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Occupational Wage Survey

SCRANTON, PENNSYLVANIA
AUGUST 1960

Bulletin No. 1285-8




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT O F LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




Occupational Wage Survey
SCRANTON, PENNSYLVANIA




A U G U ST 1960

Bulletin No.128S-8
November I960

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT O F LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For salt* by thr Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.

Price 25 cents




Contents

Preface

Page

S u rvey P ro g r a m

T h e B u re a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s r e g u la r ly c o n d u c ts
a r e a w i d e w a g e s u r v e y s in a n u m b e r o f i m p o r t a n t i n d u s t r i a l
c e n t e r s . T h e s t u d i e s , m a d e f r o m l a t e f a l l t o e a r l y s p r in g ,
r e la t e to o c c u p a t io n a l e a r n in g s a n d r e la t e d s u p p le m e n ta r y
b e n e fit s . A p r e lim in a r y r e p o r t is a v a ila b le on c o m p le tio n
o f th e s t u d y in e a c h a r e a , u s u a l l y in th e m o n t h f o l l o w i n g
th e p a y r o l l p e r i o d s t u d i e d . T h i s b u l l e t i n p r o v i d e s a d d i t i o n a l
d a ta n o t i n c l u d e d in th e e a r l i e r r e p o r t .
A c o n s o lid a te d
a n a l y t i c a l b u l l e t i n s u m m a r i z i n g th e r e s u l t s o f a l l o f th e
y e a r * s s u r v e y s i s i s s u e d a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n o f th e f in a l a r e a
b u l l e t i n f o r th e c u r r e n t r o u n d o f s u r v e y s .

I n t r o d u c t i o n ________________________________________________________________________________
T a b le s :
1.
A:

T h i s r e p o r t w a s p r e p a r e d in th e B u r e a u * s r e g i o n a l
o f f i c e in N e w Y o r k , N . Y . , b y E l l i o t t A . B r o w a r , u n d e r
th e d i r e c t i o n o f F r e d e r i c k W . M u l l e r , A s s i s t a n t R e g i o n a l
D i r e c t o r f o r W a g e s an d I n d u s tr ia l R e la t io n s .

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s a n d w o r k e r s w it h in s c o p e o f s u r v e y -----------------------------O c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s : *
A - 1. O f f i c e o c c u p a t i o n s _______________________________________________________
A - 2 . P r o f e s s i o n a l a n d t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s -----------------------------------------A - 3 . M a in t e n a n c e a n d p o w e r p l a n t o c c u p a t i o n s --------------------------------------A - 4 . C u s t o d i a l a n d m a t e r i a l m o v e m e n t o c c u p a t i o n s -----------------------------

B:




*

E s t a b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s an d s u p p le m e n ta r y w a g e
p r o v is io n s : *
B - 1. S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l s ________________________________________________________
B - 2 . M in im u m e n t r a n c e s a l a r i e s f o r w o m e n o f f i c e w o r k e r s ------------B - 3 . S c h e d u le d w e e k l y h o u r s ________________________________________________
B - 4 . P a i d h o l i d a y s _____________________________________________________________
B - 5 . P a i d v a c a t i o n s ___________ - _______________________ _________________ ______
B - 6 . H e a lt h , i n s u r a n c e , a n d p e n s i o n p la n s ______________________________

A p p e n d ix :

O c c u p a t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n s ________________________________________________

* N O T E : S i m i l a r t a b u la t io n s f o r m o s t o f t h e s e i t e m s a r e
a v a i l a b l e in th e S c r a n t o n a r e a r e p o r t f o r D e c e m b e r 1 9 5 1 ,
a s w e l l a s in s i m i l a r r e p o r t s f o r th e o t h e r m a j o r a r e a s .
A d i r e c t o r y in d i c a t in g d a te o f s t u d y a n d th e p r i c e o f th e
r e p o r t s , is a v a i l a b l e u p o n r e q u e s t .
U n io n s c a l e s , i n d i c a t iv e o f p r e v a i l i n g p a y l e v e l s ,
a r e a l s o a v a i l a b l e f o r th e f o l l o w i n g t r a d e s o r i n d u s t r i e s :
B u ild in g
c o n s tr u c tio n ,
p r in tin g , lo c a l - t r a n s i t o p e r a tin g
e m p lo y e e s , and m o to r tr u c k d r iv e r s and h e lp e r s .

in

2

0 s 4^

W age

O

C o m m u n ity

O vO nO O O

The

1
11
13
15




Occupational W age Survey—Scranton, Pa.
Introduction

This area is one of se v e ra l im portant industrial cen ters in
which the U .S . Department o f L a b o r 's Bureau o f L abor S tatistics has
conducted surveys o f occupational earnings and related wage benefits
on an areawide b a s is . In this area, data w ere obtained by personal
v isits o f Bureau field econ om ists to representative establishm ents
within six broad industry d ivision s: Manufacturing; tra n sp o rta tio n ,1
com m un ication , and other public u tilities; w holesale trade; retail
trade; finan ce, insurance, and rea l estate; and s e r v ic e s . M ajor in ­
dustry groups excluded fro m these studies are governm ent operations
and the con stru ction and extractive in d u stries. E stablishm ents having
few er than a p r e s c r ib e d num ber o f w ork ers are om itted also because
they furnish in su fficien t em ploym ent in the occupations studied to w a r­
rant in clu sion . W herever p o ssib le , separate tabulations are provided
fo r each of the broad industry d ivision s.
These surveys are conducted on a sam ple b a sis because o f the
u n n ecessary c o s t involved in surveying all esta b lish m en ts. To obtain
appropriate a ccu ra cy at m inim um c o s t, a grea ter prop ortion o f large
than of sm all establishm ents is studied.
In com bining the data, how ­
ever, all establishm ents are given their appropriate weight. E stim ates
based on the establishm ents studied are presented, th e re fo re , as r e ­
lating to all establishm ents in the industry grouping and area, e x ­
cep t fo r those below the m inimum size studied.
Occupations and E arnings
The occupations selected fo r study are com m on to a variety
of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing in d u stries. Occupational c la s ­
sifica tion is based on a uniform set o f jo b d escrip tion s designed to
take account o f interestablishm ent variation in duties within the sam e
jo b . (See appendix fo r listing o f these d e scrip tio n s.) Earnings data are
presented (in the A -s e r ie s tables) fo r the follow ing types o f occu p a ­
tions: (a) O ffice c le r ic a l; (b) p ro fe ssio n a l and tech n ical; (c) m ainte­
nance and power plant; and (d) cu stodial and m aterial m ovem ent.
O ccupational em ploym ent and earnings data are shown fo r
fu ll-tim e w o rk e rs, i. e. , those h ired to work a regu lar weekly sch ed ­
ule in the given occupational c la s s ifica tio n .
Earnings data exclude
prem ium pay fo r overtim e and fo r w ork on weekends, h olidays, and

1 R ailroad s, fo r m e r ly excluded from the scop e of these studies,
w ere included in all of the areas studied sin ce July 1959, except
B altim ore, Buffalo, Cleveland, and Seattle.
R ailroads are now in ­
cluded in the scope o f all la b o r-m a rk e t wage su rveys.




late sh ifts.
Nonproduction bonuses are excluded a lso , but c o s t - o f living bonuses and incentive earnings are included.
Where weekly
hours are rep orted , as fo r o ffice c le r ic a l occu p ation s, referen ce is
to the w ork schedules (rounded to the n earest half hour) fo r which
straight-tim e sa la ries are paid; average weekly earnings for these
occupations have been rounded to the n earest half d olla r.
A verage earnings o f men and wom en are presented separately
fo r selected occupations in which both sexes are com m on ly em ployed.
D ifferen ces in pay le v e ls o f men and wom en in these occupations are
la rg ely due to (l) d ifferen ces in the distribution o f the sexes among
industries and establishm ents; (2) d ifferen ces in sp e cific duties p e r ­
form ed , although the occupations are appropriately c la s s ifie d within
the same survey job d escrip tion ; and (3) d ifferen ces in length o f s e r v ­
ice or m erit review when individual sa la ries are adjusted on this basis.
L onger average se r v ic e o f men would resu lt in higher average pay
when both sexes are em ployed within the same rate range.
Job
d escrip tion s used in cla ssify in g em p loyees in these su rveys are usu­
ally m ore gen eralized than those used in individual establishm ents to
allow fo r m inor d iffe ren ces among establishm ents in s p e c if y duties
p e rform ed .
Occupational employment estim ates rep resen t the total in all
establishm ents within the scope of the study and not the num ber actu­
ally su rveyed. B ecause o f d ifferen ces in occupational structure among
establishm ents, the estim ates of occupational em ploym ent obtained
fro m the sam ple o f establishm ents studied serve only to indicate the
relative im portance of the jobs studied. These d ifferen ces in o c c u ­
pational structure do not m aterially affect the a ccu ra cy of the e a rn ings data.
E stablishm ent P r a c tic e s and Supplem entary Wage P rov ision s
Inform ation is presented a lso (in the B -s e r ie s tables) on s e ­
lected establishm ent p ra ctices and supplem entary benefits as they r e ­
late to o ffic e and plant w ork e rs. The term "o ffice w ork ers, " as used
in this bulletin, includes working su p erv isors and n on supervisory
w ork ers p erform in g c le r ic a l o r related functions, and excludes adm in­
istra tiv e , execu tive, and p rofession a l p erson nel. "Plant w o rk e rs " in ­
clude working forem en and all n onsu p ervisory w ork ers (including lea d men and tra in ees) engaged in nonoffice functions.
A dm in istrative,
execu tive, and p rofession a l em p loyees, and fo r c e -a cco u n t con stru ction
e m ployees who are utilized as a separate work fo r c e are excluded.
C afeteria w ork ers and routem en are excluded in m anufacturing indus­
tries, but are included as plant w ork ers in nonmanufacturing industries.

2

Table 1.

Establishments and workers withii

Industry division

scope of survey and number studied in Scranton, Pa.,

Minimum
employment
in establish­
ments in scope
of study

by major industry division , 2 August I 960

Number of establishments
W ithin
scope of
study 3

Workers in establishments
Within scope of study

Studied

Studied
Total 4

Office

Plant

Total 4

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

50

206

63

37, 100

4, 500

28, 800

2 2 , 000

Manufacturing ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------------------------------------------Transportation, communication, and other
public utilities 5 -------------------------------------------------------------------Wholesale trade ---------------------------------------------------------------------Retail trade -----------------------------------------------------------------------------Finance, insurance, and real estate _______________________
Services 7 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

50
50

146
60

51
32

26, 500
10 , 600

1, 900
2 , 600

22, 500
6 , 300

13, 940
8 , 060

50
50
50
50
50

15
9
23
4
9

12
2
11

4, 100
600
3, 600

900
(*)

3
4

900

(*)
(6)

All divisions

1, 000

(?)

2 , 200

(‘ )
(?)
(?)

(6)

3, 870
200

2, 790
710
490

1 The Scranton Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (Lackawanna County).
The "w orkers within scope of study" estimates shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate description of the
size and composition of the labor force included in the survey.
The estimates are not intended, however, to serve as a basis of comparison with other area employment indexes to measure
employment trends or levels since ( 1) planning of wage surveys requires the use of establishment data compiled considerably in advance of the payroll period studied, and ( 2) small establishments
are excluded from the scope of the survey.
2 The 1957 revised edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual was used in classifying establishments by industry division.
Major changes from the earlier edition (used in the
Bureau's labor market wage surveys conducted prior to July 1956) are the transfer of milk pasteurization plants and ready-mixed concrete establishments from trade (wholesale or retail)
to manufacturing, and the transfer of radio and television broadcasting from services to the transportation, communication, and other public utilities division.
3 Includes all establishments with total employment at or above the m inim um -size limitation.
All outlets (within the area) of companies in such industries as trade, finance, auto repair
service, and motion-picture theaters are considered as 1 establishment.
4 Includes executive, professional, and other workers excluded from the separate office and plant categories.
5 Taxicabs and services incidental to water transportation were excluded.
6 This industry division is represented in estimates for "a ll industries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the series A and B tables.
Separate presentation of data for this division is not made
for one or m ore of the following reasons: (1) Employment in the division is too small to provide enough data to m erit separate study, (2) the sample was not designed initially to permit separate
presentation, (3) response was insufficient or inadequate to permit separate presentation, (4) there is possibility of disclosure of individual establishment data.
7 Hotels; personal services; business services; automobile repair shops; motion pictures; nonprofit membership organizations; and engineering and architectural services.




3
Shift differen tial data (table B - l ) are lim ited to manufacturing
in d u stries. This inform ation is presented both in term s o f (a) esta b ­
lishm ent p o lic y ,2 presented in term s o f total plant w orker em p loy ­
ment, and (b) effectiv e p ra ctice , presented on the ba sis of w ork ers
actually em ployed on the sp e cifie d shift at the time o f the su rvey.
In establishm ents having varied d ifferen tia ls, the amount applying to
a m ajority was used o r , if no amount applied to a m a jo rity , the c la s ­
sifica tion "o th e r" was used.
In establishm ents in which some la te shift hours are paid at norm al ra tes, a differen tial was re co rd e d only
if it applied to a m a jority o f the shift hours.
M inimum entrance rates (table B -2 ) relate only to the esta b ­
lishm ents v isited .
They are presented on an establishm ent, rather
than on an em ploym ent b a s is .
Paid holidays; paid vacations; and
health, insurance, and pension plans are treated sta tistica lly on the
ba sis that these are applicable to all plant or o ffice w ork ers if a m a ­
jo rity o f such w ork ers are elig ib le o r m ay eventually qualify fo r the
p ra ctices liste d . Scheduled hours are treated sta tistica lly on the basis
that these are applicable to all plant or o ffic e w ork ers if a m a jority
are c o v e r e d .3 B ecause of rounding, sums o f individual item s in these
tabulations may not equal totals.
The fir s t part o f the paid holidays table presents the num­
b er o f whole and half holidays actually provided.
The secon d part
com bines whole and half holidays to show total holiday tim e .

Data are p resen ted fo r all health, insurance, and pension
plans fo r which at least a part of the cost is borne by the em p loyer,
excepting only legal requirem ents such as w orkm en's com pensation,
so c ia l se cu rity , and railroad retirem ent.
Such plans include those
underwritten by a co m m e rcia l insurance company and those provid ed
through a union fund o r paid d irectly by the em p loyer out o f cu rren t
operating funds o r fro m a fund set aside fo r this pu rpose.
Death
benefits are included as a form of life insurance.
Sickness and acciden t insurance is lim ited to that type o f in ­
surance under which predeterm ined cash payments are made d irectly
to the insured on a w eekly or monthly basis during illn ess o r accident
disability.
Inform ation is presented fo r all such plans to which the
em p loyer con tribu tes.
H ow ever, in New Y ork and New J e rse y , which
have enacted tem porary d isability insurance laws which requ ire e m ­
ployer co n trib u tio n s,4 plans are included only if the em p loyer (1) co n ­
tributes m ore than is lega lly requ ired , o r ( l ) provides the em ployee
with benefits which exceed the requ irem en ts o f the law. Tabulations
o f paid sick -le a v e plans are lim ited to form a l plans 5 which provide
full pay or a proportion o f the w o rk e r's pay during absence fro m work
becau se o f illn e s s .
Separate tabulations are provided accord in g to
(1) plans which provide full pay and no waiting p eriod , and (2) plans
providing either partial pay o r a waiting period .
In addition to the
presentation o f the proportion s o f w ork ers who are provided sick n ess
and acciden t insurance or paid sick lea ve, an unduplicated total is
shown of w ork ers who r e ce iv e either o r both types o f ben efits.

The sum m ary o f vacation plans is lim ited to fo rm a l a rra n g e­
m ents, excluding in form al plans whereby time o ff with pay is granted
at the d iscre tio n o f the em p lo y e r.
Separate estim ates are provided
accord in g to em p loyer pra ctice in com puting vacation paym ents, such
as time paym ents, percent o f annual earnings, o r fla t-su m amounts.
H ow ever, in the tabulations o f vacation a llow an ces, payments not on
a time b asis w ere con verted ; fo r exam ple, a payment o f 2 p ercen t o f
annual earnings was con sid ered as the equivalent o f 1 w e e k 's pay.

Catastrophe in su ran ce, som etim es re fe r r e d to as extended
m ed ica l in su ran ce, includes those plans which are designed to p rotect
em p loyees in ca se o f sick n ess and in ju ry involving expenses beyond
the norm al cov e ra g e o f h ospitalization, m e d ica l, and su rgical plans.
M edical insurance r e fe rs to plans providing fo r com plete or partial
payment o f d o c to r s ' fe e s . Such plans m ay be underw ritten by c o m m e r ­
c ia l insurance com panies o r nonprofit organizations o r they m ay be
se lf-in su r e d .
Tabulations o f retirem en t pension plans are lim ited to
those plans that provide monthly payments fo r the rem ainder o f the
w o r k e r 's life .

An establishm ent was co n sid e re d as having a p olicy if it m et
either o f the follow ing conditions: (1) Operated late shifts at the tim e
o f the survey* o r (2) had form a l p rov ision s co v e rin g late sh ifts.
3
Scheduled weekly hours fo r o ffice w ork ers (first section
table B -3 ) in surveys made p r io r to July 1957 w ere presen ted in
term s o f the p rop ortion o f women o ffice w ork ers em ployed in o ffice s
with the indicated weekly hours fo r women w ork ers.

4 The tem porary d isability laws in C a liforn ia and Rhode Island
do not requ ire em p loyer con tribu tion s.
5 An establishm ent was con sid ered as having a fo rm a l plan if
of establish ed at lea st the m inim um num ber o f days o f sick leave that
it
cou ld be expected by each em p loyee. Such a plan need not be w ritten,
but in form al sic k -le a v e allow an ces, determ ined on an individual b a s is ,
w ere exclu ded.




A* Occupational Earnings

4

Table A-l. Office Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e w ee k ly h o u rs and ea rn in g s fo r se le c te d occu p ation s stud ied on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u stry d iv is io n , S cr a n to n , P a . , A u gu st I9 60 )

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—
Number
of
workers

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Weekly,
hours 1
(Standard)

Weekly .
earnings
(Standard)

S
35. 00

$
40. 00

$
45. 00

$
50. 00

S
55. 00

S
60. 00

S
65. 00

$
70. 00

S
75. 00

$
80. 00

S
85. 00

$
90. 00

under
40. 00

$
S
$
$
95. 00 100.00 105. 00 110.00
and

45. 00

50. 00

55. 00

60. 00

65. 00

70. 00

75. 00

80. 00

85. 00

90. 00

95. 00

100.00 105. 00 110.00

6

3

5

1

1

.

.

.

7

.

.

3

2

1

1

4

6

1

over

Men

23

3 9 .5

$58. 00

_______________

24

40. 0

81. 50

Tabulating-machine operators, class C ________ _______

29

39. 5

76. 00

56
28

38. 0
39. 5

59. 00
52. 00

■

20

38. 5

59. 50

Bookkeeping-machine op erators, class A __ __ „
Manufacturing __
__
__ _ __ ------------------------ -----

24
15

38. 0
39. 0

Bookkeeping-machine operators , class B _____________
Manufacturing __ __ _ __ ____ _ __ __ __ ______
Nonmanufacturing _ __ _ _____
__
__ __ ______

113
30
83

C le r k s, accounting, class A _______________ __ _ __
Manufacturing _ __ _ __ __
__ __ _____ __ ___
Nonmanufacturing _ __ __ __ ____ _ _________
__ _

64
32
32

Tabulating-machine operators, class B

.

_

_

_

5

3

11

5

6

3

1

4
4

4
4

18
18

7
■

7
"

4
“

9
"

3
2

_

_

_

_

_

_

"

■

■

“

■

■

"

_

3

1

8

4

_

1

_

_

_

_

2

_

_

_

1

71. 00
67. 00

"

”

"

6
4

8
7

3
3

4

"

"

3
"

"

_

"

_

"

38. 5
39. 0
38. 5

53. 50
55. 50
52. 50

6
6

12
12

11
11

38
15
23

31
10
21

6
4
2

3
1
2

_
“

5
5

_
_

_
”

1
1

_
“

_
”

_
”

_
“

39. 5
40. 0
39. 0

82. 50
72. 50
92. 50

_

_

.

■

”

-

.
-

8
4
4

6
6

8
8
”

13
13

4
1
3

6
6

3
3

6
6

3
3

4
4

3
3

13
9
4

4
_
4

2
_
2

23
10

21
7
14

6
6

1
1

1
_
1

4
_
4

1
_
1

11
_
11

10
_
10

3
_
3

1
_
1

2
_
2

32

19
16
3

22
22

23
23

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

"

-

”

28
28

_

-

”

■

-

■

-

-

"

10
6

10
2

2

3

1
“

_

_

1

2
“

_

1

1

■

”

“

“

”

-

27
27

29
2 2 -------

25
14

9

3

3

4

_

_

6

3

1

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

11

3

Women

B ille r s , machine (billing m a c h in e )__ _______
Manufacturing _ __ __ __ __ — _ — ______

__

B ille r s , machine (bookkeeping machine)

___

_____

-

.

___________
____

________

__ _______ ______

C lerk s, file , class B _________ ____________________________
Manufacturing v .n,____ ,_____________________________
r

Nonmanufacturing----Clerks, order _______ ___

---------

____________

Manufacturing ___________________ .

Clerks, payroll . .

_

—

-------------______

„

------------------

_____________________________

Nonmanufacturing ----------------------------------------- ----------------

See footnote at end of table.




103
33
70

39. 5
39. 5
3 9 .5

68. 00
56. 00
73. 50

141
20
121

38. 5
38. 5
38. 5

53. 50
4 6 .0 0
55. 00

17
17

41
23

3 9 .5
40. 0

55. 50
51. 50

4

8

“

4

8

152

39c 0
3 9 .6

28

_

~"Ti—

28

34

3 9 .0

5 4 .0 0
5 3 .5 0
5 7 .0 0

24

118

C lerk s, accounting, class B ___
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing ____ _ _

_
_
-

_

4

28

10

.
-

1
3

7

"

.

1

"

1

3

_

5

Table A-1. Office Occupations-Continued
(Average straight-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Scranton, Pa. , August i960)
A vzbagx

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
worker*

Weekly,
hours 1
(Standard)

N U M B E R OF W O R K E R S R E C E IV IN G S T R A IG H T -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S OF—

Weekly
earnings *
(Standard)

$
35. 00
and
under
40. 00

$
40. 00

S

S

50. 00

$
55. 00

$

$

65. 00

70. 00

45. 00

50. 00

55. 00

60. 00

65. 00

70. 00

75. 00

45. 00

60. 00

S

75. 00

l o . 00

$5. 00

80. 00

85. 00

9 0 . 00

*9 0 . 00 *95. 00 1 0 0 . 00 1*05. 00 1 1 0 . 00
#
*
and
95. 00 1 0 0 . 0 0 105.00 n o . oo over

Women— Continued

Comptometer operators -------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------------------------------

50
45

37. 0
3 7 .0

$ 7 2 .0 0
72. 50

Keypunch operators --------------------------------------------------------Manufacturing -------------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------------------------Public utilities 2 -----------------------------------------------------

91
23

39. 5
3 9 .0
3 9 .5
39. 5

7 1 .5 0
6 1 .0 0
75. 00
84. 00

39. 0
39. 0
39. 0
3 9 .5

6 8 . 00
6 6 . 00

39.
38.
39.
39.

62.
59.
66.
83.

Secretaries _______________________________________________
Manufacturing -------------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------------------------Public u tilitie s 2 ------------------------------------------- ------

68

47

175
111

64
19

Stenographers, general --------------------------------------------------------------------Manufacturing -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ----------------------------------------------------------------------------Public utilities 2 -------------------------------------------------------------------------

146
79
67
27

Switchboard operators ------------------------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

43
36

Switchboard operator-receptionists --------------------------------------- Manufacturing ________________________________________________________
Typists, class A
Typists, class B
Manufacturing

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

0

5

72. 00
74. 50

00
00
00

-

5
5

-

2
2

2
2

-

-

-

■

17
17

23
23

13

17
16

5
3

1

2
1

2
1
1
1

13

2

1
12
12

.

4
4

24
3

5
4

4
4

-

1

-

7
4
3

3

-

21
3

~

-

1

-

1

6

-

4

9
3

13
5

26

"

12

24
14

28
26

24
13

1

2
1

6

8
1

14
~

10
6

2

11

"

4

3
■

52
26
26

30

9
9

"
4

3

-

-

-

4

40. 5
40. 5

55. 00
5 1 .5 0

“

14
14

3

57
48

3 9 .5
3 9 .5

54. 00
53. 00

"

11
11

--------------------------------------------------------------

32

40. 0

79. 50

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

169
99
70

38. 5
38. 5

51. 50
52. 00
51. 50

39. 0

4
4

-

-

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5
5

-

-

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

1

-

50

0

10
10

3

3

2
1
1

5

6
6

5

-

1
-

5

1

17
17
-

22
8
2

5

-

-

-

-

3

5

5

-

■

3

1

4

1
1

5

5
-

5

14
14

3

5

1

3

6
4

7
3

14

3

12

3

7

18

10

4

17
1

5

4

5

19

35

9

28

73
35

10

7

38

.

.

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

■

“

1

4

-

2
2

2
2

1
"

'

-

-

-

-

2
2

-

-

-

1
1

-

-

"

-

.

_

-

-

-

2
1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

.

-

-

'

-

-

2

1
1

-

.

'

1

-

1

3

6

8

6

2

1
-

-

1
-

1

Standard hours reflect the workweek for which em ployees receive their regular straight-tim e salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.




23

17

5

1
1

■

6
6

5

10
10

2
2

6

2

i

3

10

6

1

-

-

1

1

6
Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations

,

(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for Selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division* Scranton. Pa. August I960)
Am ui
Number

Sex, occupation, and industry division

worker*

NUMBER o r WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

2&
S

S

55. 00
and
(Standard) (Standard) under
6 0 .0 0

lo .o o

I s . 00

^ 0 .0 0

7 5 .0 0

8 0 .0 0

§ 5 .0 0

9 0 .0 0

$95. 00 1*00. 00 1*05. 00 1*10. 00 1*15.00
and

65. 00

7 0 .0 0

7 5 .0 0

8 0 .0 0

8 5 .0 0

9 0 .0 0

9 5 .0 0

1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0

4
4

6

7

“

6

10
10

over

Men
D raftsm en , s e n i o r __
Manufacturing

_ _ _ _ _

79
60

— __ __

D raftsm en , j u n i o r ____________ __ ___________ ______________
Manufacturing
_ _

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

$ 9 8 .5 0
9 4 .0 0

-

-

-

-

-

-

28
19

4 0 .0
3 9 .5

8 0 .0 0

.

-

2

76. 66

-

*

1

6
3

15

3 9 .5

75. 50

1

4

2

1

2

15

39.5

75. 50

1

4

2

1

2

8

18
~ r§—

“

12

—

~ n

6—

6
11
— 3-----" “ 2------

7

1

_

5

2

3

_

-

_

_

-

s

‘

-

-

-

-

-

l
l

1

1

-

-

-

1

2
2

-

i

“

"

"

"

Women
N u r se s, industrial ( r e g i s t e r e d ) _________________________
M a n u f a c tu r in g __

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.

Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for men in selected Occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division. Scranton. Pa. , August I960)
N U M B E R O F W O R K E R S R E C E IV IN G S T R A IG H T -T IM E H O U R L Y E A R N IN G S O F —

Num
ber
of
w
orkere

Occupation and industry division

C arp en ters, maintenance
Manufacturing
_

_ _

_

$
1. 30

*1.40

$ 50
1.

1. 60

1 .4 0

1. 50

1. 60

1 .7 0

_

.

_
__

_ _ _
_

26
25

$ 2 . 25
2. 25

_
_

_ _
_

63
52

2. 62
2. 55

_

-

F ire m en , stationary b o i l e r ______________________
Manufacturing
_ _

37
32

1 .6 8
1. 64

-

*

12
12

H elp e rs, tra d e s, maintenance __________________
Manufacturing
_ __
_ __

39
35

1. 86
1 .8 6

-

-

M achin ists. maintenance
Manufacturing ..

63
57
74
64
64

2 .4 8
2 .4 7
2 .4 7

102
91

1 .8 3
1 .8 3

107
107

2 .8 3
2. 83

1. 70

S
1 .8 0

*1. 90

1 .8 0

1 .9 0

2 .0 0

.

2. 50
2. 50

21
21

.

$

2 .4 9
2 .4 7

E le ctricia n s, maintenance
Manufacturing _

__

$
A
verage
hourly . *1 . 1 0
1. 20
earnings 1 and
under
1. 30
1. 20

__
_

_

_ .. _
..

M echanics, automotive (maintenance)
Nonmanufacturing
. .. _
Public utilities 2
_ __
_ ---M echanics, maintenance
Manufacturing __
__
O ilers
_ ....
Manufacturing
Tool and die m akers
M a n u fa c t u r in g

_ _

_

_

.....

........... .
_ _

.

_

. .. _
_ _

---- _
. ....

__

“

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

1

1

!

2
2

13
9

“

"

-

-

-

-

13
13
13

-

-

-

Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.

1

3

1

5

— T-1----—
'

2. 50

2 .6 0

2. 70

2. 80

2. 90

3. 00

3. 10

3. 20

3. 30

.

.

.

“

-

14
14

4
4

5
5

-

-

-

_

-

*
*

-

-

.

4
4

5
5
2

—

1

-

_

2
2

9
9

_

-

1

2

1

2

15
6

_

-

-

-

*

“

-

“

_

-

-

11
11

22

2
2

_
-

_
-

_
-

1
-

-

-

-

-

_

6
-

~fl ---

43

19
T5

_
-

_
_
-

-

-

-

5

-

s

-

_

_

_

_

-

2
2

1
1

-

1

2 .4 0

3
----- r -

6
6

-

'

2. 30

2
2

8
8

-

I .

*3. 20

-

-

_

% 10
.

4
4

3

3
1 5
—

S . 00

5
3

-

3

_

2. 90

6
4

-

— r~
2
2

2. 80

7
7

3
3

-

*2.70

2
2

-

-

*2.60

_

8
6

-

2. 50

2 .20

2. 10

5
------5
-

S
2 .4 0

2
2

9
9

-

-

2. 30

--- 4
y

-

_

$

2. 20

2.10

4
4

-

_

$

2. 00

2
2

-

-

'




_

$

_
2
”
* — Z
_
_
-

—

9
r~
44
35
35
10

nr_
_
*

12
16

4

— x~

_

_

-

-

_

_
-

16

_
-

16

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

11

_

3
1

7
7

_

-

16

_

_

_
-

~n—
_
_
-

2

LZ^—

-

53
5l

30
56

-

-

6
6

■

_

_

_

-

_

14
14

7
Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
{Average straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Scranton, P a ., August I960)
NUMBER 07 W
ORKEB8 RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIM HOURLY EARNINGS O —
E
F
Occupation1 and industry division

N m er
u b
o
f
w rk rs
o e

tssr*
e rn g
a in s

$ 0.80
and
under
.90

V 90

* 1.0 0

* 1 . 10

* 1.2 0

* 1. 30

9 1.40

9 1.50

* 1.60

9 1.70

9 1.80

* 1 .90

9 Z. 00

1.0 0

1 . 10

J-,20

1.30

1.40

1.50

1.60

1. 70

1.80

1.90

2 . 00

2 . 10

Elevator operators, passenger (women) -------Nonmanufacturing ---------------------------------------

35
33

$ 1.02
.99

-

16
16

13
13

4
4

rr
,,:,rr p
|
Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------

54
46

1.68

_

_

_

1. 70

-

-

-

6
6

-

2

-

2

9

Janitors, porters, and cleaners (men) --------Manufacturing --------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing - ----------------------------------Public utilities 4 ------------------------------------

330
188
142
24

1.45
1.55
1.30
1 .90

3 40

_
-

27
17

24
16

30
18

25
3

41
30

12

10

8

12

11

37
33
4
-

22
11
11

Janitors, porters, and cleaners (women) ----Manufacturing ------------ ------------ — ----------

97
38

1.10

24
*

2
2

7
7

Laborers, material handling ------- -------------- Manufacturing --------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------------- —----------Public utilities 4 ----------------------- ----------

579
270
309
191

35
15

2 . 10
2 . 29

-

-

Packers, shipping -----------------------------------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------

213
98

1. 32
1.57

_

.

71

-

-

Receiving clerks --------------------------------------------Manufacturing --------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------------

73
48
25

1.89
1.82

_
-

2.01

Shipping clerks ----------------------------------------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------

42
29

1.81
1.79

_
-

Shipping and receiving clerks ------------- -------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------

75
38

2 . 00
1. 68

_

_

_

-

-

-

7
7

-

Truckdrivers 5 --------------- -------—------------- --------Manufacturing --------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing „--------- ------------------------Public utilities 4 ------------------------------------

442
154
288
245

2.35
2. 37
2. 34
2.41

_

_

_

.

_

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

-

-

-

Truckdrivers, light (under 1V 2 tons) ------Nonmanufacturing ----------------------------------

39
24

2 . 20
1 .98

Truckdrivers, medium ( 1V2 to and
including 4 tons) --------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ---------------------------------Public utilities 4 --------- —
-----------

292
223
221

2.40
2.41
2.41

Truckers, power (forklift) ----------------------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------

78
69

1.93
1.89

Watchmen -------------------------------------------------------Manufacturing

119
98

1.44
1.43

1.35
1.8 8

1.63

40
-

_
-

2.40

2. 50

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

4

1

3

12

6
6

15
14

7
7

_

_

.

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

33

31
31
-

1

1

_
-

5
7
-

-

23
13

1
1

5
5
5

10
6

-

-

_
-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

174
137
37
7

11
2

29
19
10

-

37
37
-

20

9
-

4
16
15

109
4
105
105

64
64
64

_
-

.
-

9
9

9
9

_

_

2

.

.

.

-

-

1

-

-

-

14

1

5
_
5

1

_

.
_
-

-

6
6

11
11

3
-

_

1

7

-

6
1

36
27
9
"

10
10

7
7
-

21
21

-

18
18
-

17

18

_

10

10

8
2

_

2

39
15

-

-

40
40

_
-

.
-

_
“

5
5
-

2

7
7
-

2
2

10
2
8

_
-

14
14
-

12
12

-

.
-

_
-

.

.
-

_

1

9
9

4
4

_

13

-

2
2

9
9

_

2

-

-

-

20

-

6

1

_

1

_

12

-

-

2
2

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

5
5

2

27
3

6
1

4
-

3
-

158

1

'

4
4

-

3
3

4 ^
4

4
4

3
3

2
2

6
6

-_

28

4
4

17

.

3

2

-

-

27

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

15
-

_
-

.

-

-

1

-

-

_

_

_

.

2

_

_

-

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

12
12

-

-

-

-

-

2

1

-

-

3
3

4

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

1

_

3
-

_

-

6
8

_

-

2. 30

*2. 50
and
over

1

-

-

*2.40

-

-

-

S
2. 30

-

14

-

2 . 20

-

-

1

2 . 20

S

-

14
4

8

2 . 10

-

22
1

-

-

-

-

1

_

3

-

10
8

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

189

28
16

3
3

157
155

74
74

12
12

2
2

2
2

.

6 11

-

-

1
1
1

143
143
143

121

16

64
64

12
12

1

"III----

_

.

_

.

_

_

-

-

"

11
11

2
2

28
28

4
-

.

-

4
4

_

-

2
2

1

-

15
15

11

-

7

-

-

-

.

.

10
10

19
16

22

4

18
16

10
10

3
3

8
8

2
2

3

_

1

_

_

1

19
18

_

14

Data limited to men workers except where otherwise indicated,
Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Includes 2 workers at $ 0. 70 to $ 0. 80.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes all drivers regardless of size and type of truck operated.
All workers were at $ 2. 80 to $ 2. 90.




1

$




8
B : Establishment Practices and Supplementary W age Provisions
Table B-l. Shift Differentials
(Shift differentials of manufacturing plant workers by type and amount of differential,
Scranton, Pa. , August I960)
Percent of manufacturing plant workers—

Shift differential

In establishments having form al
provisions 1 for—
Second shift
work

Third or other
shift work

Actually working on—
Second shift

Third or other
shift

T o t a l........................................... ........ ....... ............... ...................

73. 8

42. 9

12. 9

2. 4

With shift pay differential ------------ --------------------------- —

48. 0

4 1 .8

9. 2

2. 3

Uniform cents (per hour) ---------------------------- ----------

35. 6

30. 7

6. 5

2. 1

5 cents ............................. .......... ......... ...........................7 cents .................................................... ....... .................
71 cents .......................... ............. ............................... .
10 c e n t s ----------------------------------------------- ------- --------12 cents __________________________________________
14 c e n t s -------------------------------- ---------- -----------------—
15 cents --------------- ---------- ------------------ ------------------18 cents __________________________________________
28 cents
------------------------- --------------- -------------------

2. 6
6. 3
4. 5
13. 7
2. 9
5. 6
-

1 .8
7. 3
1 .0
1. 3
13. 6
5. 6

.2
1. 7
.7
1 .8
.4
1. 7
-

_
. 5
.2
. 1
.4
.8

11.1

7. 8

2. 3

,2

-

.4
1.9

.2
( 2)

h

Uniform percentage — -------- ----------------------------------5 percent .......................................... ............. .................
10 p e rc e n t------- -----------------------------------------------------

3. 6
7. 5

7. 8

Other form al pay differential _____________________

1 .4

3. 3

.4

No shift pay d ifferen tia l-----------------------------------------------

25. 7

1. 1

3. 7

1 Includes establishments currently operating late
though they were not currently operating late shifts.
2 L ess than 0. 05 percent.

shifts,

and establishments

. 1

with form al provisions covering late shifts even

9
Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salaries for Women Office Workers
(Distribution of establishments studied in all industries and in industry divisions by minimum entrance salary for selected categories
of inexperienced women office workers, Scranton, Pa. , August I960)
Inexperienced typists

Other inexperienced..clerical workers 2
Nonmanufacturing

Manufacturing
Minimum weekly s a la ry 1
All
industries

Establishments studied _________________________

All
schedules

83

Establishments having a specified minimum —
$ 3 2 . 5 0 and under $ 3 5 . 0 0 ............................ -..............
$ 3 5 . 0 0 and under $ 3 7 . 5 0 .................. — ........- .......
$ 3 7 . 5 0 and under $ 4 0 . 0 0 ____________________
$ 4 0 . 0 0 and under $ 4 2 . 5 0 ____________________________
$ 4 2 . 5 0 and under $ 4 5 . 0 0 --------------------------- -----------—
$ 4 5 . 0 0 and under $ 4 7 . 5 0 -------------------------------------------$ 4 7 . 5 0 and under $ 5 0 . 0 0 ............................. - .................................
$ 5 0 . 0 0 and o v e r ---------------------- ---------------------------------------Establishments having no specified
m in im u m _______________________________________________________
Establishments which did not employ
workers in this category _____________________

Manufacturing

Based on standard weekly h ours 3 of—

33

37V 2

All
schedule s

40

All
industries

3 7 1/ 2

40

Nonmanufacturing

Based on standard weekly hour s 3 of—
All
schedules

3 7 1/2

All
schedules

40

37 > /2

40

51

XXX

XXX

32

XXX

XXX

83

51

XXX

XXX

32

XXX

XXX

5

15

18

5

-

19
-

3

2

9
2

37

-

13
-

16

2

3
-

-

-

2

-

11
2

1

-

-

-

1

-

2

-

-

2

-

11
2

2

3
15
3
2

1

1
-

2

2

-

9
1

2

3

3

-

3

-

-

3

3

-

4

-

3

15

11

2

9

4

-

4

1

-

1

4

3

1

2

1

-

1

1
-

1
-

1

1

1

-

4

2

-

2

2

1

-

-

-

2

2

-

1

-

-

5

1

-

1

4

1

3

5

1

-

1

4

1

3

5

3

XXX

XXX

2

XXX

XXX

5

3

XXX

XXX

2

XXX

XXX

45

31

XXX

XXX

14

XXX

XXX

29

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

41

12

1 Lowest salary rate form ally established for hiring inexperienced workers for typing or other clerical jobs.
2 Rates applicable to m essen gers, office girls, or sim ilar subclerical jobs are not considered.
3 Hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-tim e salaries.
Data are presented for all workweeks combined, and for the most common workweeks reported.

Table B-3. Scheduled Weekly Hours
(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by scheduled weekly hours
of first-sh ift w orkers, Scranton, P a ., August I960)
O F FIC E W O R K E R S

PLAN T W O RK ERS

Weekly hours
All industries 1

All workers ______________________________________
Under 35 hours ---------------------------------------------------35 hours ---------------------------------------------------------------36 V 4 hours ------------------------ ------- --------------------------37 hours ______________ _ ________________________
37*/2 hours _______________________________________
40 hours _________________________________________
Over 40 and under 48 hours ____________________
48 hours _________________________________________

1
2
3
4

100

(4)
4
3
2
25
64
2

Manufacturing

100

(4)
3
7
_

19
70
-

Public u tilities2

All industries 3

Manufacturing

100

100

100

100

_

1
19

23

.

.

_
_

.
_

.
.

20
80

5
70
2
3

7
69
1
1

-

Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Less than 0. 5 percent.




Public utilities2

_

94
6

10
T a b le EM. Paid H o lid ays
(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by number of paid holidays
provided annually. Scranton. Pa. , August I960)
Ol'FH'E WORKERS
Item

A ll workers

_

------ — — —

A in u
ll d stries 1

------

— -

Workers in establishments providing
paid holidays --- --- -------------------------------------------Workers in establishments providing
no paid holidays _______________________________

M ufactu g
an
rin

PLANT WORKERS
Pb u
u lic tilities2

!
J
I
1

A in u
ll d stries3

M u
an factu g
rin

P
ublic utilities2

100

100

100

100

100

100

99

97

100

92

92

94

1

3

8

8

6

2
16
6
8
3
34
2
4
8
7
3
5

4
6
4
16
35
6
7
13
7
1

3
14
20
6
1
28
1
6
11
(4 )
4

4
8
25
7
26
1
7
10
3

.

5
5
15

.
8
8
27

N um ber o f d a y s

5 holidays
_______ _
— — — - — - —
6 holidays __ _ ___ . . . .
.
____ 6 holidays plus 1 half day -------------------- -----------6 holidays plus 2 half days — __ _____ .
6 holidays plus 3 half days ____________________
7 holidays
__
- __ —
—
— —
7 holidays plus 1 half d a y ______________________
__ _ _____ __
7 holidays plus 2 half days _
8 holidays
_
__ __
— __ _ _ -----8 holidays plus 2 half days — __
9 holidays
___
__ __ __ . . . .
_ _ —
12 holidays _____ __
. — —
— — —

_
3
(4 )
62
5
15
14

2
42
37
13

Total h o lid a y tim o5

12 days __
- — —
or m ore d a y s ______ _ __ —
9 or m ore days —
__ ------ __
8 1/* or m ore days _
---------8 or m ore days __
__
------- —
__
7 V 2 or m ore days ------------7 or more days _ _ _ _ _ _
or m ore d a y s ______________________________
6 or more days
__ _
_
or m ore days __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
5 or more days
_________________________________

9z
l/

bz
l/
5z
l/

15

27
33

33

75
80
97
97
99

85
88
94
94
97

_

.

14
14
35
35
97
97
100
100
100

4
4
20
21

21
22

55

55

76
89
89
92

80
88
88
92

3
3

13
13
51
51
93
93
94
94
94

1 Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
2 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
3 Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
L ess than 0. 5 percent.
5 A ll combinations of full and half days that add to the same amount are combined; for example, the proportion of workers receiving a total of 7 days includes those with 7 full days and
no half days, 6 full days and 2 half days, 5 full days and 4 half days, and so on.
Proportions were then cumulated.

*




11
T a b le B-5. Paid V acatio n s
(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, Scranton, Pa. , August I960)
PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS

Vacation policy
All industries 1

All workers

--------------------------------------------------------

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

All industries3

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

98

100
100

100
100

-

99
69
16
13

99
61

1

21

Method off payment
W orkers in establishments providing
paid vacations ________________________________
Length-of-tim e payment ---------------------------Percentage payment -----------------------------------Flat-sum payment --------------------------------------Other .........................................................................
Workers in establishments providing
no paid vacations --------------------------------------------

99
1
-

(5)

-

(5)
'

17

-

-

-

-

1

-

_

1

"

Amount off vacation p a y 4
After 6 months of service
Under 1 week ----------------------------------------------------1 week ------------------------------------------------- --------------Over 1 and under 2 weeks -------------------------------

_
31
-

34
35
17

3
33
-

40
26

49
24

1

1

38
(5)
60

67
9
23
-

64

91

11

(5)

1

88
9
3
-

28
1
69
1

16
46
38
-

54

70
1

32
(5)

56
16
26
1

50
(5)
50
-

18
1
77
4

26
1
71
1

13
87
-

46
13
39
2

49
16
33
1

50
-

2
(5)
85
5
8

4
1
85

100

23
3
64
3
7

27
3
58
3
7

21

34
16

After 1 year of service
1 week ---------------------------------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 weeks ------------------------------2 weeks -------------------------------------------------------------3 weeks --------------------------------------------------------------

44
2

53
1

24
"

9

-

After 2 years of service
1 week ----------------------------------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 weeks ------------------------------2 weeks _____ _______________________ __________
3 weeks --------------------------------------------------------------

20
10

12

After 3 years of service
1 week ----------------------------------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 weeks ------------------------------2 weeks --------------- ------------------ ------------ ------3 weeks --------------------------------------------------------------

-

50
-

After 5 years of service
1 week ----------------------------------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 weeks ----------------------------- 2 weeks ------------------------------- ---------------------------Over 2 and under 3 weeks ------------------------------3 weeks ------------------------------- ----------------------------

See footnotes at end of table.




-

10

_
-

_
-

100
-

12
T a b le B-5. Paid V acatio n s-C o n tin u ed
(P e r c e n t d istrib u tio n o f o ffic e and plant w o rk e rs in all in d u strie s and in industry d iv is io n s by va ca tion pay
p r o v is io n s , Scranton, Pa. , August I960)
O f I'll

E

WORKERS

PLAN T W O RK ERS

V a ca tion p o lic y
All industries *

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

|

All industries 3

Manufacturing

23
45
8
23

27
46
8
17

57
19
24

23
34
5

27
37
6
28

6
94

Public utilities1
-

Amount off vacation p a y 4— Continued

A fter 10 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e

1 w eek ------- ------- --------------------------------------------------2 w eek s _________________________________________
O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s -------------------------------3 w eeks _________________________________________

2
57
3
38

4
60
36

83
14
3

2
27

4
40

8

A fte r 15 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e

1 w eek ---------------------------------------------------------- ------2 w eeks --------------------------------------------------------------O ver 2 and under 3 w eeks _____________________
3 w eeks ---------------------------------------------------------------O ver 3 and under 4 w eek s --------------------------------

-

.

-

-

65
5

56

92

2
27
-

4
40
-

62

55

3

1

3
7
■

■

“

23
34
5
32
1

-

27
37
6
25
-

A fte r 20 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 w eek s _________________________________________
O v er 2 and under 3 w eek s -------------------------------3 w eek s
---------------------------------------------------------------O ver 3 and under 4 w eeks -------------------------------4 w eeks
----------------------------------------------------------------

5

.
8
78
14

4

23
34

77

30
8

13
19

3

.
8
-

-

67

27
37
6
24

A fte r 25 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek ---- -------------------------------------------------------------2 w eeks ---- -----------------------------------------------------------O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s -------------------------------3 w eek s --------------------------------------------------------------4 w eek s
____________________ ___________________

1
2
3
4
s e r v ic e
5

2
26

49
22

4

40
46
10

15

5

66
34

4

Inclu des data f o r w h o le s a le tr a d e ; r e ta il t r a d e ; fin a n ce, in su ra n ce , and r e a l e s ta te ; and s e r v ic e s in addition to th o se in du stry d iv is io n s show n s e p a r a te ly .
T ra n sp o rta tio n , co m m u n ica tio n , and o th e r p u b lic u t ilitie s .
Inclu des data fo r w h o le s a le tra d e , re ta il tra d e , r e a l estate, and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in du stry d iv is io n s show n se p a r a te ly .
P e r io d s o f s e r v ic e w e re a r b it r a r ily ch o s e n and do not n e c e s s a r ily r e fle c t the individual p r o v is io n s f o r p r o g r e s s io n s .
F o r exam p le, the chan ges in p r o p o r tio n s
in clu d e changes in p r o v is io n s o c c u r r in g betw een 5 and 10 y e a r s .
L e s s than 0. 5 p e r c e n t.

N O T E ; In the tabulations o f v a ca tio n a llo w a n ce s by y e a r s o f s e r v ic e , paym ents o th e r than "len gth o f tim e , " such as p e r c e n ta g e
to an equivalent tim e b a s is ; f o r e xam p le, a paym ent o f 2 p e rce n t o f annual ea rn in gs w as c o n s id e r e d as 1 w e e k 's pay.




o f annualea rn in gs o r

in d ica ted

fla t -s u m paym en ts, w e re

at 10 y e a r s '

co n v e r te d

13

Table B-6. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
(P e r c e n t o f o f fic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u s tr ie s and in in d u stry d iv is io n s e m p lo y e d in esta b lis h m en ts p ro v id in g
h ealth , in s u r a n c e , o r p e n s io n b e n e f it s , S cra n to n , P a . , A ugust I960)
OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

Type of benefit
All industries

3

Manufacturing

Public utilities3

All industries3

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

_ —

100

100

100

100

100

100

_______
Life insurance ___ __ „ __ __
Accidental death and dismemberment
insurance
__ ____ __ ----------- _
Sickness and accident insurance or
sick leave or both4
_
_______

87

94

55

91

93

65

53

56

27

39

39

51

85

92

55

85

86

65

Sickness and accident insurance ___ __
Sick leave (full pay and no
waiting period) _ __ _ ___
__ ______
Sick leave (partial pay or
waiting period) _____
— ____________

47

76

18

77

86

21

54

54

26

8

-

18

9

"

21

4

-

27

Hospitalization insurance __________________
_______
Surgical insurance _____ ________
Medical insurance __ __ __ _ __
__ ------Catastrophe insurance ______________________
Retirement pension _______ __ ___
_____
No health, insurance, or pension plan ____

92
89
59
31
55
2

96
95
53
18
54
2

79
79
59
54
41
( 5)

94
88
62
9
50
3

96
92
66
7
54
4

67
67
43
30
42
6

A ll workers

________

__

_ _ __

___

W orkers in establishments providing:

1 Inclu des data fo r w h o le s a le tra d e ; r e t a il tra d e ; fin a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e sta te ; and s e r v ic e s in add ition to th ose in d u stry d iv isio n s show n s e p a r a te ly .
2 T r a n s p o rta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and o th e r p u b lic u tilit ie s .
3 Inclu des data fo r w h o le s a le tra d e , r e t a il tra d e , r e a l e s ta te , and s e r v ic e s in add ition to th ose in d u stry d iv is io n s show n s e p a r a te ly .
4 U nduplicated to ta l o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s ic k le a v e o r s ick n e s s and a ccid e n t in su ra n ce show n s e p a r a te ly b e lo w .
S ic k -le a v e plans a re lim ite d to th ose w hich d e fin ite ly e s ta b lis h at le a s t
the m in im u m n um ber o f days 1 pay that can be e x p e c te d b y e a ch e m p lo y e e .
In fo rm a l s ic k -le a v e a llo w a n ce s d e te r m in e d on an in divid u al b a s is a re e x clu d ed .
5 L e s s than 0. 5 p e r c e n t.







15

Appendix:

Occupational Descriptions

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to a ssist its
field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field economists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers,
part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.
O F F IC E

BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statements, b ills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerica l work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
classified by type of machine, as follow s:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.

Biller , machine (hilling machine)— Uses a special billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, etc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.
Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine)— Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, e tc ., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare custom ers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types o f sales and
credit slips.




Class A — Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge o f
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance
sheets, and other records by hand.
Class B — Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping • Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type of billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation o f trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.

CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A — Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a com ­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase o f an establish­
ment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

16

CLERK, ACCOUNTING—-Continued
payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper a c ­
counting distribution; requires judgment and experience in making
proper assignations and allocations. May assist in preparing, ad­
justing and closin g journal entries; may direct cla ss B accounting
clerks.
Class B — Under supervision, performs one or more routine a c­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or a c­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data. This
job does not require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping
principles but is found in offices in which the more routine account­
ing work is subdivided on a functional basis among several workers.

CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the n eces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers'
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker's name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and a ssist paymaster in making up and distribut­
ing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

CLERK, FILE
Class A — In an established filing system containing a num­
ber of varied subject matter file s, cla ssifie s and indexes corres­
pondence or other material; may also file this material. May keep
records of various types in conjunction with files or may super­
vise others in filing and locating material in the file s . May per­
form incidental clerical duties.
Class B — Performs routine filing, usually of material that has
already been cla ssified or which is easily identifiable, or locates
or a ssists in locating material in file s. May perform incidental
clerica l duties.

CLERK, ORDER
R eceives custom ers'orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination o f the following:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; distributing order sheets to respective departments to be filled.
May check with credit department to determine credit rating of customer,
acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders to see
that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check ship­
ping invoices with original orders.




DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
b ilities, reproduces multiple cop ies of typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file of used stencils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards by
punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence, using
an alphabetical or a numerical keypunch machine, following written in­
formation on records. May duplicate cards by using the duplicating de­
vice attached to machine. May keep files of punch cards. May verify
own work or work of others.

OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands, op­
erating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and
distributing mail, and other minor clerical work.

17

SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an ad­
ministrative or executive position. Duties include making appointments
for superior; receiving people coming into office; answering and making
phone ca lls; handling personal and important or confidential mail, and
writing routine correspondence on own initiative; taking dictation (where
transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded information
reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare special reports or
memorandums for information of superior.

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a nor­
mal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter.
May also type from written copy May also set up and keep files in or­
der, keep simple records, etc. Does net include transcribing-machine
work (see transcribing-machine operator).

STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a varied
technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on
scientific research and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter. May
also type from written copy. May also set up and keep files in order,
keep simple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office ca lls.
May record toll calls and take m essages. May give information to per­
sons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders. For workers
who also act as receptionists see switchboard operator-receptionist.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single p o si­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. This typing
or clerical work may take the major part of this worker*s time while at
switchboard.




TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Class A — Operates a variety of tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignments without close supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations + or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating sequences of long and complex reports.
Does not include working supervisors performing tabulating-machine
operations and day-to-day supervision of the work and production of
a group of tabulating-machine operators.
Class B — Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under
sp ecific instructions and may include the performance of some wir­
ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but
small tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are well established. May also include the training
of new employees in the basic operation of the machine.
Class C— Operates simple tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with sp ecific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs, or re­
petitive operations.

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May also type from written
copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation in­
volving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal briefs
or reports on scien tific research are not included. A worker who takes
dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is classified
as a stenographer, general.

18

TYPIST

TYPIST— Continued

Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to make
out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May in­
clude typing of sten cils, mats, or similar materials for use in duplicat­
ing processes. May do clerical work involving little special training,
such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting
and distributing incoming mail.
Class A— Performs one or more o f the following: Typing ma­

terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punc-

tuation, etc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; planning layout and typing of complicated statistical tables
to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine
form letters varying details to suit circumstances.
Class B — Performs one or more o f the following: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance p o licie s,
e tc.; setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying more com­
plex tables already set up and spaced properly.

PR O FE SSIO N AL AND TE C H N IC A L

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued

Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.

involved in strength of materials, beams and trusses; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quantities;
writing specification s; making adjustments or changes in drawings or
specifications. May ink in lines and letters on pencil drawings, prepare
detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings. Work is frequently
in a specialized field such as architectural, electrical, mechanical, or
structural drafting.

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)

Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration of working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Duties
involve a combination o f the following: Interpreting blueprints, sketches,
and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures; assigning
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problems. May a ssist subordinates during emergencies or as a
regular assignment, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
ministrative nature.

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
poses. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Preparing work­
ing plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-section s, e tc., to scale by use
of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as those




A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combina•
tion o f the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of em ployees' injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants
and employees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.

TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. Uses
T-square, compass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

19

MAINTENANCE

D PO W E R PLAN T

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves m ost o f the fo llo w in g :
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’ s handtools, portable
power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; selecting materials nec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or a ssist in repairing boilerroom equipment.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, dis­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specifications j.locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c ­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; using a variety of
electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In gen­
eral, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a record of
operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May a ls o
supervise these operations. H ead or c h i e f e n g in eers in esta b lish m e n ts
em p loyin g more than o n e en gin eer are ex c lu d e d .




HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
A ssist* one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is oermitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-time basis.

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools, gauges,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves m ost o f the fo llo w in g : Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items reauiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making necessary adjustments during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be req u ired to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classification .

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Interpreting written instructions and
specification s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety o f ma­
chinist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and

20

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued

MILLWRIGHT— Continued

operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to close toler­
ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assembling parts into me­
chanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally requires
a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

are required. Work involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment, and parts
to be used; installing and maintaining in good order power transmission
equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the mill­
wright’ s work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an e s ­
tablishment. Work involves m ost o f the fo llo w in g : Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assemblies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; alining wheels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves m ost o f the fo llo w in g : Examining machines and mechan­
ica l equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly d is­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replace­
ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop
for major repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling ma­
chines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In general,
the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classification are workers
whose primary d u ties involve setting up or adjusting machines.

MILLWRIGHT
Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout




OILER
Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work in v o lv e s the fo llo w in g : Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, o ils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper
color or consistency. In general, the work of the maintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves m ost o f the fo llo w in g :
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to correct
lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with stocks and d ies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to pressures,
flow, and size of pipe required; making standard tests to determine
whether finished pipes meet specification s. In general, the work of the
maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily en ga g ed in in sta llin g and repairing building
san itation or h eating s y s t e m s are e x c lu d e d .

21

TOOL AND DIE MAKER

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake. In
general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, models,
or other specifications; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; installing sheetmetal articles as required. In general, the work of the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

(Diemaker; jig maker; toolmaker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most o f the following: Planning and laying out of work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifications;
using a variety of tool and die maker’ s handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding of the working properties of common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to clo se tolerances; fitting and assembling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selecting appropriate
materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die maker’ s
work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification .

C U S T O D I A L AND M A T E R I A L M O V E M E N T

CLEANER—

ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

J A N IT O R , P O R T E R , O R

Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Workers
who specialize in window washing are excluded.

GUARD

C o n tin u e d

Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity o f employees and
other persons entering.

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial




LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more o f the follow­
ing: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or

22

LABORER, MATERIA!, HANDLING— Continued
from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; trans­
porting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.
Longshoremen , who load and unload ships are excluded.

ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
Fills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, customers*
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders, requisi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued
For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified as follow s:
Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk

TRIJCKDRIVER
Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of estab­
lishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers' houses or places of business. May also load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers

are excluded.

PACKER, SHIPPING
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or more o f
the following: Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify
content; selection of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closin g and sealing container; applying labels or
entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make wooden

For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are cla ssified by size
and type of equipment, as follow s: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis of trailer capacity.)

Truckdriver (combination o f sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under lV2 tons)
Truckdriver, medium ( l l2 to and including 4 tons)
/
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons , trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)

TRUCKER, POWER

boxes or crates are excluded.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­
sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Shipping
work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes,
available means of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or assist in
preparing the merchandise for shipment. Receiving work involves: Veri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipments against
bills of lading, invoices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing merchandise or materials to proper de­
partments; maintaining necessary records and file s.




Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified by type of
truck, as follow s:
Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)

WATCHMAN
Makes *rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.
☆ U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : I960 O - 574575

Occupational Wage Surveys
Occupational wage surveys will be conducted in the 82 major labor markets listed below during late I960 and early 1961. Bulletins, when available, may be
purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing O ffice, Washington 25, D .C., or from any of the BLS regional sales offices shown on the
inside front cover.
A summary bulletin containing data for 80 labor markets, combined with additional analysis, w ill be issued early in 1962.

Akron, Ohio— Bull. 1285Albany—
Schenectady—
Troy, N .Y .— Bull. 1285
Albuquerque, N. Mex.— Bull. 1285Allentown—Bethlehem—
Easton,
P a .-N .J .— Bull. 1285Atlanta, Ga.— Bull. 1285Baltimore, Md.— Bull. 1285Beaumont—
Port Arthur, T e x .— Bull. 1285Birmingham, A la.— Bull. 1285.
B oise, Idaho— Bull. 1285Boston, Mass.— Bull. 1285Buffalo, N .Y .— Bull. 1285Burlington, V t.— Bull. 1285Canton, Ohio— Bull. 1285Charleston, W. Va.— Bull. 1285Charlotte, N .C .— Bull. 1285Chattanooga, Tenn.—
Ga.— Bull. 1285Chicago, 111.— Bull. 1285Cincinnati, Ohio—
Ky.-—Bull. 1285Cleveland, Ohio— Bull. 1285Columbus, Ohio— Bull. 1285Dallas, T ex .— Bull. 1285Davenport—
Rock Island—
Moline, Iowa—
111.—
Bull. 1285Day ton, Ohio— Bull. 1285Denver, C olo.-—Bull. 1285Des Moines, Iowa— Bull. 1285Detroit, Mich.— Bull. 1285Fort Worth, T ex.— Bull. 1285-

Green Bay, Wis.— Bull. 1285-2
Greenville, S .C .— Bull. 1285Houston, T ex .— Bull. 1285Indianapolis, Ind.— Bull. 1285Jackson, M iss.— Bull. 1285Jacksonville, F la .— Bull. 1285Kansas City, Mo.—
Kans.— Bull. 1285Lawrence—
Haverhill, Mass.—
N.H.— Bull. 1285Little Rock—
North Little Rock, Ark.— Bull. 1285-6
Los Angeles—
Long Beach, C alif.— Bull. 1285L ou isville, Ky.—
Ind.— Bull. 1285*
v Lubbock, T ex .— Bull. 1285* Manchester, N.H.— Bull. 1285-1
Memphis, Tenn.— Bull. 1285Miami, F la .— Bull. 1285Milwaukee, Wis.— Bull. 1285Minneapolis—
St. Paul, Minn.— Bull. 1285Muskegon—
Muskegon Heights, Mich.— Bull. 1285Newark and Jersey City, N .J.— Bull. 1285N ew H a ven , C o n n .— B u ll. 1285N ew Orleans, L a .— Bull. 1285New York, N .Y .— Bull. 1285Norfolk—Portsmouth and Newport News—
Hampton, V a.— Bull. 1285Oklahoma City, Okla.-—Bull. 1285-3
Omaha, Nebr.—
Iowa— Bull. 1285Paterson—
Clifton— assaic, N.J.— Bull. 1285P
Philadelphia, P a.— Bull. 1285Phoenix, Ariz.— Bull. 1285-

Pittsburgh, P a.— Bull. 1285Portland, Maine— Bull. 1285*
Portland, Oreg.—
Wash.— Bull. 1285Providence—
Pawtucket, R .I.—
Mass.— Bull. 1285*
Raleigh, N .C.— Bull. 1285-5
Richmond, Va.— Bull. 1285Rockford, 111.— Bull. 1285St. Louis, Mo.—
111.— Bull. 1285Salt Lake City, Utah— Bull. 1285San Antonio, T ex.— Bull. 1285San Bernardino—
Riverside—
Ontario,
C a lif.— Bull. 1285-4
San Francisco—
Oakland, C a lif.— Bull. 1285Savannah, Ga.— Bull. 1285Scranton, P a.— Bull. 1285Seattle, Wash.— Bull. 1285-7
Sioux F alls, S. Dak.— Bull. 1285South Bend, Ind.— Bull. 1285Spokane, Wash.— Bull. 1285Toledo, Ohio— Bull. 1285Trenton, N.J.— Bull. 1285Washington, D .C .—
Md.—Va.-—Bull. 1285Waterbury, Conn.— Bull. 1285Waterloo, Iowa— Bull. 1285Wichita, Kans.— Bull. 1285Wilmington, D eL— .J.— Bull. 1285N
Worcester, Mass.— Bull. 1285York, P a.— Bull. 1285-

An asterisk preceding a labor market indicates the availability and
price of the bulletin.
Please do not order copies in advance.

* Price, 20 cents.








Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102