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Occupational Wage Survey

RALEIGH, NORTH CAROLINA
SEPTEMBER 1962

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. Willard W irtz, Secretary
BUREA U OF LABOR STA TISTIC S
Ewart Clague, Commissioner




Occupational Wage Survey
RALEIGH, NORTH CAROLINA
SEPTEMBER 1962




Bulletin No. 1345-1
October 1962

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. Willard W irtz, Secretary
BUREA U O F LABOR S TA TIS TIC S
Ewan Clogue, Commissioner

Fo r sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U .S . Government Printing O ffic e , W ashington 2 5 , D.C .

Price 2 0 cents




Preface

Contents
Page

The Labor Market Occupational Wage Survey Program
Wage trends for selected occupational groups -----------------------------------Tables:

A preliminary report which presents earnings
trends for selected occupational groups and average earn­
ings in selected jobs is released within a month after the
completion of the study in each area. This bulletin pro­
vides additional data not included in the preliminary report.

A.

A two-part summary bulletin is issued after the
completion of all of the area bulletins for a round of sur­
veys (for the current round of surveys, the first part of
this bulletin will be available late in 1963 and the second
part early in 1964).
The first part presents individual
labor market data. The second part presents data relating
to all metropolitan areas in the United States.

1.
2.

Occupational earnings : *
A - 1. Office occupations— men and women -----------------------------A -2 . Professional and technical occupations— m e n --------------A -3 . Office, professional, and technical occupations—
men and women combined --------------------------------------------A -4 . Maintenance and powerplant occupations ---------------------A -5 . Custodial and material movement occupations--------------

Appendix:

Occupational descriptions --------------------------------------------------

* NOTE: Similar tabulations are available for other major
areas.
(See inside back cover.)

This bulletin was prepared in the Bureau’ s re­
gional office in Atlanta, Ga. , by James D. Garland under
the direction of Donald M. Cruse. The study was under
the general direction of Louis B. Woytych, Assistant Re­
gional Director for Wages and Industrial Relations.




Establishments and workers within scope of survey --------------Percents of increase in standard weekly salaries and
straight-time hourly earnings for selected
occupational groups ------------------------------------------------------------------

Union scales, indicative of prevailing pay levels,
are also available for seven building trades in the Raleigh
area.

iii

2
2

4
5

0 -v o
0 j

Eighty-two labor markets currently are included
in the Bureau of Labor Statistics1 program of annual oc­
cupational wage surveys in major labor markets. These
studies provide data on occupational earnings and related
supplementary benefits.
Information on related supple­
mentary benefits is obtained biennially in most of the
labor markets.

3

9




Occupational Wage Survey—Raleigh, N.C.
Introduction

This area is 1 of 82 labor markets in which the U.S. De­
partment of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics conducts surveys of
occupational earnings and related wage benefits on an areawide basis.
This bulletin presents current occupational employment and
earnings information obtained largely by mail from the establishments
visited by Bureau field economists in the last previous survey for
occupations reported in that earlier study. Personal visits were made
to nonrespondents and to those respondents reporting unusual changes
since the previous survey.
In each area, data are obtained from representative estab­
lishments within six broad industry divisions: Manufacturing; trans­
portation, communication, and other public utilities; wholesale trade;
retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. Major
industry groups excluded from these studies are government opera­
tions and the construction and extractive industries. Establishments
having fewer than a prescribed number of workers are omitted
because they tend to furnish insufficient employment in the occupa­
tions studied to warrant inclusion. Separate tabulations are provided
for each of the broad industry divisions which meet publication
criteria.
These surveys are conducted on a sample basis because of
the unnecessary cost involved in surveying all establishments. To
obtain optimum accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of
large than of small establishments is studied. In combining the data,
however, all establishments are given their appropriate weight. Esti­
mates based on the establishments studied are presented, therefore,
as relating to all establishments in the industry grouping and area,
except for those below the minimum size studied.
Occupations and Earnings
The occupations selected for study are common to a variety
of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries, and are of the
following types: (a) Office clerical; (b) professional and technical;
(c) maintenance and power plant; and (d) custodial and material move­
ment. Occupational classification is based on a uniform set of job
descriptions designed to take account of interestablishment variation
in duties within the same job. The occupations selected for study are
listed and described in the appendix. Earnings data for some of the
occupations listed and described are not presented in the A -series
tables because either (1) employment in the occupation is too small
to provide enough data to merit presentation, or (2) there is possi­
bility of disclosure of individual establishment data.




Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for
full-time workers, i.e ., those hired to work a regular weekly schedule
in the given occupational classification. Earnings data exclude pre­
mium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and
late shifts.
Nonproduction bonuses are excluded, but cost-ofliving bonuses and incentive earnings are included. Where weekly
hours are reported, as for office clerical occupations, reference is
to the work schedules (rounded to the nearest half hour) for which
straight-time salaries are paid; average weekly earnings for these
occupations have been rounded to the nearest half dollar.
Differences in pay levels for selected occupations in which
both men and women are commonly employed are largely due to
(1) differences in the distribution of the sexes among industries and
establishments; (2) differences in specific duties performed, although
the occupations are appropriately classified within the same survey
job description; and (3) differences in length of service or merit
review when individual salaries are adjusted on this basis. Longer
average service of men would result in higher average pay when
both sexes are employed within the same rate range. Job descrip­
tions used in classifying employees in these surveys are usually
more generalized than those used in individual establishments to
allow for minor differences among establishments in specific duties
performed.
Occupational employment estimates represent the total in all
establishments within the scope of the study and not the number actu­
ally surveyed. Because of differences in occupational structure among
establishments, the estimates of occupational employment obtained
from the sample of establishments studied serve only to indicate the
relative importance of the jobs studied. These differences in occu­
pational structure do not materially affect the accuracy of the earn­
ings data.
Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Tabulations on selected establishment practices and supple­
mentary wage provisions (B -series tables) are not presented in this
bulletin. Information for these tabulations is collected biennially in
this area. These tabulations on minimum entrance salaries for in­
experienced women office workers; shift differentials; scheduled
weekly hours; paid holidays; paid vacations; and health, insurance,
and pension plans are presented (in the B -series tables) in previous
bulletins for this area.

2




Table 1.

Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied in Raleigh, N. C .,1 by m ajor industry division, 2 September 1962
Number of establishments
Industry division

Workers in establishm ents

Within scope
of study 3

Studied

Within scope
of study4

Studied

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

107

71

15, 600

13, 090

Manufacturing _________________________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------------------------------------------------- —
Transportation, communication, and
other public utilities 5 ------------ ------------------------------------------------------Wholesale trade 6 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------Retail trade 6 _______________________________________________________
Finance, insurance, and real e sta te6 -----------------------------------------S e rv ice s6,7 ------------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------

32
75

25
46

6, 100
9, 500

5, 380
7, 710

11
17
25
16
6

10
8
13
10
5

2,
1,
2,
1,

2, 750
670
2, 180
1, 580
530

A ll divisions

800
300
900
900
600

1 The Raleigh Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area consists of Wake County.
The "workers within scope of study" estim ates shown in this
table provide a reasonably accurate description of the size and composition of the labor force included in the survey.
The estim ates are not intended,
however, to serve as a basis of comparison with other employment indexes for the area to measure employment trends or levels since (1) planning
of wage surveys requires the use of establishment data compiled considerably in advance of the payroll period studied, and (2) sm all establishments
are excluded from the scope of the survey.
2 The 1957 revised edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual was used in classifying establishments by industry division.
3 Includes all establishments with total employment at or above the minimum limitation (50 employees). All outlets (within the area) of companies
in such industries as trade, finance, auto repair service, and m otion-picture theaters are considered as 1 establishment.
4 Includes all workers in all establishments with the total employment (within the area) at or above the minimum lim itation (50 em ployees).
5 Taxicabs and services incidental to water transportation were excluded.
6 This industry division is represented in estim ates for "a ll industries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the Series A tables.
Separate presentation
of data for this division is not made for one or m ore of the following reasons: (1) Employment in the division is too sm all to provide enough data
to m erit separate study, (2) the sample was not designed initially to permit separate presentation, (3) response was insufficient or inadequate to
perm it separate presentation, and (4) there is possibility of disclosure of individual establishment data.
7 H otels; personal service s; business serv ice s; automobile repair shops; motion pictures; nonprofit membership organizations; and engineering
and architectural services.

Table 2. Percents of increase in standard weekly salaries and straight-tim e hourly earnings for
selected occupational groups in Raleigh, N. C. , September 1961 to September 1962,
and September I960 to September 1961

Occupational group and industry

A ll industries:
Office clerical (men and women) — ------ -------------------------Industrial nurses (men and w om en)---------------------------------Skilled maintenance (men) -------------------------- --------------Unskilled plant (men) - -------------- -----------------— —
Manufacturing:
Office clerical (men and women) ------------------------------—----Industrial nurses (men and w om en)------------------- -------------Skilled maintenance (men) ------------------------------------------------Unskilled plant (men) ------------------------------------------------------—

Data do not m eet publication criteria.

September 1961
to
September 1962

4. 6

n

September I960
to
September 1961

5. 4

(l )

4. 7
2. 1

1. 4
2. 6

3. 1

4. 0

(!)
(*)

2. 3

O
(M

3.9

Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groupi

Presented in table 2 are percentages of change in average
salaries of office clerical workers and industrial nurses, and in av­
erage earnings of selected plant worker groups.
For office clerical workers and industrial nurses, the per­
centages of change relate to average weekly salaries for normal hours
of work, that is, the standard work schedule for which straight-time
salaries are paid. For plant worker groups, they measure changes
in average straight-time hourly earnings, excluding premium pay for
overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. The
percentages are based on data for selected key occupations and in­
clude most of the numerically important jobs within each group. The
office clerical data are based on men and women in the following 19 jobs:
Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B; clerks, accounting, class A
and B; clerks, file, class A, B, and C; clerks, order; clerks, payroll;
Comptometer operators; keypunch operators, class A and B; office
boys and girls; secretaries; stenographers, general; stenographers,
senior; switchboard operators; tabulating-machine operators, class B;
and typists, class A and B. The industrial nurse data are based on
men and women industrial nurses. Men in the following 8 skilled
maintenance jobs and 2 unskilled jobs are included in the plant
worker data: Skilled— carpenters; electricians; machinists; mechanics;
mechanics, automotive; painters; pipefitters; and tool and die makers;
unskilled— janitors, porters, and cleaners; and laborers, material
handling.
Average weekly salaries or average hourly earnings were
computed for each of the selected occupations. The average salaries
or hourly earnings were then multiplied by employment in each of




the jobs during the period surveyed in 1961. These weighted earnings
for individual occupations were then totaled to obtain an aggregate
for each occupational group. Finally, the ratio (expressed as a per­
centage) of the group aggregate for the one year to the aggregate for
the other year was computed and the difference between the result and
100 is the percentage of change from the one period to the other.
The percentages of change measure, principally, the effects
of (1) general salary and wage changes; (2) merit or other increases
in pay received by individual workers while in the same job; and
(3) changes in average wages due to changes in the labor force re­
sulting from labor turnover, force expansions, force reductions, and
changes in the proportions of workers employed by establishments
with different pay levels. Changes in the labor force can cause in­
creases or decreases in the occupational averages without actual wage
changes. For example, a force expansion might increase the pro­
portion of lower paid workers in a specific occupation and lower the
average, whereas a reduction in the proportion of lower paid workers
would have the opposite effect.
Similarly, the movement of a
high-paying establishment out of an area could cause the average
earnings to drop, even though no change in rates occurred in other
establishments in the area.
The use of constant employment weights eliminates the ef­
fect of changes in the proportion of workers represented in each
job included in the data. The percentages of change are not influenced
by changes in standard work schedules or in premium pay for over­
time, since they are based on pay for straight-time hours.

Wage indexes for selected groups of workers based on data from the
labor market surveys were computed for 20 areas between 1953 and I960. In
1961, the labor market occupational wage program was expanded to include
80 Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas which will be surveyed annually. This
expansion made data available for the computation of wage indexes for selected
job groupings in each of the 80 areas. The above text represents the method
used in computing these new wage change indexes. The new series was initiated
last year and the data are not comparable with trends published prior to that time.
The new series covers the same job groupings as the earlier series
with the following exceptions: The clerical and industrial nurse groups, formerly
restricted to women, now include both men and women. Changes were also made
in the jobs included within job groupings in order that an identical list could be
employed in all areas.

A:

4

Occupational Earnings

Table A-l. Office Occupations—Men and Women
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Raleigh, N .C ., September 1962)
Average
Number
of
workers

S e x , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s t r y d iv is io n

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

$
Weekly.
Weekly , 30. 00
and
hours
earnings
(Standard) (Standard) u n d er
3 5. 00

$
35. 00

$
4 0 . 00

$
4 5 . 00

50. 00

$
55. 00

$
60. 00

$
6 5 .0 0

$
7 0. 00

$
75. 00

$
8 0 . 00

4 0 . 00

4 5 . 00

50. 00

55. 00

6 0 .0 0

65. 00

7 0. 00

7 5. 00

80. 00

8 5 . 00

-

-

-

"

5
5

12
9

3
"

3
2

2
-

4
4

3
3

1
'

-

-

-

-

3
2

3
"

-

-

-

-

2
2

-

-

$
8 5. 00

$
!$
$
$
$
$
9 0. 00
9 5. 00 1 0 0 .0 0 105. 00 n o . o o 115. 00

9 0. 00 _95i _00_ 1 0 0 .0 0 105. 00 1 1 0 .0 0 115. 00 1 2 0 .0 0

M en
3
------3—

C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s A ________________ __
___
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g __ __
___ _______________________

40
30

39. 5
3 9. 5

$ 8 6 .0 0
86. 00

C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s B ____ __
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _________ _____

20
15

40. 0
40. 0

7 2. 00
7 2. 00

"

“

-

"

7
7

"

4
3

-

'

-

-

1
1

"

-

~

15

3 9. 5

8 6. 50

-

-

-

-

1

_

1

4

2

1

1

_

_

1

-

4

-

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s A ______________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _____________ ______ _____ ____

19
19

3 9 .0
39. 0

7 1 . 50
7 1. 50

-

-

-

1
1

1
1

4
4

4
4

1
1

4
4

1
1

1
1

2
2

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B ______________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _ _________ _ „ ____
__ ______

30
23

40. 0
40. 0

6 3. 00
6 l . 50

-

4
4

7
3

7
7

4
3

5
5

-

1

1
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

-

-

-

C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s A _____________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
_ _____ __ _______________________

51
46

3 8 .0
38. 0

7 5 . 00
7 4. 00

-

-

-

-

16
14

6
6

3
3

5
5

3
3

3
1

1
-

3
3

1
1

-

-

8
8

-

"

2
2

-

-

C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s R
__
------ _ _
M a n u fa ctu r in g ___ __ __ __ ___________________ _____
N on m a n u fa c tu rin g _______ __
__
_____ ________

91
23
68

38. 0
39. 0
37. 5

6 1. 00
6 1 . 50
6 1 .0 0

"

-

-

6
3
3

19
4
15

21
3
18

14
3
11

12
5
7

12
2
10

6
3
3

-

-

-

-

1
1

-

-

_
-

C l e r k s , f i l e , c l a s s B ______________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g __ ________ ________ ____________

70
69

38. 5
38. 5

51. 00
5 1 .0 0

-

2
2

1
1

25
25

24
24

15
15

2
1

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

*

-

-

-

-

C l e r k s , p a y r o l l ____ _______ ____________ _ ________ „
M a n u fa ctu r in g _________________ ________ ____________

29
15

39. 0
40. 0

7 2 . 50
6 5. 50

-

_

-

-

2

1
1

4
2

_

2

-

-

7
5

_

"

5
5

-

-

-

1
1

C o m p to m e t e r o p e r a t o r s _____ __________ _ ____________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ___________
_______________________

20
19

40. 0
4 0 .0

59. 00
59. 50

.

-

-

-

1
1

_

_

-

2
2

_

-

5
4

-

-

9
9

-

-

-

-

-

"

K ey p u n ch o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s A ____________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _____________ ________ ____________

43
39

39. 0
39. 0

7 2. 50
7 2. 00

-

-

-

-

_

"

-

2
2

9
8

7
7

K ey p u n ch o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B ___ _______________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ______ __ _____ ___________________

34
29

3 9. 0
38. 5

56. 00
55. 50

-

-

-

-

-

-

6
----- g-----

11
10

7
5

8
— s—

S e c r e t a r ie s __________________________________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g
__ __ __ __ __ __
__________ _ _
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _____ — _ _ ____ __ __ __ _
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 2 _____________________________________

177
42
135
37

3 9.
3 9.
3 8.
3 9.

0
5
5
5

8 4 . 50
8 1 .0 0
8 5. 50
9 4. 00

"

-

-

-

2
2
-

1
1
-

S t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l ___________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ________ „
_________ __ _____ P u b lic u t ilit ie s 2 _____________________________________

101
100
41

38. 0
3 8. 0
39. 0

6 4. 00
6 4 . 00
6 8. 00

-

-

1
1
-

5
5

11
11
4

S t e n o g r a p h e r s , s e n io r ____________________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g ___ ________ „ ___ ___ ___ _______
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _______ ___ __ ___ _______________
P u b lic u t i l i t i e s 2
__
__
_____ __ ________

136
32
104
18

38.
40.
38.
40.

7 3.
7 1.
7 3.
8 0.

_
-

-

-

_
-

1
1
-

_____________ __
_________________ _

T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B --------------------

-

-

-

-

— 4
3—
-

W om en

See footnotes ait end of table.




5
0
5
0

00
00
50
50

-

*
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4
1

1
-

1
-

1
-

2
2

_

.

-

-

1
1

-

-

12
12

4
3

6
4

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

"

-

-

1
1

1
1

.

-

_

_

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

'

-

-

-

-

19
7
12
-

16
4
12
1

13
2
11
3

19
1
18
3

15
5
10
2

22
13
9
3

20
2
18
8

18
7
11
"

10
10
7

12
1
11
7

6
6
3

4
4
-

20
19
9

23
23
9

15
15
4

14
14
6

7
7
4

-

1
1
1

1
1
1

3
3
3

-

_
-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

3
3

23
5
18

30
6
24

35
11
24
10

21
8
13
1

8
1
7
2

4
4

4
4
1

5
5
2

2
2
2

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

Table A-l.

Office Occupations—Men and W om en-----Continued

(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a rn in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ied on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n , R a le ig h , N .C ., S e p t e m b e r 1962)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

Average
S ex , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s t r y d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

$
Weekly
Weekly
hours 12 earnings1
(Standard) (Standard)

35.0 0

$
4 0 .0 0

$4 5 .0 0

4 0 .0 0

4 5 .0 0

50.0 0

5 5.0 0

6
6

3 0 .0 0
and
un d er
3 5 .0 0

$

1
1

2
-

2
1

5
5

8
6

4
2

3

3

9
4

$

5 0 .0 0

$

5 5 .0 0
6 0.0 0

$

6 0 .0 0

65.00

$

6 5.0 0

$

$

7 0 .0 0

7 5.0 0

$

$

8 0 .0 0

8 5 .0 0

90.00

7 0.0 0 _ 7 5 ,0 0 _8 0 .0 0 ...8 5 .0 0

$

$
1 00 .00

$
105.00

$
110.00

9 5 .0 0 100,00, 105 ,00

110.00

11 5, 0 C 1 2 0 ,0 0 .
L

9 0 .0 0

$
9 5 .0 0

$
115.00

W o m e n — C o n tin u e d
S w itc h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s _ __ ____________ _____ _____ —
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ___ _ ____ __ __ __ --------------------

24
21

4 2 .0
4 3 .0

$ 51.5 0
5 2.0 0

S w itc h b o a r d o p e r a t o r - r e c e p t i o n i s t s _______________ _______
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g __

38
27

3 9.5
3 9.0

6 1 .0 0
59.0 0

19
19

3 8.5
38.5

5 7.5 0
5 7.50

52
47

3 8.0
3 8.0

6 2 .5 0
6 0 .5 0

135
20
115

3 8.0
4 0 .0
37.5

51.5 0
6 0 .5 0
50.0 0

__ ______________
T r a n s c r ib in g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , g e n e r a l --------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _ _ „ _ _ _ ______ —
_ _ _ _
T y p is t s , c l a s s A _ __ __ _ „ ------ -----_
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ____
__ _ ________
_
T y p is t s , c l a s s B __ __ ______ —----- —
M a n u fa ctu r in g ---- _ „ -----------------_
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _ _ _ __
_
_
—--- _ —
_
1
2

3
3

-

-

6
6

2
2

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

5
5

5
5

4
4

2

3
3

_

_
-

2
2

8
8

13
13

13
13

3

-

1
1

_
-

_
-

16

41
2
39

45
1
44

15

9

6
5
1

-

16

3

----- ----12

3

2
2

-

1
1

-

-

2

----- 1
-----

~

-

-

"

_

-

_

_

-

_

-

"

-

“

"

"

-

-

-

-

"

-

-

_

_

_

_
-

.
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

-

-

2
2

6
5

4

_

_

_

-

-

3
3

3

6

1
------ 1-----

3

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_

"

-

_
-

_
-

-

S ta n d a rd h o u r s r e f l e c t the w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv e t h e ir r e g u la r s t r a ig h t - t im e s a la r i e s and the e a rn in g s c o r r e s p o n d to t h e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o t h e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .

Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations—Men
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s tr y d iv is io n , R a le ig h , N . C . , S e p te m b e r 1962)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

Average
O c c u p a t io n and in d u s t r y d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

Weekly ,
Weeklv
hours
earnings
(Standard) (Standard)

D r a ft s m e n , s e n io r __ __ __ „ ____________ _____ ______
M a n u fa ctu r in g _______ __ _____ __ __ _____
---------

24
24

40.0
40.0

D r a ft s m e n , j u n i o r __ ___ __________________ __ — _________
M a n u fa ctu r in g ____________________________________________

19
17

4 0.0
40.0

$ 1 2 3 .0 0
123 .00

$
$
8 0 .0 0
7 5 .0 0
and
u n d er
8 5 .0 0
8 0 .0 0

-

8 6.0 0
26
8 4 .5 0 — 5------

1 S ta n d a rd h o u r s r e f l e c t th e w o r k w e e k f o r w h ich e m p lo y e e s r e c e i v e t h e ir r e g u la r
2 In c lu d e s 1 w o r k e r at $ 6 5 t o $ 7 0 .




$
9 5 .0 0 1 00.00

$
$
105 .00 110 .00

$
$
$
$
$
1 15 .00 120 .00 1 25 .00 130 .00 135 .00

$
140.00

$
$
$
145 .00 150.00 155.00
and

100 .00 105.00

1 10.00 115 .00

1 20 .00

125 .00

130 .00

135 .00 140 .00

1 45.00

150 .00 155.00

$

$
8 5 .0 0

$
9 0 .0 0

9 0 .0 0

95.0 0

-

-

2
2

2
2

5
5

3
3

4
3

1
1

3
3

1
1

-

-

3
3

2
2

-

2
2

2
2

-

-

_

1

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

s t r a ig h t - t im e s a la r i e s and the e a r n in g s c o r r e s p o n d to t h e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .

5
5

over

1
1

_

Table A-3.

Office, Professional, and Technical Occupations—Men and Women Combined

(A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t im e w e e k ly e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ied on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n , R a le ig h , N. C . , S e p te m b e r 1962)

Number
of
worker*

O c c u p a t io n and in d u s t r y d iv is io n

Average
weekly ,
earnings
(Standard)

Number
of
workers

O c c u p a t io n and in d u s t r y d i v is i o n

earnings 1
(Standard)

Number
of

weekly ,
earnings 1
(Standard)

O ffi c e o c c u p a t io n s — C on tin u ed

O ffi c e o c c u p a t io n s — C on tin u ed

O ffic e o c c u p a t io n s

O c c u p a t io n and in d u s t r y d i v is i o n

BooW r^0ping —
m
r
a»mfa r f n r i njr

*

t r la s s

T\

.......
__ .

6 1 .0 0
59. 50

K e y p u n ch o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B ----------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g ---------- ------ --------- ----------------

O ffic e b o y s and g ir ls
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g

__________ _____________ ______
_______ ____ __________________

17
16

M a nuf a c tu r ing . —--------——
------- —------------—- —----- —- —
T -t
"Nr\r n~\ ar»nfa r'fnrinjt

111
28
83

6 3 .0 0
6 3 . 50
6 3 . 00

S e c r e t a r ie s ---------------- ----- -----------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g
__ __
___
____ _
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _ __
------------------- -----u t ilit ie s 2
... ...... _

185
43
142
40

72
71

52. 50
52. 00

40

{S te n o g ra p h e rs, g e n e ra l
______ — — _____
______
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ___ ___________ _______ _____
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 2 ________________________________

101
100
41

24

7 8. 00
6 7. 00
8 5. 50

25
24

S ten c'gc^ p b ^ r s , fipninr
M a n u fa ctu r in g
___
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g „
6 0 . 50
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 2
6 0 .5 6 “

r i e r l r c ( file j r la fic R
N on m a n u fa ctu r in g

......
——----- — —
—
-------------

r .lp r k s , p a y r o ll
_
M a n u fa ctu r in g ______________________________________
N n n m an u far tur ing
_ _
_ _ _________ _______ _

rn jn p M m D tp r npprfltnTS

......

16

......
_ __
_ -------------------- — _
________

E a rn in g s r e la t e to r e g u la r s t r a i g h t - t im e w e e k ly s a la r i e s that a r e p a id f o r s ta n d a rd w o r k w e e k s .
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o t h e r p u b lic u t il it i e s .




38
27

6 1 .0 0
59. 00

20
19

8 2. 50
8 3. 00

T r a n s c r ib in g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , g e n e r a l __________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ____________________________________

19
19

57. 50
57. 50

8 5 .0 0 1 y p i s t s , c l a s s A _________________________________________
{T
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ________ __________________________
8 1 .0 0
86. 50
96. 50 T y p is t s , c l a s s B ___________ ____________________________
M a n u fa ctu rin g ________________________ ______________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ________________
_ — _________
6 4 .0 0
64. 00
P r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a t io n s
68. 00

52
47

6 2. 50
6 0. 50

147
20
127

51. 50
6 0. 50
50. 00

D r a ft s m e n , s e n i o r _______________________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g _____________________________ _________

24
24

1 2 3 .0 0
1 2 3 .0 0

D r a ft s m e n , j u n io r -----------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu rin g
________________________________ ____

19
17

8 6. 00
8 4. 50

56. 00
55. 50

8 0. 00
8 5. 00
7 9 .0 0

____ ___ _________________

S w itc h b o a rd o p e r a t o r - r e c e p t i o n i s t s ___________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ____________________________________

34
29

91
15
76

N on m a n u fa c tu rin g

$ 5 1 .5 0
52. 00

$ 72. 50
72. 00

__________________________________

C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s A

24
21

43
39

$ 7 2. 50
7 1. 00

38
30

S w itc h b o a rd o p e r a t o r s ________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g -------------------------------------------------------

T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B _____________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ____________________________________

22
21

_ ------------ —

142
------ 32----110
21

54. 00
5 4 .0 0

73. 50
7 1 .0 0
74. 50
85. 50

7

Table A-4. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Raleigh, N. C. , September 1962)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Average $
hourly . 1. 10
earnings 1

$
1. 20

under

Occupation and industry division

Number
of
workers

~
1. 30

1. 20

$
1. 30

$
1. 40

$
1. 50

$
1 .6 0

$
1. 70

$
1. 80

$
1 .9 0

1 .4 0

"
1. 50

~
1 .6 0

■
1 .7 0

1. 80

"
1. 90

■
2 .0 0

$
2 .0 0
2. 10

6

Electricians, maintenance --------------------------------

22

$ 2 . 59

Firemen, stationary boiler -------------------------------

24
23

1. 36
1. 36

8
8

2
2

4
3

5
5

Mechanics, automotive (maintenance) -------------Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------------------Public utilities 2 ------------------------------------------

76
67
54

2. 46
2. 51
2. 59

-

-

-

-

2
2

4
-

“

"

“

“

~

“

-

Mechanics, maintenance -------------------------------------Manufacturing ----------------------------------------------------

43
32

2. 31
2. 20

_

.

.

.

5
5

$
2. 10

$
2. 20

$
2. 30

$
2. 40

$
2. 50

$ _
2. 60

$
2. 70

2. 20

~
2. 30

■
2 .4 0

■
2. 50

"
2. 60

“
2. 70

“
2. 80

2. 90

1

1

2

2

_

_

2
2
2

2
i
i

6
4
4

3
3
2

.

2
2

7
5

12
12

2
1

2

_

_

“

13
13
3

1
1
1

2
2
2

33
32
32

3
3

4
3

2

.

.

$
2. 80

$
2. 90
-

3. 00

$
3 .0 0

$
3. 10

$
3. 20

3. 10

3. 20

3. 30

2

6

_

8

1 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
2 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.




-

“

1
1
1

4
4

1
1

-

-

-

"

~
1
1

1
_

6
6
6

1

4

8

Table A-5.

Custodial and Material Movement Occupations

(Average straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Raleigh, N .C ., September 1962)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OFNumber
of
workers

O c c u p a t io n 1 and in d u s t r y d i v is i o n
2

Average $
hourly 2 0 .7 0 $0 .8 0
earnings
and
u n d er
.9 0
.80

___________________
G u a rd s and w a t c h m e n _____
M a n u fa ctu r in g ----------------------------------1----------------

30
21

$ 1.39
1.44

J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and c l e a n e r s (m e n ) ________
M a n u fa ctu r in g _______________________________ N on m a n u fa c tu rin g __________ _________ ______
P u b lic u t i l i t i e s 3 _______ ____ __ __ ---------

176
59
117
18

1.26
1.34
1.22
1.57

*0.90
1.00

$

1.00

*1 .1 0

1.10

1.20

1
—

8
r i

$

1.20

*1.30

$
1.40

$
1.50

1.30

1.40

1.50

1.60

5
2

8
8

22
12
10
1

21
13
8

1.70
1.80

$

1.80
1.90

1.90

$
2 .0 0

S'
2 .1 0

2 .0 0

2 .1 0

2 .2 0

$

3
"

-

■

“

15
3
12
7

11
2
9
5

2
1
1
1

3
3

10
9
1
1

_

_

-

-

~

.
~

.
“

19
19
"

64
19
45
1

1
1

-

-

-

13
13

36
34

3
2

2
2

-

-

-

"

"

_

-

39
34
5

19
19
~

20
16
4

.

.

.

"

-

5
5

9
9

26
26

8
8

4
1

12
9

5
5

.

1

15
7
8

“

1.70

$

1
1

-

7
7

1.60

-

-

-

$

"

$

2 .2 0

$
2 .3 0

$
2 .4 0

$
2 .5 0
and

2 .3 0

2 .4 0

2 .5 0

over

4
4

-

*

“
_
-

_

_

_

-

-

-

‘

'

'

-

-

-

-

-

2
2
2

'

J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and c l e a n e r s
___

56
52

1.13
1.12

L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l ha n dlin g ________ _____
M a n u fa ctu r in g __ .
__
____ _
---------N on m a n u fa c tu rin g ____________ __ _______ —

140
90
50

1.42
1.33
1.58

O r d e r f i l l e r s _______________________________________
N on m a n u fa c tu rin g _____ _____ _ ____ ______

123
120

1.61
1.61

P a c k e r s , sh ip p in g _________________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g ---------------------------------------------------

26
20

R e c e iv in g c l e r k s ___________________________________

23

1.87
1.34
1.97

_______

15

1.33

T r u c k d r iv e r s , m e d iu m ( 1 V2 to and
in clu d in g 4 t o n s)
__ _
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ______ ___ ____________

96
88

1.89
1.94

T r u c k e r s , p o w e r (f o r k l if t ) ________
__ ______
M a n u fa ctu r in g ______________________ ____ ___

38
18

1.70
1.55

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

1
-

-

9
8
1

9
1
8

19
19

8
8

2
1
1

15
11
4

8
6

6
6

7
6

37
37

17
17

4
4

_

.

■

■

■

1
1

1

5

3

2

3

12
1
11

9
6
3

8
2
6

5
5

4

1

-

-

-

-

" •

4

1

2

11

2

2

.

1

.

.

_

5
4

10
10

6
2

4
2

1

4
4

1

2
2

11
11

1

4
2

4
4

1
1

14

11
7

1.74

142
21
121

-

9

1.33
1.37

N on m a n u fa c tu rin g

________ ______________

T r u c k d r i v e r s 4 __________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g

__

____

_____________

_____________________________

T r u c k d r iv e r s , lig h t (u n d er IV 2 t o n s)

1
2
3
4

_

.

.
■

-

-

_

.

-

-

-

_
"

-

-

-

-

_

_

"

2
2

Data limited to men workers except where otherwise indicated.
Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes all drivers regardless of size and type of truck operated.




_

1
1

_

-

.

-

-

-

-

-

'

1

-

~

.

.

_

-

'

'

_

_

_

~

■

_

_

_

“

~

-

2

_

_

2

1

3

2

11

16
16

2
2

29
29

21
21

2
2

5
5

_

.

_

_

.

1

16
l6

2
2

29
29

1
1

2
2

2
2

“

'

_

_

_

_

~

"

“

_

-

_
"

“
_

Appendix: Occupational Descriptions
The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to assist its
field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field economists are in­
structed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped, part-time,
temporary, and probationary workers.

OFFICE
BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
classified by type of machine, as follows:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.
Class A—
Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, bal­
ance sheets, and other records by hand.

Biller, machine (billing machine)—
Uses a special billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, etc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.

Class B—
Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type of billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation of trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.

Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine)—
Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, etc., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers*
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types of sales and
credit slips.




CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A—
Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a com­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase of an establish­
ment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

9

10

C L E R K , A C C O U N T IN G -C o n tin u e d

payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper ac­
counting distribution; and requires judgment and experience in
making proper assignations and allocations. May assist in preparing,
adjusting and closing journal entries; and may direct class B ac­
counting clerks.
Class b —
Under supervision, performs one or more routine ac­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or ac­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; and posting subsidiary ledgers con­
trolled by general ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data.
This job does not require a knowledge of accounting and book­
keeping principles but is found in offices in which the more routine
accounting work is subdivided on a functional basis among several
workers.

CLERK, FILE
Class A— an established filing system containing a number
In
of varied subject matter files, classifies and indexes file material
such as correspondence, reports, technical documents, etc. May
also file this material. May keep records of various types in con­
junction with the files. May lead a small group of lower level file
clerks.
Class B—
Sorts, codes, and files unclassified material by sim­
ple (subject matter) headings or partly classified material by finer
subheadings. Prepares simple related index and cross-reference
aids.
As requested locates clearly identified material in files
and forwards material. May perform related clerical tasks required
to maintain and service files.

Class C—
Performs routine filing of material that has already
been classified or which is easily classified in a simple serial
classification system (e.g., alphabetical, chronological, or numer­
ical). As requested, locates readily available material in files
and forwards material; and may fill out withdrawal charge. Per­
forms simple clerical and manual tasks required to maintain and
service files.




C L E R K , ORDER

Receives customers'orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination of the following:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; and distributing order sheets to respective departments to be
filled. May check with credit department to determine credit rating of
customer, acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders
to see that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check
shipping invoices with original orders.

CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the neces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers'
earnings based on time or production records; and posting calculated
data on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker's name, work­
ing days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due.
May make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and dis­
tributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file of used stencils or Ditto,
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

11

KEYPUNCH O P E R A T O R

Class A-Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or combina­
tion keypunch machine to transcribe data from various source docu­
ments to keypunch tabulating cards. Performs same tasks as lower
level keypunch operator but in addition, work requires application of
coding skills and the making of some determinations, for example,
locates on the source document the items to be punched; extracts
information from several documents; and searches for and interprets
information on the document to determine information to be punched.
May train inexperienced operators.

Class B—
Under close supervision or following specific proce­
dures or instructions, transcribes data from source documents to
punched cards. Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or com­
bination keypunch machine to keypunch tabulating cards. May
verify cards. Working from various standardized source documents,
follows specified sequences which have been coded or prescribed
in detail and require little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting
data to be punched. Problems arising from erroneous items or codes,
missing information, etc., are referred to supervisor.

OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands, opera­
ting minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and dis­
tributing mail, and other minor clerical work.

SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an
administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receiving people coming into office; answering and




S E C R E T A R Y — C on tin u ed

making phone calls; handling personal and important or confidential
mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative; and taking
dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand
or by Stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the
recorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare
special reports or memorandums for information of superior.

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a
normal routine vocabulary; and transcribe dictation. May also type from
written copy. May maintain files, keep simple records, or perform other
relatively routine clerical tasks. May operate from a stenographic pool.
Does not include transcribing-machine work. (See transcribing-machine
operator.)

STENOGRAPHER,SENIOR
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a var­
ied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or
reports on scientific research and transcribe dictation. May also type
from written copy. May also set up and maintain files, keep records, etc.

OR

Performs stenographic duties requiring significantly greater
independence and responsibility than stenographers, general as evi­
denced by the following: Work requires high degree of stenographic
speed and accuracy; and a thorough working knowledge of general busi­
ness and office procedures and of the specific business operations,
organization, policies, procedures, files, workflow, etc. Uses this
knowledge in performing stenographic duties and responsible clerical
tasks such as, maintaining followup files; assembling material for
reports, memorandums, letters, etc.; composing simple letters from general
instructions; reading and routing incoming mail; and answering routine
questions, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work.

12

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office
calls. May record toll calls and take messages. May give information
to persons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders. For
workers who also act as receptionists see switchboard operatorreceptionist.

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR-Continued
Class C—
Operates simple tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with specific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs or re­
petitive operations.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single posi­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. This typing
or clerical work may take the major part of this worker’ s time while at
switchboard.
TABULA TING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Class A—
Operates a variety of tabulating or electrical ac­
counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator, and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignments without close supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating sequences of long and complex reports,
Does not include working supervisors performing tabulating-machine
operations and day-to-day supervision of the work and production
of a group of tabulating-machine operators.
Class B—
Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical ac­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under
specific instructions and may include the performance of some wir­
ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but
small tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are well established. May also include the training
of new employees in the basic operation of the machine.




TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal rou­
tine vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May also type from
written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation
involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal
briefs or reports on scientific research are not included. A worker who
takes dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is
classified as a stenographer, general.
TYPIST
Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May include typing of stencils, mats, or similar materials for use in
duplicating processes. May do clerical work involving little special
training, such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or
sorting and distributing incoming mail.

Class A—
Performs one or more o f the following: Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punc­
tuation, etc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; and planning layout and typing of complicated statistical
tables to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type
routine form letters varying details to suit circumstances.
Class B—
Performs one or more o f the following: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance pol­
icies, etc.; and setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying
more complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

13

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR-Continued

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.

completed work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quan­
tities; writing specifications; and making adjustments or changes in
drawings or specifications. May ink in lines and letters on pencil
drawings, prepare detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings.
Work is frequently in a specialized field such as architectural, elec­
trical, mechanical, or structural drafting.

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration of working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Duties involve a combination o f the following: Interpreting blueprints,
sketches, and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures;
assigning duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; and per­
forming more difficult problems. May assist subordinates during emer­
gencies or as a regular assignment, or perform related duties of a
supervisory or administrative nature.
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing
purposes. Duties involve a combination of the following: Preparing
working plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-sections, etc., to scale by
use of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as
those involved in strength of materials, beams and trusses; verifying

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combina­
tion of the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of employees* injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants
and employees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.
TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing
tracing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. Uses
T-square, compass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

MAINTENANCE AND POWERPLANT
CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE-Continued

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most of the following:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’ s handtools, portable

power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; and selecting materials
necessary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance car­
penter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.




14

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE

HELPER, MAINTENANCE TRADES

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, dis­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves most of the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the elec­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; and using a variety
of electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In
general, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

Assists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
and performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The
kind of work the helperis permitted to perform varies from trade to trade:
In some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding
materials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-time basis.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors,
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; and keeping a record
of operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May
also supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establish•
ments employing more than one engineer are excluded.

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools, gages,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most o f the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and
operation sequence; and making necessary adjustments during operation
to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to rec­
ognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating oils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing
shops are excluded from this classification.

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
Fire stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; and checks water
and safety valve.
May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom
equipment.




Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most of the following: Interpreting written instructions and
specifications; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
chinist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and
operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to close toler­
ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of
work, tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working

15

M ACH IN IST, M A IN T E N A N C E -C o n tin u e d

M ILLW RIG H T

properties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts,
and equipment required for his work; and fitting and assembling parts
into mechanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally
requires a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout
are required. Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment and
parts to be used; and installing and maintaining in good order power
transmission equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general,
the millwright’ s work normally requires a rounded training and experi­
ence in the trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an es­
tablishment. Work involves most of the following: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gages, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assemblies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; and alining wheels, adjusting brakes
and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the auto­
motive mechanic requires rounded training and- experience usually ac­
quired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves most o f the following: Examining machines and mechan­
ical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly dis­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replacementpart by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine
shop for major repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs
or for the production o f parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling
machines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In gen­
eral, the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and
.experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience. Excluded from this classification are
workers whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.




OILER
Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler
in nail holes and interstices; and applying paint with spray gun or brush.
May mix colors, oils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain,
proper color or consistency. In general, the work of the maintenance
painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most of the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from draw­
ings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to
correct lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe­
cutting machine; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by
hand-driven or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings

16

P I P E F I T T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E -C o n tin u e d

S H E E T -M E T A L W O RK ER, M A IN T E N A N C E -C o n tin u e d

and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relat­
ing to pressures, flow, and size of pipe required; and making standard
tests to determine whether finished pipes meet specifications. In general
the work of the maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and
repairing building sanitation or heating systems are excluded.

types of sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in
cutting, bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; and installing
sheet-metal articles as required. In general, the work of the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.
TOOL AND DIE MAKER
(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gage maker)

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; and opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake.
In general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishment. Work involves most of the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints,
models, or other specifications; setting up and operating all available

Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gages, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching, and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most of the following: Planning and laying out of work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifications;
using a variety of tool and die maker’ s handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding o f the working properties o f common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to close tolerances; fitting and assembling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allowances; and selecting appro­
priate materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die
maker’ s work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom
practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT
ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

GUARD

Transports passengers between floors of an office building
apartment house, department store, hotel, or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity o f employees and
other persons entering.




17

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER

PACKER, SHIPPING

(Sweeper; charwomen; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial
or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance services; and cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Work­
ers who specialize in window washing are excluded.

Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or more of
the following: Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify
content; selection of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; and applying labels
or entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make
wooden boxes or crates are excluded.

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more o f the following: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or
from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location;
and transporting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheel­
barrow. Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded.

ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
Fills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, cus­
tomers’ orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders
and indicating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders
requisition additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and
perform other related duties.




SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­
sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Ship­
ping work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices,
routes, available means of transportation and rates; and preparing
records of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight
and shipping charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May
direct or assist in preparing the merchandise for shipment. Receiving
work involves: Verifying or directing others in verifying the correct­
ness of shipments against bills of lading, invoices, or other records;
checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods; routing merchan­
dise or materials to proper departments; and maintaining necessary
records and files.

For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:
Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk

18

TRUCKDRIVER

TRUCKER, POWER

Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials , merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of estab­
lishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers* houses or places of business. May also load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers
are excluded.

Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.

For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipment, as follows: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis of trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver (combination o f sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under 1% tons)
Truckdriver, medium (1% to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)




For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of
truck, as follows:
Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)

WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.

* U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1962 0 — 661933


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102