.50
67.50
65.50

-

-

2
2

.
_

_

_

_

_

_

_

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

6

_

2

5
_
5
_

_

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

9

______________________________

T abulating-m achine op erators,
c la ss B . . . . . .
_
............. .
Nonmanufacturing ______________________
See footnotes at end of table.




68

82
74

66.00

6

77

6

2

3

.

|
!

1
15

_

5 1
!
7

3
5

4

5
_
5

_

.

_

-

-

-

-

_
-

1
1

3
3

-

_
-

.
-

_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

_

_

i
i
!

11

5

i

2

!

3
3
-

3 !
_
3

2

3

_

3
-

-

L_
i

1

'
_

3

_
1 ___

!
j

2

2

-

1

4

|

1

11
8

3
-

_

|

_

4

1

-

_
-

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

.
-

.
-

_
-

.
-

_
-

4
4
-

8
8

-

_
_ -

_
_
-

_
-

_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

.
_
.

!

38.0
37.5

89.00

8

88.00

80.00
85.50

77.00
76. 50“

4

-

"

2

26

14

10

"
“

-

2

2
12

22

7
4

i

i
i

!

7
5

7

2

1

2
2

2

21

6

4
!

5
3

1
1

2

21

1
1

2

-

2

-

_
-

21
21

3
_
3
3

21
21

_
_
.
-

_
_
_
-

_
_
_
-

_
_
_
-

_
_
_
-

_
_
_
-

.
_
_
-

_
_
_
-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

"

-

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

75

143
87
56

78
41
37
7

31
24
7
4

33
17

14

25
5

22

13

5

4

7

4
18
16

2

2

11

4
_
4
4

3
2

2
2

6
1
1

_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_

.
_
_

5
15
4

7
3
4

2

10

51
7

65

80
19
61

1

8

114
35
79
7

81
27
54

82

2

2

2

-

5
3

14
3

21

13

8

8

2

12

6

6

13
7

11

4

53
14
39
7

25
13

21

19
4
15

26
26

17
4
13

3

2

2

28

30

29

6
22

12

18

_

1
1

13
55
10

7
7

11

16

117

33
53
9

66

50
43
7

15
13

15

54

35

10

1

2

_

2

15
14

54
54

33
33

8

15
7

4

51
3

12

!

16

5
3
2

-

3

19

8

1

2

10

1

12

5
3

1

2
-

-

7
5

10

1

i

-

9

3
3

12

7

1
1

-

2

3
3

-

4

_

8

5

-

-

-

15
7

19

8

6

15

6

10

18
18

11
11

1

3
-

20

2

8

_
_
_

2
2

9
_
_
_

8

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

6

2

_
_
_
-

_
_
_
-

.
_
_
-

_
_
-

-

_
_
.
-

_
_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_

.
_

-

-

_

4

1

8

2
2

8
8

_
-

_
_
_
-

!

i

3

1
1

_
_
-

_
_
_ !
-

1------ r ~
-

2

_

i

-

2

_
-

-

_
_

_
_

_
_

_
_

.
_

_
_

_
_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

1

-

“

.

17

1
2

-

-

5

10
2

2
1
1

3

2
12

16
12

1

2
1

10

18
18

66

86

_

|

3 !
3

1

i

"

-

_

1
_______

_
-

-

1
_
i
1
----------- r
.
!
1______
_

6
Table A-l.

Office Occupations—Men and W om en---- Continued

(A verage stra igh t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Richmond, V a ., Novem ber 1962)
Average
Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

Weekly,
hours 1
(Standard)

N UM BER OF WO RK ERS RECEIVING ST RAIGH T-TIM E WEEKLY EA RN IN G S OF -

Weekly .
earnings1
(Standard)

$
$
$
$
$
$
Under 45 .00 *50.00 55.00 *6 0 . 0 0 *65.00 *70.00 *75.00 *80.00 85.00 *9 0 . 0 0 95.00 1 0 0 . 0 0 105.00 1 1 0 . 0 0 *115.00 * 2 0 . 0 0 *125.00 ^ 3 0 .0 0 ^ 3 5 .0 0 *140.00 ^ 4 5 .0 0
1
and
$
and
45.00 under
50.00 55.00 6 0 . 0 0 65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 9 0 . 0 0 95.00 1 0 0 . 0 0 105.00 1 1 0 . 0 0 115.00 1 2 0 . 0 0 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00 over

1

Women— Continued
Tabulating-m achine op erators,
class C __________________________ __________
Nonmanufacturing ______________________

52
49

36.5
36.0

T ran scrib in g-m achin e op erators,
general ------------------------------------------------------Manufacturing ___________________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________ _

106
27
79

39.0
40 .0
39.0

Typists, c la ss A ___________ ________ ___
Manufacturing _______ _________________
Nonmanufacturing __ _____ _____ ___
Public u tilitie s 3 _________________ _

203
40
163
31

Typists, c la ss B ___________________________
Manufacturing _______ ________ _______
Nonmanufacturing __ __________________
Public u tilitie s 3 ____________________

439
71
368
43

1
2
3
4

5
5

-

8

-

-

16

66.00

8

!

17

37.0
38.5
37.0
38.5

68.50
75.50
66.50
73.00

-

-

2

!

24
7
17
3

38 .0
38.5
38.0
39.5

59.00
65.50
58.00

2

50
3
47

68.00

“

89
5
84
3

!$

62.00

62.50
66.50
67.00

2

8

"

8

8

U iz _

i

2

-

121

7
1 14
17

12

7

8
6

12

9
9

-

2

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

23

11

19

8

8

1
22

4
7

11

3
5

-

-

-

-

8

8

1

1

2

67

38
4
34
7

29
3
26

23
9
14

3
3

3

5
9

1

6

1
1

-

112

26

13

27
85

9
17

8

7
5

5

2

12

"

3
3
3

5
5 !
5

2
6

8

1

1

8

!

-

2

j
2

6

!
I

1

6

1

-

1

~

"

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

_
_
-

-

-

_
_
-

.
-

_
_
_
-

|
------- -—

2

3

-

-

1
1

2
2

2
1
1

-

_
_
-

-

_
-

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

_

-

_

_

-

-

"

“

-

-

-

1

i

3
3
3

I

_

-

_

|

.

_

_

_

Standard hours reflect the workweek for which em ployees receive their regular stra igh t-tim e sa la rie s and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
W ork ers w ere distributed as follow s:
4 at $ 1 4 5 to $ 1 5 0 ; 4 at $ 1 5 0 to $ 1 5 5 ; 4 at $ 1 5 5 and over.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
W ork ers w ere distributed as follow s;
4 at $ 2 5 to $ 3 0 ; 4 at $ 3 0 to $ 3 5 ; 4 at $ 3 5 to $ 4 0 ; 13 at $ 4 0 to $ 4 5 .

Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations—Men and Women
(A verage straight-tim e w eekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Richmond, V a., Novem ber 1962)
N U M BER OF W O RK ERS RECEIVING STR AIGH T-TIM E WEEKLY E A RN IN G S OF -

A verage

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

Weekly
hours 1
(Standard)

Weekly
earnings 1
(Standard)

Under *65.00 *70.00
and
$
65.00 under
70.00 75.00

$

75.00 *80.00 *85.00 *9 0 . 0 0
80.00

85.00

90 .00

95.00

$

$

95 .00

10 0 .0 0

105.00

100.00

105.00

110.00

$

$

110.00

115.00

115.00

120.00

$
120.00

$

S

$

S

S

$

$

125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00 150.00 155.00

125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00 150.00 1 5.5,00

1 60.00

$
160.00

*165.00
and

165.00

over

Men
_

_

.

_

_

1

3

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

2
1
1

1
1

83.00
80.50

3

16

14
13

8

29
29

7

16

15
14

10

3

6

1 01.00

1
1

2
2

3

2

7

2

1

5

7
4

Draftsm en, senior __ _____________________
Manufacturing ---------- ---------------- ---------Nonmanufacturing __ _____________
Public utilities 2 _________________

131
85
46
41

40 .0
40 .0
40 .0
40 .0

$1 29 .5 0
124.50
138.50
140.00

D raftsm en, junior ______ _____ __________
Manufacturing ___ _____________________

106
95

40 .0
40 .0

60
47

39.5
40 .0

103.00

-

7
7

18
17

7
7

-

1
1

5
5

1
1

-

-

10

4

8

3

_

10

2

5

2

"

9
8
1
1
2

-

4
3

5

17

15

18

12

7

-

10

10

5

7

8

-----5
2

1

6

5
5

10
8

4

1
1

8

8

2

-

4

_

-

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

_

3

—

r
i

i
i

1

3

-

-

1
1

3
3

Women
N u rses, industrial (registered) _________
Manufacturing ---------------- -------- ----------

1
2

_

4
4

6
6

3

_

_

_

_

_

3

~

~

■

“

*

Standard hours reflect the workweek for which em ployees receive their regular stra igh t-tim e sa la rie s and the earnings correspond to these w eekly hours.
Transportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities.




_
"

Table A-3. Office, Professional, and Technical Occupations—Men and Women Combined
(Average straight-tim e weekly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Richmond, V a ., Novem ber 1962)
1
Average 1
weekly j
earni ngs
(Standard)

Number
of

Occupation and industry d ivision

Occupation and industry division

Nonmanufacturing
B ille r s , m achine (bookkeeping m achine)

-----------------

6 2.5 0
75.5 0
58.50

109
--------25
83

t

A

rla<5<,

^
-----------------------------------------------------

73
31
42

Bookkeeping-m achine o p era to rs, c la s s B --------------Manufacturing _______________________________________
Nonm ^nnf^rtnring
.
. .. ....

228
28
200

U*Manufa^furing
Nonmanufacturing

,

cc

94.5 0
106.50
9 0.0 0
9 3.00

..

739
128
611
189

73.00
8 6.50
70.00
8 1.5 0

—— ------------------------------------------

105
96
41

80.00
80.00
9 8.50

331
46
285

63.00
67.00
62.0 0

94
76

w

°

f .lo

^

cc
...

.

131
--------35
95

82.00
90.50
7 9.00

----------------------------.

...

A
g 2

i^VlDllC Utl iltl CS

-------- —

C.le r k s , file ,

r la « s B
^/fSTnif^rtnring

. .

..

.

_

!

g

r'.]op]rB f i ] P r ] ^ c c r*.
Nonmanufactuxing

___________________________________

___________________________________________

r.lsrlcs, payroll

.

.

..____ _________________- — - ---------------- • - - —
_

_____ ____ _____

_____________

_

N n n m a ^ i f a ^t g r . n n
0 13, UT
ir\xoiic

a tilities 2 ' -------------------------------•
^
u
-------------------

53
38

185
74
1 11
26

80.00
85.00
76.50
8 4.50

earnings1
(Standard)

78.00
89.0 0
70.0 0

226
32
194
91

7 0.00
6 7.50
7 0.00
8 1.00

Public utilities 2 __________________________________

177
154
40

56.50
56.00
7 0.50

S ec reta ries ______________________________________________
M a rm farh irin g
Nonmanufacturing ___________________________________
Public utilities 2 __________________________________

912
351
561
155

8 8.5 0
9 0 .5 0
8 7 .0 0
108.00

Stenographers, general ----------------------------- „ ------------------------------Manufacturing _________________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ________________
_______________________
Public u tilit ie s 2 __________________________________

642
234
408
162

7 7.0 0
7 4.5 0
78.5 0
97.5 0

---------------------- ------------------------------------

Keypunch op erators, c la s s B
Manufacturing

-------------------------------------. ________ _ __

Public utilities 2 __________________________________

Office boys and g ir ls

Nonmanufacturing
Public utilities

127
47
80

$ 6 6 .5 0
6 7.50
6 5.50

_____________

41

9 9.0 0

Tabulating-m achine op erators, c la ss B _____________
Manufacturing ________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ___________________________________

158
35
123

85.00
98.00
8 1.50

Tabulating-m achine op erators, c la ss C -------------------Nonmanufacturing ___________________________________

96
79

65.0 0
62.0 0

T ran scrib in g-m achin e operator s , general ---------------Manufacturing _______ _________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ___________________________________

106
27
79

66.50
67.0 0
66.0 0

T yp ists, c la ss A _________________________________________
Manufacturing ________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing _________________________________
Public u tilitie s 2 ___________________________________

203
40
163
31

68.50
75.50
6 6.50
73.00

Typ ists, c la ss B
_______________________________________
Manufacturing ________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ___________________________________
Public utilities 2 ___________________________________________

443
73
370
45

59.00
6 5.50
58.00
6 9.50

D raftsm en , senior ________________________________________________
Manufacturing __________________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------------------------------------------Public u tilities 2 ___________________________________

132
85
47
42

129.50
124.50
138.00
139.00

__________________________________________________

108
95

8 3.00
8 0.5 0

N u rses, industrial (registered) -------------------------------------------Manufacturing __________________________________________________

60
47

101.00
103.00

Switchboard o p erator-recep tion ists ---------------------------Manufacturing ________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ___________________________________

66.5 0
65.5 0

108
46
62

Manufacturing

___________________________________

------------------------- ----------------------------------------2 ________________________________ __________

Switchboard operators --------------------------------------------------------------Manufacturing _________________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ________________________ ____ ______________
Public utiliH p « ^
............
............. .

E arnings relate to regular stra igh t-tim e weekly salaries that are paid for standard w orkweeks.
Tran sportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities.




$ 6 6 .5 0
6 6.00
6 6 .5 0

Tabulating-m achine op erators, c la ss A

___________________________________

Stpr ngrap l'p r s, spninr
nrHftr
X nmanuiactu ring
T
f ' g .
No

167
52
115

51.50
51.00

n

Ca
Nonmanufacturing -------------------PiiK lir
^ <e ^
=
*
r i

62.0 0
67.5 0 “
61.50

419
115
304
145

^ le r k s a-^^unting -]=><== A
Manufacturing _______________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ___________________________________
uti li ti p c ^
^

7 1.50
7 4.50
6 9.00

Number
of
workers

O ffice occupations— Continued

Duplicating-m achine operators
Nonmanufacturing

.

Occupation and industry division

D raftsm en , junior
Manufacturing

$ 6 6 .5 0
64.5 0

38
33

,,

earnings1
(Standard) 1

O ffice occupations----Continued

O ffice occupations

_

Number
of
workers

220
69151
49

155
27
128
31

8 2.5 0
88.0 0
80.0 0
8 5.5 0

6 5 .0 0
8 0.00
6 1 .5 0
8 2 .5 0

P rofession al and technical occupations

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

8
Table A -4. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(A verage stra igh t-tim e hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Richmond, V a,, Novem ber 1962)
NUM BER OF WORKERS R E CE IVIN G.STR A IGH T-TIM E HOURLY E A RN ING S OF—

Occupation and industry division

wnrta,

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
S
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Av g
era n
1.20
1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80 *1.90 * 2 . 0 0
2 .1 0
2.20
2.30 2.40 2.50 2.60 2.70 2.80 2.90 3.00 3.10 3.20 3.30 3.40 3.5 0
h
ourly , Under 1 . 1 0
earnin 1 *
gs
and
and
under
1 .1 0
3.00 3.10 3 .2 0 3.30 3.40 3.50 ove r
2 .10
2 .20
2.30 2.40 2.50 2.60 2.70 2.80 2 . 9 0
1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2 . 0 0
1.20

Ca rpe nte r s . m a int ena no e _______________
Manufacturing ___ _____ ____ _______ ..._____
Nonmanufacturing __ __________________

96
67
29

$ 2.77
2.85
2.59

E lectrician s, maintenance __ . . . _________
Manufacturing ___ _______________________

220

3.04
3.04

2

-

-

2.64
2.67

F irem en , stationary boiler ______________
Manufacturing __________ ______________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________

92

1.96

66

26

2.07
1.70

28

9
5
4

-

H elpers, maintenance trades ___________
Manufacturing __________________________

193
141

2.31
2.28

~

5
4

-

3.03
3.03

M echanics, automotive
(maintenance) ____________________________
Manufacturing ___ ____________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________
Public u tilities 3 ___________________

269
43
226
169

2.40
2.32
2.41
2.52

M echanics, maintenance _________________
Manufacturing ___ ____________________

429
405

78
77

86

67

101
10 0

3.14
3.14

!

1

-

1
1

:

1

l

8
-

-

-

“

4
4

-

.

1

1
1

h

1

.

.

13
3

~

-

4
3

-

"

13

8

12

5
3

1

“

-

3

-

M achinists, maintenance _________________
Manufacturing _______ ________ ______

16

Sheet-m etal w ork ers, maintenance
Manufacturing . .
................

____
_

6

2

3

7
5

2

8
8

11

1

1

6

-

.
-

6
6

6
6

9
9
-

-

4

1

2

3
2

82
82

-

7
7

4
3

14
14

3
3

6
6

„
-

.
-

-

-

-

-

-

3
3

2
2

19
-

_

4
4

-

-

-

6

i
i

.

14

-

2

"

59
59

53
44

10
10

2
2

1
1

6
6

6

37

5

„

7

-

-

2

_

2

-

2

1

1

11

1

6
2

-

-

-

12

-

-

-

-

~

"

2
2

26
13

16
16

30
27

4
4

2

'

8
1

33
5
28
28

16
-

-

7
7

2

-

12
-

31

-

16
16

5
5

13
13

37
34

22
22

4
4

2

2

2

2

30
30

-

6

2
1

3
"

3
3

2
1

1
1

-

-

.

.

2

4
4

4
4

4
4

6

-

3

9

1

3

1

-

5
5

5

.

_

Excludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
W ork ers w ere distributed as follow s:
3 at $ 0 .8 0 to $ 0 .9 0 ; 4 at $ 0 ,9 0 to $ 1; 1 at $ 1 to $ 1 .1 0 .
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.




6

-

21
21

1

-

-

-

1

35

.

22

"

.

1
1

14
14
-

1

2

-

-

-

-

2

"

_
“

.

.

_

_

_

•

"

“

~

■

22
22

63
63

2
2

1 01

3

„

101

-

"

7
7
7

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

63
4
59
46

“

"

-

25
25
25

20
20

"

-

137
137

14
14

"

150
134

7
7

-

"

"

"

-

7
7

5
4

1

"

42
42

5
4

-

-

9
9

12

-

2
2

5
5

_

1
1

1
1

-

“

-

14
10

.

-

-

“

-

.

-

-

1

„

5
4

.

2

-

-

"

___
1
2
3

1

43
43

7

-

3
3

49
40
9

5
4

5

8

-

10
10

4
4

15

-

2

-

-

2
2

2

6

3

5
4

-

.

-

4
4

3
3

3
3

2
2

'

'

2.86

2 .02

3
3

2
2

2
1
1

2

1

8
6
2

-

-

4
4

7
4
3

6
5

5
3

2
2

1

1
1

.

-

3
2

3.15
3.15

42
42

1

"

2.69
2.89

P ip efitters, maintenance ________ ______
Manufacturing ___ _________ _____ __

'

2 .0 2

P ainters, maintenance ____ __ ______ ____
Manufacturing _______ _____ _________

1

-

2.87

O ilers _______________________________________
Manufacturing ___ ____________________

j

2
2

74
55

220

-

.
"

Engineers, stationary ________ _________
Manufacturing __________________________

224

-

2

-

"

12

1
1

_
*

-

"

"
78
77

33
33

“

-

9
Table A-5.

Custodial and Material Movement Occupations

(A verage straight-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area b asis
by industry division, Richmond, V a ., N ovem ber 1962)
NUM BER OF W ORKERS R E CEIVING ST R AIG H T-TIM E HOURLY EARN INGS OF—

O ccup ation 1 and industry division

N ber
um
of
w
orkers

E levator op era to rs, p assen ger
(women) ____________ _____ _____ ______
Nonmanufacturing _____________________

45
43

271
167

Guards and watchmen ____________________
Manufacturing __________________________
Watchmen ____________________________
Nonmanufacturing ______ _____________

122

104

J anitors, p o r te r s, and c lean ers
(men) ___________________________________ ___
Manufacturing __________________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________
Public u tilities 3 ______________ _____

895
417
478
10 0

Janitors, p o r te r s, and clean ers
(women) ____________ ________________ __
Manufacturing _______ _______._________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________

L a b o r e rs, m aterial handling _________ __
Manufacturing _______ _________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________
Public u tilities 3 _ _____ _____ __

Order fille r s _______________________________
Manufacturing __________ _____________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________

222

60
162

1,

168
662
506
167

281
78
203

$
$
Average $
0.50 0.60 0.70
h rly
ou
earnings2 and
under
.80
.70
.60

$ 0.85
.84

1.88

2.04
1.76
1.63

1.50
1.73
1.30
1.76

1.25
1.38

.0 0

0 .9 0

1.00

1.10

1.20

$
1.30

l.no

1.10

.1 . 2 0

1.30

1.40

$

$

$

17
17

-

-

-

12

6

~

"

■

12

4

.
-

.
-

5
5

.
-

.
-

"

-

4
4

39
13
13
26

11 0
10
100

-

2
2

5

$
s
$
$
$
$
1.40 1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1 . 9 0
1.50

1.60

7
3
3
4

15

13

6

11

6

4

29
24
24
5

11
2

87
45
42
5

117
35
82
17

60
32
28

70
35
35

10

21

95
79
16
4

1
1

9

17
17

4
4

-

54
54

~

~

•

"

"

-

-

13
13

-

-

-

37
37

73
31
42

26
16

23
4
19

26
26

2
1

"

1

.
-

.
-

.
-

4
4

166
31
135
“

194
79
115

90
58
32

32
26

24
23

6

1

20

”

1

28
28

43

-

2
2

44

-

23
5
18

-

-

2.00

"

"

■

1.82
-

1.71
.

~

"

"

■

'

.

.

_

.

.

■

“

"

10

P a c k e rs, s h ip p in g __ __ __ _____________
Manufacturing _______ __ _____________

138
69

1.52
1.76

Receiving clerk s
__
Manufacturing _______________________ _
Nonmanufacturing ______ _____________

98
55
43

2.15
2.36
1.89

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

"

“

"

-

'

“

5
5

Shipping clerk s _ _
Manufacturing

83

2.11

2.18

-

-

-

-

"

"

53
30

2.16
2.13

T r u c k d r iv e r s 4 __ _________ __ __________
Manufacturinp
.. _
Nonmanufacturing
Public utilities 3 _______________ ____

1, 206

1.88

305
901
465

1.71
1.94
2.30

1

42

"

Shipping and receiving clerk s ___________
Manufacturing __________________________

2

42

_

62

....

.. _ ..

See footnotes at end of tabl e.




"

■

18

21
1

_
-

.

-

-

-

-

7
7

35
10

271
6 l

25

210

$

$
$
$
$
$
$
2.70 2.80 2.90 3.00
2.50 2 . 6 0

2 .2 0

2.30

2.10

2 .2 0

2.30

2.40

7
4
4
3

25
16

55
46
43
9

6

10

5

1

1

1

2

1

5

9

3

"

116

11
6

38
38
29

26

5
3

lb
-

-

-

~

-

-

1
1

-

47
42
5

-

-

2 .0 0

2.40
2.50

2 .60

22
2

37
27

6

-

7
7

"

18
14
4

3
3
3

9

-

7

16

2
2

2.70

2.80

2.90

3.00

3.10

9

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

"

-

_

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

-

-

-

“

-

-

9
9

8
-

~

~

14

71
59
11

37
33
4
4

159
28
131
82

30
18

-

5
5

59

-

-

-

-

'

12

~

59

2

"

.

_

„

20

8

192

1

9
7

13
10

18
3
15
7

1
1

11
11

5
5

201

"

-

"

111

87
24
23

-

14
14

8
8

-

-

1

6
2

"

14
4

4
4

7
7

1
1

9
4

113
3
2

12

"

23

-

"

_

21

-

-

2

44

-

1
1

5
3

8

20

"

1
1

25

13
13

“

11
11

33

_

3
3

1
6

3
3

5

_

3

11

7

12

27
24
3
3

8

-

1.90

$

$

2 .10

5
3

14

.

1.80

$

2 .0 0

2

28
28

12

1.70

$

2

12

1.66

2.10

$

6
6

1 .2 1

1.71
1.59

$
0.80

70
59
11
1

67
31
36
29

"
2

28
28

2
2

31
9

4

22

1

1

6
6

8
8

2
2

5
5

5
4

9
3

5
5

7
7

"

"

1

6

-

10
10

1
1

11
10

13
7

3
3

1

1

21

25

2

3
3

_

12

1

11

"

11
-

29
13
16
16

1 61

94
26

1
-

3
3

68
68

1
1

-

202

14
188
172

11

7

-

-

3
3

"

15
146
65

-

3
3

22

18
4

-

-

"

-

-

7
7

3
3

1
1

2
2

1
1

4

3

2

3
3

-

-

-

-

104
-

-

-

104
104

-

10
Table A-5.

Custodial and Material Movement Occupations— Continued

(A verage stra igh t-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Richmond, V a ., N ovem ber 1962)
NUM BER OF W ORKERS RECEIVING STR AIGH T-TIM E HOURLY EA RN IN G S OF—

O ccup ation 12 and industry division

,
Average 0.50 50 .6 0 $0.7 0 $0.8 0 $0 . 9 0
hourly
earning*c and
under
.70
.80
.90 1 . 0 0
.60

N ber
um
of
W
orker*

$

$

$

$
$
$
$
*
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
S
$
$
$ ,
1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60 1 .70v 1.80 1 . 9 0 2 . 0 0 2 . 1 0
2 .20
2.3 0 2.4 0 2.5 0 2 . 6 0
2.7 0 2 .8 0 2 . 9 0 3.0 0

1.00

1.10

1.20

1.10

1.20

1.30

1.40

1.50

1.60

9
9

9

11

7

8

7

6

45
41
4

1.70

1.90

1,60

2 .0 0

2.10

2 .20

2.30

2.4 0

2.5 0

2.60

2.7 0

2.8 0

2.9 0

-

-

3.00

3.1 P

Truckdriver s: 4> Continued
—

T ru ck d rivers, light (under
1 1 fi tons) __ ____ ____ ___ _________ ______
Nonmanufacturing ___ - __ ______ *___

196
177

T ru ck d rivers, m edium ( I V 2 to and
including 4 tons) _____- _______________
Manufacturing ___ _______ _____ ___
Nonmanufacturing
___________ __
Public u tilities 3 ________________

625
i9^
431
270

T ru ck d rivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
tra ile r type)
________——— ; ---- ^ -----Manufacturing __________ ____ ____ __
Nonmanufacturing __ ____ __ ________
‘PnVilir' iifiliti Ac ^ ........................

T ru ck ers, power (forklift) __ _________ ___
Manufacturing _______ ________________ _
Nonmanufacturing __________ ____ ______

1
2
3
4

$
:

1.90

-

-

-

-

-

6

4

“

~

"

'

■

b

14
14

14

1.93

10

1

1.78

-

-

-

-

-

1

21

8

20

7

14

"

"

"

“

~

"

_

12
11
1

34

10
11

156
33
123

15

-

-

-

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

7
7

2

1.62
1.86
2 .2 0

242
26

2.30

216

193

2.35
2.43

319
257
62

1.84
1.84
1.84

1.86

3
-

-

-

-

Data lim ited to men w orkers except where otherw ise indicated.
Excludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on w eekends, holidays,
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes all d rivers regard le ss of size and type of truck operated.




-

-

-

2
1

and late shifts.

24
24

1

2

1

-

-

-

8
8

2

2

1

-

5
5

47
32
15

42
36

28
16

6

12

21
21

9
9

-

53
23
30
29

14
13

10

103

9

12

1
1

1
1

91
91

6
6

7
7
-

6
6

-

88

5
5

2

2

88

3

81

-

1

5
3

1

3

24
24

2
2

-

72
72

2
2

15
15

■

-

39
37

2
-

2

2

-

-

82
81

6

22

43

67

1

2

-

9
13
13

2

1
66
66

-

2

41
41

1
1

-

_
-

-

~

'

"

5

26

1
1

-

_
-

-

-

-

19
19

-

-

2
2

-

13
-

13

1

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

20

_
-

20
20

84
84
84

6
6

-

-

-

Appendix: Occupational Descriptions
The primary purpose o f preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to a ssist its
field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety o f payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability o f occupational content, die
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field economists are in­
structed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices^ learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped, part-time,
temporary, and probationary workers.

OFFICE
BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statements, b ills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electrom atic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
cla ssified by type of machine, as follows:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.
Class A —
Keeps a set o f records requiring a knowledge o f
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, bal­
ance sheets, and other records by hand.

Biller, machine (hilling machine)— ses a special billing ma­
U
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, e tc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from custom ers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number o f carbon cop ies o f
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.

Class B—
Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of
a set o f records usually requiring little knowledge o f basic book­
keeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type o f billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation of trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.

Biller, machine (bookkeeping m achine)-U ses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, etc., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry o f figures on customers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge o f book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types of sales and
credit slip s.



CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A—
Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a com­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase of an establish­
ment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts
11

12

C L E R K , A C C O U N T IN G -C o n tin u e d

payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper a c­
counting distribution; and requires judgment and experience in
making proper assignations and allocations. May a ssist in preparing,
adjusting and closin g journal entries; and may direct class B a c­
counting clerks.
Class B—
Under supervision, performs one or more routine a c­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or a c­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; and posting subsidiary ledgers con­
trolled by general ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data.
This job does not require a knowledge of accounting and book­
keeping principles but is found in office s in which the more routine
accounting work is subdivided on a functional basis among several
workers.

CLERK, FILE
Class A — an established filing system containing a number
In
of varied subject matter file s, cla ssifie s and indexes file material
such as correspondence, reports, technical documents, etc. May
also file this material. May keep records of various types in con­
junction with the files. May lead a small group of lower level file
clerks.
Class B—
Sorts, cod es, and files unclassified material by sim­
ple (subject matter) headings or partly cla ssified material by finer
subheadings. Prepares simple related index and cross-reference
aids.
As requested locates clearly identified material in files
and forwards material. May perform related clerical tasks required
to maintain and service files.

C L E R K , ORDER

Receives custom ers'orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination of the following:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; and distributing order sheets to respective departments to be
filled. May check with credit department to determine credit rating of
customer, acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow uporders
to see that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check
shipping invoices with original o rd ^ s.

CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the n e ce s­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers'
earnings based on time or production records; and posting calculated
data on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker's name, work­
ing days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due.
May make out paychecks and a ssist paymaster in making up and d is­
tributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that o f statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use o f a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Class C—
Performs routine filing of material that has already
been cla ssified or which is easily classified in a simple serial
classification system (e .g ., alphabetical, chronological, or numer­
ical).
As requested, locates readily available material in files
and forwards material; and may fill out withdrawal charge. Per­
forms simple clerical and manual tasks required to maintain and
service files.




Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file of used stencils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

13

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Class /l —
Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or combina­
tion keypunch machine to transcribe data from various source docu­
ments to keypunch tabulating cards. Performs same tasks as lower
level keypunch operator but in addition, work requires application o f
coding skills and the making of some determinations, for example,
locates on the source document the items to be punched; extracts
information from several documents; and searches for and interprets
information on the document to determine information to be punched.
May train inexperienced operators.

Class B—
Under clo s e supervision or following sp e cific proce­
dures or instructions, transcribes data from source documents to
punched cards. Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or com­
bination keypunch machine to keypunch tabulating cards. May
verify cards. Working from various standardized source documents,
follow s sp ecified sequences which have been coded or prescribed
in detail and require little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting
data to be punched. Problems arising from erroneous items or codes,
missing information, etc., are referred to supervisor.

OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands, opera­
ting minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and d is­
tributing mail, and other minor clerical work.

SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an
administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receiving people coming into office; answering and



SECRETARY— Continued
making phone ca lls; handling personal and important or confidential
mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative; and taking
dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand
or by Stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the
recorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare
special reports or memorandums for information o f superior.

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a
normal routine vocabulary; and transcribe dictation. May also type from
written copy. May maintain file s, keep simple records, or perform other
relatively routine clerical tasks. May operate from a stenographic pool.
Does not include transcribing-machine work. (See transcribing-machine
operator.)

STENOGRAPHER,SENIOR
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a var­
ied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or
reports on scien tific research and transcribe dictation. May also type
from written copy. May also set up and maintain file s, keep records, etc.

OR

Performs stenographic duties requiring significantly greater
independence and responsibility than stenographers, general as evi­
denced by the following: Wofk requires high degree of stenographic
speed and accuracy; and a thorough working knowledge o f general busi­
ness and office procedures and o f the specific business operations,
organization, p o licie s, procedures, files, workflow, etc.
Uses this
knowledge in performing stenographic duties and responsible clerical
tasks such as, maintaining followup file s; assembling material for
reports, memorandums, letters, etc.; composing simple letters from general
instructions; reading and routing incoming mail; and answering routine
questions, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work.

14

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or o ffice
ca lls. May record toll ca lls and take m essages. May give information
to persons who call in, or occasion ally take telephone orders. For
workers who also act as receptionists see switchboard operatorreceptionist.

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR—
Continued
Class C—
Operates simple tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, e tc .,
with specific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions o f a
work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs or re­
petitive operations.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single p o si­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also type
or perform routine clerica l work as part of regular duties. This typing
or clerical work may take the major part of this worker’ s time while at
switchboard.
TABULA TING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Class A—
Operates a variety of tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator, and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignments without close supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating sequences o f long and com plex reports,
Does not include working supervisors performing tabulating-machine
operations and day-to-day supervision o f the work and production
of a group o f tabulating-machine operators.
Class B—
Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical ac­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under
sp ecific instructions and may include the performance of some wir­
ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but
small tabulating study, or parts o f a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are well established. May also include the training
of new employees in the basic operation of the machine.



TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal rou­
tine vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May a lso type from
written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation
involving a varied technical or sp ecia lized vocabulary such as legal
briefs or reports on scien tific research are not included. A worker who
takes dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is
cla ssifie d as a stenographer, general.

TYPIST
Uses a typewriter to make co p ie s o f various material or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May include typing of sten cils, mats, or similar materials for use in
duplicating processes. May do clerica l work involving little sp ecia l
training, such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or
sorting and distributing incoming mail.

Class A—
Performs one or more o f the follow ing: Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources or responsibility for correct spellin g, syllabication, punc­
tuation, e tc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; and planning layout and typing o f com plicated statistical
tables to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type
routine form letters varying details to suit circum stances.
Class B—
Performs one or more o f the follow ing: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing o f forms, insurance p ol­
ic ie s , etc.; and setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying
more complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

15

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR-Continued

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(A ssistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Uses various types o f drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
o f a draftsman.

completed work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quan­
tities; writing specifications; and making adjustments or changes in
drawings or specifications. May ink in lines and letters on pencil
drawings, prepare detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings.
Work is frequently in a specialized field such as architectural, e le c ­
trical, mechanical, or structural drafting.

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration o f working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Duties involve a combination o f the following: Interpreting blueprints,
sketches, and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures;
assigning duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; and per­
forming more difficult problems. May assist subordinates during emer­
gen cies or as a regular assignment, or perform related duties of a
supervisory or administrative nature.
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing
purposes. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Preparing
working plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-sections, e tc., to scale by
use o f drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as
those involved in strength o f materials, beams and trusses; verifying

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combina­
tion o f the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of em ployees’ injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants
and employees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation o f plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.
TRACER
Copies
plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing
tracing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. Uses
T-square, compass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

MAINTENANCE AND POWERPLANT
CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE—
Continued

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim
made o f wood in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Planning and laying out o f work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’ s handtools, portable

power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; and selecting materials
necessary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance car­
penter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.




16

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE

HELPER, MAINTENANCE TRADES

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, d is­
tribution, or utilization o f electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c ­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; and using a variety
of electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In
general, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

A ssists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties o f lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
and performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The
kind of work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade:
In some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding
materials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts o f a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-time basis.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors,
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; and keeping a record
of operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May
also supervise these operations. Head or ch ief engineers in establishments employing more than one engineer are excluded.

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation o f one or more types o f machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction o f machine-shop tools, gages,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most o f the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree o f accuracy; using a variety o f pre­
cision measuring instruments; selectin g feeds, speeds, tooling and
operation sequence; and making necessary adjustments during operation
to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to rec­
ognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils . For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing
shops are excluded from this cla ssifica tion .

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
Fire stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; and checks water
and safety valve.
May clean, oil, or a ssist in repairing boilerroom
equipment.




Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Interpreting written instructions and
specifications; planning and laying out o f work; using a variety o f ma­
chinist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and
operating standard machine tools; shaping o f metal parts to clo s e toler­
ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions o f
work, tooling, feeds and speeds o f machining; knowledge o f the working

17

M ACH IN IST, M A IN T E N A N C E -C o n tin u e d

M ILLW RIG H T

properties o f the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts,
and equipment required for Ms work; and fitting and assembling parts
into mechanical equipment. 1ft general, the machinist’ s work normally
requires a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout
are required. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying
out o f the work; interpreting blueprints or other specification s; using a
variety o f handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers o f gravity; alining
and balancing o f equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment and
parts to be used; and installing and maintaining in good order power
transmission equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general,
the millwright’ s work normally requires a rounded training and experi­
ence in the trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors o f an e s ­
tablishment. Work involves most o f the following: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gages, drills, or sp ecia lized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assemblies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; and alining wheels, adjusting brakes
and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the auto­
motive mechanic requires rounded training and- experience usually a c­
quired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment o f an establishment.
Work involves most o f the following: Examining machines and mechan­
ica l equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly d is­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a re­
placement part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine
shop for major repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs
or for die production o f parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling
machines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In gen­
eral, the work o f a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and
.experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience. Excluded from this cla ssifica tion are
workers whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.



OILER
Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of-mechanical equipment o f an establishment.

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an e s­
tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge o f surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler
in flftjl holes and interstices; and applying paint with spray gun or brush.
May nnx colors, o ils , white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain
proper color or consisten cy. In general, the work o f the maintenance
painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from draw­
ings or other written sp ecification s; cutting various siz e s o f pipe to
correct lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe­
cutting machine; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by
hand-driven or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings

18

P I P E F I T T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E -C o n tin u e d

S H E E T -M E T A L W O RK ER, M A IN T E N A N C E -C o n tin u e d

and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relat­
ing to pressures, flow, and siz e of pipe required; and making standard
tests to determine whether finished pipes meet specification s. In general
the work of the maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and
repairing building sanitation or heating system s are excluded.

types of sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety o f handtools in
cutting, bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assem bling; and installing
sheet-metal articles as required. In general, the work o f the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.
TOOL AND DIE MAKER
(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; g&ge maker)

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; and opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake.
In general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) o f an
establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints,
models, or other sp ecification s; setting up and operating all available

Constructs and repairs machine-shop to o ls, gages, jig s , fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching, and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most o f the following: Planning and laying out o f work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written sp ecifica tion s;
using a variety o f tool and die maker’ s handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding o f the working properties o f common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating o f machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling o f machines; heattreating o f metal
parts during fabrication as well as o f finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to clo s e tolerances; fitting and assem bling
o f parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; and se le ctin g appro­
priate materials, tools, and p rocesses. In general, the tool and die
maker’ s work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom
practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this cla ssifica tio n .

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT
ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

GUARD

Transports passengers between floors of an o ffice building
apartment house, department store, hotel, or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

Performs routine p olice duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where n ecessary. Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate and ch eck on identity o f em ployees and
other persons entering.




19

PACKER, SHIPPING

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
(Sweeper; charwomen; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial
or other establishment.

Duties involve a combination o f the following:

Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance services; and cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Work­
ers who sp ecia lize in window washing are excluded.

Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the sp e cific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size , and number o f units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing o f items in shipping containers and may involve one or more o f
the following: Knowledge o f various items o f stock in order to verify
content; selection o f appropriate type and size o f container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closin g and sealing container; and applying labels
or entering identifying data on container.
Packers who also make
wooden boxes or crates are excluded.

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­

A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one'or more o f the follow ­
ing:

Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or

from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location;
and transporting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheel­
barrow. Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded.

sible for incoming shipments o f merchandise or other materials.
ping work involves:
routes,

Ship­

A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices,

available means of transportation and rates; and preparing

records o f the goods shipped, making up b ills of lading, posting weight
and shipping charges, and keeping a file o f shipping records.
direct or a ssist in preparing the merchandise for shipment.
work involves:

May

Receiving

Verifying or directing others in verifying the correct­

ness o f shipments against bills of lading, in voices, or other records;
checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods; routing merchan­
ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)

dise or materials to proper departments; and maintaining necessary
records and files.

F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, cus­
tomers’ orders, or other instructions.

May, in addition to filling orders

and indicating items filled or omitted, keep records o f outgoing orders
requisition additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and
perform Other related duties.




For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified as follow s:
R eceiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk

20

TRUCKDRIVER

TRUCKER, POWER

Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types o f estab­
lishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers’ houses or places of business. May also load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. Driver •salesmen and over^the-road drivers
are excluded.

Operates a manually controlled ga soline- or electric-pow ered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials o f all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.

For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are cla ssified by size
and type of equipment, as follow s: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis of trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver (combination o f s iz e s listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under l 1 tons)
^
Truckdriver, medium (1% to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)




For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssifie d by type o f
truck, as follows:
Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)

WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.

☆ U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1963 O - 672578


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102