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MUSKEGON-MUSKEGON HEIGHTS, MICHIGAN
M A Y 1962

B u lle t in N o .

1303-68




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




Occupational Wage Survey
MUSKEGON-MUSKEGON HEIGHTS, MICHIGAN




MAY 1962

Bulletin No. 1303-68
July 1962

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU O F LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing O ffice, Washington 25, D.C.

Price 25 cents




Contents

Preface

Page
The L abor M arket Occupational Wage Survey P rog ra m
The B ureau o f L abor Statistics annually conducts
occupational wage su rveys in 82 labor m ark ets.
The
studies p rov id e data on occupational earnings and related
supplem entary ben efits. A p relim in a ry rep ort furnishing
trend data and average earnings is relea sed within a month
of the com p letion of each study. This bulletin p rovid es
additional data not included in the p relim in a ry rep ort.

Introduction ____________________________ ___ ______________________________
Wage trends fo r selected occupational groups _________________________

1
4

T a b les:
1.
2.

E stablishm ents and w ork ers within scope of su rvey ____________
P e rce n ts of in cre a se in standard w eekly sa la ries and
straight-tim e hourly earnings fo r selected
occupational groups
_________________________________________

3
3

Tw o b u lletin s, bringing together the resu lts of all
of the a rea su rv e y s, are issued after com pletion of the
final a rea bu lletin in the current round of su rveys. The
fir s t of these bulletins w ill be available late in 1962 and
the other e a r ly in 1963. During the survey y ea r, sum m ary
re le a s e s p resen tin g areawide occupational earnings data
fo r 25 to 30 labor m ark ets, are issued as data becom e
available.

A : O ccupational ea rn in gs:*
A - l . O ffice occupations— en and wom en _______________________
m
A - 2. P r o fe ssio n a l and tech n ical occupations—
men
A - 3. O ffice, p ro fession a l, and technical
occupations— en and w om en com bined __________________
m
A -4 . Maintenance and powerplant occupations _________________
A -5 . C ustodial and m aterial m ovem ent occupations ____________

6
7
8

This bulletin was prepared in the B ureau 's r e ­
gional o ffic e in C hicago, 111., by M ary Stokes, under the
d ire ctio n of E lliott A. B row ar. The study was under the
gen eral d ire ctio n of W oodrow C. Linn, A ssistant Regional
D ire cto r fo r W ages and Industrial R elations.

B: E stablishm ent p r a ctice s and supplem entary wage p rovision s:*
B - l . Shift d ifferen tials — . . ____-____________ __ ____ _____________
.
B -2 . M inimum entrance sa la ries fo r wom en office w ork ers ...»
B -3 . Scheduled w eekly h o u r s _________ _ _______ _______ _____ ____
B -4 . P aid holidays ______________________________________________

9
10
11
12




B -6 .

Health, insurance, and pension plans ____________________

5

15

A ppendixes:
A. Changes in occupational d escrip tion s ____________________________
B. Occupational d escrip tion s ________________________________________

* NOTE: S im ilar tabulations are available in previous
a rea rep orts for M uskegon—
Muskegon Heights and for other
m a jo r area s. A d ire cto ry indicating the areas, dates of
study, and p r ic e s of these rep orts is available upon
request.

iii

17
19




Occupational Wage Survey— Muskegon—Muskegon Heights, Mich.

Introduction

to the w ork schedules (rounded to the n earest half hour) fo r which
straight-tim e sa la ries are paid; average weekly earnings fo r these
occupations have been rounded to the n earest half dollar.

This a rea is 1 of 82 labor markets in which the U .S. D e­
partm ent o f L a b o r 's Bureau o f Labor Statistics has conducted su r­
veys o f occu pation al earnings and related wage benefits on an a re a ­
wide b a s is .
In this area, data were obtained by personal v isits o f
B ureau fie ld econ om ists to representative establishm ents within six
broad industry division s: Manufacturing; transportation, com m un ica­
tion, and other public utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance,
in su ran ce, and rea l estate; and s e r v ic e s .
M ajor industry groups
exclu ded fro m these studies are government operations and the co n ­
stru ction and extractive industries.
Establishm ents having few er
than a p r e s c r ib e d num ber o f w ork ers are om itted also because they
tend to furnish in su fficien t em ploym ent in the occupations studied to
w arrant in clu sion . Separate tabulations are provided fo r each o f the
b road industry d ivision s which m eet publication c r ite r ia .

A verage earnings o f men and wom en are presented separately
fo r se le cte d occupations in which both sexes are com m only em ployed.
D ifferen ces in pay lev els o f m en and wom en in these occupations are
la rg e ly due to (1) d ifferen ces in the distribution o f the sexes among
industries and establishm ents; (2)' d ifferen ces in sp ecific duties p e r­
form ed , although the occupations are appropriately cla ss ifie d within
the same survey job d escrip tion ; and (3) d ifferen ces in length of s e r v ­
ic e o r m e rit review when individual sa la ries are adjusted on this
b a sis.
L onger average s e rv ice o f men would resu lt in higher average
pay when both sexes are em ployed within the same rate range.
Job
d escrip tion s used in cla ssify in g em p loyees in these surveys are usu­
ally m ore gen era lized than those used in individual establishm ents to
allow fo r m inor d ifferen ces among establishm ents in sp ecific duties
p e rform ed .

T hese surveys are conducted on a sam ple basis because o f the
u n n ecessa ry c o s t involved in surveying all establishm ents. To obtain
optim um a ccu ra cy at minimum c o st, a greater proportion of large
than o f sm a ll establishm ents is studied. In com bining the data, how­
e v e r , all establishm ents are given their appropriate weight. E stim ates
b ased on the establishm ents studied are presented, th e re fo re , as r e ­
lating to all establishm ents in the industry grouping and area, e x ­
cep t fo r those below the minimum size studied.

O ccupational em ploym ent estim ates rep resen t the total in ail
establishm ents within the scop e o f the study and not the number actu­
ally su rveyed . B ecause o f d ifferen ces in occupational structure among
establish m en ts, the estim ates o f occupational em ploym ent obtained
fro m the sam ple o f establishm ents studied serve only to indicate the
relative im portance o f the job s studied.
These differen ces in o c c u ­
pational structure do not m aterially affect the a ccu racy o f the earn ­
ings data.

O ccupations and Earnings
The occupations selected fo r study are com m on to a variety
o f m anufacturing and nonmanufacturing in du stries. O ccupational c la s ­
sifica tio n is b a sed on a uniform set of job d escrip tion s designed to
take account o f interestablishm ent variation in duties within the same
jo b .
(See appendix fo r listing o f these d e sc r ip tio n s.) Earnings data
are presen ted (in the A -s e r ie s tables) for the follow ing types o f o c c u ­
pations: (a) O ffice c le r ic a l; (b) p rofessional and technical; (c) m ainte­
nance and pow er plant; and (d) custodial and m aterial m ovem ent.

Establishm ent P r a ctice s and Supplementary Wage P rovision s
Inform ation is presented (in the B -s e r ie s tables) on selected
establishm ent p ra ctices and supplem entary benefits as they relate to
o ffice and plant w o rk e rs.
The con cep t "o ffice w o r k e r s ," as used
in this bulletin, includes working su p ervisors and nonsupervisory
w ork ers perform in g c le r ic a l o r related functions, and excludes admin­
istra tiv e , execu tive, and p rofession a l p erson nel. "Plant w o rk e rs" in­
clude working forem en and all n on su p ervisory w orkers (including lead m en and tra in ees) engaged in nonoffice functions. A dm inistrative,
execu tive, and p ro fession a l em p loyees, and fo rce -a cco u n t construction
em p loyees who are u tilized as a separate w ork fo rce are excluded.
C a feteria w ork ers and route men are excluded in manufacturing indus­
tr ie s , but are included as plant w ork ers in nonmanufacturing industries.

Occupational em ploym ent and earnings data are shown fo r
fu ll-tim e w o rk e rs , i . e . , those hired to work a regu lar w eekly sch ed­
ule in the given occupational cla ssifica tio n . Earnings data exclude
prem ium pay fo r overtim e and fo r work on weekends, h olidays, and
late sh ifts.
Nonproduction bonuses are excluded a lso , but c o s t - o f living bonuses and incentive earnings are included.
W here weekly
hours are rep orted , as fo r o ffice c le r ic a l occu p ation s, re fe re n ce is




1

2
Shift differen tial data (table B - l ) are lim ited to manufacturing
in du stries. This inform ation is presen ted both in term s of (a) esta b ­
lishm ent p o li c y ,1 p resen ted in term s o f total plant w ork er em p loy ­
ment, and (b) effectiv e p r a ctice , presented in term s o f w ork ers
actually em ployed on the sp e cifie d shift at the time o f the su rvey.
In establishm ents having va ried d ifferen tia ls, the amount applying to
a m ajority was used o r , if no amount applied to a m a jority , die c la s ­
sification "o th e r" was used.
In establishm ents in which som e la te shift hours are paid at norm al ra te s, a d ifferen tial was re co rd e d only
if it applied to a m a jority o f the shift h ours.
M inimum entrance sa la rie s (table B -2 ) relate only to the
establishm ents v isited .
They are presen ted in term s of e sta b lish ­
ments with form a l m inim um sa la ry p o lic ie s .
The scheduled hours (table B -3 ) o f a m a jority of the fi r s t shift w ork ers in an establishm ent are tabulated as applying to all o f
the plant o r o ffice w ork ers o f that establishm ent.
P aid holidays; paid
vacations; and health, in su ran ce, and pension plans (tables B -4 through
B -6 ) are treated sta tistica lly on the b a sis that these are applicable
to all plant o r o ffice w ork ers i f a m a jo rity o f such w ork ers are e li­
gible o r m ay eventually qualify fo r the p ra ctice s listed . Sums o f
individual item s in tables B -3 through B -6 m ay not equal totals b e ­
cause o f rounding.
The fir s t part o f the paid holidays table (table B -4 ) presents
the num ber o f whole and half holidays actually provided. The second
part com bines whole and h alf holidays to show total holiday tim e .
The sum m ary o f vacation plans (table B -5 ) is lim ited to f o r ­
m al p o lic ie s , excluding in form a l arrangem ents w hereby time o ff with
pay is granted at the d iscre tio n o f the e m p lo y e r. Separate estim ates
are provided a ccord in g to em p loyer p ra ctice in com puting vacation
payments, such as tim e paym ents, p ercen t o f annual earnings, o r
fla t-su m amounts. H ow ever, in the tabulations o f vacation pay, pay­
ments not on a tim e b a sis w ere so con verted ; fo r exam ple, a payment
o f 2 percent o f annual earnings was co n sid e re d as the equivalent o f
1 w eek's pay.

Data a re presented fo r a ll health, in su ran ce, and pension plans
(table B -6 ) fo r which at least a part o f the cost is born e by the e m ­
p lo y e r, excepting only legal requirem ents such as w ork m en 's com p en ­
sation, s o c ia l secu rity, and railroad retirem en t. Such plans include
those underwritten by a co m m e rcia l insurance com pany and those p r o ­
vided through a union fund or paid d ire ctly by the em p loyer out o f
current operating funds o r from a fund set aside fo r this p u rpose.
Death benefits a re included as a form o f life insurance.
Sickness and accident insurance is lim ited to that type o f in ­
surance under which predeterm ined cash payments are made d ire ctly
to the insured on a weekly o r monthly basis during illn ess o r acciden t
d isability.
Inform ation is presented fo r a ll such plans to which the
em p loyer contributes.
However, in New Y ork and New J ersey , which
have enacted tem porary disability insurance laws which requ ire e m ­
p lo y e r con trib u tion s,2 plans are included only if the em p loyer (1) co n ­
tributes m o re than is lega lly required, o r (2) p rov id es the em ployee
with benefits which exceed the requirem ents o f the law. Tabulation?
o f paid sic k -le a v e plans are lim ited to fo rm a l plans 3 which provid e
full pay o r a prop ortion o f the w o rk er's pay during absen ce from work
because o f illn e ss. Separate tabulations are p resen ted a ccord in g to
(1) plans which provide full pay and no waiting p eriod , and (2) plans
which provide either partial pay o r a waiting p eriod . In addition to the
presentation o f the proportions of w orkers who are p rov id ed sick n ess
and accident insurance o r paid sick leave, an unduplicated total is
shown o f w ork ers who rece iv e either o r both types o f ben efits.
Catastrophe insurance, som etim es re fe r r e d to as extended
m ed ica l insurance, includes those plans which are designed to p rotect
em ployees in ca se of sickness and injury involving expenses beyond
the norm al covera ge of hospitalization, m ed ica l, and su rg ica l plans.
M edical insurance re fe rs to plans providing fo r com p lete o r p artial
payment o f d o c to r s ' fees. Such plans m ay be underw ritten by co m m e r ­
cia l insurance com panies o r nonprofit organizations o r they m ay be
se lf-in su re d . Tabulations o f retirem ent pen sion plans are lim ited to
those plans that provide monthly payments fo r the rem ainder o f the
w o rk e r's life .

2 The tem porary d isability laws in C alifornia and Rhode Island
do not require em ployer contributions.
3 An establishm ent was con sidered as having a form a l plan if
it established at least the minimum num ber o f days o f s ick leave that
1
An establishm ent was co n sid e re d as having a p olicy if it m et
could be expected by each em ployee. Such a plan need not be written,
either of the follow ing conditions: (1) O perated late shifts at the time
but in form al sic k -le a v e allow ances, determ ined on an individual b a sis,
o f the survey, o r (2) had fo rm a l p rovision s co v e rin g late sh ifts.
w ere excluded.




3

T a b le 1.

E sta b lish m e n ts and w o r k e r s within s c o p e of s u r v e y and n u m ber studied in M uskegon— uskegon H eigh ts, M ic h ., 1 by m a jo r in d u stry d iv is io n , 2 M ay 1962
M

50
50
50
50
50

M an u factu rin g ___ ______ __ __
___ _______ __
_ _
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g ___ ___ ________________________________ _____
T r a n s p o rta tio n , c o m m u n ica tio n , and other
p u b lic u t ilit ie s 5 _________ _ ___ _____ ..____________ _____
W h o le s a le tra d e _________________ __________ _________ ______
R e ta il tra d e __________ ______
_________ _____
__ .
F in a n ce , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l estate
__ _____ _ _____
S e r v ic e s 7 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

76

50
50

__________________________________________________

W ithin
s c o p e of
study 3

50

In d u stry d iv is io n

A ll d iv is io n s

N u m ber o f e sta b lish m e n ts

M in im um
e m p lo y m e n t
in e s t a b lis h ­
m ents in s c o p e
o f study

W o r k e r s in esta b lis h m e n ts
W ithin s c o p e of study

Studied

Studied
Plant

T o ta l4

O ffic e

53

2 6 ,1 0 0

3, 200

19 ,3 0 0

24 ,2 9 0

44
32

31
22

22, 200
3 ,9 0 0

2, 200
1, 000

17 ,3 0 0
2, 000

20, 960
3, 330

8
4
13
4
3

8
2
7
2
3

1, 800
200
1, 300
400
200

500
(*)
( >
C>
(6 )

700
(t)
(M
(M
(6 )

T o t a l4

1, 780
170
930
250
200

1 The M u sk egon — u sk egon H eights Standard M e tro p o lita n S ta tis tic a l A r e a c o n s is t s o f M u skegon County.
M
T he " w o r k e r s w ithin s c o p e of study" e s tim a te s show n in the table p rov id e a r e a ­
s on a b ly a c c u r a te d e s c r ip tio n o f the s iz e and co m p o s itio n of the la b o r f o r c e in clu d e d in the s u rv e y . The e s tim a te s a re not intended, h o w e v e r , to s e r v e as a b a s is
of co m p a r is o n w ith other a re a
em p loy m en t in d e x e s to m e a s u r e e m p loym en t tren ds o r le v e ls s in c e (1) planning o f w age s u r v e y s r e q u ir e s the u se o f e s ta b lis h m e n t data c o m p ile d c o n s id e r a b ly in advance of the p a y r o ll p e r io d
studied, and (2) s m a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts a re ex clu d ed fr o m the s c o p e o f the su rv e y .
2 The 1957 r e v i s e d e d itio n o f the Standard Industrial C la s s ific a t io n M anual w as u s e d in c la s s ify in g e sta b lis h m e n ts b y in d u s try d iv isio n . M a jo r chan ges f r o m the e a r lie r ed ition (used in the
B u re a u 's la b o r m a r k e t w age su r v e y s con du cted p r io r to July 1958) a re the tr a n s fe r o f m ilk p a s te u r iz a tio n plants and r e a d y -m ix e d c o n c r e te e s ta b lis h m e n ts f r o m trade (w h olesale or reta il) to
m a n u fa ctu rin g , and the t r a n s fe r of r a d io and te le v is io n b r o a d c a s tin g f r o m s e r v ic e s to the tra n sp o rta tio n , c o m m u n ica tio n , and oth er p u b lic u t ilitie s d iv isio n .
3 In clu d e s a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith total em ploym en t at o r above the m in im u m -s iz e lim ita tio n .
A ll ou tlets (within the a re a ) of co m p a n ie s in su ch in d u s tr ie s
as trad e, fin a n ce, auto rep a ir
s e r v ic e , and m o t io n -p ic t u r e th e a te rs are c o n s id e r e d as 1 e sta b lish m e n t.
4 In clu d e s e x e c u tiv e , p r o fe s s io n a l, and other w o rk e rs e x c lu d e d f r o m the se p a ra te o ffic e and plant c a t e g o r ie s .
5 T a x ic a b s and s e r v ic e s in cid e n ta l to w ater tra n sp o rta tio n w e r e e xclu d e d .
6 T h is in d u s tr y d iv is io n is r e p r e s e n te d in e stim a te s fo r " a l l in d u s t r ie s " and "n o n m a n u fa ctu rin g " in the S e r ie s A and B ta b le s . S ep a ra te p r e s e n ta tio n o f data fo r this d iv isio n is not m ade
fo r one or m o r e o f the fo llo w in g r e a s o n s : (1) E m ploym ent in the d iv is io n is t o o s m a ll to p r o v id e enough data to m e r it se p a ra te study, (2) the s a m p le w as not d e s ig n e d in itia lly to p erm it s e p a ­
ra te p r e s e n ta tio n , (3) r e s p o n s e w as in s u fficie n t or inadequate to p e r m it se p a ra te p r e s e n ta tio n , and (4) th e re is p o s s ib ilit y o f d is c lo s u r e of in d ivid u al e s ta b lis h m e n t data.
7 H o te ls ; p e r s o n a l s e r v ic e s ; b u s in e s s s e r v ic e s ; au tom obile r e p a ir s h o p s; m o tio n p ic tu r e s ; n o n p ro fit m e m b e r s h ip o r g a n iz a tio n s ; and e n g in e e rin g and a r c h ite c t u r a l s e r v ic e s .




T a b le 2. P e r c e n t s o f in c r e a s e in stan dard w e e k ly s a la r ie s and s tr a ig h t-tim e h o u r ly ea rn in gs f o r
s e le cte d o ccu p a tio n a l gro u p s in M u sk egoir-M u sk eg on H eigh ts, M ic h ., M ay 1961 to M ay 1962,
and M ay I960 to M ay 1961
M ay 1961
to
M ay 1962

In du stry and o ccu p a tio n a l gro u p

A ll in d u s trie s :
O ffice c le r i c a l (m en and w om en )

__ __

______

__

M ay I960
to
M ay 1961

4.3
4.0
3.4
4.2

3.9
1.8
2.7
2.7

4.1
4.0
3.4
4.6

4 .4
1.8
2.7
2.1

M an u factu rin g:

4
Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups

P resented in table 2 are p ercen ts o f change in sa la ries of
o ffice cle r ic a l w ork ers and industrial n u rses, and in average earnings
of selected plant w ork er groups.
F or o ffice c le r ic a l w o rk e rs and industrial n urses, the p e r ­
cents of change relate to average weekly sa la ries fo r n orm al hours
of work, that is, the standard w ork schedule fo r which straight-tim e
salaries are paid.
F or plant w orker groups, they m easu re changes
in straight-tim e hourly earnings, excluding prem ium pay fo r o v e r ­
time and fo r w ork on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
The p e r ­
centages are based on data fo r selected key occupations and include
m ost of the n um erically im portant jo b s within each group.
The o f­
fice cle r ic a l data a re based on m en and wom en in the follow ing 19 jo b s:
B ookkeeping-m achine op era tors, c la s s B; cle rk s , accounting, cla ss A
and B; clerk s, file , cla ss A, B, and C; cle rk s , ord e r; cle rk s, pay­
roll; Com ptom eter op era tors; keypunch op era tors, cla ss A and B;
office boys and g irls ; se c r e ta r ie s ; stenographers, general; sten ogra­
phers, senior; sw itchboard op era tors; tabulating-m achine op era tors,
cla ss B; and typists, cla ss A and B.
The industrial nurse data are
based on men and women industrial n urses.
Men in the follow ing
8 skilled maintenance job s and 2 unskilled jo b s w ere included in the
plant w orker data: Skilled— ca rpen ters; ele ctricia n s; m ach in ists; m e ­
chanics; m echanics, atuom otive; painters; p ip efitters; and tool and
die m akers; unskilled— ja n itors, p o rte rs , and clea n ers; and la b o re rs,
m aterial handling.
A verage weekly sa la rie s or average hourly earnings w ere
computed fo r each of the selected occupations.
The average sa l­




a r ie s or hourly earnings w ere then m ultiplied by the average em p loy­
m ent in the jo b during the p eriod surveyed in 1961.
These weighted
earnings fo r individual occupations w ere then totaled to obtain an a g ­
gregate fo r each occupational group.
Finally, the ratio o f these group
aggregates fo r the one year to the aggregate fo r the other y ea r was
computed and the d ifferen ce between the resu lt and 100 is the p ercen t
o f change fr o m the one period to the other.
The percen t of change m easu res, p rin cip a lly, the effects of
(1) general salary and wage changes; (2) m e r it or other in cre a se s
in pay re ce iv e d by individual w ork ers w hile in the sam e jo b ; and
(3) changes in the labor fo r c e such as labor turnover, fo r c e expan­
sions, fo r c e reductions, and changes in the p rop ortion s o f w o rk ers
em ployed by establishm ents with differen t pay le v e ls .
Changes in the
labor fo r c e can cause in crea ses or d e cre a s e s in the occupational
averages without actual wage changes. F or exam ple, a fo r c e expansion
m ight in cre a se the proportion of low er paid w o rk e rs in a s p e cific
occupation and resu lt in a drop in the average, w h ereas a redu ction
in the p rop ortion o f low er paid w ork ers would have the opposite effect.
The m ovem ent of a high-paying establishm ent out o f an area could
cause the average earnings to drop, even though no change in rates
occu rre d in other area establishm ents.
The use o f constant em ploym ent w eights elim inates the e ffe cts
o f changes in the proportion of w ork ers rep resen ted in each jo b in ­
cluded in the data.
Nor a re the p ercen ts o f change influenced by
changes in standard w ork schedules or in prem ium pay fo r overtim e,
since they a re based on pay fo r straight-tim e h ours.

The above text rep resen ts the method used in computing a new trend
se r ie s .
The expansion o f the labor m arket wage survey program in 1961 made
data available in 82 areas fo r the com putation of wage trends fo r selected job
groupings.
Sixty-one a rea s w ere surveyed in I960; p r io r to I960, coverage was
lim ited to 20 a rea s.
T h erefore, it was decided to com pute a new trend se rie s in
which 1961 w ill be the base year since this is the fir s t year in which data w ere
co lle cte d in a ll 82 area s.
The p ercen ts of change shown in table 2 a re not com parable with sim ilar
data shown fo r this area in last y e a r 's Bulletin 1285-69.
The new se rie s in tro­
duces changes in the job groupings fo r which trends a re shown and changes in
jo b s included in the com putations.

A:

Occupational Earnings

Table A-l. Office Occupations—Men and Women
(Average straigh t-tim e w eek ly hours and earnings fo r s e le cte d occupations studied on an area basis
by industry d ivision , M uskegon— uskegon H eights, M ich ., M ay 1962)
M
A
verage
Sex, occu pation , and industry division

N um ber
of
w orkers

W eekly,
hours
(Standard)

W e e k ly ,
e a rn in g s 1
(S ta n da rd )

N U M B E R O F W O R K E R S R E C E IV IN G S T R A IG H T -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S O F —

$
s
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
45.00 50.00 55.00 *60.00 *65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00
and
under
50.00 55.00 60.00 65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85,00 3 0 .0 0 9.5J)0 JJMLQG 105.00 110.00 115.0Q 120.00 125.00 130.00 *135.00 140.00 145.00
i
|
:
i
|
i
1

i

Men
C le r k s , accounting, c la s s A ____________
M anufacturing ________________________

43
38

40.0
40.0

$117.00
118.00

_

Tabulating-m achine o p e ra to rs,
c la s s B _________________________________
M anufacturing ________________________

27
19

40.0
40.0

94.00
100.00

■

B ook keepin g-m a ch in e o p e ra to rs,
c la s s B _________________________________

21

40.0

65.50

C le r k s , accounting, c la s s A ____________
M anufacturing ------- ------------ ------- —

39
20

40.0
40.0

89.50
85.50

C le r k s , accounting, c la s s B ____________
M anufacturing ________________________
N onm anufacturing ____________________
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 2 __________________

88
41
47
23

40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0

C le r k s , file , c la s s A 3 __ __ __ __ -------

28

C le r k s , p a y ro ll __________________________
M anufacturing ________________________

60
47

C om ptom eter o p e ra to rs _________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g _— ______ __ ------- __

_

_

_

_

_

_

i

_

-

"

-

-

-

-

-

3
2

1
1

"

"

-

i

1
_

1

3

6
5

4
3

2
2

-

3

3

5

.

.

.

.

-

-

"

78.50
76.00
80.50
83.00

1
1
-

1
1
“

4
3
1
-

40.0

67.00

_

3

10

3

2

1

5

40.0
40.0

73.00
72.50

.

3
3

2
1

7
5

10
7

12
11

10
8

51
51

40.0
40.0

76.00
76.00

3
3

3
3

7
7

5
5

5
5

5
5

1
1

Keypunch o p e r a to r s , c la s s B 3 _________
M anufacturing ________________________

70
49

40.0
40.0

67.00
71.00

6
-

9
6

4

20
12

6
6

7
6

S e c r e ta r ie s _______________________________
M anufacturing ________ ____ „ ____
N onm anufacturing _ __ „ ________ __

154
115
39

40.0
40.0
40.0

90.00
92.50
83.50

1
1

_
-

1
1

_
-

4
3

S ten ograp h ers, g e n e r a l3 ________________
M anufacturing ________________________

99
80

40.0
40.0

65.50
67.00

_
-

9
2

14
11

29
24

S ten ograp h ers, s e n io r 3 _________________
M anufacturing ________________________

90
85

40.0
40.0

86.50
86.50“

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

S w itchboard o p e r a t o r -r e c e p t io n is t s ____
M anufacturing _____ __ __ __ __ ____

33
26

40.0
40.0

70.50
69.50

_
-

1
1

T y p is ts , c la s s A _________________________
M anufacturing ________________________

83
80

40.0
40.0

84.00
84.50

_

_

-

-

T y p is ts , c la s s B _________________________
M anufacturing _____ ________ ________

92
69

40.0
40.0

60.00
61.00

2
2

14
5

-

■

4
4

2
2

12
12

11
11

3
3

3
2

1
-

1

3
3

"

3
3

3
3

•

~

■

~

■

4
2

6
-

3
3

3
-

_

.

_

12
7
5
1

2
2
-

_
-

_
“

_
-

1

W om en




5

1

-

2

2

-

11
6

4
4

6
3

.

-

2
2

15
9
6
3

11
6
5
1

9
6
3
2

4
3
1
1

7
4
3
2

9
9
5

13
1
12
8

2

_

2

_

_

_

_

9
8

5
3

2
1

_

.

.

.
-

-

1
1

_
"

21
21

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

6
6

3
3

2
2

7
7

_

_

_
“

_

_

27
12
15

9
9
"

19
13
6

11
8
3

18
14
4

12
11
1

32
31

9
7
2

6
4
2

19
17

13
12

9
9

6
5

_

_

_

_

_

1
1

12
12

17
16

10
8

7
7

11
10

32
31

_

_

-

-

-

2
2

5
5

10
7

5
4

3
3

5
2

2
2

"

"

-

-

-

1

3
3

8
8

7
7

8
8

6
4

5
5

45
45

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

"

-

"

33
25

8
8

9
9

_

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

1

26
20

1

-

1

_
-

-

-

_
- i
-

_
-

_
-

_

_

-

-

_
-

_
-

_

_

_

_

.

_

.

.

_

-

_

_

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

_

_

"

-

3
2
1

1
1
-

_
"

_
-

1
1

_
-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

Standard hou rs r e fle c t the w orkweek fo r which e m ployees re c e iv e their regu lar straigh t-tim e s a la rie s and the earnings c o rres p on d to these w eekly hours.
T ran sp ortation , com m unication, and other public utilities.
D e scrip tio n fo r this jo b has been re v ise d since the last survey in this area. See appendix A.

-

“

-

_

_

_

_

"

-

-

_

_

_

_

_
_

6

Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations—Men and Women
(A verage straigh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings fo r se le cte d occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division , Muskegon— uskegon Heights, M ic h ., May 1962)
M
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

A verage

Sex, occupation, and industry d ivision

of

workers

-- ------- ------------------ --------------------------------------------------------------- —

Weekly,
hours
(Standard)
: -----------------

$
65. 00
and
under
-------------- 70. 00
Weekly ,
earnings
(Standard)

$

70.00

$
80.00

"

$
85. 00

$
9 0.00

“

$
75. 00

"

90.00

9 5.00

$

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125. 00 130.00 135. 00 140. 00

"
”
“
"
“
“
"
"
“
■
100.00 105.00 110,00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135. 00 140.00 145. 00

75.00

80. 00

85.00

_

_
_

_
_

1

2
2

5
5

6
6

9
9

12
12

19
19

17
17

21
21

10
10

6
6

8
8

3
3

8
8

7
7

13
13

5
5

3
3

3
3

1

3
3

_

1

4
4

2
2

3
3

4
4

1
1

„

Men
114
114

^ p u fa p ^ n r in g

D raftsm en, ju n ior -----------------------------------------------------------M anufacturing -------------------------------------------------------------

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

$119.50
119.50

_
_

62
62

4 0 .0
40. 0

96. 50
96. 50

2
2

17
17

D raftsm en, sen ior ______ —------- — ------------- --------------------

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

90.00
90.00

■

_
-

1

j

1
1

11
11

_
-

Women
N urses, industrial (re g is te re d ) ------------------------------------Manufac tu r ing -------------------------------------------------------------

1

1

_

1

' 1

-

1

_

_

_

_

1

*

■

-

“

_

_
"

1 Standard hours r e fle c t the w orkw eek fo r which em ployees r e c e iv e their regu lar straigh t-tim e s a la rie s and the earnings corresp on d to these w eekly hours.

Table A-3. Office, Professional, and Technical Occupations—Men and Women Combined
(A verage straigh t-tim e w eekly earnings fo r se le cte d occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division , Muskegon— uskegon Heights, M ic h ., May 1962)
M

O ccupation and industry d ivision

Number
of
workers

Average
weekly
earnings1
(Standard)

Number
of

O ccupation and industry d iv isio n

Average
weekly .
earnings *
(Standard)

Occupation and industry division

Average
weekly .
earnings *
(Standard)

O ffice occupations— Continued

O ffice occupations— Continued

O ffice occupations

Number
of

21

$65 . 50

C lerks, accounting, c la s s A
Manufacturing ________

-------------------------------------------------__ __ — ------------------------

82
58

103. 50
106. $0

C lerks, accounting, cla s s B

-------------------------------------------------_ _____
___
...
_ _

95
47
48
24

79.00
77. 50
80.00
82.00

28

Com ptom eter o p e ra to rs ----------------- -------------------------------------M anufacturing ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

51
51

$ 7 6 .0 0
76.00

Tabulating-m achine o p era tors , c la s s B ---------------------------Manufacturing --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

33
22

$ 9 2 .0 0
98. 50

Keypunch o p e ra to rs, c la s s B 1 ---------------------------------------------3
2

70
49

67.00
71.00

Typists, c la s s A _____ ___ _____________________ ____ ___
Manufacturing --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

84
81

8 4 .0 0
84. 50

S e c r e t a r ie s

. _ _
____ ___M anufacturing -----------------------------------------------------------------------------Nonmamtfa ctur ’ rig

154
115
39

90.00
92. 50
83,50

Typists, c la s s B ______________________________________
Manufacturing --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

92
69

60. 00
6 1 .0 0

Stenographers, g e n e r a l3 —_________ ___ —
—
M anufacturing --------------------------------------------------------

--------------------

100
81

66.00
67.50

D raftsm en, sen ior ____________________________________

114
114

119. 50
119.50

----------------------

62
62

96. 50
96.5 0

______________________

17
17

9 0 .0 0
9 0.00

6 7.00

B ookkeeping-m achine op era tors, c la s s B

M a n n fa r h ir in g

Nonmanufacturing

...

-------------------------------------------------------------------

P ro fe ssio n a l and tech n ica l occupations
C lerks, file, cla s s A 3 ____________________________
C lerks, ord er ------------ ----------------- — ----------------M anufacturing ________ — ____ — -----------------

17
17

95. 00
95. 00

— -

90
85

86.50
86.50

D raftsm en, junior . ____

C lerks, p ayroll --------------------------------------------------------Manufacturing ____________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------------------

63
48
15

74. 50 1
73.50 Sw itchboard o p e r a to r -r e c e p tio n ists -------------------------79.00
M anufacturing --------------------------------------------------------

33
26

70.50
69.50

N urses, industrial (re g is te re d )
M anufacturing

Stenographers, s e n io r 3 ____ -__ _____________

1 Earnings are fo r a regular w orkw eek fo r w hich em ployees r e c e iv e their straigh t-tim e w eekly sa la r ie s , e xclu sive o f any prem iu m pay.
2 Transportation, com m u nication, and other public u tilities.
3 D escrip tion fo r this jo b has been re v ise d sin ce the last survey in this area. See appendix A.




— -------

~




7
Table A-4. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(A verage straigh t-tim e hourly earnings fo r m en in s e le cte d occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division* M uskegon-M uskegon H eights, M ich ., M ay 1962)1
2
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

O ccup ation and industry division

C a rp e n te rs, m aintenance _____________________
M anufacturing _______________________________
E le c tr ic ia n s , m aintenance _______ _____________
M anufacturing ______________________________
F ire m e n , station ary b o ile r ____________________
M anufacturing ____________ ____ ______ —
M a ch in e -to o l o p e r a to r s , to o lro o m ____________
M anufacturing -_____________________________
M achinists, m aintenance ______________________
M anufacturing _______________ _____ _______

Num
ber
of
workers

24
24
124
123
50
47
61
6l
74
72

Average
$
^hourly j Under
1.80
\ 7S
n
$
under
1.70
1.80
1.90

$2.77
2.77
2.85
2.85

$
1.90

$
2.00

$
2.10

$
2.20

$
2.30

$
2.40

$
2.50

*2.60

$
2.70

$
2.80

$
2.90

$
3.00

$
3.10

$
3.20

$
3.30

$
3.40

2.00

2.10

2.20

2.30

2.40

2.50

2.60

2.70

2.80

2.90

3.00

3.10

3.20

3.30

3.40

3.50

2
2

7
7

-

8
8

8
7

45
45

2
2

3
3

36
36

8
8

.

10
10

"

*

-

_

.

.

_

"

-

-

“
_

“

_

.

_

-

■

-

5
5
2
2

2
2
1
1

2.41
2.50

3
-

4
4

.
-

■

3
3

.
-

11
11

7
7

3
3

3.07
3.07

_

.

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

“

"

"

"

"

■

■

“

_

_

_

_

2.90
2.89

.

.
-

M ech an ics, autom otive (m aintenance) ________
M anufacturing ________________________ ______
N onm anufacturing __________________________
PiiKlir 11HI1H as ^

54
29
25
25

2.77
2.71
2.85
2.85

M ech an ics, m aintenance ________________-_____
M anufacturing ______________________________

141
141

.
-

.
-

.
-

_

_
-

.
-

_
-

_

_
-

“
10
10

17
17

_

.

-

-

2
2

2
2

6
6

_

2.84
2.84

M illw rights _____________________________________
M anufacturing ______________________________

109
109

2.77
2.77

0 ile r 8 ___________________________________________
M anufacturing ______________________________

35
35

2.48
2.48

_
"

P ip e fitte r s , m aintenance ______________________
M anufacturing -----------------------------------------------

62

2.79
2.79

"

T o o l and die m a k e rs ________ ___ _______________
M anufacturing _______________________________

161
16 i

-

.
-

35
35
.

62

9
9

■

_

" '

.

“

.

.

_

“

.

32
32

!

_

■

"

*

1

"

5
5

3
3

1

8
8

9
9

_

_

_

■

!
1 '

"

“

“

12
12

.

_

.

_

_

_

_

■

"

■

“

"

“

■

3.11
3.11

1 E xclu des prem iu m pay fo r overtim e and fo r w ork on w eekends, h olid ays, and late shifts.
2 T ran sp ortation , com m unication, and other public u tilities.

1
2
2

3
3
3
3
4
4

8
8
4
4
39
39

11
2
9
9

21
13
8
8

-

80
80

“
9
9
2
2

-

“

-

"

-

-

-

-

j

17
17

13
13

-

!

1

“

9
9

8
8

5
4

4
4
4

9
5
4
4

_
-

_
-

-

-

1

-

25
25

■

-

-

-

26
26

_

.

.

“

■

3
3

46
46

!

_

_

_

.

“

“

5
5

_

“

~

“

13
13

_
“

18
18

5
5

15
15

■

!
1

!
1

24
24

19
19

59
59

6
6

1

_

.
_
.
“

5
5

“

32
32

14
14

8
Table A-5. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(A verage s traigh t-tim e hourly earnings fo r s elected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division , M uskegon— uskegon H eights, M ich ., M ay 1962)
M
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

0

$
1.40

$
1.50

$
1.60

$
1.70

$
1.80

$
1.90

$
2.00

*2.10

$
2.20

*2.30

$
2.40

*2.50

$
2.60

*2.70

*2.80

*2.90

$
3.00

*3.10

*3.20

0

O ccu p ation 1 and industry division

1.50

1.60

1.70

1.80

1.90

2.00

2.10

2.20

2.30

2.40

2.50

2.60

2.70

2.80

2.90

3.00

3.10

3.20

3.30

-

~

-

-

■

"

_
' -

_
-

T
*

$
Average
hourly , Under 1.20
earnings
and
$
under
1.20
1.30

C
O

Number
of
workers

— __

87
87

$2.39
2.39

-

"

Jan itors, p o r te r s , and clea n ers (m en) ________
M anufacturing _______________ ________ _____
N onm anufacturing ___________________________
Public u t ilit ie s 1 — -_ ------- — —
3
2

263
226
37
17

2.22
2.28
1.84
2.20

3
3
-

_
"

2
2
-

1
1
1

11
2
9
-

-

Jan itors, p o r te r s , and clea n ers (wom en) _____
M anufacturing ____ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __
Nonmanufacturing ___________________________

32
15
17

1.72
1793
1.53

_
"

7
7

_
-

_
“

_
-

L a b o r e rs , m aterial h a n d lin g __________________
M anufacturing __ __ __ __________ __ ._ __

239
2*5

2.26
2.27

_

_

_
“

_
"

O rd er fille r s ____________________________________
M a n u fa c tu r in g -----------------------------------------------

45
36

2.47
2.38

P a ck e rs , shipping _ __ __ __ ---------------------- __
M anufacturing ____ __ ____ ____ __ __ __

215
210

2.40
2.39

R eceiving cle r k s ________________________________
M a n u fa c tu r in g -----------------------------------------------

39
38

2.37
2.38

28
28

21
21

_

M anufacturing ------- ------------------------

25
Shipping c le r k s _ __ __ __ __ -_ __ ------- __ __
2.59
Manufacturing __ __ __ __ __ ________ __ __ ----- 25— " 2 .5 9 '"

3
2
1
1

11

13
13
-

34
26
8
2

10
7
3
3

33
33
"

9
9
-

116
107
9
9

17
17
-

_
-

_

10
2
8

2
2

2
2
-

3
3
-

5
4
1

_
-

1
1
"

1
1
-

1
1

_
-

_
-

_

_

_

“

-

21
20

_
"

63
61

6
6

67
56

13
13

_

"

51
51

26
26

■

"

3
3

.

"

"

-

-

10
1
1

1

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

’

14
14

_

_
"

2
2

_
'

_

"

"

2
2

1
1

6
6

2
■

7
■

_

_

_

_

“

“

”

"

.

2
-

5
2

.

_

.

-

-

■

_

_

_

_

“

“

~

_

_

_

"

■

.

_

_

15
15

!
1

4
4

6
6

4
4

3
3

3
3

1
1

5
5

.

.

-

-

-

6
6

8
8

2
2

4
4

!
' 1

8
6

6
-

4
4

_

_

■

"

“

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

2

~

■

~

“

■

"

■

1

_

.

.

.

.

.

.

_

"

"

-

-

-

-

1
1

1
-

-

-

1
1

4
3

3
2

14
14

-

-

-

1

1

3

1

-

4

-

-

-

4

8
2

14
14

38
38

1

-

46
46

42
42

4
4

“

5
5

"

“

"

41
41

"

"

-

■

“

"

“

_

4

_

_

_

_

_

.

“
.
-

-

3
3

.

15

2.55

-

-

-

-

_

-

1

T ru ck ers , pow er ( f o r k l i f t ) ____ __ __ __ ____
M a n u fa c tu r in g -----------------------------------------------

164
158

2.37
2.38

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

T ru ck ers, pow er (oth er than
fork lift) ____ _ __ __ __ — __ ____ __ ____
M a n u fa c tu r in g -----------------------------------------------

85
85

2.38
2.38

"

-

"

"

-

-

"

-

-

15
15

■

4
4

25
25

Watchmen

20

2.03

1

.

_

.

4

3

3

.

.

.

.

5

Data lim ited to m en w ork e rs except w here otherw ise indicated.
Excludes prem iu m pay fo r ov e rtim e and fo r w ork on w eekends, h olid ays, and late shifts.
Tran sportation, com m u nication, and other public utilities.
Includes all d r iv e r s reg a rd le ss of size and type of truck operated.




_
-

112
112

"

1
2
3
4

-

9
9

.

_

_

"

5
5

“

_ __

_

25
25

.

__ ____

_
-

"

52
52

“

_

-

5
5

.

__ __ ____

1

-

"

2.58
2.55

T ru ck d riv ers, m edium ( 1 V 2 to and
including 4 tons)
...... . ......
, _____

34
34

"

47
36

T r u c k d riv e r s 4 ____ __ — ____ _ _ _ _ _ _
M a n u fa c tu r in g -----------------------------------------------

2
2

"

6
------ 57

_

1

.

_

1
1

~




B:

9

Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions

Table B-l. Shift Differentials
(Shift d iff e r e n t ia ls o f m a n u fa ctu rin g p la n t w o r k e r s b y type and am ou n t o f d iffe r e n t ia l,
M u sk egon — u s k e g o n H e ig h ts, M ic h . , M ay 1962)
M
P e r c e n t o f m a n u fa c tu r in g p lan t w o r k e r s —
In e s ta b lis h m e n ts h a v in g f o r m a l
p r o v i s io n s 1 f o r —

S hift d iffe r e n t ia l

A c t u a lly w o rk in g on—

S e c o n d s h ift
w o rk

T h ir d o r o th e r
s h ift w o r k

S e c o n d sh ift

T h ir d o r o th e r
s h ift

-------- -----

9 8 .9

9 1 .7

18. 7

4. 3

W ith s h ift p a y d iffe r e n t ia l ------------------------------------

98. 5

9 1 .3

18. 6

4. 2

U n ifo r m c e n ts (p e r hou r) --------------------------------

6 5 .6

61. 1

12. 6

3. 2

25.
24.
9.
.
1.

6. 8
19. 0

4. 6
4 .6
2 .9

.4
. 3

T o ta l

----------

------------------

---------------

5 ce n ts
6 c e n ts ----------------------------------------------------------7 c e n ts ------------- ------- -------------------------------7 1/ 2 c e n ts ___________________________________
8 c e n ts ----------------------------------------------------------9 c e n ts ______ __________ _________________ _
10 ce n ts ---------- — ----------------------------- ----___
____________________________
11 c e n ts
12 c e n ts ____________________________________
I 2 V 2 c e n ts -------------------------------------------------15 c e n ts ____________________________________
16 ce n ts ____________________________________
18 c e n ts --------------------------------------------------------

0
9
3
8
4

-

. 2

1. 1

.9

. 1

1. 1

.9

. 1

26. 5

5. 2

.6

-

.4

. 1

. 1

1. 4

U n ifo rm p e r c e n t a g e -----------------------------------------

6 .4

5 p e r c e n t ___________________________________

6. 4

P a y f o r m o r e h o u r s than w o rk e d ------------------

26. 5

O th er fo r m a l p a y d iffe r e n t ia l
N o s h ift pay d iffe r e n t ia l

------------------------

-------------------- ----------------

-

1 .9
-

.9
-

.4

1 In clu d e s e sta b lis h m e n ts c u r r e n t ly o p e r a tin g la te s h ift s ,
e v e n though they w e r e not c u r r e n t ly o p e r a tin g la te s h ifts .
2 L e s s than 0. 05 p e r c e n t .

-

. 1
(1 )
2
. 3
.4
.2
1. 1
. 2
. 2

2. 7
. 3
9. 3
12. 7
1. 6
4. 4
. 8
1. 1
1. 1
1 .4

2. 5
.4

-

.2
. 1
-

and e s t a b lis h m e n ts w ith fo r m a l p r o v i s io n s c o v e r in g la te s h ifts

10
Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salaries for Women Office Workers
(D is trib u tio n o f e s ta b lis h m e n ts stu died in a ll in d u s tr ie s and in in d u stry d iv is io n s b y m in im u m entrance s a la r y fo r s e le cte d c a t e g o r ie s
o f in e x p e r ie n c e d w o m e n o f fi c e w o r k e r s , M uskegon— uskegon H eigh ts, M ich ., M ay 1962)
M
In e x p e r ie n c e d ty p is ts
M anufacturin g
M in im um w e e k ly s a la r y 1

O th er in e x p e r ie n c e d c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s
N onm anufacturing

B a se d on standard w e e k ly h o u rs 1 o f —
2
‘

A ll
in d u s tr ie s

A ll
sch e d u le s

40

A ll
sch e d u le s

N on m an u factu rin g

M anuf a ctu r ing
A ll
in d u s trie s

B a s e d o n sta n d a rd w e e k ly h o u r s 3 o f —
A ll
s ch ed u les

40

A ll
s c h e d u le s

40

40

E stab lish m en ts studied ____________________________________________

53

31

XXX

22

XXX

53

31

XXX

22

XXX

E sta b lish m en ts having a s p e c ifie d m in im u m

24

18

18

6

6

28

18

18

10

10

_

_

_

_
2
3

_
3
3
6
2
1
1
1

_
3
3
6
2
1
1
1

2
1
3
3

2
1
3

$ 40 .00
$ 4 2 .5 0
$4 5 .0 0
$47 .5 0
$ 50.00
$ 52 .50
$ 55 .00
$ 57.50
$ 60 .00
$ 62 .50
$ 65 .00

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
u n d er
u nd er
under
un d er
u nd er
under
under
under
under
u n d er

____________________

$ 4 2 .5 0 _______________________________________
$ 4 5 .0 0 _______________________________________
$ 4 7 .5 0 ________________________________________
$ 5 0 .0 0 ______ _______________________________
$ 52.50 ________________________________________
$ 5 5 .0 0 ___________________ __________________
$ 5 7 .5 0 _______________________________________
$ 6 0 .0 0 _______________________________________
$ 6 2 .5 0 -----------------------------------------------------------$ 6 5 .0 0 _______________________________________
$ 6 7 .5 0 ------------------------------------------------------------

E stab lish m en ts having no s p e c ifie d m in im u m ------ - ----------------E sta b lish m en ts w hich d id not e m p lo y w o r k e r s
in this c a t e g o r y ________ ________________________________________

-

-

-

-

4
3
9
3
1
1
2

2
3
6
3
1
1
1

2
3
6
3
1
1
1

2
3

1

1

2
1
6
3
9
2
1
1
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

I

1

-

-

1

1

1

-

-

7

6

XXX

1

XXX

7

6

XXX

1

XXX

22

7

XXX

15

XXX

18

7

XXX

11

XXX

-

-

-

-

1 L ow est s a la r y ra te fo r m a lly e s ta b lis h e d f o r h ir in g in e x p e r ie n c e d w o r k e r s f o r typing o r o th e r c l e r i c a l jo b s .
2 R ates a p p lic a b le to m e s s e n g e r s , o f fi c e g i r l s , o r s im ila r s u b c le r ic a l jo b s a r e not c o n s id e r e d .
3 H ours r e fle c t the w ork w e e k f o r w h ich e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv e th e ir r e g u la r s t r a ig h t-t im e s a la r ie s . D ata a r e p r e s e n te d f o r a ll w ork w eek s co m b in e d ,




-

_

1

and f o r the m o s t c o m m o n w o rk w e e k

-

3
-

1

rep orted .

11
Table B-3. Scheduled Weekly Hours
(P e r c e n t d istrib u tio n o f o ffic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u s tr ie s and in in d u stry d iv is io n s by s ch ed u led w e e k ly h ou rs
o f f ir s t - s h if t w o r k e r s , M uskegon— uskegon H e ig h ts , M ic h ., M ay 1962)
M
PLAN T W ORKERS

O F F IC E W O R K E R S

W e e k ly h o u rs
A ll in d u s tr ie s 1

A ll w o r k e r s

T T n r^ r

_____________________________________

4 ft V io n r s

42

h o u rs

4 4

h o u rs

48

h o u rs

53

h o u rs —

1
2
3
4




100

M a n u fa c t u r in g

P u b lic u t ilit ie s 1
2

A ll in d u s tr ie s 3

M a n u fa c t u r in g

100

100

100

100

99
1

100

93

94

(4 )

_________ _____ _____ ________________
_

_____ _

..

____

____

...

______
^

______________

99
1

„
____

(4
")

_
_

_
_

_

(4 )

1
1

n
_

5

4

1

1

In clu d e s data f o r w h o le s a le tra d e ; r e ta il tra d e ; fin a n ce, in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te ; and s e r v ic e s in add ition to th ose in d u stry d iv is io n s show n s e p a ra te ly .
T r a n s p o rta tio n , co m m u n ica tio n , and other public u tilitie s .
In clu d e s data f o r w h o le s a le tra d e , r e ta il trade, r e a l e s ta te , and s e r v ic e s in add ition to th o se in d u stry d iv isio n s show n s e p a ra te ly .
L e s s than 0.5 p e r c e n t.

P u b lic utilitie.'.2

100

92

6
2

12
Table B-4. Paid Holidays
(P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n o f o ffic e and plant w o r k e r s in all in d u s tr ie s and in in d u stry d iv isio n s by num ber of paid h olid ays
p r o v id e d annually, M uskegon— u sk egon H eigh ts, M ic h ., M ay 1962)
M
PLANT W ORKERS

O F F IC E W O R K E R S

Item
A ll in d u s tr ie s 1

M a n u fa c t u r in g

P u b lic u tilitie s 1
2

A ll in d u s tr ie s 34

M a n u fa c t u r in g

P u b lic u tilitie s

100

W ork ers in es ta b lis h m en ts p ro v id in g
paid h olid ays
_____ ________________ — ~ _
W o r k e r s in esta b lis h m e n ts p rov id in g
no paid h olid ays ______ — ------------- --------------

100

100

100

100

100

99

100

100

99

100

2

100

1

(4 )
'

Number of days
4 h olid a ys _ ______
_____ — ------- --------6 h olid ays
_______________ _____________ ______
6 h olid ays plus 2 h a lf days _____________________
7 h olid a ys ____________ __ --------------- ----- --------7 h olid ays plus 1 h a lf day ----------- ------------------7 h olid ays plus 2 h a lf days ----- --------- ------------8 h olid ays
___________________ _________________
10 holid ays _________________ ______ ____
____

9
46
25
(4 )
1
9
10

6
65
15
1
13

7
93
-

1
12
64
15
1
6

8
72
13
2
6

90
-

14
14
94
100
100

93
100
100

7
7
87
99
99

8
8
92
100
100

_
90
100
100

10
-

Total holiday time 5
10 days
_________________________________________
8 or m o r e days _________________ _____ ___ ____ ___
7 V or m o r e days -----------------------------------------------2
7 o r m o r e days __________________________ __
6 or m o r e days ____ __________________________
4 or m o r e days _ __________ __________
__ __

1
2
3
4
5
no half

10
20
20
91
99
99

Inclu des data fo r w h o le s a le tra d e ; r e t a il tr a d e ; fin a n ce , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e sta te ; and s e r v ic e s in add ition to th o se in du stry d iv isio n s show n s ep a ra tely .
T r a n sp orta tion , c o m m u n ica tio n , and oth er p u b lic u tilitie s .
Inclu des data fo r w h o le s a le tr a d e , r e t a il tr a d e , r e a l e s ta te , and s e r v ic e s in add ition to th ose in d u stry d iv is io n s show n sep arately.
L e s s than 0.5 p e rce n t.
A ll com b in a tion s o f fu ll and h alf days that add to the sam e am ount are co m b in e d ; fo r e x a m p le , the p r o p o r t io n o f w o rk e rs r e c e iv in g a total of 7 days in clu d e s th ose w ith 7 fu ll days and
days, 6 fu ll days and 2 h alf da ys, 5 fu ll days and 4 h a lf d ays, and s o on.
P r o p o r t io n s w e r e then cum ulated.




13
Table B-5. Paid Vacations
(P e r c e n t d istrib u tio n o f o ffic e and plant w o r k e r s in all in d u s tr ie s and in in d u stry d iv is io n s b y v a c a tio n pay
p r o v is io n s , M uskegon— u sk egon H eigh ts, M ic h ., M ay 1962)
M
PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS
V a ca tio n p o lic y
Public utilities2

All industries3

Manufacturing

All industries1

A ll w o r k e r s

____________________ ___________ ___

Manufacturing

100

100

100

100

100

100

100
99
(4 )
1

100
99
1
1

100
100
-

100
72
27
1

100
70
28
1

100
100
_

Public utilities2

M eth od o f p a y m en t
W o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p ro v id in g
L e n g t h -o f-t im e p aym en t ------------------------------P e r c e n t a g e p aym en t ________________________
F la t - s u m p a ym en t --------- -----------------------------O ther ___________________________ — _____ __
W o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p ro v id in g
no paid v a c a tio n s _______________ ____________

"

A m ou n t o f v a c a tio n p a y 5
A fte r 6 m onths o f s e r v ic e
U nder 1 w ee k ____________________________________
1 w e e k _____ ___ ___ ____ ______ ________ ___________ _
O v er 1 and under 2 w e e k s ______________________

_

4
59
5

6
64
7

17
-

48
2
1

54
2
1

4
18
-

23
1
75
1

8
1
88
2

89
_
11
-

64
33
2
1
-

60
37
2
1
-

87
_
13
_

3
1
95
1
1

1
1
95
1
2

8
2
90
-

56
33
10
1
-

59
37
3
1
-

19
_
81
_

1
(4)
97
1
1

1
1
95
1
2

_
100
-

26
54
19
1

29
59
11
1
-

_
_
100
_

1
(4 )
97
1
1

1
1
95
1
2

A fte r 1 y e a r of s e r v ic e
1 w eek ____________________________________________
O ver 1 and u nd er 2 w e e k s ______________________
2 w eek s ___________________ _ _____ __ _________
O ver 2 and un d er 3 w e e k s ______________________
3 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------------------A fte r 2 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w e e k ____________________________________________
O v er 1 and under 2 w e e k s _
________ ______
2 w e e k s ______ __________ _________________ ______
O ver 2 and u nd er 3 w e e k s _ ________ _________
3 w e e k s ------------------------------------------------------------------

-

A ft e r 3 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek
O ver 1 and u nd er 2 w e e k s __ _____ ________ __
2 w e e k s _________ __ __ _______________ ___________
O ver 2 and u nd er 3 w e e k s ____________________ _
3 w e e k s __ _______ ___________________________ _

-

A ft e r 4 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek ____________ ______________ _____ __
O ver 1 and un d er 2 w e e k s ______________________
2 w e e k s _______________
O v er 2 and u nd er 3 w e e k s __________________ _
______________ _____ ________ __ ____
3 w eeks

S ee fo o tn o te s at end o f table.




_

_
100
_

26
54
19
1

29
59
11
1

_
100

_

14
Table B-5. Paid Vacations— Continued
(P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n o f o ffic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u s tr ie s and in in d u stry d iv isio n s by v a ca tio n pay
p r o v is io n s , M uskegon— u sk egon H eigh ts, M ic h ., M ay 1962)
M
PLANT W ORKERS

O F F IC E W O R K E R S

V a ca tio n p o lic y
A ll in d u s t r ie s 1

Amount of vacation p a y 5—

M a n u fa c t u r in g

P u b lic u tilitie s 2

A ll in d u strie s3

P u b lic u tilitie s 2

M a n u fa c t u r in g

Continued

A fte r 5 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek ______ ___ _____________________ _ ____
O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s ___________ _________
2 w eeks
______________
__ ____________________
O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s ______
_____ _ ___
3 w eeks
_____ __
__ _______ _ _________

_
97
1
3

.
96

3

_
49
25
26
-

1
69
29
2

_
100
_

-

(4 )
1
71
26
2

_
51
37
12
-

_
67
_
33
-

(4 )
30
55
14
1

_
30
61
8
2

.
47
_
53
-

_
47
25
28
-

_
48
37
15
-

_
67
_
33
-

(4 )
28
55
16
1

_
28
61
9
2

.
41
_
59

_
8
1
91

_
5
1
95
-

_
6
_
94
-

(4 )
4
3
91
2

3
4
91
2

_
_
100
-

_
8
1
86
_
5

_
5
1
91
_
3

_
6
_
84
_
10

(4 )
3
4
85
2
5

_
2
4
89
2
3

_
_
79
_
21

_
8

_
5
1
90

(4 )
3
4
77
2
13

2
4
84
2
7

1

_
100
-

-

A fte r 10 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w eek ____ _ ____
„
_________
_ _ __
________
2 w eeks ____ ___
O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s __ ___ __________ ______
3 w eeks _____________
_______
__ __ ______ __
O ver 3 and under 4 w e e k s
_
__ _______
A fte r 12 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek

2 w eeks
_ _____ __ ____ ______ __ _ ______
O ver 2 and under 3 w e e k s __________ __ _ _
3 w eeks ___________________________________________
O ver 3 and u n d e r 4 w e e k s
_ ______
A fte r 15 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w eek

__ __

___ ______ __ _____ _

___ ____

2 w eeks
O v e r 2 and u n d e r

3 w eeks
________ __
3 w eek s
__________ __
_____ ____________ __
O ver 3 and under 4 w eek s ______________________
A fte r 20 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e

1 w eek
__
__ __
__
2 w eeks _____ ______
__
O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s
3 w eek s
_
____ __
O ver 3 and under 4 w eek s
4 w eeks
___ __

_ _____
___
_ _________
_________ _______ ____
______________________

A fte r 25 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w eek
---- __
2 w eek s
.
---- _
O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s _____ __
_ __ __
3 w eek s .
O ver 3 and under 4 w e e k s ______________________
4 w eek s -----------------------------------------------------------------

1
2
3
4
5
s e r v ic e

1

72
-

-

19

5

_
6
_
6
_
88

Inclu des data fo r w h o le s a le tr a d e ; r e t a il tr a d e ; fin a n ce , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te ; and s e r v ic e s in add ition to th ose in d u stry d iv is io n s show n s e p a r a te ly .
T ra n sp o rta tio n , C om m unication, and o th er p u b lic u t ilitie s .
Inclu des data fo r w h o le s a le tra d e , r e t a il tra d e , r e a l e s ta te , and s e r v ic e s in a dd ition to th ose in d u stry d iv is io n s shown s ep arately.
L e s s than 0.5 p e r c e n t.
P e r io d s o f s e r v ic e w e r e a r b it r a r ily c h o s e n and do not n e c e s s a r il y r e fle c t the in d ivid u a l p r o v is io n s fo r p r o g r e s s io n s .
F o r exa m p le, the ch an ges in p r o p o r t io n s
includ e ch an ges in p r o v is io n s o c c u r r in g betw een 5 and 10 y e a r s .

_
_
14
86

in d ica te d at 10 y e a r s '

N OTE: In the tabu lation s o f v a c a tio n a llo w a n ce s b y y e a r s o f s e r v ic e , paym en ts o th er than " le n g th o f t i m e , " such as p e rce n ta g e o f annual ea rn in gs o r f la t - s u m p a y m en ts,
to an equivalent tim e b a s is ; fo r e x a m p le , a paym ent o f 2 p e r c e n t o f annual e a rn in g s w as c o n s id e r e d as 1 w e e k 's pay.




w e r e c o n v e r te d

15
Table B-6. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
(P e r c e n t o f o f fic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u s trie s and in in d u stry d iv is io n s e m p lo y e d in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p r o v id in g
health, in s u r a n c e , o r p e n s io n b e n e fits , M u skegon — u sk egon H eigh ts, M i c h . , M ay 1962)
M
OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

T yp e o f b e n e fit
All industries1

Manufacturing

Public utilities1
2

All industries3

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

100

100

100

100

100

100

L i f e in s u r a n c e — — ----------------------— —
A c c id e n t a l d ea th and d is m e m b e r m e n t
in s u r a n c e . ------ —— .--------------------------------------S ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e o r
s i c k le a v e o r b o t h 4 --------------— —

99

99

100

99

100

100

79

81

69

84

87

53

96

96

98

97

99

96

S ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in su ra n ce ------------S ic k le a v e (fu ll pay and no
w a itin g p e r io d ) ----------------------------------------S ic k le a v e ( p a r t ia l p a y o r
w a itin g p e r io d ) . . . — .------— — —

54

58

65

79

84

40

48

45

33

4

1

56

6

7

-

15

15

-

99
99
92
62
93

43
43
43
61
88

95
95
87
46
92
1

99
99
91
49
93

72
72
64
37
86

A ll w o r k e r s

------------------------------------- ----------------------

W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n ts p r o v id in g :

H o s p ita liz a tio n in s u r a n c e —--------------------------S u r g ic a l in s u r a n c e —-------------------------------- -----M e d ic a l in s u r a n c e — --------------------------------------C a ta s tr o p h e in s u r a n c e ---------------------------------R e t ir e m e n t p e n s io n -------------------- . . . . . . . ---------N o h ealth , in s u r a n c e , o r p e n s io n plan -------

89
89
84
51
91
(5)

1 In clu d e s d a ta f o r w h o le s a le tr a d e ; r e t a il tr a d e ; fin a n ce , in s u ra n ce , and r e a l e s ta te ; and s e r v ic e s in ad d ition to th o se in d u stry d iv is io n s show n s e p a r a te ly .
2 T r a n s p o r ta tio n , c o m m u n ica tio n , and o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .
2 In clu d e s data f o r w h o le s a le tra d e , r e t a il tra d e , r e a l e sta te , and s e r v ic e s in add ition to th o s e in d u stry d iv is io n s show n s e p a r a te ly .
4 U n du p lica ted t o ta l o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s ic k le a v e o r s ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e show n s e p a r a te ly b e lo w .
S ic k -le a v e plan s a r e lim ite d to th ose w h ich d e fin ite ly e s ta b lis h at le a s t
the m inim u^n n u m b e r o f d a y s ' pay that can b e exp e cte d by e a ch e m p lo y e e . In fo rm a l s ic k -l e a v e a llo w a n c e s d e te r m in e d o n an in divid u al b a s is a r e e x clu d e d .
5 L e s s than 0 . 5 p e r c e n t .







Appendix A: Changes in Occupational Descriptions

stead of two (class A and B). The revised description for keypunch
operator groups these workers into two defined classes (A and B)
instead of a single category. Previously data were presented separately
for general stenographers and technical stenographers. The revision
combines general stenographers, with more responsible duties, and
technical stenographers to form a new senior stenographer category;
other general stenographers are maintained in that classification.

Since the Bureau’ s last survey in this area, occupational
descriptions for three office jobs were revised in order to obtain salary
information for more specific categories. Therefore, data presented
for these jobs in table A -l are not comparable to data presented in last
year’ s bulletin.

Revisions were made in the descriptions for file clerks, key­
punch operators, and stenographers. The revised description for file
clerk groups these workers into three levels (class A, B, and C) in­




The revised occupational descriptions used this year are in­
cluded in appendix B.

17




Appendix B: Occupational Descriptions
The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to assist its
field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field economists are in­
structed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped, part-time,
temporaryy and probationary workers.

OFFICE
BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
classified by type of machine, as follows:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.
Class A—
Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, bal­
ance sheets, and other records by hand.

Biller, machine (hilling machine)—
Uses a special billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, etc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.

Class B—
Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type of billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation of trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.

Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine)—
Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, etc., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types of sales and
credit slips.



CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A—
Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a com­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase of an establish­
ment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

19

20

CLERK, ACCOUNTING—
Continued
payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper ac­
counting distribution; and requires judgment and experience in
making proper assignations and allocations. May assist in preparing,
adjusting and closing journal entries; and may direct class B ac­
counting clerks.
Class B—
Under supervision, performs one or more routine ac­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or ac­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; and posting subsidiary ledgers con­
trolled by general ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data.
This job does not require a knowledge of accounting and book­
keeping principles but is found in offices in which the more routine
accounting work is subdivided on a functional basis among several
workers.

CLERK, FILE
Class A— an established filing system containing a number
In
of varied subject matter files, classifies and indexes file material
such as correspondence, reports, technical documents, etc. May
also file this material. May keep records of various types in con­
junction with the files. May lead a small group of lower level file
clerks.
Class B—
Sorts, codes, and files unclassified material by sim­
ple (subject matter) headings or partly classified material by finer
subheadings. Prepares simple related index and cross-reference
aids.
As requested locates clearly identified material in files
and forwards material. May perform related clerical tasks required
to maintain and service files.

Class C-Performs routine filing of material that has already
been classified or which is easily classified in a simple serial
classification system (e.g., alphabetical, chronological, or numer­
ical).
As requested, locates readily available material in files
sind forwards material; and may fill out withdrawal charge. Per­
forms simple clerical and manual tasks required to maintain and
service files.



CLERK, ORDER
Receives customers9orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination o f the following:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; and distributing order sheets to respective departments to be
filled. May check with credit department to determine credit rating o f
customer, acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders
to see that they have been filled, keep file o f orders received, and check
shipping invoices with original orders.

CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the n eces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers9
earnings based on time or production records; and posting calculated
data on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker’ s name, work­
ing days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due.
May make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and dis­
tributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that o f statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file of used stencils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

21

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Class /4—
Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or combina­
tion keypunch machine to transcribe data from various source docu­
ments to keypunch tabulating cards. Performs same tasks as lower
level keypunch operator but in addition, work requires application of
coding skills and the making of some determinations, for example,
locates on the source document the items to be punched; extracts
information from several documents; and searches for and interprets
information on the document to determine information to be punched.
May train inexperienced operators.

Class B—
Under close supervision or following specific proce­
dures or instructions, transcribes data from source documents to
punched cards. Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or com­
bination keypunch machine to keypunch tabulating cards. May
verify cards. Working from various standardized source documents,
follows specified sequences which have been coded or prescribed
in detail and require little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting
data to be punched. Problems arising from erroneous items or codes,
missing information, etc., are referred to supervisor.

OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands, opera­
ting minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and dis­
tributing mail, and other minor clerical work.

SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an
administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receiving people coming into office; answering and



SECRETARY— Continued
making phone calls; handling personal and important or confidential
mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative; and taking
dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand
or by Stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the
recorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare
special reports or memorandums for information of superior.

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a
normal routine vocabulary; and transcribe dictation. May also type from
written copy. May maintain files, keep simple records, or perform other
relatively routine clerical tasks. May operate from a stenographic pool.
Does not include transcribing-machine work. (See transcribing-machine
operator.)

STENOGRAPHER,SENIOR
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a var­
ied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or
reports on scientific research and transcribe dictation. May also type
from written copy. May also set up and maintain files, keep records, etc.

OR

Performs stenographic duties requiring significantly greater
independence and responsibility than stenographers, general as evi­
denced by the following: Work requires high degree of stenographer
speed and accuracy; and a thorough working knowledge of general busi­
ness and office procedures and of the specific business operations,
organization, policies, procedures, files, workflow, etc. Uses this
knowledge in performing stenographic duties and responsible clerical
tasks such as, maintaining followup files; assembling material for
reports, memorandums, letters, etc.; composing simple letters from general
instructions; reading and routing incoming mail; and answering routine
questions, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work.

22

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office
calls. May record toll calls and take messages. May give information
to persons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders. For
workers who also act as receptionists see switchboard operatorreceptionist.

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR-Continued
Class C—
Operates simple tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with specific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs or re­
petitive operations.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single posi­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. This typing
or clerical work may take the major part of this worker’ s time while at
switchboard.
TABULA TING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Class A—
Operates a variety of tabulating or electrical ac­
counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator, and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignments without close supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are o f irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating sequences of long and complex reports,
Does not include working supervisors performing tabulating-machine
operations and day-to-day supervision o f the work and production
of a group o f tabulating-machine operators.
Class B—
Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical ac­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under
specific instructions and may include the performance of some wir­
ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but
small tabulating study, or parts o f a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are well established. May also include the training
of new employees in the basic operation of the machine.



TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal rou­
tine vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May also type from
written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation
involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal
briefs or reports on scientific research are not included. A worker who
takes dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is
classified as a stenographer, general.
TYPIST
Uses a typewriter to make copies o f various material or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May include typing of stencils, mats, or similar materials for use in
duplicating processes. May do clerical work involving little special
training, such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or
sorting and distributing incoming mail.

Class A-Performs one or more o f the following: Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punc­
tuation, etc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; and planning layout and typing of complicated statistical
tables to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type
routine form letters varying details to suit circumstances.
Class B-Performs one or more o f the following: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing o f forms, insurance pol­
icies, etc.; and setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying
more complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

23

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR-Continued

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.

completed work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quan­
tities; writing specifications; and making adjustments or changes in
drawings or specifications. May ink in lines and letters on pencil
drawings, prepare detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings.
Work is frequently in a specialized field such as architectural, elec­
trical, mechanical, or structural drafting.

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration o f working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Duties involve a combination o f the following: Interpreting blueprints,
sketches, and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures;
assigning duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; and per­
forming more difficult problems. May assist subordinates during emer­
gencies or as a regular assignment, or perform related duties of a
supervisory or administrative nature.
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing
purposes. Duties involve a combination of the following: Preparing
working plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-sections, etc., to scale by
use of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as
those involved in strength of materials, beams and trusses; verifying

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of employees’ injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants
and employees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.
TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing
tracing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. Uses
T-square, compass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

MAINTENANCE AND POWERPLANT
CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE—
Continued

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim
made o f wood in an establishment. Work involves most of the following:
Planning and laying out o f work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’ s handtools, portable

power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; and selecting materials
necessary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance car­
penter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.




24

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE

HELPER, MAINTENANCE TRADES

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, dis­
tribution, or utilization o f electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the elec­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; and using a variety
of electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In
general, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

A ssists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
and performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The
kind of work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade:
In some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding
materials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-time basis.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors,
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; and keeping a record
of operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May
also supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establishments employing more than one engineer are excluded.

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools, gages,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most o f the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and
operation sequence; and making necessary adjustments during operation
to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to rec­
ognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating oils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing
shops are excluded from this classification.

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
Fire stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; and checks water
and safety valve.
May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom
equipment.



Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts o f mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Interpreting written instructions and
specifications; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
chinist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and
operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to close toler­
ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of
work, tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge o f the working

25

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE -Continued

MILLWRIGHT

properties o f the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts,
and equipment required for his work; and fitting and assembling parts
into mechanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally
requires a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout
are required. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying
out o f the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a
variety o f handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment and
parts to be used; and installing and maintaining in good order power
transmission equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general,
the millwright’ s work normally requires a rounded training and experi­
ence in the trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an es­
tablishment. Work involves most o f the following: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gages, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assemblies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; and alining wheels, adjusting brakes
and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the auto­
motive mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually ac­
quired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves most o f the following: Examining machines and mechan­
ical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly dis­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a re­
placement part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine
shop for major repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs
or for die production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling
machines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In gen­
eral, the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience. Excluded from this classification are
workers whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.



OILER
Lubricates* with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces o f mechanical equipment of an establishment.

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler
in nail holes and interstices; and applying paint with spray gun or brush.
May mix colors, oils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain
proper color or consistency. In general, the work of the maintenance
painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience*

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most of the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from draw­
ings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to
correct lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe­
cutting machine; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by
hand-driven or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings

26

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE—
Continued

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE-Continued

and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relat­
ing to pressures, flow, and size of pipe required; and making standard
tests to determine whether finished pipes meet specifications. In general
the work o f die maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and
repairing building sanitation or beating system s are excluded.

types of sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in
cutting, bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; and installing
sheet-metal articles as required. In general, the work o f the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.
TOOL AND DIE MAKER
(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gage maker)

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; and opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake.
In general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) o f an
establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types o f sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints,
models, or other specifications; setting up and operating all available

Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gages, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching, and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most of the following: Planning and laying out o f work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifications;
using a variety of tool and die maker’ s handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding o f the working properties o f common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating o f metal
parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to close tolerances; fitting and assembling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allowances; and selecting appro­
priate materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die
maker’ s work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom
practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT
ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

GUARD

Transports passengers between floors of an office building
apartment house, department store, hotel, or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity o f employees and
other persons entering.




27

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER

PACKER, SHIPPING

(Sweeper; charwomen; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial
or other establishment. Duties involve a combination o f the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance services; and cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Work­
ers who specialize in window washing are excluded.

Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or more of
the following: Knowledge o f various items of stock in order to verify
content; selection o f appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; and applying labels
or entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make
wooden-boxes or crates are excluded.

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more o f the follow­
ing: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or
from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location;
and transporting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheel­
barrow. Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded.

ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
Fills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, cus­
tomers’ orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders
and indicating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders
requisition additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and
perform 6ther related duties.



SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­
sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Ship­
ping work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices,
routes, available means of transportation and rates; and preparing
records of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight
and shipping charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May
direct or assist in preparing the merchandise for shipment. Receiving
work involves: Verifying or directing others in verifying the correct­
ness o f shipments against bills of lading, invoices, or other records;
checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods; routing merchan­
dise or materials to proper departments; and maintaining necessary
records and files.

For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:
Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk

28

TRUCKDRIVER

TRUCKER, POWER

Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of estab­
lishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers* houses or places of business. May also load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers
are excluded.

Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.

For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipment, as follows: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis of trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver (combination o f sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under 1% tons)
Truckdriver, medium (IY2 to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)




For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of
truck, as follows:
Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)

WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.

* U.s. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1962 0 — 648708


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102