View PDF

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

Occupational Wage Survey

WORCESTER, MASSACHUSETTS
JUNE 1961

B letin
u




No. 1285-80

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




Occupational Wage Survey
WORCESTER, MASSACHUSETTS




JU N E

1961

Bulletin No. 1285-80
July 1961

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.

Price 20 cents




Preface

Contents
P age

The C om m u n ity W age S u rvey P r o g r a m

1.
2.

A:

E sta b lish m en ts and w o r k e r s w ithin s c o p e o f s u r v e y ------------------P e r c e n ts o f in c r e a s e in stan dard w eek ly s a la r ie s and
str a ig h t-tim e h o u rly ea rn in g s fo r s e le c t e d occu p a tion a l
g ro u p s ______________________________________________________________

O ccu p a tion a l e a rn in g s: *
A - 1. O ffic e o ccu p a tio n s ---------------------------------------------A - 2. P r o fe s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l o c c u p a t io n s _______
A - 3. M ain ten an ce and p ow erp la n t o ccu p a tio n s _____
A - 4. C u stodia l and m a te r ia l m o v e m e n t o c cu p a tio n s

A ppendix:

O ccu p a tion a l d e s c r ip tio n s _____________________________________

* N O TE: S im ila r tabu lation s fo r th ese and oth er it e m s ,
in clu din g data on esta b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and su p p lem en tary
w age p r o v is io n s , a re av ailab le in the W o r c e s t e r a r e a r e p o r t
fo r June I9 6 0 .
A d ir e c t o r y in d ica tin g date o f study and
the p r ic e o f the r e p o r t , as w e ll as r e p o r t s fo r oth er m a jo r
a r e a s , is a v a ila b le upon r e q u e s t.
C u rren t r e p o r ts on o c cu p a tio n a l ea rn in g s and su p­
p le m e n ta ry w age p r a c tic e s in the W o r c e s t e r a r e a a re a lso
a v a ila b le fo r the m a ch in e ry in d u str ie s (A p r il 1961).
Union
s c a le s , in d ica tiv e o f p re v a ilin g pay le v e ls , a re a ls o a v a ila ­
ble fo r sev en bu ildin g tr a d e s .

in

2
2

oo




T a b le s :

no

T h is r e p o r t w as p r e p a r e d in the B u r e a u 's r e g io n a l
o ffic e in B oston , M a ss. , b y L e o E pstein, under the d i r e c ­
tion o f P au l V. M ulkern, A s s is ta n t R eg ion a l D ir e c to r fo r
W ages and In d u stria l R ela tion s.

1
3

v

The B u reau o f L a b or S ta tistics r e g u la r ly con d u cts
a re a w id e w age su r v e y s in a n u m ber o f im p orta n t in d u stria l
c e n t e r s . The stu d ies, m a d e fr o m la te fa ll to e a r ly sp rin g ,
r e la te to o c cu p a tio n a l ea rn in g s and r e la te d su p p lem en ta ry
b e n e fits . A p r e lim in a r y r e p o r t is a v a ila b le on c o m p le tio n
o f the study in ea ch a r e a , u su a lly in the m on th fo llo w in g
the p a y r o ll p e r io d studied. T h is b u lle tin p r o v id e s a d dition a l
data not in clu d ed in the e a r lie r r e p o r t .
A co n s o lid a te d
a n a ly tica l b u lletin su m m a rizin g the r e s u lts o f a ll o f the
y e a r 's su r v e y s is is s u e d a fte r co m p le tio n o f the fin a l a r e a
b u lletin fo r the c u r r e n t roun d o f s u r v e y s .

Intr od u ction _________________________________________________________________
W age tren d s fo r s e le c t e d o ccu p a tio n a l g rou p s ___________________________

11




Occupational Wage Survey—Worcester, Mass.
Introduction

T his a r e a is one o f s e v e r a l im p orta n t in d u stria l c e n te r s in
w h ich the U. S. D ep artm en t o f L a b o r 's B u reau o f L a b o r S ta tistics
con du cts su r v e y s o f o ccu p a tio n a l e a rn in g s and r e la te d w age b en e fits
on an a r e a b a s is .
The b u lle tin p r e s e n ts c u r r e n t o ccu p a tio n a l em p lo y m e n t and
ea rn in g s in fo rm a tio n obtained la r g e ly b y m a il fr o m the e sta b lish m en ts
v is ite d b y B u reau fie ld e c o n o m is t s in the la st p r e v io u s s u r v e y fo r o c c u ­
pation s r e p o r te d in that e a r lie r study.
P e r s o n a l v is it s w e re m ade
to n on resp on d en ts and to th ose re sp o n d e n ts r e p o rtin g unusual changes
sin c e the p r e v io u s s u r v e y .

In e a ch a r e a , data a r e obtain ed fr o m r e p r e s e n ta tiv e e s t a b lis h ­
m en ts w ithin s ix b r o a d in d u stry d iv is io n s : M an u fa ctu rin g; tr a n s p o r ­
tation , 1 c o m m u n ica tio n , and oth er p u b lic u tilitie s ; w h o le s a le tra d e; r e ­
ta il tra d e ; fin a n ce , in s u r a n ce , and r e a l esta te; and s e r v ic e s .
M a jo r
in d u stry g rou p s ex clu d ed fr o m th ese stu d ies a r e g ov e rn m e n t op era tion s
and the c o n s tr u c tio n and e x tr a c tiv e in d u s tr ie s .
E s ta b lish m en ts having
fe w e r than a p r e s c r ib e d n u m ber o f w o r k e r s a r e om itted a ls o b e c a u s e
they fu rn ish in su ffic ie n t em p lo y m e n t in the o ccu p a tio n s studied to w a r ­
rant in clu s io n . W h e re v e r p o s s ib le , se p a r a te tabu lation s a r e p r o v id e d
fo r each of the b r o a d in d u stry d iv is io n s .
T h ese s u rv e y s a r e con d u cted on a sa m p le b a s is b e c a u s e o f the
u n n e c e s s a r y c o s t in v olv ed in su rv e y in g a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts. T o obtain
a p p ro p ria te a c c u r a c y at m in im u m c o s t , a g r e a te r p r o p o r t io n o f la rg e
than o f s m a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts is stud ied. In com b in in g the data, h ow ­
e v e r , a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts a r e g iv en th eir a p p ro p r ia te w eigh t. E stim a tes
b a se d on the e sta b lis h m e n ts studied a r e p r e s e n te d , t h e r e fo r e , as r e ­
lating to a il e sta b lis h m e n ts in the in d u stry grou p in g and a r e a , e x ­
cep t f o r th ose b e lo w the m in im u m s iz e stu d ied.

take a cco u n t o f in te re sta b lish m e n t v a r ia tio n in duties w ithin the sam e
jo b . (See appendix fo r lis tin g o f th ese d e s c r ip tio n s . ) E arn in gs data a re
p r e s e n te d (in the A - s e r i e s ta b le s ) fo r the fo llo w in g types o f o c c u p a ­
tio n s : (a) O ffice c le r i c a l; (b) p r o fe s s io n a l and te ch n ica l; (c ) m a in te ­
n an ce and p ow erp lan t; and (d) c u s to d ia l and m a te r ia l m ov em en t.

O ccu p ation a l em p loy m en t and earn in g s data a r e shown fo r
fu ll-t im e w o r k e r s , i. e. , th ose h ire d to w o r k a r e g u la r w eek ly s c h e d ­
u le in the given o ccu p a tio n a l c la s s ific a t io n .
E a rn in gs data ex clu d e
p rem iu m pay fo r o v e r tim e and f o r w o r k on w eek en d s, h o lid a y s , and
late s h ifts.
N on produ ction b on u ses a r e ex clu d ed a ls o , but c o s t - o f liv in g b on u ses and in cen tiv e earn in g s a r e in clu ded .
W h ere w eek ly
h ou rs a r e r e p o r te d , as fo r o ffic e c le r i c a l o c cu p a tio n s, r e fe r e n c e is
to the w o r k sch e d u le s (rounded to the n e a r e s t h a lf h ou r) fo r w hich
s tr a ig h t-tim e s a la r ie s a re paid; a v e r a g e w eek ly earn in g s fo r th ese
o ccu p a tio n s have b e e n roun ded to the n e a r e s t h a lf d o lla r .

A v e ra g e ea rn in g s o f m en and w om en a r e p re se n te d se p a r a te ly
fo r s e le c t e d o ccu p a tion s in w h ich both se x e s a r e c o m m o n ly em p loy ed .
D iffe r e n c e s in pay le v e ls o f m en and w om en in th ese o ccu p a tion s are
la r g e ly due to ( l ) d iffe r e n c e s in the d is trib u tio n o f the s e x e s am ong
in d u strie s and esta b lis h m e n ts; (2) d iffe r e n c e s in s p e c ifi c duties p e r ­
fo r m e d , although the o ccu p a tion s a r e a p p ro p r ia te ly c la s s ifie d w ithin
the sa m e su r v e y jo b d e s c r ip tio n ; and (3) d iffe r e n c e s in length o f s e r v ­
ic e o r m e r it r e v ie w when in dividu al s a la r ie s a r e ad ju sted on this b a s is .
L o n g e r a v e ra g e s e r v ic e o f m en w ould r e s u lt in h igh er a v e ra g e pay
w hen both s e x e s a re em p lo y e d w ithin the sa m e rate ra n g e.
Job
d e s c r ip tio n s u sed in c la s s ify in g e m p lo y e e s in th ese s u rv e y s a r e u su ­
a lly m o r e g e n e r a liz e d than th ose u sed in in dividu al esta b lish m en ts to
a llo w f o r m in o r d iffe r e n c e s am ong esta b lish m en ts in s p e c ific duties
p e r fo r m e d .

O ccu p ation s and E a rn in gs
The o ccu p a tio n s s e le c t e d f o r study a r e c o m m o n to a v a r ie ty
o f m a n u fa ctu rin g and n on m an u fa ctu rin g in d u s tr ie s . O ccu p ation a l c l a s ­
s ific a tio n is b a se d on a u n ifo rm se t o f jo b d e s c r ip tio n s d esig n ed to

O ccu p ation a l em p loy m en t e stim a te s r e p r e s e n t the total in a ll
e sta b lish m en ts w ithin the s c o p e o f the study and not the n u m ber a c tu ­
a lly su rv e y e d . B eca u se o f d iffe r e n c e s in occu p a tio n a l stru ctu re am ong
e s ta b lis h m e n ts, the estim a te s o f occu p a tion a l em p loym en t obtained
1
R a ilr o a d s , f o r m e r l y ex clu d ed fr o m the s c o p e o f th ese stu d iefr o m the sa m p le o f e sta b lish m en ts studied s e r v e on ly to in d icate the
s,
r e la tiv e im p o rta n ce o f the jo b s studied.
T h ese d iffe r e n c e s in o c c u ­
w e r e in clu ded in a ll o f the a r e a s stud ied s in c e JuLy 1959, e x ce p t B a lti­
pa tion a l s tru c tu re do not m a te r ia lly a ffe c t the a c c u r a c y o f the e a r n ­
m o r e (S ep tem b er 1959 and D e c e m b e r I9 6 0 ), B u ffa lo (O cto b e r 1959),
ings data.
C levela n d (S ep tem b er 1959), and Seattle (A ugust 1959).




2




T ab le 1.

E sta b lish m e n ts and w o rk ers within scope o f su rve y and num ber studied in W o r c e s t e r , M a s s . , 1
by m a jo r in du stry d iv isio n , 2 June 1961
N u m ber of e sta b lish m en ts

Industry division

W ithin scope
of stu d y 3

W o r k e r s in esta b lish m en ts

Studied

W ithin scope
of study

Studied

_

24 8

86

5 7 , 500

3 6 , 550

M a n u fa c tu r in g ___________________ __________
Nonm anufacturing ___________________________
T r an sp ortation , com m u n ication ,
and other public u tilities 4 --------- —
W h o lesa le trade 5 _______________ ______
R e ta il trade 5___________________________ _
F in a n c e, in su ran ce , and r e a l
estate 5 ---------------------------------------------------S e r v ic e s 5 > 6 _____________________________

163
85

52
34

4 2 ,7 0 0
1 4 ,8 0 0

2 7 , 770
8 , 780

13
11
41

8
4
12

3 , 100
6 , 700

2 ,6 3 0
390
2 , 580

15
5

7
3

3 ,6 0 0
500

2 , 750
430

A ll d ivision s _____________

_______

___

9 0 0

1 The W o r c e s te r Standard M etrop olitan S ta tistica l A r e a (W o r c e s te r C ity; A ubu rn, B e r lin , B o y lsto n , B r o o k fie ld , E a s t B r o o k fie ld , G rafton,
H old en , L e ic e s t e r , M illb u r y , N orthborough, N orth b rid ge, North B r o o k fie ld , O xford , S h re w sb u ry, S p e n c e r , Sutton, Upton, W estb orou g h , and W e st
B oylston towns in W o r c e s t e r County, M a s s . ) . The "w o r k e r s within scope o f stu d y " e stim a te s shown in this table provide a r eason ab ly accu rate
d esc rip tio n of the siz e and c o m p osition of the lab or fo r c e included in the su rv e y .
The e stim a te s are not intended, h o w ev er, to se r v e as a b a sis
o f c o m p a r iso n with other a r e a em p loym en t indexes to m e a su r e em p loym en t trends or le v e ls sin ce ( l ) planning of wage su rv e y s re q u ir e s the u se of
esta b lish m en t data co m p iled co n sid era b ly in advance of the p ayroll p eriod stud ied , and (2) sm a ll esta b lish m en ts are exclu ded fr o m the scope of
the su rv e y .
2 The 1957 r e v ise d edition of the Standard In d ustrial C la ssific a tio n M anual w as u sed in c la ssify in g esta b lish m en ts by industry d iv isio n .
M a jo r
changes fr o m the e a r lie r edition (used in the B u r e a u 's lab or m a rk et wage su rv e y s conducted p rior to July 1958) are the tra n sfe r of m ilk p a ste u r iz a ­
tion plants and r e a d y -m ix e d c on crete esta b lish m en ts fr o m trade (w holesale or r e ta il) to m an ufacturin g, and the t ra n sfe r of radio and te le v isio n
b road castin g fr o m s e r v ic e s to the tra n sp ortation , com m u n ication , and other public u tilities d iv isio n .
3 Includes all esta b lish m en ts with total em ploym en t at or above the m in im u m -s iz e lim ita tio n (50 e m p lo y e e s ).
A ll ou tlets (within the a r e a ) of
com p an ies in such in d u strie s as tra d e , finance, auto r ep a ir s e r v ic e , and m o tio n -p ictu re th eaters are c o n sid ere d as 1 e sta b lish m e n t.
4 T axic ab s and s e r v ic e s in ciden tal to w ater tran sp ortation w ere ex clu d ed .
5 This in du stry d ivision is rep rese n ted in e stim a te s fo r "a l l in d u s tr ie s " and "n on m an u factu rin g" in the S e r ie s A ta b le s.
S ep arate p resen tation
of data for this d ivision is not m ade for one or m o r e o f follow in g r e a so n s: ( l ) E m p loym en t in the d ivision is too s m a ll to provide enough data to
m e r it sep arate study, (2) the sam p le was not d esign ed in itia lly tp p erm it sep arate p resen tation , (3) resp o n se w as in su fficie n t or inadequate to p erm it
sep arate p resen tation , (4) there is p o ssib ility of d isc lo su r e of individual e sta b lish m en t data.
6 H o te ls; p erso n a l s e r v ic e s ; b u sin ess s e r v ic e s ; autom obile rep a ir sh ops; m otion p ictu r e s; nonprofit m e m b e r sh ip organizations.; and en gin eerin g
and a rc h itec tu ra l s e r v ic e s .

Table 2 .

P e r c e n ts o f in c r e a se in standard w eekly s a la r ie s and stra ig h ttim e h ourly earn ings fo r se le c te d occupational groups in
W o r c e s t e r , M a s s . , June I9 60 to June 1961
O ccupation al group

O ffic e c le r ic a l (w o m e n )_________________ __
In dustrial n u r se s ( w o m e n )-------------------------S killed m aintenance ( m e n ) _______________
U n sk illed m aintenance (m en) ------------------

A ll in du stries

M anufacturing

3 .4
2 .3
3 .4
4 .6

3. 5
2 .3
3 .4
3. 6

3

Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups

P r e s e n te d in table 2 a re p e r c e n ts o f change in s a la r ie s o f
w om en o ffic e c le r i c a l w o rk e r s and in d u stria l n u r s e s , and in a v era g e
earn in g s o f s e le c t e d plant w o rk e r g ro u p s.
F o r o ffic e c le r i c a l w o r k e r s and in d u stria l n u r s e s , the p e r ­
cents o f change re la te to a v e ra g e w eek ly s a la r ie s f o r n o rm a l h ou rs
o f w ork , that is , the standard w ork sch ed u le f o r w hich s tr a ig h t-tim e
s a la r ie s a re p a id. F o r plant w o r k e r g ro u p s, they m e a s u re changes
in s tr a ig h t-tim e h ou rly e a rn in g s, ex clu d in g p r e m iu m pay f o r o v e r ­
tim e and f o r w ork on w eek en d s, h o lid a y s , and la te sh ifts. The p e r ­
cen tag es a r e b a se d on data fo r s e le c t e d k e y occu p a tio n s and in clu de
m o s t o f the n u m e r ic a lly im p orta n t jo b s w ithin ea ch grou p .
The o f ­
fic e c le r i c a l data a re b a sed on w om en in the fo llo w in g 18 jo b s : B ille r s ,
m a ch in e (b illin g m a ch in e); b o o k k e e p in g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s , c la s s A
and B ; C om p tom eter o p e r a t o r s ; c le r k s , file , c la s s A and B ; c le r k s ,
o r d e r ; c le r k s , p a y r o ll; keypun ch o p e r a t o r s ; o ffic e g ir l s ; s e c r e t a r ie s ;
ste n o g r a p h e rs , g e n e r a l; sw itch b oa rd o p e r a t o r s ; sw itch b oa rd o p e r a t o r r e c e p t io n is t s ; ta b u la tin g-m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s ; tr a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e o p ­
e r a t o r s , g e n e ra l; and ty p is ts , c la s s A and B.
The in d u stria l n u rse
data a re b a se d on w om en in d u stria l n u r s e s .
M en in the follow in g
10 s k ille d m ain ten an ce jo b s and 3 u n sk illed jo b s w e re in clu d ed in the
plant w o rk e r data: Skilled— c a r p e n te r s ; e le c t r ic ia n s ; m a ch in is ts ; m e ­
ch a n ics; m e c h a n ics , au tom otiv e; m illw rig h ts ; p a in te rs ; p ip e fitte r s ;
s h e e t-m e ta l w o r k e r s ; and to o l and die m a k e r s ; u n sk illed — ja n ito r s ,
p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s ; la b o r e r s , m a te r ia l handling; and w atch m en .
A v e ra g e w eek ly s a la r ie s o r a v era g e h o u rly ea rn in g s w e re
com pu ted fo r ea ch o f the s e le c t e d o ccu p a tio n s.
The a v era g e s a l ­
a r ie s o r h o u rly earn ings w e re then m u ltip lied by the a v e ra g e e m p lo y ­
m ent in the jo b during the m onths in d ica ted in the title o f table 2 .




T h ese w eigh ted earn in g s f o r in dividu al occu p a tio n s w e re then tota led
to obtain an a g g reg a te fo r e a c h o c cu p a tio n a l g rou p. F in a lly , the ra tio
o f th ese grou p a g g re g a te s f o r the one y e a r to the a g g reg a te f o r the
o th e r y e a r w as com pu ted and the d iffe r e n c e betw een the r e su lt and
1 00 is the p e r c e n t o f change fr o m the one p e r io d to the oth er.

The p e r c e n t o f change m e a s u r e s , p r in c ip a lly , the e ffe c t s o f
( 1 ) g e n e r a l s a la r y and w age ch a n g es; ( 2 ) m e r it o r oth er in c r e a s e s
in p a y r e c e iv e d b y in dividu al w o r k e r s w hile in the sa m e jo b ; and
(3) changes in the la b o r f o r c e su ch as la b o r tu r n o v e r, f o r c e ex p a n ­
s io n s , f o r c e r e d u ctio n s , and changes in the p r o p o r tio n s o f w o rk e r s
e m p lo y e d b y esta b lish m en ts w ith d iffe r e n t pay le v e ls . Changes in the
la b o r fo r c e can ca u se in c r e a s e s o r d e c r e a s e s in the occu p a tion a l
a v e r a g e s w ithout actu al w age ch a n g es. F o r ex a m p le, a f o r c e ex pan sion
m igh t in c r e a s e the p r o p o r t io n o f lo w e r pa id w o rk e r s in a s p e c ific
o ccu p a tio n and r e su lt in a d rop in the a v e r a g e , w h erea s a red u ction
in the p r o p o r t io n o f lo w e r paid w o rk e r s w ould have the o p p o s ite e ffe c t.
The m o v em en t o f a h igh -p a yin g esta b lis h m e n t out o f an a r e a cou ld
ca u se the a v e ra g e earn in gs to d ro p , even though no change in rates
o c c u r r e d in oth er a r e a esta b lis h m e n ts.
The u se o f constan t em p loym en t w eigh ts elim in a tes the e ffe c ts
o f changes in the p r o p o r t io n o f w o r k e r s r e p re s e n te d in ea ch jo b in ­
c lu d ed in the data.
N or a re the p e r c e n ts o f change in flu en ced by
changes in stan dard w ork sch e d u le s o r in p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e ,
s in c e they a re b a se d on pay f o r str a ig h t-tim e h ou rs.
In dexes fo r the p e r io d 1953 to I960 fo r w o r k e r s in 20 m a jo r
la b o r m a rk ets are p re se n te d in BLS B u ll. 1 2 6 5 -6 2 , W ages and R e ­
la ted B e n e fits , 60 L a b o r M a r k e ts, W inter 1 9 5 9 -6 0 .

4

A* Occupational Earnings
Table A-1. O ffice Occupations
(Average straight-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, W orcester, M a s s ., June 1961)
Atebaoe
S e x , o c c u p a t i o n , a n d in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n

Number
of

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

4 0 . 00
Weekly
Weekly
hours . earnings .
an d
(Standard/ (Standard)1 u n d e r
4 5 . 00

$
4 5 . 00

$
5 0 . 00

$
5 5 . 00

6 0 . 00

$6 5 . 00

$
7 0 . 00

*75. 00

$8 0 . 0 0

$8 5 . 00

5 0 . 00

55. 00

6 0 . 00

6 5 .0 0

7 0 . 00

7 5 .0 0

8 0 . 00

8 5 . 00

9 0 . 00

3

-

$
9 5 . 00 1 0 . 00
$0

$
$
$
$
$
1 0 5 . 0 0 1 1 0 . 00 1 1 5 . 00 1 2 0 . 0 0 1 2 5 . 00

9 5 . 0 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 5 . 00

1 1 0 . 00 1 1 5 . 00 1 2 0 . 00 1 2 5 . 0 0 1 3 0 . 0 0

$9 0 . 0 0

M en
C l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g , c l a s s A ------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r in g ------------------------------------------------------------------------

90
73

40. 0
40. 0

$ 1 1 1 .0 0
1 1 6 .0 0

-

-

-

-

-

■

-

•

•

-

C l e r k s , o r d e r -----------------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r in g ------------------------------------------------------------------------

56
53

4 0 .0
40. 0

9 5 . 50
9 6 . 50

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

*

-

O f f i c e b o y s ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

32

40. 0

4 9 . 50

33

19

4

4

-

-

1

-

T a b u la tin g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,

c l a s s A --------------------------

15

39. 0

1 0 1 .5 0

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

.

T a b u l a t i n g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B --------------------------M a n u f a c t u r in g -----------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------------------------------------

40
22
18

39. 5
40. 6
39. 0

8 1 .5 0
8 9 . 00
7 2 . 50

-

12
5
9

14
11
3

-

B i l l e r s , m a c h i n e ( b i l l i n g m a c h i n e ) ----------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r in g ------------------------------------------------------------------------

45
23

38. 5
40. 0

6 1 .5 0
7 2 .5 0

13
1

B o o k k e e p i n g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s A ----------------------M a n u f a c t u r in g ------------------------------------------------------------------------

56
39

39. 0
38. 5

7 1 .0 0
7 6 . 00

-

-

-

B o o k k e e p i n g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B ----------------------M a n u f a c t u r in g ----------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c t u r i n g ----------------------------------------------------------------

143
52
91

3 9 .5
39. 5
39. 0

5 8 . 50
6 7 . 50
5 3 . 00

C l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g , c l a s s A ------------------------------------------------M a n u fa c t u r in g -----------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c t u r i n g ----------------------------------------------------------------

1 54
100
54

39. 0
40. 0
38. 0

8 5 . 50
9 3 . 50
7 1 .0 0

C l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g , c l a s s B ------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r in g -----------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------------------------------------

222
127
95

39. 0
40 0
38. 0

6 4 . 00
6 5 . 00
6 2 . 50

_
-

C l e r k s , f i l e , c l a s s A --------------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r in g ------------------------------------------------------------------------

37
19

38. 5
40 0

6 9 . 50

_

78. Oo

-

C l e r k s , f i l e , c l a s s B ---------------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r in g -----------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------------------------------------

152
76
76

39. 0
40. 0
38. 0

5 4 . 00
5 6 . 50
5 1 .0 0

7
3
4

C l e r k s , o r d e r -----------------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r in g ------------------------------------------------------------------------

78
75

40. 0
40. 0

7 5 . 00
7 6 . 00

1

-

11
11

1
-

-

1

-

-

9
8

"

2
j

14
8

9
9

8
2

12
12

3
5

3
2

2
2

5
6

1
1

5
5

5
5

-

1

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

_

4

1

1

2

1

_

2

_

4

_

-

-

-

8
8

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

5
-------6—
1
1

4
4

229
29

7
6
-------T ~ -------5

-

-

-

-

-

4
4

2
2

-

-

.

5
1

2
2

6

1
1

9
9

4
4

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

4
4

5
2

8
1

-

9
5

15
12

9
9

1
1

-

-

-

-

9
9

-

-

-

-

-

*7
7

23
23

44
4
40

12
5
7

16
14
2

18
12
6

9
3
6

7
7
"

6
6
-

1
1
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

11
1
10

17
2
15

13
11
2

25
14
11

5
3
2

16
14
2

15
12
3

9
6
3

2
1
1

4
4

12
12

"

2
2

16
16

"

3
3

27
11
16

18
7
11

34
21
13

38
20
18

44
23
21

11
11
"

11
11
-

11
5
6

_

_

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

"

-

“

_

4

9

3
3

10
9

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

-

1

3
2

-

“

1
-

1

-

4
2

"

-

"

-

-

-

42
26
16

16
11
5

29
18
11

6
5
1

1
1
'

-

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1
"

-

“

"

"

-

6
6

3
3

17
17

11
10

10
10

7
7

3
3

4
4

1
1

7
7

9

24
16
9

22

36
26
10

30
2l
9

23
21
2

10
8
2

7
7

1
1

-

8
6
2

4
4

-

-

-

1
1

1
1

1
1

3

-

-

W om en

-

184
~ n s —
46

3 9 .5
40 0
3 8 .0

6 8 . 50
6 9 . 60
6 5 .0 0

C o m p t o m e t e r o p e r a t o r s ---------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r in g ------------------------------------------------------------------------

80
— 50—

39. 0
38. 5

6 8 . 00
7 2 . 00

3 9 .5
4oI 0

6 0 . 00
5 8 . 5o

-

-

See footnotes at end of table.




24
21

28
18 ....
10

48
9------39
1
-

C l e r k s , p a y r o l l --------------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r in g -----------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------------------------------------

D u p lic a tin g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s (M im e o g r a p h
o r D i t t o ) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r in g ------------------------------------------------------------------------

-

-

10
— 5------5

_

4

9

11

7

4

17

22

"

_

2

8

7

2

3

22

2
2

6
6

5
5

—

“ T 5 -----7

1
"

6

4

-

-

-

-6

2

"

■

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

3
3

1
1

“

“

“

_
-

_
-

-

"
-

-

-

2
2

-

-

“

-

4
4

-

-

_
-

-

1

1
"

-

-

-

"

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

-

“

“

-

-

-

"

-

■

5
Table A -l. O ffice Occupations-Continued
(Average straight-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, W orcester, M a s s ., June 19 6l)
Avbbagb

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

$
Weekly
4 0 .0 0
earnings ,
(Standard)1 (Standard)1
4 5 . 00
Weekly

$
4 5 . 00

$
5 0 .0 0

$
5 5 . 00

$
6 0 . 00

$
6 5 . 00

$
7 0 . 00

$
7 5 . 00

$
8 0 . 00

$
85. 00

$
9 0 . 00

8 5 . 00

9 0 . 00

~
9 5 .0 0 1 0 0 . 00 1 0 5 . 00

-

2
2

-

-

"

$
$
9 5 . 00 1 0 0 . 00

$
$
$
$
$
1 0 5 . 00 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 . 0 0 1 2 0 . 00 1 2 5 . 00
“
“
“
n o . oo 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 . 00 1 2 5 . 00 1 3 0 . 0 0

5 0 . 00

5 5 . 00

60. 00

6 5 . 00

7 0 . 00

7 5 . 00

8 0 . 00

11
3
8

14
6
8

2
2

-

1
1

-

-

-

-

_

-

_

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

"

-

-

"

-

-

-

-

-

5
5

.
-

Women— Continued
Keypunch operators --------------------------------------Manufacturing ------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------

1 88
82
106

38. 5
40. 0
37. 5

$ 6 0 . 50
6 6 . 50
5 6 . 00

1
1

30
30

29
5
24

39
22
17

50
32
18

Office girls ----------------------------------------------------M anufacturing-------------------------------------------

54
28

38. 5
40. 0

5 3 . 00
$ 5 . 00

-

12
1

21
13

16
13

4

"

Secretaries ---------------------------------------------------Manufacturing ------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------

407
307
100

3 9 .5
40. 0
3 8 .0

8 4 . 00
8 6 . 00
7 8 . 00

-

-

5
2

-

"

7
5
2

24
l'3
11

37
21
16

44
30
14

52
41
11

41
32
9

36
30
6

68
50
18

29
26
3

23
18
5

16
15
1

10
9
1

10
10

3

-

-

-

Stenographers, ge n e r a l-------------------------------Manufacturing ------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------

283
205
78

39. 5
40. 0
38. 5

6 9 . 00
7 1 . 50
6 3 . 50

-

3
3

12
7
5

60
26
34

49
42
7

32
24
8

53
40
13

21
20
1

27
17
10

2
2

-

17
17

-

5
5

2
2

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Switchboard operators----------------------------------Manufacturing ------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------

65
' 3i
34

3 9 .0
40. 0
3 8 .0

6 6 . 00
7 1 .5 0
6 1 .0 0

5
5

5
5

5
1
4

6
4
2

7
4
3

8
4
4

11
s
6

9
7
2

3
3

3
3

2
2

1
1

.
-

_
-

.
-

_
-

_
-

-

“

-

-

-

-

-

Switchboard o p erator-recep tion ists----------Manufacturing ------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------

111
82
29

40. 0
40. 0
3 9 .0

6 2 . 50
6 3 . 00
6 2 . 00

-

10
10

46
31
15

3
3

-

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

7
6
1

2
2

'

19
13
6

11
11

-

3
1
2

“

-

-

"

-

-

-

"

-

Tabulating-machine operators, class B —
Manufacturing -------------------------------------------

48
37

39. 5
40. 0

7 7 . 50
7 9 . 50

-

-

-

_

7
6

10
10

4
4

1
1

_

_

-

.

-

4
4

_

2

15
8

-

-

3
2

-

-

-

-

-

Transcribing-m achine operators, general
M anufacturing-------------------------------------------

106
55

38. 0
40. 0

6 4 . 50
6 8 . 50

5

7

19
12

10
5

15
12

1
1

2
2

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

24
16

-

-

23
7

-

-

-

-

-

Typists, class A ------------------------------------------M anufacturing------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing--------------------------------------

158
1 00
58

39. 0
40. 0
38. 0

6 6 . 00
6 7 . 00
6 4 . 50

_
-

6
6

11
5
6

30
19
11

45
31
14

26
18
8

14
8
6

7
6
1

3
3

5

4
4

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

6
6

_
-

-

1
1
-

-

-

-

Typists, class B -------------------------------------------Manufacturing ------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------

297
22 5
72

39. 5
40. 0
37. 5

5 6 . 50
5 7 . do
5 4 . 00

4
4

42
27
15

78
43
35

105
93
12

37
36
1

28
19
9

1
1

-

1
1
"

-

1
1
_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

"

8
------ 6—
2
4

"

5

9
9
-

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

1
Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-tim e salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
Includes 15 workers at $130 to $135; 1 at $135 to $140; 3 at $140 and over.
3 A ll workers were at $35 to $4 0.
4 1 worker was at $35 to $4 0.




-

-

-

"

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

6

Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations
(Average straight-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, W orcester, M ass. , June 1961)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGH T-TIM E WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
Weekly

Weekly

(Standard)

(Standard)

S
S
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
S
$
5
S
$
$
S
$
60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00 150.00 155.00 160.00 165.00
and
"
and
65. 00 70. 00 7 5 .0 0 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00 150.00 155.00 160.00 165.00 over

Draftsm en, leader ----------Manufacturing __________

51
51

40. 0
40. 0

$ 1 47 .5 0
147. 50

D raftsm en, s e n io r ________
Manufacturing ----------------

321
316

40. 0
40. 0

120. 00
120. 00

_

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

D raftsm en, junior -----------Manufacturing __________

302
295

40. 0
40. 0

87. 00
87. 00

4
4

12
12

21
21

37
35

62
57

40. 0
40. 0

88. 50
68. 50

4
4

16
l6

N u rses, industrial (r e g iste r e d )__
Manufacturing ___________________

4
4

.

-

-

4
4

-

11
11

1
1

4
4

14
14

2
2

2
2

, 9
“9

40
40

45
45

23
23

31
31

18
18

4
4

1
1

1
1

2
2

-

1
1

4
3

16
16

30
29

18
15

38
38

49
49

41
40

50
50

51
51

30
26

47
47

3
3

3
3

3
3

11
9

7
7

5
5

8
6

6
6

1

4
4

!
1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which em ployees receive their regular straight-tim e salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
2 W orkers were distributed as follow s: 3 at $ 165 to $ 170; 1 at $ 175 to $ 180; 5 at $ 180 to $ 185.




_

Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(Average straight-tim e hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, W orcester, M a s s ., June 1961)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

Occupation and industry division

C arpenters, maintenance __ ------Manufacturing _ „ ------- -------

of
workers

— __ __ —
__ ------- —

E lectrician s, maintenance ----- __ ------------------M anufacturing_________________________________

114
107
214
205

hourly ,
earnings1

$ 2 .4 9
2 .4 5
2 . 82
2. 83

$

$
$
$
$
$ ,
1. 70
1 . 80
Under 1 . 60
1 . 90
2 .
and
$
under
1 . 60
2 . 00
1. 70
1 . 80
1. 90
2 .

-

-

_

_

_

-

“

1

~

2

10

2 . 2 0

-

5
5

1

_

1

-

1

$
2. 30

1 0

4
4

2. 30

29
29

2 . 50

18
18

2 . 2 0

$
2 .4 0

2 .4 0

$

.

0 0

$
2. 50

4
4

17
17

14
13

24
23

15
15

5

3
3

_

. 60

2

$
,
$
. 60 2. 70 2 . 80

$
2

2. 70 i 2 .8 0

!
1
12

-

5
4

!
j

2
2

6

2

.

49
48

Firem en, stationary boiler ------------------------------M anufacturing------ ------- __ __ _____________

108
99

H elpers, trades, m ain te n an ce__ ________
Manufacturing _ ------ --- -----------------------

2. 64
2. 64
2. 30
. 28

2

__
—

89
65

M achine-tool operators, to o lr o o m ------------------Manufacturing _ __ _____ _____ __ __ __ __

123
123

2 . 39
2 .3 9

Machinists, maintenance _______________________
M anufacturing------ ------------- __ -------------------

219
217

2

96

Mechanics, automotive (maintenance)_________
Manufacturing _ _____ _______________
—
Nonmanufacturing -------------- „ __ __ __ —
Public utilities 2 ------- __ ________________

75
69

M echanics, maintenance _____ ______ — ______
Manufacturing _ __ __ ------- __ __ -------- —

216
206

2 1

“
_

-

_

2 .4 5
2. 63
. 39
2 .4 0

4
4

5
5

2 1
2 1

_
-

4
4
7
7
1 1
1 1

_
~

_
■

5
5

7
7

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

1

1

_

4

1

-

4

1 1
2

"

-

29

-

93
91

2. 75
2. 76

234
234

2. 67
2. 67

_

5
5

1

1

1

-

-

1

1 1

1

1 1

.

2
2

_

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

“

~

5
5

_

-

_

_

_

_

holidays,

4

5
5

_

Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends,
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.

1 1

16

5
5

_

1

-13
13

-

1

1

_

P ipefitters, maintenance __ __ __ _____________
Manufacturing
----------------------- __ ------- —

16
16

_

-

_

33

5
5

-

2. 57
2. 54

Painters, maintenance _ _____ __ ________ ____
Manufacturing _ __ ------------- __ ------- __ —

2

1

_

1

2

5
5

1 1

_

-

U

2

5
5

1 1

6 8

2 . 6 8

_

-

_

70




2

3
3

_
-

.

4
4

. 29
2 .2 8

O i l e r s __ ___ ___ ___ ___ _______ __ ____________ __
Manufacturing ____ __________ __
--------------

---------------------------------- —

_

_

2

_

-

_

41
39

Tool and die m akers
Manufacturing

1
1

. 79
2 .7 9

2

_

-

. 59
. 59

--------__ __

M illwrights
__ __ __ __ ------------Manufacturing _ ________ __ __ -------

. 02
1. 97

2

_

4
4

16

9
9
9

5
5

-

2 1

2

1

2 1

2

1

25
18
14
14

16
16

31
31

4
4

24
24

3
2

16
16

$
3. 00

3. 00

9 0

3. 10

14

1

12

38
38

48
44

_

4
4

5
5

_

_

-

6

2

6

-

_

3. 50

3
3

_

_

3 .4 0

4
-

7
7

_

3. 30

$
$
3. 30 3 .4 0

-

9
9

_

3 .2 0

-

3
3

-

3 .2 0

$

-

16
16

31
24

3. 10

3
3

34
34

!

$

.

2

_

_

_

_

'

“

"

'

1

_

_

-

13
13

_

1

-

2

12
12

2 1

2 1
2 1

3

4
4

17
3
14
14

5
1

12
12

4
4
16
3
13
12

30
29

_

_

17
17

1 1

1 0

1

1 0

1 0

-

7

2
2

5
5

48
48

5
4

_

_
-

_
“

.
'

-

45
45

"
2
2

_
-

_
“

.

.

_

_

_

_

_

2

2

2
2

2
“

4
4

46
46

48
42

7
7

1

_

_

9
7

-

14
13

15
15

13
13

23
23

4
4

2
2

3
3

2

4
4

19
18

1

1

5
5

9
9

13
13

4

.

_

_

_

_

_

_

4
4

1

3

_

_

1

7
7

1

1

1

■

■

7
7

_

_

_

_

.

_

1
1

.

1

12

12
1

5
5

5
5

11
11

6

30
30

2

4

_

1

_

2

_

-

and late shifts.

_

. 90

2

1

-

12

E ngineers, stationary _____ __ __ __ _____ __
Manufacturing _ ------------- __ ------------- ---------

$

3

“

-

~

2

6

2

5

3
3

9
9

42
42

15
15

6

1

1 1

8

10

8

7
7

39
39

34
34

43
43

1
1

49
49

-

1

-

-

-

“
14
14

11
11

_

8

Table A-4. Custodial and M aterial Movement Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly e a rn in g s fo r s e le c t e d o cc u p a tio n s stu d ied on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u str y d iv is io n , W o r c e s t e r , M a s s ., June 1 961)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

$
Occupation 1 and industry division

of
workers

earnings *

Elevator operators, passenger
(m en )-------------------------------------------------------

18

Elevator operators, passenger
(w om en)-------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing-------------------------------

148

2 . 10
2. 13

Guards -----------------------------------------------------M anufacturing-----------------------------------Janitors, p orters, and cleaners
(men) -----------------------------------------------------Manufacturing -----------------------------------c

1 . 1 0

1 . 2 0

and
under
1 . 1 0

1 . 2 0

1 .3 0

. 2 0

-

29

1 . 2 1

-

2 8

1. 19

$1

665
510
155
30

1. 72
1 .7 8
1.5 3
2 . 0 0

106
59
47

1 . 6 6

$

$

1 . 0 0

j

-

1

-

5
“

40
1 0

30

1 .4 0

1 .6 0

1 .5 0

-

3
3

2 1

-

$
$
$
$
$
1 .5 0 1 .6 0 1. 70 1 .8 0 1 . 9

4

3
3

1 2

2

$
$
1 .3 0 1 .4 0

46
19
27

1 .7 0

1 .8 0

1 .9 0

1

-

1

-

-

-

2

2

-

“

1

2

50
37
13

.

0 0

2 . 0 0

s

2

.

1 0

2 .2 0

2 .3 0

2 .4 0

2 .5 0

2 .6 0

33
29

2

25
25

-

2

$

2 . 50

$
$
$
5
s
$
$
$
$
2 . 70 2 . 80 2 .9 0 3 .0 0 3. 10 3 .2 0 3. 30 3. 40 3. 50
and
2 . 70 2 .8 0 2 .9 0 3. 00 3. 10 3 .2 0 3. 30 3. 40 3. 50 over
2

.

6 0

1

-

2

2 . 2 0

$
$
2 . 30 2 .4 0

$

2 . 1 0

$

$
0

52
52

41
29
1 2

1

42
42

7
5

34
24

72
56

1 0

1 6
3

144
137
‘7

1
1

6 8

54
14

1 1
8

41
41

1 6

-

36
31

1 6

2
2

2 0
2 0

4
4

3
3

2
2

4
4

-

1

-

-

2

2

-

-

-

-

_

6

5

1 6

1

3
3

“

5

Janitors, p orters, and cleaners
Manufacturing ----------------------------------Nonmanufacturing
T ___________ ,___________J1;_ _

570

---------------------------

307
108

1 .9 5
1. 72
2 . 14
2. 48

Order fille rs ------------------------------------------Manufacturing -----------------------------------

123
67

2. 05

P ackers, shipping (m e n )----------------------Manufacturing -----------------------------------

184
170

P ackers, shipping (women) -----------------Manufacturing -----------------------------------

167
167

Receiving clerks -----------------------------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------

Manufacturing -----------------------------------Public utilities

3

27

1 .4 7
1 . 2 2

"

3

-

12

15

4

4

3

2

14

25
25

8

41
41

2

1
1 2

6
2 1

8

13
l3

50
27
23

48
28

35
28

4

4

75
75

3
"

1

3

■

2

2

1 2

2

6

1 2

2

6

-

6

6

-

-

6

6

1 .2 9
1 .2 9

■

30
30

65
65

75
58
17

2 . 09
2. 14
1 .8 9

-

-

-

Shipping clerks -------------------------------------------------M anufacturing ----------------------------------------------

64
58

. 19
". 2 1

-

-

1

1

-

1

1

2

-

-

“

1

-

"

1

1

Shipping and receiving clerks ------------Manufacturing -----------------------------------

65
58

2. 05
2 . 04

.

-

-

-

-

5
5

Truckdrivers 4 ---------------------------------------Manufacturing ----------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ----------------------------Public utilities ^

501
19?
304
213

2 . 15
2 .3 3
2. 51

-

-

1 2

-

-

-

-

Truckdrivers, light (under
1 V 2 tons) -----------------------------------------Manufacturing ------------------------------

36
31

1 . 9 0

-

-

-

1 .9 6

8

2

2

.
.

1 6
1 6

2 . 2 6

“

2 0

"

2

1

27
27
2

-

6
6




44
24

3

2 0

4

7

95
2

-

1 6

'

7

9
9

27
13

18
17

5
5

25
25

37
36

5
5

1 0

2

-

1

-

-

1

-

9

6

3

1

10

6

8 6

6

8 6

12

14
14

-

-

1 0

17
_

-

8

-

-

-

8

-

*

14
5
9

25

17
17

1 6

16
-

1

-

1

9

13
13

-

8

2

9

2

-

-

-

2

8

1
1

8
1

1
1

-

-

-

2

1 1

2

2

-

1

-

1 1

2

2

-

1

-

1

-

-

-

-

1

2 2

7
7

13
1

-

12

6

-

6

-

9

2 2

5

8

17

5

2

-

6
6

87

1 6

93

3
3

1

2

1

1

2

-

17
17

-

_

_

-

-

6

39
39

1

5

-

-

26

1

1 2

“

“

2 2

_

12

6

1 0

6

6

6

1 2

6

13

-

1

-

1

1
____
See fo o tn o te s at end o f ta b le.

49
17
32

6

7

■

1 . 9 8

1

24
16
8

2 1

16

32
4
28

-

17
17
2 6

9
17

6
6

1 0

5
5
8

-

7

8

7
3
4

27
27

62
62

-

-

-

2
2

218
5'
213

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

7
7

3
3

2

2

1

2

1

2

2

1

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

_

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

9
Table A-4. Custodial and M aterial Movement Occupations-Continued
(Average straight-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, W orcester, M ass. , June 1961)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

Occupation 1 and industry division

N ber
um
of
w ers
ork

$
$
$
$
A
verage S
hou 2 1 .0 0 1. 10 1.2 0 1 .3 0 1 .4 0
rly
earn gs and
in
under
1. 10 1 .2 0 1 .3 0 1.4 0 1 .5 0

$
$
$
$
$
2 .0 0 2. 10 2. 20 2. 30 2 .4 0

$
1 .5 0

$
1 .6 0

$
S
$
1. 70 1. 80 1 .9 0

1 .6 0

1. 70

1. 80

1.9 0

2 .0 0

10
10

5
5

3
-

28

2. 10 2 .2 0

2. 30

2 .4 0

2 .5 0

*2.

50

2 .6 0

s
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
5 , $
2. 60 2. 70 2. 80 2. 90 3. 00 3. 10 3. 20 3. 30 3 .4 0 3. 50
and
2. 70 2. 80

2 .9 0

3 .0 0

3. 10

3 .2 0

3 .3 0

3 .4 0

3 .5 0

over

Truckdriver s : 4 — Continued
Truckdrivers, medium ( l l/s to and
including 4 tons) ---------- ------------- —
89
Manufacturing ----- ------------------ — ------ T 7 —

$ 2 .0 7
2. 01

-

-

-

-

5
----- 5“

1
1

-

20
3

3
3

2
2

6
6

4
-

-

-

-

1
1

-

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

.

Truckdrivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
tra iler type) ----------- __ „ ------- —

121

2 .4 4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

4

13

45

161
37

2. 38
2 .4 5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

10
10

11
11

108
5

-

-

4
4

-

-

10
1

-

-

12
"

-

"

Tru ckers, power (forklift) ______________
Manufacturing --------------------------------------

115
107

2. 27
2 .2 8

15
15

13
13

18
18

18
10

28
28

1
1

1
1

2
2

_

T ru ck ers, power (other than fo r k lift)__
Manufacturing
___________________ __

48
48

2 .4 2
2 .4 2

7
7

4
4

2
2

22
22

-

-

2
2

-

Watchmen _ ------------ ------------- -------------Manufacturing __________ __ __ _____

127
112

1. 85
1. 87

35
33

24
24

24
18

1
1

-

-

2
2

-

-

2
2

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

16
16

_

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

58

Truckdrivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
other than trailer ty p e )-------------- —
Manufacturing ---------- ------- ---------

-

_

2
2

8
2

-

1
1

12
12

_

-

10
10

3
3

7
6

1
______
1
2
3
4
5

Data lim ited to men workers except where otherwise indicated.
Excludes premium pay for overtim e and for work on weekends, holidays,
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes all drivers regard less of size and type of truck operated.
A ll w orkers were at $ 3 .5 0 to $ 3 .6 0 .




and late shifts.

-

-

-

-

2
2

2
2

-

1
1
6
56




11

A ppendix:

Occupational Descriptions

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to a ssist its
field staff in classifyin g into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau's field economists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers,
part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.
O F F IC E
B IL L E R , M A C H IN E

Prepares statements, b ills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerica l work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
cla ssified by type of machine, as follow s:
B ille r , m achine (h illin g m ach in e) — Uses a special billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, e tc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry ot necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.
B ille r , m achine (b o o k k e e p in g m a ch in e) — Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, e tc ., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers*
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform an<j standard types o f sales and
credit slip s.




B O O K K E E P IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.
C la s s A — Keeps a set o f records requiring a knowledge o f
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance
sheets, and other records by hand.
C la s s B — Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping.
Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type of billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation o f trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.
C L E R K , A C C O U N T IN G
C la s s A — Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more section s of a com ­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase o f an establish­
ment's business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

12

C L E R K , A C C O U N T IN G — -C ontinued

payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper a c ­
counting distribution; requires judgment and experience in making
proper assignations and allocation s. May a ssist in preparing, ad­
justing and closin g journal entries; may direct cla ss B accounting
clerks.
C la s s B — Under supervision, performs one or more routine a c ­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or a c ­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers, or posting simple co st accounting data. This
job does not require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping
principles but is found in o f f i c e s in which the more routine accountingwork is subdivided on a functional basis among several workers.

CLERK, PAYROLL

Computes wages of company employees and enters the n eces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers'
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker’ s name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and a ssist paymaster in making up and distribut­
ing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.
COM PTOM ETER O P E R A TO R

Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

C L E R K , F IL E
C la s s A — In an established filing system containing a num­
ber of varied subject matter file s , cla ss ifie s and indexes corres­
pondence or other material; may also file this material. May keep
records of various types in conjunction with files or may super­
vise others in filing and locating material in the file s . May per­
form incidental clerical duties.
C la s s B — Performs routine filing, usually of material that has
already been cla ssified or which is easily identifiable, or locates
or a ssists in locating material in file s . May perform incidental
clerica l duties.

CLERK, ORDER

R eceives customers* orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination o f the follow in g:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; distributing order sheets to respective departments to be filled .
May check with credit department to determine credit rating of customer,
acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders to see
that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check ship­
ping invoices with original orders.




D U P L IC A T IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R (M IM E O G R A P H O R D IT T O )

Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
b ilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare sten cil or Ditto master. May keep file of used stencils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR

Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
b ilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards by
punching a series of holes in the cards in a sp ecified sequence, using
an alphabetical or a numerical keypunch machine, following written in­
formation on records. May duplicate cards by using the duplicating de­
vice attached to machine. May keep files of punch cards. May verify
own work or work of others.
O F F IC E B O Y O R G IR L

Performs various routine duties such as running errands, op­
erating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and
distributing mail, and other minor clerica l work.

13

SECRETARY

Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an ad­
ministrative or executive position. Duties include making appointments
for superior; receiving people coming into o ffice; answering and making
phone ca lls; handling personal and important or confidential mail, and
writing routine correspondence on own initiative; taking dictation (where
transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded information
reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare special reports or
memorandums for information of superior.
STENOGRAPHER, G EN ERAL

Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a nor­
mal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter.
May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep files in or­
der, keep simple records, etc. D o e s not in clu de tran scribing-m ach in e
work (see transcribing-machine operator).
ST E N O G R A P H E R , T E C H N IC A L

Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a varied
technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on
scien tific research and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter. May
also type from written copy. May also set up and keep files in order,
keep simple records, etc. D o e s not in clu d e tran scribing-m ach in e w ork .
SW IT C H B O A R D O P E R A T O R

Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office ca lls .
May record toll ca lls and take m essages. May give information to per­
sons who call in, or occasion ally take telephone orders. For workers
who also act as receptionists see switchboard operator-receptionist.
SW IT C H B O A R D O P E R A T O R -R E C E P T IO N IS T

In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single p o si­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. This typing
or clerical work may take the major part of this worker’ s time while at
switchboard.




T A B U L A T IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R
C la s s A — Operates a variety of tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignments without close supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating sequences of long and complex reports.
D o e s not include working supervisors performing tabulating-machine
operations and day-to-day supervision of the work and production of
a group of tabulating-machine operators.
C la s s B — Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under
sp ecific instructions and may include the performance of some wir­
ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but
small tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are well established. May also include the training
of new employees in the basic operation of the machine.
C la s s C — Operates simple tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with specific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs, or re­
petitive operations.

T R A N S C R IB IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R , G E N E R A L

Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May also type from written
copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation in­
volving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal briefs
or reports on scien tific research are not included. A worker who takes
dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is classified
as a stenographer, general.

14

T Y P IS T

T Y P I S T — -Continued

Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to make
out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May in­
clude typing of sten cils, mats, or similar materials for use in duplicat­
ing p rocesses. May do clerical work involving little specia l training,
such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting
and distributing incoming mail.
C la s s A — Performs one o r more o f the fo llo w in g : Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punc-

tuation, etc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; planning layout and typing of complicated statistical tables
to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine
form letters varying details to suit circum stances.
C la s s B — Performs one or more o f the fo llo w in g : Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance p olicies,
e tc.; setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying more com­
plex tables already set up and spaced properly.

P R O F E S S IO N A L A N D T E C H N IC A L
D R A F T S M A N , JU N IO R

(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.
DRAFTSM AN, LE A D E R

Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration of working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Duties
involve a com bin ation o f the fo llo w in g : Interpreting blueprints, sketches,
and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures; assigning
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problems. May a ssist subordinates during emergencies or as a
regular assignment, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
ministrative nature.

D R A F T S M A N , S E N IO R — Continued

involved in strength of materials, beams and trusses; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quantities;
writing specification s; making adjustments or changes in drawings or
specifications. May ink in lines and letters on pencil drawings, prepare
detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings. Work is frequently
in a specialized field such as architectural, electrical, mechanical, or
structural drafting.
N U R S E , IN D U S T R IA L (R E G IS T E R E D )

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a com bina­
tion o f the fo llo w in g : Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of em ployees’ injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants
and employees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.

D R A F T S M A N , S E N IO R
TRACER

Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
poses. Duties involve a co m bin ation o f the fo llo w in g : Preparing work­
ing plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-section s, etc., to scale by use
of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as those




Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. Uses
T-square, compass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

15

M A IN T E N A N C E

D PO W ERPLANT

C A R P E N T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E

F IR E M A N , S T A T IO N A R Y B O IL E R

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’ s handtools, portable
power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; selecting materials n ec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom equipment.

E L E C T R I C I A N , M A IN T E N A N C E

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, d is­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specification s; locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c ­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; using a variety of
electrician 's handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In gen­
eral, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.
E N G IN E E R , S T A T IO N A R Y

Operates and maintains and may a lso supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, m otors,
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a record of
operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May also
supervise these operations. Head or ch ief engineers in establishments
employing more than one engineer are excluded .




H E L P E R , T R A D E S , M A IN T E N A N C E

A ssists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing sp ecific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is oermitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are a lso performed by workers on a full-time basis.
M A C H IN E -T O O L O P E R A T O R , T O O L R O O M

Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools, gauges,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most o f the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items reouiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety or pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making necessary adjustments during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classification .
M A C H IN IST , M A IN T E N A N C E

Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Interpreting written instructions and
specification s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
chinist's handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and

16

M A C H IN IST , M A IN T E N A N C E — C ontinued

M ILLW R IG H T— C ontinued

operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to close toler­
ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assembling parts into me­
chanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally requires
a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

are required. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specification s; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment, and parts
to be used; installing and maintaining in good order power transmission
equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the mill­
wright's work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

M E C H A N IC , A U T O M O T IV E (M A IN T E N A N C E )

Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an e s ­
tablishment. Work involves most o f the following: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassem bling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in disassem bling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assem blies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; alining wheels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
M E C H A N IC , M A IN T E N A N C E

Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves most o f the following: Examining machines and mechan­
ica l equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly d is ­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replace­
ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop
for major repairs; preparing written specification s for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling ma­
chines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In general,
the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classification are workers
whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.

MILLWRIGHT
Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
in sta lls machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout




O IL E R

Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.
P A IN T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E

Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, o ils , white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper
color or consistency. In general, the work of the maintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
P IP E F I T T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E

Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other written specification s; cutting various sizes of pipe to correct
lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with stocks and d ies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe ro hangers; making standard shop computations relating to pressures,
flow , and size of pipe required; making standard tests to determine
whether finished pipes meet specification s. In general, the work of the
maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building
sanitation or heating systems are excluded .

17

T O O L A N D D IE M AK ER

P L U M B E R , M A IN T E N A N C E

Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake. In
general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.
S H E E T -M E T A L W O R K ER , M A IN T E N A N C E

Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishment. Work involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, models,
or other specification s; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; installing sheetmetal articles as required. In general, the work of the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

C U

S T O

D

I A L

A N D

M

(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves m ost o f the fo llo w in g : Planning and laying out of work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specification s;
using a variety of tool and die maker’ s handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding of the working properties of common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
o f work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to clo s e tolerances; fitting and assembling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selecting appropriate
materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die maker’ s
work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this cla ssifica tion .

A T E R I A L

M

O V E M

E N T

E L E V A T O R O P E R A T O R , PASSENGER

J A N IT O R , P O R T E R , O R C L E A N E R — Continued

Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

or other establishment. Duties involve a com bination o f the fo llo w in g :
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Workers
who specialize in window washing are excluded.

GUARD

Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. In clu d es g a te men who are sta tio n e d at g a te and ch e c k on id e n tity o f e m p lo y e e s and

L A B O R E R , M A T E R IA L H A N D L IN G

oth er p erson s en terin g .
J A N IT O R , P O R T E R , O R C L E A N E R

(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial




(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more o f the fo llo w ­
in g: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or

18

L A B O R E R , M A T E R IA L H A N D L IN G — ’Continued

from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting d evices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; trans­
porting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.
L on g sh orem en , w h o load and unload s h ip s are e x c lu d e d .

SH IP P IN G A N D R E C E IV IN G C L E R K — Continued

For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified as follow s:
R e c e iv i n g clerk
Shipping clerk
S hipping and r e c e iv in g clerk

ORDER F IL L E R
T R U C K D R IV E R

(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, customers9
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders, requisi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.

Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of estab­
lishments such a s: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers' houses or places of business. May also load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. D riv e r-s a le s m e n and o ve r-th e -ro a d d r iv e rs
a re e x c lu d e d .

P A C K E R , S H IP P IN G

Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the sp ecific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and m ay in v o lv e on e or more o f
the fo llo w in g : Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify
content; selection of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closin g and sealing container; applying labels or
entering identifying data on container. P a c k e r s who a ls o m ake w ood en
b o x e s or cra tes are e x c lu d e d .
SH IP P IN G A N D R E C E IV IN G C L E R K

Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­
sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Shipping
work i n v o l v e s : A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes,
available means of transportation and rates; and preparing records o f the
goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. M3y direct or a ssist in
preparing the merchandise for shipment. R e c e iv in g work i n v o l v e s : Veri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipments against
bills of lading, in voices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing merchandise or materials to proper de­
partments; maintaining necessary records and file s.




For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are cla ssified by size
and type of equipment, as follow s: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis o f trailer capacity.)
T r u c k d r iv e r (co m b in a tio n o f s i z e s l i s t e d s e p a ra te ly )
T r u c k d r iv e r , lig h t (u n d e r l l 2 to n s )
/
Truckdriver , medium (1% to and in clu din g 4 to n s )
Truckdriver , h e a v y ( o v e r 4 to n s , trailer t y p e )
Truckdriver , h e a v y ( o v e r 4 to n s , o th er than trailer ty p e )
TR U C K E R , POW ER

Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or elec trie-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified by type of
truck, as follow s:
Trucker, p o w e r ( fork lift)
Trucker , p o w e r (o th er than fo rk lift)
W ATCH M AN

Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.
■fr U .S . GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1 9 6 1

O — 602550


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102