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Occupational Wage Survey LAWRENCE-HAVERHILL, MASSACHUSETTS -NEW HAMPSHIRE JUNE 1961 Bulletin No. 1285-79 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT O F LABOR Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary BUREAU O F LA BO R S T A T IST IC S Ewan C la g u e , Com m issioner Occupational Wage Survey LAWRENCE-HAVERHILL, MASSACHUSETTS -NEW HAMPSHIRE JUNE 1961 Bulletin No. 1285-79 July 1961 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT O F LABOR Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary BUREAU O F LA BO R STA TISTIC S Ewan C la g u e , Com m issioner For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. Price 20 cents Contents Preface The C o m m u n ity W age S u rv ey P r o g r a m The B u rea u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s r e g u la r ly c o n d u c ts a r e a w id e w a g e s u r v e y s in a n u m b er o f im p o rta n t in d u s tr ia l cen ters. The s t u d ie s , m a d e fr o m la te fa ll to e a r ly s p r in g , r e la t e to o c c u p a t io n a l e a r n in g s and r e la t e d su p p le m e n ta r y b e n e fit s . A p r e lim in a r y r e p o r t is a v a ila b le on c o m p le t io n o f the study in e a c h a r e a , u su a lly in the m on th fo llo w in g the p a y r o ll p e r io d stu d ie d . T h is b u lle tin p r o v id e s a d d ition a l data not in clu d e d in the e a r lie r r e p o r t.* A c o n s o lid a te d a n a ly tic a l b u lle tin s u m m a r iz in g the r e s u lt s o f a ll o f the y e a r *s s u r v e y s is is s u e d a fte r c o m p le t io n o f the fin a l a r e a b u lle tin fo r the c u r r e n t ro u n d o f s u r v e y s . 1 3 T a b le s : 1. 2. A: E s ta b lis h m e n ts and w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e o f s u r v e y __________ P e r c e n t s o f in c r e a s e in sta n d a rd w e e k ly s a la r ie s and s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s fo r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tion a l g ro u p s _______________________________________________________ A p p en d ix: O cc u p a tio n a l d e s c r ip t io n s * NOTE: S im ila r ta b u la tion s a r e a v a ila b le in the L a w r e n c e — H a v e r h ill a r e a r e p o r t s fo r F e b r u a r y 1956, M ay 1959, and June I 9 6 0 . M o st o f the r e p o r t s a ls o in clu d e data on e s t a b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and su p p le m e n ta r y w ag e p r o v i s io n s . A d i r e c t o r y , in d ic a tin g date o f study and the p r ic e o f the r e p o r t s , as w e ll as r e p o r t s fo r bth er m a jo r a r e a s , is a v a ila b le upon r e q u e s t . 2 n O cc u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s :* A - l . O ffic e o c c u p a t io n s ---------------------------------------------A - 2 . P r o f e s s i o n a l and te c h n ic a l o c c u p a t io n s ______ A - 3 . M a in ten a n ce and p o w e rp la n t o c c u p a t io n s -----A - 4 . C u s to d ia l and m a t e r ia l m o v e m e n t o c c u p a tio n s 2 m v o In tro d u ctio n __________________________________________________________________ W age tre n d s f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n a l g ro u p s __________________________ ^ T h is r e p o r t w as p r e p a r e d in the B u r e a u 's r e g io n a l o f f ic e in B o s to n , M a s s . , by L e o E p s te in , under the d i r e c tion o f P a u l V . M u lk e r n , A s s is ta n t R e g io n a l D ir e c t o r fo r W a ges and In d u s tr ia l R e la t io n s . Page 9 Occupational W age Survey—Lawrence-Haverhill, Mass.-N.H. Introduction This area is one of several important industrial centers in which the U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics conducts surveys of occupational earnings and related wage benefits on an area basis. The bulletin presents current occupational employment and earnings information obtained largely by mail from the establishments visited by Bureau field economists in the last previous survey for occu pations reported in that earlier study. Personal visits were made to nonrespondents and to those respondents reporting unusual changes since the previous survey. In each area, data are obtained from representative establish ments within six broad industry divisions: Manufacturing; transpor tation, 1 communication, and other public utilities; wholesale trade; re tail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. Major industry groups excluded from these studies are government operations and the construction and extractive industries. Establishments having fewer than a prescribed number of workers are omitted also because they furnish insufficient employment in the occupations studied to war rant inclusion. Wherever possible, separate tabulations are provided for each of the broad industry divisions. These surveys are conducted on a sample basis because of the unnecessary cost involved in surveying all establishments. To obtain appropriate accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of large than of small establishments is studied. In combining the data, how ever, ail establishments are given their appropriate weight. Estimates based on the establishments studied are presented, therefore, as re lating to all establishments in the industry grouping and area, ex cept for those below the minimum size studied. take account of interestablishment variation in duties within the same job. (See appendix for listing of these descriptions. ) Earnings data are presented (in the A -series tables) for the following types of occupa tions: (a) Office clerical; (b) professional and technical; (c) mainte nance and powerplant; and (d) custodial and material movement. Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for full-time workers, i. e . , those hired to work a regular weekly sched ule in the given occupational classification. Earnings data exclude premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded also, but cost-ofliving bonuses and incentive earnings are included. Where weekly hours are reported, as for office clerical occupations, reference is to the work schedules (rounded to the nearest half hour) for which straight-time salaries are paid; average weekly earnings for these occupations have been rounded to the nearest half dollar. Average earnings of men and women are presented separately for selected occupations in which both sexes are commonly employed. Differences in pay levels of men and women in these occupations are largely due to (l) differences in the distribution of the sexes among industries and establishments; (2) differences in specific duties per formed, although the occupations are appropriately classified within the same survey job description; and (3) differences in length of serv ice or merit review when individual salaries are adjusted on this basis. Longer average service of men would result in higher average pay when both sexes are employed within the same rate range. Job descriptions used in classifying employees in these surveys are usu ally more generalized than those used in individual establishments to allow for minor differences among establishments in specific duties performed. Occupations and Earnings The occupations selected for study are common to a variety of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries. Occupational clas sification is based on a uniform set of job descriptions designed to Occupational employment estimates represent the total in all establishments within the scope of the study and not the number actu ally surveyed. Because of differences in occupational structure among establishments, the estimates of occupational employment obtained from the sample of establishments studied serve only to indicate the 1 Railroads, formerly excluded from the scope of these studies, relative importance of the jobs studied. These differences in occu were included in all of the areas studied since July 1959, except Balti pational structure do not materially affect the accuracy of the earn more (September 1959 and December I960), Buffalo (October 1959), ings data. Cleveland (September 1959), and Seattle (August 1959). 2 T a b le 1 . E s ta b lis h m e n t s and w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e of s u r v e y and n u m b e r stu d ied in L a w r e n c e —H a v e r h ill, M a s s . —N . H . , 1 by m a jo r in d u str y d iv is io n , 2 June 1961 N u m b e r of e s t a b lis h m e n ts In d u str y d iv is io n W ith in s c o p e of s t u d y 3 ' W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n ts W ith in sc o p e o f stud y Studied Studied ----------------------------------------------------- 168 73 4 1 ,5 0 0 3 0 ,8 0 0 M a n u fa c tu r in g -------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ------------------------------------------------------T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and oth e r p ub lic u t i l i t i e s 4 ’ 5 _________ ___________ W h o le s a le tra d e 5 __ ____________________________ R e ta il tra d e 5 ----------------------------------------------------------F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e 5 ---------S e r v ic e s 5 ’ 6 ------------------------------------------------------------- 121 47 46 27 3 7 ,3 0 0 4 ,2 0 0 2 8 ,0 3 0 2 ,7 7 0 7 5 22 8 5 6 2 11 4 4 1 ,0 0 0 300 1 ,6 0 0 90 0 40 0 880 120 94 0 530 300 A ll d iv is io n s -------- 1 Th e L a w r e n c e — a v e r h ill S tan d ard M e tr o p o lit a n S t a t is t ic a l A r e a (L a w r e n c e and H a v e r h ill c i t i e s ; A n d o v e r , G r o v e la n d , M e th u s e n , and N o rth H A n d o v e r tow ns in E s s e x C o u n ty , M a s s . ; P la is t o w and S a le m tow ns in R o c k in g h a m C o u n ty , N . H . ) . The "w o r k e r s w ith in sc o p e o f s t u d y " e s t im a t e s show n in this tab le p r o v id e a r e a s o n a b ly a c c u r a te d e s c r ip t io n o f the s iz e and c o m p o s itio n o f the la b o r f o r c e in clu d e d in the s u r v e y . T h e e s t im a t e s a r e not in te n d ed , h o w e v e r , to s e r v e a s a b a s is o f c o m p a r is o n w ith other a r e a e m p lo y m e n t in d e x e s to m e a s u r e e m p lo y m e n t tre n d s or l e v e l s s in c e ( l ) planning o f w a g e s u r v e y s r e q u ir e s the u se o f e s t a b lis h m e n t data c o m p ile d c o n s id e r a b ly in ad van ce o f the p a y r o ll p e r io d s tu d ie d , and (2 ) s m a l l e s t a b lis h m e n ts a r e e x c lu d e d f r o m the s c o p e o f the s u r v e y . 2 T h e 1 9 57 r e v i s e d ed itio n o f the S tan d ard In d u str ia l C la s s if ic a t io n M an u al w a s u se d in c la s s if y in g e s t a b lis h m e n ts by in d u str y d iv is io n . M a jo r c h a n g e s f r o m the e a r l ie r e d itio n (u s e d in the B u r e a u 's la b o r m a r k e t s u r v e y s c o n d u cted p r io r to July 1 9 5 8 ) a r e the t r a n s f e r o f m il k p a s te u r iz a t io n p lants and r e a d y -m i x e d c o n c r e t e e s t a b lis h m e n ts f r o m t r a d e (w h o le s a le o r r e t a il) to m a n u fa c tu r in g , and the t r a n s f e r o f r a d io and t e le v is io n b r o a d c a stin g f r o m s e r v i c e s to the t r a n s p o r ta t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and oth er p ub lic u tilit ie s d iv is io n . In c lu d e s a ll e s t a b lis h m e n ts w ith total e m p lo y m e n t a t or ab ove the m i n i m u m -s i z e lim ita t io n (50 e m p l o y e e s ) . A ll o u tle ts (w ith in the a r e a ) o f c o m p a n ie s in su ch in d u s tr ie s a s t r a d e , fin a n c e , auto r e p a ir s e r v i c e s , and m o t io n -p ic t u r e th e a te rs a r e c o n s id e r e d a s 1 e s t a b lis h m e n t . 4 T a x ic a b s and s e r v i c e s in c id e n ta l to w a te r tr a n s p o r ta t io n w e r e e x c lu d e d . 5 T h is in d u str y d iv is io n is r e p r e s e n t e d in e s t im a t e s fo r " a l l i n d u s t r i e s " and "n o n m a n u fa c t u r in g " in the s e r i e s A t a b l e s . S e p a r a te p r e se n ta tio n o f d ata fo r th is d iv is io n is not m a d e fo r one or m o r e o f the fo llo w in g r e a s o n s : ( l ) E m p lo y m e n t in the d iv is io n is too s m a l l to p r o v id e enough data to m e r it se p a r a t e s tu d y , (2 ) the s a m p le w a s not d e sig n e d in itia lly to p e r m it s e p a r a te p r e s e n t a tio n , (3) r e s p o n s e w a s in s u ffic ie n t or in adeq u ate to p e r m it s e p a r a t e p r e s e n t a tio n , (4 ) th e re is a p o s s ib ilit y o f d is c l o s u r e o f in d ivid u al e s t a b lis h m e n t d a ta . 6 H o t e ls ; p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s ; b u s in e s s s e r v i c e s ; a u to m o b ile r e p a ir s h o p s ; m o tio n p ic t u r e s ; n o n p r o fit m e m b e r s h ip o r g a n iz a t io n s ; and e n g in e e r in g and a r c h it e c tu r a l s e r v i c e s . T a b le 2 . P e r c e n t s o f in c r e a s e in sta n d a r d w e e k ly s a la r i e s and s t r a i g h t -t i m e h o u r ly e a rn in g s fo r s e le c t e d o c cu p a tio n a l g r o u p s in L a w r e n c e — a v e r h ill, M a s s . —N . H . , H June I9 6 0 to June 1961 O c c u p a tio n a l grou p A ll in d u s tr ie s M a n u fa c tu r in g O ffic e c l e r i c a l (w o m e n ) ----------------In d u s tr ia l n u r s e s (w o m e n ) ------------S k ille d m a in te n a n c e (m e n ) ________ U n s k ille d plant (m e n ) ______________ 4 .1 2 .4 3 .8 4 .5 4 .1 2 .4 3 .8 6 .2 3 Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups Presented in table 2 are percents of change in salaries ox women office clerical workers hnd industrial nurses, and in average earnings of selected plant worker groups. For office clerical workers and industrial nurses, the per cents of change relate to average weekly salaries for normal hours of work, that is, the standard work schedule for which straight-time salaries are paid. For plant worker groups, they measure changes in straight-time hourly earnings, excluding premium pay for over time and for work pn weekends, holidays, and late shifts. The per centages are based on data for selected key occupations and include most of the numerically important jobs within each group. The of fice clerical data are based on women in the following 18 jobs: Billers, machine (billing machine); bookkeeping-machine operators, class A and B; Comptometer operators; clerks, file, class A and B; clerks, order; clerks, payroll; keypunch operators; office girls; secretaries; stenographers, general; switchboard operators; switchboard operator*receptionists; tabulating-machine operators; transcribing-machine op erators, general; and typists, class A and B. The industrial nurse data are based on women industrial nurses. Men in the following 10 skilled maintenance jobs and 3 unskilled jobs were included in the plant worker data: Skilled—carpenters; electricians; machinists; me chanics; mechanics, automotive; millwrights; painters; pipefitters; sheet-metal workers; and tool and die makers; unskilled—janitors, porters, and cleaners; laborers, material handling; and watchmen. Average weekly salaries or average hourly earnings were computed for each of the selected occupations. The average sal aries or hourly earnings were then multiplied by the average emplqyment in the job during the months indicated in the title of table 2. These weighted earnings for individual occupations were then totaled to obtain an aggregate for each occupational group. Finally, the ratio of these group aggregates for the one year to the aggregate for the other year was computed and the difference between the result and 100 is the percent of change from the one period to the other. The percent of change measures, principally, the effects of (1) general salary and wage changes; (2) merit or other increases in pay received by individual workers while in the same job; and (3) changes in the labor force such as labor turnover, force expan sions, force reductions, and changes in the proportions of workers employed by establishments with different pay levels. Changes in the labor force can cause increases or decreases in the occupational averages without actual wage changes. For example, a force expansion might increase the proportion of lower paid workers in a specific occupation and result in a drop in the average, whereas a reduction in the proportion of lower paid workers would have the opposite effect. The movement of a high-paying establishment out of an area could cause the average earnings to drop, even though no change in rates occurred in other area establishments. The use of constant employment weights eliminates the effects of changes in the proportion of workers represented in each job in cluded in the data. Nor are the percents of change influenced by changes in standard work schedules or in premium pay for overtime since they are based on pay for straight-time hours. Indexes for the period 1953 to I960 for worKers in 20 major labor markets are presented in BLS Bull. 1265-62, Wages and Re lated Benefits, 60 Labor Markets, Winter 1959-60. A* Occupational Earnings Table A-1. O ffice Occupations (Average stra igh t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area b asis by industry division, Law rence— averhill, M a s s .— .H . , June 1961) H N Avbbaoe Number of workers NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF— $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ 4 0 . 00 4 5 . 00 5 0 . X)0 5 5 . 00 6 0 . 00 6 5 . 00 7 0 . 00 7 5 . 00 8 0 . 00 8 5 . 00 9 0 . 00 9 5 .0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 4 5 . 00 Sex, occupation, and industry division 5 0 . 00 5 5 . 00 6 0 . 00 6 5 . 00 7 0 . 00 7 5 . 00 8 0 . 00 8 5 . 00 9 0 . 00 9 5 . 00 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 and over _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 10 4 11 4 10 1 8 1 3 2 3 1 _ _ . _ . - - - - - - - _ - _ - _ - _ - _ - _ - _ - " - 2 1 1 _ - - - “ _ - _ - - - - . 1 . $ Weekly, hours 1 (Standard) Weekly earnings1 (Standard) and under $ $ $ Men C le r k s, accounting, c la s s A _____ __ __________ 20 39. 0 $ 8 3 .5 0 Tabulating-m achine op erators, c la s s A __ 31 40. 0 8 2 . 00 Tabulating-m achine op erators, c la s s B _________ _______ 15 40. 0 7 7 .5 0 B ille r s , machine (billing m achine) _ — _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Nonmanufacturing _____ __ __ __ _ __ __ __ __ __ 26 18 40. 5 4 0 .5 5 8 .5 0 5 4. 50 B ookkeeping-m achine op erators, c la s s B -----Manufacturing _ __ -------- _ ______ __ __ _____ Nonmanufacturing _ __ __ __ _ __ __ _____ _ _ __ __ __ 98 26 40. 0 4 0 .0 5 6 . 00 6 7 . 00 72 40. 0 5 2 . 00 C le r k s, accounting, c la s s A -------- __ __ __ __ __ Manufacturing _ _ ____ Nonmanufacturing _ _ ____ 66 3 9 .5 3 9 .5 . _ . _ _ _ . 9 9 2 2 2 1 3 3 7 2 14 9 15 14 - 20 - - - 20 14 9 9 6 7 16 7 “ - 8 0 . 00 _ 1 _ - 1 13 11 - 1 - - 7 4 3 14 79. 50 8 1. 00 _ - 12 5 7 17 10 17 7 12 8 4 1 2 1 _ 2 1 1 1 2 ! Women 49 17 C le r k s , accounting, c la s s B __ __ _ Manufacturing _ __ __ __ __ __ _ __ __ _____ __ Nonmanufacturing _ _____ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ C le r k s, file , c la s s B __ __ __ __ _ 39. 0 111 43 39. 0 3 9 .5 68 39. 0 6 5 . 00 6 8 .5 0 6 3 . 00 _ 16 - 10 2 _ 1 _ " - 3 3 - 2 2 5 5 4 4 5 5 11 11 21 21 25 23 32 32 22 22 25 25 31 30 11 10 13 3 _ 28 28 46 46 10 10 15 15 - S e c r e t a r ie s . __ __ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ __ _ __ __ __ M an u factu rin g ------ ---- ------------- __ — __ __ _ Nonmanufacturing _ _____ __ __ _____ — __ __ 178 3 9 .5 155 23 3 9 .5 40. 0 8 3. 50 84. 50 7 7 .5 0 Stenographers, general _____ Manufacturing _ __ _ 101 72 39. 0 6 8 . 00 _ 39. 0 6 7 .0 0 32 3 9 .5 6 6 . 00 43 35 3 9 .5 3 9 .5 5 9. 50 6 0. 50 168 4 0 .0 6 4 . 00 69 3 9 .5 40. 0 19 3 8 .5 _ __ __ T yp ists, c la s s B _ _ _ _ _ _ Manufacturing _ __ __ __ _ __ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ __ N onm anufacturing________________________________ 88 1 _ - 1 6 8 . 00 6 8 . 00 T yp ists, c la s s A __ _ _ 4 4 40. 0 40. 0 __ __ _ - _ 101 101 ___ __ 13 2 11 2 2 Keypunch o p e r a t o r s ________________________________________ M an u factu rin g________ __ __ __ __ _ _ __ __ Switchboard op era to r-rec ep tio n ists _ __ Manufacturing — -----__ - 17 8 1 6 4 .5 0 " _ _ _ _ _ _ _ " 2 1 40. 0 40. 0 _ 8 5 3 4 197 183 Switchboard op erators ________ 3 2 6 6 1. 50 __ __ __ __ __ __ __ ___ - 5 1 4 12 12 - 7 7 .0 0 7 7 . 00 __ - " 12 3 9 .5 6 5 .5 0 5— - 4 0 .0 40. 0 __ __ — 4 15 _ _____ 12 2 6 6 29 29 C le r k s, p a y r o ll__ __ __ __ __ _ __ _ Manufacturing _ __ _________ _ ___ 4 4 - -_ __ __ _ __ __ __ _ __ 1 - 12 __ __ __ __ __ __ C le r k s , order -_ __ _________ Manufacturing _ __ __ - _ _ _ _ - - _ - _ - _ - - - 9 8 9 5 1 5 14 7 - 14 4 2 5 - 29 25 4 9 36 “ 35— _ _ _ 2 2 29 29 7 7 _ _ 1 _ 1 - 1 - - - - - - " 7 10 27 - ■ 23 4 — 5 7 2 2 5 l 3 “ _ _ _ 5 14 15 12 24 21 10 3 3 _ . - _ 9 21 18 9 4 4 1 - - - - 4 l 5 2 3 7 8 _ 1 - _ - 4 10 - - 2 ! _ _ _ _ “ 1 1 - - - ~ - 14 5 _ _ - . - - - 1 1 . . _ _ _ _ - - - - - - - - " ' ' 9 5 5 14 - 12 2 2 5 5 _ _ _ 33 56 60 5 8 . 00 5 8 .5 0 2 - 15 8 37 35 23 18 10 - 5 6. 50 ~ 2 7 2 5 7 3 - 5— 1 _ - . 1 Standard hours refle ct the workweek for which em ployees r eceive their regular stra igh t-tim e sa la r ie s and the earnings corresp ond to these w eekly h ours. N O TE : 1 1 - E stim a te s for a ll in du stries, nonmanufacturing, and public utilities include data for railroad s (SIC 40 ), omitted fro m the scope of a ll labor m arket wage su rveys made b efore July 1959. Where significant, the effect of the inclusion of r ailroad s is greatest on the data shown separately for the public utilities division. _ 5 Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations (A verage stra igh t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area b asis by industry d ivision, Law rence— averhill, M a s s .— .H . , June 1961) H N NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF— Avbbagb Sex, o c c u p a t io n , Number of workers a n d in d u s t r y d iv is io n Weekly t Weekly . earnings hours (Standard) (Standard) $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ 9 0 . 00 9 5 .0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 6 5 . 0 0 7 0 . 00 7 5 . 0 0 8 0 . 00 8 5 . 00 and ” " " ~ “ under 7 0 . 0 0 7 5 . 00 8 0 . 00 8 5 . 00 9 0 . 0 0 9 5 . 00 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 $ $ 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 $ $ $ $ $ 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 1 2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 .0 0 ” 1 1 0 .0 0 “ 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 ~ " 1 2 5 .0 0 " 1 3 0 .0 0 “ 1 3 5 .0 0 ” 1 4 0 .0 0 M en _ 179 179 40. 0 40. 0 $ 1 0 1 .5 0 101. 50 _ _ _ _ _ - 2 2 12 12 35 35 48 48 24 24 26 26 13 13 7 '7 3 3 2 2 6 6 1 1 N u r s e s , i n d u s t r i a l ( r e g i s t e r e d ) _ __ --------- _ _ _ _ _ M a n u fa c t u r in g __ __ _ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ 28 28 40. 0 40. 0 84. 00 8 4 . 00 1 1 4 4 5 5 4 4 8 8 1 1 3 3 2 2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ D r a f t s m e n , s e n i o r ---M a n n fa r h ir in g --------- __ __ __ --------- __ __ __ W om en 1 Standard hours refle ct the workweek for which em ployees receive their regular stra igh t-tim e sa la rie s and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours. N O TE : See note on p. 4 , relative to the inclusion of railro a d s. 6 Table A-3. M aintenance and Powerplant Occupations (A verage straight-tim e hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area b asis by industry division, Law rence— averhill, M a s s .— H . , June 1961) H N. NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF— Occupation and industry division C arpen ters, maintenance __ _____ __ __ __ Manufacturing _ __ _____ __ __ ------------- __ E le ctr icia n s, m ain tenan ce-------------- -------------------Manufacturing _ ___ _____ _ __ __ __ Number of workers 43 43 89 89 Average hourly , earnings $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ 2 .2 0 2 . 30 2 .4 0 2 .5 0 2 . 60 2 .7 0 2 . 80 2 .9 0 3. 00 3. 10 3 .2 0 1. 70 1. 80 1. 90 2 . 00 2 . 10 2 .2 0 2. 30 2 .4 0 2 .5 0 2 . 60 2 .7 0 2. 80 2 . 90 3. 00 3. 10 3 .2 0 and over - - - 5 5 4 4 - 3 3 - " 2 .6 0 2 . 60 _ _ _ - " _ $ 2 . 37 2 . 37 1 1 2 2 3 3 8 8 5 5 “ F ire m en , stationary b oiler — __ _ __ M an u factu rin g----------------------------------------------------- 53 40 2 .2 2 2. 17 _ 1 " 6 ------5------ 3 3 _ - 9 9 _ " H elpers, tra d e s, m a in te n a n c e __ __ — „ __ Manufacturing _ — -------- — — — ---------------- 125 116 1 .9 4 1. 94 14 14 1 1 4 4 14 14 60 54 19 17 _ - M achin e-tool op erators, t o o lr o o m --------------------- 61 2 .5 0 _ _ _ _ _ _ 2 M achin ists, maintenance __ _____ __ __ _ M an u factu rin g----------------------------------------------------- 117 116 2 .4 9 2 .4 9 " " - 4 4 9 9 6 6 _ _ _ - " - 3 3 3 3 _ 28 17 2 . 38 2 .2 3 M ech anics, m ain te n an c e__________________________ Manufacturing _ ~ -------- „ _________ — -- 101 97 2 .4 9 2 .4 8 _ 67 67 2 .2 7 2 .2 7 _ 1.9 5 1. 88 7 5 _ _ _ ' - " - 2 22 8 3 12 12 _ _ “ 11 27 27 23 23 " 21 21 14 14 _ n _ _ _ - 1 " - _ _ _ Id 10 10 10 _ _ - 1 1 _ 3 - _ _ _ _ _ _ 9 9 _ - 1 1 - 1 _ _ _ 7 7 _ - _ _ 12 12 - _ _ _ 6 6 _ and late sh ifts. _ - 2 2 1 1 holidays, 2 2 _ " _ _ relative to the inclusion of railroad s, _ - _ 1 Excludes p rem iu m pay for overtim e and for work on weekends, 7 6 3 3 1 _ - 24 22 1 - _ - 3 3 " _ _ - 12 11 4 4 _ _ " 2 2 3 3 " _ 8 8 _ _ _ 11 11 1 1 - 7 - 8 -------5— 1 1 4 4 2 . 80 2 . 80 12 11 _ - ~ 21 21 132 132 2 2 " 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 _ _ 7 1 5 _ _ 1 1 _ " - 2 . 57 2 .5 7 _ _ 8 2 13 13 46 46 “ 1 _ 13 13 P ip efitters, maintenance — __ __ _ — __ __ M anufacturing _ ------------------- -------- __ __ __ “ " _ 2 2 14 14 _ 5 5 ' 2. 35 2 . 35 " _ 2 2 _ 4 4 32 32 _ 6 6 9 9 1 1 8 8 4 4 - " 23 23 4, - 12 12 12 12 _ _ P ain ters, maintenance ___________________________ M an u factu rin g----------------------------------------------------- See note on p. ! 1 _ 4 4 _ “ _ N O TE : ! 1 7 7 2 " 4 4 6 5 3 3 1 1 1 1 - M ech anics, autom otive (maintenance) _ ---------N onm an ufactu ring__________ ___ — _ — -------- _ 3 3 _ _____ ______ ------------- $ 2 . 10 - _____ $ 2 . 00 - T ool and die m ak ers Manufacturing $ $ 1 .9 0 2 .4 0 2. 36 23 20 $ 1. 80 37 28 O ilers __ — __ __ -------- -------- — __ -------Manufacturing _ __ _____ ___ __ _____ _______ $ 1 .7 0 E n gin eers, stationary ------------- __ — -------- __ Manufacturing ________ __ _ __ ____ __ __ __ __ — __ __ $ 1 .6 0 _ M illw rights __ „ __ __ -------- _ Manufacturing _ __ _____ __ „ $ 1 .5 0 and under 1 .6 0 1 1 “ 1 “ 5 5 5 5 _ _ _ - - - _ _ - " - " - - _ _ _ _ _ - - * _ _ _ _ _ 1 1 1 1 7 7 _ - 2 2 _ 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 11 11 8 8 16 16 _ ' " " - - _ 16 16 7 7 9 9 11 11 26 26 1 1 18 18 30 30 14 14 _ - 7 Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations (Average stra igh t-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area b asis by industry division, Law rence— averhill, M a s s .— . H . , June 1961) H N NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF— O c c u p a t io n 1 an d in d u s tr y d iv is io n Number of workers Average $ hourly 2 1 . 0 0 earnings and under 1 . 10 $ 1.10 $ 1.20 $ 1 .3 0 $ 1 .4 0 $ 1 .5 0 $ 1 .6 0 1.20 1 .3 0 1 .4 0 1 .5 0 1 .6 0 1 .7 0 21 10 11 19 12 7 19 15 4 21 18 3 33 25 8 2 2 4 46 2 2 4 46 _ 5 5 29 29 1 .8 0 1 .9 0 2 . 00 2 . 10 $ 2 .2 0 1 .8 0 1 . 90 2.00 2 . 10 2.20 2 .3 0 24 20 4 65 62 3 68 67 1 5 5 - - “ 6 6 - - - “ 24 60 72 48 48 15 15 76 24 _ 70 214 213 44 60 122 122 4 20 - 2 6 - - 4 4 6 6 _ _ 44 44 1 1 2 2 12 12 4 4 _ - 11 11 _ - 5 5 50 50 _ . - - - - _ - _ - - - 4 4 - - 1 1 - - - - 1 1 1 1 7 6 5 5 8 8 2 2 1 3 3 2 _ _ - 9 9 7 5 3 3 3 9 7 1 1 8 8 4 4 _ _ _ 1 3 - - - ? 2 11 11 2 2 - 4 4 8 s— _ - 3 10 10 8 8 6 -------- 5 J a n i t o r s , p o r t e r s , a n d c l e a n e r s __________________ M a n u f a c t u r i n g _ — --------------__ ----N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ____ ___ _ __ __ 283 236 47 $ 1 ,6 0 1 .6 3 1 .4 8 2 2 L a b o r e r s , m a t e r i a l h a n d lin g ---------- — ------ __ M a n u f a c t u r i n g __________ _____ _________ „ 733 1 .9 1 _ 652 1 .8 6 P a c k e r s , s h ip p i n g ( m e n ) ____________________________ M a n u f a c t u r i n g _ ___________________ _______ 94 94 2 .0 3 2 .0 3 _ _ - - P a c k e r s , s h ip p i n g ( w o m e n ) ________________________ M a n u fa c t u r in g _ _ _____________ ___ _____ 138 138 1 .3 8 1 .3 8 _ _ 54 54 R e c e i v i n g c l e r k s _______________________________________ M a n u f a c t u r i n g ______________ — __ ___ 46 40 2 .0 2 1 .9 8 _ _ _ " " - S h ip p i n g c l e r k s ______________ _ ___ ____ M a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------------------------------ 33 31 1 .9 7 1 .9 7 _ _ _ _ _ - - - - 4 4 _ - S h ip p i n g a n d r e c e i v i n g c l e r k s _____ _ ________ _ _ M a n u fa c t u r in g __ _ _ _______ __ 47 46 1 .9 5 1 .9 6 _ - _ 1 - - - 3 3 5 5 8 8 248 108 140 2 .2 5 r . 15 2 .3 2 _ _ - 8 4 2 - - - - - 8 4 2 11 5 6 - - 8 - . T r u c k d r iv e r s 3 -----------------------------— _ _ M a n u fa c t u r in g _ _ ___________ _ --------------------____________ __ N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ___ _____ T r u c k d r i v e r s , m e d i u m (IV 2 t o a n d i n c l u d i n g 4 t o n s ) _________________________________ 87 2 . 14 T r u c k e r s , p o w e r (fo r k lift) ________________ ________ M a n u f a c t u r i n g _ __ _____ _______ _____ __ 136 56 2 .1 9 1 .9 1 W a t c h m e n --------------- --------------------------------- __ M a n u f a c t u r i n g ______________________________________ 46 44 1 .7 8 1 .7 7 - - - - - - _ . . 8 8 _ 1 Data lim ited to m en w orkers except where otherw ise indicated. 2 Excludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on w eekends, h olidays, 3 Includes all d rivers regard le ss of size and type of truck operated. NO TE : See note on p. 4 , relative to the inclusion of r ailroad s. $ 1 .7 0 $ and late sh ifts. , " 3 -------- 3----- - - - - - - 3 7 7 3 . 23 - Z l 3 3 3 14 14 2 2 ---------- 3— --------- T ~ $ $ $ - $ * “ 6 2 12 — u — 7 7 2 -------- 2 — 8 8 68 4 -------4----- ------SB4 62 _ _ “ - 1 - $ $ $ 2 .3 0 2 .4 0 2 .5 0 2 .6 0 2 .4 0 2 . 50 2 .60 2 .7 0 - - - — _ - 1 -------- 3------ - _ 44 " 44 80 4 76 - - 2 - 89 ------ 9----- _ _ _ - - _ - - “ - " - - - 9 A ppendix: Occupational Descriptions The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to a ssist its field staff in classifyin g into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content. Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field econom ists are instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers, part-time, temporary, and probationary workers. O F F IC E B IL L E R , M A C H IN E B O O K K E E P IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R Prepares statements, b ills, and invoices on a machine other than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerica l work incidental to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are cla ssified by type of machine, as follow s: Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record o f business transactions. B ille r , m achine (h illin g m ach in e) — U ses a special billing ma chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, e tc., which are combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in voices from customers* purchase orders, internally prepared orders, shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine. The operation usually involves a large number of carbon cop ies of the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine. B ille r , m achine (b o o k k e e p in g m achine)— U ses a bookkeeping machine (Sundstrahd, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, e tc ., which may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare custom ers’ bills as* part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers ’ ledger rec ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book keeping. Works from uniform and standard types o f sales and credit slip s. C la s s A — Keeps a set o f records requiring a knowledge o f and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance sheets, and other records by hand. C la s s B — Keeps a record o f one or more phases or section s o f a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of b asic book keeping* Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll, customers* accounts (not including a simple type o f billing described under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in ventory control, etc. May check or a ssist in preparation o f trial balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department. C L E R K , A C C O U N T IN G C la s s A — Under general direction o f a bookkeeper or account ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more section s o f a com plete set of books or records relating to one phase o f an establish ment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts 10 C L E R K , A C C O U N T IN G — Continued payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper a c counting distribution; requires judgment and experience in making proper assignations and allocation s. May a ssist in preparing, ad justing and closin g journal entries; may direct cla ss B accounting clerks. C la ss B — Under supervision, performs one or more routine a c counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or a c counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers; reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled by general ledgers, or posting simple co st accounting data. This job does not require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping principles but is found in offices in which the more routine account ing work is subdivided on a functional basis among several workers. CLERK, PAYROLL Computes wages of company employees and enters the n e ce s sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers* earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker's name, working days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May make out paychecks and a ssist paymaster in making up and distribut ing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine. COM PTOM ETER O P E R A TO R Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of statis tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance of other duties. C L E R K , F IL E C la ss A — In an established filing system containing a num ber of varied subject matter file s , cla ss ifie s and indexes corres pondence or other material; may also file this material. May keep records of various types in conjunction with files or may super vise others in filing and locating material in the file s . May per form incidental clerica l duties. C la ss B — Performs routine filing, usually of material that has already been cla ssified or which is easily identifiable, or loca tes or a ssists in locating Material in file s . May perform incidental clerica l duties. CLERK, ORDER R eceives customers* orders for material or merchandise by mail, phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination o f the follow in g: Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items to make up the order; checking prices and quantities o f items on order sheet; distributing order sheets to respective departments to be filled . May check with credit department to determine credit rating of customer, acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders to see that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check ship ping invoices with original orders. D U P L IC A T IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R (M IM E O G R A P H O R D I T T O ) Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi b ilities, reproduces multiple cop ies o f typewritten or handwritten matter, using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to prepare sten cil or Ditto master. May keep file of used sten cils or Ditto masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material. KEYPUNCH OPERATOR Under general supervision and with no supervisory respon si bilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards by punching a series of holes in the cards in a sp ecified sequence, using an alphabetical or a numerical keypunch machine, following written in formation on records. May duplicate cards by using the duplicating de vice attached to machine. May keep files of punch cards. May verify own work or work o f others. O F F IC E B O Y O R G IR L Performs various routine duties such as running errands, op erating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and distributing mail, and other minor cle rica l work. 11 SECRETARY Performs secretarial and clerica l duties for a superior in an ad ministrative or executive position. Duties include making appointments for superior; receiving people coming into o ffice ; answering and making phone ca lls; handling personal and important or confidential mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative; taking dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare special reports or memorandums for information of superior. STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons, either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a nor mal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter. May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep files in or der, keep simple records, etc. D o e s n ot in clu de tran scribing-m ach in e work (see transcribing-machine operator). STE N O G R A P H E R , T E C H N IC A L Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on scien tific research and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter. May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep file s in order, keep simple records, etc. D o e s not in clu d e tran scribing-m ach in e work . S W IT C H B O A R D O P E R A T O R Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard. Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or o ffice c a lls . May record toll ca lls and take m essages. May give information to per sons who call in, or occasion ally take telephone orders. For workers who also act as receptionists see switchboard operator-receptionist. S W IT C H B O A R D O P E R A T O R -R E C E P T IO N IS T In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single p o si tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may a lso type or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. This typing or clerica l work may take the major part of this worker*s time while at switchboard. T A B U L A T IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R C la s s A — Operates a variety of tabulating or electrical a c counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu lator, calculator, interpreter, collator and others. Performs com plete reporting assignments without clo s e supervision, and performs difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring from diagrams and operating sequences of long and complex reports. D o e s n ot in clu d e working supervisors performing tabulating-machine operations and day-to-day supervision of the work and production of a group of tabulating-machine operators. C la s s B — Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical a c counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under sp e cific instructions and may include the performance of some wir ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but small tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report. Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where the procedures are well established. May a lso include the training of new employees in the basic operation of the machine. C la s s C — Operates simple tabulating or electrical account ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc., with sp e cific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs, or re petitive operations. T R A N S C R IB IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R , G E N E R A L Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May a lso type from written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation in volving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal briefs or reports on scien tific research are not included. A worker who takes dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is cla ssified as a stenographer, general. 12 T Y P IS T T Y P I S T — -C on tin u ed Uses a typewriter to make cop ies of various material or to make out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May in clude typing of sten cils, mats, or similar materials for use in duplicat ing p rocesses. May do clerical work involving little sp ecia l training, such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting and distributing incoming mail. tuation, e tc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma terial; planning layout and typing of com plicated statistical tables to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine form letters varying details to suit circum stances. C la s s B — Performs on e or more o f the fo llo w in g : Copy typing fromrough or clear drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance p o licie s, e tc .; setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying more com plex tables already set up and spaced properly. C la s s A — Performs on e or m ote o f the fo llo w in g : Typing ma terial in final form when it involves combining material from several sources or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punc- P R O F E S S I O N A L D R A F T S M A N , JU N IO R (Assistant draftsman) Draws to sca le units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction of a draftsman. D RAFTSM AN, L E A D E R Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep aration of working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Duties involve a com bination o f the fo llo w in g : Interpreting blueprints, sketches, and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures; assigning duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif ficult problems. May a ssist subordinates during emergencies or as a regular assignment, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad ministrative nature. A N D T E C H N I C A L D R A F T S M A N , S E N IO R — C ontinued involved in strength of materials, beams and trusses; verifying com pleted work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quantities; writing specification s; making adjustments or changes in drawings or specification s. May ink in lines and letters on pencil drawings, prepare detail units o f complete drawings, or trace drawings. Work is frequently in a specialized field such as architectural, electrical, m echanical, or structural drafting. N U R S E , IN D U S T R IA L (R E G IS T E R E D ) A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a com bin a tion o f the fo llo w in g : Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to subsequent dressing of em ployees' injuries; keeping records of patients treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes; conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants and em ployees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel. D R A F T S M A N , SE N IO R TRACER Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur p oses. Duties involve a com bin ation o f the fo llo w in g : Preparing work ing plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-section s, e tc ., to sca le by use of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as those Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing trac ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or p en cil. Uses T-square, com pass, and other drafting to o ls. May prepare simple draw ings and do simple lettering. 13 MAINTENANCE D PO W E R P L A N T C A R P E N T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E F IR E M A N , S T A T IO N A R Y B O IL E R Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs, counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casin gs, and trim made of wood in an establishment. Work involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’ s handtools, portable power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work; selecting materials n ec essary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or o il burner; checks water and safety valves. May clean, oil, or a ssist in repairing boilerroom equipment. E L E C T R I C I A N , M A IN T E N A N C E Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, d is tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Installing or repairing any of a variety of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards, controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems, or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay out, or other specification s; locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; using a variety of electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In gen eral, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. E N G IN E E R , S T A T IO N A R Y Operates and maintains and may a lso supervise the operation stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, motors turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a record of operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May a ls o supervise these operations. H ea d or c h i e f e n g in e e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts e m p lo y in g m ore than o n e en g in eer are e x c lu d e d . of H E L P E R , T R A D E S , M A IN T E N A N C E A ssists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades, by performing sp e cific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools; performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts o f a trade that are a lso performed by workers on a full-time basis. M A C H IN E -T O O L O P E R A T O R , T O O L R O O M Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes, or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fixtures, or d ies. Work involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Planning and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring com plicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and op eration sequence; making necessary adjustments during operation to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recog nize when t o o ls need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper co o la n ts and cu ttin g and lubricating o ils . For cross-industry wage study purposes, m a ch in e-to o l operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this cla ssifica tion . M A C H IN IS T , M A IN T E N A N C E Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Interpreting written instructions and specification s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma ch inist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and 14 M A C H IN IST , M A IN T E N A N C E — C ontinued M IL L W R IG H T — C ontinued operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to clo s e toler ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work, tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop erties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts, and equipment required for his work; fitting and assembling parts into me chanical equipment. In general, the machinist's work normally requires a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. are required. Work involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Planning and laying out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specification s; using a variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining and balancingof equipment; selectin g standard tools, equipment, and parts to be used; installing and maintaining in good order power transmission equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the mill wright's work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. M E C H A N IC , A U T O M O T IV E (M A IN T E N A N C E ) Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an e s tablishment. Work involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Examining automotive equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassem bling equipment and performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches, gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in disassem bling or fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting valves; reassembling and installing the various assem blies in the vehicle and making necessary adjustments; alining wheels, adjusting brakes and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work o f the automotive mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. M E C H A N IC , M A IN T E N A N C E Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment. Work involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Examining machines and mechan ica l equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly d is mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replace ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop for major repairs; preparing written specification s for major repairs or for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling ma chines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In general, the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and ex perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. Excluded from this cla ssifica tion are workers whose primary d u tie s involve setting up or adjusting machines. M IL L W R IG H T Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout O IL E R Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur faces of mechanical equipment of an establishment. P A IN T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E Paints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es tablishment. Work in v o lv e s the fo llo w in g : Knowledge of surface pecu liarities and types o f paint required for different applications; preparing surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May mix colors, o ils , white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper color or con sisten cy. In general, the work of the maintenance painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. P I P E F I T T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings or other written specification s; cutting various siz e s of pipe to correct lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma chine; threading pipe with stocks and d ies; bending pipe by hand-driven or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to pressures, flow , and size of pipe required; making standard tests to determine whether finished pipes meet specifications* In general, the work of the maintenance pipefittei requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex perience. W orkers primarily e n g a g ed in in sta llin g and repairing building sa n ita tion or h ea tin g s y s t e m s are e x c lu d e d . 15 TOOL AND DIE MAKER PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order. Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake. In general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv alent training and experience. SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans, shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and lay ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, models, or other specification s; setting up and operating all available types of sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting, bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; installing sheetmetal articles as required. In general, the work of the maintenance sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. C U S T O D I A L A N D M (Die^iaker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gauge maker) Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying out of work from models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specification s; using a variety of tool and die maker’ s handtools and precision meas uring instruments, understanding of the working properties of common metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions o f work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal parts during fabrication as w ell as of finished tools and dies to achieve required qualities; working to clo s e tolerances; fitting and assembling o f parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selecting appropriate materials, tools, and p rocesses. In general, the tool and die maker’ s work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this cla ssifica tion . A T E R I A L M O V E M E N T ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued Transports passengers between floors of an office building, apartment house, department store, hotel or similar establishment. Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as those of starters and janitors are excluded. or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following: Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips, trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte nance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Workers who specialize in window washing are excluded. GUARD Performs routine p olice duties, either at fixed post or on tour, maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gate- men who are stationed at gate and check on identity o f employees and other persons entering. JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER (Sweeper; charwoman; janitress) Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas and washrooms, or premises of an o ffice , apartment house, or commercial LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING (Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper) A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store, or other establishment whose duties involve one or more o f the follow ing: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or 16 LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING— Continued from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting d e v ice s; unpacking, shelv ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; trans porting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow. Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded. ORDER FILLER (Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman) F ills shippirig or transfer orders for finished goods from stored merchandise in accordance with specification s on sales slip s, customers* orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi cating items filled or omitted, keep records o f outgoing orders, requisi tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform other related duties. SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssifie d as follow s: Receiving clerk Shipping clerk Shipping and receiving clerk TRUCKDRIVER Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of estab lishments such a s: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses, wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments and customers* houses or places of business. May a lso load or unload truck with or without helpers, make minor m echanical repairs, and keep truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers are excluded. PACKER, SHIPPING Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing them in shipping containers, the sp e cific operations performed being dependent upon the type, size, and number o f units to be packed, the type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or more o f the following: Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify content; selection of appropriate type and size o f container; inserting enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent breakage or damage; closin g and sealing container; applying labels or entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make wooden boxes or crates are excluded . SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Shipping work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes, available means of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or a ssist in preparing the merchandise for shipment. Receiving work involves: Veri fying or directing others in verifying the correctness o f shipments against bills of lading, in v oices, or other records; checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods; routing merchandise or materials to proper de partments; maintaining necessary records and file s . For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are cla ssified by size and *ype o f equipment, as follow s: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on the basis o f trailer capacity.) Truckdriver (combination o f sizes listed separately) Truckdriver, light (under ly2 tons) Truckdriver, medium ( l l2 to and including 4 tons) / Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type) Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type) TRUCKER, POWER Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or e le c trie-powered truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment. For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssifie d by type of truck, as follow s: Trucker, power (forklift) Trucker, power (other than forklift) WATCHMAN Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property against fire, theft, and illegal entry. ☆ U .S . GOVERNMENT PRINTING O FFICE : 1 9 6 1 O — 601733