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Occupational Wage Survey

BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA
APRIL 1962

Bulletin No. 1303-59




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




Occupational Wage Survey
BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA




A P R IL 1962

B u lle tin N o. 1 3 0 3 -5 9
June 1962

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing O ffice, Washington 25, D.C.

Price 30 cents




Contents

Preface

Page
The Labor Market Occupational Wage Survey Program
The Bureau of Labor Statistics annually conducts
occupational wage surveys in 82 labor markets.
The
studies provide data on occupational earnings and related
supplementary* benefits.
A preliminary report furnishing
trend data and average earnings is released within a month
of the completion of each study.
This bulletin provides
additional data not included in the preliminary report.

Introduction ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Wage trends for selected occupational groups _________________________
Tables:
1.
2.

Two bulletins, bringing together the results of all
of the area surveys, are issued after completion of the
final area bulletin in the current round of surveys.
The
first of these bulletins will be available late in 1962 and
the other early in 1963. During the survey year, summary
releases presenting areawide occupational earnings data
for 25 to 30 labor markets, are issued as data become
available.

A:

This bulletin was prepared in the Bureau's re ­
gional office in Atlanta, Ga. , by William L. Dansby, under
the direction of Donald M. Cruse.
The study was under
the general direction of Louis B. Woytych, Assistant
Regional Director for Wages and Industrial Relations.

B:




1
4

Establishments and workers within scope of survey ____________
Percents of increase in standard weekly salaries and
straight-time hourly earnings for selected
occupational groups _____________________________________________
Occupational earnings:*
A - 1. Office occupations—
men and wom en______________________
A - 2. Professional and technical occupations—
men
and women ________________________________________________
A - 3. Office, professional, and technical
occupations—
men and women combined _________________
A - 4.
Maintenance and power plant occupations ________________
A - 5. Custodial and material movement occupations __________
Establishment practices
andsupplementary wage provisions:*
B -l.
Shift differentials -------------------------------------------------------------B -2 . Minimum entrance salaries for women office
workers ___________________________________________________
B -3 .
Scheduled weekly hours ___________________________________
B -4 .
Paid holidays _____________________________________________
B - 5. Paid vacations ____________________________________________
B -6 . Health, insurance, and pension plans ___________________

3
3
5
7
8
9
10
12
13
14
15
16
18

Appendixes:
A.
B.

Changes in occupational descriptions -----------------------------------------Occupational descriptions _______________________________________

* NOTE: Similar tabulations are available in previous
area reports for Birmingham and for other major areas.
A directory indicating the areas, dates of study, and prices
of these reports is available upon request.
Union scales, indicative of prevailing pay levels,
are also available for the following trades or industries:
Building construction, printing, local-transit operating em­
ployees, and motortruck drivers and helpers.

iii

19
21




Occupational Wage Survey—Birmingham, Ala.

Introduction

to the work schedules (rounded to the nearest half hour) for which
straight-time salaries are paid; average weekly earnings for these
occupations have been rounded to the nearest half dollar.

This area is 1 of 82 labor markets in which the U.S. De­
partment of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics has conducted sur­
veys of occupational earnings and related wage benefits on an area­
wide basis.
In this area, data were obtained by personal visits of
Bureau field economists to representative establishments within six
broad industry divisions: Manufacturing; transportation, communica­
tion, and other public utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance,
insurance, and real estate; and services. Major industry groups
excluded from these studies are government operations and the con­
struction and extractive industries.
Establishments having fewer
than a prescribed number of workers are omitted also because they
tend to furnish insufficient employment in the occupations studied to
warrant inclusion. Separate tabulations are provided for each of the
broad industry divisions which meet publication criteria.

Average earnings of men and women are presented separately
for selected occupations in which both sexes are commonly employed.
Differences in pay levels of men and women in these occupations are
largely due to (l) differences in the distribution of the sexes among
industries and establishments; (2) differences in specific duties per­
formed, although the occupations are appropriately classified within
the same survey job description; and (3) differences in length of serv­
ice or merit review when individual salaries are adjusted on this
basis.
Longer average service of men would result in higher average
pay when both sexes are employed within the same rate range. Job
descriptions used in classifying employees in these surveys are usu­
ally more generalized than those used in individual establishments to
allow for minor differences among establishments in specific duties
pe rformed.

These surveys are conducted on a sample basis because of the
unnecessary cost involved in surveying all establishments. To obtain
optimum accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of large
than of small establishments is studied. In combining the data, how­
ever, all establishments are given their appropriate weight. Estimates
based on the establishments studied are presented, therefore, as re­
lating to all establishments in the industry grouping and area, ex­
cept for those below the minimum size studied.

Occupational employment estimates represent the total in all
establishments within the scope of the study and not the number actu­
ally surveyed. Because of differences in occupational structure among
establishments, the estimates of occupational employment obtained
from the sample of establishments studied serve only to indicate the
relative importance of the jobs studied.
These differences in occu­
pational structure do not materially affect the accuracy of the earn­
ings data.

Occupations and Earnings
The occupations selected for study are common to a variety
of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries. Occupational clas­
sification is based on a uniform set of job descriptions designed to
take account of interestablishment variation in duties within the same
job.
(See appendix for listing of these descriptions.) Earnings data
are presented (in the A -series tables) for the following types of occu­
pations: (a) Office clerical; (b) professional and technical; (c) mainte­
nance and power plant; and (d) custodial and material movement.

Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Information is presented (in the B -series tables) on selected
establishment practices and supplementary benefits as they relate to
office and plant workers.
The concept "office w ork ers," as used
in this bulletin, includes working supervisors and nonsupervisory
workers performing clerical or related functions, and excludes admin­
istrative, executive, and professional personnel. "Plant workers" in­
clude working foremen and all nonsupervisory workers (including leadmen and trainees) engaged in nonoffice functions. Administrative,
executive, and professional employees, and force-account construction
employees who are utilized as a separate work force are excluded.
Cafeteria workers and routemen are excluded in manufacturing indus­
tries, but are included as plant workers in nonmanufacturing industries.

Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for
full-time workers, i .e . , those hired to work a regular weekly sched­
ule in the given occupational classification. Earnings data exclude
premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and
late shifts.
Nonproduction bonuses are excluded also, but cost-ofliving bonuses and incentive earnings are included.
Where weekly
hours are reported, as for office clerical occupations, reference is




1

2

Shift differential data (table B - 1) are limited to manufacturing
industries. This information is presented both in terms of (a) estab­
lishment policy,1 presented in terms of total plant worker employ­
ment, and (b) effective practice, presented in terms of workers
actually employed on the specified shift at the time of the survey.
In establishments having varied differentials, the amount applying to
a majority was used or, if no amount applied to a majority, the clas­
sification "other" was used. In establishments in which some lateshift hours are paid at normal rates, a differential was recorded only
if it applied to a majority of the shift hours.
Minimum entrance salaries (table B -2 ) relate only to the
establishments visited.
They are presented in terms of establish­
ments with formal minimum salary policies.
The scheduled hours (table B -3) of a majority of the firstshift workers in an establishment are tabulated as applying to all of
the plant or office workers of that establishment. Paid holidays; paid
vacations; and health, insurance, and pension plans (tables B -4 through
B -6) are treated statistically on the basis that these are applicable
to all plant or office workers if a majority of such workers are eli­
gible or may eventually qualify for the practices listed. Sums of
individual items in tables B -3 through B -6 may not equal totals be­
cause of rounding.
The first part of the paid holidays table (table B -4) presents
the number of whole and half holidays actually provided. The second
part combines whole and half holidays to show total holiday time.
The summary of vacation plans (table B -5) is limited to for­
mal policies, excluding informal arrangements whereby time off with
pay is granted at the discretion of the employer. Separate estimates
are provided according to employer practice in computing vacation
payments, such as time payments, percent of annual earnings, or
flat-sum amounts. However, in the tabulations of vacation pay, pay­
ments not on a time basis were so converted; for example, a payment
of 2 percent of annual earnings was considered as the equivalent of
1 week's pay.

Data are presented for all health, insurance, and pension plans
(table B-6) for which at least a part of the cost is borne by the em ­
ployer, excepting only legal requirements such as workmen's compen­
sation, social security, and railroad retirement. Such plans include
those underwritten by a commercial insurance company and those pro­
vided through a union fund or paid directly by the employer out of
current operating funds or from a fund set aside for this purpose.
Death benefits are included as a form of life insurance.
Sickness and accident insurance is limited to that type of in­
surance under which predetermined cash payments are made directly
to the insured on a weekly or monthly basis during illness or accident
disability.
Information is presented for all such plans to which the
employer contributes.
However, in New York and New Jersey, which
have enacted temporary disability insurance laws which require em ­
ployer contributions,2 plans are included only if the employer (1) con­
tributes more than is legally required, or (2) provides the employee
with benefits which exceed the requirements of the law. Tabulations
of paid sick-leave plans are limited to formal plans3 which provide
full pay or a proportion of the worker's pay during absence from work
because of illness.
Separate tabulations are presented according to
(1) plans which provide full pay and no waiting period, and (2) plans
which provide either partial pay or a waiting period. In addition to the
presentation of the proportions of workers who are provided sickness
and accident insurance or paid sick leave, an unduplicated total is
shown of workers who receive either or both types of benefits.
Catastrophe insurance, sometimes referred to as extended
medical insurance, includes those plans which are designed to protect
employees in case of sickness and injury involving expenses beyond
the normal coverage of hospitalization, medical, and surgical plans.
Medical insurance refers to plans providing for complete or partial
payment of doctors' fees. Such plans may be underwritten by commer­
cial insurance companies or nonprofit organizations or they may be
self-insured. Tabulations of retirement pension plans are limited to
those plans that provide monthly payments for the remainder of the
worker's life.

2 The temporary disability laws in California and Rhode Island
do not require employer contributions.
3 An establishment was considered as having a formal plan if
it established at least the minimum number of days of sick leave that
1
An establishment was considered as having a policy if it met
could be expected by each employee. Such a plan need not be written,
either of the following conditions: (1) Operated late shifts at the time
but informal sick-leave allowances, determined on an individual basis,
of the survey, or (2) had formal provisions covering late shifts.
were excluded.




3

T a b le 1.

E sta b lish m e n ts and w o rk e rs w ithin s c o p e o f s u r v e y and n um ber studied in B irm in gh a m , A la .,

W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m en ts

N um ber o f e sta b lish m e n ts

M in im um
em ploym en t
in e s ta b lis h ­
m ents in s c o p e
of study

In d u stry d iv is io n

A ll d iv is io n s

b y m a jo r in d u stry d iv isio n , 2 A p r il 1962

__________________________________________________

Manufacturing___________________________
N on m an u factu rin g _____________________________________ _____
T r a n s p o rta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and oth er
p u b lic u t i l i t i e s 5 __________ ___ ______ _______ _____
W h o le s a le tra d e __ ------- --------------------------------------------------R e ta il tra d e __
--------------------------- — ------ ------------------F in a n ce , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te ------------------------------S e r v ic e s 7
__ _________ ____ __ __ —
____ ___ ___

W ithin
scope of
study 3

Studied

50

401

130

9 2 ,6 0 0

1 4 ,7 0 0

61, 000

63, 490

50
50

145
256

48
82

51, 400
4 1 ,2 0 0

5 ,6 0 0
9, 100

3 7 ,7 0 0
2 3 ,3 0 0

3 8 ,130
2 5 ,3 6 0

50
50
50
50
50

41
64
81
42
28

20
16
24
12
10

12,
6,
12,
6,
3,

2, 400
(*)
( )

W ithin s c o p e o f study
O ffic e

T o ta l4

600
900
100
100
500

0)
(6

Studied
Plant

6 ,9 0 0
(*)
(‘ )

0

(6 )

T o t a l4

10,640
2, 550
7, 210
3, 320
1,6 4 0

1 T h e B irm in g h a m Standard M e tro p o lita n S ta tistica l A re a c o n s is t s o f J e ffe r s o n County.
The " w o r k e r s w ithin s c o p e o f study" es tim a te s show n in this table p ro v id e a rea son a b ly a ccu rate
d e s c r ip tio n o f the s iz e and c o m p o s it io n o f the la b o r f o r c e includ ed in the su rv e y . The e s tim a te s a re not intended, h o w e v e r, to s e r v e as a b a s is o f c o m p a r is o n w ith oth er a r e a em ploym en t indexes
to m e a s u r e em p lo y m e n t tre n d s o r le v e ls sin ce (1) planning o f w age s u r v e y s r e q u ir e s the u se o f e s ta b lis h m e n t data c o m p ile d c o n s id e r a b ly in advance o f the p a y r o ll p e r io d studied, and (2) sm all
e s ta b lis h m e n ts a r e e x c lu d e d fr o m the s c o p e o f the su rvey.
2 The 1957 r e v is e d e d itio n o f the Standard In du strial C la s s ific a t io n M anual w as u s e d in c la s s ify in g e sta b lish m e n ts by in du stry d iv isio n . M a jo r changes fr o m the e a r lie r edition (u sed in the
B u re a u 's la b o r m a r k e t w age s u r v e y s con du cted p r io r to July 1958) a re the tr a n s fe r o f m ilk p a s te u r iz a tio n plants and r e a d y -m ix e d c o n c r e te esta b lis h m en ts fr o m trade (w h olesale o r reta il) to
m a n u fa ctu rin g, and the tr a n s fe r o f r a d io and t e le v is io n b ro a d ca stin g fr o m s e r v ic e s to the
tra n sp o rta tio n , co m m u n ica tio n , and oth er p u b lic u tilitie s d iv isio n .
3 In clu d es a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith total em ploym en t at o r above the m in im u m -s iz e lim ita tio n .
A ll ou tle ts (w ithin the are a ) o f c om p a n ies in such in d u s tr ie s as tra d e, fin a n ce,
auto r ep a ir
s e r v ic e , and m o t io n -p ic t u r e th e a te r s are co n s id e r e d as 1 e stablish m en t.
4 In clu d es e x e c u tiv e , p r o fe s s io n a l, and o th er w o r k e r s exclu d ed fr o m the se p a ra te o f fic e and plant c a t e g o r ie s .
5 T a x ic a b s and s e r v ic e s in cid e n ta l to w ater tra n sp o rta tio n w e r e e x clu d e d .
6 T h is in d u s tr y d iv is io n is r e p r e s e n te d in e s tim a te s fo r " a l l in d u s tr ie s " and "n o n m a n u fa ctu rin g" in the S e r ie s A and B ta b les.
S epa ra te p r e s e n ta tio n o f data fo r this d iv isio n is not m ade
fo r one o r m o r e o f the fo llo w in g r e a s o n s : (1) E m ploym en t in the d iv is io n is too s m a ll to p r o v id e enough data to m e r it se p a ra te study, (2) the sa m p le w as not d esig n ed in itia lly to p e r m it separate
p r e s e n ta tio n , (3) r e s p o n s e w as in s u ffic ie n t o r inadequate to p e rm it se p a ra te p r e s e n ta tio n , and (4) th e re is p o s s ib ilit y o f d is c lo s u r e o f in divid u al es ta b lis h m en t data.
7 H o te ls ; p e r s o n a l s e r v ic e s ; b u s in e s s s e r v ic e s ; autom obile r e p a ir s h o p s ; m o tio n p ic tu r e s ; n o n p ro fit m e m b e r s h ip o r g a n iz a tio n s ; and en g in eerin g and a r c h ite c tu r a l s e r v ic e s .




T able 2. P e r c e n t s o f i n c r e a s e in standard w e e k ly s a la r ie s and s tr a ig h t-tim e
liou rly ea rn in gs fo r s e le c t e d o ccu p a tio n a l gro u p s in B irm in gh a m , A la . *
A p r il 1961 to A p r il 1962, and M a rch I960 to A p ril 1961
A p r il 1961
to
A p ril 1962

M a rch I960
to
A p ril 1961

A ll in d u s trie s :
O ffic e c le r ic a l (m en and w om en ) _
---------- — —
In du strial n u rses (m en and w o m e n ) ___ __ _____ — ---------—
S k illed m aintenance (m en)
— U n sk illed plant (m e n )-----------------------------------------------------------

3 .4
3 .1
5. 1
3 .8

2 .6
1 .6
3 .2
1 .5

M an u factu rin g:
O ffice c l e r i c a l (m en and w o m e n ) ___________—-----------------In du strial n u rses (m en and w o m e n ) ---------------------------------S k illed m aintenance (m en) __ _______
__ —
U n sk illed plant (m e n )-----------------------------------------------------------

2. 3
4. 0
5 .6
2 .7

2 .7
1 .5
3 .0
.2

Industry and o ccu p a tio n a l grou p

4
Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups

Presented in table 2 are percents of change in salaries of
office clerical workers and industrial nurses, and in average earnings
of selected plant worker groups.
For office clerical workers and industrial nurses, the per­
cents of change relate to average weekly salaries for normal hours
of work, that is, the standard work schedule for which straight-time
salaries are paid.
For plant worker groups, they measure changes
in straight-time hourly earnings, excluding premium pay for over­
time and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
The per­
centages are based on data for selected key occupations and include
most of the numerically important jobs within each group.
The of­
fice clerical data are based on men and women in the following 19 jobs:
Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B; clerks, accounting, class A
and B; clerks, file, class A, B, and C; clerks, order; clerks, pay­
roll; Comptometer operators; keypunch operators, class A and B;
office boys and girls; secretaries; stenographers, general; stenogra­
phers, senior; switchboard operators; tabulating-machine operators,
class B; and typists, class A and B.
The industrial nurse data are
based on men and women industrial nurses.
Men in the following
8 skilled maintenance jobs and 2 unskilled jobs were included in the
plant worker data: Skilled— carpenters; electricians; machinists; m e­
chanics; mechanics, autom otive; painters; pipefitters; and tool and
die makers; unskilled— janitors, porters, and cleaners; and laborers,
material handling.
Average weekly salaries or average hourly earnings were
computed for each of the selected occupations.
The average sal­




aries or hourly earnings were then multiplied by the average employ­
ment in the job during the period surveyed in 1961.
These weighted
earnings for individual occupations were then totaled to obtain an ag­
gregate for each occupational group.
Finally, the ratio of these group
aggregates for the one year to the aggregate for the other year was
computed and the difference between the result and 100 is the percent
of change from the one period to the other.
The percent of change measures, principally, the effects of
(1) general salary and wage changes; (2) merit or other increases
in pay received by individual workers while in the same job; and
(3) changes in the labor force such as labor turnover, force expan­
sions, force reductions, and changes in the proportions of workers
employed by establishments with different pay levels.
Changes in the
labor force can cause increases or decreases in the occupational
averages without actual wage changes. For example, a force expansion
might increase the proportion of lower paid workers in a specific
occupation and result in a drop in the average, whereas a reduction
in the proportion of lower paid workers would have the opposite effect.
The movement of a high-paying establishment out of an area could
cause the average earnings to drop, even though no change in rates
occurred in other area establishments.
The use of constant employment weights eliminates the effects
of changes in the proportion of workers represented in each job in­
cluded in the data.
Nor are the percents of change influenced by
changes in standard work schedules or in premium pay for overtime,
since they are based on pay for straight-time hours.

The above text represents the method used in computing a new trend
series.
The expansion of the labor market wage survey program in 1961 made
data available in 82 areas for the computation of wage trends for selected job
groupings.
Sixty-one areas were surveyed in I960; prior to I960, coverage was
limited to 20 areas.
Therefore, it was decided to compute a new trend series in
which 1961 will be the base year since this is the first year in which data were
collected in all 82 areas.
The percents of change shown in table 2 are not comparable with similar
data shown for this area in last year's Bulletin 1285-53.
The new series intro­
duces changes in the job groupings for which trends are shown and changes in
jobs included in the computations.

A: Occupational Earnings
Table A-L Office Occupations—Men and Women
(A verage straigh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings fo r se le cte d occupations studied on an area basis •
by industry division , Birm ingham , A la ., A p ril 1962)
A verage
Number
of
workers

Weekly.
hours
(Standard)

Weekly j
earnings
(Standard)

NU M B E R OF W OR K E R S R E C E IV IN G STR A IG H T -T IM E W EE K LY EAR N IN G S OF
$
8 0 .0 0

$
8 5 .0 0

S
9 0 .0 0

$

$
$
$
$
S
$
1 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 5 . 0 0 1 1 0 . 0 0 1 1 5 . 0 0 1 2 0 . 0 0 1 2 5 . 0 0 * 1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 . 0 0 1 4 0 . 0 0 1 4 5 . 0 0

4 0 .0 0

4 5 .0 0

$
5 0 .0 0

* 5 5 .0 0

4 5 .0 0

Sex, occu pation , and industry d iv isio n

5 0 .0 0

3 5 ,0 0

-6CLOOL - 6 5 x 0 0 . . 7 0 »,Q Q , 7 5 , 0 0 , 8 0 . 0 0 -8 5 x .0 0 _ . 3 0 x 0 fi _ _93.it.QjQL 1 Q Q J IQ 1Q .5»Q Q 1 1 0 . 0 0 1 1 5 . 0 0 1 2 0 . 0 0 1 2 5 . 0 0 1 3 0 . 0 0 1 3 5 . 0 0 1 4 0 . 0 0 1 4 5 . 0 0

6 0 .0 0

* 6 5 .0 0

* 7 0 .0 0

* 7 5 .0 0

9 5 .0 0

and
over

M en
_

_

_

_

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

.

_

_

.

123
56
67

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

C le r k s , accounting, c la s s B ____________
M anufacturing ______________

43
27

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

8 5 .0 0
8 7 .5 0

C le r k s , o r d e r _ ----------- ------------------------N onm anufacturing ____________________________

98
75

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

7 4 .5 0
7 5 .0 0

3
3

C le r k s , p a y roll __________ _ _______________
M anufacturing __________________________________

49
48

4 0 .0

9 9 .0 0
9 8 .5 0

_

_

-

O ffic e boys _______________________________
N onm anufacturing ____________________
Pu blic u tilities 2 ___________________

59
46
30

4 0 .0
3 9 .5
3 9 .5

6 2 .0 0
6 3 .5 0
6 5 .0 0

Tabulating-m achine o p e r a to r s ,
c la s s A
__________ __ ___ __________

28

4 0 .0

Tabulating -m a ch in e o p e ra to r s ,
c la s s B _________________________________
N onm anufacturing -------------------------------

48
25

o
o

C le r k s , accounting, c la s s A ____________
M anufacturing __________ ________ __
N onm anufacturing ____________________

£ 1 0 9 .0 0
1 1 9 .5 0
1 0 0 .0 0

5
4
1

1
1

-

15
4

7
2

11

I

7

11

5

n

!

8

1

3

1
0

6
2

5

"

7

1

1

1

3
3

2

14
14

19
14

17
6

31
31

2

1

_

1

l

6

_

_

_

_

2

4

8

_

-

• 6

-

-

-

-

2

4

8

20
14

4

-

5
3

2
2

6

-

2

1 1 0 .5 0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3 9 .5
3 8 .5

8 4 .5 0

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

"

2

3
3

7
4

12

7 8 .0 0

107
84
41

3 9 .5

6 6 .0 0
6 2 .5 0
7 2 .5 0

_
-

9

-

-

9
7
5

43
42

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

5 5 .0 0

44

4 1 .0
4 1 .5

7 7 .0 0
7 2 .5 0

-

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .5

5 9 .5 0
6 7 .0 0
5 8 .5 0

-

3 9 .5

8 4 .0 0
9 5 .0 0

5

13

12

1

8

2

3

9
6

4

!

1

13

8

2

2

3

3

9
3

_

!

1

-

-

3

2

-

_

_

1

_

1

_

3

2

9

I

3
3

10

5
2

2
-

-

8
7
4

12
11

-

3
3
3

13
3
10

1

4
2

4 0 .0

'

-

"

_

2

-

>

5

3

7

3

3
1

-

“

-

1

"

1

-

2
2

2

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

"

-

-

-

-

-

-

7

2

4

5

2

3

_

1

1

1

-

7

1

4

5

2

3

-

1

1

3
3

3

-

-

-

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

3

4

1

5

-

2

10

2

_

-

_

_

4
2

5
4

5
3

3
1

1

1

4

1

-

-

-

-

_

_

6

13

6

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
_

-

1
1

_
-

-

10
5
5

_

-

_
-

2

8
8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

1

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

_

_

1

W om en
B ille r s , m achine (billin g m achine) _____
N onm anufacturing ____________________
P ublic u t ilit ie s 2 ____ ____ _____
B ille r s , m achine (bookkeeping
m achine) _____________ _________________
N n n m a n n fa r tn

ng

B ook keepin g-m a ch in e o p e r a to r s ,
c la s s A __________________________________
N onm anufacturing ____________________
B ook keeping-m a ch ine o p e r a to r s ,
c la s s B __________________________________
M anufacturing ________________________
N onm anufacturing ____________________
C le r k s , accounting, c la s s A ____________
M anufacturing __ __ ___________ ___
N o n m a n iifa r .t iir in g

29

292
32
260
254
41
213

Public u t ilit ie s 2 ___________________

68

C le r k s , accounting, c la s s B ____________
M anufacturing __________________________________
Nonm anufacturing

593

C le r k s , file , c la s s A 3 ____
N onm anufacturing ________ __________

See footn otes at end o f table.




100
493
72
48

3 9 .5
3 8 .5

5 4 .0 0

4 0 .0
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 8 .5
4 0 .0
3 8 .5
3 9 .0
3 8 .5

8 2 .0 0
1 0 1 .5 0
6 7 .5 0
!

7 4 .0 0
6 6 .0 0
7 0 .0 0
6 0 .5 0

28

10

7

12

28

9
8

5
4

10
6

15
15

8
8

11
11

-

-

1
1

11
10

9
9

1
1

3
3

10

-

45
2

65
7
58

69
9
60

45

37
4
33

15
3
12

9

1
1

45

5

9

30

20

9
!

_

6
6

-

43

_
-

_
-

11
11

27
27

i

7

i
i

4

-

_

2
2

-

-

-

-

34
12

5

9

30

20

22

26
2
24

5
84

37

105

11
73

8

45

29

11
94

10
10

5
5

67
!

-

1

|

4
63

109
12
97

11
11

13

13

69
24

3

-

1

-

-

-

2
2

_

8
5

1

_

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

3
2
1

8
8

2

_

_

_

2

-

-

-

1
1

2
2

3
3

15
2

14

4
-

2

1

27

-

-

-

4
4

2

1

27
27

1

6
6

_

1
1

9

1

-

2

1

27

27

5
22

3
24
13

9
6

25

3

10
15

5

4

1

13
10
37
5
32

2
2

5
9
4
4
-

1

2

4
11
1

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

-

_

1
1

_

_

_

6
Table A-l.

Office Occupations—Men and W om en— Continued

(A verage straigh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings fo r selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry d ivision , Birm ingham , A l a . , A p ril 1962)
N U M BER OF W O RKERS R E CEIVIN G STRA IG H T-TIM E W E E K LY E A R N IN G S OF -

Avcraob
Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

Weekly,
hours 1
(Standard)

Weekly
earnings1
(Standard)

$
$
$
S
$
$
S
$
40.00 45. 00 50. 00 *55. 00 *60.00 *65.00 70. 00 *75. 00 *80.00 *85. 00 90. 00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 *30.00 135.00 140.00 145.00
and
and
under
45.00 50.00 55. 00 60.00 6 5.00 70.00 75. 00 80. 00 : 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00 ov er

W om en— Continued
C lerks, file, c la s s B 3 ---------------------------M anufacturing ________
____ ____
Nonmanufacturing ____________________

188
33
155

38. 5
40. 0
38. 0

$54 . 50
70. 00
51. 50

20
20

72
7
65

33
33

26
4
22

6
6

9
6
3

7
2
5

C lerks, file, cla s s C 3 __________________
Nonmanufacturing __________ ________

88
81

4 0 .0
40. 0

49. 00
48. 50

43
3

56
54

15
13

11
9

2
1

1
1

_

C lerks, o rd e r ___________________________
Nonmanufacturing

39
25

4 0 .0
4 0.0

71. 50
6 1.00

2
2

2
2

4
4

4

4
4

_
-

4
4

5
5

6
-

-

C lerks, p a yroll ________________ __ . . __
M anufacturing „ __ __ ____________
Nonmanufacturing _____________ __ __

177
81
96

39. 5
40. 0
39. 0

74. 00
79. 00
69. 50

10
10

2
2

4
_
4

27
15
12

16
3
13

30
18
12

11
2
9

13
5
8

15
4
11

13
12
1

C om ptom eter op era tors _________________
M anufacturing __________________ ____
Nonmanufacturing ____
____ ____

191
29
162

6 3 .0 0
39. 5
40. 0 t_ 7"2T5(J
61. 00
39. 5

11
11

20
20

16
16

32
6
26

32
5
27

31
31

15
6
9

20
3
17

3
£
1

5
4
1

D uplicating-m achine op era to rs
(M im eograph o r Ditto) _________________

26

39. 5

i
| 60. 50

-

Keypunch op e r a to r s , c la s s A 3 _________

79

39. 5 ! 86.00

Keypunch op era tors, c la s s B 3 _________
M anufacturing ________________________
Nonm anufacturing _______ ____ ____
Public u tilit ie s 2 __________________

163
29
134
56

39.0
40. 0
38. 5
39. 0

63.
77.
60.
65.

50
00
50
50

16
16
-

O ffice g ir ls _______________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________

54
41

39. 0
38. 5

60. 50
52. 50

2
2

S ecreta ries _______________________________
M anufacturing ________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________
Public u tilit ie s 2 _____ ____ ____

750
306
444
131

39. 5
4 0 .0
39. 5
3 9.5

90. 00
97. 50
85.00
103.00

_
-

Stenographers, g e n e r a l3 ________________
M anufacturing ----------------- ------- ------Nonmanufacturing ------ __ ------- ------Public u tilities 2 __________________

749
252
497
166

39. 5
4 0 .0
3 9.5
39. 0

74.
85.
68.
73.

00
50
00
50

5
5

Stenographers, s e n io r 3 _________________
M anufacturing ________________________
Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------

119
55
64

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
40. 0

91.0 0
82.00
98. 50

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Switchboard op era tors __________________
M anufacturing ________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________

139
102

4 1.0
59. o
41. 5

68. 50 5 22
90. 00
60. 50
22

9
9

17
17

14
4
10

Switchboard o p e r a to r -r e c e p tio n ists ____
M anufacturing _________________ „ __
Nonmanufacturing ____________________

108
49
59

4 0 .0
3 9.5
40. 0

67. 50
74. 00
62. 50

_
-

_
-

Tabulating-m achine op era tors,
cla s s B _________________________________
Nonmanufacturing _______ __ „ ____

40
34

38. 5
38. 0

74. 00
. 71.00

See footnotes at end o f table.




3l

4

-

1
1
I

3
3

i

"

|

"
_

6
6
- 1

6
5
1

-

-

-

"

_

.

_

.

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

"

-

"

-

.

_

2

_

_

_

_

-

6
-

-

-

-

-

10
4
6

2
2
"

4
4

_
-

_
-

2
2
-

6

_

_

_

_

-

-

"

3

7

10

-

5

-

2

-

-

1

-

-

-

3

5

2

5

6

7

6

'3

37

.

2

6
6

31
1
30
22

20
4
16
5

24
6
18
6

11
2
9
1

13
6
7
6

.
-

7

6
1
1

2
2
-

8
2
6
6

.
-

.
-

18

13

2
2

5
5

_

1

_

_

"

1

-

72
28
44
2

43
12
31
3

50
12
38
3

_

_

78
29
49
14

_

-

-

_

_

-

-

5
4
1

_
“

_
"

_
-

_
-

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

"

-

"

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

_
_
-

-

.
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

-

"

97
35
62
7

69
4
65
26

69
50
19
11

12
3
9
5

38
22
16
4

62
45
17
6

30
14
16
9

59
28
31
29

41
34
7
7

18
8
10
7

2
1
1

3
3
3

2
2
2

73
18
55
30

42
15
27
7

39
26
13
8

41
26
15
7

38
12
26
18

68
67
1
1

4
4

5
5
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
_
_

"

-

"

"

-

-

-

13
7
6

9
4
5

24
23
1

3
2
1

4
4

6
2
4

5
2
3

5

23

1

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

~

_
“

_

5

12
6
6

“

-

9
5
4

4
4

8
1
7

6
1
5

4
4

14
11

9
9

1
1
"

22
22
~

_
-

31
9
22

22
3
19

9
7
2

9
7
2

17
16

3
1
2

5
1
4

1
1

1
1

3
3

1

5

2
1

4
4

"

17
17

1
1

2
1

2
■

1
1

1
3
8
8

22
22
-

47
8
39
4

52
52
9

71
10
61
19

107
33
74
22

102

_

4
4

10
5

"

_

4
4

_

4

2
2

-

_
-

9
1

1
7

6
6

-

-

.
-

-

25
25
9

i

"

_

_

“

-

_

I

-

3

24
24

-

-

13
10
3

1

-

_ !
_______1

“

-

|

_

-

-

!

— L i

7

95
31

$

■

-

-

-

-

-

1

5

1 23

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
"

_
-

-

_
-

_
-

_
“

1
1
-

_
"

-

_
-

_
-

_
"

2
“

-

■

-

-

"

1

■

4
------Z ~
2
2

_

1

_

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

Table A-l.

Office Occupations—Men and W om en-----Continued

(Average straigh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings fo r se le cte d occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Birm ingham , A la ., A p ril 1962)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF

A verage

Sex, occu pation , and industry d iv isio n

Number
of
workers

$
$
Weekly. 40.00 45.00

Weekly
earnings
hours
(Standard) (Standard)
1
|

under
45.00

-

$

$

50.00
-

50.00

$
$
55.00 60.00 65.00
-

-

-

70.00

-

-

55.00 60.00 65.00 70.00

$
$
$
$
s
$
$
$
$
$
95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00
and
95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 .11.5,00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00 over

$
S
$
75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00

$

$

-

-

90.00

75.00 80.00 85.00

$

-

W om en — Continued
T r a n scrib in g -m a ch in e o p e r a to r s ,
gen eral _ ____
_ __ ------- ------M anufacturing _
_
____
____
N onm anufacturing _ ____ _________

66
------ 3 T 1
35

40.0
40.0
39.5

$65 .50
71.50
60.00

-

9

18
10
8

5
4

5
1
4

10

10

-

-

10

10

58

40
13
27
8

44

-

-

-

9

3

4

_____
T yp ists, c la s s A
_ ______
M anufacturing _________________________________
N onm anufacturing ___________ _______________

103
39
64

40.0
40.0
40.0

71.50
87.00
62.00

8
-

-

8

4

T yp ists, c la s s B _________________________
M anufacturing
_ _
_________
N onm anufacturing
___
____ .
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 13 _________ — ____
2

300
69
231
31

39.5
40.0
39.0
40.0

57.50
66.50
54.50
60.50

6

86
12
74
■

1
2
3
4
5

3

-

-

6
-

-

58
6

1

-

44
11

5

15
15
-

1
1
6
6

9

10
7
3

12
12
“

2
2
“

1
1
"

4

5

-

-

-

5

5

4

16
2
14

6
5
1

9

34
19
15
6

14
7
7
”

-

1
1
"

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1
-

18
17
1

_

_

_

_

_

.

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
"

3
3
“

_
“

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

_
■

_
■

■

-

_

-

-

_

-

-

_

-

_

-

-

_
_

.
_
_

-

~

_
-

“

Standard hours r e fle c t the w orkw eek fo r w hich em ployees re ce iv e their regular straigh t-tim e s a la rie s and the earnings c o rre s p o n d to these w eekly hours.
T ran sp ortation , com m u nication, and other public utilities.
D e scrip tio n fo r this jo b has been re v ise d since the last survey in this area. See appendix A.
Includes 1 w o rk e r at $30 to $35.
Includes 6 w o rk e rs at $30 to $35; 14 w ork ers at $35 to $40.

Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations—Men and Women
(Average straigh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings fo r se le cte d occupations studied on an a rea basis
by industry division, Birm ingham , A la., A p ril 1962)
N U M BER OF W O R K E R S R E C E IV IN G S TR A IG H T-TIM E W E EKLY EAR N IN G S OF

Average

Sex, occupation, and industry div isio n

Number
of
workers

$

$

Weeklyj
hours
(Standard)

Weekly !
earnings
(Standard)

$

70.00 75.00 *80.00 *85.00 *90.00 *95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 *30.00 *35.00 *140.00 145.00 *150.00 155.00 160.00 165.00 170.00 175.00
and
and
under
75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00 150.00 155.00 160.00 165.00 170.00 175.00 over

Men
D raftsm en, leader ______________________
M anufacturing _________
___ __ —

43
40

40.0
40.0

$171.50
172.50

D raftsm en, sen ior _______ __ _________
M anufacturing ____ ____ ____ _____
N onm anufacturing ------------------------------

381
328
53

40.0
40.0
40.5

136.00
! 138.50
j 120.00

D raftsm en, j u n i o r ._______________________
M anufacturing ________________________
N onm anufacturing ___________________

158
123
35

40.0
40.0
41.0

1

_

_

_
-

_

_
-

-

_
-

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

"

9
7
2

6
5
1

12
7
5

17
9
8

5
1
37

14
11
3

18
17
1

13
8
5

7
1
6

-

_
-

4
4
-

-

15
15
-

1
|

97.00
99.50
90.00

3 18
10
8

17
16
1

8 ;
3 i
5 !

n
9
2 i

20
16

4

!

14
4 !
4

_

____

1

44
32
12

38
35 !
3

1
1

19
16
3

39.5
40.0

100.00
103.00

3
1

_
"

4
2

6
3

2
2

6
5

_

11
8

_
■

5
4

1
1

_

12
10
2

!

-

_
1

i---------------i-----------1 Standard hours r e fle c t the w orkw eek fo r w hich em ployees r e ce iv e their regular straigh t-tim e s a la rie s and the earnings co rre sp o n d to these w eekly hours.
2 W ork ers w ere distribu ted as fo llo w s: 8 at $ 175 to $ 185; 2 at $ 185 to $ 195; 4 at $ 195 to $205; 4 at $205 to $215; and 2 at $215 to $225.
3 Includes 4 w o rk e rs at $55 to $60; 7 w ork ers at $60 to $65.




.

1

1
23
23

2
1

2
2

7
6

1
1

2 20
20

5

15
15

1
1

72
72

-

-

-

•_

:

11
11

l

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

_

--------- 5 |

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

l
l

_

_

■

"

!

1
!

_
-

15
15

12
10
2

i
40
28

1
-

5
5

27 j
27 ;

W om en
N urses, industrial (re g is te r e d ) ________
M anufacturing
____

4
4

1_

■

_

-

8
Table A-3.

Office, Professional, and Technical Occupations—Men and Women Combined

(A verage straigh t-tim e w eekly earnings fo r se le cte d occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division , Birm ingham , A la. , A p ril 1962)

Number

O ccupation and industry division

of

w~kiye
V
earnings
(Standard)

Number

O ccupation and industry d ivision

of

Number

of

Average
weekly .
earnings 1
(Standard)

$79. 50 Switchboard o p e r a to r -r e c e p tio n is ts ---------------------------------M anufacturing ______ __ __________________________
86.50"
Nonmanufacturing __________________________________
70.00

108
49
59

$ 67 .50
74. 00
62. 50

Tabulating-m achine o p e r a to r s , c la s s A _____________

29

110.50

88
29
59
29

80. 00
91. 50
7 4 .0 0
77. 50

Average
weekly .
earnings
(Standard)

O ccupation and industry division

O ffice occu pation s— Continued

O ffice occupations— Continued

O ffice occupations
109
25
84
41

226
129
97

$ 66 .00
77. 50
62. 50
72. 50
__________________

191
29
162

63.00
72. 50
61.00

D uplicating-m ach ine operators
(M im eograph o r Ditto) ------------------------------------------------------

26

60. 50

Tabulating-m achine o p e r a to r s , c la s s B ------------------------M anufacturing
__ ______________ _
Nonmanufacturing
__________________ _
Public u tilities 2 ________________________________

Keypunch o p e r a to r s , c la s s A 3 -----------------------------------------

83

86. 50

Tabulating-m achine o p e r a to r s , c la s s C ------------------------N onm anufacturing _____ ______ _____________________

34
32

58. 50
58. 50

Keypunch o p e r a to r s , cla s s B 3 --------------- ------------ ------M anufacturing
------------ ------ ---------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing _______________________________

163
29
134
56

63.
77.
60.
65.

T ra n scrib in g -m a ch in e o p e r a to r s , gen eral --------------------

66
31
35

65. 50
71. 50
60. 00

61.
71.
58.
62.

M anufacturing
B ille r s , m achine (bookkeeping m achine) --------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------------------------------

43
42
53
38

_______

55. 00
54.00

B ookkeeping-m achine o p e ra to rs , c la s s A ---------- ---- —

______

7 8.00
74. 50

B ookkeeping-m achine o p era to rs , cla s s B ------------ —
M anufacturing -------------------------------------------------------------------___

292
32
260

P n h lir u t ilit ie s 2

Pu blic u tilities

••••

r *^ •
Nonmanutacturing

377
97
280
92

92.00
109.00
86. 50
102.50

O ffice boys and g irls -----------------------------------------------------------M anufacturing ___________________________________
Nonmarmfacturing
_
_ ________________
Pu blic utilities 2 _________ ______ ________________

113
26
87
44

68. 50
77. 00
66. 50

S e c r e ta r ie s
_________________ _____ ______________________
M anufacturing ___ ____ ______________________________
Nninmaniifartiiring
Pu blic u tilit ie s 2 _ _________________ ___ ___

763
314
449
136

C lerks, file , c la s s A 3 ______________________________
M anufacturing --------- _ --------------------________—_____
Nonm anufacturing ------------------------------------------------

77
28
49

C lerk s, file , c la s s B 3 ---------------------------------------------M anufacturing -------------------------------------------------------

195
39
156

Nonmanufacturing -----------------------------------------------.........

_ _

636
127
509

C lerks, accounting, cla s s A -------------------------------------------M anufacturing --------------------------------------------------------------------

C l a rlre f n r H p r

59. 50
67. 00
58. 50

_

94
87
137
37
100

72.00
91. 50 |Sten ograp h ers, g e n e r a l3 ______________________________
^annfartnri ng
_____
6 l! 00 |
B Nonmaniifa^turing
P u blic u t ilit ie s 2 __ ---------------- ----------- -------56.00
73. 00
51. 50 StenOgT^ph^TS, spninr^
M anufacturing
_ .
...........
Nonm anufacturing -------------------------------------- ------4 9 .0 0
49. 00
74. 00 I Sw itchboard o p erators
80. 50
N r'Tim ^nii^a r ^1iri*n g
71. 50

__________

_

------

------------------

50
00
50
50
50
50
50
50

90. 50
98.00
85. 50
103.50

763
257
506
171

74.
85.
68.
73.

00
50
00
50

119
55
64

91.00
82.00
98. 50

Nonmanufacturing __________________________________
T yp ists, cla ss A
______________________________ M anufacturing ______________________________________

109
43
66

T yp ists, cla s s B _______________________________________________
M anufacturing
_
___ ______________ _
Nonmanufacturing __________________________________
Public utilities 2 _______________________________________

334
79
255
55

68.00
90.00
60.00

58.
70.
55.
59.

50
00
00
00

P r o fe s s io n a l and tech n ica l occupations
43
40

171.50
172. 50

D raftsm en, sen ior ---------------- ----------------------------------------- -----------------------------------M anufacturing
----Nonmanufacturing ____________________________

387
330
57

135. 50
138.50
119. 00

D raftsm en, junior _____ _____________________________
M anufacturing ______________________ _____________ -

166
125
41

97. 50
99. 50
90. 50

40
28

100. 00
103.00

N u rses, industrial (re g is te r e d ) ______________________
____________________________________
M anufacturing

1 Earnings are fo r a regu lar w orkw eek fo r which em ployees r e c e iv e their straigh t-tim e w eekly sa la r ie s , e xclu sive o f any prem ium pay.
2 T ran sp ortation, com m u nication, and other public u tilitie s.
3 D escrip tion for this jo b has been r e v ise d sin ce the last su rvey in this area. See appendix A.




72. 50
8 7 .0 0
63. 50

D raftsm en, lead er ------------------------------------------------------M anufacturing ______________________________________

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

143
37
106

""

9
Table A-4. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(A verage straigh t-tim e hourly earnings fo r m en in se le cte d occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division , Birm ingham , A l a . , A p ril 1962)
NUMBER OP WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

O ccupation and industry d iv isio n

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly I
earning^

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Unde i 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2.0 0 2. 10 2. 20 2. 30 *2.40 2. 50 *2. 60 *2.70 *2. 80 *2.90 *3. 00 *3. 10 *3. 20 *3. 30 $3. 40 3. 50 $3. 60 3. 70 *3. 80 3.90 4. 00
and
$
and
under
1.60
1. 70 1.80 1.90 2. 00 2. 10 2. 20 2. 30 2 .4 0 2. 50 2. 60 2. 70 2. 80 2 .90 3. 00 3. 10 3. 20 3. 30 3.40 3. 50 3. 60 3. 70 3. 80 3.90 4. 00 over

C a rp enters, m aintenance ______________
M anufacturing _______________________
N onm anufacturing ___________________

291
261
30

$ 2 .9 8
3. 08
2. 13

5
25

4
4

E le c tr ic ia n s , m aintenance
___________
M anufacturing _______________________

687
668

3.46
3.49

8
-

E n gin eers, station ary __________________
M anufacturing ______ __ __ __ ____
N onm anufacturing ____________ __ __

204
170
34

3. 18
3. 35
2. 35

1
1

1
1

F irem en , station ary b o ile r ____________
M anufacturing _______________________

63
S'6

2. 73
2. 93

38
1

_

H elpers, m aintenance trades _________
M anufacturing _______________________
N onm anufacturing __ ____ __ ____
Pu blic u tilities 5 _________________

557
500"^
57
34

2.
2.
1.
2.

58
67
76
07

35
11
4 24
1

4
4
-

M a ch in e-tool o p era to rs ,
to o lr o o m ___ ________ ________ — __
M anufacturing _______________________

145
145

3. 09
3.09

-

M achinists, m aintenance ______________
____ ____
M anufacturing ___ __

588
581

3. 48
3.49

_

M echanics, autom otive
(m aintenance) _________________________
M anufacturing _______________________
N onm anufacturing __ __ ____ _____
P u blic u tilitie s 5___________________

320
109
211
176

2.
2.
2.
2.

649
580
69

3. 14
3. 21
2. 54

M illw rights _____________ __ ____ ____
M anufacturing ___________________ „ __

393
393

3. 21
3. 21

O ile rs ___________________________________
M anufacturing _______________________

220
220

2.61
2. 6l

_

_

-

-

P a in ters, m aintenance _________________
M anufacturing ___ ________ __ __ __

62
49

2.91
2.99

1
"

1

M echanics, m aintenance ______________
M anufacturing ______ ____ __ ____
TSJrmm a n n f a r h i r i n g

T ool and die m akers ____________
r t n r i ngr

1
2
3
4
5

____

93
------- 93“

61
56
63
72

2.97
2.97

3
3
-

2
2

1
1

1
1

_

_

"

-

1
-

3
3

7
7

_
-

4
4

1
1

12
6
6

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

_
-

_
"

20
20
20

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

"

-

4
1
3

13
11
2

3
3

1
1

1
1

-

-

1

_

1

-

7
2
5

3
1
2

7
6
1

1
1
"

11
7
4

11
10
1

9
9
-

174
174
"

2
2
-

"

-

_

_

-

-

10
10

2
2

6
6

1
1

34
34

17
16

25
25

71
71

78
76

32
25

1
1

3
3

6
6

1
1

1
1

2
2

_
"

16
13
3

_
-

17
16
1

20
20
-

12
12

_

6
6

_

4
4

.

_

_

"

3
3

_

-

_
-

24
20
4
4

9
8
1

74
71
3
3

19
19
-

25
20
5
5

45
45

8
8

56
56

102
102

49
49

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

18
22
18 ~ T T

19
19

6
6

7
-

_

4
4

4
4

_
-

6
6

32
32

6
1
5

15
12
3

33
26
7

1
1

49
49
44

12
3
9
7

10
5
5
4

25
1
24
22

_

_

2

-

15
5
10

23
23

14
3
11

36
11
25

6

-

24
23
1

2
2

"

3
3

4
4

_

-

2

1
1

2
2

6
"

_

j

-

— 5“

■

3
3

1

-

"

5
5

2
1
1

10
10
-

32
32
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4
4

_
-

14
14

6
6

84
84

28
28

226
226

30
30

20
19
1

_
"

41
40
1

33
32
1

_
-

_
-

8
8
-

8
8
-

8
8
-

_

8
8

14
14

_

8
8

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

"

-

_
-

20
20

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
_

.
-

22
4
3
22 — T ----- T~

12
12

2
2

18
18

-

6
— r

4
4

4
4

-

6
6

6
6

24
24

68
68

58
58

45
45

19
19

_

_
-

25
25

_

-

-

12
12

272
272

-

8
4
4
-

87
3
84
84

13
11
2
2

10
10
-

-

9
9
9

"

4
4
4

19
19
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

65
61
4

8
5
3

17
11
6

56
56

129
128
1

32
32

4
4

10

8
8

110

10

28
28

38
38

_
-

20
20

9
9

_

34
34

18
18

31
31

171
171

40
40

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

84
84

_

-

*

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

-

"

-

-

6

-

no

15
15

37
37

2
2

32
32

30
30

6
6

9
9

10
10

52
52

8
8

4
4

2
2

2
2

2
2

_

2
2

8
5

_

.

2
2

2
2

6
5

5
5

8
8

_

4
"

2
2

_

18
16

2
2

_

.

"

-

“

15
15

.

12
12

.

12
12

36
36

.

_

_

.

.

_

-

-

.

"

-

E xcludes p rem iu m pay fo r o vertim e and fo r w ork on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
W ork ers w ere d istribu ted as fo llo w s : 1 at $ 1. 30 to $ 1. 40; 4 at $ 1. 40 to $ 1. 50.
W ork ers w e re distribu ted as fo llo w s : 4 at $ 0 . 90 to $ 1; 3 at $ 1. 30 to $ 1.40; 1 at $ 1.40 to $ 1. 50.
W ork ers w e re distribu ted as fo llo w s: 5 at $ 1 to $ 1. 10; 9 at $ 1. 20 to $ 1. 30; 2 at $ 1. 30 to $ 1 .40; 8 at $ 1. 50 to $ 1. 60.
T ran sp ortation, com m u nication, and other public utilities .




67
67

6

6

6

()

6

5

“

-

“

10
Table A-5.

Custodial and Material Movement Occupations

(A verage straigh t-tim e hourly earnings fo r s e le cte d occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Birm ingham , A la., A p ril 1962)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

O ccu p ation 1 and industry division

Number
of
workers

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
S
S
$
$
$
$
$
s
$
$
$
S
$ .
$
$
$
Average
hourly Under 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2.00 2.10 2.20 2.30 2.40 2.50 2.60 2.70 2.80 2.90 3.00
and
earnings 2 $
and
0.60 under
.90 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2.00 2.10 2.20 2.30 2.40 2.50 2.60 2,70. J u M . 2, 9,C 3,OIL QYSE.70
.80
L

Elevator op era tors, passen ger
(women) ________ _____________ _______ _
Nonmanufacturing ___________________

125
125

$ 0.76
.76

3 33
33

40
40

-

-

-

43
43

8
8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

-

-

-

-

~

-

-

Guards ___________________________________
M anufacturing _______________________

201
120

2.25
2.47

_

_

_

_

_

_

1

_

1

4

5

_

14

14

_

14
8

36
-

13
13

36
36

27
27

2
2

_

2
2

32
32

-

Janitors, p o r te r s , and clea n ers
(men) _________________________ ______ _
M anufacturing _______________________
Nonmanufacturing ___________________
Pu blic u t ilit ie s 4 __________________

1,032
509
523
112

1.58
1.94
1.23
1.72

13
13
-

26
26
-

3
3
-

44
44
-

3
3
-

106
106
-

93
^9
64
1

98
9
89
6

67
26
41
5

79
42
37
31

100
87
13
5

9
3
6
3

50
12
38
22

9
5
4
4

21
20
1
-

41
29
12
12

77
56
21
21

136
134
2
2

7
7
-

6
6
-

-

10
10
-

30
30
-

2
2
-

-

2
2
-

Janitors, p o r te r s , and clea n ers
(women) ______ _______________ ______ _
M anufacturing _______________________
Nonmanufacturing ___________________

366
32
334

.96
1.57
.91

-

163
163

-

-

-

81
3
78

35
2
33

24
6
18

1
1
-

9
4
5

38
6
32

-

1
1

-

5
5
-

4
4

1
1
-

4
4
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

L a b orers , m aterial h a n d lin g ___________
M anufacturing _______________________
Nonmanufacturing ___________________
P u blic u tilities 4 __________________

1,833
707
1, 126
419

1.75
1.93
1.64
2.18

_
-

_
"

_
-

_
-

_
-

45
45
-

162
7
155
-

286
14
272
-

159
14
145
50

105
90
15
-

113
67
46
1

46
25
21
4

67
24
43
7

I ll
61
50
50

204
197
7
-

102
46
56
52

50
42
8
8

207
43
164
148

18
18
-

3
3
-

10
10
-

2
2
-

99
99
99

20
20
-

4
4
-

20
20
-

O rder fille r s ____________________________
M anufacturing _______________________
Nonmanufacturing ___________________

399
38
361

1.51
2.28
1.43

_

_

_

_

_

8

101

72

15

53

4
4

4
4

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

50
6
44

_
-

-

6
6
-

2
2

53

20
1
19

_
-

15

18
18

13
13

72

24
1
23

_
-

101

9
1
8

_
-

8

P a ck e rs, shipping ______________________
Nonmanufacturing ___________________

239
85

2.14
1.57

_

_

_

_

_

_

18
18

5
5

8

36

12

4

20

1

51
6

_

-

13
13

_

-

19
16

18

-

14
14

8

-

6
6

_

-

6
6

_

-

R eceiving c lerk s ________________________
M anufacturing _______________________
Nonmanufacturing __________________

123
59
64

2.01
2.43
1.62

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

9
9

12
12

_
-

4
4

6
- 6

4
4

14
4
10

8
1
7

7
2
5

_
-

6
3
3

10
10
-

7
7
"

10
10

4
3
1

7
6
1

7
7

2
2

1
1
-

5
5
-

Shipping cle rk s __________________________
Manufacturing _______________________

105
89

2.77
2.92

7

6
6

6
6

6
5

4
4

6
6

7
7

21
21

8
8

2
2

5 24
24

Shipping and receivin g cle rk s __________
Manufacturing
___
_________
Nonmanufacturing
__ ____ __ __ __

180
114
66

2.68
2.94
2.23

-

10
8
2

26
6
20

21
13
8

4
2
2

2
2
-

12
12
-

6 45
45
-

T r u c k d r iv e r s 7 __________________________
M anufacturing _______________________
Nonmarmfar.turincr
Pu blic u tilities 4 __________________

1, 747
529
1, 218
438

2.04
2.23
1.96
2.62

_
-

_
-

-

-

T ru ck d riv ers, light (under
1V? tons) ____
__ __ _
_____
M anufacturing ____________________
Nonmanufacturing ________________

134
36
98

1.37
1.65
1.27

-

T ru ck d riv ers, m edium (1V2 to
and including 4 tons) _______________
M anufacturing ____ ______
___
Nonmanufacturing ________________
Pu blic utilities 4 _______________

1, 218
256
962
396

2.00
1.97
2.01
2.62

-

See footnotes at end o f table.




1

-

4
_

_

_

_

_

_

_

1

_

_

_

_

_

4

4
2
2

4
3
1

10
1
9

_
-

13
5
8

_

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

19
10
9

-

9
5
4

-

7
7
-

24
24
-

72
72
-

127
9
118
-

91
7
84
-

198
8
190
-

46
8
38
-

165
154
11
-

31
8
23
-

2
2
-

6
3
3
3

1
1
-

9
9
_
-

19
16
3
3

86
15
71
71

176
12
164
81

124
115
9
3

119
7
112
60

29
18
11
2

71
11
60
-

218
3
215
215

_
-

_
-

4
_
4

12
12

7
_
7

10
3
7

27
7
20

23
2
21

26
6
20

10
8
2

_
_

_
-

1
_
1

_
_

_
_

8
7
1

_

_
_

_
_

-

-

_
_
-

_

-

3
3
-

_
_

-

_
_
-

_
_

-

3
_
3

-

-

-

-

-

3
3

12
12

65
65

117
6
111

64
64

106
6
100

18
2
16

113
107
6

23
23

_

3
3
_

-

9
9
_

19
16
3
3

86
15
71
71

173
9
164
81

68
62
6
2

78
6
72
36

11
2
9

45
11
34

203
203
203

2
2
_

_
_
_

-

_

-

2
124
2 P 124
_
_
-

11
Table A-5.

Custodial and Material Movement Occupations— Continued

(Average straigh t-tim e hourly earnings fo r s e le cte d occupations studied on an a rea basis
by industry division, Birm ingham , A la., A p ril 1962)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

O ccu p a tion 1 and industry division

Num
ber
of
w
orkers

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
S
*
t
*
S
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Average
hourly Under 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2.00 2.10 2.20 2.30 2.40 2.50 2.60 2.70 2.80 2.90 . 3.00
earnings'2 $
3
and
and
0.60 under
.70
.80
.90 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2.00 2.10 2.20 2.30 2.40 2.50 2.60 2.70 2.80 2.90 3.00 over

T r u c k d riv e r s 78 Continued
—
0
1
9
T r u c k d riv e r s , heavy (over 4 tons,
tr a ile r type)
_
____
N onm anufacturing _______ _ __ -

161
110

$2.11
2.34

T r u c k d riv e r s , heavy (o ve r 4 tons,
other than tr a ile r type) ------------------

112

2.01

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

T r u c k e r s , pow er (fo rk lift) ______________
M anufacturing
--------- ------- — N onm anufacturing ____________________
P u blic u t ilit ie s 45 ___________________
6

421
318
103
30

2.17
2.29
1.79
2.80

-

-

-

-

-

17
17

4
-

_
_____
__ _________
M anufacturing ________________________

81
59

2.12
2.38

-

-

-

■

W atchm en _ _________ __ __ - ----------M anufacturing ________________________
N onm anufacturing ___________________

176
96
80

1.51
1.75
1.22

-

-

16
16

-

8
-

2
2

3

-

-

110
110
-

3
3
-

-

24
24

4

2
2

39

-

45

-

15
3
12

25
25

4
1
3

_

-

.

.

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

41
40

3
2

26
26

12
12

-

-

-

-

-

-

46

-

15

-

-

6
5
1

19
11
8
1

32
31
1
1

19
15

2
2
-

~

9
7
2
2

12
12
“

2
2
“

-

4

_
-

2
-

3

-

-

26
26
"

36
10
26
26

4
4
-

9 76
76
-

17
17

1
1

-

_

■

8
iog

-

-

-

-

-

T r u c k e r s , pow er (other than
fo r k lift)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
0

■

15

-

-

"

5
5

"

■

-

“

"

6
6

17
14

1
1

11
7

■

4

16
16

34
14
20

15
10
5

10
8
2

4

2
2

16
16

2
2

4

8
5
3

14
13

9
9

13
13

-

-

4

3

3
1

Data lim ited to m en w o rk e rs except w here otherw ise indicated.
E xcludes p rem iu m pay fo r overtim e and fo r w ork on w eekends, holid ays, and late shifts.
W ork ers w e re d istributed as fo llo w s: 31 at $0.40 to $0.50; 2 at $0.50 to $0.60.
T ran sp ortation , com m u nication, and other public u tilities.
W ork ers w e re d istributed as fo llo w s: 6 at $3 to $3.20; 2 at $3.60 to $3.80; 6 at $3.80 to $4; 10 at $4 and ov e r.
W orkers w e re d istributed as fo llo w s: 9 at $3 to $3.20; 4 at $3.30 to $3.50; 4 at $3.50 to $3.70; 2 at $3.70 to $3.90; 18 at $4 to $4. 20; and 8 at $4. 20 to $4. 40.
Includes all d r iv e r s r e g a r d le s s o f size and type o f truck operated.
W orkers w e re distributed as fo llo w s: 116 at $3 to $3.10; 8 at $3.20 to $3.30.
W ork ers w e re distributed as fo llo w s: 32 at $3 to $3.20; 30 at $3.20 to $3.40; 12 at $3.40 to $3.60; 2 at $3.80 to $4.
W ork ers w e re d istributed as fo llo w s: 6 at $3 to $3.10; 2 at $3.20 to $3.30.




9
9




B: Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Table B-l. Shift Differentials
(Shift d iffe r e n t ia ls o f m a n u fa ctu rin g plant w o r k e r s b y type and am ount o f d iffe r e n t ia l,
B ir m in g h a m , A la . , A p r il 1962)
P e r c e n t o f m a n u fa ctu rin g plant w o r k e r s —
In e s ta b lis h m e n ts h avin g fo r m a l
p r o v is io n s 1 f o r —

Shift d iffe r e n t ia l

A c tu a lly w o rk in g on—

S e c o n d sh ift
w ork

T h ir d o r o th er
s h ift w o r k

S e co n d sh ift

T h ir d o r o th e r
s h ift

______________________________

_____________

9 5 .7

8 1 .9

21. 1

9 .9

W ith sh ift p a y d iffe r e n t ia l ________

__ _________

85. 8

78. 7

18. 9

9 .4

U n ifo r m c e n ts (p e r h o u r) --------------------------------

83. 9

7 2 .6

18. 6

9. 2

2 c e n ts
_
__
_______
3 c e n ts _____________ __ __________________
___
______
4 c e n ts
5 c e n ts _______________________ _____
____
6 c e n ts _______ _____________________________
7 c e n ts ______________ ______ _____________
7V2 c e n ts __________
„ _________________
8 c e n ts ______________________________ ______
9 c e n ts ______________________________________
10 c e n ts ______ ______________ _____________
12 c e n ts
___________ __ _____ _________
14 V 3 c e n ts _____ ___ ______ _____________
15 c e n ts ___ _ _ ____________________________
2 2 V 2 c e n ts _______
_____
________________________

.4
.5
3. 3
1. 0
4. 1
2. 7
1. 3
56. 1
3. 0
5. 3
6. 3
-

T ota l

F u ll d a y 's p a y f o r r e d u c e d h o u r s

_________________

F u ll d a y 's p a y f o r r e d u c e d h o u r s plus
c e n ts p e r h o u r ________________ ____________________
N o s h ift p a y d iffe r e n t ia l

______________

_______________

_

_

.

-

-

-

.2
•3
1. 2
.5
.3
13. 3
.5
1. 1
1. 2
-

-

-

•4
2. i
3. 0
1 .5
5 .9
56. 7
. 5
1. 5

-

. 1

-

1 .0

-

.

.8

.

1 .9

3

.6
(2)
8. 3
-

2

(2 )

-

5. 3

"

.

2

9 .9

3. 2

2. 2

.

5

1 In clu d e s e s ta b lis h m e n ts c u r r e n t ly o p eratirfg la te s h ift s ,
e v e n though th e y w e r e not c u r r e n t ly o p e r a tin g late s h ift s .
2 L e s s than 0. 05 p e r c e n t .

and e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith fo r m a l p r o v is io n s c o v e r in g la te s h ifts

13

Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salaries for Women Office Workers
(D is trib u tio n o f e stablish m en ts stu died in a ll in d u s tr ie s and in in d u stry d iv isio n s by m in im u m en tra n ce s a la r y f o r s e le c t e d c a t e g o r ie s
o f in e x p e r ie n c e d w o m e n o f fic e w o r k e r s , B irm in gh am , A l a . , A p r il 1962)
In e x p e r ie n c e d ty p is ts

M in im u m w e e k ly s a l a r y 1

O ther in e x p e r ie n c e d c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s 2
N onm anufacturing

M anufacturin g

B a s e d on standard w e e k ly h ou rs 3 of—

A ll
in d u s trie s

B a s e d on standard w e e k ly hours 3 of—
A ll
s ch ed u les

A ll
s ch e d u le s

40

A ll
sch e d u le s

130

48

XXX

82

XXX

130

----------------

43

16

15

27

17

$ 40. 00 and und er $ 4 2 . 50 ---------------------------------------------------------$ 4 2 . 50 and un d er $ 4 5 . 00 _______________ _______________ ____
$ 4 5 . 00 and un d er $ 4 7 . 50 ...................................................................
$ 4 7 . 50 and u nd er $ 50. 00 ----------------------- ---------------------------- $ 50. 00 and u nd er $ 52. 50 ------------------ -------------- ----------- -----$ 52. 50 and un d er $ 55. 00 ------------------------- ------------------------------$ 55. 00 and un d er $ 57. 50 ---------------------------------------------------------$ 57. 50 and u nd er $ 60. 00 ______________________________________
$ 60. 00 and u n d er $ 6 2 .5 0 ______________________________________
$ 62. 50 and u n d er $ 65. 00 __________________________ __________
$ 65. 00 and u n d er $ 6 7 .5 0 ______________________________________
$ 6 7 .5 0 and u n d er $ 70. 00 ______________________________________
$ 70. 00 and u nd er $ 72. 50 ______________________________________
$ 7 2 . 50 and u n d er $ 7 5 . 00 ________________________ _____________
$ 7 5 .0 0 and u nd er $ 7 7 . 50 ---------------------------------- ------- __
O v er $ 7 7 .5 0 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2
5
15
2
5
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
2

_
4
3
2

_
4
3
2

1
9
2
1
1
-

-

-

1

2
5
11
2
2
1
1
1

1

-

-

-

-

-

1
1
1
2

1
1
-

1
1
-

3
1
1
2
1
3

2
1
1
1
2

E s ta b lis h m e n ts stu d ie d ____________________________________________
E s ta b lis h m e n ts having a s p e c ifie d m in im u m -----------

-

1
1
1
1
1
2

40

A ll
sch ed u les

40

48

XXX

82

XXX

62

23

21

39

29

2
8
16
5
10
2
5
3

_
1
4

_
4
6
4
1

2
7
12
5
4
2
1
2

1
2
10
5
3
1
1
2

-

-

-

1
1
1
1
2

1
1
1

1
1
1

40

-

N onm anufacturing

M anufacturin g
A ll
in d u s trie s

-

6
-

4
1

----------------------------

1

1

11

6

XXX

5

XXX

16

8

XXX

8

XXX

76

E s ta b lis h m e n ts having no s p e c ifie d m in im u m

26

XXX

50

XXX

52

17

XXX

35

XXX

E s ta b lis h m e n ts w h ich d id not e m p lo y w o rk e rs

L o w e s t s a la r y ra te f o r m a lly e s ta b lis h e d f o r h irin g in e x p e r ie n c e d w o r k e r s f o r typing o r o th e r c le r i c a l jo b s .
R a tes a p p lic a b le to m e s s e n g e r s , o ffic e g ir ls , o r s im ila r s u b c le r ic a l jo b s a r e not c o n s id e r e d .
H ou rs r e f l e c t the w o rk w e e k f o r w hich e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv e th e ir re g u la r s tr a ig h t-tim e s a la r ie s . Data a r e p r e s e n te d f o r a ll w ork w eek s co m b in e d , and fo r the m o s t c o m m o n w ork w eek re p o rte d .




14
Table B-3.

Scheduled W eekly Hours

(P e r c e n t d istrib u tio n o f o f fic e and plant w o r k e r s in all in d u s trie s and in in d u stry d iv isio n s by sch e d u le d w e e k ly h ou rs
o f f ir s t -s h if t w o r k e r s , B irm in gh a m , A la ., A p r il 1962)
O F F IC E W O R K E R S

PLANT WORKERS

W eek ly h ou rs
A ll industries

A ll w o rk e rs

_____________

_____ ________________

U nder 37V2 h ou rs -------------------------------------------------8 7 * /2 h o u r s
_
......... _
.
.
O ypr

100

3

M anufacturing

Public utilities 1
2

anH u n d e r

40 h ou rs

42 h ou rs

O ver 42 and under 48 h ou rs ____________________
48 h ou rs
_
________________________

100

100

100

1
31

4

1

2
95
_
1
_

68
_
_
_

1

_

j

1
78
3
5
3
1
2
2

In clu d es data fo r w h o le s a le tr a d e ; r e t a il tr a d e ; fin a n ce , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te ; and s e r v ic e s in addition to th ose in d u stry d iv isio n s shown s e p a r a te ly .
T r a n sp o rta tio n , co m m u n ica tio n , and o th e r p u b lic u tilitie s .
In clu d es data fo r w h o le s a le tra d e , r e t a il tra d e , r e a l e sta te , and s e r v ic e s in add ition to th ose in d u stry d iv isio n s shown se p a ra te ly.
L e s s than 0.5 p e r c e n t.




P ublic u tilities2

6
2

12
5
78
(4 )
3
(4 )

4 Q h o u r s

1
2
3
4

Manufacturing

100

(4 )

8 7 1’
/

All industries3

88
1
1
(4 )
_
2

100

85

6
9
_
_

15
Table B-4.

Paid Holidays

(P e r c e n t d istrib u tio n o f o f fic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u s tr ie s and in in d u stry d iv is io n s by num ber o f paid h olid a ys
p r o v id e d annually, B irm in g h a m , A la ., A p r il 1962)
PLAN T W ORKERS

O F F IC E W O R K E R S

Item
All industries

A ll w o r k e r s

_________

__ _________________ —

W o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p r o v id in g
p aid h o lid a y s _ _____________________ ___ ____
W o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p r o v id in g
no paid h o l i d a y s -------------------------------------------------

1

Manufacturing

Public utilities 1
2

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

100

100

100

100

100

100

99

99

100

93

93

100

7

7

1

(4 )
'

"

Number of days

L e s s than 5 h o lid a y s
__________________________
5 h o lid a y s __ ______
______ _____ ____ _____
5 h o lid a y s p lu s 1 h a lf day ______________________
6 h o lid a y s ______________________
________________
6 h o lid a y s plus 1 h a lf day ___________ _______
6 h o lid a y s plus 2 h a lf days _____________________
7 h o lid a y s ____ ____________________________________
7 h o lid a y s plus 1 h alf day ---------------------------------8 h o l i d a y s --------------------------------------------------------------

1

1

27

9

3

2
6
2
2

9

1
2

2
21
(4 )
5

52

77

71

-

-

-

4

(4 )

2
20
1
8
1

8
(4 )
6
1

10
20
-

59

76

65

1
2

2

5
“

'

Total holiday time5

8 days
---------------------------- ------------------ -------------l l/z o r m o r e days
__________________________ —
7 o r m o r e days
_ ______________________________
6 V 2 o r m o r e days ________________________________
6 o r m o r e days
------- ---------- ---------------------- _
5 V 2 o r m o r e days
______ _ __________ _______
5 o r m o r e days
________
4 o r m o r e days
_________________________ ___ _
2 o r m o r e days __________________________ ___ -

1
2
3
4
5
no h a lf

4

58

(4 )
(4 )
80
82

67

88

71

4
57

-

2
2

2
2

5

77

62

79

70

77

62

70

98

70

79
85

90

98

71

85

90

98

99

90

93

99

99

92

93

99

99

100
100
100

93

93

100
100
100

90

In clu d e s data fo r w h o le s a le tra d e ; re ta il tra d e ; finance, in s u ra n ce , and r e a l e s ta te ; and s e r v ic e s in add ition to th ose in d u stry d iv is io n s show n s ep a ra tely .
T r a n s p o rta tio n , co m m u n ica tio n , and o th er pu b lic u tilitie s.
In clu d e s data fo r w h o le s a le trade, re ta il trad e, r e a l estate, and s e r v ic e s in add ition to th o se in d u stry d iv is io n s show n s e p a ra tely .
L e s s than 0.5 p e r c e n t.
A ll c o m b in a tio n s o f fu ll and h alf days that add to the sam e am ount are co m b in e d ; fo r e x a m p le , the p r o p o r t io n o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g a total o f 7 days in clu d es th ose w ith 7 fu ll days and
d a y s, 6 fu ll days and 2 h a lf days, 5 fu ll days and 4 h alf d ays, and so on.
P r o p o r t io n s w e r e then cum ulated.




16
Table B-5.

Paid Vacations

(P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n o f o f fic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u s tr ie s and in in du stry d iv isio n s by v a ca tion pay
p r o v is io n s , B irm in g h a m , A la ., A p r il 1962)
PLANT W ORKERS

O F F IC E W O R K E R S

V a ca tion p o lic y
A ll industries 1

M anufacturing

Public utilities2

All industries3

M anufacturing

P ublic utilities2

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

99
92

100

100

-

-

7

-

1

89
11
-

100

-

-

-

-

-

-

9
1

27

Method of payment

W o r k e r s in esta b lis h m e n ts p ro v id in g
p aid v a ca tion s
----- ------------------ ------- ---------L e n g th -o f-tim e p aym ent
_______ ___
___
P e r c e n ta g e p aym ent
------------- — — ---------F la t -s u m p aym ent --------- ------- ------- ---------O t h e r _______ __________________ _______ _________
W o r k e r s in esta b lis h m e n ts p r o v id in g
no paid v a ca tion s
______________ ____ ________

-

1

Amount of vacation p ay4

A fte r 6 m onths o f s e r v ic e
U nder 1 w eek __________________
______ ______
1 w eek ___________________________________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w eek s
_ _____
_ __ _____
2 w eeks -------------------------------------------------------------------

_

6
46

_
60

52

11

17

-

(5)

-

3

10

6
(5)

( 5)

5

_
-

A fte r 1 y e a r o f s e r v ic e
1

w eek

--------- ------------------7. w r p p lcfi
. .

----------

O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s

—

----------------

----------------

_______________________________

31
63
6

12

89
10

5

74
26

-

-

75
2

43
-

15

95

-

57

73

90
_

22

10

A fte r 2 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek _____________________________________________________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s ___ ____________________
2 w eek s
_____
___
O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s _______________________________

12

8

2
80

74

7

17

1

20

5

74
-

|
1
1

-

50

3
47
-

A fte r 3 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek ____ ___ _____ _____ ____________________________ ____
O ver 1 and under 2 w eek s
2 w e e k s ___ _______________________ _________________
O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s

4

5

1

4
74
17

88

7

_
(5)
100

-

24
34
41
-

24

1

55
21

99

-

A fte r 4 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek ____________________________________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w eek s _______________________
2 w eek s ____________ , ___
_
__ , , ______ , , „ . ___
_
O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s
______ ___ ______

See foo tn o te s at end o f table.




3
1
89

7

5
4
74
17

_
(5)
100

24
34
42

24
55
21

!

_
99

17
Table B-5.

Paid Vacations— Continued

(P e r c e n t d istrib u tio n o f o f fic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u s tr ie s and in in d u stry d iv is io n s by v a ca tion pay
p r o v is io n s , B irm in gh a m , A la ., A p r il 1962)
OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

V a ca tio n p o lic y
All industries1

A m o u n t o f v a c a t i o n p a y 4—

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

All industries3

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

C o n t in u e d

A fte r 5 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek _ _ __ ___ ______
__ ________ __ ___ _
2 w eeks
__ ____ ____ _____ _ ______ __ _____
O v e r 2 and un d er 3 w e e k s
__ _______ ____ „
3 w eek s ------------------------------------------------------------------

_

1
90
7
2

2
79
17
2

_
100
-

7
90
2

5
93
_
2

1
56
26
18

2
24
62
13

_
71
29

7
41
37
13

5
27
60
8

82
_
18

1
54
9
36

2
23
23
52

70
30

7
38
38
16

5
25
60
9

_
65
5
30

1
20
6
68
5

2
10
15
68
5

_
3
97
-

7
20
1
70
(5)

5
11
1
83
-

_
4
_
96
-

1
18
6
65
9

2
10
15
69
5

3
_
95
2

7
17
_
71
4

5
9
_
86
-

_
4
_
81
15

1
18
6
39
17
19

2
10
15
21
45
8

7
16
31
35
9

5
9
25
57
4

4
_
60

100
-

A fte r 10 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek ____________________________________________
2 w eeks
__ ___ _____ ________
______ _ _
__ ___ _______ __
O v e r 2 and un d er 3 w e e k s
3 w eek s ------------------------------------------------------------------

_

A fte r 12 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek
__ __ __ __
_
2 w eek s _________ __
_ __
O v er 2 and u n d er 3 w e e k s
3 w eeks
__ _________ _____

__ ___
___
__ _ _____ ______
__ ___ __ __ _____
_ __ — _ __ __

_

A it e r 15 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek
— ------_ ----- __
2 w e e k s __ ___________ _________________ ____________
O v e r 2 and un d er 3 w e e k s ______________________
3 w eeks
___ __ _ __ _ __ _____ __ ___ _ _
4 w e e k s _ __ _ ________
__ ____ _____
A fte r 20 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w e e k _______________________ ____________________
2 w eek s __________________________________________
O v e r 2 and u nd er 3 w e e k s
__
__
___ _
3 w eek s
________ _____ __ ___ ___________ _
4 w eek s ------------------------------------------------------------------

_

A fte r 25 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek
__________
__
_ _ _ _ _
_
__
2 w eek s ________ _______ ________________ __________
O v e r 2 and u nd er 3 w e e k s ______________________
3 w eek s ___ _ ___ _____ _____ __
__ ____
O v e r 3 and u nd er 4 w e e k s
___ _
__ __

1
2
3
4
s e r v ic e
5

_
3
64
-

33

In clu d e s data f o r w h o le s a le tra d e ; r e ta il tra d e ; fin a n ce, in s u r a n c e , and r e a l estate; and s e r v ic e s in add ition to th o se in d u stry d iv is io n s show n s e p a ra te ly .
T r a n s p o rta tio n , co m m u n ica tio n , and oth er p u b lic u tilitie s.
In clu d e s data f o r w h o le s a le tra d e , r e ta il trade, r e a l e sta te , and s e r v ic e s in addition to th ose in du stry d iv is io n s show n s e p a ra te ly .
P e r io d s o f s e r v ic e w e r e a r b it r a r ily c h o se n and do not n e c e s s a r il y r e fle c t the individual p r o v is io n s fo r p r o g r e s s io n s .
F o r ex a m p le, the changes in p r o p o r tio n s
in clu d e ch a n ge s in p r o v is io n s o c c u r r in g betw een 5 and 10 y e a r s .
L e s s than 0.5 p e r c e n t.

_
_

36

in d ica ted

N O T E : In the tabu lation s o f v a ca tio n allo w a n ce s by ye a rs o f s e r v ic e , paym ents o th er than "le n g th o f t im e , " such as p e r c e n ta g e o f annual ea rn in gs and fla t -s u m paym ents,
to an equ iva len t tim e b a s is ; f o r e x a m p le , a paym ent o f 2 p e rce n t o f annual ea rn in gs w as c o n s id e r e d as 1 w e e k 's pay.




at 10 y e a r s '

w e re c o n v erted

18
Table B-6.

Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans

(P e r c e n t o f o f fic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u s trie s and in in d u stry d iv is io n s e m p lo y e d in e sta b lish m e n ts p r o v id in g
health, in s u ra n ce , o r p e n s io n b e n e fits , B irm in gh am , A la ., A p r il 1962)
OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

T yp e o f b en efit
All industries

A ll w o rk e rs

--------- — — -------------

----- — -

1

Manufacturing

100

100

Public utilities 1
2

All industries 3

100

100

100

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

100

W o r k e r s in es ta b lis h m en ts p ro v id in g :
L ife in s u ra n ce _____ ___ ___________________
A cc id e n ta l death and d is m e m b e rm e n t
in su ra n ce ____ ___________________ __________
S ick n ess and a c c id e n t in su ra n ce o r
s ick lea v e o r b o t h 4 ________________________

98

97

99

90

93

94

46

32

45

32

24

42
65

76

85

74

76

86

S ick n es s and a c c id e n t in su ra n ce _______
S ick le a v e (fu ll pay and no
w aitin g p e r io d ) _________________________
S ick le a v e (p a rtia l pay o r
w aiting p e r io d ) _________________________

42

75

9

63

81

30

52

59

32

11

3

27

10

3

36

11

7

30

H os p ita liz a tion in su ra n ce __________________
S u rg ica l in su ra n ce __________________ ______
M ed ica l in su ra n ce ___________________________
C ata stroph e in su ra n ce ______________________
R etirem en t p e n s io n _________________________
No health, in s u ra n ce, o r p e n s io n plan ____

72
72
53
39
80
1

90
90
64
20
91
2

69
69
56
74
74

78
78
39
23
67
7

89
89
34
11
82
4

78
78
61
76
65

1 Inclu des data fo r w h o le s a le tr a d e ; r e t a il tr a d e ; fin a n ce , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te ; and s e r v ic e s in add ition to those industry d iv isio n s show n s e p a r a te ly .
2 T r a n sp o rta tio n , co m m u n ica tio n , and o th e r p u b lic u tilitie s .
3 Inclu des data fo r w h o le s a le tra d e , r e t a il tra d e , r e a l e sta te , and s e r v ic e s in add ition to th ose in d u stry d iv is io n s shown se p a ra te ly .
4 U nduplicated total o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s ic k le a v e o r s ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in su ra n ce show n s e p a r a te ly b e lo w . S ic k -le a v e plans are lim ite d to th ose
m in im um num ber o f days' pay that can be e x p e c te d by e a ch e m p lo y e e . In fo rm a l s ic k -le a v e a llo w a n ce s d e te r m in e d on an individual b a s is are exclu ded.




w h ich d e fin ite ly e s t a b lis h at le a s t the

Appendix A: Changes in Occupational Descriptions

Since the Bureau’ s last survey in this area, occupational
descriptions for three office jobs were revised in order to obtain salary
information for more sp ecific categories. Therefore, data presented
for these jobs in table A -l are not comparable to data presented in last
year’ s bulletin.

Revisions were made in the descriptions for file clerks, key­
punch operators, and stenographers. The revised description for file
clerk groups these workers into three levels (class A, B, and C) in­




stead of two (class A and B). The revised description for keypunch
operator groups these workers into two defined classes (A and B)
instead of a single category. Previously data were presented separately
for general stenographers and technical stenographers. The revision
combines general stenographers, with more responsible duties, and
technical stenographers to form a new senior stenographer category;
other general stenographers are maintained in that classification.
The revised occupational descriptions used this year are in­
cluded in appendix B.

19




Appendix B: Occupational Descriptions
The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to assist its
field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field economists are in­
structed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped, part-time,
temporary, and probationary workers.

OFFICE
BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
classified by type o f machine, as follows:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.
Class A—
Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, bal­
ance sheets, and other records by hand.

Biller, machine (hilling machine)—
Uses a special billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, etc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.

Class B—
Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type of billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation of trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.

Biller, machine (hookkeeping machine)— ses a bookkeeping
U
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, etc., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types of sales and
credit slips.




CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A—
Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a com­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase of an establish­
ment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

21

22

CLERK, ACCOUNTING—Continued

payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper ac­
counting distribution; and requires judgment and experience in
making proper assignations and allocations. May assist in preparing,
adjusting and closing journal entries; and may direct class B ac­
counting clerks.
Class B—
Under supervision, performs one or more routine ac­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or a c­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; and posting subsidiary ledgers con­
trolled by general ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data.
This job does not require a knowledge of accounting and book­
keeping principles but is found in offices in which the more routine
accounting work is subdivided on a functional basis among several
workers.

CLERK, FILE
Class A— an established filing system containing a number
In
of varied subject matter files, classifies and indexes file material
such as correspondence, reports, technical documents, etc. May
also file this material. May keep records of various types in con­
junction with the files. May lead a small group of lower level file
clerks.
Class B—
Sorts, codes, and files unclassified material by sim­
ple (subject matter) headings or partly classified material by finer
subheadings. Prepares simple related index and cross-reference
aids.
As requested locates clearly identified material in files
and forwards material. May perform related clerical tasks required
to maintain and service files.

Class C—
Performs routine filing of material that has already
been classified or which is easily classified in a simple serial
classification system (e.g., alphabetical, chronological, or numer­
ical). As requested, locates readily available material in files
and forwards material; and may fill out withdrawal charge. Per­
forms simple clerical and manual tasks required to maintain and
service files.



CLERK, ORDER
Receives customers9orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination of the following:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities o f items on order
sheet; and distributing order sheets to respective departments to be
filled. May check with credit department to determine credit rating of
customer, acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders
to see that they have been filled, keep file o f orders received, and check
shipping invoices with original orders.

CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the neces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers9
earnings based on time or production records; and posting calculated
data on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker’ s name, work­
ing days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due.
May make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and dis­
tributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that o f statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file of used stencils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

23

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Class A—
Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or combina­
tion keypunch machine to transcribe data from various source docu­
ments to keypunch tabulating cards. Performs same tasks as lower
level keypunch operator but in addition, work requires application of
coding skills and the making of some determinations, for example,
locates on the source document the items to be punched; extracts
information from several documents; and searches for and interprets
information on the document to determine information to be punched.
May train inexperienced operators.

CZoss B—
Under close supervision or following specific proce­
dures or instructions, transcribes data from source documents to
punched cards. Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or com­
bination keypunch machine to keypunch tabulating cards. May
verify cards. Working from various standardized source documents,
follows specified sequences which have been coded or prescribed
in detail and require little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting
data to be punched. Problems arising from erroneous items or codes,
missing information, etc., are referred to supervisor.

OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands, opera­
ting minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and dis­
tributing mail, and other minor clerical work.

SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an
administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receiving people coming into office; answering and



SECRETARY— Continued
making phone calls; handling personal and important or confidential
mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative; and taking
dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand
or by Stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the
recorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare
special reports or memorandums for information of superior.

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a
normal routine vocabulary; and transcribe dictation. May also type from
written copy. May maintain files, keep simple records, or perform other
relatively routine clerical tasks. May operate from a stenographic pool.
Does not include transcribing-machine work. (See tran scribing-machine
operator.)

STENOGRAPHER,SENIOR
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a var­
ied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or
reports on scientific research and transcribe dictation. May also type
from written copy. May also set up and maintain files, keep records, etc.

OR

Performs stenographic duties requiring significantly greater
independence and responsibility than stenographers, general as evi­
denced by the following: Work requires high degree of stenographer
speed and accuracy; and a thorough working knowledge of general busi­
ness and office procedures and of the specific business operations,
organization, policies, procedures, files, workflow, etc. Uses this
knowledge in performing stenographic duties and responsible clerical
tasks such as, maintaining followup files; assembling material for
reports, memorandums, letters, etc.; composing simple letters from general
instructions; reading and routing incoming mail; and answering routine
questions, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work.

24

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office
calls. May record toll calls and take messages. May give information
to persons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders. For
workers who also act as receptionists see switchboard operatorreceptionist.

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR-Continued
Class C—
Operates simple tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with specific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs or re­
petitive operations.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single posi­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. This typing
or clerical work may take the major part of this worker’ s time while at
switchboard.
TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Class A—
Operates a variety of tabulating or electrical ac­
counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator, and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignments without close supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are o f irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating sequences o f long and complex reports,
Does not include working supervisors performing tabulating-machine
operations and day-to-day supervision o f the work and production
of a group o f tabulating-machine operators.
Class B—
Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical ac­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under
specific instructions and may include the performance of some wir­
ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but
small tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are well established. May also include the training
of new employees in the basic operation of the machine.



TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal rou­
tine vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May also type from
written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation
involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal
briefs or reports on scientific research are not included. A worker who
takes dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is
classified as a stenographer, general.
TYPIST
Uses a typewriter to make copies o f various material or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May include typing of stencils, mats, or similar materials for use in
duplicating processes. May do clerical work involving little special
training, such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or
sorting and distributing incoming mail.

Class A—
Performs one or more o f the following: Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punc­
tuation, etc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; and planning layout and typing of complicated statistical
tables to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type
routine form letters varying details to suit circumstances.
Class B—
Performs one or more o f the following: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing o f forms, insurance pol­
icies, etc.; and setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying
more complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

25

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR-Continued

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts*
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.

completed work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quan­
tities; writing specifications; and making adjustments or changes in
drawings or specifications. May ink in lines and letters on pencil
drawings, prepare detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings.
Work is frequently in a specialized field such as architectural, elec­
trical, mechanical, or structural drafting.

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration o f working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Duties involve a combination o f the following: Interpreting blueprints,
sketches, and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures;
assigning duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; and per­
forming more difficult problems. May assist subordinates during emer­
gencies or as a regular assignment, or perform related duties of a
supervisory or administrative nature.
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing
purposes. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Preparing
working plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-sections, etc., to scale by
use of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as
those involved in strength of materials, beams and trusses; verifying

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of employees’ injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicant^
and employees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.
TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing
tracing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. Uses
T-square, compass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

MAINTENANCE AND POWERPLANT
CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE-Continued

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most of the following:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’ s handtools, portable

power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; and selecting materials
necessary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance car­
penter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.




26

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE

HELPER, MAINTENANCE TRADES

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, dis­
tribution, or utilization o f electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the elec­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; and using a variety
of electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In
general, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

Assists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties o f lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
and performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The
kind of work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade:
In some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding
materials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-time basis.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors,
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; and keeping a record
of operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May
also supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establish•
ments employing more than one engineer are excluded.

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools, gages,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most o f the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and
operation sequence; and making necessary adjustments during operation
to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to rec­
ognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating oils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing
shops are excluded from this classification.

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
Fire stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; and checks water
and safety valve.
May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom
equipment.



Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Interpreting written instructions and
specifications; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
chinist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and
operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to close toler­
ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of
work, tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working

27

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE-Continued

MILLWRIGHT

properties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts,
and equipment required for his work; and fitting and assembling parts
into mechanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally
requires a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout
are required. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a
variety o f handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing o f equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment and
parts to be used; and installing and maintaining in good order power
transmission equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general,
die millwright’ s work normally requires a rounded training and experi­
ence in the trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an es­
tablishment. Work involves most o f the following: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gages, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assemblies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; and alining wheels, adjusting brakes
and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the auto­
motive mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually ac­
quired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves most o f the following: Examining machines and mechan­
ical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly dis­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a re­
placement part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine
shop for major repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs
or for the production o f parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling
machines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In gen­
eral, the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience. Excluded from this classification are
workers whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.




OILER
Lubricates* with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler
in nail holes and interstices; and applying paint with spray gun or brush.
May mix colors, oils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain
proper color or consistency. In general, the work o f the maintenance
painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most of the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from draw­
ings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to
correct lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe­
cutting machine; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by
hand-driven or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings

28

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE—
Continued

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE-Continued

and fastening pipe to hangers;making standard shop computations relat­
ing to pressures, flow, and size of pipe required; and making standard
tests to determine whether finished pipes meet specifications. In general
the work of the maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and
repairing building sanitation or heating systems are excluded.

types of sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in
cutting, bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; and installing
sheet-metal articles as required. In general, the work o f the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.
TOOL AND DIE MAKER
(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gage maker)

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; and opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake.
In general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types o f sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints,
models, or other specifications; setting up and operating all available

Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gages, jig s, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching, and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most of the following: Planning and laying out of work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifications;
using a variety of tool and die maker’ s handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding o f the working properties o f common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating o f metal
parts during fabrication as well as o f finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to close tolerances; fitting and assembling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allowances; and selecting appro­
priate materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die
maker’ s work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom
practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT
ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

GUARD

Transports passengers between floors of an office building
apartment house, department store, hotel, or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity o f em ployees and
other persons entering.




29

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER

PACKER, SHIPPING

(Sweeper; charwomen; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial
or other establishment. Duties involve a combination o f the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance services; and cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Work­
ers who specialize in window washing are excluded.

Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed', and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or more of
the following: Knowledge o f various items o f stock in order to verify
content; selection o f appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; and applying labels
or entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make
wooden boxes or crates are excluded.

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more o f the following: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or
from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location;
and transporting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheel­
barrow. Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded.

ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stotk selector; warehouse stockman)
Fills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, cus­
tomers* orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders
and indicating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders
requisition additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and
perform other related duties.



SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­
sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Ship­
ping work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices,
routes, available means of transportation and rates; and preparing
records of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight
and shipping charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May
direct or assist in preparing the merchandise for shipment. Receiving
work involves: Verifying or directing others in verifying the correct­
ness o f shipments against bills of lading, invoices, or other records;
checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods; routing merchan­
dise or materials to proper departments; and maintaining necessary
records and files.

For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:
Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk

30

TRUCKDRIVER

TRUCKER, POWER

Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types o f estab­
lishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers’ houses or places of business. May also load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers
are excluded .

Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.

For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipment, as follows: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis of trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver (combination o f sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under iy2 tons)
Truckdriver, medium (iy2 to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)




For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of
truck, as follows:
Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)

WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.
* U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1962 0 — 645492


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102