View PDF

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

87th Congress, 1st Session

Occupational Wage Survey

WORCESTER, MASSACHUSETTS
JUNE 1962

Bulletin No. 1303-82




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




87th Congress, 1st Session

Occupational Wage Survey
WORCESTER, MASSACHUSETTS




JUNE 1962

Bulletin No. 1303-82
August 1962

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S
E w a n C lo g u e , C o m m issio n e r

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing O ffice, Washington 25, D.C.

Price 25 cents




Contents

Preface

Page
The Labor Market Occupational Wage Survey Program
The Bureau of Labor Statistics annually conducts
occupational wage surveys in 82 labor markets.
The
studies provide data on occupational earnings and related
supplementary benefits. A preliminary report furnishing
trend data and average earnings is released within a month
of the completion of each study. This bulletin provides
additional data not included in the preliminary report.

Introduction ______________________________________________________________
Wage trends for selected occupational groups _________________________
Tables:
1.
2.

This bulletin was prepared in the Bureau's re­
gional office in Boston, M ass., by Leo Epstein, under the
direction of Paul V. Mulkern, Assistant Regional Director
for Wages and Industrial Relations.

B:

3
3

Occupational earnings:*
A - 1. Office occupations—
men and women ______________________
A -2. Professional and technical occupations—
men
and women ________________________________________________
A -3. Office, professional, and technical
occupations—
men and women combined __________________
A -4. Maintenance and powerplant occupations _________________
A -5 . Custodial and material movement occupations ___________

1

Establishment practices and supplementary wageprovisions:*
B -l. Shift differentials __________________________________________
B-2. Minimum entrance salariesfor women office workers ___
B-3. Scheduled weekly hours ___________________________________
B-4. Paid holidays ______________________________________________
B-5. Paid vacations _____________________________________________
B-6. Health, insurance, and pension plans ____________________

12
13
14
15
16
18

5
7
o o

A:

Establishments and workers within scope ofsurvey _____________
Percents of increase in standard weekly salaries and
straight-time hourly earnings for selected
occupational groups _____________________________________________

00

Two bulletins, bringing together the results of all
of the area surveys, are issued after completion of the
final area bulletin in the current round of surveys. The
first of these bulletins will be available late in 1962 and
the other early in 1963. During the survey year, summary
releases presenting areawide occupational earnings data
for 25 to 30 labor markets, are issued as data become
available.




1
4

Appendixes:
A. Changes in occupational descriptions ____________________________
B. Occupational descriptions ________________________________________

* NOTE: Similar tabulations are available in previous
area reports for Worcester and for other major areas. A
directory indicating the areas, dates of study, and prices
of these reports is available upon request.
Current reports on occupational earnings and
supplementary wage provisions in the Worcester area are
also available for the machinery industries (April 1962).
Union scales, indicative of prevailing pay levels, are also
available for seven selected building trades.

iii

19
21




Occupational Wage Survey—Worcester, Mass.

Introduction

to the w ork sch e d u le s (roun ded to the n e a r e s t h alf h ou r) fo r which
stra ig h t-tim e s a la r ie s are paid; a v era g e w eek ly earn in g s fo r these
occu p a tio n s have b een roun ded to the n e a r e s t h a lf d o lla r .

T h is a r e a is 1 o f 82 la bor m arkets in w hich the U .S . D e ­
partm en t o f L a b o r 's B u rea u o f L a b or S ta tistics has con d u cted s u r ­
v e y s o f o c cu p a tio n a l ea rn in g s and rela ted wage b en efits on an a r e a ­
w ide b a s is .
In this a r e a , data w ere obtained by p e rso n a l v is its o f
B u reau fie ld e c o n o m is t s to r ep resen ta tiv e estab lish m en ts within six
b r o a d in d u stry d iv is io n s : M anufacturing; tra n sp orta tion , c o m m u n ic a ­
tio n , and o th e r public u tilitie s ; w h olesale trad e; reta il tra d e; fin a n ce,
in s u r a n ce , and r e a l e s ta te ; and s e r v ic e s .
M a jor in du stry grou ps
e x clu d e d fr o m these stu d ies are g overn m en t op era tion s and the c o n ­
stru c tio n and e x tr a c tiv e in d u strie s .
E sta blish m en ts having fe w e r
than a p r e s c r i b e d n u m ber o f w o rk e r s are om itted a ls o b e c a u se they
tend to fu rn ish in su ffic ie n t em p loym en t in the o ccu p a tion s studied to
w a rra n t in c lu s io n .
S ep a ra te tabulations are provid ed f o r ea ch o f the
b r o a d in d u stry d iv is io n s w hich m eet p u blica tion c r it e r i a .

A v e ra g e e a rn in g s o f m en and w om en a re p resen ted sep a ra tely
fo r s e le c t e d o ccu p a tio n s in w hich both s e x e s are c o m m o n ly e m p loy ed .
D iffe r e n c e s in pay le v e ls o f m en and w om en in th ese occu p a tion s are
la r g e ly due to (1) d iffe r e n c e s in the d is trib u tio n o f the se x e s am ong
in d u strie s and e s ta b lis h m e n ts; (2) d iffe r e n c e s in s p e c ific duties p e r ­
fo r m e d , although the o c cu p a tio n s a re a p p ro p ria te ly c la s s ifie d within
the sa m e su rv e y jo b d e s c r ip tio n ; and (3) d iffe r e n c e s in length o f s e r v ­
ic e o r m e r it r e v ie w when in dividu al s a la r ie s a re a d ju sted on this
b a s is .
L o n g e r a v e ra g e s e r v ic e o f m en w ould r e s u lt in h ig h er av erag e
pay when both s e x e s a re e m p lo y e d w ithin the sam e rate ra n ge.
Job
d e s c r ip tio n s u sed in c la s s ify in g e m p lo y e e s in th ese su r v e y s are u su ­
a lly m o r e g e n e r a liz e d than th ose u se d in in dividu al esta b lish m en ts to
a llow fo r m in o r d iffe r e n c e s am ong e sta b lis h m e n ts in s p e c ific duties
pe r fo r m e d .

T h e se su r v e y s a re con d u cted on a sam ple b a sis b eca u se o f the
u n n e c e s s a r y c o s t in v o lv e d in su rveyin g all e sta b lis h m e n ts. T o obtain
op tim u m a c c u r a c y at m in im u m c o s t , a g re a te r p r o p o rtio n o f la rg e
than o f s m a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts is studied. In com bin in g the data, h ow ­
e v e r , all e sta b lis h m e n ts a r e given th eir ap p rop ria te w eigh t. E s tim a te s
b a se d on the esta b lis h m e n ts studied are p resen ted , th e r e fo r e , as r e ­
latin g to a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts in the in du stry grou pin g and a r e a , e x ­
c e p t fo r th ose b e lo w the m in im u m s iz e studied.

O ccu p a tion a l e m p lo y m e n t e s tim a te s r e p r e s e n t the total in all
e sta b lish m en ts w ithin the sc o p e o f the study and not the num ber actu ­
a lly su r v e y e d . B e ca u se o f d iffe r e n c e s in occu p a tio n a l stru ctu re am ong
e sta b lis h m e n ts , the e s tim a te s o f occu p a tio n a l em p loy m en t obtained
fr o m the sa m p le o f e sta b lis h m e n ts stud ied s e r v e on ly to in dicate the
r e la tiv e im p o rta n ce o f the jo b s stu d ied .
T h ese d iffe r e n c e s in o c c u ­
pational s tru ctu re do not m a te r ia lly a ffe c t the a c c u r a c y o f the e a r n ­
in gs data.

O ccu p a tion s and E a rn in gs
The o ccu p a tio n s s e le c t e d fo r study are co m m o n to a v a r ie ty
o f m a n u factu rin g and nonm an ufacturin g in d u stries. O ccu p a tion a l c l a s ­
s ific a tio n is b a s e d on a u n ifo r m set o f jo b d e s cr ip tio n s d esig n ed to
take a cco u n t o f in te r e sta b lish m e n t v a ria tion in duties w ithin the sam e
jo b .
(See ap pendix f o r lis tin g o f these d e s c r ip t io n s .) E arn in gs data
a re p r e se n te d (in the A - s e r i e s ta b les) fo r the follow in g types o f o c c u ­
pation s: (a) O ffic e c l e r i c a l ; (b) p r o fe s s io n a l and te ch n ica l; (c) m a in te ­
n an ce and p o w e r plant; and (d) cu stod ia l and m a teria l m o v e m e n t.

E sta b lish m en t P r a c t ic e s and S u pplem en tary W age P r o v is io n s
In form a tion is p re se n te d (in the B - s e r i e s tables) on s e le cte d
esta b lish m en t p r a c t ic e s and su p p lem en ta ry ben efits as they relate to
o ffic e and plant w o r k e r s .
The c o n c e p t " o ffic e w o r k e r s , " as u sed
in this b u lletin , in clu d es w ork in g s u p e r v is o r s and n o n s u p e r v iso r y
w o rk e r s p e r fo rm in g c l e r i c a l o r re la te d fu n ctio n s, and e x clu d e s adm in ­
is tr a tiv e , e x e c u tiv e , and p r o fe s s io n a l p e r s o n n e l. "P la n t w o r k e r s " in ­
clu d e w ork in g fo r e m e n and all n o n s u p e r v is o r y w o rk e r s (including le a d m en and tr a in e e s ) en ga ged in n o n o ffic e fu n c tio n s.
A d m in istra tiv e ,
e x e c u tiv e , and p r o fe s s io n a l e m p lo y e e s , and fo r c e -a c c o u n t co n s tr u c tio n
e m p lo y e e s who a re u tiliz e d as a sep a ra te w ork fo r c e a re ex clu d ed .
C a fe te r ia w o rk e r s and route m en a r e e x clu d e d in m anu factu ring in d u s­
t r ie s , but a re in clu d ed as p la n tw o r k e r s in nonm an ufacturin g in d u strie s .

O ccu p a tion a l em p loy m en t and earn in gs data a re shown fo r
fu ll-tim e w o r k e r s , i . e . , th ose h ire d to w ork a re g u la r w eek ly s c h e d ­
ule in the g iv en o c cu p a tio n a l c la s s ific a tio n .
E arn in gs data e x clu d e
p re m iu m pay f o r o v e r tim e and fo r w ork on w eekends, h o lid a y s , and
late s h ifts .
N on p rod u ction bon u ses a re ex clu d ed a ls o , but c o s t - o f liv in g b on u ses and in cen tiv e earn in gs are in clu ded .
W here w eek ly
h ou rs a re r e p o r t e d , as f o r o ffic e c le r i c a l o ccu p a tio n s, r e fe r e n c e is




1

2

Shift d iffe r e n tia l data (table B - l ) a re lim ite d to m anu factu ring
in d u s tr ie s . T h is in fo rm a tio n is p re se n te d both in te r m s o f (a) e s t a b ­
lish m en t p o l i c y , 1 p r e se n te d in te r m s o f total plant w o rk e r e m p lo y ­
m en t, and (b) e ffe c tiv e p r a c t ic e , p re se n te d in te r m s o f w o rk e r s
a ctu a lly e m p lo y e d on the s p e c ifie d sh ift at the tim e o f the su r v e y .
In e sta b lis h m e n ts having v a r ie d d iffe r e n t ia ls , the am ount applying to
a m a jo r ity w as u sed ‘o r , if no am ount ap p lied to a m a jo r ity , the c l a s ­
s ific a tio n " o t h e r " w as u se d .
In e sta b lish m en ts in w hich som e la te sh ift h ou rs a r e paid at n o rm a l r a te s , a d iffe r e n tia l w as r e c o r d e d on ly
i f it ap p lied to a m a jo r ity o f the sh ift h o u r s .
M in im u m en tra n ce s a la r ie s (table B -2 ) rela te on ly to the
e sta b lis h m e n ts v is it e d .
T h ey a re p r e se n te d in te r m s o f e s t a b lis h ­
m en ts with fo r m a l m in im u m s a la r y p o lic ie s .
The sch ed u led h ou rs (table B -3 ) o f a m a jo r ity o f the f i r s t sh ift w o rk e r s in an esta b lis h m e n t a re tabulated as applying to a ll o f
the plant o r o ffic e w o r k e r s o f that esta b lis h m e n t.
P a id h o lid a y s; paid
v a ca tio n s ; and h ealth, in s u r a n ce , and p en sion plans (ta bles B -4 through
B - 6 ) a re tre a te d s t a t is t ic a lly on the b a s is that th ese a re a p p lica b le
to a ll plant o r o ffic e w o r k e r s i f a m a jo r ity o f su ch w o rk e r s a re e l i ­
g ib le o r m a y ev en tu a lly q u a lify fo r the p r a c t ic e s lis te d .
Sum s o f
in dividu al ite m s in ta b les B -3 through B - 6 m a y n ot equal totals b e ­
c a u se o f roun din g.
The f i r s t part o f the paid h olid a y s table (table B -4 ) p re se n ts
the n u m ber o f w hole and h a lf h olid a y s a ctu a lly p ro v id e d . The se co n d
p a rt c o m b in e s w hole and h a lf h olid a y s to show total h olid a y t im e .
The su m m a ry o f v a ca tio n plans (table B -5 ) is lim ite d to f o r ­
m a l p o li c ie s , ex clu d in g in fo r m a l a rra n g em en ts w h e re b y tim e o ff with
pay is gra n ted at the d is c r e t io n o f the e m p lo y e r . S ep arate estim a te s
a r e p r o v id e d a c c o r d in g to e m p lo y e r p r a c tic e in c o m p u tin g . v a ca tion
p a ym en ts, su ch as tim e p a ym en ts, p e r c e n t o f annual e a rn in g s, o r
fla t -s u m am ou n ts. H o w e v e r, in the tabulations o f v a ca tio n pay, pay­
m en ts not on a tim e b a s is w e re so c o n v e rte d ; fo r e x a m p le , a paym ent
o f 2 p e r ce n t o f annual e a rn in g s w as c o n s id e r e d as the eq u ivalen t o f
1 w e e k 's pay.

Data a r e p resen ted fo r a ll health, in s u r a n ce , and p e n sio n plans
(ta b le B -6 ) fo r w hich at lea st a p a rt o f the c o s t is b orn e by the e m ­
p lo y e r , exceptin g on ly le g a l re q u ire m e n ts su ch as w o rk m e n 's c o m p e n ­
sa tion , s o c ia l se c u rity , and r a ilr o a d r e tir e m e n t. Such plans in clu de
th ose u nderw ritten by a c o m m e r c ia l in su ra n ce com p a n y and th ose p r o ­
v id ed through a union fund o r pa id d ir e c t ly b y the e m p lo y e r out o f
c u r re n t operatin g funds o r fr o m a fund se t a s id e fo r this p u rp o s e .
D eath ben efits a r e in cluded as a fo r m o f life in su ra n ce .
S ick n ess and a ccid en t in su r a n ce is lim ite d to that type o f in ­
su ra n ce under w hich p r e d e te r m in e d ca sh p a ym en ts a re m ade d ir e c t ly
to the in su red on a w eekly o r m on th ly b a s is du rin g illn e s s o r a c c id e n t
d is a b ility .
In form ation is p r e s e n te d f o r a ll su ch plans to w hich the
e m p lo y e r con trib u tes.
H ow ever, in New Y o rk and New J e r s e y , w hich
have en acted te m p o ra ry d is a b ility in su ra n ce law s w hich r e q u ire e m ­
p lo y e r c o n tr ib u tio n s ,2 plans a r e in clu d ed o n ly i f the e m p lo y e r (1) c o n ­
trib u tes m o r e than is le g a lly re q u ire d , o r (2) p r o v id e s the e m p lo y e e
with ben efits w hich e x ce e d the r e q u ire m e n ts o f the law . Tabulation.8
’
o f pa id s ic k -le a v e plans a re lim ite d to fo r m a l p la n s 3* w hich p r o v id e
fu ll pa y o r a p r o p o rtio n o f the w o r k e r 's pay du ring a b se n ce fr o m w ork
b e c a u s e o f illn e s s .
S eparate ta bu la tion s a r e p r e s e n te d a c c o r d in g to
(1) plans w hich p r o v id e full pay and no w aiting p e r io d , and (2) plans
w hich p ro v id e eith er p a rtia l pa y o r a w aiting p e r io d . In ad dition *to the
p re se n ta tio n o f the p ro p o rtio n s o f w o r k e r s who a r e p r o v id e d s ic k n e s s
and a ccid en t in su ra n ce o r paid s ic k le a v e , an u ndu plicated total is
show n o f w ork ers who r e c e iv e e ith e r o r both types o f b e n e fits.
Catastrophe in su ra n ce, s o m e tim e s r e fe r r e d to as exten ded
m e d ic a l in su ra n ce, in clu des th ose plans w h ich a r e d esig n ed to p r o te c t
e m p lo y e e s in c a s e o f s ick n e ss and in ju ry in v olv in g ex p e n s e s beyon d
the n o rm a l c o v e r a g e o f h o sp ita liza tio n , m e d ic a l, and s u r g ic a l p la n s.
M e d ic a l in su ran ce r e fe r s to pla n s p r o v id in g f o r c o m p le te o r p a rtia l
paym en t o f d o c t o r s ' fe e s . Such plan s m a y be u n d erw ritten by c o m m e r ­
c ia l in su ran ce com p a n ies o r n o n p ro fit o r g a n iz a tio n s o r th ey m a y be
s e lf-in s u r e d . Tabulations o f r e tir e m e n t p e n sio n plans a r e lim ite d to
th ose plans that p r o v id e m on th ly p a ym en ts f o r the r e m a in d e r o f the
w o r k e r 's life .

2 The te m p o ra ry d is a b ility la w s in C a lifo r n ia and Rhode Island
do not req u ire e m p lo y e r co n trib u tio n s.
3 An esta b lish m en t was c o n s id e r e d as having a fo r m a l plan i f
it esta b lish ed at le a s t the m in im u m n u m ber o f da ys o f s ic k le a v e that
1
An e sta b lis h m e n t w as c o n s id e r e d as having a p o lic y if it m et ld be ex p ected b y ea ch e m p lo y e e . Such a pla n n eed not be w ritten ,
cou
e ith e r o f the fo llo w in g c o n d itio n s: (1) O p era ted late sh ifts at the tim e
but in fo rm a l s ic k -le a v e a llo w a n ce s , d e te rm in e d on an in dividu al b a s is ,
o f the s u r v e y , o r (2) had fo r m a l p r o v is io n s c o v e r in g late s h ifts .
w e re exclu ded.




3

Table 1.

Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied in W orcester, Mass.

by major industry division, 2 June 1962
Workers in establishments

Number of establishments

Minimum
employment
in establish­
ments in scope
of study

Within
scope of
study 3

Studied

- —

50

253

Manufacturing -------------------------------------------------------------------------______ ________ _______ _____
Nonmanufacturing __ _ _
Transportation, communication, and other
public utilities 3 _____ ________ ______________________________
Wholesale trade ____________ ____ _ _ __________ ____
Retail trade __ ___
____ ___ _
______ ____ — -----Finance, insurance, and real estate ____________________
Services
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

50
50
50
50
50
50
50

Industry division

A ll divisions

_ ---

----------------- -------------- _

--------

Within scope of study

Studied

T otal4

Office

86

60, 600

8, 800

43,000

37, 270

159
94

47
39

45, 600
15,000

4, 900
3, 900

34,500
8, 500

27, 720
9, 550

12
9
49
17
7

9
5
13
8
4

3, 700
700
6, 100
3, 900
600

2, 500

3, 310
420
2, 420
2, 900
500

500
(*)
0
( )
(M

Total4

Plant

0
( )
( )
(6)

1 The W orcester Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area consists of Worcester City; and Auburn, Berlin, Boylston, Brookfield, East Brookfield, Grafton, Holden, Leicester, Millbury,
Northborough, Northbridge, North Brookfield, Oxford, Shrewsbury, Spencer, Sutton, Upton, Westborough, and West Boylston towns in W orcester County, M ass.
The "w orkers within scope of
study" estim ates shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate description of the size and composition of the labor force included in the survey.
The estimates are not intended, however,
to serve as a basis of comparison with other area employment indexes to measure employment trends or levels since ( 1) planning of wage surveys requires the use of establishment data compiled
considerably in advance of the payroll period studied, and (2) small establishments are excluded from the scope of the survey.
2 The 1957 revised edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual was used in classifying establishments by industry division. Major changes from the earlier edition (used in the
Bureau's labor market wage surveys conducted prior to July 1958) are the transfer of milk pasteurization plants and ready-m ixed concrete establishments from trade (wholesale or retail) to
manufacturing, and the transfer of radio and television broadcasting from services to the transportation, communication, and other public utilities division.
3 Includes all establishments with total employment at or above the m inim um -size limitation. All outlets (within the area) of companies in such industries as trade, finance, auto repair
service, and motion-picture theaters are considered as 1 establishment.
4 Includes executive, professional, and other workers excluded from the separate office and plant categories.
5 Taxicabs and services incidental to water transportation were excluded.
6 This industry division is represented in estimates for "a l l industries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the Series A and B tables. Separate presentation of data for this division is not made
for one or m ore of the following reasons: (1) Employment in the division is too small to provide enough data to m erit separate study, (2) the sample was not designed initially to permit separate
presentation, (3) response was insufficient or inadequate to permit separate presentation, and (4) there is possibility of disclosure of individual establishment data.
7 Hotels; personal services; business services; automobile repair shops; motion pictures; nonprofit membership organizations; and engineering and architectural services.




Table 2. Percents of increase in standard weekly salaries and straight-time
hourly earnings for selected occupational groups in W orcester, .M ass.,
June 1961 to June 1962, and June I960 to June 1961

Industry and occupational group

June 1961
to
June 1962

June I960
to
June 1961

A ll industries:
Office clerical (men and women)
__ __ __
_____ ___
Industrial nurses (men and women) ____
Skilled maintenance (men) ___ ____________________________
Unskilled plant (men) __
__ __
_____
_ _

4.2
5.6
3.2
3.9

3.6
1.1
3.4
4.7

Manufacturing:
Office clerical (men and women)
__ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Industrial nurses (men and women) ------------ ----------- ------Skilled maintenance ( m e n ) _________ ______ _________ __ ___
Unskilled plant (men)
__ __
___ __
_ _ _

4.2
5.6
2 .8
7.0

3.7
1.1
3.4
3.5

4
Wage Trends lor Selected Occupational Groups

Presented in table 2 are percents of change in salaries of
office clerical workers and industrial nurses, and in average earnings
of selected plant worker groups.
F o r o ffic e c le r i c a l w o r k e r s and in d u stria l n u r s e s , the p e r ­
cen ts o f change r e la te to a v e r a g e w eek ly s a la r ie s fo r n o rm a l h ou rs
o f w ork , that is , the standard w ork sch ed u le fo r w hich stra ig h t-tim e
s a la r ie s a re paid.
F o r plant w o rk e r g rou p s, they m e a s u re ch a n g es
in s tra ig h t-tim e h ou rly ea rn in g s, ex clu din g p rem iu m pay fo r o v e r ­
tim e and fo r w o rk on w eek en ds, h olid a y s, and la te sh ifts.
The p e r ­
cen ta g es a r e b a se d on data fo r s e le c te d k ey o ccu p a tion s and in clu de
m o s t o f the n u m e r ic a lly im p orta n t jo b s w ithin each g rou p.
The o f ­
fic e c le r i c a l data a r e b a se d on m en and w om en in the fo llo w in g 19 jo b s :
B ook k eep in g -m a ch in e o p e r a to r s , c la s s B; c le r k s , accou n tin g , c la s s A
and B; c le r k s , file , c la s s A , B, and C; c le r k s , o r d e r ; c le r k s , p a y ­
r o ll; C om p tom eter o p e r a t o r s ; keypunch o p e r a to r s , c la s s A and B;
o ffic e b o y s and g ir ls ; s e c r e t a r ie s ; ste n o g ra p h e rs , g e n e ra l; s te n o g r a ­
p h e rs , s e n io r ; sw itch b oa rd o p e r a t o r s ; ta b u la tin g-m a ch in e o p e r a to r s ,
c la s s B; and ty p is ts , c la s s A and B.
The in d u stria l n u rse data a r e
b a se d on m en and w om en in d u stria l n u r s e s .
M en in the fo llo w in g
8 sk ille d m ain ten an ce jo b s and 2 u n sk illed jo b s w e re in clu d ed in the
plant w o rk e r data: Skilled— c a r p e n te rs ; e le c tr ic ia n s ; m a ch in is ts ; m e ­
ch a n ics ; m e c h a n ics , a u to m o tiv e ; p a in te rs ; p ip e fitte r s ; and to o l and
d ie m a k e rs ; u n sk illed — ja n ito r s , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s ; and la b o r e r s ,
m a te r ia l handling.

Average weekly salaries or average hourly earnings were
computed for each of the selected occupations.
The average sa l­




aries or hourly earnings were then multiplied by the average employ­
ment in the job during the period surveyed in 1961.
These weighted
earnings for individual occupations were then totaled to obtain an a g ­
gregate for each occupational group.
Finally, the ratio of these group
aggregates for the one year to the aggregate for the other year was
computed and the difference between the result and 100 is the percent
of change from the one period to the other.

The p e r ce n t o f change m e a s u r e s , p r in c ip a lly , the e ffe c t s o f
(1) g e n e r a l sa la ry and w age ch a n g es; (2) m e r it o r oth er in c r e a s e s
in pay r e c e iv e d by individu al w o r k e r s w h ile in the sa m e jo b ; and
(3) ch a n g es in the la b o r f o r c e su ch a s la b o r tu r n o v e r, f o r c e ex p a n ­
sio n s , f o r c e red u ction s, and ch a n g es in the p r o p o r t io n s o f w o r k e r s
em p loy ed by esta b lish m en ts w ith d iffe r e n t pa y le v e ls .
C hanges in the
la b o r f o r c e can ca u se in c r e a s e s o r d e c r e a s e s in the o c cu p a tio n a l
a v e r a g e s without actu al w age ch a n g es. F o r e x a m p le , a f o r c e e x p a n sion
m igh t in c r e a s e the p r o p o rtio n o f lo w e r p a id w o r k e r s in a s p e c ific
o ccu p a tion and r e s u lt in a d ro p in the a v e r a g e , w h e r e a s a r e d u c tio n
in the p r o p o rtio n o f lo w e r paid w o r k e r s w ould h ave the o p p o s ite e ffe c t .
The m ov em en t o f a h igh -p a yin g e sta b lis h m e n t out o f an a r e a c o u ld
ca u se the a v era g e ea rn in g s to d r o p , ev en though n o change in r a te s
o c c u r r e d in oth er a r e a e sta b lis h m e n ts.

The use of constant employment weights eliminates the effects
of changes in the proportion of workers represented in each job in­
cluded in the data.
Nor are the percents of change influenced by
changes in standard work schedules or in premium pav for overtime,
since they are based on pay for straight-tim e hours.

The above text represents the method used in computing a new trend
series.
The expansion of the labor market wage survey program in 1961 made
data available in 82 areas for the computation of wage trends for selected job
groupings.
Sixty-one areas were surveyed in I960; prior to I960, coverage was
limited to 20 areas.
Therefore, it was decided to compute a new trend series in
which 1961 will be the base year since this is the first year in which data were
collected in all 82 areas.
The percents of change shown in table 2 are not comparable with sim ilar
data shown for this area in last y e a r's Bulletin 1285-80.
The new series intro­
duces changes in the job groupings for which trends are shown and changes in
jobs included in the computations.

A:

Occupational Earnings

5

Table A-l. Office Occupations—
Men and Women
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Worcester, M ass., June 1962)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

Average

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

Weekly .
Weekly.
earnings1
hours
(Standard) (Standard)

s
$
$
$
$
$
$
t
$
$
40. 00 45.00 50. 00 55. 00 lo . 00 ^5. 00 70. 00 75.00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00
and
and
45. 00 50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 65.00 70. 00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90. 00 95. 00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 over

Men
Clerks, accounting, class A ..
Manufacturing _____________

84
72

40.0
40. 0

M i l . 50
115.50

Clerks, accounting, class B ...
Manufacturing _____________

21
16

40.0
40.0

82.50
87. 00

Clerks, order ------------------------Manufacturing _____________

55
54

39.5
39.5

101.50
102.00

Office boys ________
Manufacturing__

41
29

40.0
40.0

Tabulating-machine operators,
class A ______________________

19

Tabulating-machine operators,
class B ___ ____________________
Manufacturing -------------- -----

45
35

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

2

_

_

_

-

-

52.00
53.50

_
-

19
13

39.0

105.00

.

39.5
40. 0

81.50
86. 66

-

2
2

1
1

i

10
2

2
-

-

.

-

-

11
10

l
i

6
6

7
6

7
1

.

6
2

1
1 '

3

4
4

6
6

5
5

1
1

3
3

.

1
1

.

-

-

2
2

2
2

1
1

.
-

.

-

.

.

-

-

■

"
8

_

_

.

-

-

-

9
4

6
6

5
4

.
-

2
2

_

.

.

.

_

.

_

_

_

1

5
2

4
2

4
1

7
?

7
6

1
1

'

'

'

'

6

4
■

1
1

~

7
"

4
"

2
'

7
1

'

10
16

6
6

1
1

.

_

_

_

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

6
6

5
5

6
6

1
1

4
4

4
4

4
4

.

_

.

_

_

_

.

_

_

-

•

-

-

-

-

“

-

-

2

3

.

.

-

10
16

6
6
"

"

3
3

10
10

-

13
13

2
~ 2------

“

5

-

“

■

"

-

“

-

“

-

-

■

Women
Billers, machine (billing machine) _
_
Manufacturing ______________________

33
l6

38.0
39.5

64. 50
79.66

54
40

38.5
38.0

76.50
82.00

_

_

■

"

Bookkeeping-machine operators,
Manufacturing ______________________
Bookkeeping-machine operators,

•
_
■

5
5

5
5

1
1

2
"

18
18

■

■

11
11

_

6
6

■

2
2

“

2
2

"

-

-

“

.

.

_

_

.

-

4
4

_

-

“

-

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

16
16
-

2
2
-

1
1
-

15
15
-

5
5
-

1
1
-

.

1
1
-

_

8
8

53
2
51

9
9

11
11

12
10
2

19
12
7

6
6

2
2

_

_

_

-

-

1

-

-

_
_
-

1

8
1
7

11
1
10

22
17
5

17
8
9

12
Tl
1

10
1
3

12
7
5

13
13
-

5
1
4

_

33
13
20

22
14
8

46
18
28

32
20
12
-

8
2
6
6

2
2

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

26
2
24

6
1
5

4
3
1

6
6

-

8
3
5
1
2
1
1

_

-

29
22
7
7

_

-

34
22
12
1
2
2

2
2

-

7
6
1
-

3

10
10

42
14
28

25
16
10

14
9
5

14
9
5

12
8

21
16

1
1

1

2

.

6
6

6
6

7
6

5
4

4
4

1
1

l
l

Manufacturing ______________________
Nonmanufacturing __________________

123
34
89

39.0
39. 0
39. 0

59.50
7T:'50
55.00

!
1

Clerks, accounting, class A __________
Manufacturing ---------------------------------Nonmanufacturing __________________

152
107
45

39.5
40. 6
38.0

90.00
96.00
76.00

Clerks, accounting, class B --------------Manufacturing ______________________
Nonmanufacturing __________________
Public utilities 2- ________________

223
124
99
15

39.0
40. 0
37.5
40.0

66.00
66. 50
65.00
84. 50

Clerks, file, class A 3 _______________
Manufacturi ng ---------------------------------Nonmanufacturing __________________

49
17
32

38.0
40. 0
37.0

70.00
81. 50
64.00

Clerks, file, class B 3 _______________
Manufacturing ______________________
Nonmanufacturing __________________

111
66
61

38.5
40. 0
37. 0

56.00
59. 66
53.00

-

-

3

Clerks, file, class C 3 _______________
Nonmanufacturing __________________

49
31

38.5
37. 5

48. 50
46. 56

12
"12

Clerks, order _________________________
Manufacturing ______________________

41
38

40.0
40.0

77.50
78. 50

-

_

-

See footnotes at end of table.




.

1

-

-

1
-

_

.

_

_

_

_
-

_

_

_
_

_
_

_
_

_
.

_
_

1
1

1
1

-

-

_
_

-

_

_
-

_
-

2
2

-

1
1

_

_

_

4
4

1
1

.

'

-

‘

_
_
_

_

1

3
5

2
2

_
■

'

6

Table A-l.

Office Occupations—Men and Women-----Continued

(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Worcester, Mass., June 1962)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF-

A verage

S ex,

o c c u p a t io n , an d in d u s t r y d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

Weekly
Weekly . 4 0 .0 0
hours
earnings
and
(Standard) (Standard) u n d e r
4 5 .0 0

$
4 5 .0 0

$
5 0 .0 0 *5 5 .0 0 6 0 .0 0

6 5 .0 0

5 0 .0 0

5 5 .0 0

7 0 .0 0

6 0 .0 0

6 5 .0 0

$
$
$
$
$
%
S
$
$
$
S
$
$
$
$
7 0 .0 0 7 5 .0 0 8 0 .0 0 8 5 .0 0 9 0 .0 0 9 5 .0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 1 2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 .0 0 1 4 0 .0 0
and
7 5 .0 0

8 0 .0 0

8 5 .0 0 _SL£LQJI 9 5 .0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 L 1 I L M 1 1 5 . M 12Q.QQ 1 2 5 . QQ 1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 . Qd 1 4 0 .0 0

over.

W o m e n — C o n t in u e d
C l e r k s , p a y r o l l __ _
_ _ __ __ __ _____
M a n u f a c t u r in g _____________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________

158
120
38

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 7 .5

$ 7 0 .0 0
7 1 .0 0
6 6 .0 0

_

C o m p t o m e t e r o p e r a t o r s ____________________
M a n u f a c t u r in g
______ __________ __ __

89
50

3 8 .5
3 8 .0

7 2 .0 0
7 6 .0 0

_

K e y p u n c h o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s A 3 ___________
M a n u f a c t u r in g _____________________________

87
72

3 9 .5
4 0 .0

7 3 .0 0
7 4 .5 0

-

K e y p u n c h o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B 3 -----------------M a n u f a c t u r in g _____________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________

127
44
83

3 8 .5
4 0 .0
3 7 .5

6 0 .0 0

-

6 2 .0 0

-

5 9 .5 0

53
27

3 8 .0
4 0 .0

5 3 .5 0
5 4 .5 0

S e c r e t a r ie s
__ _____ __ _____ __ _____
M a n u f a c t u r in g _____________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ______ __ --------- __
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 2 ______________________

389
276
113
20

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 8 .0
3 9 .5

8 8 .0 0
9 1 .0 0
8 2 .0 0
9 5 .0 0

_

S t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l 3 ___________________
M a n u f a c t u r in g _______ _____ — _______
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _______ __ _____________

193
128
65

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .0

7 2 .0 0
7 6 .0 0
6 4 .0 0

S t e n o g r a p h e r s , s e n i o r 3 _______________________
M a n u f a c t u r in g ____ __ _ _______ — __

85
80

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

7 3 .5 0
7 3 .5 0

-

S w i t c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s ____ _
_
__ _____
M a n u f a c t u r in g _____________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________

65

3 9 .0
4 0 .0
3 8 .0

6 7 .0 0
7 3 .0 0
6 2 .5 0

_

38

S w i t c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r - r e c e p t i o n i s t s _____
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ___ __________________ ____
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________

110
90
20

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
3 9 .0

6 6 .5 0
6 6 .5 0
6 5 .0 0

T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c l a s s B ________________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r in g _____________________________

42
30

3 9 .0
4 0 .0

8 4 .0 0
8 9 .0 0

3 8 .0
4 0 .0
3 6 .5

6 3 .0 0
6 7 .0 0
6 0 .0 0
6 8 .0 0
6 8 .0 0
6 8 .0 0
5 8 .5 0
5 9 .0 0
5 6 .0 0

-

O ffic e g ir ls
_____
M a n u f a c t u r in g

__ __
__ __ __ __
__ ~ __ _____ __ __

T r a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e o p e r a to r s ,
g e n e r a l __________ __ _____ _____ _____
M a n u f a c t u r in g _______ _____ _____ ___
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g _
_ __ __ __ _____

ll

106
-------45“
61

T y p i s t s , c l a s s A _ __ __ _____________ __
M a n u f a c t u r in g _____________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________

168
62

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 8 .5

T y p i s t s , c l a s s B ______________________________
M a n u f a c t u r in g ___ _____________ __ __
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g _
_ _____ __ _____

3 21
2 33
88

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 7 .5

1 6 6

-

10
5
5

19
13
6

24
21
3

18
17
1

38
27
11

20
15
5

9
7
2

5
5

-

2
2

4
4

2
2

-

"

2

-

"

4

1

23
4

12
10

15
15

_
-

3
3

_

-

1
1

_

-

17
10

_

-

11
7

_

6
6

10
10

_

-

2
------T ~

2

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

"

_

_

_

_

-

-

_

_

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

■

_

_
-

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

"

_

.

-

-

_
-

-

_

2

-

-

1
1

25
20

12
12

15
7

15
15

1
1

29
2
27

32
11
21

30
18
12

23
11
12

9
9

2
2

_

_

_

_

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

1

1

17
T 4”

5
1

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

"

29
12

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

-

-

-

-

_

1

_

-

-

-

1

-

56
45
11

20
“ i r
2

"

"

"

-

-

12
2

37
29
8
1

31

-

46
28
18
1

50

-

45
30
15

33

-

16
6
ll

_

_

9
5
4

35
9
26

32
23
9

22
18
4

21
10
11

25
20
5

26
20
6

1
1

_

-

3
3

4
3

3
3

21
19

19
19

14
12

10
10

"

9
9

5
5

2
2

11
7
4

13
5
8

6
2
4

8
6
2

_

_

-

-

26
21
5

27
" 25
2

23
15
8

7
7

6
5

-

2
1
1

-

-

-

-

1

2

1

"

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

24
6
18

19
10
9

22
11
11

10

25
14
11

28

“ 16

106
91
15

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

18
2
16

_
-

2
2

— 6—

-

-

4

-

16
6
10

42

80
38

“

21
~ n —
10

-

TT~

-

_

_

_

-

ll

_
11
~ n —
-

12
-

_

9
9
-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

"

-

_

1
------1—
-

_

_

-

18
15

7
-

1

-

-

10
io

5
5

_

-

5
5

-

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

"

-

-

3
3

4
4

2
2

2
2

-

_

-

-

_

-

“

-

-

"

-

-

6
4
2

1
1

2
2

2
2

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

"

_

3
3

_

2
2

_

_

>

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

14
11
3

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

4
2

10
4

4
4

8
8

1
1

9
9

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

15
10
5

5
3
2

1
1

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

-

-

-

43

32

2

_

-

_

_

-

_

-

5
5

5

-

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

12

11

16

4
3
1

_

T5

12
9
3

-

Tz

-

-

2

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

79
62
17

22

11

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

_

_

11

-

2

-

2
1

-

16
6

3
1

"
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

-

2

-

_

-

-

-

"

-

-

-

_

-

"

~

-

Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Description for this job has been revised since the last survey in this area. See appendix A.




_

-

-

2

_

-

3
3

-

-

-

-

-

-

7
Table A-2.

Professional and Technical Occupations—Men and Women

(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e w e e k l y h o u r s and e a r n in g s f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d o n a n a r e a b a s is
b y i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , W o r c e s t e r , M a s s . , J u n e 1 9 6 2 )1
2
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF-

Average
S e x , o c c u p a t io n ,

an d in d u s t r y d iv i s i o n

of
workers

$
Weekly.
Weekly. U n d er 7 0 .0 0
earnings
hours
and
(Standard) (Standard) $
7 0 .0 0 7 5 .0 0

$
$
$
$
$
5
$
S
S
$
$
$
S
$
S
9 5 .0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 1 2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 .0 0 1 4 0 .0 0 1 4 5 .0 0 1 5 0 .0 0 1 5 5 .0 0 1 6 0 .0 0 1 6 5 .0 0 1 7 0 .0 0
and

$
7 5 .0 0

$
8 0 .0 0

$
8 5 .0 0

$
9 0 .0 0

$

8 0 .0 0

8 5 .0 0

9 0 .0 0

9 5 .0 0

1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 1 2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 .0 0 1 4 0 .0 0 1 4 5 .0 0 1 5 0 .0 0 1 5 5 .0 0 1 6 0 .0 0 1 6 5 .0 0 1 7 0 .0 0 o v e r

M en

D r a f t s m e n , l e a d e r __________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________________

50
50

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

$ 1 5 6 .5 0
1 5 6 .5 0

_________________ _________
. _
_ _____ __ _

298
293

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 1 6 .5 0
1 1 6 .5 0

D ra fts m e n , s e n io r
M a n u fa c tu r in g

D r a f t s m e n , j u n i o r _ __ __ __ _____
_ _
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________________

.

.

"

“

2
2

2
2

.

.

.

.

•

2
2

14
14

~

-

•

2
2

-

-

-

7
7

14
14

16
15

24
24

23
22

43
40

18
18

2 6

26

5
5

2
2

2
2

-

5
5

3
3

7
7

4
4

7
7

2 13
13

20
20

42
42

12
12

17
17

9
9

4
4

!
-

1

2
2

-

"

"

-

-

•

247
239

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

9 0 .0 0
8 9 .5 0

20
20

27
27

9
9

21
20

35
33

41
40

24
24

42
38

16
T5

4
4

3
3

56
51

3 9 .5
4 0 .0

9 3 .0 0
9 2 .5 0

_

2
2

5
5

6
6

15
13

6
6

8
7

6
5

2
2

1

.

-

5
5

-

-

_

.

.

W om en

N u r s e s , i n d u s t r i a l ( r e g i s t e r e d ) _________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g __ __ __ _ __ __ __ _

1
2

5
5

S t a n d a r d h o u r s r e f l e c t t h e w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e t h e i r r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r i e s a n d th e e a r n i n g s c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e s e w e e k l y h o u r s .
W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d a s f o l l o w s : 7 a t $ 170 t o $ 1 7 5 ; 6 at $ 1 8 0 t o $ 1 8 5 .




8
Table A-3.

Office, Professional, and Technical Occupations—Men and Women Combined

(Average straight-time weekly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Worcester, M ass., June 1962)

N m er
u b
of
w rk rs
o e

Occupation and industry division

A era e
v g
w e ly j
ek
e rn g
a in s
(S n a )
ta d rd

N me
u br
of

Occupation and industry division

Occupation and industry division

ea in s1
rn g
(S n a )
ta d rd

we ly j
ek
e rn g
a in s
(S n a )
ta d rd

no
90
20

$66.50
66.50
65.00

Office occupations— Continued

Office occupations— Continued

Office occupations

N m er
u b
of

_ __ _____

33
16

_ —

$64.50
“ 79.00

168
129
39

$70.50
71.50
67.00

Switchboard operator-receptionists--------------------------Manufacturing _____________________________________
Nonmanufacturing __ __ ____ _________________

58
40

Manufacturing ___

75.50
82.00

89
50

72.00
76.00

T abulating - machine operators, class A -------------------

21

103.50

Tabulating-machine operators, class B ------------------Manufacturing
_ ________ ________ ____________

87
65

82.50
87.50

Transcribing-machine operators, general __________
Manufacturing
__ ____ __ __ __ — ----------------Nonmanufacturing — __ ------------ ------- --------------

106
45
61

63.00
67.00
60.00

Typists, class A • •
•
Manufacturing
____ ____
__________________ _
Nonmanufacturing ____________ ___________________

171
109
62

68.50
69.00
68.00

Typists, class B ------ ------- ---------------------- -------------Manufacturing
__-_____ __ -_____________________
Nonmanufacturing __________________________ —------

323
234
89

58.50
59.50
56.00

_ ________________
____ _____________

50
50

156.50
156.50

Draftsmen, senior __ ------- ------------------------------------Manufacturing
_________________ ________________

298
293

116.50
116.50

Draftsmen, junior _____
Manufacturing
----

__ __________________________
__ — ------------ ------- — —

260
252

89.50
89.50

Nurses, industrial (registered) _ ------- ------------------Manufacturing
__ _ __ ------- __ ------- --------------

59
54

94.00
94.00

128
Bookkeeping-machine operators* class B _________
Manufacturing
_________________________ ------ 3?
94
Nnnmaniifartiiring
Clerks, accounting, class A _________ ___________

236
---- 179—
57

Olfirlrs, arrminting, class R
Manufartn ring

244
— Ro
104
16

Public utilities2 _ _ _ _ _

------- __

-

------—

59.50
71.50
55.00
97.50
104.00
78.00
67.50
69.bo'
65.50
83.00

51
72.00
Clerks, file, class A 3 __________ ___________________
Manufacturing ___ __ __ __ — — __ __ __ __ __ ------ F T " ■“ 86.66
32
64.00
Nonmanufacturing _______________________________
Clerks, file, class B 3
Mannfa rhi Ting

___________ ____________ _

111
------ 5(5—
61

56.00
59.66
53.00

Keypunch operators, class A 1 _
3
2
_______
Manufacturing
____
_____________ _
__
JCftypimrli nparators, class R^
Manufacturing
_. __ __ ____
Nonmanufacturing
(Vficp bnys and girls
Manufacturing
_

Clerks, order

, , ,, _,t

__,

96
92

48.50
46.50
91.50
92.50

_

_ _____

_______

_

... .
____

fierretarips
Nonmanufacturing ___ __ __ ____ _ _ _ _ _
Public utilities2 _ __ ____ — ------- ------- —
Stenographers, general 2
._
..... . ..
Manufacturing
__ __ __ ____ — ._ _ — _. _
_________________
Nonmanufacturing
_
S te n o g ra p h e rs,

Clprlffij fil^r rlase P ^
.
49
Nonmanufacturing ____________ __________________ ------ 3l

_ __ ____

__

s e n io r 3

Manufacturing _ ______ __ ________

____________

_______

Switchboard operators _____________________________
Manufacturing
_
____________ ____
Nonmanufacturing __ ____________________________

87
72

73.00
74.50

127
44
83

60.00
62.00
59.50

94
------56

53.00
54.00

394
281
113
20

88.50
91.60
82.00
95.00

193
128
65

72.00
76.00
64.00

85
80

73.50
73.50

66
28
38

67.50
74.00
62.50

Professional and technical occupations
Draftsmen, leader ____ __ ____
Manufacturing ____ ___ ____

1 Earnings are for a regular workweek for which employees receive their straight-time weekly salaries, exclusive of any premium pay.
2 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
3 Description for this job has been revised since the last survey in this area. See appendix A.




9
Table A -4. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Worcester, M ass., June 1962)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Number
of
workers

Occupation and industry division

Average
hourly .
earnings 1

Under $1.70 V s o
and
$
1.70 under
1.80
1.90

$
1.90

$
2.00

2.00

2.10

-

-

2.70

2.80

2.90

3.00

3.10

3.20

3.30

3.40

3.50

over

4

6
6

"

-

4
-

4
49
T 5 — ---- 4

4
4

5
5

2
2

_
"

_

_

5
5

_
“

10
10

1

_

3
3

3
2

3
3

5
5

9
9

7
7

4
4

20
19

21
20

3
3

15
15

9
9

6
6

17
13

9
9

26
19

_

_
"

2
2

17
15
2

10
10
-

2
2
"

13
13

2
1
1

23
18
5

5
4

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

"

_

_

"

"

24
24

7
7

14
14

18
18

25
25

15
15

10
10

4
4

1

"

11
11

2
2

.

.

.

.

.

-

-

"

-

10
10

32
32

8
8

11
11

7
7

66
64

15
15

4
4

_
"

_
"

-

_
-

1
1
-

_
-

9
9
9

24
2
22
22

1
1
-

2
1
1
"

29
9
20
19

32
10
22
20

_

_

_

-

“

"

2
2

6
5

7
5

17
17

15
14

15
15

28
28

14
14

4
4
-

3
3
•

Machine-tool operators, toolroom _____ _ __
Manufacturing----------------------------------------------

161
l6 l

2.48
2.48

_

Machinists, maintenance ______________________
Manufacturing _. ____ __ - ._ __ __ -_ __

240
237

2.75
2.75

Mechanics, automotive (maintenance) ________
Manufacturing __________________________ ___
Nonmanufacturing _ ____ __ _ ____ __ __
Public utilitie s 2 ________________________
1

102
25
77
72

2.58
2.69
2.54
2.54

Mechanics, maintenance ______________________
Manufacturing _ __ __ __ __ ------- __ __ __

255
245

2.77
2.77

Millwrights __ __ __ __ __ __ __ -_ __ __ __ Manufacturing ----------------------------------------------

41
40

2.61
.....'2
.61

-

Oiler s __________________________________________

75
71

2.34
2.32

2
2

30
27

2.56
2.51

_

1

1

11

2
2

_

_

_

-

-

_

_

2
2

22
22

6
6

4
4

6
6

43
43

_
-

2
2
2

_
"

22
22

9
9

8
8

1

_

_

_

_

-

-

"

27
27

-

4
4

2
2

2
2
-

_
-

_
"

"

_
-

52
52

37
37

23
17

_

_

2
2

2
2

.

.

.

.
-

5
5

5
5

3
3

4
4

H
10

1
1

8
8

.

-

4
4

_

_

5
5

3
3

2
2

17
17

35
35

3
3

4

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

5
5

5
5

1
1

_

!

1
1

_

~

"

1
1

7
7

4
4

_

1

2
2

l

"

.

.

-

-

-

5
5

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

■

•

1 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
2 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.

■

2
2

4
4

!
1

4
4

-

-

11
11

8
7

10
10

11
11

1
1

11

11
11

2
2

5
5

52
52

72
72

64
64

“
5
5

1

15
15

1

11

8
8

-

"
8
8

_

"

-

_

"
_

.

.

_
"

-

.

2.79
2.79




2.60

34
34

2.08
2.04
2.18

272
272

2.50

7
7

79
57
22

__

2.40

4
4

Helpers, maintenance trades _________________
___________
Manufacturing __________________ P
Nonmanufacturing _ __ __ __ ____ _
___

__ __ __ _ __ _

2.30

42
42

15
15

Tool and die makers __
Manufacturing ____

2.20

13
13

3
3

2.81
£.81

$
3.50
and

16
15

1
1

41
41

$
3.40

11
11

2.30
2.27

Sheet-metal workers,
maintenanc e _________________ _______________
Manufacturing ___________ __ _ __ __ __ __

$
3.30

2
1

147
134

2.87
2.87

*3.20

7
7

_

99
98

$
3.10

8
7

_
“

Pipefitters, maintenance ______________________
Manufacturing __ _ __ __ _ __
•
_____ __

$
3.00

7
7

_

Painters, maintenance________________________
Manufacturing __ __ _ __ __ __ __ __ __

$
2.90

_

~

8

$
2.80

3
3

2.73
2.73

Firemen, stationary b o i l e r ___________________
Manufacturing ----------------------------------------------

$
2.70

2
2

_

54
53

2.60

14
13

_
-

Engineers, stationary_________________________
Manufacturing __ __ _______ _____ ._ __

$
2.50

14
14

_
~

2.93
2.93

$
2.40

22
22

_
-

213
zoE

$
2.30

5
5

$2.61
2.54

Electricians, maintenance ______ __ _. — __
Manufacturing ----------------------------------------------

$2.20

14
14

1
1

109
100

2.10

9
9

"

Carpenters, maintenance __ ______ __ __ __ __
Manufacturing ____ __ __ ~ -_ ____ _ —

$

■

“
.

.

-

-

_

_

_

_

2
■

_

_

_

■

“

“

_

32
32

2
2

14
14

_

2
2

1
1

8
8

1
1

9
9

_
■

•

20
20

-

■
11
11

.

1
1

•

10
Table A-5.

Custodial and Material Movement Occupations

(Average straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Worcester, Mass., June 1962)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Number
of
workers

O c c u p a t io n 1 and in d u s tr y d iv is io n

E le v a t o r o p e r a t o r s , p a s s e n g e r
( w o m e n ) ______________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g _
_ _____ ____
_
_

Average
hourly , $1 .0 0 * 1 .1 0
earnings
and
under
1 .1 0
1 .2 0

36
36

$ 1 .2 4
1 .2 4

175
160

2 .0 9
2 .1 2

M a n u f a c t u r in g ____________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g . . . __
_
_____ —
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 3 _____________________

796
591
205
29

1 .8 1
1 .9 2
1 .4 8
2 .0 1

J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , an d c le a n e r s
( w o m e n ) __ __ __
__ _
_ — —
M a n u f a c t u r in g
__ __ __ __ __ - —
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________

107
56
51

1 .4 7
r :" 6 9 "
1 .2 3

Manufacturing _______________________
Nonmanufacturing ___________________
Public utilities3 _ _ — ................

689
405
284
104

2 .0 1
1 .8 3
2 .2 6
2 .6 1

Order fillers _____________ ______________
Manufacturing_________
___ —

84
49

Packers, shipping (men) _______________
Manufacturing _______________________

216
202

2 .2 2
2 .2 2

Packers, shipping (women) ____________

2 39

1 .3 1

Receiving clerks _ ____
_ __ — __ _
Manufacturing
. . . . . .
. . . .
Nonmanufacturing ___________________

95
69
26

2 .1 3
2 .2 0
1 .9 4

Shipping c le r k s _____ __ __ _. . . . —
Manufacturing _____________________ —

64
58

-

14
14

2 .2 9
2 .3 0

G u a r d s - ____ _
_
M a n u f a c t u r in g

___

__ __ __ — ~
__ — - . .

___

i

1

i

i

!

i

I
i

1

ej,

B
n
>

J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , an d c le a n e r s

L a b o r e r s , m a t e r i a l h a n d l i n g ---------------------

Shipping and receiving clerks - __
Manufacturing
__ __ __ _ _____ —
Truckdrivers4 _______________________________
Manufacturing
_____
. __ --------- —
Nonmanufacturing _______________________
Public utilities3 _ _
--------- ----

See footnotes at end of table,




* 1 .3 0

1 .3 0

1 .4 0

18
18

2

_
-

2 .0 2
2 .0 0

504
£25
279
200

2 .3 7
2 .2 3
2 .4 8
2 .6 4

$
1 .6 0

1 .5 0

1 .6 0

1 .7 0

$
1 .8 0

$
1 .9 0

$
2 .0 0

1 .8 0 -L3.P,

2 .0 0

2 .1 0

$
1 .7 0

S
$
s
2 .3 0
2 .1 0
2 .2 0

* 2 .4 0

2 .4 0

2 .5 0

$

2 .5 0

$

2 .6 0

$
2 .7 0

$

2 .8 0

$
2 .9 0

$
3 .0 0

$
3 .1 0

3 .0 0

3 .1 0

3 .2 0

$
$
3 .2 0
3 .3 0

$
3 .4 0 * 3 .5 0

49
20
29

50
2
48

■

“

64
22
42
2

1
1

25
25

10
7
3

22
22

6
6

7
7

2
2

-

-

-

“

-

-

“

2 .2 0

2 .3 0

2 .6 0

2 .7 0

2 .8 0

2 .9 0

3 .3 0

3 .4 0

3 .5 0

over

-

j
T

"

-

-

$
1 .5 0

3
3

-

-

1 .4 0

$

and

48
34
14
2

-

7
~

15
13

4
4

13
13

31
29

6
3

36
32

11
11

50
45
5
2

51
41
10
1

51
41
10

37
36
1

91
89
2

~

”

116
91
25
3

45
44
1
1

86
68
18
18

■

3
3

7
7

30
30

5
5

-

-

-

-

-

47
40
7

66
52
14

25
25

83
68
15

47
47

-

29
5
24

100
100

-

.

.

2 .1 0

— T TT

49
44

.

-

* 1 .2 0

~W ~

22
22

4
4

_

4
4

17
17

.

.

.

-

6
6

26

■

_

■

~

”

4
4

6

2
2

2
2

4
4

6
6

2
2

2
2

_

-

-

"

.

"

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

“

“

■

“

■

“

8
8

7
7

4
4

1
1

_

_

_

”

_

-

-

-

-

2
2

-

"

'

'

"

2
2

2
2

2
2

1
1

1 98

6
6
-

2
2
-

6
6
-

4
4

-

-

-

-

-

32
29
3

1 18
7
111

10
6
4
4

20
10
10
10

9
7
2
2

88

-

6
4

14
13

19
7

7
6

■

■

19
15

3
3

35
35

6
5

39
39

8
7

23
21

14
6

14
12

_

1
1

5
2
3

19
12
7

8
8

19

l6

4
4

3

13
10
3

7
7

“

11
7
4

2

24
24

5
2

13
12

-

-

■

■

16
16

_

8
8

“

88
88

2

■

10
2

4

"

2
2

1

“

-

.

.

.

■

■

"

6
6

12
12

6
6

6
6

26

116

34

12

48

1

-

-

-

“

~

3
3

3
3

■

-

“

1
1

.

!

-

“

-

"

■

1

.

"

-

-

.

.

.

-

-

-

19
18
1

6
6
-

12
12

8
8
-

“

.

.

.

"

“

5
5

“

■

9
6

15
14

13

7
2
5

15
11
4

17
17
-

15
15
-

21
21

44
8
36

21
15
6
2

8

1

'
n

_

11

-

90
90
-

7
7
-

‘

_

_

_

.

.

“

_

~

-

■

“

"

“

_

3

"

7
7

6

.

“

■

198
198

1
1
-

-

_
-

-

-

-

5
5
-

11
Table A-5.

Custodial and Material Movement Occupations— Continued

(Average straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Worcester, Mass. , June 1962)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGIIT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

Occupation 1 and industry division

N m er
u b
o
f
w rk rs
o e

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
%
$
$
$
$
$
$
Ae g $
v ra e
2.
3.
h u ? 1.00 1. 10 1 20 1. 30 1.40 1. 50 1.60 1. 70 1. 80 1. 90 2.00 2. 10 2. 20 2. 30 2. 40 2. 50 2.60 *2. 70 2. 80 $ 90 3. 00 3. 10 3.20 $ 30 3.40 3. 50
o rly
e rn g
a in s
and
and
under
1.10 1. 20 | 39 1.40 1. 50 1. 60 1,70 1,90 1.90 2.00 2. 10 2. 20 2. 30 2.40 2. 50 2.60 2, 70 2,80 2,90 3,00 3. 10 3,20 3. 30 3. 40 3,50 over

Truckdrivers: 45 —
— Continued
Truckdrivers, light (under
11 tons) __________________________ _
/2
Manufacturing ____________________

45
40

$1 .9 6
1.93

-

-

Truckdrivers, medium ( 1V2 to
and including 4 tons) --------- — — Manufacturing -----------------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------------

89
31
58

2. 15
2. 01
2. 22

-

-

193
111
105

2. 55
2.61
7 A4
.

-

131
28

2. 54
2.66

-

89

2.64

Truckers, power (forklift) — — — — _
Manufacturing __
____ _
_

135
126

2. 29
2. 30

Truckers, power (other than
forklift) ------ ~ — — — — — — -----Manufacturing -----------------------------------

48
48

2.41
2.41

Watchmen --------- — ------------ — — — _
Manufacturing -----------------------------------

117
104

1.86
1.85

Truckdrivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
trailer type) _______________ — — Pi^Klir lifiliHAO ^
Truckdrivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
other than trailer type) -----------------Manufacturing ____________________
Nonmanufacturing:
Public utilities1 ---------------------3
2

1
2
3
4
5

-

-

6
6

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

10
5

2
2

2
2

-

21
21

34
3
31

2
2

2
2
■

"

1

-

-

-

4
4

81

-

105
105
105

-

2
2

"

■

12
12

1
1

5
5

89
■

1
J

13
13

10
10

10
10

2
2

-

2

4

-

-

1

2
2

-

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

8

-

-

6
6

5
5

1

-

2
2

2

2

25
25

5
5

5
5

6
6

4
4

8
8

2
2

20
20

19
19

36
27

17
17

1
1

5
5

_

7
7

6
6

23
23

_

!
1

5
2

21
21

38
38

7

D a t a l i m i t e d t o m e n w o r k e r s e x c e p t w h e r e o t h e r w i s e in d i c a t e d .
E x c l u d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e a n d f o r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s , h o l i d a y s , a n d la t e s h i f t s .
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d o t h e r p u b lic u t i l i t i e s .
I n c lu d e s a ll d r i v e r s r e g a r d l e s s o f s iz e and ty p e o f t r u c k o p e r a te d .
W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d a s f o l l o w s : 1 a t $ 3 .5 0 t o $ 3 . 6 0 ; 1 a t $ 3 . 6 0 t o $ 3 . 7 0 ; 2 a t $ 3 . 7 0 t o $ 3 . 8 0 ; 1 a t $ 3 . 8 0 t o $ 3 . 9 0 .




"

-

4
4

-

-

-

■

"

■

1

"

~

_

1
1

_

2
2

1
1

-

-

"

2
2
-

1

"

1

2
2

16
16

.

1

1
1

-

_
-

"

1

2
2

1

_

_

"

-

_
"

_
"

_
-

-

-

■

"

5
55

6
6

"

-

12




B:

E stab lishm ent P ractices and Supplem entary W age P rovision s
Tabic B-l. Shift Differentials

(Shift differentials of manufacturing plant w orkers by type and amount of differential, W orce ste r, M a ss. , June 1962)
Percent of manufacturing plant w orkers—
In establishm ents having formal
provisions 1 for—

Shift differential

Second shift
work

--------------------------------------------------- —

82. 5

With shift pay differential ------------------------------------

Total -------------

Third or other
shift work

Actually working on—

Second shift

Third or other
shift

7 0 .5

13. 5

3. 1

76. 7

7 0 .5

1 2.7

3. 1

-----------------------------

5 2 .9

4 1 .1

7 .7

1 .4

4 cents ------------------------------------------------ — —
5 cents -____________ ______ _________ __ _____ _
7 cents ----------------------------------------------------------8 cents ----------------------------------------------------------10 cents — — ------------- -------- — ------- —
103/ 4 cents — ------- — ------------------------ __
12 cents -------------------------------------------------------15 cents --------------------------------------------------------

1. 3
1 6 .0
4. 5
5 .9
2 1 .7
1. 5
2 .0
-

2 1 .6
5 .9
9 .5

.4
1 .4
.8
.5
3 .9
.4
.4
-

--------

2 3 .8

2 9 .3

5 .0

1 .6

5 percent ____________________________________
7 percent ------------ — — — __ ------------- __
10 percent ----------------------------------------------------

2. 1
2 .4
19. 3

.8
.2
4. 1

1 .6

Uniform cents (per hour)

Uniform percentage ---------

No shift pay differential ------

------------------

-------- ------------------

5. 7

1
Includes establishm ents currently operating late shifts,
even though they were not currently operating late shifts.

.

2 .8
1.3
-

-

2 9 .3

_

. 1
.2
-

.6
.3
.2

-

.8

and establishm ents with form al provisions covering late shifts

13

Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salaries for Women Office Workers
(Distribution of establishments studied in all industries and in industry divisions by minim um entrance salary for selected categories
of inexperienced women office w orkers, W o rc e s te r, M a ss. , June 1962)
Inexperienced typists
Manufacturing
M inim um weekly s a la r y 1

A ll
industries

I

40

A ll
schedules

37 V2

Nonmanufacturing

Manufacturing
A ll
industries

Based on standard weekly hours 3 ofA ll
schedules

Other inexperienced cle ric a l w o rk e rs2

Nonmanufacturing

Based on standard weekly hours 3 o fA ll
schedules

40

40

A ll
schedules

37 V2

40

E stablishm ents studied -----------------------------------------------------------

86

47

XXX

39

XXX

XXX

86

47

XXX

39

XXX

X XX

Kstablishrnapts having a spacifiad minim um

35

19

19

16

5

6

43

22

22

21

5

9

.
_
2
6
5
3
3
1
1

2
1
7
6
1

_
1
2
1

5
1

2
1
1

_
1

$40.
$4?.,
$45.
$47.
$ 50.
$ 52.
$ 55.
$ 57.
$ AO.
$ A?..
$ A5.

00
50
00
50
00
50
00
50
00
50
00

and
qnd
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
undar
under
under
nndar
under
under
under
lindar
lindar
nvar

$ 4 2 . 50
$ 4 5 , 00
$ 4 7 . 50
$ 50. 00
$ 52. 50
$ 55. 00
$ 57. 50
$ 6 0 .0 0
$A 2. 50
$ A5_ 00

________________________________
_ __ — ----_ _____
__

— ------______

2
_
7
9
7
3
3
2
_
1
1

_
2
4
5
3
3
1

_
2
4
5
3
3
1
_
_

2
_
5
5
2

_
1
2
1

1
_
1

_
1

2
_
4
1

1

.
_
2
6
5
3
3
1
1

TTstaKli shrnar>ts ha ving nn sparifiad minimum

_

1

1

19

15

XXX

4

XXX

XXX

21

15

XXX

6

XXX

XXX

32

________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
... ....... ....... ................ ...
_ ....
... _

9
12
6
3
3
3
2
1
1

13

XXX

19

XXX

XXX

22

10

XXX

12

XXX

XXX

_
l

1

1
_

_

2
1

_
_

E stablishm ents which did not em ploy w orkers

Lowest salary rate fo rm a lly established for hiring inexperienced w orkers for typing or other clerica l jo b s.
Rates applicable to m e s s e n g e r s , office g irls , or sim ilar subclerical jobs are not considered.
Hours reflect the workweek for which em ployees receive their regular straight-tim e sa la r ie s . Data are presented for all workweeks combined, and for the m ost com m on workweeks reported.




14
Table B-3.

Scheduled W eekly Hours

(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by scheduled weekly hours
of first-sh ift workers, W orcester, M a s s ., June 1962)
OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

Weekly hours
All industries1

All workers

---------------------------------------------------------

Under 35 hours __________________________________
35 hours ----------------------- ------- --------------------------36lU hours ------------------ ------- — ---------------------363A hours ---------------------------------------------------------*
371 hours ---------------------------------------------------------/z
Over 37Vz and under 40 hours ------------------------40 hours --------------------------------------------------------------42 hours --------------------------------------------------------------44 hours -------------------------------------------- — ----------45 hours ---------------------------------------------------------------

1
2
3
4

100

(4)
2
17
1
10
3
67
_
(4)

Manufacturing

100
1
(4)
-

Public utilities1
2

100

-

-

1
4
94

34
66

-

-

-

-

All industries3

Manufacturing

100

(4)
5
1
1
2
80
1
4
7

Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Less than 0. 5 percent.




Public utilities2

100

100

3
-

-

-

-

1
84
1
3
8

-

-

100
-

15
Table B-4.

Paid Holidays

(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by number of paid holidays
provided annually, W orcester, M ass. , June 1962)
OFFICE W
ORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

Item
A in u
ll d stries 1

__

__ __

__ __ _____ __ _____

Workers in establishments providing
paid holidays __
_____
__
__ __
Workers in establishments providing
no paid holidays
__
__ ___
____

____
_____

100

100

100

100

100

100

99

100

100

94

96

100

6

4

-

1
2
1
13
5
24
2
2
30
5
1
5
4
-

2
1
14
6
27
3
2
30
6
2
3
-

27
14
59
-

'

A ll workers

M ufactu g
an
rin

'

P
ublic u
tilities 1
2

(4 5
)
'

A in u
ll d stries 3

M ufactu g
an
rin

'

P
ublic u
tilities 2

N u m b er off d a y s

Less than 5 holidays ____________________________
5 holidays ___
_ _____ ___
_____ __ __ __
5 holidays plus 1 half day ______________________
6 holidays ________________________________ ___ ___
6 holidays plus 1 half day ______________________
6 holidays plus 2 half days
__
__
6 holidays plus 3 half days _____________________
7 holidays _ _
___
__ __
__ __
___
__ __
7 holidays plus 1 half day __
7 holidays plus 2 half days
__ _____ __ _____
8 holidays _____ __
__ ___
______
8 holidays plus 1 half day ______________________
8 holidays plus 2 half days _____________________
8 holidays plus 4 half days _____________________
9 holidays __ ___ __ ___
____________
__ _
10 holidays __ _ __ _____ __
___
10 holidays plus 1 half d a y _____________________
10 holidays plus 2 half days ___________________

(4 )
5
(4 )
3
1
15
1
(4 )
25
4
(4 )
3
34
3
2

1
9
(4 )
6
2
25
2
1
40
8
1
1
1
4

9
3
19
27
42

Total h o lid a y t im e s

, , „ . y.
IOV2 or m ore days _____________________________
10 or more’ days ________________ _ ______________
9 or more days __ _________ ______
_________
8 1/2 or more days __
__
__ ____
___
8 or more days __
__
__ __
_______
7 1/2 or m ore days __ _ __ __ __ _
7 or more days _____ _ __
--- --------6 V2 or m ore days ____
___
______ _____
6 or more d a y s __________________________________
5V2 or m ore days __ __ __
__
-------5 or more days ____________ ___ ___
4 or m ore d a y s __
_________
3 or m ore d a y s __ __
__ _ _

2
5
40
43
47
73
75
94
94
99
99
99
99
99

4
5
6
7
14
55
60
90
91
99
99
100
100
100

42
72
91
91
91
91
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

-

4
11
15
47
49
78
78
91
91
93
94
94

-

5
11
43
46
79
79
93
94
96
96
96

-

59
73
73
73
73
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

1 Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
2 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
3 Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
4 L ess than 0. 5 percent.
5 A ll combinations of full and half days that add to the same amount are combined; for example, the proportion of workers receiving a total of 7 days includes those with 7 full days and
no half days, 6 full days and 2 half days, 5 full days and 4 half days, and so on. Proportions were then cumulated.




16
Table B-5.

Paid Vacations

(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, Worcester, M ass. , June 1962)
PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS

Vacation policy
All industries *

All workers

_____________________________________

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

All industries3

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

100

100

100

100

100

100

99

100

99
83
16
-

100

94
6
-

100
95
5

100

95
5

83
17
-

86
14
“
-

M ethod off p a y m e n t
Workers in establishments providing
paid vacations -------------------------------------------------Length-of-tim e payment -----------------------------Percentage payment ------------------------------------Flat-sum payment ----------------------------------------Other
__
___
Workers in establishments providing
no paid vacations ---------------------------------------------

-

-

i

(4)

Am ount off v a c a tio n p a y 5
After 6 months of service
Under 1 week -----------------------------------------------------1 week -----------------------------------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 weeks ----------------------------- -2 weeks __________________________________________

_

-

2
68
(4)
19

3
66
(4)
18

9
42

27
13
2

34
8
-

10

_
90

13
87

23
77

80
2
18

88
2
10

30
70

3
2
96

3
2
94

_
9
91

58
31

64
12
23

23
7
70

2
(4)
98

3
97

100

35
13
52

39
16
45

100

2
(4)
98

3
97

100

33
13
54

37
16
47

100

7
2
86
(4)

7
3
90
(4)

11

43

After 1 year of service
week -----------------------------------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 weeks --------------------------------2 weeks ---------------------------------------------------------------1

After 2 years of service
week -----------------------------------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 weeks --------------------------------2 weeks ---------------------------------------------------------------1

10

After 3 years of service
1 week -----------------------------------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 weeks --------------------------------2 weeks ----------------------------------------------------------------

-

-

After 4 years of service
1 week ----------------------------------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 weeks --------------------------------2 weeks ----------------------------------------------------------------

-

After 5 years of service
- week -----------------------------------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 weeks _____________________
2 weeks __________________________________________
Over 2 and under 3 weeks --------------------------------3 weeks ----------------------------------------------------------------

See footnotes at end of table.




(4)

1

1

99
-

2

1

96

_
100

-

4

100

-

17
Table B-5.

Paid Vacations— Continued

(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, W orcester, M ass., June 1962)
PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS
Vacation policy
All in u
d stries1

M u
an factu g
rin

P
ublic u
tilities2

A in u
ll d stries3

M u
an factu g
rin

P
ublic u
tilities2

A m o u n t o f v a c a tio n p a y 5------- Continued

After 10 years of service
1 week __ __ — __
Over 1 and under 2
2 weeks _
Over 2 and under 3
3 weeks _ __ ------4 weeks
__ -

------ --------- —
weeks _ __ _ _ ___
— — ------- — ~ —
weeks _ _ _ _ _ _
__
------- -_ — — -----— — — ---- _

—
__
_
__
—
—

—
__
—
__
—

80
4
14
1

1
88
5
7
"

59
41

7
1
72
5
12
2

7
2
77
6
8
"

65
35

(4 )
69
(4 )
29
1

1
70
1
29
-

40
60
-

7
1
61
8
19
2

7
2
65
10
16
-

50
50
-

(4 )
9
1
89
1

1
11
1
87
-

_
100
-

7
1
20
2
67
2

7
2
17
3
71
-

100
-

(4 )
9
_
87
3

1
11
89
-

73
27

7
1
19
(4 )
68
5

7
2
16
(4 )
75
"

84
16

(4 )»
8
49
3
40

1
11
48
5
36

28
72

7
1
18
(4 )
38
5
29

7
2
16
(4 )
42

30
70

(4 )

After 12 years of service
1 week — _____ __ _ ___ __ _____ __ __ —
Over 1 and under 2 weeks _______ ______________
2 weeks _ __ _
_ __
_____ __ — —
Over 2 and under 3 weeks . . .
____
3 weeks _ __ _ __ __ __ _
_ __ __ _ _
4 w e e k s __
_ ___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
After 15 years of service
1 week __ _
__
Over 1 and under 2
2 weeks _ __ __ __
Over 2 and under 3
3 weeks _ _ _ _
4 weeks __ ____ __

—
_ — — _ — —
weeks _ _
_ _____ __ __ __ _ _ ----w e e k s ______________________
_____
___ __
____ __
______
_ _

After 20 years of service
1 week
_____________________ - _____________ —__
Over 1 and under 2 w e e k s ______________________
2 weeks - - - - —
— — — ___ __ —
Over 2 and under 3 w e e k s ______________________
3 w6cks
i „......
■■
■ .!■
i
.....
4 weeks _ __ _____ ___ — — _ — — ___ _ —
After 25 years of service
1 w e e k _______ — —__ ___ ______ __ _____________ __
O v er 1 and u n d er 2 w eek s
_
_____
2 weeks _ __ __ __ __ — __
__ _ __ _
Over 2 and under 3 weeks
_ _ __ _ __ __
3 weeks _ __ __
_ _ _ _ _ _
Over 3 and under 4 w e e k s ____ — — —— — ____—
4 weeks — _ - — — — _ __ — - —

1
2
3
4
5
service

6

27

Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
L e ss than 0.5 percent.
Periods of service were arbitrarily chosen and do not necessarily reflect the individual provisions for progressions. For example, the changes in proportions indicated at 10 years'
include changes in provisions occurring between 5 and 10 years.

NOTE: In the tabulations of vacation allowances by years of service, payments other than "length of t i m e ," such as percentage of annual earnings or flat-su m payments, were converted
to an equivalent time basis; for example, a payment of 2 percent of annual earnings was considered as 1 week's pay.




18
Table B-6.

Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans

(Percent of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions employed in establishments providing
health, insurance, or pension benefits, W orcester, M a s s ., June 1962)
OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

Type of benefit
All industries 1

Manufacturing

o

O

100

94

85

84

87

100

76

63

68

84

96

91

83

88

84

71

86

45

77

87

50

77

78

91

7

1

24

8

2

-

4

2

34

82
82
73
32
66
10

89
89
81
33
72
9

66
66
66
70
84

94
70

78

89

__

__

__

__

Public utilities 2

100

Life insurance _______________________________
Accidental death and dismemberment
insurance __________ __ __ ___________ __
Sickness and accident insurance or
sick leave or both4 ____ __________ ____

__

Manufacturing

100

100

-------------------

All industries 3

100

------------

All workers

Public utilities 1
2

Workers in establishments providing:

Sickness and accident insurance __________
Sick leave (full pay and no
waiting period) __________ ______ ____ ___
Sick leave (partial pay or
waiting period) __________________________________
Hospitalization insurance _________________________
Surgical insurance ____________________________________
Medical insurance _____________ ___________
Catastrophe insurance __
_____ __ __ __
Retirement pension _________________________
No health, insurance, or pension plan ------

91
•1
>
88
60
87

95
95
90
41
86
(5)

64
64
64
64
72

1 Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
2 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
3 Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
4 Unduplicated total of workers receiving sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately below. Sick-leave plans are limited to those which definitely establish at least the
minimum number of days' pay that can be expected by each employee. Informal sick-leave allowances determined on an individual basis are excluded.
5 Less than 0. 5 percent.




Appendix A: Changes in Occupational Descriptions

Since the Bureau’ s last survey in this area, occupational
descriptions for three office jobs were revised in order to obtain salary
information for more sp ecific categories. Therefore, data presented
for these jobs in table A -l are not comparable to data presented in last
year’ s bulletin.

Revisions were made in the descriptions for file clerks, key­
punch operators, and stenographers. The revised description for file
clerk groups these workers into three levels (class A, B, and C) in­




stead of two (class A and B). The revised description for keypunch
operator groups these workers into two defined classes (A and B)
instead of a single category. Previously data were presented separately
for general stenographers and technical stenographers. The revision
combines general stenographers, with more responsible duties, and
technical stenographers to form a new senior stenographer category;
other general stenographers are maintained in that classification.
The revised occupational descriptions used this year are in­
cluded in appendix B.

19




Appendix B : Occupational D escriptions

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to assist its
field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field economists are in­
structed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped, part-time,
temporary, and probationary workers.
OFFICE
BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
classified by type o f machine, as follows:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.
Class A—
Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, bal­
ance sheets, and other records by hand.

Biller, machine (billing machine)—
Uses a special billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, etc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.

Class B—
Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type of billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation of trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.

Biller, machine (hookkeeping machine)—
Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, etc., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types of sales and
credit slips.



CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A—
Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a com­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase of an establish­
ment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts
21

22

CLERK, ACCOUNTING—
Continued
payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper ac­
counting distribution; and requires judgment and experience in
making proper assignations and allocations. May assist in preparing,
adjusting and closing journal entries; and may direct class B ac­
counting clerks.
Class B—
Under supervision, performs one or more routine ac­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or ac­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; and posting subsidiary ledgers con­
trolled by general ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data.
This job does not require a knowledge of accounting and book­
keeping principles but is found in offices in which the more routine
accounting work is subdivided on a functional basis among several
workers.

CLERK, FILE
Class A— an established filing system containing a number
In
of varied subject matter files, classifies and indexes file material
such as correspondence, reports, technical documents, etc. May
also file this material. May keep records of various types in con­
junction with the files. May lead a small group of lower level file
clerks.
Class B—
Sorts, codes, and files unclassified material by sim­
ple (subject matter) headings or partly classified material by finer
subheadings. Prepares simple related index and cross-reference
aids.
As requested locates clearly identified material in files
and forwards material. May perform related clerical tasks required
to maintain and service files.

Class C—
Performs routine filing of material that has already
been classified or which is easily classified in a simple serial
classification system (e.g., alphabetical, chronological, or numer­
ical). As requested, locates readily available material in files
and forwards material; and may fill out withdrawal charge. Per­
forms simple clerical and manual tasks required to maintain and
service files.



CLERK, ORDER
Receives customers9orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination of the following:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities o f items on order
sheet; and distributing order sheets to respective departments to be
filled. May check with credit department to determine credit rating of
customer, acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders
to see that they have been filled, keep file o f orders received, and check
shipping invoices with original orders.

CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the neces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers9
earnings based on time or production records; and posting calculated
data on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker’ s name, work­
ing days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due.
May make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and dis­
tributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that o f statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file of used stencils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

23

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Class A—
Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or combina­
tion keypunch machine to transcribe data from various source docu­
ments to keypunch tabulating cards. Performs same tasks as lower
level keypunch operator but in addition, work requires application of
coding skills and the making of some determinations, for example,
locates on the source document the items to be punched; extracts
information from several documents; and searches for and interprets
information on the document to determine information to be punched.
May train inexperienced operators.

Class B—
Under close supervision or following specific proce­
dures or instructions, transcribes data from source documents to
punched cards. Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or com­
bination keypunch machine to keypunch tabulating cards. May
verify cards. Working from various standardized source documents,
follows specified sequences which have been coded or prescribed
in detail and require little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting
data to be punched. Problems arising from erroneous items or codes,
missing information, etc., are referred to supervisor.

OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands, opera­
ting minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and dis­
tributing mail, and other minor clerical work.

SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an
administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receiving people coming into office; answering and



SECRETARY— Continued
making phone calls; handling personal and important or confidential
mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative; and taking
dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand
or by Stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the
recorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare
special reports or memorandums for information of superior.

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a
normal routine vocabulary; and transcribe dictation. May also type from
written copy. May maintain files, keep simple records, or perform other
relatively routine clerical tasks. May operate from a stenographic pool.
Does not include transcribing-machine work. (See transcribing-machine
operator.)

STENOGRAPHER, SENIOR
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a var­
ied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or
reports on scientific research and transcribe dictation. May also type
from written copy, May also set up and maintain files, keep records, etc:

OR

Performs stenographic duties requiring significantly greater
independence and responsibility than stenographers, general as evi­
denced by the following: Work requires high degree of stenographer
speed and accuracy; and a thorough working knowledge of general busi­
ness and office procedures and of the specific business operations,
organization, policies, procedures, files, workflow, etc. Uses this
knowledge in performing stenographic duties and responsible clerical
tasks such as, maintaining followup files; assembling material for
reports, memorandums, letters, etc.; composing simple letters from general
instructions; reading and routing incoming mail; and answering routine
questions, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work.

24

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office
calls. May record toll calls and take messages. May give information
to persons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders. For
workers who also act as receptionists see switchboard operatorreceptionist.

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR-Continued
Class C—
Operates simple tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with specific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs or re­
petitive operations.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single posi­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. This typing
or clerical work may take the major part of this worker’ s time while at
switchboard.
TABULA TING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Class A—
Operates a variety o f tabulating or electrical ac­
counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator, and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignments without close supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are o f irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating sequences of long and complex reports,
Does not include working supervisors performing tabulating-machine
operations and day-to-day supervision of the work and production
of a group o f tabulating-machine operators.
Class B—
Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical ac­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under
specific instructions and may include the performance of some wir­
ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but
small tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are well established. May also include the training
of new employees in the basic operation of the machine.



TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal rou­
tine vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May also type from
written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation
involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal
briefs or reports on scientific research are not included. A worker who
takes dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is
classified as a stenographer, general.
TYPIST
Uses a typewriter to make copies o f various material or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May include typing of stencils, mats, or similar materials for use in
duplicating processes. May do clerical work involving little special
training, such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or
sorting and distributing incoming mail.

Class A—
Performs one or more of the following: Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punc­
tuation, etc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; and planning layout and typing of complicated statistical
tables to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type
routine form letters varying details to suit circumstances.
Class B—
Performs one or more of the following: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing o f forms, insurance pol­
icies, etc.; and setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying
more complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

25

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR-Continued

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts*
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Uses various types o f drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.

completed work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quan­
tities; writing specifications; and making adjustments or changes in
drawings or specifications. May ink in lines and letters on pencil
drawings, prepare detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings.
Work is frequently in a specialized field such as architectural, elec­
trical, mechanical, or structural drafting.

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep*
aration o f working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Duties involve a combination of the following: Interpreting blueprints,
sketches, and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures;
assigning duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; and per­
forming more difficult problems. May assist subordinates during emer­
gencies or as a regular assignment, or perform related duties of a
supervisory or administrative nature.
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing
purposes. Duties involve a combination of tbe following: Preparing
working plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-sections, etc., to scale by
use of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as
those involved in strength o f materials, beams and trusses; verifying

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combina­
tion of the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of employees’ injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicant^
and employees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.
TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing
tracing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. Uses
T-square, compass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

MAINTENANCE AND POWERPLANT
CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE—
Continued

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most of the following:
Planning and laying out o f work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’ s handtools, portable

power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; and selecting materials
necessary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance car­
penter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.




26

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE

HELPER, MAINTENANCE TRADES

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair o f equipment for the generating, dis­
tribution, or utilization o f electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves most of the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
o f electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the elec­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; and using a variety
of electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In
general, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

Assists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties o f lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
and performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The
kind o f work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade:
In some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding
materials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts o f a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-time basis.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors,
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; and keeping a record
of operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May
also supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establish•
ments employing more than one engineer are excluded.

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation o f one or more types o f machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction o f machine-shop tools, gages,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most of the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree o f accuracy; using a variety o f pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and
operation sequence; and making necessary adjustments during operation
to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to rec­
ognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating oils . For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing
shops are excluded from this classification.

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
Fire stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; and checks water
and safety valve.
May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom
equipment.




Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts o f mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most of the following: Interpreting written instructions and
specifications; planning and laying out o f work; using a variety o f ma­
chinist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and
operating standard machine tools; shaping o f metal parts to close toler­
ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of
work, tooling, feeds and speeds o f machining; knowledge o f the working

27

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE-Continued

MILLWRIGHT

properties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts,
and equipment required for his work; and fitting and assembling parts
into mechanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally
requires a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in die plant layout
are required. Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment and
parts to be used; and installing and maintaining in good order power
transmission equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general,
the millwright’ s work normally requires a rounded training and experi­
ence in the trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an es­
tablishment. Work involves most of the following: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gages, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assemblies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; and alining wheels, adjusting brakes
and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the auto­
motive mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually ac­
quired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves most of the following: Examining machines and mechan­
ical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly dis­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a re­
placement part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine
shop for major repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs
or for the production o f parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling
machines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In gen­
eral, the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience. Excluded from this classification are
workers whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.



OILER
Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler
in nail holes and interstices; and applying paint with spray gun or brush.
May mix colors, oils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain
proper color or consistency. In general, the work o f the maintenance
painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most of the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from draw­
ings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to
correct lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe­
cutting machine; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by
hand-driven or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings

28

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE—
Continued

SHEET-METAL WORKER. MAINTENANCE-Continued

and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relat­
ing to pressures, flow, and size of pipe required; and making standard
tests to determine whether finished pipes meet specifications. In general
the work of die maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and
repairing building sanitation or beating systems are excluded.

types of sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in
cutting, bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; and installing
sheet-metal articles as required. In general, die work o f the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.
TOOL AND DIE MAKER
(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gage maker)

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; and opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake.
In general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishment. Work involves most of the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints,
models, or other specifications; setting up and operating all available

Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gages, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching, and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most of the following: Planning and laying out o f work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifications;
using a variety of tool and die maker’ s handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding o f the working properties o f common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling o f machines; heattreating o f metal
parts during fabrication as well as o f finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to close tolerances; fitting and assembling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allowances; and selecting appro­
priate materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die
maker’ s work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom
practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT
ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

GUARD

Transports passengers between floors of an office building
apartment house, department store, hotel, or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity of employees and
other persons entering.




29

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER

PACKER, SHIPPING

(Sweeper; charwomen; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial
or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance services; and cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Work­
ers who specialize in window washing are excluded.

Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or more of
the following: Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify
content; selection o f appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; and applying labels
or entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make
wooden boxes or crates are excluded.

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more of the following: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or
from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices;unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location;
and transporting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheel­
barrow. Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded.

ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­
sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Shipping work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices,
routes, available means of transportation and rates; and preparing
records of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight
and shipping charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May
direct or assist in preparing the merchandise for shipment. Receiving
work involves: Verifying or directing others in verifying the correct­
ness of shipments against bills of lading, invoices, or other records;
checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods; routing merchan­
dise or materials to proper departments; and maintaining necessary
records and files.

Fills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, cus­
tomers* orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders

For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:

and indicating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders
requisition additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and
perform 6ther related duties.

Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk




30

TRUCKDRIVER

TRUCKER, POWER

Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types o f estab­
lishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers* houses or places of business. May also load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers
are excluded.

Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.

For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipment, as follows: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis of trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver (combination o f sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under l l2 tons)
/
Truckdriver, medium (1l2 to and including 4 tons)
/
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)




For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of
truck, as follows:
Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)

WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.
* U.s. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1962 0 — 657207


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102