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Occupational Wage Survey
RICHMOND, VIRGINIA

NOVEMBER 1961

liti 1 (‘tin No.
1

1303-22




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




Occupational Wage Survey
RICHMOND, VIRGINIA




NOVEMBER 1961

Bulletin No. 1303-22
February 1962

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU O F LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.

Price 30 cents

EfHS




Contents

Preface

P age

The Labor Market Occupational Wage Survey Program
The Bureau of Labor Statistics annually conducts
occupational wage surveys in 82 labor markets.
The
studies provide data on occupational earnings and related
supplementary benefits.
A preliminary report furnishing
trend data and average earnings is released within a month
of the completion of each study.
This bulletin provides
additional data not included in the preliminary report.

In tro d u ctio n ___________________________________________________________________
W age tre n d s f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p s ___________________________

T a b le s :

1.
2.

Two bulletins, bringing together the results of all
of the area surveys, are issued after completion of the
final area bulletin in the current round of surveys.
The
first of these bulletins will be available late in 1962 and
the other early in 1963. During the survey year, summary
releases presenting areawide occupational earnings data
for 25 to 30 labor markets, are issued as data become
available.

A:

This bulletin was prepared in the Bureau*s re­
gional office in Atlanta, Ga. , by James D. Garland, under
the direction of Donald M. Cruse.
The study was under
the general direction of Louis B. Woytych, Assistant Re­
gional Director for Wages and Industrial Relations.




1

4

B:

E s ta b lis h m e n ts and w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e o f s u r v e y ____________
P e r c e n t s o f in c r e a s e in sta n d a rd w e e k ly s a la r ie s and
s t r a ig h t -tim e h o u r ly e a rn in g s f o r s e le c t e d
o c cu p a tio n a l g ro u p s _________________________________________________

3

O ccu p a tio n a l e a r n in g s :*
A - 1.
O ffic e o c c u p a tio n s — e n and w om en ________________________
m
A - 2 . P r o fe s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l o c cu p a tio n s — en
m
and w om en ___________________________________________________
A - 3 . O ffic e , p r o fe s s io n a l, and te c h n ic a l
o c c u p a tio n s — e n and w om en c o m b in e d ___________________
m
A -4.
M ain ten an ce and p o w e rp la n t o c cu p a tio n s __________________
A - 5.
C u sto d ia l and m a t e r ia l m o v e m e n t o c cu p a tio n s ___________

9
10
n

E s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s
and su p p le m e n ta ry w age p r o v is io n s :*
B-l.
Shift d iffe r e n t ia ls ____________________________________________
B - 2.
M in im u m en tra n ce s a la r ie s f o r w om en o f f ic e w o r k e r s __
B - 3.
S ch ed u led w e e k ly h o u rs _____________________________________
B -4 .
P a id h o lid a y s __________________________________________________
B - 5 . P a id v a c a tio n s ________________________________________________
B -6 .
H ealth, in s u r a n c e , and p e n s io n plans _____________________

13
14
15
16
17
19

A p p en d ix es:
A . C h an ges in o c c u p a tio n a l d e s c r ip t io n s ______________________________
B . O ccu p a tio n a l d e s c r ip t io n s __________________________________________

* NOTE: Similar tabulations for these and other items
are available in the Richmond area reports for October
1951, February I960, and December I960. Excluding the
latter, these reports also present data on establishment
practices and supplementary wage provisions.
Similar
reports are available for other major areas. A directory
indicating the areas, dates of study, and prices of these
reports is available upon request.
Union scales, indicative of prevailing pay levels,
are also available for the following trades or industries:
Building construction, printing, local-transit operating em ­
ployees, and motortruck drivers and helpers.

iii

3

5
8

21
23




Occupational Wage Survey— Richmond, Va.

Introduction

to the work schedules (rounded to the nearest half hour) for which
straight-time salaries are paid; average weekly earnings for these
occupations have been rounded to the nearest half dollar.

This area is 1 of 82 labor markets in which the U.S. De­
partment of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics has conducted sur­
veys of occupational earnings and related wage benefits on an area­
wide basis.
In this area, data were obtained by personal visits of
Bureau field economists to representative establishments within six
broad industry divisions: Manufacturing; transportation, communica­
tion, and other public utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance,
insurance, and real estate; and services. Major industry groups
excluded from these studies are government operations and the con­
struction and extractive industries.
Establishments having fewer
than a prescribed number of workers are omitted also because they
tend to furnish insufficient employment in the occupations studied to
warrant inclusion. Separate tabulations are provided for each of the
broad industry divisions which meet publication criteria.

Average earnings of men and women are presented separately
for selected occupations in which both sexes are commonly employed.
Differences in pay levels of men and women in these occupations are
largely due to (1) differences in the distribution of the sexes among
industries and establishments; (2) ’ differences in specific duties per­
formed, although the occupations are appropriately classified within
the same survey job description; and (3) differences in length of serv­
ice or merit review when individual salaries are adjusted on this
basis.
Longer average service of men would result in higher average
pay when both sexes are employed within the same rate range.
Job
descriptions used in classifying employees in these surveys are usu­
ally more generalized than those used in individual establishments to
allow for minor differences among establishments in specific duties
pe rformed.

These surveys are conducted on a sample basis because of the
unnecessary cost involved in surveying all establishments. To obtain
optimum accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of large
than of small establishments is studied. In combining the data, how­
ever, all establishments are given their appropriate weight. Estimates
based on the establishments studied are presented, therefore, as re ­
lating to all establishments in the industry grouping and area, ex­
cept for those below the minimum size studied.

Occupational employment estimates represent the total in all
establishments within the scope of the study and not the number actu­
ally surveyed. Because of differences in occupational structure among
establishments, the estimates of occupational employment obtained
from the sample of establishments studied serve only to indicate the
relative importance of the jobs studied.
These differences in occu­
pational structure do not materially affect the accuracy of the earn­
ings data.

Occupations and Earnings
The occupations Selected for study are common to a variety
of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries. Occupational clas­
sification is based on a uniform set of job descriptions designed to
take account of interestablishment variation in duties within the same
job.
(See appendix for listing of these descriptions.) Earnings data
are presented (in the A -se rie s tables) for the following types of occu­
pations: (a) Office clerical; (b) professional and technical; (c) mainte­
nance and power plant; and (d) custodial and material movement.

Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Information is presented (in the B -series tables) on selected
establishment practices and supplementary benefits as they relate to
office and plant workers.
The concept "office w o rk ers," as used
in this bulletin, includes working supervisors and nonsupervisory
workers performing clerical or related functions, and excludes admin­
istrative, executive, and professional personnel. "Plant workers" in­
clude working foremen and all nonsupervisory workers (including leadmen and trainees) engaged in nonoffice functions. Administrative,
executive, and professional employees, and force-account construction
employees who are utilized as a separate work force are excluded.
Cafeteria workers and routemen are excluded in manufacturing indus­
tries, but are included as plant workers in nonmanufacturing industries.

Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for
full-time workers, i . e . , those hired to work a regular weekly sched­
ule in the given occupational classification. Earnings data exclude
premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and
late shifts.
Nonproduction bonuses are excluded also, but c o st-o fliving bonuses and incentive earnings are included.
Where weekly
hours are reported, as for office clerical occupations, reference is




1

2

Shift differential data (table B - l ) are limited to manufacturing
industries. This information is presented both in terms of (a) estab­
lishment policy,1 presented in terms of total plant worker employ­
ment, and (b) effective practice, presented in terms of workers
actually employed on the specified shift at the time of the survey.
In establishments having varied differentials, the amount applying to
a majority was used or, if no amount applied to a majority, the clas­
sification “other" was used.
In establishments in which some lateshift hours are paid at normal rates, a differential was recorded only
if it applied to a majority of the shift hours.
Minimum entrance salaries (table B -2 ) relate only to the
establishments visited.
They are presented in terms of establish­
ments with formal minimum salary policies.
The scheduled hours (table B -3) of a majority of the fir stshift workers in an establishment are tabulated as applying to all of
the plant or office workers of that establishment. Paid holidays; paid
vacations; and health, insurance, and pension plans (tables B -4 through
B -6 ) are treated statistically on the basis that these are applicable
to all plant or office workers if a majority of such workers are eli­
gible or may eventually qualify for the practices listed. Sums of
individual items in tables B -3 through B -6 may not equal totals be­
cause of rounding.
The first part of the paid holidays table (table B -4) presents
the number of whole and half holidays actually provided. The second
part combines whole and half holidays to show total holiday tim e.
The summary of vacation plans (table B -5) is limited to for­
mal policies, excluding informal arrangements whereby time off with
pay is granted at the discretion of the employer. Separate estimates
are provided according to employer practice in computing vacation
payments, such as time payments, percent of annual earnings, or
flat-sum amounts. However, in the tabulations of vacation pay, pay­
ments not on a time basis were so converted; for example, a payment
of 2 percent of annual earnings was considered as the equivalent of
1 week's pay.

Data are presented for all health, insurance, and pension plans
(table B-6) for which at least a part of the cost is borne by the em ­
ployer, excepting only legal requirements such as workmen's compen­
sation, social security, and railroad retirement. Such plans include
those underwritten by a commercial insurance company and those pro­
vided through a union fund or paid directly by the employer out of
current operating funds or from a fund set aside for this purpose.
Death benefits are included as a form of life insurance.
Sickness and accident insurance is limited to that type of in­
surance under which predetermined cash payments are made directly
to the insured on a weekly or monthly basis during illness or accident
disability.
Information is presented for all such plans to which the
employer contributes.
However, in New York and New Jersey, which
have enacted temporary disability insurance laws which require em ­
ployer contributions,2 plans are included only if the employer (1) con­
tributes more than is legally required, or (2) provides the employee
with benefits which exceed the requirements of the law. Tabulation?
of paid sick-leave plans are limited to formal plans3 which provide
full pay or a proportion of the worker's pay during absence from work
because of illness.
Separate tabulations are presented according to
(1) plans which provide full pay and no waiting period, and (2) plans
which provide either partial pay or a waiting period. In addition to the
presentation of the proportions of workers who are provided sickness
and accident insurance or paid sick leave, an unduplicated total is
shown of workers who receive either or both types of benefits.
Catastrophe insurance, sometimes referred to as extended
medical insurance, includes those plans which are designed to protect
employees in case of sickness and injury involving expenses beyond
the normal coverage of hospitalization, medical, and surgical plans.
Medical insurance refers to plans providing for complete or partial
payment of doctors* fees. Such plans may be underwritten by commer­
cial insurance companies or nonprofit organizations or they may be
self-insured. Tabulations of retirement pension plans are limited to
those plans that provide monthly payments for the remainder of the
worker's life.

2 The temporary disability laws in California and Rhode Island
do not require employer contributions.
3 An establishment was considered as having a formal plan if
it established at least the minimum number of days of sick leave that
could be expected by each employee. Such a plan need not be written,
1
An establishment was considered as having a policy if it met
but informal sick-leave allowances, determined on an individual basis,
either of the following conditions: (1) Operated late shifts at the time
were excluded.
of the survey, or (2) had formal provisions covering late shifts.




3

Table 1.

Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied in Richmond, V a.,1 by major industry division, 2 November 1961
Minimum
employment
in establish­
ments in scope
of study

Industry division

Number of establishments

Workers in establishments
Within scope of study

Within
scope of
study 3

Studied

Studied
Office

Total 4

Plant

Total4

___________________________________________________

50

374

122

7 7,000

14, 700

47 ,0 0 0

50, 370

Manufacturing __________________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________________________________
Transportation, communication, and other
public utilitie s 5 ----------------------------------------------------------------Wholesale trade ____________________________________________
Retail trade ________________________________________________
Finance, insurance, and real estate _____________________
Services 7 ___________________________________________________

50
50

128
246

47
75

36,100
40, 900

3, 100
11, 600

26, 800
20, 200

23, 990
26, 380

50
50
50
50
50

38
52
79
45
32

18
13
19
15
10

11,
4,
13,
7,
4,

A ll divisions

3, 100
(?)

600
800
200
300
000

0
(?)

( 6)

5, 100

0
(?)

(?)
( 6)

10,
1,
7,
4,
1,

25t)
980
680
580
890

1 The Richmond Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area consists of Richmond City, Chesterfield, and Henrico Counties.
The "w orkers within scope of study" estim ates shown in this table
provide a reasonably accurate description of the size and composition of the labor force included in the survey. The estim ates are not intended, however, to serve as a basis of comparison
with other area employment indexes to measure employment trends or levels since (1) planning of wage surveys requires the use of establishment data compiled considerably in advance of the
payroll period studied, and (2) sm all establishments are excluded from the scope of the survey.
2 The 1957 revised edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual was used in classifying establishments by industry division. Major changes from the earlier edition (used in
the Bureau's labor market wage surveys conducted prior to July 1958) are the transfer of milk pasteurization plants and ready-m ixed concrete establishments from trade (wholesale or retail)
to manufacturing, and the transfer of radio and television broadcasting from services to the transportation, communication, and other public utilities division.
3 Includes all establishments with total employment at or above the m inim um -size limitation. A ll outlets (within the area) of companies in such industries as trade, finance, auto
repair
service, and motion-picture theaters are considered as 1 establishment.
4 Includes executive, professional, and other workers excluded from the separate office and plant categories.
5 Taxicabs and services incidental to water transportation were excluded. Richmond's gas
utility is municipally operated and is excluded by definition from the scope of the study.
6 This industry division is represented in estimates for "a ll industries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the Series A and B tables.
Separate presentation of data for this division is not made
for one or m ore of the following reasons:
(l) Employment in the division is too sm all to provide enough data to m erit separate study, (2) the sample was not designed initially
to permit
separate presentation, (3) response was insufficient or inadequate to permit separate presentation, and (4) there is possibility of disclosure of individual establishment data.
7 Hotels; personal services; business services; automobile repair shops; motion pictures; nonprofit membership organizations; and engineering and architectural services. 1




Table 2.

Percents of increase in standard weekly salaries and straight-tim e hourly earnings
for sheeted occupational groups in Richmond, Va. , December I960 to
November 1961, and February I960 to December I960

Industry and occupational group

December I960
to
November 1961

February I960
to
December I960

A ll industries:
Office clerical (men and w o m e n )_____ _______ ____ ___ __
Industrial nurses (men and w om en)_____________________
Skilled maintenance (m en)_____ _____ __ __ ___ _ _
Unskilled plant (men)
_____ __ __ _
_ __ __ __ __ __

3 .9
1. 5
3.5
*8. 3

2 .6
3.7
3 .4
5. 3

Manufacturing:
Office clerical (men and w om en)._________ _____________
Industrial nurses (men and women) ________ ____ ________
Skilled maintenance (men) _____________________ __________
Unskilled plant (men)
__ _ __ __ _
__ _______

2 .8
.5
3 .2
1 8. 4

2 .9
3.6
3 .2
2 .5

1 The amount of this increase reflects the effect of the new minimum wage and changes
employment among establishments with different pay levels in addition to general wage changes.

in

4
Wags Trtnds for Soloctod Occupational Groups
Presented in table 2 are percents of change in salaries of
office clerical workers and industrial nurses, and in average earnings
of selected plant worker groups.
For office clerical workers and industrial nurses, the per­
cents of change relate to average weekly salaries for normal hours
of work, that is, the standard work schedule for which straight-time
salaries are paid.
For plant worker groups, they measure changes
in straight-time hourly earnings, excluding premium pay for over­
time and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
The per­
centages are based on data for selected key occupations and include
most of the numerically important jobs within each group.
The of­
fice clerical data are based on men and women in the following 19 jobs:
Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B; clerks, accounting, class A
and B; clerks, file, class A, B, and C; clerks, order; clerks, pay­
roll; Comptometer operators; keypunch operators, class A and B;
office boys and girls; secretaries; stenographers, general; stenogra­
phers, senior; switchboard operators; tabulating-machine operators,
class B; and typists, class A and B.
The industrial nurse data are
based on men and women industrial nurses.
Men in the following
8 skilled maintenance jobs and 2 unskilled jobs were included in the
plant worker data: Skilled— carpenters; electricians; machinists; m e­
chanics; mechanics, atuomotive; painters; pipefitters; and tool and
die makers; unskilled— janitors, porters, and cleaners; and laborers,
material handling.
Average weekly salaries or average hourly earnings were
computed for each of the selected occupations.
The average sal­




aries or hourly earnings were then multiplied by the average employ­
ment in the job during the period surveyed in 1961.
These weighted
earnings for individual occupations were then totaled to obtain an ag­
gregate for each occupational group.
Finally, the ratio of these group
aggregates for the one year to the aggregate for the other year was
computed and the difference between the result and 100 is the percent
of change from the one period to the other.
The percent of change measures, principally, the effects of
(1) general salary and wage changes; (2) m erit or other increases
in pay received by individual workers while in the same job; and
(3) changes in the labor force such as labor turnover, force expan­
sions, force reductions, and changes in the proportions of workers
employed by establishments with different pay levels.
Changes in the
labor force can cause increases or decreases in the occupational
averages without actual wage changes. For example, a force expansion
might increase the proportion of lower paid workers in a specific
occupation and result in a drop in the average, whereas a reduction
in the proportion of lower paid workers would have the opposite effect.
The movement of a high-paying establishment out of an area could
cause the average earnings to drop, even though no change in rates
occurred in other area establishments.
The use of constant employment weights eliminates the effects
of changes in the proportion of workers represented in each job in­
cluded in the data.
Nor are the percents of change influenced by
changes in standard work schedules or in premium pav for overtime,
since they are based on pay for straight-time hours.

The above text represents the method used in computing a new trend
series.
The expansion of the labor market wage survey program in 1961 made
data available in 82 areas for the computation of wage trends for selected job
groupings.
Sixty-one areas were surveyed in I960; prior to I960, coverage was
limited to 20 areas.
Therefore, it was decided to compute a new trend series in
which 1961 will be the base year since this is the first year in which data were
collected in all 82 areas.
The percents of change shown in table 2 are not comparable with similar
data shown for this area in last yea r18 Bulletin 1285-26.
The new series intro­
duces changes in the job groupings for which trends are shown and changes in
jobs included in the computations.

A: Occupational Earnings

5

Table A -l. O ffice Occupations-Men and Women
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Richmond, V a ., November 1961)
Average
Sex, occu pation , and in d u stry d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
%
$
S
$
$
$
$
•
$
$
8
$
Weekly,
Weekly , Under 45. 00 50. 00 55. 00 6 0 .0 0 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 9 5 .0 0 1100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00
earnings
hours
and
and
(Standard) (Standard) $
under
45. 00 50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00! 90. 00 95. 00 100.001105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 over
i

i

M en
C le r k s , accou n tin g, c la s s A ___________
M anufacturing ________________________
N onm anufacturing ____________________
P u blic u tilitie s 3 ----------------------------

176
61
95
44

39.
39.
39.
40.

0
0
0
0

$107.00
111.00
103.50
108.50

-

C le r k s , accou n tin g, c la s s B ___________
M anufacturing ________________________
N onm anufacturing ------------------------------P u blic u tilitie s 3 ----------------------------

112
49
63
39

39.
39.
39.
40.

0
0
0
0

85.50
93.50
79.00
86.50

_
-

C le r k s , o r d e r ____________________________
N onm anufacturing ____________________

90
76

40. 5
41. 0

84.50
81.00

-

.
-

-

2
2
-

5
2
3
2

-

4
3
1

3
3
2

12
12
6

8
2
6
2

1
1

_

-

-

2
2
-

_

_

1
1

-

4
4

10
10

4
4

1

11
2
9
"

6
4
2
2

27
16
9
1

7
3
4
4

13
— IT "

12
12

__________________________

31

3 9.5

86.50

_

_

2

_

2

_

2

4

5

O ffice b oy s _______________________________
N onm anufacturing ____________________
P u b lic u tilitie s 3 __________________

102
83
26

38. 0
3 7 .5
3 9.5

57.00
56.50
70.00

2
-

44
39
-

19
19
10

9
4
-

5
4
1

4
2
"

-

!
-

16
15
15

T a b u la tin g -m a ch in e o p e r a to r s ,
c la s s A ___________________ ____________

32

39. 0

104.00

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

6

C le r k s , p a y r o ll

13
10
3
-

9
3
6
2
5
!
;
i

16
13
3
3
7
3
4
4

i
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3 |
,
5 !

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7 ;
7
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26
26

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2
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23
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18
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5

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3

6

4
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1
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5

15
6
9
7

1
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4
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12
210
2
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7

4
3
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l

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4
4
-

j

T a b u la tin g-m a ch in e o p e r a to r s ,
c la s s B __________________________________
M anufacturing __________ _____ ______
N onm anufacturing -------------------------------

87
27
60

3 8.5
39. 0
38. 0

89.50
98.50
85.00

-

"

-

-

T a b u la tin g-m a ch in e o p e r a to r s ,
c la s s C —________ _______________________ _

25

38 .0

67.50

-

-

2

34
29

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

i
i 59.50
| 5 0 0
;

1

4
4

39. 0
3 8 .0
3 9 .0

60.00
72.50
55.50

-

38. 0
39 .5
3 7 .5

69.50
74700"
66.00

-

3 9 .0
39. 0 !
3 8.5 !

60.00
67.00
59.00

-

2

1
1

12
2
10

1
1

8
5
3

19
4
15

13
1
12

6
2
4

4
1
3

6
i
5

6
1
5

3
2
1

1
I

5

10

-

-

1

2

3

1

-

1

-

-

!

13
13

6
4

2
2

5
4

_

_

_

_

..

-

-

1
-

1
-

_

-

1
1

_

"

-

-

20
16
- 1 20 | 16

21
3
18

16
6
10

7
5
2

2
1

10
2
8

6
6
■

■

1
1
■

2
2

“

■

-

■

4
4

30
6
24

6
6
~

6
5

6
'1
5

4
3

4
3
1

3
3
■

2
1

1

"

■

1
1

42
42

53
9
44

34
34

16
8
8

2
1
1

2
2

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

2

3
3

i

- i

~

|
" ;

- 1
'

2
2

- i

1
!

1
1
-

W om en
B ille r s , m ach in e (b illin g m ach in e) ------N onm anufacturing ------------------------------B ille r s , m ach in e (book k eep in g
m ach in e) ------------------------------------------------M anufacturing ------------------------------------N onm anufacturing --------- ------- ---------

101
------ 25“
75

B ook k eep in g -m a ch in e o p e r a to r s ,
c la s s A ____________ _____ ____________
M anufacturing ------------------------------------N onm anufacturing _______________ •
____

70
26
42

B ook k eep in g -m a ch in e o p e r a to r s ,
c la s s B __________________________________
M anufacturing ________________________
N onm anufacturing ____________________

215
25
190

1

- !
-

4

!

4

16 !
- !
16 ;

49
4
45

j
See footn otes at end o f ta b le .




1

1

1

_

_

_

.

.

-

-

-

“

-

■

■

“

-

-

■

•

-

-

-

-

-

6
Table A -l. O ffic e O ccupations-M en and W om en—Continued
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Richmond, V a., November 1961)
Average
Sex, occu p a tion , and industry d iv isio n

Number
of
workers

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
W
eekly j Under 45.00 50.00 55.00 60.00 65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00
W
eeklyj
earnings
(Standard) (Standard) $
and
under
45.00
50.00 55.00 60.00 65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 o v e r
i
1

W om en— Continued

C le r k s , accounting, c la s s A ------------------M anufacturing _________________________
N onm anufacturing _____________________

239
28
211

38.5
39.5
38.0

$8 2 .0 0
83.00
81.50

.
-

C le r k s , accou n tin g, c la s s B ------------------M anufacturing _________________________
N onm anufacturing ____________________

618
79
539
161

38.0
39.0
38.0
39.0

68.50
77.50
67.50
76.50

7
7

C le r k s , file , c la s s A 4 ___________________
N onm anufacturing ____________________

95
86

37.5
37.5

71.00
70.50

C le r k s , file , c la s s B 4 ___________________
M anufacturing _________________________
N onm anufacturing ____________________

335
48
287

38.0
39.5
37.5

58.00
66.00
56.50

C le r k s , file , c la s s C 4 ___________________
N onm anufacturing _____________________

96
79

38.5
38.5

51.00
51.00

-

.
_

2
2

11
11

18
1
17

30
9
21

30
1
29

101
5
96

14
4
10

31
31
1

52

69

52
5

69
10

105
5
100
12

102
18
84
24

46
10
36
13

71
17
54
21

75
12
63
46

14
9
5
1

13
1
12 !
8 1
!

2
2
6
6

.
"

3
3

22
22

13
13

4
3

15
10

7
7

22
19

1
1

37
-

86
2
84

89
6
83

65
19
46

21
3
18

18
14
4

8
3
5

1
1
~

-

43
33

16
13

_

"

-

1

.

37

1
! 37
33

"

7
2
5

4
2
2

9
3
6

4
2
2
1

22
2
20
16

5
1
4
3

1 !
1 !

-

4
4

1
1

-

-

2
2

*

2
2

"

■

-

_

'

-

-

-

"

-

-

3

_

6

.

.

1

.
6
3
3

1
1
■

_
-

_
-

.
■

-

-

-

.

-

4

3

■

1
1

8
8

_
1
1
-

1
— z— 1~ I ----[
-

~

-

_

_

!

_

_

-

-

“

-

"

-

-

1
i
!

-

1 -

"

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

_
-

:

‘

’
-------------------------------------------

44

40.0

70.50

_

C le r k s , p a y r o ll ___________________________
M anufacturing _________________________
N onm anufacturing _____________________

158
53
105

38.5
39.0
38.5

75.50
82.50
71.50

-

C om p tom eter o p e r a to r s _________________
M anufacturing _________________________
N onm anufacturing _____________________

148
42
106

39.5
39.5
39.5

D u p lica tin g-m a ch in e o p e r a to r s
(M im eograp h o r D itto) _________________
N onm anufacturing ____________________

29
26

Keypunch o p e r a to r s , c la s s A 4 --------------M anufacturing _________________________
N onm anufacturing _____________________
K eypunch o p e r a to r s , c la s s B 4 --------------N onm anufacturing _____________________

C le r k s , o r d e r

P iih lir u t il it ie s 3

...

........

O ffic e g ir ls ________________________________
N onm anufacturing ____________________




7

1
1

2
1
1

2

8

15

_

18
3
15

28
7
21

24
9
15

18
4
14

14
3
11

11
2
9

17
7
10

5
4
1

1
1

7
4
3

2
2

_

3
3

64.50
63.50
64.50

-

11
5
6

9
2
7

50
16
34

19
6
13

18
1
17

8
3
5

15
1
14

3
1
2

4
4
-

5
2
3

5
1
4

1
1

-

38.5
38.0

64.00
66.00

-

3
3

6
3

1
1

2
2

7
7

1
1

9
9

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

98
40
58

38.5
40.0
37.5

77.00
87.00
70.00

_
-

_
-

_
-

2
1

27
27

12
6
6

7
4
3

11
9
2

3
3
-

3
1
2

5
2
3

6
6
-

2
2
-

4
4
-

_
-

_

1

16
2
14

214
190
82

38.0
38.0
39.0

68.50
69.00
80.50

_
-

3
3

23
21

50
49
18

52
43
10

22
15
6

10
9

3
1

3
1

1
1
1

25
25
25

22
22
22

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

66
62

38.0
38.0

52.50
52.50

1
1

35
33

15
i 15

8
7

2
1

i
j

!
I

See foo tn o te s at end o f table.

_

2

_

i

1
1

4
4

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

7
Table A -l. O ffic e O ccupations-M en and W om en—Continued
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Richmond, V a ., November 1961)
Average
Sex, occu p a tion , and in d u stry d iv isio n

Number
of
workers

W eekly,
hours 1
(Standard)

N U M B E R OF W O R K E R S R E C E IV IN G ST R A IG H T -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S OF—

Weekly , Under
earnings 1
(Standard) $

45.00

$
$
$
45.00 50.00 *55.00 *60.00 *65.00 *70.00 *75.00 80.00 *85.00 *90.00 *95.00 100.00 *05.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 f 35.00
and
and
under
50.00 55.00 60.00 65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 over
l

W om en— Continued
S e c r e t a r ie s _______________________________
M anufacturin g _________________________
N onm anufacturing _____________________
P u b lic u tilitie s 1 ___________________
3
2

875
350
525
121

39.0
39.5
38.5
39.5

$85.50
89.50
83.00
98.50

-

-

6
3
3
-

25
25
5

71
23
48
4

65
11
54
2

56
6
50
10

84
28
56
6

111
38
73
7

119
64
55
7

142
88
54
9

50
26
24
9

41
28
13
9

27
15
12
6

20
3
17
12

24
3
21
16

14
3
11
11

4
_
4
4

6
4
2
2

10
7
3
2

S ten ogra p h ers, g e n e r a l45
M anufacturing _________________________
N onm anufacturing _____________________
P u b lic u tilitie s 3 ___________________

574
218
356
116

39.0
39.5
38.0
40.0

74.00
74.00
73.50
92.50

8
8
-

3
3
-

18
9
9
-

37
10
27
6

117
19
98
9

81
24
57
5

86
38
48
1

69
62
7
2

34
30
4
-

21
19
2
2

19
5
14
13

36
36
35

33
33
33

9
2
7
7

1
1
1

2
2
2

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
“

S ten ogra p h ers, s e n i o r 4 _________________
M anufacturin g _________________________
N onm anufacturing -------------------------------P u b lic u tilitie s 3 ___________________

216
70
146
50

38.5
39.5
38.5
39.0

82.00
86.00
80.00
86.00

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

18
5
13
-

40
8
32
10

23
7
16
4

36
9
27
10

32
17
15
8

10
1
9
3

9
1
8
3

8
4
4
“

11
5
6
-

6
4
2
-

15
3
12
12

5
5
-

1
1
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

2
2
-

S w itch boa rd o p e r a t o r s ___________________
N onm anufacturing _____________________
P u b lic u tilitie s 3 -----------------------------

146
122
30

40.5
41.0
40.0

64.00
61.00
80.00

14
514

12
12

18
18
1

13
13
2

33
33
4

11
6
3

6
4
3

14
4
2

5
2
1

1
1
1

10
8
8

4
4
3

1
-

2
2
2

1
1
-

1
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

S w itch boa rd o p e r a t o r -r e c e p t io n is t s ____
M anufacturin g _________________________
N onm anufacturing --------------------------------

128
48
80

39.5
39.5
39.5

63.50
66.00
62.00

_
■

_
■

23
4
19

21
6
15

34
16
18

22
8
14

11
4
7

9
6
3

7
3
4

1
1
“

_
■

_
■

_
_

_
■

_
•

_
- ,
-

_

■

_
-

-

_
-

T a b u la tin g-m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c la s s B ----------------------------------------------------N onm anufacturing _____________________

79
70

38.0
38.0

73.50
73.00

-

-

-

8
8

25
19

6
6

20
20

1
-

-

5
3

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

8
8

-

-

6
6

-

-

-

-

-

-

T a b u la tin g-m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c la s s C ___________________________________
N onm anufacturing _____________________

51
47

36.5
36.0

60.00
60.50

-

4
4

13
10

6
5

10
10

14
14

3
3

1
1

-

-

"

-

■

■

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

“

T r a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
g en era l __________________________________
M anufacturin g _________________________
N onm anufacturing _____________________

104
25
79

39.0
40.0
39.0

63.50
63.50
63.50

-

29
8
21

14
1
13

15
1
14

24
9
15

5
2
3

8
4
4

6
6

"

-

3
3

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

-

-

T y p is ts , c la s s A _________________________
M anufacturing _________________________
N onm anufacturing _____________________
P u b lic u tilitie s 3 ___________________

214
39
175
31

37.0
38.5
37.0
38.5

66.50
75.00
65.00
69.00

.
-

_
-

8
3
5
-

34
1
33
9

85
4
81
6

27
5
22
5

22
5
17
5

14
4
10
2

15
11
4
1

4
4
-

_
-

_
-

3
2
1
1

2
2
2

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

_
-

_

-

-

_
_
-

T y p is ts , c la s s B _________________________
M anufacturing -------------------------------------N onm anufacturing _____________________
P u b lic u tilitie s 3 ___________________

485
87
398
46

38.0
39.0
37.5
40.0

58.00
63.50
56.50
67.50

1
1

71
2
69

107
9
98
11

167
17
150
18

69
23
46
2

31
18
13
2

13
9
4

6
3
3
1

8
6
2

1
1
1

6
6
6

4
4
4

1
1
1

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

_

_

_
_

1
2
3
4
5

-

-

Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
Workers were distributed as follows: 3 at $ 135 to $ 145; 4 at $ 145 to $ 155; 3 at $ 155 and over.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Description for this job has been revised since the last survey in this area. See appendix A.
Workers were distributed as follows: 4 at $ 25 to $ 30; 4 at $ 30 to $ 35; 6 at $ 35 to $4 0 .




_
_

_

-

;

_
_

_

8
Table A -2. Professional and Technical Occupations-M en and W om en
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Richmond, Va., November 1961)
A verage

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of

N U M B E R OF W O RK ER S R E C E IV IN G S T R A IG H T -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S OF-

Weekly . Under
earnings 1
(Standard) $

Weeklv
hours1
(Standard)

65.00

$

$

$

65.00 70.00
and
under
70.00 75.00

75.00

$

80.00

80.00

85.00

s

9

85.00

90.00

90.00

95.00

$
$
$
$
is
9 5 . 0 0 ( 1 0 0 . 0 0 105.00 110.00 1 1 5 . 0 0 j l 2 0 . 0 0

110.00 115.00

1 0 0 .0 0 il0 5 .0 0
i

$
$
125.00 1 3 0 . 0 0

i$

$

$

|
$

1 3 5 . 0 0 ( 1 4 0 . 0 0 145.00 150.00
and
- 1
- !
1 3 5 . 0 0 j 1 4 0 . 0 0 ! 1 4 5 . 0 0 '150.00 over
130.00

■
!
1 2 0 .0 0 ll2 5 .0 0

i

l

Men
|
Draftsmen, senior ______________________
Manufacturing ________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________
Public utilities 1 ---------------------------2

144
94
50
45

40.0
40.0
40.0
40.0

126.50
123.50
1 132.00
j 132.50
$

1

I----- ^------- :
-

:

1

-

"

;
'

-

|

-

-

i
I

1
1

1 2
! 2
2

!

:
;

|

-

i

133
116

40.0
40.0

81.50
78.50

11
11

1

20
19

20
19

1
2

! io

i!

16
15

26
25

2
2

6
5
1
i 1

13

;

;
i

i

!
Draftsmen, junior _______________________
Manufacturing ________________________

!
,
!

i

12

i
1

13
12

1

!

3

3
!

!
|

100.00
101.50

2
2

!
i

4

3
"

2

!
1
i

14
1
13
9

! 26
' 20
1 6
:
5

19

io !
9 i

“

i

!

2 '

_

9 !
|

!
|

8
6

i
__________i_______
1

4
2

11
9

19
12
7
7

j

-

1

:

j

7
2
5
5

3
!
|
j 3
3

6
4

i
I
|

6
5

1

4
i

j_____ - ____i
!
;
1

2
2

!
i
1

5
5

6
6

'----------- ------------ i----------- i

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
2 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.

i

;

1

;
i

-

_
:

1
!
!

1

I

1

i
i

j

|

4
3




!
;
(

i

I
j

39.5
40.0

:
5
9 1 4
1 i 1
l
! 1

io

!

i

61
48

17
17
-

1

Women
N urses, industrial (registered) -----------Manufacturing ________________________

1
!
;

2 !
2 |

9
Table A-3. O ffice, Professional, and Technical Occupations-Men and Women Combined
(A verage straigh t-tim e w eekly earnings fo r s elected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division , Richm ond, V a ., N ovem ber 1961)

O ccupation and industry division

Number
of

Average
weekly
earnings 1
(Standard)

40
35

$62.00
60.00

107
26
81

60.50
72.50
56.50

B ook keeping-m ach ine o p e r a to r s , c la s s A
M anufacturing __________________________
N onm anufacturing ______________________

70
28
42

69.50
74.00
66.00

B ook keeping-m ach ine o p e r a to r s , c la s s B
M anufacturing __________________________
N onm anufacturing ---------------------------------

223
27
196

60.50
67.00
59.50

C lerk s, accounting, cla s s A
M anufacturing ___________
N onm anufacturing _______
P u blic u tilities 2 --------

415
109
306
160

92.50
104.00
88.50
92.00

C lerk s, accounting, c la s s B
M anufacturing ___________
N onm anufacturing ----------P u blic u tilities 2 --------

730
128
602
200

71.00
83.50
68.50
78.50

C lerk s, file , c la s s A 3
N onm anufacturing _
P u blic u t ilit ie s 2

109
100
46

77.50
77.50
94.50

C lerk s, file , c la s s B 3
M anufacturing ____
N onm anufacturing _

349
48
301

58.50
66.00
57.50

C lerk s, file , cla s s C 3
N onm anufacturing _

98
81

51.00
51.00

B ille r s , m achine (bookkeeping m achine)
M anufacturing ________________________
N onm anufacturing ____________________

C lerk s, o rd e r ______
M anufacturing ---Nonm anufacturing
C lerk s, pa y roll -----------M anufacturing --------Nonm anufacturing —

Number
of

Average
weekly
earnings 1
(Standard)

O ccupation and industry division

47
29

$ 97.50
91.00

T abulating-m achine o p era tors, cla ss B ---------------M anufacturing ----------------------------------------------------N onm anufacturing ----------------------------------------------P u blic u tilities 2 ----------------------------------------------

166
36
130
43

82.00
94.00
78.50
82.00

77.00
86.50
70.00

T abulating-m achine o p era tors, cla s s C ................. .
Nonm anufacturing ______________________________

76
65

62.50
60.00

217
193
82

68.50
69.00
80.50

T ra n scrib in g-m a ch in e o p era tors, general -----------M anufacturing ___________________________________
Nonm anufacturing ______________________________

107
25
82

63.50
63.50
63.50

O ffice boys and g irls
Nonmanufacturing
P u blic utilities 2

168
145
43

55.50
54.50
66.50

T yp ists, c la s s A -----------------------------------------------------M anufacturing ..................................-....................... —
Nonmanufacturing ______________________________
P u b lic u tilities 2 ______________________________

217
39
178
34

67.00
75.00
65.50
71.50

S e cre ta rie s ---------------Manufacturing ___
Nonmanufacturing
P u blic u tilit ie s 2

904
350
554
150

87.00
89.50
85.00
103.00

T yp ists, c la s s B -----------------------------------------------------M anufacturing ...............................................................
Nonmanufacturing ........................................................
P u blic u t ilit ie s 2 ---------------------------------- -----------

494
89
405
53

58.00
63.50
57.00
68.50

Stenographers, g e n e r a l3
Manufacturing ______
Nonmanufacturing ---P u blic u t ilit ie s 2 ...

600
218
382
142

75.00
74.00
75.50
94.50

P ro fe s s io n a l and technical occupations

Stenographers, senior 3
Manufacturing _____
Nonmanufacturing ..
P u blic utilities 2 _

218
71
147
51

82.00
86.00
80.50
86.50

D raftsm en, sen ior _________________________________
M anufacturing ___________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ______________________________
P u blic u tilities 2 ______________________________

145
94
51
46

126.00
123.50
131.50
131.50

147
25

30

64.00
78.50
61.00
80.00

D raftsm en, junior __________________________________
M anufacturing ___________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ______________________________
P u blic u tilities 2 ______________________________

143
116
27
27

81.50
78.50
94.00
94.00

128
48
80

63.50
66.00
62.00

N u rses, industrial (re g is te re d ) ----------------------------M anufacturing -----------------------------------------------------

61
48

100.00
101.50

$ 64 .50
64.00
64.50

D uplicating-m achine o p e ra to rs
(M im eograph or Ditto) --------Nonmanufacturing --------------

46
33

65.50
63.00

Keypunch op e ra to rs, cla ss A 3
M anufacturing ____________
Nonmanufacturing -------------

99
41
58

Keypunch op e ra to rs, cla ss B 3
Nonmanufacturing ------------P u b lic u tilities 2 ------------

98

77.50

189
75
114

77.00
83.50
73.00

Switchboard operator -re ce p tio n is ts
Manufacturing __________________
Nonmanufacturing ----------------------

80.00

86.00

122

1 Earnings are fo r a regu lar w orkw eek fo r w hich em ployees re ce iv e their straigh t-tim e w eekly sa la rie s , e xclu sive o f any prem iu m pay.
2 T ran sp ortation, com m u nication, and other public utilities.
3 D escrip tion fo r this jo b has been re v ise d since the last survey in this area. See appendix A.




earnings 1
(Standard)

T abulating-m achine o p era tors, cla s s A ---------------Nonmanufacturing ______________________________

157
47
110

C om ptom eter o p erators
Manufacturing --------Nonmanufacturing ...

Switchboard o p erators
Manufacturing ____
Nonmanufacturing .
P u blic utilities 2

134

N ber
um
of

O ffice occupations— Continued

O ffice occupations— Continued

O ffic e occupations
B ille r s , m achine (billin g m achine)
Nonm anufacturing ---------------------

O ccupation and industry division

10
Table A -4. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Richmond, Va. , November 1961)

Number
of
workers

O ccupation and industry d ivision

s
8
S
Average Under •
1. 10 1. 20 1.30
hourly ^
and
earnings | $
under
1 . 10
1.20 1. 30 1.40

96
C a rp en ters, m aintenance --------------------$ 2.69
2.7 4
M anufacturing ----------------------------------69
Nonmanufacturing - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 27 - - - - 2. - 57
- -

- E le c tr ic ia n s , m aintenance - - - - - - - - - - - -222 - 200

52

1.88
1.98
1.62

■

■

1

1

S

-

-

-

2
2

j
-

7
5
2

-

-

5
5

6 1:
6

_ _ 72_ _ _ 2. 51
_ _

F irem en , stationary b o ile r ____________
M anufacturing ______________________
Nonmanufacturing __________________

191

2 12
12

2. 19

4

H elp ers, m aintenance trades _________
M anufacturing _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Nonmanufacturing __________ __________

_ 130_ _ _ 2. 18 _ _
_
_ _

M achinists, m aintenance ______________
M anufacturing _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

8
6
2

■
13
12

1

7
6

. !
i

1
1

7
4
3
5
3
2

-

11
9
2

-

"

“

-

4
3
1

6 !
5
1

6
2
4

1

4
3

2. 22

239

-

-

i

|

4
4 1

'
!

6

8 i
48 i

12 :
12 !

8
8

|

6
6

_ !

i
i
_ 1
I
8 i
8

i
•

5
5 i

- 1

2.96

4

2 i
,
i
2 i
3

_ 235_ _ _ 2.96 _ _
_
_ _

61

i

2i
2 i

12

j

i
|
i
i

"

250_ _ _ 2.36 _
_
_ _
2. 30
43
2. 37
207
157 _ _ _ 2 _.45
_

_ __
_
"

_
_
“

_
_
_

2
2

"

_
_
_
■

■

-

12

_

12 1
"

10
2
8
1

_

11 I
6
5
5

9
l
8
8

25 !
3 !
22 :
9

33
5
28
28

i
I
!
ji

27
1
26

3 !
2 I

8
7

5 i
3 !

i

4 '

-i
i

4
i

6
6

;

S
1

_

10
2 29

i

8

11

1

!

52
i i 52
o

|

14i
13

3
8
3

7
6

!

_

-

“

_

_

“

"

23
23

83
80

!

-

_
_
_

1

20
20

52
52

12
12

45
4
41
41

27

19

27
27

19 1
7

39
38

95
95

22

4

j

i

4
3

1

22

!
16 1
15

2
2

.

2 i

4

7
6

27
27

!

12

1

2

_

82
81

-

11
1
10

88

: |88

[
10

j

7 ,

12

3 i
3 ;

12
2
9 !

11
6

|
M echanics, autom otive
(m aintenance) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
M nnfa c. turing
a
__ _ _ _ ______
_
Nnnmarmfarturing
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Public u tilities 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

1

1

!

2. 54

98
70
28

■

NUMBER O WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
F
s
8
$
%
s
s
S
S
1. 50 *1.60 j °1 . 7 0 1.80 *1.90 | 00 S2. 10 2. 20 2 .30 2.40 2. 50 *2. 60 2. 70 2. 80 2 .9 0 *3. 00 $3. 10 *3. 20 3. 30 *3.40
b2.
_
and
j
1.50 1. 60 J_..70 1 1.80 JLSO 2.0 0 L.2J J 0 2. 20 _2._30 .2 .4 0 2. 50 . 2, 60 _ 2 ,7 0 2j_8_0 2 .9 0 _3._00 _3i_10 .3.-.20 3. 30 3 .4 0 ov er
!
i
1
!
5
1
1
2
3 | i
4
3
1
38
1
l
1 i
2
n
9
i
? i
!
4
2
1
- j
l
6
4
28
1
i
3
u
3
1
1
1
l
10
3 !
23
“
■
“ 1
■ |
■

1.40

2.97
2. 96

E n gin eers, stationary _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
M anufacturing ----------------------------------

-

S

2
2

' !

_

- 1

20
20

-

!

1I

_

"

1

_
_
_

_
_

-

■

j

M echanics, m aintenance ______________
Manufacturing ----------------------------------O ilers ___________________________________
Manufacturing -----------------------------------

416
391
82
81

2.8 0
2.79

16
16
2
2

1.93
1.93

i
11
- - - - -I
1 1

3

5
4

8
8r

4
4

5
5

-

6
6

6
6

1

5
5

20
17

20
20

16
16

2

4

36
36

6
6

1 1

7

"

-

■

3
2

10
10

-

18
18

-

j

147
131

-

-

-

-

18
18

-

-

-

■

-

-

■

.

6
6

1
P a in ters, m aintenance _________________
M anufacturing ----------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ----------------------------

90
65
25

2. 54
2 .8 0
1.88

P ip efitters, m aintenance ______________
M anufacturing -----------------------------------

99
98

3. 05
3. 05

i

ii

2

-

-

"

-

-

- !

i1 1

2

-

-

"

; -

'

1
-

i

44
44

3. 06
3. 06

- ;
--------- 1______ i

Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts,
Workers were distributed as follows: 5 at $ 0. 90 to $ 1; 7 at $ 1 to $ 1. 10.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.




4

_

_

.

!

"

.
_ t

-

"

i

-

' 1 i

-

1

.

_

_

■

■

-

-

-

1

1

'

■

1

i

Sheet-m etal w ork e rs,
m aintenance ----------------------------------------M anufacturing ______________________

2

1

.

-

-

1

-

2
2

1
1

_

3
2

-

1

_

"

-

2
2

-

20
20

7
7

_

40
39
1

4
4

1

75
75

.

.

.

-

"

"

28
28

7
7

-

-

■

-

-

'

11
Table A -5. Custodial and M aterial Movement Occupations
(A verage straigh t-tim e h ou rly earnings lo r se le cte d occupations studied on an a rea basis
by industry div isio n , Richm ond, Va. , N ovem ber 1961)
NUM BER OF W ORKERS R E CEIVING ST R AIG H T-TIM E H OURLY EARN ING S OF—

Num
ber
of
workers

O ccupation 1 and industry d iv isio n

E levator o p e r a to r s , p a sse n g e r
(w o m e n )_________ _______ _____ ___ ____ _
N onm anufacturing -------- __ ------------

39
37

$ 0 .8 5
.83

6
6

Guards ________ ____

__

99

2. 31

_

Ja n itors, p o r t e r s , and cle a n e rs
(m en) ______ __________________________
M anufacturing _______________________
Nonm anufacturing ___________________
P u blic u tilit ie s 4 __________________

920
430
490
97

1.45
1. 67
1. 26
1.67

12
12
~

Ja n itors, p o r t e r s , and cle a n e rs
(wom en) ________________________________
M anufacturing _______________________
N onm anufacturing _____ __ ____ __

226
66
160

1. 24
1.33
1.20

L a b o r e r s , m a te r ia l handling _________
M anufacturing _______________________
N onm anufacturing ------------- -----------P u blic u t ilit ie s 4 ------------ ------------

1,243
724
519
163

O rd er fille r s
_ _
M anufacturing
__ __
__ ____ __
N onm anufacturing -----------------------------

0 .9 0

$
s
s
s
$
s
3
1
S
S
s
S
$
3
,$
s
s
5
$
l 00 1. 10 1. 20 1.30 1.40 1. 50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2.00 *2. 10 2. 20 2. 30 2.40 2. 50 2.60 2.70 2.80
and

1.00

l 10 1.20

■

-

_

_

33
33
“

19
19
■

3
3
■

1
1
“

“

4
4

“

■

1.61
1. 66
1. 55
1.95

_

_

-

-

-

-

_
■

-

"

"

288
75
213

1.77
2.01
1.69

_
"

.
“

_
-

P a c k e r s , shipping _________ __ __ ____
____ __
____
M anufacturing
N onm anufacturing ___________________

145
75
70

1.51
1.74
1. 26

_
■

_
"

R eceiv in g cle r k s __________________
M anufacturing _______________________
N onm anufacturing _____ — __ __ __

93
50
43

2.05
2. 26
1.81

.

.

_

____

______

15
15

1.30 _L4_0_

©

s
•
5
$
Average
hourly , 0. 50 0.60 0 .7 0 0.8 0
earnings
and
under
.6 0
.8 0
.70
.9 0

_JL6.Q_ _Lt.20_ . i , 8 0 . 1.90 JLJLQ-. _2t.10_ 2. 20 2. 30 2.4 0
!
1

5
5

8
6

4
4

1

.

!

2

4

54
54
~

115
10
105
"

135

-

53
53

77
36
41

32
13
19

15
15

23
3
20 |

_
-

11
11
"

261
104
157
"

179
55
124
20

70
57
13
1

.
■

“

.
“

2
2
"

42
2
40

_
"

_
"

_
"

_
"

18
18

34
1
33

_

_

_

_

1

_

"

“

74
53

2.04
2. 13

Shipping and re c e iv in g cle r k s _________
M anufacturing _______________________

53
30

"

■

”

"

“

7

7

4

.

8

.

3 33

49
44'
5
4

27
1
26
25

9
9
■

26
26
"

■

■

_
~

■

“

3
3
“

11
4
7

■

~

1
1
“

"

"

■

-

-

19
18

136
134
2
2

38
33
5
5

124
24
100
100

49
49
■

55
52
3
"

_
■

_
“

_
-

_
-

_
-

4
4
"

1
1
"

21
21
"

12
12

.
"

5
5
“

59
59

2
2

22
22
"

.
"

_
"

_
"

8
8

j
1

_
-

1
1

2
2

8
8

6
6

3
3

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

3
3

10
10

3
3
“

7
6
1

!
1
“

4
4
"

!
1
~

9
7
2

14
8
6

1
"

.
■

6
6

17
16
1

_
“

7
1

4
“

11
11

7
7

5
5

8
7

7
7

13
7

4
4

2
2

_
•

2
2

■

17
11

2
2

5
"

_

_

“

9
8

.

■

4
3

!

“

3
3

4
"

4
“

4
3

68
30
38
24

33
29
4
1

30
19
11
7

183
6
177
165

40
16
24
5

29
11
18
8

100
11
89
86

184
2
182
68

.
-

4
4

_
-

-

-

97
97
97

■

■

“

“

~

2

2

_

7

10

11

53
98
84 r i r i
14
21
3
7

17
8
9
7

1
1

-

-

30
24
6
“

89 1 143
77 ! 131
12
12
10
7

6
6
"

52

37
1
36

45
5
40

21
1
20

15
11
4

15
3
12

29
28
1

17
11
6

T ru ck d riv e rs 5 ______ __
___
___ __
M anufacturing
____ ______________
N onm anufacturing
_ ____ ____ __
Pu blic u tilities 4 __________________

1,264
297
967
466

1.83
r ? r
1.88
2. 19

"

~

"

“

"

1

8

7

_

4
3

8

7

_

_

_

_

_

_

"

1

4

_

_

73
9

94
37^
57
11

71
27
44
29

6
5
1

2. 14
2. 12




"

■

1

i

Shipping cle r k s --------------------------------------M anufacturing _______________________

See footn otes at end o f table.

2. 50 2. 60 .2^70 _2«_8J0_ -Q-Y.gr

.
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

_
-

1
1

5
5

86
11
75

218
58
160

45
19
26

49
9
40

65
46
19
4

64
40
37 T T
2
3
1
1

"
27
26
1
1

_

~

_

-

12
Table A -5. Custodial and M aterial Movement Occupations—Continued
(A verage straigh t-tim e hourly earnings fo r s e le cte d occupations studied on an area basis
by industry d ivision , Richm ond, V a., N ovem ber 1961)

O ccu p a tion 1 and industry division

Number
of
workers

NUMBEli OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF
s
$
S
$
$
%
s
s
s
s
$
is
s , S
S
$
S
s
Average s
hourly , 0.50 0.60 0.70 *0.80 *0.90 1.00 1.10 1.20 "l.30 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2.00 | 2.10 2.20 2.30 *2.40 2.50 2.60 2.70 2.80
and
earnings
and
under
.60
,70
.80
.90 1.00 1.10 1,20 1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2.00 _2.10 2.20 2.30 2.40 2.50 _2,60_ 2.70 2.80 o v e r
l
!
|

T ru ck d riv ers: 5— Continued
!
I

T ru ck d riv e rs , light
(under 1 l /z tons) ----------------------------

249

$1.93

-

-

-

-

1

3

13

19

7

26

6

13

T r u ck d riv e rs , m edium ( 1V2
to and including 4 tons) ----------------M anufacturing -----------------------------Nonm anufacturing ----------------------P u b lic u tilities 4 ---------------------

625
188
437
261

1.73
1.62
1.77
2.11

■

“

~

-

i -

38
11
27
"

134
25
109

28
16
12
“

20
9
11

-

2
2
"

58
46
12
4

42
13
29
24

Truckdrivers, heavy (over 4
tons, trailer type) -------------------------Nonmanufacturing ----------------------Public utilities4 _____________

250
227
203

2.18
2.22
2.29

-

-

-

-

-

6
6

3
3

3
3

1
1

9
-

.
-

.
"

_
-

.
-

1
1

.
-

3
j

i
26 !
25 !
1
■

5

1 12

17 i 91 !
6 ;
11 !
6 ! 85
5

8
5

12

7

5

116

-

-

2
1
1
1

“

-

-

3
3
-

20
20
20

■

1

!

16
11 1
5
5

7
2 !
5
5

j
55 ! 66 1
i
9 1 - 1
66 :
46
;
46 | 66 |
1

10
7
~

8
7
3

40
40
40

■

1
“

"

■

77
77
77

-

14
14
_ s!

5
5

58
58
-

6
6

7
7

_
~

19
19
■

6
6

.
-

13
13

30
30

3
3

-

-

-

-

-

i

i
'
;

i

Truckers, power (forklift) ------------------Manufacturing ______________________
Nonmanufacturing ----------------------------

319
255
64

1.81
1.82
1.76

.
"

Watchmen _______________________________
Manufacturing ---------------------------------Nonmanufacturing __________________

186
122
64

1.56
1.74
1.20

4
4

-

-

-

.
"

3
2
1

25
23
2

4
4

12
12

34
13
21

17
12
5

!

26
25

19
19

1

9 1 14
n
9

5

3

i
|

1
2
3
4
5

Data lim ited to m en w o rk e rs except w here otherw ise indicated.
E xcludes prem iu m pay fo r ov e rtim e and fo r w ork on w eekends, holidays, and late shifts.
A ll w ork ers w ere at $2.9 0 to $3 .
Tran sportation, com m unication, and other public utilities.
Includes all d r iv e r s r e g a rd le s s o f size and type of truck operated.




80
80
80

41
17
41
9
8 !

68
56
12

2

5
3
2

_
■

13
12

4
4

13
13

4
1 1
1

8

2

|
14
9

5

1
1

-

|




B* Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Table B-l. Shift Differentials
(Shift differentials of manufacturing plant workers by type and amount of differential,
Richmond, V a ., November 1961)
Percent of manufacturing plant workersShift differential

In establishments having formal
provisions 1 for—
Second shift
work

Third or other
shift work

Actually working on—
Second shift

Third or other
shift

Total .............................................. ............. ..............—

74.9

51.8

14.5

5.8

With shift pay differential ____________________

73.1

51.8

14.3

5.8

Uniform cents (per hour) __________________
4 cents ___________________________________
5 cents __________________________ ________
6 cents ----------------------------------------------------7 cents ___________________________________
8 cents ___________ _______________________
10 cents _________ _____ _________________
12 cents _________________________________
I 2 V2 cents ______ ______ _____ ___________
1 3 V3 cents ______________________________
15 cents _________________________________
16 cents __________________ _____ _________
20 cents _________________________________
25 cents --------------------------------------------------

31.0
2.6
10.4
1.8
_
5.6
1.4
1.8
2.1
1.5
3.7

23.7
_
1.1
.9
1.0
1.8
4.3
7.4
_

6.0
.3
2.0
.4
_
1.5
.1
.3
.2
.5
.8
-

2.5
_
.3
_
.2
.3
.3
1.3

-

-

Uniform percentage -------- ---------------------------8 percent ------------- ----------------------------------10 percent -----------------------------------------------

41.0
24.4
16.6

8.2
4.6
3.6

3.3

-

-

Other formal pay differential --------------------

1.8

28.1
-

28.1

_
_

(1
2)
.1
_

-

3.3

1.1

No shift pay differential —-------------------------------

2.1
1.5
2.3
1.4

.3

1 Includes establishments currently operating late shifts, and establishments with formal provisions
even though they were not currently operating late shifts.
2 Less than 0.05 percent.

covering late shifts

14
Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salaries for Women Office Workers
(Distribution of establishments studied in all industries and in industry divisions by minimum entrance salary for selected categories
of inexperienced women office workers, Richmond, V a ., November 1961)
In e xp e rie n ce d typists

M inim um w eek ly s a l a r y 1

Other in e x p e r ie n c e d c le r i c a l w o rk e rs 2

N onm anufacturing

M anufacturing

A ll
sch edu les

A ll
sch ed u les

40

N onm anuf ac tur i ng

M anufacturin g

B a sed on standard w eekly hours 3 of-

A ll
in d u strie s

B a sed on standard w eek ly hours 3 o f -

A ll
industrie s

37V 2

A ll
sch ed u les

40

A ll
s ch ed u les

40

37 V 2

40

122

47

XXX

75

XXX

XXX

122

47

XXX

75

XXX

XXX

51

18

13

33

9

17

49

16

14

33

10

17

$ 40. 00 and under $ 42. 50 ------------------------------------------ —
$ 42. 50 and under $ 45. 00 ________________________________
$ 4 5 ,0 0 and under $ 47. 50 ________________________________
$ 4 7 . 50 and under $ 50. 00 ________________________________
$ 50. 00 and under $ 52. 00 ________________________________
$ 52. 50 and under $ 55. 00 _ _____________________ _____
$ 5 5 . 00 and under $ 5 7 . 50 ________________________________
$ 57. 50 and under $ 60. 00 _____________________ _________
$ 60. 00 and under $ 62. 50 _ --------------------------------- -------$ 62. 50 and under $ 65. 00 _______ ______________________
$ 65. 00 and under $ 67. 50 ________________________________
$ 67. 50 and under $ 70. 00 ______________ _____ ________
O ver $ 7 0 .0 0 ______________________________________________

2
1
11
4
13
6
3
3
3
1
2
2

_
1
3
1
4
1
1
2
3
1
1
-

_
3
1
3
1
2
1
1
_
1
-

2
8
3
9
5
2
1
-

_
3
2
2
2
-

-

-

-

1
2
1
_
1
-

2
3
10
3
7
3
1
1
_
_
1
2

_
2
5
1
2
_
-

-

2
4
14
3
11
5
1
2
2
1
_
2
2

_
4
3
2

1
2

2
1
_
6
3
1
1
_
_
1
2

_
1
4
_
4
2
1
2
1
_
1
-

2
1
1
2
5
1
1
1
_
_
1
2

E stab lish m en ts having no s p e c ifie d m in im um --------------------

13

2

XXX

11

XXX

XXX

19

5

XXX

14

XXX

XXX

E stab lish m en ts w hich did not e m p lo y w o rk e rs
in this c a te g o r y ____________________________________________

58

27

XXX

31

XXX

XXX

54

26

XXX

28

XXX

XXX

E stab lish m en ts studied --------------------------------------------------------E stab lish m en ts having a s p e c ifie d m in im um

---------------------

-

-

-

-

Lowest salary rate form ally established for hiring inexperienced workers for typing or other clerical jobs.
Rates applicable to m essengers, office girls, or sim ilar subclerical jobs are not considered.
Hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries. Data are presented for all workweeks combined, and for the most common workweeks reported.




15
Table B-3. Scheduled W eekly Hours
(P e r c e n t distribu tion of o ffic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u strie s and in in du stry d iv isio n s b y scheduled w eek ly h ou rs
o f f ir s t -s h ift w o r k e r s , R ichm ond, V a ., N o ve m b e r 1961)
PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS
W eek ly h ou rs
All industries1

A ll w o r k e r s

____________________________________

35 h ou rs -------------------------------------------------------------3 6 x/4 h ou rs -------------------------- ----------------------- —
36V3 h ou rs --------------------------------------------------------36V 2 h ou rs --------------------------------------------------------________________________________ —
3 7 V2 h ou rs
O v er 37V 2 and under 40 h o u rs -----------------------40 h ou rs --------------- -------------------------------------------O v e r 40 and under 44 h ou rs ---------------------------44 h ou rs ________________________________________
45 h ou rs ________________________________________
O v er 45 and under 48 h o u rs ---------------------------48 h ou rs ________________________________________
Over 48 hours __________________________________

1
2
3
4

Manufacturing

100

100

4
11
3
2
23
7
50
( 4)
1
( 4)
( 4)

Public utilities 1
2

100

All industries 3

Manufacturing

100

100

100

3
4

( 4)
-

( 4)

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
73
5
3
5
2
7
4

2
81
2
1
7
4
3

79
11
8
2

10
1
80
1
2

36
-

64
-

-

-

-

-

In clu d es data f o r w h o le s a le tra d e ; re ta il tra d e ; fin a n ce, in su ra n ce , and r e a l estate; and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in du stry d iv isio n s shown sep a ra tely.
T ra n sp o rta tio n , co m m u n ica tio n , and oth er pu b lic u tilitie s.
In clu des data f o r w h o le s a le trad e, re ta il tra d e , re a l estate, and s e r v ic e s in addition to th ose in du stry d iv isio n s shown se p a ra te ly.
L e s s than 0.5 p e r c e n t.




Public utilities 2

-

-

16
Table B-4. Paid Holidays
(P e r c e n t distribu tion o f o ffic e and plant w o rk e rs in all in d u stries and in industry div isio n s by num ber o f paid h olid ays
p ro v id e d annually, R ichm ond, V a ., N ovem ber 1961)
PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS
Item
All industries1

A ll w o rk e rs

____________________________________

W ork ers in establish m en ts providin g
paid h olid ays _________________________________
W o rk e rs in establish m en ts p rovidin g
no paid holid ays ---------------------------------------------

M
anufacturing

Public utilities 1
2
3

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

97

100

100

"

3

-

N um ber o f d a y s
L e s s than
5 h olid ays
5 holid ays
6 h olid ays
6 holid ays
6 h olid ays
7 h olid ays
7 h olid ays
8 holid ays
8 h olid ays

5 holid ays __________________________
........................... ............................ .............
plus 1 half day ____________________
______________________________________
plus 1 half day ------------------------------plus 2 half days ................ ....................
................ ........................ — ------- -----------plus 1 half day ____________________
.....................................................................
plus 1 half day -------------------------------

1
5
1
31
6
(4 )
26
2
22
6

4
2
3
24
11
1
20
33
-

.
-

8
57
35

9
6
1
29
2
1
36
14
_

7
(4 )
-

8
-

21
2
51
19
-

20
47
25
-

19
19
72
72
93
93
93
95
99
100
100

25
25
72
72
92
92
92
92
92
100
100

T o ta l h o l i d a y t im e 5
8V2 days ________________________________________
8 o r m o r e days ......................... ................. ...............
7V2 o r m o r e days ______________________________
7 o r m o re days ________________________________
6 V2 o r m o r e days ............................ .........................
6 o r m o re days ________________________________
5V2 o r m o r e days ...................... ..............................
5 o r m o r e days ................ ..........................................
4 o r m o r e days ________________________________
3 o r m o r e days ________________________________
2 o r m o r e days ________________________________
1 o r m o r e days ________________________________

6
28
29
55
61
92
93
99
100
100
100
100

.

33
33
54
66
90
93
96
100
100
100
100

35
35
92
92
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

_

14
14
51
52
81
82
88
90
93
95
97

1 Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
2 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
3 Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
4 Less than 0.5 percent.
5 All combinations of full and half days that add to the same amount are combined; for example, the proportion of workers receiving a total of 7 days includes those
half days, 6 full days and 2 half days, 5 full days and 4 half days, and so on. Proportions were then cumulated.




with 7 full days and no

17
Table B-5. Paid Vacations
(P e r c e n t d istribution o f o ffic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u strie s and in in d u stry d iv isio n s by va ca tion pay
p r o v is io n s , R ichm ond, V a ., N ovem ber 1961)
O F FICE W O R K E R S

PLAN T W O RK ERS

Vacation policy
All industries1

A ll workers _____________________________________

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

100

100

100

100

100

100

100
100
-

100
100
-

100
100
-

98
94
2
2

96
93
4

100
100
-

2

4

Method of payment
Workers in establishments providing
paid vacations _________________________________
Length-of-tim e payment ____________________
Percentage payment ________________________
F lat-sum payment ___________________________
Other
_
_________________
Workers in establishments providing
no paid vacations _____________________________

Amount of vacation p a y 4
After 6 months of service
Under 1 week -----------------------------------------------------1 week ___________________________________________
Over 1 and under 2 weeks ______________________
2 weeks __________________________________________

11
50
3
2

4
59
9

_
50
-

9
28
4

10
27
6

14
27
-

_
36
( 5)
61
3

_
20
1
78
-

_
97
3
"

2
53
2
41
"

_
42
3
52
-

98
2
-

1
33

_
29
10
58
-

After 1 year of service
Under 1 week ___________________________________
1 week ___________________________________________
Over 1 and under 2 weeks ______________________
2 weeks __________________________________________
Over 2 and under 3 weeks ______________________
After 2 years of service
Under 1 week -----------------------------------------------------1 week ---------------------------- — ----------------------------Over 1 and under 2 weeks --------------------------------2 weeks ----------------------------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 weeks ----------- -------------------

_

_

_

13
6
79
3

16
2
82
-

18
27
55

3
( 5)
94
3

10
90
"

_
100
"

3
( 5)
94

10
90

100

8

56
-

_
41

15
44

~

After 3 years of service
1 week -----------------------------------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 weeks --------------------------------2 weeks __________________________________________
Over 2 and under 3 weeks ______________________

73
( 5)

21
6
69
1

6
94
~

18
4
76
( 5)

19
6
71
1

3
97

20
4

After 4 years of service
1 week -----------------------------------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 weeks --------------------------------2 weeks ----------------------------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 weeks ---------------------------------

See fo o tn o te s at end o f table.




3

18
Table B-5. Paid Vacations-Continued
(P e r c e n t d istrib u tio n o f o ffic e and plant w o rk e rs in a ll in d u strie s and in industry d iv isio n s by v acation pay
p r o v is io n s , R ichm ond, Va. , N ovem ber 1961)
PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS
V a ca tion p o lic y
All industries1

A m ou n t o f v a c a tio n p a y 4 —

M
anufacturing

Public utilities2

All industries2

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

C o n tin u e d

A fte r 5 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek
O ver 1 and under 2 w eeks -------------------------------2 w eeks _________________________________________
O ver 2 and under 3 w eeks -------------------------------3 w eeks _________________________________________

1
( 5)
85
11
2

3
95
2

100
-

10
1
84
( 5)
2

9
86
1
1

100
-

1
_
56
11
31

2
50
20
28

98
2

9
1
45
4
39

8
37
6
46

93
_
7

1
53
11
34

2
50
20
28

_
83
17

9
1
41
4
43

8
35
6
48

.
64
36

1
16
81
1
-

2
27
71
-

_
3
97
-

9
1
23
65
( 5)

8
21
67
1

_
5
95

1

2
24
60
14

.
■
3
97
-

9
1
23
45
20

8
20
51
18

_
3
46
50

9
1
23
30
3
32

20
39
6
24

A fte r 10 y e a rs o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek _________________________________ ________
O ver 1 and under 2 w eeks _____________________
2 w eeks _________________________________________
O ver 2 and under 3 w eeks -------------------------------3 w eeks _____________________ __________ _____
A fte r 12 y e a rs o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek ________________________ _________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w eeks _____________________
2 w eeks ______________________________________ _
O ver 2 and under 3 w eeks ____________ - _______
3 w eeks --------------------------------------- ----------------------A fte r 15 y e a rs o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek _________________ ______________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w eeks _____________________
2 w eeks _________________________________ _____
3 w eeks ____ _________________________ _________
O ver 3 and under 4 w eeks _____________________
4 w eeks _________________________________ ___ _

-

-

A fte r 20 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek __________________________________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w eeks -------------------------------2 w eeks _________________________________________
3 w eeks
_
__________________ _____
O ver 3 and under 4 w eeks -------------------------4 w eeks _____________________ - __________________

-

15
64
4
15

_
_
5

86

.
8

A fte r 25 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek

O ver 1 and under 2 w eeks _____________________
2 w eeks _________________________________________
3 w eeks _________________________________________
O ver 3 and under 4 w eeks _____________________
4 w eeks ______________ _________________________
O ver 4 w eeks __________________________________

1
2
3
4
service
5

1
15
46
36
1

2
24
55

19

8

_
_
5

37
_
58

Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Periods of service were arbitrarily chosen and do not necessarily reflect the individual provisions for progressions.
For example, the changes in proportions indicated at 10 years*
include changes in provisions occurring between 5 and 10 years.
Less than 0. 5 percent.

NOTE: In the tabulations of vacation allowances by years of service, payments other than "length of t i m e ," such as percentage of annual earnings or flat-su m payments, were converted
to an equivalent time basis; for example, a payment of 2 percent of annual earnings was considered as 1 week*s pay.




19
Table B-6. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
(Percent of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions employed in establishments providing
health, insurance, or pension benefits, Richmond, Va., November 1961)
PLAN T WORKERS

OF FICE W O R K E R S

Type of benefit
All industries 1

All workers _____________________________________

Manufacturing

Public utilities 1
2

100

100

100

All industries 3

Manufacturing

100

100

100

100

Public utilities2

Workers in establishments providing:
Life insurance -----------------------------------------------Accidental death and dismemberment
insurance __________________________________
Sickness and accident insurance or
sick leave or both4 -------------------------------------

94

92

100

87

85

49

33

53

40

31

59

77

66

84

73

77

65
26

Sickness and accident insurance _______
Sick leave (full pay and no
waiting period) _________________________
Sick leave (partial pay or
waiting period) --------------------------------------

33

54

7

56

61

53

38

44

25

16

15

9

3

35

14

17

25

Hospitalization insurance ---------------------------Surgical insurance ---------------------------------------Medical insurance ___________________________
Catastrophe insurance _____________________
Retirement pension -------------------------------------No health, insurance, or pension plan ------

69
68
51
63
70
3

77
76
52
37
66
2

65
65
63
95
51

70
68
43
22
57
6

78
74
50
11
60
8

75
75
64
75
60

1 Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
2 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
3 Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
4 Unduplicated total of workers receiving sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately below. Sick-leave plans are limited to those which definitely establish at least the
minimum number of days' pay that can be expected by each employee. Informal sick-leave allowances determined on an individual basis are excluded.







Appendix A: Changes in Occupational Descriptions

Since the Bureau’ s last survey in this area, occupational
descriptions for three office jobs were revised in order to obtain salary
information for more specific categories. Therefore, data presented
for these jobs in table A -l are not comparable to data presented in last
year’ s bulletin.

Revisions were made in the descriptions for file clerks, key­
punch operators, and stenographers. The revised description for file
clerk groups these workers into three levels (class A, B, and C) in­




stead of two (class A and B). The revised description for keypunch
operator groups these workers into two defined classes (A and B)
instead of a single category. Previously data were presented separately
for general stenographers and technical stenographers. The revision
combines general stenographers, with more responsible duties, and
technical stenographers to form a new senior stenographer category;
other general stenographers are maintained in that classification.
The revised occupational descriptions used this year are in­
cluded in appendix B.

21




Appendix B: Occupational Descriptions
The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau's wage surveys is to assist its
field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field economists are in­
structed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped, part-time,
temporary, and probationary workers.

OFFICE
BILLER, MACHINE •

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
classified by type o f machine, as follows:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.
Class A—
Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, bal­
ance sheets, and other records by hand.

Biller, machine (hilling machine)—
Uses a special billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, etc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.

Class B—
Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type of billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation of trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.

Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine)—
Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, etc., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers* ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types of sales and
credit slips.




CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A—
Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a com­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase of an establish­
ment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts
23

24

CLERK, ACCOUNTING—
Continued
payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper ac­
counting distribution; and requires judgment and experience in
making proper assignations and allocations. May assist in preparing,
adjusting and closing journal entries; and may direct class B ac­
counting clerks.
Class B—
Under supervision, performs one or more routine ac­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or ac­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; and posting subsidiary ledgers con­
trolled by general ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data.
This job does not require a knowledge of accounting and book­
keeping principles but is found in offices in which the more routine
accounting work is subdivided on a functional basis among several
workers.

CLERK, FILE
Class A— an established filing system containing a number
In
of varied subject matter files, classifies and indexes file material
such as correspondence, reports, technical documents, etc. May
also file this material. May keep records of various types in con­
junction with the files. May lead a small group of lower level file
clerks.
Class B—
Sorts, codes, and files unclassified material by sim­
ple (subject matter) headings or partly classified material by finer
subheadings. Prepares simple related index and cross-reference
aids.
As requested locates clearly identified material in files
and forwards material. May perform related clerical tasks required
to maintain and service files.

Class C—
Performs routine filing of material that has already
been classified or which is easily classified in a simple serial
classification system (e.g., alphabetical, chronological, or numer­
ical). As requested, locates readily available material in files
and forwards material; and may fill out withdrawal charge. Per­
forms simple clerical and manual tasks required to maintain and
service files.




CLERK, ORDER
Receives customers* orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination of the following:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; and distributing order sheets to respective departments to be
filled. May check with credit department to determine credit rating of
customer, acknowledge receipt o f orders from customers, follow up orders
to see that they have been filled, keep file o f orders received, and check
shipping invoices with original orders.

CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the neces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers*
earnings based on time or production records; and posting calculated
data on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker’ s name, work­
ing days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due.
May make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and dis­
tributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that o f statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file of used stencils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

25

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Class A—
Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or combina­
tion keypunch machine to transcribe data from various source docu­
ments to keypunch tabulating cards. Performs same tasks as lower
level keypunch operator but in addition, work requires application of
coding skills and the making of some determinations, for example,
locates on the source document the items to be punched; extracts
information from several documents; and searches for and interprets
information on the document to determine information to be punched.
May train inexperienced operators.

Class B—
Under close supervision or following specific proce­
dures or instructions, transcribes data from source documents to
punched cards. Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or com­
bination keypunch machine to keypunch tabulating cards. May
verify cards. Working from various standardized source documents,
follows specified sequences which have been coded or prescribed
in detail and require little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting
data to be punched. Problems arising from erroneous items or codes,
missing information, etc., are referred to supervisor.

OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands, opera­
ting minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and dis­
tributing mail, and other minor clerical work.

SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an
administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receiving people coming into office; answering and




SECRETARY— Continued
making phone calls; handling personal and important or confidential
mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative; and taking
dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand
or by Stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the
recorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare
special reports or memorandums for information of superior.

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a
normal routine vocabulary; and transcribe dictation. May also type from
written copy. May maintain files, keep simple records, or perform other
relatively routine clerical tasks. May operate from a stenographic pool.
Does not include transcribing-machine work. (See transcribing-machine
operator.)

STENOGRAPHER,SENIOR
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a var­
ied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or
reports on scientific research and transcribe dictation. May also type
from written copy. May also set up and maintain files, keep records, etc.

OR

Performs stenographic duties requiring significantly greater
independence and responsibility than stenographers, general as evi­
denced by the following: Work requires high degree of stenographer
speed and accuracy; and a thorough working knowledge of general busi­
ness and office procedures and of the specific business operations,
organization, policies, procedures, files, workflow, etc. Uses this
knowledge in performing stenographic duties and responsible clerical
tasks such as, maintaining followup files; assembling material for
reports, memorandums, letters, etc.; composing simple letters from general
instructions; reading and routing incoming mail; and answering routine
questions, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work.

26

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office
calls. May record toll calls and take messages. May give information
to persons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders. For
workers who also act as receptionists see switchboard operatorreceptionist.

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR-Continued
Class C—
Operates simple tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with specific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs or re­
petitive operations.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single posi­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. This typing
or clerical work may take the major part of this worker’ s time while at
switchboard.
TABULA TING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Class A—
Operates a variety of tabulating or electrical ac­
counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator, and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignments without close supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are o f irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating sequences of long and complex reports,
Does not include working supervisors performing tabulating-machine
operations and day-to-day supervision of the work and production
of a group o f tabulating-machine operators.
Class B—
Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical ac­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under
specific instructions and may include the performance of some wir­
ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but
small tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are well established. May also include the training
of new employees in the basic operation of the machine.




TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal rou­
tine vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May also type from
written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation
involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal
briefs or reports on scientific research are not included. A worker who
takes dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is
classified as a stenographer, general.
TYPIST
Uses a typewriter to make copies o f various material or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May include typing of stencils, mats, or similar materials for use in
duplicating processes. May do clerical work involving little special
training, such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or
sorting and distributing incoming mail.

Class A—
performs one or more o f the following: Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punc­
tuation, etc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; and planning layout and typing of complicated statistical
tables to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type
routine form letters varying details to suit circumstances.
Class B—
Performs one or more o f the following: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing o f forms, insurance pol­
icies, etc.; and setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying
more complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

27

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR-Continued

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Uses various types o f drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.

completed work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quan­
tities; writing specifications; and making adjustments or changes in
drawings or specifications. May ink in lines and letters on pencil
drawings, prepare detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings.
Work is frequently in a specialized field such as architectural, elec­
trical, mechanical, or structural drafting.

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration o f working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Duties involve a combination o f the following: Interpreting blueprints,
sketches, and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures;
assigning duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; and per­
forming more difficult problems. May assist subordinates during emer­
gencies or as a regular assignment, or perform related duties of a
supervisory or administrative nature.
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing
purposes. Duties involve a combination of the following: Preparing
working plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-sections, etc., to scale by
use of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as
those involved in strength of materials, beams and trusses; verifying

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of employees9 injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicant^
and employees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.
TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing
tracing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. Uses
T-square, compass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

MAINTENANCE AND POWERPLANT
CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE-Continued

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most of the following:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’ s handtools, portable

power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; and selecting materials
necessary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance car­
penter required rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.




28

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE

HELPER, MAINTENANCE TRADES

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, dis­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the elec­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; and using a variety
of electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In
general, the work of the maintenance elctricians requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

Assists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties o f lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
and performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The
kind of work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade:
In some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding
materials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-time basis.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; and keeping a record
of operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May
also supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establish•
ments employing more than one engineer are excluded.

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation o f one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction o f machine-shop tools, gages,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most o f the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree o f accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and
operation sequence; and making necessary adjustments during operation
to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to rec­
ognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating oils . For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing
shops are excluded from this classification.

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
Fire stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; and checks water
and safety valve.
May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom
equipment.




Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts o f mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Interpreting written instructions and
specifications; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
chinist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and
operating standard machine tools; shaping o f metal parts to close toler­
ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of
work, tooling, feeds and speeds o f machining; knowledge of the working

29

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE-Continued

MILLWRIGHT

properties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts,
and equipment required for his work; and fitting and assembling parts
into mechanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally
requires a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout
are required. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing o f equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment and
parts to be used; and installing and maintaining in good order power
transmission equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general,
the millwright’ s work normally requires a rounded training and experi­
ence in the trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an es­
tablishment. Work involves most o f the following: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gages, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assemblies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; and alining wheels, adjusting brakes
and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the auto­
motive mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually ac­
quired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves most o f the following: Examining machines and mechan­
ical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly dis­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replacementpart by a machine shop or sendingof the machine to a machine
shop for major repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs
or for die production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling
machines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In gen­
eral, the work o f a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience. Excluded from this classification are
workers whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.




OILER
Lubricates* with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler
in nail holes and interstices; and applying paint with spray gun or brush.
May mix colors, oils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain
proper color or consistency. In general, die work o f the maintenance
painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from draw­
ings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to
correct lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe­
cutting machine; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by
hand-driven or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings

30

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE-Continued

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE—
Continued

and fastening pipe to hangers;making standard shop computations relat­
ing to pressures, flow, and size of pipe required; and making standard
tests to determine whether finished pipes meet specifications. In general
the work of the maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and
repairing building sanitation or heating systems are excluded.

types of sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in
cutting, bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; and installing
sheet-metal articles as required. In general, the work o f the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.
TOOL AND DIE MAKER
(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gage maker)

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; and opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake.
In general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints,
models, or other specifications; setting up and operating all available

Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gages, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching, and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most of the following: Planning and laying out o f work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifications;
using a variety of tool and die maker’ s handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding o f the working properties o f common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to close tolerances; fitting and assembling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allowances; and selecting appro­
priate materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die
maker’ s work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom
practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT
ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

GUARD

Transports passengers between floors of an office building
apartment house, department store, hotel, or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity o f employees and
other persons entering.




31

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER

PACKER, SHIPPING

(Sweeper; charwomen; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial
or other establishment. Duties involve a combination o f the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance services; and cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Work­
ers who specialize in window washing are excluded.

Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number o f units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or more of
the following: Knowledge of various items o f stock in order to verify
content; selection o f appropriate type and size o f container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; and applying labels
or entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make
wooden boxes or crates are excluded.

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more o f the following: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or
from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location;
and transporting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheel­
barrow. Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded.

ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­
sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Ship­
ping work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices,
routes, available means of transportation and rates; and preparing
records of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight
and shipping charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May
direct or assist in preparing the merchandise for shipment. Receiving
work involves: Verifying or directing others in verifying the correct­
ness o f shipments against bills of lading, invoices, or other records;
checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods; routing merchan­
dise or materials to proper departments; and maintaining necessary
records and files.

Fills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, cus­
tomers* orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders

For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:

and indicating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders
requisition additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and
perform other related duties.

Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk




32

TRUCKDRIVER

TRUCKER, POWER

Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of estab­
lishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers’ houses or places of business. May also load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers
are excluded.

Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.

For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type o f equipment, as follows: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis o f trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver (combination o f sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under l l2 tons)
/
Truckdriver, medium (1% to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)




For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type, of
truck, as follows:
Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)

WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.
☆

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1962

O — 628160


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102