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Occupational Wage Survey

GREENVILLE, SOUTH CAROLINA
M A Y 1962

Bulletin No. 13 0 3 -7 0




UNITED STA TES DEPARTM ENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STA TISTIC S
Ewan Clogue, Commissioner




Occupational Wage Survey
GREENVILLE, SOUTH CAROLINA




MAY

1962

B u lle tin N o . 1 3 0 3 -7 0
July 1962

UNITED STA TES DEPARTM ENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREA U O F LABOR S TA TIS TIC S
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.

Price 25 cents




Contents

Preface

Page
The Labor Market Occupational Wage Survey Program
The Bureau of Labor Statistics annually conducts
occupational wage surveys in 82 labor markets.
The
studies provide data on occupational earnings and related
supplementary benefits.
A preliminary report furnishing
trend data and average earnings is released within a month
of the completion of each study.
This bulletin provides
additional data not included in the preliminary report.

Introduction _________________________________
Wage trends for selected occupational groups _________________________
Tables:
1.
2.

This bulletin was prepared in the Bureau's r e ­
gional office in Atlanta, Ga. , by James D. Garland, under
the direction of Donald M. Cruse.
The study was under
the general direction of Louis B. Woytych, Assistant Re­
gional Director for Wages and Industrial Relations.

B:

Occupational earnings:*
A - 1. Office occupations—
men and women ---------------------------------A - 2. Professional and technical occupations—
men
A - 3.
A -4 .
A - 5.

Office, professional, and technical
occupations—
men and women combined _____
Maintenance and powerplant occupations _____
Custodial and material movement occupations

Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions:*
B -l.
Shift differentials _________________________________________
B -2 .
Minimum entrance salaries for women office w orkers___
B -3 .
Scheduled weekly hours __________________________________
B -4 .
Paid holidays __________
B - 5. Paid vacations —
__________________________________________
B -6 .
Health, insurance, and pension plans -------------------------------

3
3
5

oo

A:

Establishments and workers within scope of survey ___________
Percents of increase in standard weekly salaries and
straight-time hourly earnings for selected
occupational groups _____________________________________________

no

Two bulletins, bringing together the results of all
of the area surveys, are issued after completion of the
final area bulletin in the current round of surveys.
The
first of these bulletins will be available late in 1962 and
the other early in 1963. During the survey year, summary
releases presenting areawide occupational earnings data
for 25 to 30 labor markets, are issued as data become
available.




1
4

9
10
10
11
12
14

Appendixes:
A.
B.

Changes in occupational descriptions ---------------------------------------Occupational descriptions ___________________________________ ___

* NOTE: Similar tabulations are available in previous
area reports for Greenville and for other major areas.
A directory indicating the areas, dates of study, and prices
of these reports is available upon request.

iii

15
17




Occupational Wage Survey—G reenville, S.C.

Introduction

to the work schedules (rounded to the nearest half hour) for which
straight-time salaries are paid; average weekly earnings for these
occupations have been rounded to the nearest half dollar.

This area is 1 of 82 labor markets in which the U.S. De­
partment of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics has conducted sur­
veys of occupational earnings and related wage benefits on an area­
wide basis.
In this area, data were obtained by personal visits of
Bureau field economists to representative establishments within six
broad industry divisions: Manufacturing; transportation, communica­
tion, and other public utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance,
insurance, and real estate; and services. Major industry groups
excluded from these studies are government operations and the con­
struction and extractive industries. Establishments having fewer
than a prescribed number of workers are omitted also because they
tend to furnish insufficient employment in the occupations studied to
warrant inclusion. Separate tabulations are provided for each of the
broad industry divisions which meet publication criteria.

Average earnings of men and women are presented separately
for selected occupations in which both sexes are commonly employed.
Differences in pay levels of men and women in these occupations are
largely due to (1) differences in the distribution of the sexes among
industries and establishments; (2) differences in specific duties per­
formed, although the occupations are appropriately classified within
the same survey job description; and (3) differences in length of serv­
ice or merit review when individual salaries are adjusted on this
basis.
Longer average service of men would result in higher average
pay when both sexes are employed within the same rate range. Job
descriptions used in classifying employees in these surveys are usu­
ally more generalized than those used in individual establishments to
allow for minor differences among establishments in specific duties
performed.

These surveys are conducted on a sample basis because of the
unnecessary cost involved in surveying all establishments. To obtain
optimum accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of large
than of small establishments is. studied. In combining the data, how­
ever, all establishments are given their appropriate weight. Estimates
based on the establishments studied are presented, therefore, as re­
lating to all establishments in the industry grouping and area, ex­
cept for those below the minimum size studied.

Occupational employment estimates represent the total in all
establishments within the scope of the study and not- the number actu­
ally surveyed. Because of differences in occupational structure among
establishments, the estimates of occupational employment obtained
from the sample of establishments studied serve only to indicate the
relative importance of the jobs studied.
These differences in occu­
pational structure do not materially affect the accuracy of the earn­
ings data.

Occupations and Earnings
The occupations selected for study are common to a variety
of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries. Occupational clas­
sification is based on a uniform set of job descriptions designed to
take account of interestablishment variation in duties within the same
job.
(See appendix for listing of these descriptions.) Earnings data
are presented (in the A -se rie s tables) for the following types of occu­
pations: (a) Office clerical; (b) professional and technical; (c) mainte­
nance and power plant; and (d) custodial and material movement.

Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Information is presented (in the B -series tables) on selected
establishment practices and supplementary benefits as they relate to
office and plant workers.
The concept "office w o rk ers," as used
in this bulletin, includes working supervisors and nonsupervisory
workers performing clerical or related functions, and excludes admin­
istrative, executive, and professional personnel. ,N
Plaiit\workers" in­
clude working foremen and all nonsupervisory workers (including leadmen and trainees) engaged in npnoffice functions. Administrative,
executive, and professional employees, and force-account construction
employees who are utilized &s a separate work force are excluded.
Cafeteria workers and rp^iemen are excluded in manufacturing indus­
tries, but are included as plant workers in nonmanufacturing industries.

Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for
full-time workers, i . e . , those hired to work a regular weekly sched­
ule in the given occupational classification. Earnings data exclude
premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and
late shifts. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded also, but co st-o fliving bonuses and incentive earnings are included.
Where weekly
hours are reported, as for office clerical occupations, reference is




1

2

Shift differential data (table B - l ) are limited to manufacturing
industries. This information is presented both in terms of (a) estab­
lishment policy,1 presented in terms of total plant worker employ­
ment, and (b) effective practice, presented in terms of workers
actually employed on the specified shift at the time of the survey.
In establishments having varied differentials, the amount applying to
a majority was used or, if no amount applied to a majority, the clas­
sification “other” was used.
In establishments in which some lateshift hours are paid at normal rates, a differential was recorded only
if it applied to a majority of the shift hours.
Minimum entrance salaries (table B -2 ) relate only to the
establishments visited.
They are presented in terms of establish­
ments with formal minimum salary policies.
The scheduled hours (table B -3) of a majority of the fir stshift workers in an establishment are tabulated as applying to all of
the plant or office workers of that establishment. Paid holidays; paid
vacations; and health, insurance, and pension plans (tables B -4 through
B -6 ) are treated statistically on the basis that these are applicable
to all plant or office workers if a majority of such workers are eli­
gible or may eventually qualify for the practices listed. Sums of
individual items in tables B -3 through B -6 may not equal totals be­
cause of rounding.
The first part of the paid holidays table (table B -4) presents
the number of whole and half holidays actually provided. The second
part combines whole and half holidays to show total holiday time.
The summary of vacation plans (table B -5) is limited to for­
mal policies, excluding informal arrangements whereby time off with
pay is granted at the discretion of the employer. Separate estimates
are provided according to employer practice in computing vacation
payments, such as time payments, percent of annual earnings, or
flat-sum amounts. However, in the tabulations of vacation pay, pay­
ments not on a time basis were so converted; for example, a payment
of 2 percent of annual earnings was considered as the equivalent of
1 week’s pay.

Data are presented for all health, insurance, and pension plans
(table B-6) for which at least a part of the cost is borne by the em ­
ployer, excepting only legal requirements such as workmen’s compen­
sation, social’ security, and railroad retirement. Such plans include
those underwritten by a commercial insurance company and those pro­
vided through a union fund or paid directly by the employer out of
current operating funds or from a fund set aside for this purpose.
Death benefits are included as a form of life insurance.
Sickness and accident insurance is limited to that type of in­
surance under which predetermined cash payments are made directly
to the insured on a weekly or monthly basis during illness or accident
disability. Information is presented for all such plans to which the
employer contributes.
However, in New York and New Jersey, which
have enacted temporary disability insurance laws which require em­
ployer contributions,2 plans are included only if the employer (1) con­
tributes more than is legally required, or (2) provides the employee
with benefits which exceed the requirements of the law. Tabulations
of paid sick-leave plans are limited to formal plans 3 which provide
full pay or a proportion of the worker’ s pay during absence from work
because of illness.
Separate tabulations are presented according to
(1) plans which provide full pay and no waiting period, and (2) plans
which provide either partial pay or a waiting period. In addition to the
presentation of the proportions of workers who are provided sickness
and accident insurance or paid sick leave, an unduplicated total is
shown of workers who receive either or both types of benefits.
Catastrophe insurance, sometimes referred to as extended
medical insurance, includes those plans which are designed to protect
employees in case of sickness and injury involving expenses beyond
the normal coverage of hospitalization, medical, axld surgical plans.
Medical insurance refers to plans providing for complete or partial
payment of doctors* fees. Such plans may be underwritten by commer­
cial insurance companies or nonprofit organizations or they may be
self-insured. Tabulations of retirement pension plans are limited to
those plans that provide monthly payments for the remainder of the
worker’ s life.

2 The temporary disability laws in California and Rhode Island
do not require employer contributions.
3 An establishment was considered as having a formal plan if
it established at least the minimum number of days of sick leave that
1
An establishment was considered as having a policy if it met
could be expected by each employee. Such a plan need not be written,
either of the following conditions: (l) Operated late shifts at the time
but informal sick-leave allowances, determined on an individual basis,
of the survey, or (2) had formal provisions covering late shifts.
were excluded.




3

Table 1.

Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied in Greenville, S. C . , 1 by m ajor industry division, 2 May 1962
Minimum
employment
in establish­
ments in scope
of study

Industry division

Number o f establishments
Within
scope of
study 3

W orkers in establishments
Within scope o f study

Studied

Studied
T otal4

Office

Plant

Total4

A ll divisions ________ __________________________ ___________

50

146

78

37,700

2, 800

30, 900

29, 380

M anufacturing_________________ ____ _______________________
Nonmanufacturing .
___ _ .
__
_ _
Transportation, com m unication, and
other public utilities 5
__ ____
— ___
W holesale trade . ____ _.___
Retail trade
_ _
__
. . . . . . . . .
— __
Finance, insurance, and rea l estate ----------- --------- ------S e rv ice s 1 ------------ ----------------------------------------------------------

50
50

82
64

43
35

29,700
8, 000

1,400
1,400

25, 800
5, 100

23, 440
5, 940

50
50
50
50
50

14
6
24
8
12

9
3
12
5
6

1, 800
400
3, 500
1, 200
1, 100

200
(*)
(*)
(J)
(*)

I, 300
( 6)
( )
(*)
( 6)

1, 530
230
2, 500
1, 030
650

1 The G reenville Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area consists of Greenville County.
The "workers within scope of study" estimates shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate
d escription o f th( size and com position of the labor force included in the survey.
The estim ates are not intended, however, to serve as a basis o f com parison with other area employment indexes
to m easure employment trends o r levels since (1) planning o f wage surveys requires the use o f establishment data com piled considerably in advance o f the payroll period studied, and (2) small
Establishments are excluded from the scope of the survey.
2 The 1957 revised edition o f the Standard Industrial C lassification Manual was used in classifying establishments by industry division.
Major changes from the ea rlier edition (used in the
Bureau* 8 labor m arket wage surveys conducted prior to July 1958) are the transfer o f m ilk pasteurization plants and ready-m ixed concrete establishments from trade (wholesale or retail) to
manufacturing, and the transfer o f radio and television broadcasting from services to the transportation, communication, and other public utilities division.
3 Includes all establishm ents with total employment at or above the m inim um -size .limitation. A ll outlets (within the area) of companies in such industries as trade, finance, auto repair
s e rv ice , and m otion-picture theaters are considered as 1 establishment.
4 Includes executive, p rofessional, and other workers excluded from the separate office and plant categories.
5 Taxicabs and services incidental to water transportation were excluded.
6 This industry division is represented in estimates fo r "all industries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the Series A and B tables. Separate presentation o f data fo r this division is not made
fo r one or m ore of the following reasons: (1) Employment in the division is too sm all to provide enough data to m erit separate study, (2) the sample was not designed initially to permit separate
presentation, (3) response was insufficient or inadequate to permit separate presentation, and (4) there is possibility of disclosure of individual establishment data.
7 Hotels: personal s erv ices; business services: automobile repair shops; motion pictures; nonprofit m em bership organizations; and engineering and architectural se rvice s.




Table 2. Percents of increase in standard weekly salaries and straight-tim e hourly earnings
for selected occupational groups in Greenville, S. C ., A pril 1961 to May 1962,
and May I960 to A pril 1961

Industry and occupational group

A pril 1961
to
May 1962

May I960
to
A pril 1961

A ll industries:
O ffice clerica l (men and women) -------— ----- -------------Industrial nurses (men and women) . . . ------------------------ —
Skilled maintenance (m e n )---------------------- — -------— ------—
Unskilled plant (m e n )--------------------------------------------------- —

3. 3
.7
5. 2
4 .8

2.7
2. 1
1. 5
2.0

Manufacturing:
O ffice clerica l (men and w o m e n )---- ---- ----------------------—
Industrial nurses (men and w om en )---- ------------. . . . _ -------Skilled maintenance (m e n )—.---- ----- — ----------------— —u.
---Unskilled plant (men)
. . . . . . — ------------------------------

2. 6
.7
5. 5
4. 5

3.7
2. 1
1.8
1.7

4
Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups

Presented in table 2 are percents of change in salaries of
office clerical workers and industrial nurses, and in average earnings
of selected plant worker groups.
For office clerical workers and industrial nurses, the per­
cents of change relate to average weekly salaries for normal hours
of work, that is, the standard work schedule for which straight-time
salaries are paid.
For plant worker groups, they measure changes
in straight-time hourly earnings, excluding premium pay for over­
time and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
The per­
centages are based on data for selected key occupations and include
most of the numerically important jobs within each group.
The of­
fice clerical data are based on men and women in the following 19 jobs:
Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B; clerks, accounting, class A
and B; clerks, file, class A, B, and C; clerks, order; clerks, pay­
roll; Comptometer operators; keypunch operators, class A and B;
office boys and girls; secretaries; stenographers, general; stenogra­
phers, senior; switchboard operators; tabulating-machine operators,
class B; and typists, class A and B.
The industrial nurse data are
based on men and women industrial nurses.
Men in the following
8 skilled maintenance jobs and 2 unskilled jobs were included in the
plant worker data: Skilled— carpenters; electricians; machinists; m e­
chanics; mechanics, automotive; painters; pipefitters; and tool and
die makers; unskilled— janitors, porters, and cleaners; and laborers,
material handling.
Average weekly salaries or average hourly earnings were
computed for each of the selected occupations.
The average sal­




aries or hourly earnings were then multiplied by the average employ­
ment in the job during the period surveyed in 1961.
These weighted
earnings for individual occupations were then totaled to obtain an ag­
gregate for each occupational group.
Finally, the ratio of these group
aggregates for the one year to the aggregate for the other year was
computed and the difference between the result and 100 is the percent
of change from the one period to the other.
The percent of change measures, principally, the effects of
(1) general salary and wage changes; (2) m erit or other increases
in pay received by individual workers while in the same job; and
(3) changes in the labor force such as labor turnover, force expan­
sions, force reductions, and changes in the proportions of workers
employed by establishments with different pay levels.
Changes in the
labor force can cause increases or decreases in the occupational
averages without actual wage changes. For example, a force expansion
might increase the proportion of lower paid workers in a specific
occupation and result in a drop in the average, whereas a reduction
in the proportion of lower paid workers would have the opposite effect.
The movement of a high-paying establishment out of an area could
cause the average earnings to drop, even though no change in rates
occurred in other area establishments.
The use of constant employment weights eliminates the effects
of changes in the proportion of workers represented in each job in­
cluded in the data.
Nor are the percents of change influenced by
changes in standard work schedules or in premium pay for overtime,
since they are based on pay for straight-time hours.

The above text represents the method used in computing a new trend
series.
The expansion of the labor market wage survey program in 1961 made
data available in 82 areas for the computation of wage trends for selected job
groupings.
Sixty-one areas were surveyed in I960; prior to I960, coverage was
limited to 20 areas.
Therefore, it was decided to compute a new trend series in
which 1961 will be the base year since this is the first year in which data were
collected in all 82 areas.
The percents of change shown in table 2 are not comparable with similar
data shown for this area in last year's Bulletin 1285-63.
The new series intro­
duces changes in the job groupings for which trends are shown and changes in
jobs included in the computations.

A:
Table A-L

O ccupational E arnings
Office Occupations—Men and W om en

(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Greenville, S. C ., May 1962)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

Avubag®

Number
of
workers

.Sex, occupation, and industry division

Weeklyj
hours
(Standard)

Weekly.
earnings
(Standard)

*35.00 *40.00 *45.00 *50.00 *55.00 *60.00 *65.00 *70.00 *75.00 *80.00 *85.00 *90.00 *95.00 1*00.00 1*05.00 1*10.00
and
and
under
40.00 45.00 50.00 55.00 60.00 65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 over

Men
16

39.0

$91.00

_

_

.

.

_

_

3

.

3

B iller8, machine (billing machine) - ------- — —
M anufacturing--------------------------------- ----------------------

54
42

40.0
40.0

59. 50
58.50

_

_

-

-

9
8

8
5

16
12

9
7

2
2

4
4

4
4

_
B iller6, machine (bookkeeping m a ch in e)_ __________
Nonmanufacturing _ ____
__
_ ____ __
_

26
24

40.0
40.0

53.00
53.00

3
3

4
4

3
3

4
2

2
2

2
2

8
8

_
-

_
-

Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B -----------------M anufacturing_____ _— _________ __________________
Nonmanufacturing ______
„
__ —
__

77
19
58

40.0
40.0
40.0

59.00
64. 50
57.50

_
-

1
1

4
4

19
2
17

14
4
10

19
3
16

9
5
4

6
6

C lerks, accounting, class A ______________ —
_______ __
Manufacturing ____
__ .. ... . ___
_____ __

38
24

40.0
40.0

70.00
73.00

_
-

_

_

, .
-

2
2

8
5

11
3

Clerks, accounting, class B ._
____ __ _. ___
_
M anufacturing____________________________ ,________
Nonmanufacturing__ ..
.. _. ____
__

58
34
24

39.5
39.5
39.5

58. 50
58. 50
58.00

_
-

2
1
1

27
15
12

6
5
1

10
7
3

Clerks, file, class C 1 ----------------------------------------------3
2
Nonmanufacturing---------------------------------------------------

34
24

39.5
$9.5

48.00
48.00

_
-

23
15

10
$

_
-

Clerks, o r d e r ____________________ ___________________
M anufacturing--------------------------------------------------------

, 22
20

40.0
40.0

62. 50
63.00

_
-

.
-

Clerks, payroll
. . . . .
.. ..
_
Manufacturing ____________, _______________________
_
Nonmanufacturing--------------------------------------------------

79
6l
18

39.5
39.5
39.5

60.50
61.00
60. 50

_
_
-

1
1
.
1
1

6
3
3

Keypunch operators, class B 3 ______________ ________
Manufacturing „
—
. ----------_

61
*9

38.5
40.0

56.50
58.50

_

188
71
117

39.0
39.5
38.5

73. 50
77. 50
71.00

_
_
-

7
_
-

Stenographers, general 3 ____________________________
Manufacturing ..
«.
_
_ ___
_
_____
Nonmanufacturing _
._
_ .
_________

97
65
32

39.5
40.0
39.5

65.00
64. 50
65. 50

>

Switchboard o p e ra to r-re ce p tio n ists --------------------------Manufacturing _
. --------._ --------------------Nonmanufacturing
.
_ _

53
26
27

40.0
39.5
40.0

61.00
60.50
62.00

Transcribing-machine operators, general
...
_
Nonmanufacturing--------------------------------------------------

31
20

39.0
38.5

Typists, class A ____________________________________

19

Typists, class B __________________________________ __
Manufacturing _ _
__

76
24
52

Clerks, accounting, class A ----------- --------------------------

_

_

3

_

4

_

2
_

_

_

_
-

_
-

-

5
5
-

_
-

7
4

6
6

-

6
2
4

3
2
1

2
2

_

_

_
-

2
2
_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

11
9

4
4

3
3

1
1

_

3
3

19
15
4

15
13
2

10
7
3

13
10
3

5
5
*

9
8
1

6
3

10
5

13
7

20
10

3
2

2
1

_
-

_
_

_
_
-

3
3

7
7

12
12

15
4
11

26
14
12

36
14
22

45
12
33

_
-

1
1

7
5
2

25
14
11

24
16
8

20
l6
4

6
5
1

_

_

_

-

-

-

8
4
4

19
8
11

12
8
4

7
4
3

57.50
54. 00

.
-

3
3

3
3

3
3

7
7

10
2

39.5

64.50

.

_

1

1

1

38. 5
40.0
38.0

51.00
52.00
50.50

_

7

26
9
17

27
8
19

15
6
9

1

22

-

_

_

_
-

_
_
_

_
.
.

.

Women

Secretaries . .
—
.. . __
____ _____
Manufacturing
_ .
.
---. . .
Nonmanufacturing —

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

_

_

__ _
_
_

__ _

__

-

-

_
-

-

7
'

1
1
_
_

-

3
3

_
_

_
_

_
*
_

_
_

_

-

*
_

_

-

.
_
_

-

_
_
_

-

_

.
_

-

-

-

21
i5|
6<

5
2
3

7
4
3

8
5
3

1
1

3
3
-

6
6
-

2

_

-

-

2
2

_
-

3
1
2

1
1
-

2
2

1
1

_

_

-

-

5
2

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5

8

2

1

_

_

_

_

_

_

.

1
1

.

_

.

.

.

.

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

*

“

*

_

2

*

'

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
2 W orkers were distributed as follows: 1 at $110 to $115; 1 at $115 to $120.
3 Description for this job has been revised since the last survey in this area. See appendix A.




_
_
_

-

1
_
1
.

-

1

1
1
-

l
1

_
-

-

_

_
-

_
-

_

■

6
Table A-2.

Professional and Technical Occupations—Men and W om en

(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Greenville, S. C ., May 1962)
A rau es
Number
of
workers

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Weekly,
hours *
(Standard)

Weekly .
earnings *
(Standard)

35

40.0

40.0
40.0

75.00
75.00

$
*60. 00 *65. 00 *70. 00 *75.00 *80. 00 85.00 *90. 00 *95. 00 1*00. 00 1*05. 00 1*10.00 1*15. 00 1*20. 00
and
under
65.00 70.00 75. 00 80.00 85. 00 90.00 95. 00 100.00 105. 00 110.00 115. 00 120.00 125.00

$106.50

19
19

NUMBER OP WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

Men
Draftsmen, senior ------------------------------------------------------

5

9

13

4

4

Women
— — -------Nurses, industrial (registered) ----- -----Manufacturing --------------------------------------------------------

4
4

3
3

4
4

3
3

2
2

1

2
2

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.

Table A-3. Office, Professional, and Technical Occupations—
Men and Women Combined
(Average straight-time weekly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Greenville, S. C ., May 1962)

Occupation and industry division

N ber
um
of
w
orkers

A
verage
w
eekly .
earnings*
(Standard)

A
verage
w
eekly .
earn gs*
in
(S dard)
tan

Occupation and industry division

Office occupations— Continued
Tabulating-machine operators, class B —
___________
Manufacturing-------------------------------------------------------

24
17

$76.00
76. 50

Clerks, payroll — ___ -__—
_______________ -______ —
Manufacturing
_
_
Nonmanufacturing ----------------------------------------------

82
64
18

61.00
61.00
60. 50

Transcribing-machine operators, general ___ —
____
Nonmanufacturing ____ . _______ «... ___ . . . __.. ..

31
20

57.50
54. 00

.. ... ..____ _

64. 50

61
29

56. 50
58. 50

19

2
----- — — —
59. 50 Keypunch operators, class B 1 _
Manufacturing
_____ ______
________ _____
_
65. 00
57. 50
Secretaries
—
M anufacturing_— .. ..... .. ......... .. ... .. —
76. 50
Nonm ann faotu ri ng
___ _ ____
77. 00
74. 50
Stenographers, general2 ---------------- ---Manufacturing . . — ____ __________
__
59. 00
Nnnm ar>ufar tii ring
_
_
___ ___ ____
59. 50
58. 00
Switchboard operator-receptionists -----------------------Manufacturing
M iiww_M
MMir
T m _ii
48. 00
Nrm
rYi
_
____
48. 00

188
71
117

73. 50
77.50
71.00

Typists, class B ___________________________________
Manufacturing ____ __________________
___ _
Nonmanufacturing .
--- ----------- ^
_______________

76
24
52

51. 00
52. 00
50. 50

100
65
35

65. 50
64. 50
67. 50

Draftsmen, senior ________ ___ _______________ . ___ _

35

106.50

53
U
27

61.00
60. 50
62. 00

Nurses, industrial (registered) _____________________
Manufacturing_______ ___ _______ .. .__________...

19
19

75.00
75. 00

26
24

53. 00
53.00

Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B _________
Mfuuifflrbiring
. . . . . . . .

78
20
58

_______

Cltrkffj accounting, class B
Nonmanufacturing ---- — ------------------------------------Clerks, file, class C 2 ______ _____ _____ _____ _
_
N
ac u ng

54
35
19
62
38
24
34
2?

Typists, class A . .

. . __ .

_______

Professional and technical occupations

1 Earnings are for a regular workweek for which employees receive their straight-time weekly salaries, exclusive o f any premium pay.
2 Description for this job has been revised since the last survey in this area. See appendix A.




A
verage
w
eekly .
earning*1
(Standard)

$68. 50
69. 00

B illers, machine (bookkeeping machine)
r
..n,
Nonmanufacturing ----- ------------------------------------ -

CfafV®, Recounting, rlasa A .............

N ber
um
of
w
orker*

38
36

$60. 50 Clerks, order ____________________________________
Manufacturing --------------------------------------------------60. 00

58
44

-

N ber
um
w
orkers

Office occupations— Continued

Office occupations
B illers, machine (billing m a ch in e)--- -----— Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------------

Nr>r»m r'1faCt1 ring
;V 1
i

Occupation and industry division

7
Table A -4. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Greenville, S, C. , May 1962)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

N ber
um
of
w
orkers

Occupation and industry division

$
$
$
Avenge $
hourly , 1.00 1. 10 1.20 1.30
earnings
and
under
1,20. 1.30 1.40

-

-

2
2

4
4

20
20

10
10

25
25

10
10

7
7

“

-

-

-

-

1
-

-

4
4

3
3

"

11
6

3
3

4
4

1
-

-

6
6

13
13

22
22

5
5

8
8

11
10

10
9

10
10

14
14

2
2

6
6

-

-

-

-

-

6
6

36
36

10
10

25
25

3
3

7
7

1
1

“

.
■

.
-

4
1

5
2
2

_
■

2
1
1

1
■

10
6
6

_
-

4
3
"

3
3

18
18

18
18

18
18

17
17

15
15

22
22
.

2.00
2.00

-

-

-

__ — —
--------- -

47
41

1.32
1.39

26
-

-

Helpers, maintenance trades ---------------- —
M anufacturing---------------------------------------------

69
67

1.45
1.46

3
3

Machinists, maintenance —
Manufacturing

88
88

1.96
1.96

57
44
29

2.25
2.38
2.37

143
143

2. 15
2.15

104
104

1.38
1.38

24
22

1.67
1.63

O iler8 — . . ----Manufacturing ----------- __

___ ___

Painters, maintenance _. _ _______
_
M anufacturing______
_.

..
.
.. __ -

.
-

-

.
-

1

2
2

,

-

-

-

5
5

38
38

60
60

1
1

.

.

.

_

"

-

-

-

"

■

!

5
5

3
3

4
4

7
7

!

1
1

_

2

Excludes premium pay for overtim e and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts,
Includes 4 workers at $ 0. 80 to $ 0. 90 and 1 at $ 0. 90 to $ 1.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.




2.40

-

27
20

.. .. _________—
.. .. . ___

2.30

-

-

—
__

2.20

1
1

“

Mechanics, maintenance
Manufacturing
_

2. 10

2
2

-

Mechanics, automotive (m ain ten a n ce)________
Nonmanufacturing __ ___
„ ....
---Public utilities 3 _____ ______

2.00

3
3

2.00
1.99

------- —
—
. . . .
__

1.90

8
7

80
79

----

1.80

$
$
$
$
2. 50 2.60 $2. 70 2. 80 2.90 $3. 00 $3. 10
and
2. 50 2.60 2.70 2. 80 2. 90 3. 00 3. 10 over

$
2.40

14
12

-

Firem en, stationary boiler .
Manufacturing---- —

1.70

1.60

$
2.30

14
13

"

----

$
1.90

9
8

-

___ —

$
1.80

4
4

$1.80
1.80

Manufacturing ______ ___

1. 50

$
$
2.00 $ 10 2.20
2.

$
$
1.50 $1.60 1.70

-

55
50

---Carpenters, maintenance . . . .
M anufacturing---------------------------------------------

$
1.40

_

'

*

-

-

-

1

"

1
-

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1
1

14
14
2

2
2
2

14
14
14

-

_
-

_
"

.
7

.
•
"

2
2

-

7
7

!
1

_
-

4
4

9
9

4
4

3
3

_
-

.

.

.

_

.

.

~

_

_

_

.

1

_

.

.

•

•

_

_

■
_

_

_

8
Table A-5.

Custodial and Material Movement Occupations

(Average straight-time hourly earnings far selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Greenville, S. C. , May 1962)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

Occupation 1 and industry division

Janitors, porters, and cleaners
(men) ___________ _______ _______ ___ ___
Manufacturing _______ -_____ ________
Nonm anufacturing_____ _ ,_____ ._ _
_
_
Public utilities3 _________________
Janitors, porters, and cleaners
(women) _ __
________ ____ ______

N ber
um
of
w
orkers

A
verage
0.
0.60 *0.70 $ 80 *0.90 *1.00 *1.10 *1.20 *1.30 *1.40 *1. 50 *1.60 *1.70 *1.80 *1.90 *2.00 *2. 10 *2. 20 *2. 30 *2.40 ‘ 2.50 *2. 60 *2. 70
hourly 2 *0. 50 $
earnings and
under
.90 1.00 1. 10 1. 20 1.30 1.40 1. 50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2.00 2. 10 2.20 2. 30 2.40 2. 50 2.60 2.70 2.80
.80
.60
.70

68

1.08

5

27

19
19

194
1.35
i.i6
1.67
2.46
1.40
1.36
1.40
1.40
1.22
1. 22

45
“

-

"

44
t9
15

1.55
1. 51
1.64

-

_
-

-

27
25

1.77
1.77
1.86
1.43
2. 15

•-

_
“

_
-

-

12
12
-

96
66
30
6

182
169
13
3

128
ni
15
11

17
16
1
-

5
1
4
1

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

18

25
25

-

_
-

18

20
— IT
4

11
11
_
1
-

83
68
15
32
2l
6
6

206
192
14
20
i4

30
26
2
14
6

3
i
-

13
1
12
32
14

-

4

-

-

-

-

-

22

-

-

-

4
4

-

-

-

-

-

22
22

-

26
24

28
26
2
2

9
9
1
1

24
24
1
1

-

5
5

5
2
3
2
1
1
32
22

-

_
-

-

3
3
-

8
6
2

4
4
2

_
3
3

6
5
1
3
2

7
5
2

5
5

1
1
1
1

-

3
3

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

12
3
9
8
6

“

-

4
4

-

-

-

-

-

-

5
5
41
41
-

_
-

3
3
1
1
-

2
2
-

_
“

6
6
6
6
-

5
5
6
6

_
2
1
1

2
2

4
4

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
64
64

1. 76
1.79

_ ____ __
21
Shipping and receiving clerks _
_
_____ ------T
Manufacturing _ _ __
L
Truckd rivers 5 ________________________
196
Manufacturing _ __________________
_
80
Nonmanufacturing ______________ „ __
116

2
2
•

$1.2 4
1. 26
1. 14
1.33

Nonmanufacturing — __
L aborers, material handling___________
Manufacturing ________ _ ____________
N onm anufacturing__ ____ __________
Public utilities 3 _________________
Order f i l l e r s __ __
_
____
Manufac tur in g _ __ _
_
_ _ _____
Packers, shipping (m en )_______________
Manufacturing
____ __ —
_____
Packers, shipping (w om en )____________
M anufacturing_____________________
Receiving c l e r k s ---------------------------------_____
Manufacturing
__
Nonmanufacturing __________________
Shipping clerks _____ __ ____
_____
Manufacturing _
_

401
il8
83
28
104
6i
100
97

4
4
-

1
1
-

453
i6'5
88
22

5
5
-

_
2
2

_
-

_
4
4

_
28
1
27

9
9

18
17
1

18
ii
5

3
2

1
1

Truckdrivers, light (under
1V2 tons) _________ __________ _
Truckdrivers, medium (IV 2 to and
including 4 tons) _______ _____ ____
M anufacturing_______ , __________
_
Nonmanufacturing _______________

19

1.26

-

-

-

2

-

3

5

5

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

64
35
29

1.38
1.35
1.41

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

19
1
18

10
10
-

15
12
3

11
11
-

-

1
1
-

-

-

-

3

-

-

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

-

-

4

-

-

-

-

Truckdrivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
trailer t y p e ) ______________________
Nonmanufac tur ing ________ _____ _

57
45

2.46
2.67

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

-

2
2

6
-

-

-

-

-

6
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

42
4l

56

1.99
1. 51
1.39
1.28
1.32
.99

-

-

-

-

-

-

3
2

-

-

-

-

-

2

2

-

-

-

-

22

-

-

-

1

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

1

_
"

_

-

2
2

-

-

_
"

-

-

17
17
3
3
“

7

1

8
8
14
14

-

-

19
19
18
18
"

24
-

6
6

3
24
24
34
33
1

"

"

“

Truckdrivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
other than trailer type) ___________
Truckers, power (forklift) ____________
Watchmen
______ __
_______
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing __________________

89
74
107
92
15

1

"

”

6
6

19
15
4

Data limited to men workers except where otherwise indicated.
Excludes premium pay far overtime and far work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes 3 workers at $ 0.40 to $ 0. 50.
Includes aU drivers regardless of size and type of truck operated.




9
9
“

-

-

-

6

-

*

-




B:

9

E stablishm ent P ra ctice s a n d S u p p lem en ta ry W age P r o v is io n s
Table B-l. Shift Differentials

(Shift differentials o f manufacturing plant w orkers by type and amount o f differential, G reenville, S. C . , May 1962)
P ercent o f manufacturing plant w orkers—
In establishm ents having form al
provisions 1 fo r—

Shift differential

Second shift
work

A ctually working on—

Third o r other
shift work

Second shift

Third o r other
shift

70.7

68.1

2 0.4

16.1

With shift pay d iffe r e n t ia l______— -------------------

2 .6

58.2

.8

14.3

U niform cents (per h o u r ) -----------------------------

2 .6

53.1

.8

13.6

Total .

------ —

r#»nts
a rants _
10 rpnt«
1< rants
5

-----------------

. ..
.......

-

1 .4
....

_
. . .

..

_

52. 6
.5
.7

Uniform p e r c e n t a g e ___________ . ___ —
_
---------

-

68. 1

9 .9

•4

13.6

*1
.3

-

-

5.1

^ pprrpnt
No shift pay d iffe r e n t ia l---------------- — ---- -----------

*5

I
1

.7

197

1.8

.7

5.1

I

1
Includes establishments currently operating late shifts, and establishm ents with form a l provisions covering late shifts
even though they were not cu rrently operating late shifts.

10
Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salaries for Women Office Workers
(Distribution o f establishm ents studied in all industries and in industry divisions by minimum entrance salary fo r selected ca te g o rie s
o f inexperienced women office w orkers, G reenville, S. C . , May 1962)
Other inexperienced c le r ic a l w orkers 2

Inexperienced typists
Manufacturing
Minimum w eekly s a la ry 1

A ll
industries

A ll
schedules

40

A ll
schedules

Nonmanufacturing

Manufacturing

Nonmanufacturing
A ll
industries

Based on standard weekly hours 3 of—

Based on standard w eekly hours 3 f—
4o
A ll
schedules

40

40

A ll
schedules

40

Establishm ents s tu d ie d ---------------------------------------------------------------

78

43

XXX

35

XXX

78

43

XXX

35

XXX

Establishments having a specified m in im u m -----------------------------

20

12

12

8

6

42

27

25

15

12

5
12
5
18
1
1

9
2
15
1
"

.
9
2
13
1
-

5
3
3
3
1

3
3
2
3
1

XXX

6

5

XXX

1

XXX

XXX

30

11

XXX

19

XXX

_

under $42. 50 ------------------------------------------------- ----under $ 4 5 .0 0 _____ —
____ — __ ---under $ 47. 50 ----------------- „ __ ------ __
__ ------under $ 5 0 .0 0 ____ ____ __ __ ___
under $ 52. 50
........................................ ...........
under $55. 00 ------- ------------ —
— —
over -------* ------- --- ---— — — —

2
5
4
8
1
-

3
2
6
1
“

Establishm ents having no specified minimum ___________ _____

3

3

55

28

XXX

2
2
2
2
-

XXX

$40. 00
$42 . 50
$45. 00
$ 4 7 .5 0
$ 50. 00
$ 52. 50
$ 55. 00

and
and
and
and
and
and
and

Establishments which did not em ploy w orkers
in this ca tegory

-

3
2
6
1
-

27

1
2
2
1
-

1 Lowest salary rate form a lly established fo r hiring inexperienced workers fo r typing or other c le r ic a l jo b s .
2 Rates applicable to m essen g ers, office g ir ls , o r sim ilar sub clerica l jobs are not con sidered.
3 Hours reflect the workweek fo r which em ployees re ceiv e their regular straight-tim e s ala ries.
Data are presented fo r all workweeks com bined, and fo r the m ost com m on workweek reported.

Table B-3. Scheduled Weekly Hours
(P ercen t distribution o f o ffice and plant w orkers in all industries and in industry divisions by scheduled w eekly hours
o f firs t-s h ift w orkers, G reenville, S. C ., May 1962)
PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS

Weekly hours
All industries1

Manufacturing

Public utilities1
2

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

100

A ll w orkers ____________________________________

100

100

100

100

100

Under 40 hours ________________________________
40 hours __________ __ „ __ ____ — ------- —
Over 40 and under 44 hours
___
— ______
44 hours ___
. ____
_______T
_._____
Over 44 and under 48 hours ___________________
48 hours ___________ __ __
__ __ -------------50 hours
....
_54 hours
_
__
.
_ ...

9
85

2

20

1

96

69

65

!
67

1

11

2

-

-

-

7
4

7
4

21
1

22

-

(4)

1
2
3
4

2
2
1
1

(4)

1
1

Includes data for w holesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and rea l estate; and se rv ice s in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Transportation, com m unication, and other public utilities.
Includes data fo r wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and se rv ice s in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
L ess than 0. 5 percent.




(4)

84
.
7
_
4
6

11
Table B-4.

Paid Holidays

(Percent distribution of office and plant w orkers in all industries and in industry division s by number o f paid holidays
provided annually, G reenville, S. C . , May 1962)
OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

Item
All industries1

A ll w orkers

--------------------

-----------

-----------

-----------

—

—

W orkers in establishm ents providing
paid h o lid a y s ---------------------------------------------------------------------------W orkers in establishm ents providing
no paid h o l i d a y s -----------------------------------------------------------------—

Manufacturing

Public utilities1
2

All industries 3

100

100

100

100

83

65

100

17

35

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

100

100

41

32

100

59

68

"

1
3
12
5
10
7
4

1
3
10
4
6
8

'

Number of days

1
holiday ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 holidays --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3 holiday s - -------------- ------------ ------- --------------------------- — ---------------- 4 h o l i d a y s --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5 h o l i d a y s --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6 holidays - ------------ --------------------------------------------- -------------------------7 holidays — — — — — — — — ----------- — —

(4)
5
6
9
37
18
8

.

.

10
3
16
16
19

5
-

11
15
69

-

4
-

7
17
72

“

Total holiday time

7
6
5
4

days --------------------------------------------------------------—
o r m ore days ------------------------------------------------o r m ore days ------------------------------------------------o r m o re days ------------------------------------------------3 o r m o re days —---------------------------------------------2 o r m o re days ------------------------------------------------1 o r m ore days -------------------------------------------------

1
2
3
4

8
25
63

71
77
82
83

19
36
52
55
65
65

69
85
95
95
100
100
100

4
11
21
26
37
40
41

Includes data fo r wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and s e rv ice s in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Transportation, com m unication, and other public utilities.
Includes data fo r w holesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and s e rv ice s in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Less than 0. 5 percen t.




8
14
18
28
31
32

72
89
96
96
100
100
100

12
Table B-5.

Paid Vacations

(P ercent distribution o f o ffice and plant worker's in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provision s, G reenville, S.C ., May 1962)
PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKER8
Vacation p olicy

A ll w orkers _____

___ ___ _____________

All industries1

___

M
anufacturing

Public utilities2

All industries3

M
anufacturing

Public utilities2

100

100

100

100

100

100

99
90
8
1

100
81
17
2

100
100
-

96
34
62
-

97
22
75
-

96
96
-

4

3

4

M e th o d o f p a y m e n t
Wcfirkers in establishm ents providing
paid vacations ----------------------------------------------L ength -of-tim e payment _______ ___________
Percentage payment ----------------------------------F lat-sum payment --------------------------------------Other ______ . _________ — __ ____ ___
W orkers in establishm ents providing
no paid vacations ___________________________

-

(4)

-

A m ou n t o f v a c a t io n p a y 5
A fter 6 months of serv ice
Under 1 week _________________________________
] week _______
.
Over 1 and under 2 weeks ____________________

9
47
3

(4)
51
5

_
41
-

10
4
<
4)

10
1
-

_
40
-

_
45
54

_
47
53

_
74
26

3
88
1
4

4
92
_
1

_
84
_
13

_
34
1
65

_
46
54

_
5
15
80

3
82
2
8

4
89
2
2

_
40
57

_
27
73

_
39
61

_
5
95

3
76
3
14

4
85
2
6

_
7
89

_
27
.
73

_
39
.
61

_
5
95

3
75
3
15

4
84
2
7

.
7
89

_
19
1
78
1

23
2
73
2

_
5
95

3
16
3
74
1

4
14
2
76

_
_
96

A fter 1 year of se rv ice
Under 1 week ______ _ _______________________
1 week _______________
______________________
Over 1 and under 2 weeks ____________ ________
2 w e e k s __ _____ ___ ___________ _________

-

A fter 2 yea rs of serv ice
Under 1 week __________________ -______________
1 week _____ __ --------- ------------- ---- ---Over 1 and under 2 weeks _______________ ____
2 weeks ______ __________________ __ ____ __
A fter 3 yea rs of serv ice
Under 1 week _________________________________
1 week ... _.
___ ,___________ __ _____
Over 1 and under 2 weeks ___________ ________
2 weeks __________
— -------- _ ---- -------------

-

A fter 4 yea rs of serv ice
Under 1 week _________________________________
1 week _____________ _______ __________ __ __
Over 1 and under 2 weeks ----- ------- ------------2 weeks _________ _____________ ___ - _ ___

_

A fter 5 yea rs o f s erv ice
Under 1 week _________________________________
1 week ___ _____ __ _____ ____________ ___
Over 1 and under 2 weeks ____________________
2 weeks __ ______ ______
________ __ ____
3 weeks _______________ __
_________

See footnotes at end of table.




_

13
Tabic B-5.

Paid Vacations— Continued

(P ercent distribution of o ffice and plant w orkers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
p rovision s, G reenville, S. C . , May 1962)
PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS

V acation p olicy
All industries1

A m ou n t o f v a c a t io n p a y 5—

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

C on tin u ed

A fter 10 yea rs o f s e rv ice
Under 1 week ______________ ____________________
1 week ................... .............................. .
Over 1 and under 2 weeks ------ __ ---------2 weeks
.
__ __ _ __
__ __
Over 2 and under 3 weeks --------------------------------3 weeks ____ - — — — _ ---— — -

_
19
1
68
2
11

_
23
2
70
3
2

_
19
1
68
2
11

23
2
70
3
2

_
19
1
45
.
34

_
23
2
54
_
21

_
19
1
45
28
7

_
19
1
45
22
13

_
5

3
16
2
71
2
1

4
14
2
74
2
-

3
16
2
71
2
2

4
14
2
74
2
-

10
_
86

3
16
2
66
2
7

4
14
2
73
2
1

_
23
2
54
21
-

_
5
10
70
15

3
16
2
66
8
1
1

4
14
2
73
3
_
-

_
23
2
54
16
_
5

_
5
_
10
50
_
.36

3
16
2

4
14
2
73
3
-

-

86
-

9

96
-

A fter 12 yea rs o f s e rv ice
Under 1 w e e k ___________________ _________ ______
1 week r-r.T*__________ ,___^ -rr
-r r_________i __,_______
_
O ver 1 and under 2 weeks --------------------------------2 weeks . — ---- - - ---_
Over 2 and under 3 w e e k s _____ _______________
3 weeks ---------------------------------------------------------------

_
5
_
86
-

9

_
_
85
_
•11

A fter 15 yea rs o f se rv ice
Under 1 w e e k __
. . . .
__ __
._
1 Week _______________________ ____________T,_____
Over 1 and under 2 weeks _____________________
2 weeks
__ ---__ _
---Over 2 and under 3 w e e k s -------------------------------_
3 weeks ---------------------------------------------------------------

_
5
-

.

7
_
89

A fter 20 yea rs o f se rv ice
Under 1 w e e k -------- ------------__ _____
1 week
__
__ —
------__ _
Over 1 and under 2 weeks --------------------------------2 weeks __________ _______________________________
3 weeks
____r„._____ r
_________ ^
............... , _____
Over 3 and under 4 w e e k s __________ ___________
—
.. .
— —
4 w e e k s ____

.

7
78
_
11

A fter 25 y ea rs o f s e rv ice
Under 1 week __ __ ____
__
___
1 w e e k __________________________________________
Over 1 and under 2 weeks _ __
__
__
2 weeks ____ ___
.
_____
„ __ __
3 weeks
. . , ,.................
Over 3 and under 4 weeks _
________ _
4 weeks _ ___ ----_
_ _ __

1
2
3
4
5
s e rv ice

66
6

1
3

_
_
_
7

45
.
45

Includes data fo r wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and re a l estate; and s e rv ice s in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Transportation, com m unication, and other public utilities.
Includes data fo r wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and se rv ice s in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
L ess than 0. 5 percen t.
P eriod s o f s e rv ice w ere a rb itra rily chosen and do not n ecessarily re fle ct the individual provisions fo r p ro g re ssio n s.
F o r exam ple, the changes in proportions indicated at 10 years'
include changes in prov ision s o ccu rrin g between 5 and 10 years.

NOTE: In the tabulations o f vacation allowances by years o f se rv ice , payments other than "length o f tim e, " such as percentage o f annual earnings o r flat-su m
to an equivalent tim e b a sis; fo r exam ple, a payment of 2 percent o f annual earnings was con sid ered as 1 w eek's pay.




payments, were converted

14

Table B-6. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
(P ercent o f office and plant w orkers in all industries and in industry divisions em ployed in establishm ents providing
health, insurance, or pension benefits, G reenville, S. C . , May 1962)
O F F IC E W O R K E R S

PLAN T W ORKERS

Type of benefit
A ll In d u strie s 1

A ll w orkers ___________________________________

M a n u fa c t u r in g

P u b lic u tilitie s 1
2

A ll in d u s trie s 3

M a n u fa c t u r in g

P u b l i c u tilit ie s 2

100

100

100

100

100

100

94

90

100

83

82

100

49

47

45

44

44

51

60

41

46

53

50

68

Sickness and accident insurance _______
Sick leave (full pay and no
waiting period) _______________________
Sick leave (partial pay or
waiting period) _ ------------- -----------------

36

28

25

47

50

18

39

15

17

6

1

23

4

~

20

2

“

33

Hospitalization insurance _________________
__ — S urgical insurance ____________
M edical insurance ____________ —
____
Catastrophe insurance ________
________
Retirem ent pension _______________________
No health, insurance, or pension plan ___

87
87
37
42
60

79
79
21

80
80

80
80
13
12
25

80
80
11

39

6

72

20

68

7

6

W orkers in establishm ents providing:
L ife insurance ____ ___ ____
____ —
A ccidental death and dism em berm ent
insurance
------------ ------- — ---- ---- —
Sickness and accident insurance or
sick leave or both4 — __ __ — ---- -

1

9
46

( 5)

49
78
74

67
67

1 Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and rea l estate; and se rv ice s in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
2 Transportation, com m unication, and other public utilities.
3 Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, rea l estate, and se rv ice s in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
4 Unduplicated total o f w orkers receivin g sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately below. Sick-leave plans are lim ited to those which definitely establish at least the
minimum number o f d a ys' pay that can be expected by each em ployee. Inform al s ick -le a v e allow ances determ ined on an individual basis are excluded.
5 L ess than 0. 5 percen t.




Appendix A: Changes in Occupational Descriptions

Since the Bureau’ s last survey in this area, occupational
descriptions for three office jobs were revised in order to obtain salary
information for more sp ecific categories. Therefore, data presented
for these jobs in table A -l are not comparable to data presented in last
year’ s bulletin.

Revisions were made in the descriptions for file clerks, key­
punch operators, and stenographers. The revised description for file
clerk groups these workers into three levels (class A, B, and C) in­




stead of two (class A and B). The revised description for keypunch
operator groups these workers into two defined classes (A and B)
instead of a single category. Previously data were presented separately
for general stenographers and technical stenographers. The revision
combines general stenographers, with more responsible duties, and
technical stenographers to form a new senior stenographer category;
other general stenographers are maintained in that classification.
The revised occupational descriptions used this year are in­
cluded in appendix B.

15




Appendix B: Occupational Descriptions
The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to assist its
field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field economists are in*
structed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped, part-time,
temporary, and probationary workers.

OFFICE
BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
classified by type o f machine, as follows:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.
Class A—
Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, bal­
ance sheets, and other records by hand.

Biller, machine (hilling machine)—
Uses a special billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, etc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.

Class B—
Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge o f basic book­
keeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type of billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation of trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.

Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine)— ses a bookkeeping
U
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, etc., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers’
bills as part o f the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry o f figures on customers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types of sales and
credit slips.



CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A—
Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a com­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase of an establish­
ment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

17

18

CLERK, ACCOUNTING—
Continued
payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper ac­
counting distribution; and requires judgment and experience in
making proper assignations and allocations. May assist in preparing,
adjusting and closing journal entries; and may direct class B ac­
counting clerks.
Class B—
Under supervision, performs one or more routine ac­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or ac­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; and posting subsidiary ledgers con­
trolled by general ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data.
This job does not require a knowledge of accounting and book­
keeping principles but is found in offices in which the more routine
accounting work is subdivided on a functional basis among several
workers.

CLERK, FILE
Class A— an established filing system containing a number
In
of varied subject matter files, classifies and indexes file material
such as correspondence, reports, technical documents, etc. May
also file this material. May keep records of various types in con­
junction with the files. May lead a small group of lower level file
clerks.
Class B—
Sorts, codes, and files unclassified material by sim­
ple (subject matter) headings or partly classified material by finer
subheadings. Prepares simple related index and cross-reference
aids.
As requested locates clearly identified material in files
and forwards material. May perform related clerical tasks required
to maintain and service files.

Class C—
Performs routine filing of material that has already
been classified or which is easily classified in a simple serial
classification system (e.g.., alphabetical, chronological, or numer­
ical). As requested, locates readily available material in files
and forwards material; and may fill out withdrawal charge. Per­
forms simple clerical and manual tasks required to maintain and
service files.



CLERK, ORDER
Receives customers9orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination o f the following:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities o f items on order
sheet; and distributing order sheets to respective departments to be
filled. May check with credit department to determine credit rating o f
customer, acknowledge receipt o f orders from customers, follow up orders
to see that they have been filled, keep file o f orders received, and check
shipping invoices with original orders.

CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the neces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers9
earnings based on time or production records; and posting calculated
data on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker’ s name, work­
ing days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due.
May make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and dis­
tributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that o f statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use o f a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file of used stencils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

19

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Class A—
Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or combina­
tion keypunch machine to transcribe data from various source docu­
ments to keypunch tabulating cards* Performs same tasks as lower
level keypunch operator but in addition, work requires application of
coding skills and the making of some determinations, for example,
locates on the source document the items to be punched; extracts
information from several documents; and searches for and interprets
information on the document to determine information to be punched.
May train inexperienced operators*

Class B—
Under close supervision or following specific proce­
dures or instructions, transcribes data from source documents to
punched cards. Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or com­
bination keypunch machine to keypunch tabulating cards* May
verify cards. Working from various standardized source documents,
follows specified sequences which have been coded or prescribed
in detail and require little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting
data to be punched* Problems arising from erroneous items or codes,
missing information, etc., are referred to supervisor.

OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands, opera­
ting minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and dis­
tributing mail, and other minor clerical work.

SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an
administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receiving people coming into office; answering and



SECRETARY— Continued
making phone calls; handling personal and important or confidential
mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative; and taking
dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand
or by Stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the
recorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare
special reports or memorandums for information of superior.

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a
normal routine vocabulary; and transcribe dictation. May also type from
written copy. May maintain files, keep simple records, or perform other
relatively routine clerical tasks. May operate from a stenographic pool.
Does not include transcribing-machine work. (See transcribing-machine
operator.)

STENOGRAPHER, SENIOR
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a var­
ied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or
reports on scientific research and transcribe dictation. May also type
from written copy. May also set up and maintain files, keep records, etc.

OR

Performs stenographic duties requiring significantly greater
independence and responsibility than stenographers, general as evi­
denced by the following: Work requires high degree of stenographer
speed and accuracy; and a thorough working knowledge of general busi­
ness and office procedures and of the specific business operations,
organization, policies, procedures, files, workflow, etc. Uses this
knowledge in performing stenographic duties and responsible clerical
tasks such as, maintaining followup files; assembling material for
reports, memorandums, letters, etc.; composing simple letters from general
instructions; reading and routing incoming mail; and answering routine
questions, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work.

20

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office
calls. May record toll calls and take messages. May give information
to persons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders. For
workers who also act as receptionists see switchboard operatorreceptionist.

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR-Continued
Class C—
Operates simple tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with specific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs or re­
petitive operations.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single posi­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. This typing
or clerical work may take the major part of this worker’ s time while at
switchboard.
TABULA TING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Class A—
Operates a variety o f tabulating or electrical ac­
counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator, and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignments without close supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are o f irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new pperators in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating sequences of long and complex reports,
Does not include working supervisors performing tabulating-machine
operations and day-to-day supervision o f die work and production
of a group o f tabulating-machine operators.
Class B—
Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical ac­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under
specific instructions and may include the performance of some wir­
ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but
small tabulating study, or parts o f a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are well established. May also include the training
of new employees in die basic operation of the machine.



TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal rou­
tine vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May also type from
written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation
involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal
briefs or reports on scientific research are not included. A worker who
takes dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is
classified as a stenographer, general.
TYPIST
Uses a typewriter to make copies o f various material or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May include typing of stencils, mats, or similar materials for use in
duplicating processes. May do clerical work involving little special
training, such as keeping simple records^ filing records and reports, or
sorting and distributing incoming mail.

Class A—
Performs one or more o f the following: Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punc­
tuation, etc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; and planning layout and typing o f complicated statistical
tables to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type
routine form letters varying details to suit circumstances.
Class B—
Performs one or more o f the following: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing o f forms, insurance pol­
icies, etc.; and setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying
more complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

21

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR-Continued

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts*
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.

completed work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quan­
tities; writing specifications; and making adjustments or changes in
drawings or specifications. May ink in lines and letters on pencil
drawings, prepare detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings.
Work is frequently in a specialized field such as architectural, elec­
trical, mechanical, or structural drafting.

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration o f working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Duties involve a combination o f the following: Interpreting blueprints,
sketches, and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures;
assigning duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; and per­
forming more difficult problems. May assist subordinates during emer­
gencies or as a regular assignment, or perform related duties of a
supervisory or administrative nature.
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing
purposes. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Preparing
working plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-sections, etc., to scale by
use of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as
those involved in strength of materials, beams and trusses; verifying

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a comb ination o f the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of employees’ injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicant^
and employees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.
TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing
tracing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. Uses
T-square, compass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

MAINTENANCE AND POWERPLANT
CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE—
Continued

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most of the following:
Planning and laying out o f work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’ s handtools, portable

power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; and selecting materials
necessary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance car­
penter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.




22

E L E C T R IC IA N , M A IN T E N A N C E

H E L P E R , M A IN T E N A N C E T R A D E S

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, dis­
tribution, or utilization o f electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the elec­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; and using a variety
of electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In
general, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

Assists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties o f lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
and performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The
kind of work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade:
In some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding
materials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts o f a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-time basis.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors,
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; and keeping a record
of operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May
also supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establishments employing more than one engineer are excluded.

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation o f one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction o f machine-shop tools, gages,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most o f the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree o f accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and
operation sequence; and making necessary adjustments during operation
to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to rec­
ognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating oils . For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing
shops are excluded from this classification.

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
Fire stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; and checks water
and safety valve.
May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom
equipment.



Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts o f mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Interpreting written instructions and
specifications; planning and laying out o f work; using a variety o f ma­
chinist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and
operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to close toler­
ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of
work, tooling, feeds and speeds o f machining; knowledge of the working

23

M A C H IN IST , M A IN T E N A N C E -C o n tin u e d

M IL L W R IG H T

properties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts,
and equipment required for his work; and fitting and assembling parts
into mechanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally
requires a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout
are required. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying
out of die work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a
variety o f handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers o f gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment and
parts to be used; and installing and maintaining in good order power
transmission equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general,
die millwright’ s work normally requires a rounded training and experi­
ence in the trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an es­
tablishment. Work involves most o f the following: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gages, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assemblies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; and alining wheels, adjusting brakes
and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the auto­
motive mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually ac­
quired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves most o f the following: Examining machines and mechan­
ical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly dis­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a re­
placement part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine
shop for major repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs
or for the production o f parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling
machines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In gen­
eral, the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience. Excluded from this classification are
workers whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.



OILER
Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces o f mechanical equipment of an establishment.

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler
in nail holes and interstices; and applying paint with spray gun or brush.
May mix colors, oils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain
proper color or consistency. In general, die work o f the maintenance
painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from draw­
ings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to
correct lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe­
cutting machine; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by
hand-driven or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings

24

P I P E F I T T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E —C o n tin u e d

S H E E T -M E T A L W O R K E R , M A IN T E N A N C E -C o n tin u e d

ana fastening pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relat­
ing to pressures, flow, and size of pipe required; and making standard
tests to determine whether finished pipes meet specifications. In general
the work of die maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and
repairing building sanitation or beating systems are excluded.

types of sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in
cutting, bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; and installing
sheet-metal articles as required. In general, the work o f the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.
TOOL AND DIE MAKER
(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gage maker)

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; and opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake.
In general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience*

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types o f sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints,
models, or other specifications; setting up and operating all available

Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gages, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching, and other metal-forming work. Work
involves mosi of the following: Planning and laying out o f work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifications;
using a variety of tool and die maker’ s handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding o f the working properties o f common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling o f machines; heattreating o f metal
parts during fabrication as well as o f finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to close tolerances; fitting and assembling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allowances; and selecting appro­
priate materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die
maker’ s work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom
practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT
ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

GUARD

Transports passengers between floors of an office building
apartment house, department store, hotel, or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those o f starters and janitors are excluded.

Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gatemen who ate stationed at gate and check on identity o f employees and
other persons entering.




25

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER

PACKER, SHIPPING

(Sweeper; charwomen; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial
or other establishment. Duties involve a combination o f the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance services; and cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Work­
ers who specialize in window washing are excluded.

Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number o f units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing o f items in shipping containers and may involve one or more o f
the following: Knowledge o f various items o f stock in order to verify
content; selection o f appropriate type and size o f .container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; and applying labels
or entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make
wooden boxes or crates are excluded.

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more o f the following: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or
from freight cars, trucks,or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location;
and transporting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheel­
barrow. Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded.

ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
Fills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, cus­
tomers’ orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders
and indicating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders,
requisition additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and
perform dther related duties.



SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­
sible for incoming shipments o f merchandise or other materials. Shipping work involves: A knowledge o f shipping procedures, practices,
routes, available means of transportation and rates; and preparing
records of the goods shipped, making up bills o f lading, posting weight
and shipping charges, and keeping a file o f shipping records. May
direct or assist in preparing the merchandise for shipment. Receiving
work involves: Verifying or directing others in verifying the correct­
ness o f shipments against bills of lading, invoices, or other records;
checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods; routing merchan­
dise or materials to proper departments; and maintaining necessary
records and files.

For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:
Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk

26

TRUCKDRIVER

TRUCKER, POWER

Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types o f estab­
lishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers9 houses or places of business. May also load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-tbe-road drivers
are excluded.

Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.

For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipment, as follows: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis of trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver (combination o f sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under 1% tons)
Truckdriver, medium (1% to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)




For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type o f
truck, as follows:
Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)

WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.

* U .S . G O V E R N M E N T P R IN T IN G O F F IC E : 1962 0 — 647880


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102