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Occupational Wage Survey WATERLOO, IOWA NOVEMBER 1961 Bulletin No. 1303-23 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary B U R EA U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S Ew an C la g u e , Com m issioner Occupational Wage Survey WATERLOO, IOWA NOVEMBER 1961 Bulletin No. 1303-23 February 1962 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS Ewan Clague, Commissioner For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. Price 20 cents Contents Preface Page The L a b or M arket O ccupational Wage Survey P rog ra m The Bureau o f L a b o r Statistics annually conducts occu p ation al wage su rv ey s in 82 la b or m arkets. The studies p rovid e data on occu p ation al earnings and related supplem entary b e n efits. A p re lim in a ry re p o rt furnishing trend data and av erag e earn in gs is re le a se d within a month o f the com p letion o f each study. This bulletin provid es additional data not in cluded in the p relim in a ry report. This bu lletin was p rep a red in the B ureau's r e gional o ffic e in C hicago, 111. , by Kenneth Thorsten, under the d ire ctio n o f E lliott A . B ro w a r. The study was under the gen eral d ire ctio n o f W oodrow C. Linn, A ssistant R e gional D ir e c to r fo r Wages and Industrial R elations. 1 3 T ables: 1. 2. A: E stablishm ents and w ork ers within scop e o f su rvey ___________ P e rce n ts o f in c r e a se in standard w eekly sa la ries and stra ig h t-tim e hourly earnings fo r se le cte d occu pation al groups _____________________________________________ O ccupational earnings: * A - 1. O ffice occu pation s— en and wom en ______________________ m A - 2. P r o fe s s io n a l and tech n ical occu pation s— en ______________ m A -3 . O ffice, p ro fe ssio n a l, and tech n ical occu pation s— en and wom en com bined _____ m A -4 . M aintenance and pow erplant occu pation s _____ A - 5. C ustodial and m a teria l m ovem ent occu pation s A ppendixes: A . Changes in occupational d e scrip tion s ___________________________ B. O ccupational d escrip tion s _______________________________________ * NOTE: S im ilar tabulations are available in the W aterloo re p o rt fo r N ovem ber I960 which a lso includes data on e s tablishm ent p ra ctice s and supplem entary wage p rov ision s. S im ilar rep orts are available fo r other m ajor a re a s. A d ir e c to r y indicating the a re a s, dates o f study, and p r ic e s o f these rep orts is available upon requ est. iii 2 3 4 5 Lf> v O Is- Two b u lletin s, b rin gin g together the resu lts o f all o f the area su rv e y s, a re iss u e d after com pletion o f the final area bulletin in the cu rre n t round o f su rveys. The fir s t o f these bu lletin s w ill be available late in 1962 and the other e a rly in 1963. During the survey y ea r, sum m ary re le a s e s p resen tin g areaw ide occupational earnings data fo r 25 to 30 la b o r m a rk e ts, a re issu ed as data becom e a v a ila b le . Introduction ______________________________________________________________ Wage trends fo r se le cte d occu pation al groups _________________________ 9 11 O ccupational Wage Survey— W aterloo, Iowa Introduction are presented (in the A -series tables) for the following types of occu pations: (a) Office clerical; (b) professional and technical; (c) mainte nance and powerplant; and (d) custodial and material movement. This area is 1 of 82 labor markets in which the U .S. De partment of Labor’s Bureau of Labor Statistics conducts surveys* of occupational earnings and related wage benefits on an area basis. The bulletin presents current occupational employment and earnings information obtained largely by mail from the establishments visited by Bureau field economists in the last previous survey for occupations reported in that earlier study. Personal visits were made to nonrespondents and to those respondents reporting unusual changes since the previous survey. Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for full-time workers, i . e . , those hired to work a regular weekly sched ule in the given occupational classification. Earnings data exclude premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded also, but cost-ofliving bonuses and incentive earnings are included. Where weekly hours are reported, as for office clerical occupations, reference is to the work schedules (rounded to the nearest half hour) for which straight-time salaries are paid; average weekly earnings for these occupations have been rounded to the nearest half dollar. In each area, data are obtained from representative establish ments within six broad industry divisions: Manufacturing; transpor tation, communication, and other public utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. Major industry groups excluded from these studies are government operations and the construction and ex tra ctiv e industries. Establishments having fewer than a prescribed number of workers are omitted also because they tend to furnish insufficient employment in the occupations studied to warrant inclusion. Separate tabulations are provided for each of the broad industry divisions which meet publication criteria. Average earnings of men and women are presented separately for selected occupations in which both sexes are commonly employed. Differences in pay levels of men and women in these occupations are largely due to (1) differences in the distribution of the sexes among industries and establishments; (2) differences in specific duties per formed, although the occupations are appropriately classified within the same survey job description; and (3) differences in length of serv ice or merit review when individual salaries are adjusted on this basis. Longer average service of men would result in higher average pay when both sexes are employed within the same rate range. Job descriptions used in classifying employees in these surveys are usu ally more generalized than those used in individual establishments to allow for minor differences among establishments in specific duties performed. These surveys are conducted on a sample basis because of the unnecessary cost involved in surveying all establishments. To obtain optimum accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of large than of small establishments is studied. In combining the data, how ever, all establishments are given their appropriate weight. Estimates based on the establishments studied are presented, therefore, as re lating to all establishments in the industry grouping and area, except for those below the minimum size studied. Occupational employment estimates represent the total in all establishments within the scope of the study and not the number actu ally surveyed. Because of differences in occupational structure among establishments, the estimates of occupational employment obtained from the sample of establishments studied serve only to indicate the relative importance of the jobs studied. These differences in occu pational structure do not materially affect the accuracy of the earn ings data. Occupations and Earnings The occupations selected for study are common to a variety of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries. Occupational clas sification is based on a uniform set of job descriptions designed to take account of interestablishment variation in duties within the same job. (See appendix for listing of these descriptions.) Earnings data 1 2 T a b le 1. E s ta b lis h m e n ts and w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e o f s u r v e y and n u m b e r stu d ie d in W a te r lo o , Iow a, N u m b e r o f e s ta b lis h m e n ts In d u stry d iv is io n A ll d iv is io n s W ith in s c o p e o f s tu d y 1 3 2 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- M an u factu rin g Nnnmannfar.tnrincr _ ______ T r a n s p o rta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and ____________________ — o th e r p u b lic u t i l i t i e s 4 W holesale* tra d e 56 R etail t r a d e 5 ._ F in a n re , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te 5 _____ S e r v ic e s 5» ® _ ____________ — __ _____ Studied b y m a jo r in d u s t r y d iv is io n , 2 N o v e m b e r 1961 W o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n t s W ith in s c o p e o f study S tu died 59 45 1 9 ,2 0 0 18, 210 29 30 22 23 15, 700 3, 500 1 5 ,1 6 0 3, 050 8 2 13 4 3 8 2 9 2 2 1 ,6 0 0 200 1, 200 200 300 1, 600 200 990 110 150 1 The W a te r lo o Standard M e tro p o lita n S ta tis tic a l A r e a c o n s is t s o f B la c k Hawk County. The " w o r k e r s w ithin s c o p e o f s tu d y " e s t im a t e s show n in th is ta b le p r o v id e a r e a s o n a b ly a c c u r a t e d e s c r ip t io n o f the s iz e and c o m p o s it io n o f the la b o r f o r c e in clu d e d in the s u r v e y . T he e s t im a t e s a r e not in ten ded, h o w e v e r , to s e r v e as a b a s is o f c o m p a r is o n w ith o th e r a r e a e m p lo y m e n t in d e x e s to m e a s u r e e m p lo y m e n t tr e n d s o r l e v e ls s in c e ( l ) planning o f w age s u r v e y s r e q u ir e s the u s e o f e s ta b lis h m e n t data c o m p ile d c o n s id e r a b ly in ad va n ce o f the p a y r o ll p e r io d s tu d ied , and (2) s m a ll e s t a b lis h m e n ts a r e e x c lu d e d fr o m the s c o p e o f the s u r v e y . 2 The 1957 r e v i s e d e d itio n o f the S tandard In d u s tria l C l a s s i fi c a t io n M anual w as u s e d in c la s s ify in g e s ta b lis h m e n ts b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n . M a jo r ch a n g e s fr o m the e a r l ie r e d itio n (u s e d in the B u r e a u 's la b o r m a r k e t w age s u r v e y s c o n d u cte d p r io r to July 1958) a r e the t r a n s f e r o f m ilk p a s t e u r iz a t io n plants and r e a d y - m ix e d c o n c r e t e e s ta b lis h m e n ts f r o m tra d e (w h o le s a le o r r e ta il) to m an u factu rin g, and the t r a n s fe r o f r a d io and t e le v is i o n b r o a d c a s t in g fr o m s e r v ic e s to the tr a n s p o r ta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s d iv is io n . 3 I n clu d e s a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith to ta l e m p lo y m e n t at o r ab o v e the m in im u m -s iz e lim ita tio n (50 e m p lo y e e s ). A l l o u tle ts (w ith in the a r e a ) o f co m p a n ie s in su ch in d u s tr ie s as t r a d e , fin a n c e , auto r e p a ir s e r v ic e , and m o t io n -p ic t u r e th e a te rs a r e c o n s id e r e d as 1 e s ta b lis h m e n t . 4 T a x ic a b s and s e r v ic e s in c id e n ta l to w a te r t r a n s p o r ta tio n w e re e x c lu d e d . 5 T h is in d u s tr y d iv is io n is r e p r e s e n t e d in e s t im a t e s f o r " a l l in d u s t r ie s " and "n o n m a n u fa ctu rin g " in the S e r ie s A t a b le s . S e p a ra te p r e s e n t a t io n o f data f o r th is d iv is io n is not m a d e f o r on e o r m o r e o f the fo llo w in g r e a s o n s : (1) E m p loym en t in the d iv is io n is to o s m a ll to p r o v id e en ou gh data to m e r it s e p a r a te study, (2) the sa m p le w as not d e s ig n e d in it ia lly to p e r m it s e p a ra te p re s e n ta tio n , (3) r e s p o n s e w as in s u ffic ie n t o r in a d eq u a te to p e r m it s e p a r a te p r e s e n ta tio n , and (4) th e r e i s p o s s ib ilit y o f d i s c lo s u r e o f in d ivid u a l e s ta b lis h m e n t data. 6 H o te ls ; p e r s o n a l s e r v ic e s ; b u s in e s s s e r v ic e s ; a u to m o b ile r e p a ir s h o p s; m o t io n p ic tu r e s ; n o n p ro fit m e m b e r s h ip o r g a n iz a t io n s ; and e n g in e e r in g and a r c h ite c t u r a l s e r v i c e s . 3 Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups Presented in table 2 are percents of change in salaries of office clerical workers and industrial nurses, and in average earnings of selected plant worker groups. For office clerical workers and industrial nurses, the per cents of change relate to average weekly salaries for normal hours of work, that is, the standard work schedule for which straight-time salaries are paid. For plant worker groups, they measure changes in straight-time hourly earnings, excluding premium pay for over time and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. The per centages are based on data for selected key occupations and include most of the numerically important jobs within each group. The of fice clerical data are based on men and women in the following 19 jobs: Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B; clerks, accounting, class A and B; clerks, file, class A , B, and C; clerks, order; clerks, pay roll; Comptometer operators; keypunch operators, class A and B; office boys and girls; secretaries; stenographers, general; stenogra phers, senior; switchboard operators; tabulating-machine operators, class B; and typists, class A and B. The industrial nurse data are based on men and women industrial nurses. Men in the following 8 skilled maintenance jobs and 2 unskilled jobs were included in the plant worker data: Skilled— carpenters; electricians; machinists; m e chanics; mechanics, automotive; painters; pipefitters; and tool and die makers; unskilled— janitors, porters, and cleaners; and laborers, material handling. Average weekly salaries or average hourly earnings were computed for each of the selected occupations. The average sal aries or hourly earnings were then multiplied by the average employ ment in the job during the period surveyed in 1961. These weighted earnings for individual occupations were then totaled to obtain an ag gregate for each occupational group. Finally, the ratio of these group aggregates for the one year to the aggregate for the other year was computed and the difference between the result and 100 is the percent of change from the one period to the other. The percent of change measures, principally, the effects of (1) general salary and wage changes; (2) merit or other increases in pay received by individual workers while in the same job; and (3) changes in the labor force such as labor turnover, force expan sions, force reductions, and changes in the proportions of workers employed by establishments with different pay levels. Changes in the labor force can cause increases or decreases in the occupational averages without actual wage changes. For example, a force expansion might increase the proportion of lower paid workers in a specific occupation and result in a drop in the average, whereas a reduction in the proportion of lower paid workers would have the opposite effect. The movement of a high-paying establishment out of an area could cause the average earnings to drop, even though no change in rates occurred in other area establishments. The use of constant employment weights eliminates the effects of changes in the proportion of workers represented in each job in cluded in the data. Nor are the percents of change influenced by changes in standard work schedules or in premium pay for overtime, since they are based on pay for straight-time hours. Table 2. P ercents o f in cre a se in standard w eekly s a la rie s and straigh t-tim e hourly earnings fo r s e le cte d occupational groups in W aterloo, Iowa, N ovem ber I960 to N ovem ber 1961 O ccupational group O ffice c le r ic a l (men and wom en) ____________________ Industrial nurses (m en and wom en) _________________ Skilled maintenance (m e n )___________________________ U nskilled plant ( m e n )-------------------------------------------------Insufficient data to meet publication criteria. A ll industries M anufacturing 4.4 (l ) 5.0 6.0 3.9 (?) (*) 5.7 A* Occupational Earnings 4 T a b le A -l. O ffic e O ccu p ations-M en and W om en (A verage straigh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings fo r se le cte d occupations studied on an area basis by industry d ivision , W aterloo, Iowa, N ovem ber 1961) NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF— A verage S e x , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s t r y d iv is io n of workers Weekly. hours 1 3 2 earnings (Standard) (Standard) $ 4 5 .0 0 and under 5 0 .0 0 55. 00 $ 6 0. 00 7 0 .0 0 $ 7 5. 00 8 5 .0 0 $ 90. 00 - - - - - - - - - 55. 00 6 0. 00 6 5. 00 7 0. 00 7 5 .0 0 8 0 .0 0 8 5. 00 90. 00 $ 50. 00 $ $ $ 6 5. 00 $ 80. 00 $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ 9 5. 00 1 0 0 .0 0 105. 00 1 1 0 .0 0 115. 00 1 2 0 .0 0 1 2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 and - 95. 00 1 0 0 .0 0 105. 00 n o . o o 115. 00 120. 00 125. 00 130. 00 over M en . . . . . _ _ _ - - " 2 1 55. 50 34 8 8 2 1 0 3 .5 0 1 0 6 .0 0 _ . _ . " ' - - - 5 5 4 3 1 4 3 1 11 9 2 2 24 40. 0 $ 1 1 9 .0 0 ________________ 15 40. 0 9 7. 50 B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s A ______________ M a n u fa ctu r in g ________ __ ------------------------------------------- 20 17 40. 0 40. 0 8 1 .0 0 8 2 . 50 B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B ______________ 25 4 0 .0 C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s A _________ T a b u la t in g -m a c h in c o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B _____ _____ — . . 1 2 j . . 8 3 5 24 . _ 1 . 3 7 1 3 . _ _ _ _ 2 2 5 5 2 2 2 1 1 1 3 3 _ 1 1 _ _ _ _ _ - - - ■ 1 1 _ _ 1 - . _ _ _ _ - - . . 4 2 . _ _ " 2 2 j 1 1 _ - 3 3 - - W om en 2 1 2 2 3 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ■ “ - - - - - - - - - - - 5 4 4 4 3 3 6 - -------- 5 1 1 2 2 " - - 14 14 4 4 10 10 - - - - - - - - " " - - - ------ 5 6 3 1 - 4 3 5 2 7 5 9 9 8 8 3 3 17 17 22 22 20 20 8 5 1 1 - - - ” ■ C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s A _____________________________ M a n u fa ctu r in g ----------------------------------------------------------------- 20 16 40. 0 40. 0 C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s B -------------------------------------------__________________ _____________ M a n u fa ctu r in g N on m a n u fa c tu rin g ______________________________________ P u b lic u t ilit ie s 4 _____________________________________ 67 38 29 22 40. 40. 40. 40. 0 0 0 0 6 6 .0 0 6 6 . 50 6 5 . 50 6 8 . 50 ~ 16 5 11 10 - 8 8 8 C le r k s , file , c la s s B 5 19 40. 0 7 1 . 50 _ _ 2 3 1 5 7 1 . C l e r k s , p a y r o l l ____________________________________________ M a n u fa ctu r in g __________________________________ ________________ 39 34 40. 0 40. 0 8 7 . 00 8 8 . 00 1 1 2 2 1 1 3 3 1 1 1 - 6 5 3 1 K e y p u n ch o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B 5 ---------M a n u fa ctu r in g _______________________ --------------------------____________ ___ 80 68 4 0 .0 40. 0 7 5 . 50 7 6 . 50 1 1 2 2 5 5 4 4 3 - 13 7 24 21 S e c r e t a r ie s ________________________________________ _______ M a n u fa ctu r in g ------------------------ -------------------------------------- 74 58 40. 0 40. 0 9 5 . 00 9 9. 00 _ 2 1 3 5 5 3 3 7 S t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l 5 _______ ____________ M a n u fa ctu r in g ________________ _____ ___ 95 78 40. 0 4 0 .0 7 7 . 00 8 0 .0 0 _ 6 " 7 2 7 3 3 3 4 4 8 9 . 50 _ _ _ 2 _ . ______________________________________________ __________ __________ S t e n o g r a p h e r s , s e n io r 5 __________________________________ 59 40. 0 T r a n s c r ib in g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , g e n e r a l -------------------- 21 4 0 .0 6 5 . 50 T y p is t s , c l a s s A ____________________________________________ ______________________________ M a n u fa ctu r in g ________ 29 27 40. 0 4 0 .0 8 3 . 00 8 4 . 00 T y p is t s , c l a s s B 63 55 40. 0 40. 0 6 9 . 50 7 0 . 50 M anufacturing ___________________________________________ - 12 ------ T 6 2 ~ 1 - 1 1 3 . “ " " 3 8 6 4 3 3 - - ■ 8 5 6 5 9 9 12 12 1 - - " " “ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1 1 1 _ 5 5 7 4 4 _ . . . . “ 1 1 _ 7 - " ■ “ “ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 9 Standard hours r e fle c t the w orkweek fo r which em ployees r e c e iv e their regular straigh t-tim e sa la rie s and the earnings corresp on d to these w eekly h ou rs. W orkers w ere distributed as follow s: 1 at $ 130 to $ 135; 3 at $ 135 to $ 140. Includes 2 w ork ers at $40 to $ 4 5 . T ran sp ortation, com m unication, and other public u tilitie s. D escrip tion fo r this jo b has been re v ise d since the last su rvey in this area. See appendix A. _ ■ _ 7 7 ! - _ 6 5 2 2 2 3 3 5 2 2 2 3 3 _ _ 3 2 - 4 4 7 2 4 3 - 24 4 11 • _ 5 _ 1 ] ! 1 2 3 4 5 - Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations-Men (A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is b y in d u s tr y d iv is io n , W a t e r lo o , Iow a, N o v e m b e r 1961) A verages O c c u p a t io n and in d u s t r y d iv is io n D r a ft s m e n , j u n io r 1 ____________________________________________________ NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF— $ 1 Number of workers Weekly, hours 1 (Standard) 4 0. 0 27 Weekly , earnings1 (Standard) $ 7 9 . 50 60. 00 and under 6 5. 00 $ 1 7 0 . 00 7 0. 00 7 5 . 00 7 2 7 5 .0 0 8 0. 00 8 0. 00 * 8 5. 00 5 3 $ $ $ 65. 00 8 5 . 00 9 0 . 00 95. 00 9 0. 00 $ 9 5. 00 1 0 0 .0 0 5 3 1 S ta n d a rd h o u r s r e f l e c t the w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv e t h e ir r e g u la r s t r a ig h t - t im e s a la r i e s and the e a r n in g s c o r r e s p o n d to t h e s e w e e k ly h o u r s . Ta b le A -3. O ffic e , Professional, and T e ch n ica l O ccu p atio ns-M en and W om en Com bined (A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e w e e k ly e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n , W a t e r lo o , Iow a, N o v e m b e r 1961) Number of O c c u p a t io n and in d u s t r y d i v is i o n weekly j earnings (Standard) O cc u p a tio n and in d u s tr y d i v is i o n weekly l earnings (Standard) O ffic e o c c u p a t io n s — C on tin u ed O ffi c e o c c u p a t io n s 20 17 B o o k k e e p in g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s A M a n u fa ctu r in g ____________________________ $ 8 1 . 00 82. 50 C le r k s , fi le , 25 c la s s B C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s A M a n u fa ctu r in g ____________ 55. 50 44 39 1 1 2 .0 0 1 1 4 .5 0 82 38 44 37 71. 00 cla s s B 3 19 $ 7 1 . 50 o r d e r ____________________________________________ 16 69. 00 — 6 6 .5 0 7 5 .0 0 7 9 .0 0 C le r k s , p a y r o l l __________________________________________ M a n u fa ctu rin g ________________________________________ 47 ----- 41------ K eyp u n ch o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B 3 __________ _________ M a n u fa ctu r in g ______ ________________________________ ________________________________ 60 $ 8 9 . 50 24 19 96. 50 97. 00 89. 50 9 1 .5 0 T r a n s c r ib in g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , g e n e r a l _____ 21 65. 50 81 69 7 6. 00 76. 50 T y p is t s , c l a s s A -------------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g ________________________________________ 29 27 8 3 .0 0 8 4. 00 T y p is t s , c l a s s B _________________________________________ M a n u fa ctu r in g ____________________________________ 67 55 70. 00 70. 50 27 79. 50 17 6 2. 00 S e c r e t a r ie s ________ ___________________________________ M a n u fa ctu r in g ________________________________________ 75 59 9 5. 50 99. 50 S t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l 3 ______________________________ M a n u f a c t u r in g __ ___________________________________ 95 78 77. 00 8 0 . 00 Earnings are fo r a regu la r w ork w eek fo r which em ployees r e ce iv e their straigh t-tim e w eekly salaries, e xclu sive of any prem iu m pay. Tran sportation, com m u nication, and other public utilities. D e s c r ip t io n f o r th is j o b h a s b e e n r e v i s e d s in c e the la s t s u r v e y in th is a r e a . S ee a p p e n d ix A . weekly l earnings (Standard) T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B _____________ M a n u fa ctu r in g _________________________________________ O ffic e b o y s and g ir ls ___________________________________ C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s B _________________ M a n u fa ctu r in g _____________ ;________________ N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g __________________________ P u b l ic u t ilit ie s 2 ________________________ Number of O c c u p a tio n and in d u s t r y d i v is i o n O ffic e o c c u p a t io n s — C on tin u ed _________________________________ C le r k s , B o o k k e e p in g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , Number of workers S ten og ra p h ers, s e n io r 3 P r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n ic a l o c c u p a t io n s D r a ft s m e n , ju n io r _______________________________________ 6 Table A-4. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations (A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r m e n in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ied o n an a r e a b a s is b y in d u s tr y d iv is io n , W a t e r lo o , Iow a, N o v e m b e r 1961) NUMBER OF WORKEB8 RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF— O c c u p a t io n and in d u s t r y d iv is io n Number of workers Average hourly . earnings U nder $ 2 .0 0 $ 2 .0 0 and u n d er 2 .1 0 $ 2 .1 0 $ 2 .20 $ ............................................ 28 $ 2 .5 0 76 72 3.11 3.10 - E n g in e e r s , s t a t io n a r y ____________________________ 30 2 .8 7 3 F ir e m e n , s t a t io n a r y b o il e r --------------------------------- 26 2 .6 8 1 2 49 30 19 17 2 .8 0 2.91 2 .6 2 2 .6 4 - - " ■ 5 5 5 2 .6 0 C a r p e n t e r s , m a in te n a n ce M e c h a n ic s , m a in te n a n ce ------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g ............................................................... 130 128 2 .9 8 2 .9 8 P ip e f it t e r s , m a in te n a n ce _________________________ 48 107 107 - 2 2 6 6 10 10 1 ' 1 2 1 1 - " 5 5 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y fo r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and la te s h ifts . T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o t h e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s . 1 1 4 3 1 " 3.24 3.24 - 2 .6 0 $ 2 .70 2 .70 2.80 $ 2 .8 0 2 .90 1 2 2 7 " $ 2 .9 0 3.00 1 8 8 _ 1 1 " $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .1 0 $ 3 .2 0 3 .10 3 .20 3.30 $ 3.30 3.40 $ 3 .40 $ 3 .5 0 3.50 3 .60 $ 3.60 3. 70 14 ■ . 8 4 2 .9 5 T o o l and d ie m a k e r s ______________________________ M a n u fa ctu r in g --------------------------------------------------- - $ 2 1 M e c h a n ic s , a u to m o tiv e (m a in te n a n ce ) -------------M a n u fa ctu r in g _________________________________ N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g -------------------------------------------P u b lic u t ilit ie s 2 ................... ................................. 2 .50 $ 2 .8 7 E l e c t r i c i a n s , m a in te n a n ce _______________________ M a n u fa ctu r in g __________________________________ 2 .4 0 2 .40 3 2 .2 0 2 .3 0 2 .3 0 $ 9 3 4 4 " 16 6 10 10 “ . . _ _ 2 2 35 35 - . 9 6 . . _ _ 3 2 1 1 13 13 " ~ ~ " - - 36 36 . _ . " ~ _ 6 1 1 1 11 7 7 7 6 6 16 16 * 2 1 2 . 2 2 9 9 3 3 17 17 . 10 8 1 7 7 20 20 25 23 3 3 8 16 4 4 15 15 _ “ _ _ _ 2 2 4 4 4 4 ~ 52 52 n Table A-5. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations (A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly e a rn in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d o n an a r e a b a s is b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n , W a t e r lo o , Iow a, N o v e m b e r 1961) NUMBER OF WORKEBS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF— Number of workers O c c u p a t io n 1 and in d u s t r y d i v is i o n 4 3 2 Average hourly 2 earnings $ U nder $ 1.20 $ $ 1.20 and under 1.30 1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2 .0 0 2 .1 0 2 .2 0 $ 2 .3 0 1.40 1.50 1.60 1 .70 1.80 1.90 2 .0 0 2 .1 0 2 .2 0 2 .3 0 2 .4 0 - $ % $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ 2 .4 0 2 .5 0 2 .6 0 $ 2 .70 2 .5 0 2 .6 0 2 .7 0 2 .80 2 2 - - - - - - - 1 1 " 10 1 9 4 4 ■ " 5 4 5 5 - 18 18 32 14 18 18 124 94 30 $ 2 .0 6 2 .20 1.62 4 4 3 2 1 2 2 4 3 1 8 5 3 5 3 2 9 3 6 3 3 “ 8 1 7 1 1 34 -------- 31 1.94 3 2 1 2 . _ . 6 . . _ _ 17 472 443 29 2.37 2.39 2 .09 4 1 - 7 7 1 ■ 10 8 2 10 8 2 271 271 2 13 5 8 100 100 ■ 1 1 _ - 1 10 10 " 1 - 2 2 2 - 44 R e c e iv in g c l e r k s ----------------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g __________________________________ 17 15 2 .4 4 2.46 . _ . . . . . . ■ “ ■ “ 2 1 . " ~ 3 3 2 2 S h ippin g c l e r k s -------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g __________________________________ 33 32 2 .55 2 .5 4 - 1 1 - - 1 1 3 3 3 3 - 3 3 2 2 T r u c k d r i v e r s 5 _____________________________________ M a n u fa ctu r in g __________________________________ N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ______________________________ P u b l ic u t ilit ie s 6 ____________________________ 88 49 39 24 2.51 2 .59 2.41 2.71 1 1 - 14 2 12 . 1 - - - 1 1 - 4 4 - 10 10 - " " 1 1 ■ ■ ■ 21 16 5 5 T r u c k d r i v e r s , m e d iu m ( I V 2 to and in c lu d in g 4 to n s ) -------------------------------------- 30 T r u c k e r s , p o w e r (f o r k l if t ) ----------------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g __________________________________ W a tch m e n ___________________________________________ over . L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l h a n d lin g ------------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g __________________________________ N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ______________________________ 2 .8 0 and J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and c l e a n e r s (m e n ) _________ M a n u fa ctu r in g __________________________________ N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ______________________________ J a n i t o r s , p o r t e r s , and c l e a n e r s (w o m e n ) 4 - - - _ " - ■ . 25 25 1 - " 1 1 1 . 1 - - - - - - - 1 1 1 ' - 1 - 1 - - - ■ " " ■ “ 2 .70 - - - _ - - - - - 1 - _ 1 - 1 5 22 - 102 101 2 .45 2 .45 " “ ■ ~ ■ 1 1 ■ 1 1 12 12 5 5 2 2 9 8 2 2 70 70 " " " 71 2 .35 2 1 1 3 38 21 • 1 1 D ata lim it e d to m e n w o r k e r s e x c e p t w h e r e o t h e r w is e in d ic a te d . 2 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s . 3 W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r ib u t e d a s f o l l o w s : 2 at $ 0 .7 0 to $ 0 .8 0 ; 2 at $ 1 to $ 1 .1 0 . 4 A ll w o r k e r s w e r e at $ 1 .1 0 to $ 1 .2 0 . 5 In c lu d e s a ll d r i v e r s r e g a r d l e s s o f s i z e and ty p e o f t r u c k o p e r a t e d . 6 T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o t h e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s . - 71 71 ■ 2 3 - - Appendix A: Changes in Occupational Descriptions Since the Bureau’ s last survey in this area, occupational descriptions for three office jobs were revised in order to obtain salary information for more specific categories. Therefore, data presented for these jobs in table A -l are not comparable to data presented in last year’ s bulletin. Revisions were made in the descriptions for file clerks, key punch operators, and stenographers. The revised description for file clerk groups these workers into three levels (class A, B, and C) in stead of two (class A and B). The revised description for keypunch operator groups these workers into two defined classes (A and B) instead of a single category. Previously data were presented separately for general stenographers and technical stenographers. The revision combines general stenographers, with more responsible duties, and technical stenographers to form a new senior stenographer category; other general stenographers are maintained in that classification. The revised occupational descriptions used this year are in cluded in appendix B. 9 Appendix B: Occupational Descriptions The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to assist its field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content. Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field economists are in structed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped, part-time, temporary, and probationary workers. OFFICE BILLER, MACHINE BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are classified by type of machine, as follows: Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions. Class A— Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, bal ance sheets, and other records by hand. Biller, machine (hilling machine)— Uses a special billing ma chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, etc., which are combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders, shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine. The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine. Class B— Keeps a record of one or more phases or sect'ons of a set of records usually requiring little knowledge o f basic book keeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll, customers’ accounts (not including a simple type of billing described under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation of trial balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department. Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine)— Uses a bookkeeping machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, etc., which may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers’ bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers’ ledger rec ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book keeping. Works from uniform and standard types of sales and credit slips. CLERK, ACCOUNTING Class A— Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a com plete set of books or records relating to one phase of an establish ment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts 11 12 CLERK, ACCOUNTING— Continued payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper ac counting distribution; and requires judgment and experience in making proper assignations and allocations. May assist in preparing, adjusting and closing journal entries; and may direct class B ac counting clerks. Class B— Under supervision, performs one or more routine ac counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or ac counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers; reconciling bank accounts; and posting subsidiary ledgers con trolled by general ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data. This job does not require a knowledge of accounting and book keeping principles but is found in offices in which the more routine accounting work is subdivided on a functional basis among several workers. CLERK, FILE Class A— an established filing system containing a number In of varied subject matter files, classifies and indexes file material such as correspondence, reports, technical documents, etc. May also file this material. May keep records of various types in con junction with the files. May lead a small group of lower level file clerks. Class B— Sorts, codes, and files unclassified material by sim ple (subject matter) headings or partly classified material by finer subheadings. Prepares simple related index and cross-reference aids. As requested locates clearly identified material in files and forwards material. May perform related clerical tasks required to maintain and service files. Class C— Performs routine filing of material that has already been classified or which is easily classified in a simple serial classification system (e.g., alphabetical, chronological, or numer ical). As requested, locates readily available material in files and forwards material; and may fill out withdrawal charge. Per forms simple clerical and manual tasks required to maintain and service files. CLERK, ORDER Receives customers9orders for material or merchandise by mail, phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination of the following: Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order sheet; and distributing order sheets to respective departments to be filled. May check with credit department to determine credit rating of customer, acknowledge receipt o f orders from customers, follow up orders to see that they have been filled, keep file o f orders received, and check shipping invoices with original orders. CLERK, PAYROLL Computes wages of company employees and enters the neces sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers9 earnings based on time or production records; and posting calculated data on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker’ s name, work ing days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and dis tributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine. COMPTOMETER OPERATOR Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that o f statis tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use o f a Comp tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance of other duties. DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO) Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi bilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten matter, using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file of used stencils or Ditto masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material. 13 KEYPUNCH OPERATO R Class A— Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or combina tion keypunch machine to transcribe data from various source docu ments to keypunch tabulating cards. Performs same tasks as lower level keypunch operator but in addition, work requires application of coding skills and the making of some determinations, for example, locates on the source document the items to be punched; extracts information from several documents; and searches for and interprets information on the document to determine information to be punched. May train inexperienced operators. Class B— Under close supervision or following specific proce dures or instructions, transcribes data from source documents to punched cards. Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or com bination keypunch machine to keypunch tabulating cards. May verify cards. Working from various standardized source documents, follows specified sequences which have been coded or prescribed in detail and require little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting data to be punched. Problems arising from erroneous items or codes, missing information, etc., are referred to supervisor. OFFICE BOY OR GIRL Performs various routine duties such as running errands, opera ting minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and dis tributing mail, and other minor clerical work. SECRETARY Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint ments for superior; receiving people coming into office; answering and SECRETARY— Continued making phone calls; handling personal and important or confidential mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative; and taking dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare special reports or memorandums for information of superior. STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a normal routine vocabulary; and transcribe dictation. May also type from written copy. May maintain files, keep simple records, or perform other relatively routine clerical tasks. May operate from a stenographic pool. Does not include transcribing-machine work. (See transcribing-machine operator.) STENOGRAPHER,SENIOR Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons, either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a var ied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on scientific research and transcribe dictation. May also type from written copy. May also set up and maintain files, keep records, etc. OR Performs stenographic duties requiring significantly greater independence and responsibility than stenographers, general as evi denced by the following: Work requires high degree of stenographer speed and accuracy; and a thorough working knowledge of general busi ness and office procedures and of the specific business operations, organization, policies, procedures, files, workflow, etc. Uses this knowledge in performing stenographic duties and responsible clerical tasks such as, maintaining followup files; assembling material for reports, memorandums, letters, etc.; composing simple letters from general instructions; reading and routing incoming mail; and answering routine questions, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work. 14 SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard. Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office calls. May record toll calls and take messages. May give information to persons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders. For workers who also act as receptionists see switchboard operatorreceptionist. TABULA TING-MACHINE OPERATOR-Continued Class C— Operates simple tabulating or electrical account ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc., with specific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs or re petitive operations. SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single posi tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also type or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. This typing or clerical work may take the major part of this worker’ s time while at switchboard. TABULA TING-MACHINE OPERATOR Class A— Operates a variety of tabulating or electrical ac counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu lator, calculator, interpreter, collator, and others. Performs com plete reporting assignments without close supervision, and performs difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring from diagrams and operating sequences of long and complex reports, Does not include working supervisors performing tabulating-machine operations and day-to-day supervision of the work and production of a group of tabulating-machine operators. Class B— Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical ac counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under specific instructions and may include the performance of some wir ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but small tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report. Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where the procedures are well established. May also include the training of new employees in the basic operation of the machine. TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal rou tine vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May also type from written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal briefs or reports on scientific research are not included. A worker who takes dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is classified as a stenographer, general. TYPIST Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to make out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May include typing of stencils, mats, or similar materials for use in duplicating processes. May do clerical work involving little special training, such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting and distributing incoming mail. Class A— Performs one or more o f the following: Typing ma terial in final form when it involves combining material from several sources or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punc tuation, etc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma terial; and planning layout and typing of complicated statistical tables to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine form letters varying details to suit circumstances. Class B— Performs one or more o f the following: Copy typing from rough or clear drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance pol icies, etc.; and setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying more complex tables already set up and spaced properly. 15 PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR-Continued DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR (Assistant draftsman) Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts* man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction of a draftsman. completed work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quan tities; writing specifications; and making adjustments or changes in drawings or specifications. May ink in lines and letters on pencil drawings, prepare detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings. Work is frequently in a specialized field such as architectural, elec trical, mechanical, or structural drafting. DRAFTSMAN, LEADER NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED) Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep aration o f working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Interpreting blueprints, sketches, and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures; assigning duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; and per forming more difficult problems. May assist subordinates during emer gencies or as a regular assignment, or perform related duties of a supervisory or administrative nature. DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Duties involve a combination of the following: Preparing working plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-sections, etc., to scale by use of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as those involved in strength of materials, beams and trusses; verifying A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the premises of a factory or *>ther establishment. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to subsequent dressing of employees’ injuries; keeping records of patients treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes; conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicant^ and employees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel. TRACER Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing tracing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. Uses T-square, compass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw ings and do simple lettering. MAINTENANCE AND POWERPLANT CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE-Continued Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs, counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’ s handtools, portable power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work; and selecting materials necessary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance car penter required rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. 16 ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE HELPER, MAINTENANCE TRADES Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, dis tribution, or utilization o f electric energy in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards, controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems, or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay out, or other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the elec trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; and using a variety of electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In general, the work of the maintenance elctricians requires rounded train ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. Assists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades, by performing specific or general duties o f lesser skill, such as keeping a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools; and performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding materials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade that are also performed by workers on a full-time basis. ENGINEER, STATIONARY Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; and keeping a record of operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May also supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establish• ments employing more than one engineer are excluded. MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes, or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools, gages, jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring complicated setups or a high degree o f accuracy; using a variety of pre cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and operation sequence; and making necessary adjustments during operation to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to rec ognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating oils . For cross-industry wage study purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification. MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER Fire stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; and checks water and safety valve. May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom equipment. Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Wozk involves most o f the following: Interpreting written instructions and specifications; planning and laying out o f work; using a variety o f ma chinist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to close toler ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work, tooling, feeds and speeds o f machining; knowledge of the working 17 MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued MILLWRIGHT properties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts, and equipment required for his work; and fitting and assembling parts into mechanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally requires a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout are required. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment and parts to be used; and installing and maintaining in good order power transmission equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the millwright’ s work normally requires a rounded training and experi ence in the trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE) Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an es tablishment. Work involves most o f the following: Examining automotive equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches, gages, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting valves; reassembling and installing the various assemblies in the vehicle and making necessary adjustments; and alining wheels, adjusting brakes and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the auto motive mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually ac quired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Examining machines and mechan ical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly dis mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a re placement part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop for major repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs or for the production o f parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling machines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In gen eral, the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva lent training and experience. Excluded from this classification are workers whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines. OILER Lubricates* with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur faces of mechanical equipment of an establishment. PAINTER, MAINTENANCE Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in nail holes and interstices; and applying paint with spray gun or brush. May mix colors, oils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper color or consistency. In general, the work o f the maintenance painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from draw ings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to correct lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe cutting machine; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by hand-driven or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings 18 PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE-Continued SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE-Continued and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relat ing to pressures, flow, and size of pipe required; and making standard tests to determine whether finished pipes meet specifications. In general the work of the maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva lent training and experience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building sanitation or heating systems are excluded. types of sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting, bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; and installing sheet-metal articles as required. In general, the work o f the maintenance sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. TOOL AND DIE MAKER (Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gage maker) PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order. Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and fixtures; and opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber's snake. In general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded train ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans, shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and lay ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, models, or other specifications; setting up and operating all available Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gages, jigs, fix tures or dies for forgings, punching, and other metal-forming work. Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying out of work from models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifications; using a variety of tool and die maker's handtools and precision meas uring instruments, understanding o f the working properties of common metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve required qualities; working to close tolerances; fitting and assembling of parts to prescribed tolerances and allowances; and selecting appro priate materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die maker's work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification. CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER GUARD Transports passengers between floors of an office building apartment house, department store, hotel, or similar establishment. Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as those of starters and janitors are excluded. Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour, maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity o f employees and other persons entering. 19 JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER PACKER, SHIPPING (Sweeper; charwomen; janitress) Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following: Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips, trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte nance services; and cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Work ers who specialize in window washing are excluded. Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or more of the following: Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify content; selection of appropriate type and size of container; inserting enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; and applying labels or entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make wooden boxes or crates are excluded. LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING (Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper) A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store, or other establishment whose duties involve one or more o f the following: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelv ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; and transporting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheel barrow. Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded. ORDER FILLER (Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman) Fills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, cus tomers’ orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indicating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders requisition additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform other related duties. SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Shipping work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes, available means of transportation and rates; and pr* paring records of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or assist in preparing the merchandise for shipment. Receiving work involves: Verifying or directing others in verifying the correct ness of shipments against bills of lading, invoices, or other records; checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods; routing merchan dise or materials to proper departments; and maintaining necessary records and files. For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows: Receiving clerk Shipping clerk Shipping and receiving clerk 20 TRUCKDRIVER TRUCKER, POWER Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of estab lishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses, wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments and customers* houses or places of business. May also load or unload truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers are excluded. Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment. For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size and type of equipment, as follows: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on the basis of trailer capacity.) Truckdriver (combination o f sizes listed separately) Truckdriver, light (under l l2 tons) / Truckdriver, medium (1% to and including 4 tons) Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type) Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type) For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type o f truck, as follows: Trucker, power (forklift) Trucker, power (other than forklift) WATCHMAN Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property against fire, theft, and illegal entry. * U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1962 0 — 628276