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Occupational Wage Survey

RALEIGH, NORTH CAROLINA
SEPTEMBER 1961

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

Occupational Wage Survey
RALEIGH, NORTH CAROLINA
SEPTEMBER 1961

Bulletin No. 1303-10
November 1961

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents/ U.S. Government Printing Office, W ashington 25, D.C.

-

Price 25 cents

Preface

Contents
Page

The Labor Market Occupational Wage Survey Program
The Bureau of Labor Statistics annually conducts
occupational wage surveys in 82 labor markets. The studies
provide data on occupational earnings and related supplemen­
tary benefits. A preliminary report furnishing trend data and
average earnings is released within a month of the com­
pletion of each study. This bulletin provides additional data
not included in the preliminary report.

Introduction ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Wage trends for selected occupational groups -----------------------------------

1
4

Tables:
1.
2.

Two bulletins, bringing together the results of all
of the area surveys, are issued after completion of the final
area bulletin in the current round of surveys. The first of
these bulletins will be available late in 1962 and the other
early in 1963.
During the survey year, summary releases
presenting
areawide occupational earnings data for 25 to
30 labor markets, are issued as data become available.

A:

This bulletin was prepared in the Bureau*s regional
office in Atlanta, G a ., by James D. Garland, under the
direction of Donald M. Cruse.
The study was under the
general direction of Louis B. Woytych, Assistant Regional
Director for Wages and Industrial Relations.

B:

Establishments and workers within scope of su rvey-------------Percents of increase in standard weekly salaries and
straight-time hourly earnings for selected
occupational groups ---------------------------------------------------------------Occupational earnings: *
A -l.
Office occupations—men and women ---------------------------A - 2. Professional and technical occupations—men ------------A - 3. Office, professional, and technical
occupations—men and women combined---------------------A -4 . Maintenance and powerplant occupations --------------------A - 5. Custodial and material movement occupations-----------Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions: *
B - l . Shift differentials----------------------------------------------------------B -2 . Minimum entrance salaries for women office
B -3 .
B -4 .
B -5 .
B -6 .

3
4
5
6
7
7
8
9

Scheduled weekly hours -----------------------------------------------Paid holidays ----------------------------------------------------------------Paid vacations --------------------------------------------------------------Health, insurance, and pension plans -------------------------

10
11
12
14

Changes in occupational descriptions
-----------------------------Occupational descriptions --------------------------------------------------------

15
17

Appendixes:
A.
B.

* NOTE: Similar tabulations for most of these items,
including establishment practices and supplementary wage
provisions, are available in the Raleigh area report for
September I960 as well as in similar reports for other
major areas.
A directory indicating the date of study
and the price of the reports is available upon request.
Union scales, indicative of prevailing pay levels,
are also available for seven building trades in the Raleigh
area.

iii

O ccu pation al W age S u rvey-----Raleigh, N.C.

Introduction

to the work schedules (rounded to the nearest half hour) for which
straight-time salaries are paid; average weekly earnings for these
occupations have been rounded to the nearest half dollar.

This area is 1 of 82 labor markets in which the U .S. De­
partment of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics has conducted sur­
veys of occupational earnings and related wage benefits on an area­
wide basis. In this area, data were obtained by personal visits of
Bureau field economists to representative establishments within six
broad industry divisions: Manufacturing; transportation, communica­
tion, and other public utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance,
insurance, and real estate; and services. Major industry groups
excluded from these studies are government operations and the con­
struction and extractive industries. Establishments having fewer
than a prescribed number of workers are omitted also because they
tend to furnish insufficient employment in the occupations studied to
warrant inclusion. Separate tabulations are provided for each of the
broad industry divisions which meet publication criteria.

Average earnings of men and women are presented separately
for selected occupations in which both sexes are commonly employed.
Differences in pay levels of men and women in these occupations are
largely due to (1) differences in the distribution of the sexes among
industries and establishments; (2) differences in specific duties per­
formed, although the occupations are appropriately classified within
the same survey job description; and (3) differences in length of serv­
ice or merit review when individual salaries are adjusted on this
basis.
Longer average service of men would result in higher average
pay when both sexes are employed within the same rate range. Job
descriptions used in classifying employees in these surveys are usu­
ally more generalized than those used in individual establishments to
allow for minor differences among establishments in specific duties
performed.

These surveys are conducted on a sample basis because of the
unnecessary cost involved in surveying all establishments. To obtain
optimum accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of large
than of small establishments is studied. In combining the data, how­
ever, all establishments are given their appropriate weight. Estimates
based on the establishments studied are presented, therefore, as re­
lating to all establishments in the industry grouping and area, ex­
cept for those below the minimum size studied.

Occupational employment estimates represent the total in all
establishments within the scope of the study and not the number actu­
ally surveyed. Because of differences in occupational structure among
establishments, the estimates of occupational employment obtained
from the sample of establishments studied serve only to indicate the
relative importance of the jobs studied.
These differences in occu­
pational structure do not materially affect the accuracy of the earn­
ings data.

Occupations and Earnings
The occupations selected for study are common to a variety
of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries. Occupational classificatior. is based on a uniform set of job descriptions designed to
take account of interestablishment variation in duties within the same
job.
(See appendix for listing of these descriptions.) Earnings data
are presented (in the A -se rie s tables) for the following types of occu­
pations: (a) Office clerical; (b) professional and technical; (c) mainte­
nance and powerplant; and (d) custodial and material movement.

Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Information is presented (in the B -series tables) on selected
establishment practices and supplementary benefits as they relate to
office and plant workers. The concept "office w o rk ers," as used
in this bulletin, includes working supervisors and nonsupervisory
workers performing clerical or related functions, and excludes admin­
istrative, executive, and professional personnel. "Plant workers" in­
clude working foremen and all nonsupervisory workers (including leadmen and trainees) engaged in nonoffice functions. Administrative,
executive, and professional employees, and force-account construction
employees who are utilized as a separate work force are excluded.
Cafeteria workers and route men are excluded in manufacturing indus­
tries, but are included as plant workers in nonmanufacturing industries.

Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for
full-time workers, i . e . , those hired to work a regular weekly sched­
ule in the given occupational classification. Earnings data exclude
premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and
late shifts. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded also, but cost-ofliving bonuses and incentive earnings are included. Where weekly
hours are reported, as for office clerical occupations, reference is

1

2

Shift differential data (table B - l ) are limited to manufacturing
industries. This information is presented both in terms of (a) estab­
lishment policy,1 presented in terms of total plant worker employ­
ment, and (b) effective practice, presented in terms of workers
actually employed on the specified shift at the time of the survey.
In establishments having varied differentials, the amount applying to
a majority was used or, if no amount applied to a majority, the clas­
sification "other" was used.
In establishments in which some lateshift hours are paid at normal rates, a differential was recorded only
if it applied to a majority of the shift hours.
Minimum entrance salaries (table B -2 ) relate only to the
establishments visited.
They are presented in terms of establish­
ments with formal minimum salary policies.
The scheduled hours (table B -3) of a majority of the fir stshift workers in an establishment are tabulated as applying to all of
the plant or office workers of that establishment. Paid holidays; paid
vacations; and health, insurance, and pension plans (tables B -4 through
B -6 ) are treated statistically on the basis that these are applicable
to all plant or office workers if a majority of such workers are eli­
gible or may eventually qualify for the practices listed. Sums of
individual items in tables B -3 through B -6 may not equal totals be­
cause of rounding.
The first part of the paid holidays table (table B -4) presents
the number of whole and half holidays actually provided. The second
part combines whole and half holidays to show total holiday time.
The summary of vacation plans (table B -5 ) is limited to for­
mal policies, excluding informal arrangements whereby time off with
pay is granted at the discretion of the employer. Separate estimates
are provided according to employer practice in computing vacation
payments, such as time payments, percent of annual earnings, or
flat-sum amounts. However, in the tabulations of vacation pay, pay­
ments not on a time basis were so converted; for example, a payment
of 2 percent of annual earnings was considered as the equivalent of
1 week's pay.

Data are presented for all health, insurance, and pension plans
(table B-6) for which at least a part of the cost is borne by the em ­
ployer, excepting only legal requirements such as workmen's compen­
sation, social* security, and railroad retirement. Such plans include
those underwritten by a commercial insurance company and those pro­
vided through a union fund or paid directly by the employer out of
current operating funds or from a fund set aside for this purpose.
Death benefits are included as a form of life insurance.
Sickness and accident insurance is limited to that type of in­
surance under which predetermined cash payments are made directly
to the insured on a weekly or monthly basis during illness or accident
disability. Information is presented for all such plans to which the
employer contributes.
However, in New York and New Jersey, which
have enacted temporary disability insurance laws which require em ­
ployer contributions,2 plans are included only if the employer (1) con­
tributes more than is legally required, or (2) provides the employee
with benefits which exceed the requirements of the law. Tabulation?
of paid sick-leave plans are limited to formal plans3 which provide
full pay or a proportion of the worker's pay during absence from work
because of illness. Separate tabulations are presented according to
(1) plans which provide full pay and no waiting period, and (2) plans
which provide either partial pay or a waiting period. In addition to the
presentation of the proportions of workers who are provided sickness
and accident insurance or paid sick leave, an unduplicated total is
shown of workers who receive either or both types of benefits.
Catastrophe insurance, sometimes referred to as extended
medical insurance, includes those plans which are designed to protect
employees in case of sickness and injury involving expenses beyond
the normal coverage of hospitalization, medical, and surgical plans.
Medical insurance refers to plans providing for complete or partial
payment of doctors' fees. Such plans may be underwritten by commer­
cial insurance companies or nonprofit organizations or they may be
self-insured. Tabulations of retirement pension plans are limited to
those plans that provide monthly payments for the remainder of the
worker's life.

2 The temporary disability laws in California and Rhode Island
do not require employer contributions.
3 An establishment was considered as having a formal plan if
it established at least the minimum number of days of sick leave that
could be expected by each employee. Such a plan need not be written,
1
An establishment was considered as having a policy if it met
either of the following; conditions: (1) Operated late shifts at the time
but informal sick-leave allowances, determined on an individual basis,
were excluded.
of the survey, or (2) had formal provisions covering late shifts.

3

Table 1.

Establishments and workers within scope o£ survey and number studied in Raleigh, N. C . , 1 by m ajor industry division, 2 September 1961

Industry division

Minimum
employment
in establishiiicuto m
scope of
study

Number of establishments
Within
scope of
study1
3
2

Workers in establishments
Within scope of study

Studied

Studied
T otal4

Office

Plant

Total4

AU d i v i s i o n s __________________________________________________

50

107

71

15, 300

2 ,9 0 0

9 ,3 0 0

12,820

M anu facturing-------------------------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing .
—
— Transportation, communication, and other
public u tilitie s5
----—
Wholesale t r a d e ________
—
—
—
Retail trade n___________ „______________________ ^.-n-----------r
Finance, insurance, and real e s t a t e ------------------------ -----S e rvices7 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

50
50

32
75

25
46

6, 000
9, 300

500
2 ,4 0 0

4, 600
4 ,7 0 0

5,3 4 0
7 ,4 8 0

50
50
50
50
50

11
17
25
16
6

10
8
13
10
5

2 ,7 0 0
1,300
2 ,9 0 0
1,800
600

1 ,100
(?)
(?)
(6)
(4)

2,6 2 0
690
2 ,140
1,510
520

400
(?)
(?)
(6)

1 The Raleigh Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area consists of Wake County.
The "workers within scope of study" estim ates shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate description
of the size and composition of the labor force included in the survey.
The estimates are not intended, however, to serve as a basis of comparison with other area employment indexes to measure
employment trends or levels since (1) planning of wage surveys requires the use of establishment data compiled considerably in advance of the payroll period studied, and (2) sm all establishments
are excluded from the scope of the survey.
2 The 1957 revised edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual was used in classifying establishments by industry division.
Major changes from the earlier edition (used in the
Bureau’ s labor market wage surveys conducted prior to July 1958) are the transfer of m ilk pasteurization plants and ready-m ixed concrete establishments from trade (wholesale or retail) to
manufacturing, and the transfer of radio and television broadcasting from services to the transportation, communication, and other public utilities division.
3 Includes all establishments with total employment at or above the m inim um -size limitation.
A ll outlets (within the area) of companies in such industries as trade, finance, auto repair
service, and motion-picture theaters are considered as 1 establishment.
4 Includes executive, professional, and other workers excluded from the separate office and plant categories.
* Taxicabs and services incidental to water transportation were excluded.
6 This industry division is represented in estimates for "a ll industries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the Series A and B tables.
Separate presentation of data for this division is not made for
one or m ore of the following reasons: (1) Employment in the division is too sm all to provide enough data to m erit separate study, (2) the sample was not designed initially to permit separate
presentation, (3) response was insufficient or inadequate to permit separate presentation, and (4) there is possibility of disclosure of individual establishment data.
7 Hotels; personal services; business services; automobile repair shops; motion pictures; nonprofit membership organizations; and engineering and architectural services.

Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups

Presented in table 2 are percents of change in salaries of
office clerical workers and industrial nurses, and in average earnings
of selected plant worker groups.
For office clerical workers and industrial nurses, the per­
cents of change relate to average weekly salaries for normal hours
of work, that is , the standard work schedule for which straight-time
salaries are paid. For plant worker groups, they measure changes
in straight-time hourly earnings, excluding premium pay for over­
time and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. The per­
centages are based on data for selected key occupations and include
most of the numerically important jobs within each group. The of­
fice clerical data are based on men and women in the following 19 jobs:
Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B; clerks, accounting, class A
and B; clerks, file, class A , B, and C; clerks, order; clerks, pay­
roll; Comptometer operators; keypunch operators, class A and B;
office boys and girls; secretaries; stenographers, general; stenogra­
phers, senior; switchboard operators; tabulating-machine operators,
class B; and typists, class A and B.
The industrial nurse data are
based on men and women industrial nurses. Men in the following
8 skilled maintenance jobs and 2 unskilled jobs were included in the
plant worker data: SkiUedr—carpenters; electricians; machinists; m e­
chanics; mechanics, automotive; painters; pipefitters; and tool and
die makers; unskilled— janitors, porters, and cleaners; and laborers,
material handling.
Average weekly salaries or average hourly earnings were
computed for each of the selected occupations.
The average sal­
Table 2.

aries or hourly earnings were then multiplied by the average employ­
ment in the job during the period surveyed in 1961.
These weighted
earnings for individual occupations were then totaled to obtain an ag­
gregate for each occupational group.
Finally, the ratio of these group
aggregates for the one year to the aggregate for the other year was
computed and the difference between the result and 100 is the percent
of change from the one period to the other.
The percent of change m easures, principally, the effects of
(1) general salary and wage changes; (2) merit or other increases
in pay received by individual workers while in the same job; and
(3) changes in the labor force such as labor turnover, force expan­
sions, force reductions, and changes in the proportions of workers
employed by establishments with different pay levels.
Changes in the
labor force can cause increases or decreases in the occupational
averages without actual wage changes. For example, a force expansion
might increase the proportion of lower paid workers in a specific
occupation and result in a drop in the average, whereas a reduction
in the proportion of lower paid workers would have the opposite effect.
The movement of a high-paying establishment out of an area could
cause the average earnings to drop, even though no change in rates
occurred in other area establishments.
The use of constant employment weights eliminates the effects
of changes in the proportion of workers represented in each job in­
cluded in the data. Nor are the percents of change influenced by
changes in standard work schedules or in premium pay for overtime,
since thev are based on pay for straight-time hours.

Percents of increase in standard weekly salaries and straight-time hourly earnings for
selected occupational groups in Raleigh, N. C . , September I960 to September 1961

Occupational group

A ll industries

Manufacturing

Office clerical (men and w om en)-------------------------------------------Industrial nurses (men and w o m e n )--------------------------------------Skilled maintenance (men) -----------------------------------------------------Unskilled plant (m e n )------ --------- -------------- -----------------------

5 .4
(l )
1 .4
2 .6

4 .0

Insufficient data to meet publication criteria.

<
;>
(l )
3 .9

5

A: Occupational Earnings
T ab le A-1. O f f ic e O c c u p a tio n s-M e n a n d W o m e n
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Raleigh, N. C ., September 1961)
Avbbaoi
Sex, occupation, and industry division

N m er
u b
o
r
w rk rs
o e

W
eekly
_h u 1
o rs
(S n a )
ta d rd

NUMBER O W
F ORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIM WEEKLY EARNINGS O —
E
F

*35. 00
W
eekly.
e rn g * U °
a in s
under
35.00 40. 00

40.00

45.00 *50. 00 *55. 00 ^ 0 .0 0 *65. 00

45.00

50. 00

70.00

75.00 W o o

*85. 00 $ . 00 W o o A)0. 00 105.00 1*1 0 . 00 A 5. 00
90

75.00

80.00

90.00

and
55.00

60.00

65.00

70. 00

85.00

95.00 10 0 .0 0 105.00 n o . oo 115.00

over

Men
_

_

_

~

~

“

“

70.50
70.66

.

_

.

“

-

40.0
5577T

57.50
56.66

_

_
-

51
46

38.0
5 0 "

71.00
70.00

Clerks, accounting, class B __________________________
Manufacturing ,_________ ___ __ ______ ______ ___ . . . . ___
Nonmanufacturing__________________________________

90
23
67

38.0
— 5 0 "
38.0

Clerks, file, class B 2 ________________________________
Nonmanufacturing__________________________________

71
70

Clerks, payroll __________ _____ ________ . .. .. ______ _
Manufacturing
_
__ __ __ _
Nonmanufacturing__________________________________

Clerks, accounting, class A __________________________
Nonmanufacturing__________________________________

45
36

39.5 $81.50
39.5
81.00

Bookkeeping-machine operators, class A ___________
Nonmanufacturing___________________ ______________

20
20

39.0
39.0

Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B ___________
Nonmanufacturing .
. . . . . ___________ ___ .

47
46

Clerks, accounting, class A __________________________
Nonmanufacturing _ _ _ __ - — __ _

.

.
1

7
6

7
7

6
3

8
6

6
5

4
3

2
1

2
2

3
3

.

.

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

2
"

~

-

-

2

2

2
1

4
3

1

3
3

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

1

Women
_

.

-

4
4

2
2

5
5

4
4

_

2
2

4
4

10
8

16
14

6
6

7
6

_

_

_

.

_

2

-

-

-

-

2
2

2

11
11

16
14

2
2

9
9

1
-

61.00
61.50
60.50

_
-

_
“

1
1

7
3
4

19
2
17

13
4
9

23
4
19

17
6
11

5
2
3

3

2

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

1
1

1
1

_
_
-

_
_
-

38.5
3 0

49.50
' 49.56

_

2
2

-

44
44

18
16

5
4

2
2

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

31
16
15

39.5
46.6
38.5

71.00
64.56
77.50

_
*

_
"

_
•

2

5
3
2

5
3
2

5
3
2

3

2
2

_
-

1

4
1
3

_
-

•

1
1
“

_
-

2
2

1
1

1
1
-

_
-

Comptometer operators
__ . . __________
Nonmanufacturing __________________________________

28
27

40.0
iM

56.50
56.50

.

6
5

2
2

3
3

-

-

2
2

.

-

8
8

_

-

7
7

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Keypunch operators, class A 2 ________________________
Nonmanufacturing ______ ___ ____________ ___ _______

42
39

39.0
39.0

67.50
67.00

_

.

_

_

.

_

_

_

-

7
4

_

-

4
4

_

-

10
16

_

-

13
13

2

-

6
6

2

-

“

-

-

-

-

Keypunch operators, class B 2 . . . . ---.
___
Nonmanufacturing__________________________________

27
23

39.0
5 0 "

53.50
63.66

_

_

_

7
5

2
2

_

_

.

_

_

-

“

.
-

_

-

13
a

_

-

5
5

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.
-

.

.
-

22
7
15
-

25
4
21
1

7
3
4
1

20
1
19
4

25
14
11
3

13
3
10
3

14
4
10
2

22
4
18
4

5

-

-

3
1
2
-

9

-

5
4

7
1
6
3

3
_
3
-

3
_
3
1

7
7
"

17
16
5

12
12
6

6
6
3

2
2
2

_

_

_

_

_

-

2
2
2

_

-

-

-

7

23
22
5

_

2i

-

_
-

_
"

1
1
-

1
1

10
5
5

22
6
14

48
11
37
7

14
5
9
3

15
7
8

5
5

_
-

_
-

_

_

-

-

-

.

Secretaries ____________________________________________
Manufacturing __ .
__ _ . . ____ ______
Nonmanufacturing . .
_____ . .
___ ___ .
Public utilities 3 ________________________________

178
42
136
26

39.0
39.5
38.5
40.0

80.50
78.50
81.00
91.50

.

Stenographers, general2 _____________________________
Nonmanufacturing_______________________________ __
Public utilities 3 ________________________________

94
9l
30

38.0
37.5
39.5

60.00
60.00
64.50

_

_

-

-

Stenographers, senior2 ______________________________
Manufacturing ________ __ ._ . . . . __ _ ______
Nonmanufacturing . . . .
..
. . .
Public utilities 3 ________________________________

126
37
89
17

39.0
40. 0
38.5
40.0

69.50
66.00
70.50
75.50

See footnotes at end of table.

-

-

-

-

3
3
"

_
-

.
-

_
-

2

-

9
22

2

1

3
3

3
3

-

4
4
4

-

6

Table A>1. Office Occupations-Men and Women— Continued
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Raleigh, N .C., September 1961)
Avebaqk
Sex, occupation, and industry division

N m er
u b
of

NUM
BER O W
F ORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIM WEEKLY EARNINGS O —
E
F

W
eekly.
Weekly $30.00
h rs 4
ou
and
(S n a ) (S n a )
ta d rd
ta d rd
35.00
—

—

—

$
$
$
$
35.00 40.00 45.00 *50.00 55.00 *60.00 *65.00 *70.00 *75.00 *80.00 *85.00 *90.00 *95.00 1*00.00 1*05.00 1*10.00 1*15.00
and
40.00 45.00 50.00 55.00 60.00 65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 over

Women— Continued
42.0
42.5

$49.50
49.50

4
4

5
S

Switchboard operator-receptionists ___________________
Nownanufaeturing _________________________________—

37
26

39.5
39.5

57.00
55.50

.

2
2

Transcribing-machine operators, general -----------------X..,.manufacturing ----------------------------------------------------

22
22

38.5
38.5

56.00
56.00

.

Typists. class A ____ _ ______
_
Nonmanufacturing __________________________________

54
47

38.0
37.5

60.50
58.50

.

_

.

"

-

-

Typists, class B _______________________________________
Manufacturing _______ _____________ __ ____________
Nomnai.uiacturmg

112
20
92

38.0
40.0
37.5

50.00
60.00
48.00

_

_

-

-

_

20
-

20

2
2

-

1
1

2
2

-

9
8

5
3

6
'2

4
3

3
3

_

_

~

■

6
6

6
6

4
4

2
2

_

_

_

"

■

6
6

.

1

5
5

7
5

-

*

1

3
1

7
7

15
15

12
10

8
8

2
1

2
“

2
“

46
2
44

25
21

2
-

4
4

Switchboard >'perators ______ __ ________________________
Konmanufacluring __________________________________

28
2
26

7
6
1

5
4

4
4

2

_

_

i

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
"

■

-

~

-

.

_
"

-

_

_

"

■

•

_

_

“

-

”

-

~

*

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

.

_

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.

2 Description for this job has been revised since the last survey in this area. See appendix A.
5

Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.

T ab le A -2 . P ro fe ssio n a l a n d T echnical O c c u p a tio n s-M e n
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Raleigh, N .C., September 1961)
Avk& ok
a
Occupation and industry division

Number

of

’ES*

(Standard)

Draftsmen, senior ___________________________ _________
Manufacturing
___ __ _____ __________

workers

21
20

W eek ly.
earnings1
(Standard)

40.0
40.0

$122.00
122.50

N U M B E R OF WORKERS R E C E IV IN G 8 T R A IG H T -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S OF—

$
*
$
<
$
$
$
$
<
%
%
$
$
90.00
95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00 150.00
and
•
■
“
100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00 150.00 .155.00

98flW
2
2

2
2

1
1

1
1

3
2

4
4

2
2

-

•

1
1

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.

4
4

1
1

Table A-3. Office, Professional, and Technical Occupations-Men and Women Combined
(Average straight-time weekly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division* Raleigh, N. C . , September 1961)

Number
of
workers

Occupation and industry division

Average
weekly .
earning,1
(Standard)

Average
weekly .
earnings1
(Standard)

Number
of
workers

Occupation and industry division

------------

23
22

$ 7 0 .5 0

Keypunch operators, class B 2 --------------------- ---------

29
25

$ 53.00
53.00

Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B
Nonmanufacturing----------------------- ------- ---------------r.lerles, arroiinting, Mass A
MAnmami fartn ng

55
47

57.00
56. 00

Office boys and g i r l s --------------------------- -----------------Nonmanufacturing . . . . . . . . . ----------------------- -----------

16
15

52. 00
52* 50

96
82

76.00
75.00

185
43
142
28

81.00
78.00
82.00
93.00

94
91
30

60. 00
66765"
64. 50

Bookkeeping-machine operators, class A
/'tnririg

103
26
77

Clerks, accounting, class B —.......— ------- ----------—
Manufacturing
-------Nonmanufacturing ........................ ...............................
Clerks, file, class B*
—
Nonmanufacturing ........................ ..............................
riark sf p a y r o l l
_ _
.
_

N n n m a n i if a r t n r ^ n g

. _

Nonmanufacturing-----------------------------------------------

62. 50
64. ob
62. 50

Nonmanufacturing---------- ------------------------------ -----O nM i/>

__

49. 50
4 9 .5 5

Stenographers, general2
--------------___
Nonmanufacturing -------------------------- --------- --------Public utilities 3 _____________________________
C|^pAg%*np'UArfi ( e
Ar ^
( (| |
(

25

76.00
66.00
82. 50

Nonmanufacturing
—
Public utilities 3 _____________________________

28
27

_
56. 50 ffarjtchbnard Aperatnrs _ ...
Nonmanufacturing______________________________
56755"

42
36

67.50 Switchboard operator-receptionists----------------------fl n n m a m i f a r t i i r i n g
........
57755"

71
------- 75“

—
Nonmanufacturing----------------------------------------------nparatAVe

T9 7 0 0

42

rr

worker,

Average
weekly
earning,1
(Stand*: d)

Office occupations— Continued

Office occupations— Continued

Office occupations

Number

Occupation and industry division

130
--------37“
93
18

Tabulating-machine operators, class C

__

$ 8 i . 50
8 2 . 50

15

6 3 . 50

22
22

5 6 .0 0
” 56700

T y p is ts , c la s s A _
M A m tiam ifd r f n f i n g

54
47

6 0 . 50
5 8 . 50

131
20

5 0 .0 0
6 0 .0 0
4 8 . 50

Typists, class B .

49. 50
49.50

37
26

____

20
18

Transcribing-machine operators, general ________
Nonmanufacturing __ .
___
__
______

69. 50
66766
71.00
77.00

25
--------2T~

Tabulating-machine operators, class B „
.
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g
_
---- ---------

_
.

N A n m a n u fa e t u r i n g

__

-

____ ____ _ _

______________
,r

....

__

111

_______ ...

Professional and technical occupations
Draftsmen, senior _________________________________

1 1 7 .5 0
1 1 7 .5 0

Draftsmen, junior ____ ____________________________
Manufacturing___________________________________

57.00
55. 50

33
18

16

8 8 .0 0
8 5 . 50

1C
J0

1 Earnings are for a regular workweek for which employees receive their straight-time weekly salaries, exclusive of any premium pay.
* Description for this job has been revised since the last survey in this area. See appendix A.
3 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.

T ab le A -4 . M a in te n a n c e a n d P o w e rp la n t O c c u p a tio n s
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Raleigh, N. C . , September 1961)
NUM
BER OF W
ORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIM HOURLY EARNINGS O —
E
F
O ccupation and industry division

E le c tr ic ia n s , m aintenance -------------------------------F ire m e n , station ary b o ile r
M anufacturing —

Nm
u ber
of
w en
ork

20
26
-------2?

$
A g
vera e $
h u t 1.10 1.20
o rly
•sioin
ge
and
under
1.20 1.30

$
1.40

1.40

1.50

1.50

$
1.60

<
1.70

$
1.80

$
1.90

*
2. 00

1.60

1.70

1.80

1.90

2.00

2. 10

8

_

$ 2 .4 5
1.32
— F73T —

H elp ers, m aintenance trades

22

1.69

M ech an ics, autom otive (m a in te n a n c e )________
Nonm anufacturing -------------------------------Pu blic u tilities 3 ______ ___________________

77
67
54

2. 37
2 .4 l
2.46

37
-------27

2.21
2. 12

M echanics, m aintenance
M anufacturing

$
1.30

8
r
.

5
7
5 ------ 3“
_
3
-

-

.
■

-

.
1
_
_
“

Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.

-

6
6

7

2

-

2
2
-

2
“

$
2. 30

$
2.40

$
2. 50

$
2.60

$
2.70

$
2.80

$
2. 90

$
3.00

2.30

2.40

2. 50

2. 60

2.70

2. 80

2. 90

3.00

3. 10 _3_._20

2. 20

_

4

6

.

$
$
2. 10 2. 20

1

_

_

1

_

8

-

3
-

7
4
4

4
4
4

3
3
2

1
”

6
6

11
11

2
1

_

_

_

_
_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
•
3

l

_

_

1
1
1
1

“

"

2

1

-

-

-

-

_

4

10
16
*

2
2
2

33
33
33

1

2
1

3
3

l

2
-

-

3

_
_

_
_

$
3. 10

6

.
.
1

1

7
6
6
4

~

8
Table A -5. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Raleigh, N. C . , September 1961)
NUMBER O W
F ORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIM HOURLY EARNINGS O —
E
F
Nm
u ber
of
w rk
o ers

Occupation1 and industry division

Janitors, porters, and cleaners (men) — — —
Manufacturing -------------------- ,----- , ----------------Nonmanufacturing--------------------------------------Public utilities 1 ------------------------------------3
2

176
62
114
22

Avenge
h rly , $ 0.70
ou
ea in s
rn g
and
under
.8 0

$ 1 .2 5
1.31
1.23
1.56

6
6
”

$ 0. 80

* 0 .9 0

.90

1.00

-

•

$

1.00

$ 1.10

•l.M

$ 1.30

* 1 .4 0

$ 1.50

$ 1.60

* 1 .7 0

* 1 .8 0

1.10

1.20

1.30

1.40

1.50

1.60

1.70

1.80

3
3
"

10
9
1
1

.

$

t

!

20
20

47
3

23
16
7
•

25
10
15
7

8
3
5

2
2

-

-

2i

1

6
1
5
5

* 2 .2 0

2.20

2. 30

* 2 .0 0

1.90

2. 00

2. 10

"

“

5
5
5

•

~

-

70

2. 10

1.90

-

-

-

-

"

57
54

1. 11
1.10

-

1

-

19
19

Laborers, material handling--------------------------Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing--------------------------------— —

138
89
49

1.37
1.30
1.51

■

•

"

“

47
38
9

21
21
"

17
15
2

12
4
8

17
17

6
6

4
4

14
11
3

"

•

‘

Order f i l l e r s __________________________________
Nonmanufacturing---------------------------------------

119
115

1.59
1.59

-

-

-

■

7
7

13
13

11
11

8
8

12
10

22
20

8
8

38
38

-

“

-

.

.

5

•

•

1

8
5

.

-

!
1

-

-

-

24
18

1.31
1.34

”

26
15

1.66
1.64

-

-

Truckdrivers4
—
Manufacturing--------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing---------------------------------— __

117
20
97

1.73
1.30
1.81

■

"

Truckdrivers, light (under IV2 tons) —------

17

1.27

Truckdrivers, medium ( l 1/* to and
including 4 tons)
—
.
Nonmanufacturing----------------------------------

88
83

1.83
1.86

Truckers, power (fork lift)------------------------------Manufacturing
. . . .

45
25

1.62
1.46

Receiving c l e r k s -----Nonmanufacturing

.

.
—

—
—

W
atchm
en____________________

1
2
2
4

24

1.16

6
6
1

-

_
-

4
4

-

-

7
1

3
3

-

9
6
3

4
1
3

7
5
2

1

5

-

-

-

-

-

1

5

9

12

5

28

-

5
4
1

21
4
17

4

8

_

1

"

1

12
11

2
2

3
-

4
3

2
2

1
1

7
5

9
9

.

.

5

_

-

.
-

"

2
2

1

_

_

3

Data limited to men workers except where otherwise indicated.
Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes all drivers regardless of size and type of truck operated.

13

4
-

4

"

_

2 .4 0
and
over

“

2

9

1

12

1
1
5

"

"

-

"

*

-

-

1

“

28

-

2
2

1

-

-

1

-

-

!

3

1

2. 40

$

-

l

7
7

-

.

.

-

2.30

.

Janitors, porters, and cleaners (women) — —
Nonmanufacturing---------------------------------------

34
32

Packers, shipping
Manufacturing

$

6
_
6
!

5
5

9
9

12
12

5
5

28
28

.

1

.

_

.

-

•

18
-

8
8

1

_

_

_

1
1

-

-

3
3

.

.

9

B: Establishment Practices and Supplementary W a ge Provisions
T ab le B-l. Shift Differentials
(Shift differentials of manufacturing plant workers by type and amount of differential*
Raleigh* N .C ., September 1961)
Percent of manufacturing plant workers—
Shift differential

In establishments having form al
provisions 1 for—
Second shift
work

Third or other
shift work

Actually working on—

Second shift

Third or other
shift

67.9
With shift pay differen tial______________________

55.4

14.8

8.1

30.8

36.6

5.3

2.4

__ . _____ __ __

15.3

17.9

3.2

2.2

5 cents ___ ___ ____________________________ _
10 cents ____ _______ ___________ , ____. ___
_
13V3 c e n t s ________________________________
15 c e n t s ___ _______ ____ .................. ________
25 cents ------------------------------------------------------

3.3
5.6
6.5
_
-

12.3

2.2

3.5
2.1

.3
.3
2.6
-

Uniform pe rcen tag e__________________________

15.5

15.5

2.1

.1

10 percent --------------------------------------------------

15.5

15.5

2.1

.1

3.3

-

.1

18.8

9.5

Uniform cents (per hour)

Other form al pay d iffe r e n tia l_______________
No shift pay differential ________________________

37.1

-

-

-

5.7

1
Includes establishments currently operating late shifts* and establishments with form al provisions covering late shifts
even though they were not currently operating late shifts.

.10
Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salaries for Women Office Workers
(Distribution of establishments studied in all industries and in industry divisions by minimum entrance salary for selected categories
of inexperienced women office workers, Raleigh, N. C ., September 1961)
Other inexperienced clerical workers 2

Inexperienced typists

Manufacturing
Minimum weekly s a la ry 1

All
industries

Nonmanufacturing

A ll
schedules

40

A ll
schedules

35

Nonmanufacturing

Manufacturing

Based on standard weekly hours 3 of--37 V2 383/4

Based on standard weekly hours 3 of---

A ll

A ll
schedules

40

40

A ll
schedules

35

37*/, 383/4

40

__

71

25

XXX

46

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

71

25

XXX

46

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

Establishments having a specified minimum . . . . . . . . __ ______________

19

6

6

13

3

3

3

4

36

12

11

24

3

3

3

12

1
1
1
10
1
2

_
3
-

_
3
-

1
1
1
7
1
2

_
1
2
-

1
_
• 1
1

.
1
1
1
-

_
3
1

3
2
1
20
1
6

_
6
3

_
6
2

1
1
1
-

.
1
2

1

1

1

-

-

-

-

-

1

1

1

.
1
2
-

_
_
1
9
2
-

Establishments studied ___________________________________ _______

$ 33. U and
0
$37. 50 and
.f 40.00 and
$42. d0 and
$45. U and
U
$47. 50 and
$50.00 and
$52. 50 and
$35. 00 and
$57. 50 and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$37. 50
$40. 00
$42.50
$45. 00
$47. 50
$50.00
,$52.50
$55.00
$57.50
$60. 00

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------__________________________________________
__________________________________________
________________ _____________ ____________
_________________ . . . ______ . . . . ____. . . . . . . . . .
___________ . . . _________________ __________
_________________ ______________ ________
_______________________ . . ____ ________
......... ....................................................................

•<a!>!ishments having no specified minimum ________________________
k s lab Ushutouts which did not employ w orkers
m this category _______ . . . ________________ ___
1

. . . ____ ______ . . . . . . . . . .

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3
2
1
14
1
3
-

2

2

2

-

-

-

-

-

2

2

2

-

-

-

-

-

5

2

XXX

3

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

12

6

XX X

6

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

47

17

XXX

30

XX X

XXX

XXX

XXX

23

7

XXX

16

XX X

XX X

XXX

XXX

-

-

-

-

Lowest salary rate form ally established for hiring inexperienced workers for typing or other clerical jobs.

1 Rates applicable to m essengers, office girls, or sim ilar subclerical jobs are not considered.
3

Hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-tim e salaries.

Data are presented for all workweeks combined, and for the m ost common workweeks reported.

T ab le B-3. Sche du led W e e k ly H ours
(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by scheduled weekly hours
of first-sh ift workers, Raleigh, N. C . , September 1961)
OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

Weekly hours
All in u
d stries3

Aii workers ___________________________ . . . . . __ . . .
H?)hours
Over 35 and under 383/4 hours -----------------------5S3/ 4 hours ---------------------------------------------------------39 hours ______________________ ____ ___ _______ . . .
40 hours ______. . . . . ____. . . . __
O 'e r 40 and under 44 hours _______ ____ _____. . .
44 hours ______________________________ ___ . . . __ _
Over 44 and under 48 hours ___________________
4fc hours _________ ___ _____ _____ „........ , .....
.
Over 4d hours __________________________________

3
2
3
4

100
12
11
18
(4)
52
2
4
1
(4)

M ufactu g
an
rin

P
ublic u
tilities2

_

M
anufacturing

100

100

A in u
ll d stries3

100
3
6

P
ublic utilities2
100

(4)
12

6

2
14

-

-

-

-

_

1
77
7

-

-

-

_

94
-

67
1
5
5
4
2

81
2
2
3
1

92

-

1

-

-

-

1

*

Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Less than 0. 5 percent.

_

_

8
_

-

Table B-4. Paid Holidays
(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by number of paid holidays
provided annually* Raleigh, N .C ., September 1961)
O F F IC E W O R K E R S

PLAN T W ORKERS

Item
AU industries1

P ublic utilities

Manufacturing

2
1

All industries 3

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

1
100

100

100

100

97

A ll workers ---------------------------------------------------------

99

89

3

1

11

_
(4 )
4
3
79
2

100

100

71

58

94

29

42

2
5
8
13
20
1
12
(4 *
)
9

_
9
9
7
15
3
15

W orkers in establishments providing
W orkers in establishments providing
no paid holidays ______________________________

Number of days
1 holiday
3 holidays
4 holidays
5 holidays
5 holidays
6 holidays
6 holidays
7 holidays
7 holidays
8 holidays
9 holiday.

_________________________________________
----------------- ---------------------------------------_______________________________________
_______________________________________
plus 1 half day ---------------------------- —
_________________ _____________________ plus 1 half day ---------------------------------________________________________ _______
plus 1 half day ---------------------------------_______________ __ ___ , ________ , ____,___
_
_
------------------------------------------------------------

1
1
2
13
1
21
(4)
37
3
14
3

1
3
7
21
39
9
19

|

6
8

70
4
-

'

Total holiday time9

9days
8 or
7 l/ 2
7 or
6 lfz
6 or

m ore days --------------------------------------------------or more days ------------------------------- -----------m ore days --------------------------------------------------or more days ----------------------------------------------m ore days --------------------------------------------------5 l /z or m ore days ----------------------------------------------5 or m ore days --------------------------------------------------4 or m ore days --------------------------------------------------3 or m ore days --------------------------------------------------1 or m ore days ---------------------------------------------------

1
2
3
4
*
and no

3
18
21
58
59
80
81
94
96
96
97

_
19
19
28
28
67
67
88
95
98
99

_
2
82
85
89
89
89
89
89
89

.
9
9
21
22
43
43
56
65
69
71

_
15
15
19
19
33
33
40
49
58
58

_
4
74
82
88
88

94
94
94
94

Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Transportation , communication, and other public utilities.
Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
L ess than 0.5 percent.
A ll combinations of full and half days that add to the same amount are combined; for example, the proportion of workers receiving a total of 7 days includes those with 7 full any
half days, 6 full days and 2 half days, 5 full days and 4 half days, and so on.
Proportions were then cumulated.

12
Table B-5. Paid Vacations
(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, Raleigh, N .C ., September 1961)
OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

Vacation policy
A industries1
U

All w o r k e r s -----------------------------------------------------------

M ufactu g
an
rin

P
ublic u
tilities 2

100

100

100

4 100
99
<5)
-

100
99
1

100
100
-

Ai! in u
d stries 3

M
anufacturing

Public utilities2

100

100

100

4 92
79
14

87
60
27

-

-

100
100
-

8

13

14
6
-

-

M e th o d o f p a y m e n t
Workers in establishments providing
paid vacations __________________________________
Length-of-tim e payment--------------------------------Percentage paym ent---------------------------------------F lat-su m payment____________________________
O ther___________________________________________
Workers in establishments providing
no paid vacations _______________________________

-

-

-

.

A m ount o f v a c a tio n p a y 6
After 6 months of service
Under 1 w e e k --------------------------------------------------------1 w e e k -------------------------------------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 w eek s-----------------------------------2 w eeks____________________________________________

3
31
26
12

11
36
9
(5)

_
80
-

8
15
1
-

18
1
79

24
4
72

26

69

-

-

74

20

77
9

62
_
38

8
4
87

20
8
72

3
16
81

42
17
34

55
23
9

8
20
72

6
1
93

16
8
76

3
97

30
14
49

44
23
20

8
6
86

6
1
93

16
8
76

3
97

29
14
49

43
23
21

8
6
86

3
1
92

8
8
84

_

4

-

-

16
6
63
5
2

26
8

100

-

_
66

-

After 1 year of service
1 w e e k _____________________________________________
Over 1 and under 2 w eeks_______________________
2 w eeks____________________________________________
After 2 years of service
1 w e e k _____________________________________________
Over 1 and under 2 w eek s-----------------------------------2 w eeks------------------------------------------------------------------After 3 years of service
1 w e e k _____________________________________________
Over 1 and under 2 w eek s_______________________
2 w eeks------------------------------------------------------------------After 4 years of service
1 w e e k _____________________________________________
Over 1 and under 2 w eek s-----------------------------------2 w eeks------------------------------------------------------------------After 5 years of service
1 w e e k _____________________________ _______________
Over 1 and under 2 w eek s_______________________
2 w eeks___________
Over 2 and under 3 w e e k s _____________________
3 weeks

See footnotes at end of table,

1

-

49

6
94

5

_

13
Table B-5. Paid Vacations-Continued
(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions* Raleigh* N .C ., September 1961)
PLAN T W ORKERS

O F F IC E W O R K E R S

Vacation policy
AU industries1

Amount of vacation pay6—

Manufacturing

P u blic Utilities2

AU industries3

Manufacturing

P ublic utilities2

Continued

After 10 vears of service
1 w A e lf

3 w eeks

3
61
4
32

8
_
74
4
14

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3
.
49
15
34

8
_
55
22
14

3
_
35
1
62

_
99

16
2
61

26
53

94

(5)
‘

14

8

6

_
_
43
49
8

16
2
51
10
14

26

8
_
47
4
41

_
_
21

16
2
42

26
33

_

_

24

79

33

28

76

3

Over 1 and under 2 weeks ______________________
2 weeks ___________________ _______________________
Over 2 and under 3 weeks _ ___ ___ _____ __

8

_

_

_

35
4
28
24

21

16
2
39

26

_

33
1
50
13

27

24

23
13

16
19

76

16
2
39

27

24

16
20

16
19

42
34

After 12 years of service
1 week — __ __
__ _ _
Over 1 and under 2 weeks ______________________
2 weeks __________________________________________
Over 2 and under 3 w e e k s ______________________
3 weeks - __ __ __
__ __
____

38
15
8

72
19
9

After 15 vears of service
1 w e e k _...
..........................
Over 1 and under 2 weeks ______________________
2 weeks - __________________________________________
Over 2 and under 3 w eeks ______________________
3 weeks ------ __ __ __ __ _____ __ _ __ _

After 20 vears of service
1

Over 1 and under 2 w e e k s ______________________
2 weeks - __ __ __ __ __ _____ _____ __ „ .
Over 2 and under 3 weeks ______________________
3 weeks ---------------------- — __ _ __ ____________
4 weeks -----__ __ __
__ __ __ _____ __

_

79
-

After 25 vears of service
1 w eek

3

Over 1 and under 2 weeks ______________________
2 weeks - — ------- __ __ _____ __ _____ __
Over 2 and under 3 weeks ______________________
3 weeks __________________________________________

8

_

_

_

_

30

35
4
25
28

21

1

46
21

26

_

73
6

'

* Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance* and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown -separately.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes data for wholesale trade* retail trade, real estate* and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Includes proportions of w orkers in establishments which did not provide vacations until after 2 years of service.
5 L e ss than 0.5 percent.
6 Periods of service were arbitrarily chosen and do not necessarily reflect the individual provisions for progressions. F or example, the changes in proportions indicated at 10 yea rs'
service include changes in provisions occurring between 5 and 10 years.
NOTE: In the tabulations of vacation allowances by years of service, payments other than "length of t i m e ," such as percentage of annual earnings or flat-su m payments, were converted
to an equivalent time basis; for example, a payment of 2 percent of annual earnings was considered as 1 w eek's pay.

14
T a b le B-6. Health, Insurance, a n d Pension Plans
(Percent of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions employed in establishments providing
health, insurance, or pension benefits, Raleigh, N .C ., September 1961)
O F F IC E W O R K E R S

Type of benefit

A ll industries1

M anufacturing

PLAN T W ORKERS

Public utilities1
2

All industries3

100

100

100

100

97

97

96

70

63

82

79

Manufacturing

P u blic Utilities2

100

100

86

86

94

68

61

60

68

90

64

54

86

Workers in establishments providing:
Life insurance ________ _____ — ------------- —
Accidental death and dismemberment
insurance
............................... .
Sickness and accident insurance or
sick leave or both4 ------------------------------------Sickness and accident insurance ------------Sick leave (full pay and no
waiting period) ---------------------------------------Sick leave (partial pay or
waiting period) ----------------------------------------

45

52

62

40

50

33

64

62

35

17

2

27

4

-

6

13

9

40

Hospitalization insurance -----------------------------Surgical insurance ----------------------------------------Medical insurance -----------------------------------------Catastrophe insurance ----------------------------------Retirement pension ---------------------------------------No health, insurance, or pension plan -------

92
93
72
70
83

93
93
56
66
67
2

72
75
72
81
65

80
80
43
32
44
8

86
86
38
33
32

56
56
50
84
66

1

10

1 Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
2 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
3 Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
4 Unduplicated total of workers receiving sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately below. Sick-leave plans are lim ited to those which definitely establish at least
the m inimum number of days* pay that can be expected by each employee. Informal sick-leave allowances determined on an individual basis are excluded.

Appendix A: Changes in Occupational Descriptions

stead of two (class A and B). The revised description for keypunch
operator groups these workers into two defined classes (A and B)
instead of a single category. Previously data were presented separately
for general stenographers and technical stenographers. The revision
combines general stenographers, with more responsible duties, and
technical stenographers to form a new senior stenographer category;
other general stenographers are maintained in that classification.

Since the Bureau’ s last survey in this area, occupational
descriptions for three office jobs were revised in order to obtain salary
information for more sp ecific categories. Therefore, data presented
for these jobs in table A -l are not comparable to data presented in last
year’ s bulletin*

Revisions were made in the descriptions for file clerks, key­
punch operators, and stenographers. The revised description for file
clerk groups these workers into three levels (class A, B, and C) in­

The revised occupational descriptions used this year are in­
cluded in appendix B.

15

Appendix B: Occupational Descriptions
The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to assist its
field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because o f this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field economists are in*
structed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped, part-time,
temporary, and probationary workers.

OFFICE
BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKE EPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statements, b ills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
classified by type o f machine, as follows:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.
Class A—
Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, bal­
ance sheets, and other records by hand.

Biller, machine (billing machine)—
Uses a special billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, etc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of predetermined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.

Class B—
Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type of billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation of trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.

Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine)—
Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, etc., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers’
bills as part o f the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry o f figures on customers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types of sales and
credit slips.

CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A—
Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a com­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase of an establish­
ment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

17

18

CLERK, ACCOUNTING—
Continued

payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper ac­
counting distribution; and requires judgment and experience in
making proper assignations and allocations. May assist in preparing,
adjusting and closing journal entries; and may direct class B ac­
counting clerks.
Class B—
Under supervision, performs one or more routine ac­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or ac­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; and posting subsidiary ledgers con­
trolled by general ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data.
This job does not require a knowledge of accounting and book­
keeping principles but is found in offices in which the more routine
accounting work is subdivided on a functional basis among several
workers.

CLERK, FILE
Class A— an established filing system containing a number
In
of varied subject matter files, classifies and indexes file material
such as correspondence, reports, technical documents, etc. May
also file this material. May keep records of various types in con­
junction with the files. May lead a small group of lower level file
clerks.
Class B—
Sorts, codes, and files unclassified material by sim­
ple (subject matter) headings or partly classified material by finer
subheadings. Prepares simple related index and cross-reference
aids.
As requested locates clearly identified material in files
and forwards material. May perform related clerical tasks required
to maintain and service files.

Class C—
Performs routine filing of material that has already
been classified or which is easily classified in a simple serial
classification system (e.g., alphabetical, chronological, or numer­
ical). As requested, locates readily available material in files
and forwards material; and may fill out withdrawal charge. Per­
forms simple clerical and manual tasks required to maintain and
service files.

CLERK, ORDER

Receives customers9orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination of the following:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing die items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities o f items on order
sheet; and distributing order sheets to respective departments to be
filled. May check with credit department to determine credit rating o f
customer, acknowledge receipt o f orders from customers, follow up orders
to see that they have been filled, keep file o f orders received, and check
shipping invoices with original orders.

CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the neces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers9
earnings based on time or production records; and posting calculated
data on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker’ s name, work­
ing days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due.
May make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and dis­
tributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that o f statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use o f a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file of used stencils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

19

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR

Class A—
Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or combina­
tion keypunch machine to transcribe data from various source docu­
ments to keypunch tabulating cards. Performs same tasks as lower
level keypunch operator but in addition, work requires application of
coding skills and the making of some determinations, for example,
locates on the source document the items to be punched; extracts
information from several documents; and searches for and interprets
information on the document to determine information to be punched.
May train inexperienced operators.

Class B—
Under close supervision or following specific proce­
dures or instructions, transcribes data from source documents to
punched cards. Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or com­
bination keypunch machine to keypunch tabulating cards. May
verify cards. Working from various standardized source documents,
follows specified sequences which have been coded or prescribed
in detail and require little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting
data to be punched. Problems arising from erroneous items or codes,
missing information, etc., are referred to supervisor.

OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands, opera­
ting minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and dis­
tributing mail, and other minor clerical work.

SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an
administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receiving people coming into office; answering and

SECRETARY— Continued

making phone calls; handling personal and important or confidential
mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative; and taking
dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand
or by Stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dictation or die
recorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare
special reports or memorandums for information of superior.

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a
normal routine vocabulary; and transcribe dictation. May also type from
written copy. May maintain files, keep simple records, or perform other
relatively routine clerical tasks. May operate from a stenographic pool.
Does not include transcribing-machine work. (See transcribing-machine
operator.)

STENOGRAPHER, SENIOR
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a var­
ied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or
reports on scientific research and transcribe dictation. May also type
from written copy. May also set up and maintain files, keep records, etc.

OR

Performs stenographic duties requiring significantly greater
independence and responsibility than stenographers, general as evi­
denced by the following: Work requires high degree of stenographer
speed and accuracy; and a thorough working knowledge of general busi­
ness and office procedures and of the specific business operations,
organization, policies, procedures, files, workflow, etc. Uses this
knowledge in performing stenographic duties and responsible clerical
tasks such as, maintaining followup files; assembling material for
reports, memorandums, letters, etc.; composing simple letters from general
instructions; reading and routing incoming mail; and answering routine
questions, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work.

20

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office
calls. May record toll calls and take messages. May give information
to persons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders. For
workers who also act as receptionists see switchboard operatorreceptionist.

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR-Continued
Class C—
Operates simple tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with specific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs or re­
petitive operations.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single posi­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. This typing
or clerical work may take the major part o f this workers time while at
switchboard.
TABULA TING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Class A—
Operates a variety o f tabulating or electrical ac­
counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator, and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignments without close supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are o f irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating sequences of long and complex reports,
Does not include working supervisors performing tabulating-machine
operations and day-to-day supervision o f the work and production
o f a group o f tabulating-machine operators.
Class B—
Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical ac­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under
specific instructions and may include the performance of some wir­
ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but
small tabulating study, or parts o f a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
die procedures are well established. May also include the training
of new employees in the basic operation of the machine.

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal rou­
tine vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May also type from
written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation
involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal
briefs or reports on scientific research are not included. A worker who
takes dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is
classified as a stenographer, general.
TYPIST
Uses a typewriter to make copies o f various material or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May include typing of stencils, mats, or similar materials for use in
duplicating processes. May do clerical work involving little special
training, such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or
sorting and distributing incoming mail.

Class A—
Performs one ot mote o f the following: Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punc­
tuation, etc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; and planning layout and typing o f complicated statistical
tables to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type
routine form letters varying details to suit circumstances.
Class B—
Performs one or more o f the following: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing o f forms, insurance pol­
icies, etc.; and setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying
more complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

21

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR-Continued

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by draftsman or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Uses various types o f drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.

completed work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quan­
tities; writing specifications; and making adjustments or changes in
drawings or specifications. May ink in lines and letters on pencil
drawings, prepare detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings.
Work is frequently in a specialized field such as architectural, elec­
trical, mechanical, or structural drafting.

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration o f working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Duties involve a combination o f the following: Interpreting blueprints,
sketches, and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures;
assigning duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; and per­
forming more difficult problems. May assist subordinates during emer­
gencies or as a regular assignment, or perform related duties of a
supervisory or administrative nature.
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing
purposes. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Preparing
working plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-sections, etc., to scale by
use of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as
those involved in strength o f materials, beams and trusses; verifying

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combina•
tion o f the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of employees9 iujuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicant^
and employees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.
TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing
tracing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. Uses
T-square, compass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

MAINTENANCE AND POWERPLANT
CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE—
Continued

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most of the following:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’ s handtools, portable

power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; and selecting materials
necessary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance car­
penter required rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

22

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE

HELPER, MAINTENANCE TRADES

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, dis­
tribution, or utilization o f electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the elec­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; and using a variety
of electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In
general, the work of the maintenance elctricians requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

Assists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties o f lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
and performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The
kind of work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade:
In some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding
materials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts o f a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-time basis.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; and keeping a record
of operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May
also supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establish•
ments employing more than one engineer are excluded.

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction o f machine-shop tools, gages,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most o f the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree o f accuracy; using a variety o f pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and
operation sequence; and making necessary adjustments during operation
to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to rec­
ognize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing
shops are excluded from this classification.

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
Fire stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; and checks water
and safety valve.
May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom
equipment.

Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts o f mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Interpreting written instructions and
specifications; planning and laying out o f work; using a variety o f ma­
chinist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and
operating standard machine tools; shaping o f metal parts to close toler­
ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions o f
work, tooling, feeds and speeds o f machining; knowledge o f the working

23

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE—
Continued

MILLWRIGHT

properties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts,
and equipment required for his work; and fitting and assembling parts
into mechanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally
requires a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout
are required. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying
out o f die work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a
variety o f handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing o f equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment and
parts to be used; and installing and maintaining in good order power
transmission equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general,
the millwright’ s work normally requires a rounded training and experi­
ence in die trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an es­
tablishment. Work involves most o f the following: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source o f trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gages, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assemblies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; and alining wheels, adjusting brakes
and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the auto­
motive mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually ac­
quired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment o f an establishment.
Work involves most o f the following: Examining machines and mechan­
ical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly dis­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a re­
placement part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine
shop for major repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs
or for the production o f parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling
machines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In gen­
eral, the work o f a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience. Excluded from this classification are
workers whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.

OILER
Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces o f mechanical equipment of an establishment.

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler
in nail holes and interstices; and applying paint with spray gun or brush.
May mix colors, oils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain
proper color or consistency. In general, the work o f the maintenance
painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from draw­
ings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to
correct lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe­
cutting machine; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by
hand-driven or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings

24

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE—
Continued

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE-Continued

ana fastening pipe to hangers;making standard shop computations relat­
ing to pressures, flow, and size of pipe required; and making standard
tests to determine whether finished pipes meet specifications. In general
the work of die maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and
tepairing building sanitation or beating systems are excluded.

types of sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in
cutting, bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; and installing
sheet-metal articles as required. In general, the work o f the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.
TOOL AND DIE MAKER
(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gage maker)

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; and opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake.
In general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) o f an
establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints,
models, or other specifications; setting up and operating all available

Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gages, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching, and other metal-forming work. Work
involves mosi o f the following: Planning and laying out o f work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifications;
using a variety of tool and die maker’ s handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding o f the working properties o f common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling o f machines; heattreating o f metal
parts during fabrication as well as o f finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to close tolerances; fitting and assembling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allowances; and selecting appro­
priate materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die
maker’ s work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom
practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT
ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

GUARD

Transports passengers between floors of an office building
apartment house, department store, hotel, or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gatemen who ate stationed at gate and check on identity o f employees and
other persons entering.

25

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER

PACKER, SHIPPING

(Sweeper; charwomen; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial
or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance services; and cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Work­
ers who specialize in window washing are excluded.

Prepares finished pfoducts for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, die specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or more of
the following: Knowledge o f various items o f stock in order to verify
content; selection of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; and applying labels
or entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make
wooden boxes or crates are excluded.

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more o f the follow­
ing: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or
from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location;
and transporting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheel­
barrow. Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­
sible for incoming shipments o f merchandise or other materials. Ship­
ping work involves: A knowledge o f shipping procedures, practices,
routes, available means of transportation and rates; and preparing
records of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight
and shipping charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May
direct or assist in preparing the merchandise for shipment. Receiving
work involves: Verifying or directing others in verifying the correct­
ness of shipments against bills of lading, invoices, or other records;

ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)

checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods; routing merchan­
dise or materials to proper departments; and maintaining necessary
records and files.

Fills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, cus­
tomers9 orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders

For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:

and indicating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders
requisition additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and
perform dther related duties.

Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk

26

TRUCKDRIVER

TRUCKER, POWER

Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types o f estab­
lishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers’ houses or places of business. May also load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers
are excluded.

Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.

For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipment, as follows: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis of trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver (combination o f sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver» light (under 1% tons)
Truckdriver, medium (1% to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)

For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type, o f
truck, as follows:
Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)

WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.

** s. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : I M l O— #20758


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102