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Occupational Wage Survey

SPOKANE, WASHINGTON
MAY 1961

Bulletin No. 1285-77




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BU REA U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S
Ew an Clague, Com m issioner




O

c c u p a t i o n a l




W

a g e

S

u r v e y

SPOKANE, WASHINGTON
M A Y 1961

B u lle t in N o . 1 2 8 5 -7 7
July 1961

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewon Clague, Commissioner
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.

-

Price 25 cents




Contents

Preface

Page

The Bureau of Labor Statistics regularly conducts
areawide wage surveys in a number of important industrial
centers.
The studies, made from late fall to early spring,
relate to occupational earnings and related supplementary
benefits.
A preliminary report is available on completion
of the study in each area, usually in the month following
the payroll period studied.
This bulletin provides addi­
tional data not included in the earlier report.
A consoli­
dated analytical bulletin summarizing the results of all of
the year’ s surveys is issued after completion of the final
area bulletin for the current round of surveys.

Tables:
1.

Establishments and workers within scope of survey __________

A:

Occupational earnings: *
A - 1.
Office occupations
_______________________________________
A - 2. Professional and technical occupations ______
A - 3. Maintenance and power plant occupations ____
A - 4. Custodial and m aterial movement occupations

B:

This report was prepared in the Bureau’ s regional
office in San Francisco, Calif. , by W illiam P. O’ Connor,
under the direction of John L . Dana, Assistant Regional
Director for Wages and Industrial Relations.




Establishment practices and supplementary wage
provisions: *
B -l.
Shift differentials _________________________________________
B -2 . Minimum entrance salaries for women office
workers ___________________________________________________
B -3 .
Scheduled weekly hours __________________________________
B -4 .
Paid holidays ______________________________________________
B -5 .
Paid vacations _____________________________________________
B -6 .
Health, insurance,and pension plans ___________________

Appendix:

Occupational descriptions

__________________________________

* NOTE: Similar tabulations for these items are available
in the reports for surveys in other m ajor areas.
A direc­
tory indicating date of study and the price of the reports,
is available upon request.
Union scales, indicative of prevailing pay levels,
are also available for the following trades or industries in
the Spokane area:
Building construction, printing, lo c a ltransit operating em ployees, and motortruck drivers and
helpers.

iii

1

2

4
oi

Introduction -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-j o

The Community Wage Survey Program

8
9
9
10
11
13
15




Occupational Wage Survey—Spokane, Wash.
Introduction

This a r e a is one o f s e v e r a l im p orta n t in d u stria l c e n te rs in
w h ich the U. S. D ep artm en t o f L a b o r 's B u reau o f L a b o r S ta tistics has
con d u cted s u r v e y s o f o ccu p a tio n a l ea rn in g s and re la te d w age b e n e fits
on an a re a w id e b a s i s . In this a r e a , data w e r e obtain ed b y p e r s o n a l
v is it s o f B u reau fie ld e c o n o m is ts
to r e p r e s e n ta tiv e esta b lish m en ts
w ith in s ix b r o a d in d u stry d iv is io n s :
M an u factu rin g; tr a n sp o rta tio n , 1
c o m m u n ica tio n , and oth er p u b lic u tilitie s ; w h o le s a le tra d e; r e ta il
tra d e; fin a n ce , in s u r a n ce , and r e a l esta te; and s e r v ic e s . M a jo r in ­
d u stry g ro u p s e x clu d ed fr o m th ese stu d ies a r e g o v e rn m e n t o p era tion s
and the c o n s tr u c tio n and e x tr a c tiv e in d u s tr ie s . E sta b lish m en ts having
fe w e r than a p r e s c r ib e d n u m ber o f w o r k e r s a r e om itted a ls o b e c a u s e
they fu rn ish in su ffic ie n t em p loy m en t in the occu p a tio n s studied to w a r ­
rant in clu s io n . W h e re v e r p o s s ib le , se p a ra te tabu lation s a r e p ro v id e d
fo r ea ch o f the b r o a d in d u stry d iv is io n s .
T h e se su r v e y s a r e con d u cted on a sa m p le b a s is b e c a u s e o f the
u n n e c e s s a r y c o s t in v olv ed in su rv e y in g a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts . To obtain
a p p ro p r ia te a c c u r a c y at m in im u m c o s t , a g r e a te r p r o p o r t io n o f la rg e
than o f s m a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts is stu d ied. In com b in in g the data, h ow ­
e v e r , a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts a r e given th eir a p p ro p r ia te w eigh t. E stim a tes
b a s e d on the e sta b lish m en ts studied a r e p r e s e n te d , t h e r e fo r e , as r e ­
lating to a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts in the in d u stry g rou p in g and a r e a , e x ­
c ep t f o r th ose b e lo w the m in im u m s iz e studied.
O ccu p ation s and E arn in gs
The occu p a tion s s e le c t e d fo r study a r e c o m m o n to a v a r ie ty
o f m a n u fa ctu rin g and n on m an u fa ctu rin g in d u s tr ie s . O ccu p ation a l c l a s ­
s ific a tio n is b a se d on a u n ifo rm se t o f jo b d e s c r ip tio n s d esign ed to
take a ccou n t o f in ter esta b lish m en t v a r ia tio n in duties w ithin the sa m e
jo b . (See ap pendix fo r lis tin g o f th ese d e s c r ip tio n s . ) E a rn in gs data a re
p r e s e n te d (in the A - s e r i e s ta b le s ) fo r the fo llo w in g ty pes o f o c c u p a ­
tio n s : (a) O ffice c le r i c a l; (b) p r o fe s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l; (c ) m a in te ­
n an ce and p ow erp la n t; and (d) c u s to d ia l and m a te r ia l m ov e m e n t.
O ccu p ation a l e m p loy m en t and ea rn in g s data a r e show n fo r
fu ll-t im e w o r k e r s , i. e. , th ose h ire d to w o r k a re g u la r w e e k ly s c h e d ­
u le in the g iven occu p a tio n a l c la s s ific a t io n .
E a rn in gs data ex clu d e
p re m iu m pay fo r o v e r tim e and fo r w o r k on w ee k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and
1
R a ilr o a d s , fo r m e r ly e x clu d ed fr o m the s c o p e o f th ese stu d ie s,
w e re in clu d ed in a il o f the a r e a s studied s in c e July 1959, e x ce p t B a lti­
m o r e (S ep tem b er 1959 and D e c e m b e r I9 6 0 ), B u ffalo (O cto b e r 1959\
C levela n d (S ep tem b er 1959), and S eattle (A ugust 1959).




late sh ifts.
N on p rod u ction b on u ses a re ex clu d ed a ls o , but c o s t - o f liv in g bon u ses and in cen tiv e earn in g s a r e in clu d ed .
W here w eek ly
h ou rs a r e r e p o r te d , as fo r o ffic e c le r i c a l o c cu p a tio n s, r e fe r e n c e is
to the w o rk sch e d u le s (rounded to the n e a r e s t h alf h ou r) f o r w hich
s tr a ig h t-tim e s a la r ie s a r e paid; a v e r a g e w eek ly earn in g s fo r these
occu p a tion s have b e e n rounded to the n e a r e s t h alf d o lla r .
A v e ra g e earn in g s o f m en and w om en a r e p r e se n te d se p a r a te ly
fo r s e le c t e d occu p a tion s in w h ich both s e x e s a r e c o m m o n ly em p loy ed .
D iffe r e n c e s in pay le v e ls o f m en and w om en in th ese o ccu p a tion s a re
la r g e ly due to ( l ) d iffe r e n c e s in the d is trib u tio n of the s e x e s am ong
in d u strie s and e sta b lis h m e n ts; (2) d iffe r e n c e s in s p e c ific duties p e r ­
fo r m e d , although the occu p a tion s a re a p p ro p r ia te ly c la s s ifie d w ithin
the sa m e s u r v e y jo b d e s c r ip tio n ; and (3) d iffe r e n c e s in length of s e r v ­
ic e o r m e r it r e v ie w when in dividu al s a la r ie s a r e a d ju sted on this b a s is .
L on g er a v e r a g e s e r v ic e o f m en w ould r e s u lt in h igh er a v e ra g e pay
w hen both se x e s a re em p loy ed w ithin the sa m e rate ran ge.
Job
d e s c r ip tio n s u sed in c la s s ify in g e m p lo y e e s in th ese su rv e y s a r e u su ­
a lly m o r e g e n e r a liz e d than th ose u sed in in dividu al esta b lish m en ts to
a llow f o r m in o r d iffe r e n c e s am ong esta b lish m en ts in s p e c ific duties
p e r fo r m e d .
O ccu p ation a l em p loy m en t e stim a te s r e p r e s e n t the total in a ll
e sta b lish m en ts w ithin the s c o p e o f the study and not the n u m ber a c tu ­
a lly s u rv e y e d . B eca u se of d iffe r e n c e s in o ccu p a tion a l stru ctu re am ong
e s ta b lis h m e n ts, the e stim a te s of occu p a tion a l em p loym en t obtained
fr o m the sa m p le o f e sta b lish m en ts studied s e r v e on ly to in d ica te the
r e la tiv e im p o rta n ce o f the jo b s studied.
T h ese d iffe r e n c e s in o c c u ­
p a tion al stru ctu re do not m a te r ia lly a ffe c t the a c c u r a c y o f the e a r n ­
ings data.
E sta b lish m en t P r a c t ic e s and S u pplem en tary W age P r o v is io n s
In form ation is p re se n te d a ls o (in the B - s e r i e s ta b le s ) on s e ­
le c te d e sta b lish m en t p r a c t ic e s and su p p lem en ta ry b e n e fits as they r e ­
late to o ffic e and plant w o r k e r s .
The term " o ffic e w o r k e r s , " as u sed
in this b u lle tin , in clu d es w ork in g s u p e r v is o r s and n o n s u p e r v is o r y
w o r k e r s p e r fo r m in g c le r i c a l or rela ted fu n ction s, and e x clu d e s a d m in ­
is tr a tiv e , e x e cu tiv e , and p r o fe s s io n a l p e r so n n e l. "P la n t w o r k e r s " in ­
clude w ork in g fo r e m e n and a ll n o n s u p e r v is o r y w o rk e r s (in cluding le a d m en and tr a in e e s ) engaged in n o n o ffic e fu n ction s.
A d m in istra tiv e ,
e x e cu tiv e , and p r o fe s s io n a l e m p lo y e e s , and fo r c e -a c c o u n t c o n s tr u c tio n
e m p lo y e e s who a r e u tilize d as a sep a ra te w o rk fo r c e a re ex clu d ed .
C a fe te r ia w o r k e r s and rou tem en a r e ex clu d ed in m a n u factu rin g in du s­
t r ie s , but a r e in clu ded as plant w o rk e r s in n onm an ufacturin g in d u strie s .

2

Table 1.

Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied in Spokane, Wash. ,

Industry division

A ll divisions

Minimum
employment
in establish­
ments in scope
of study

by m ajor industry division, 2 May 1961

Number of establishments
Within
scope of
study 3

Workers in establishments
Within scope of study

Studied

Studied
T o ta l4

Office

Plant

T otal4

___________________________________________________

50

137

67

2 3 ,4 0 0

3 ,4 0 0

15, 400

15, 860

Manufacturing _________________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________ ______________________________
Transportation, communication, and
other public utilities 5 __________________________________
Wholesale trade ____________________________________________
Retail trade -------------------------------------------------------------------------Finance, insurance, and real estate ____________________
S e r v ic e s7 ___________________________________________________

50
50

44
93

23
44

7, 900
15, 500

700
2, 700

5, 800
9, 600

5, 590
1 0 ,270

50
50
50
50
50

19
15
37
8
14

11
8
12
6
7

6,
1,
5,
1,
1,

000
400
300
200
600

900
(*)
( )
( )
(6)

3, 000
(6)
( )
( 6)
( 6)

5, 050
870
2, 280
1, 010
1, 060

1 The Spokane Standard Metropolitan Statistical A rea (Spokane County).
The "w ork ers within scope of study" estim ates shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate description of the
size and composition of the labor force included in the survey.
The estim ates are not intended, however, to serve as a basis of com parison with other area employment indexes to measure employment
trends or levels since (1) planning of wage surveys requires the use of establishment data compiled considerably in advance of the payroll period studied, and (2) sm all establishments are excluded
from the scope of the survey.
2 The 1957 revised edition of the Standard Industrial C lassification Manual was used in classifying establishments by industry division.
M ajor changes from the earlier edition (used in the
Bureau's labor market wage surveys conducted prior to July 1958) are the transfer of m ilk pasteurization plants and ready-m ixed concrete establishments from trade (wholesale or retail) to
manufacturing, and the transfer of radio and television broadcasting from services to the transportation, communication, and other public utilities division.
3 Includes all establishments with total employment at or above the m in im u m -size lim itation.
A ll outlets (within the area) of companies in such industries as trade, finance, auto repair
service, and motion-picture theaters are considered as 1 establishment.
4 Includes executive, professional, and other workers excluded from the separate office and plant categories.
5 Taxicabs and services incidental to water transportation were excluded.
6 This industry division is represented in estim ates for "a ll in du stries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the Series A and B tables.
Separate presentation of data for this division is not made
for one or m ore of the following reasons:
(1) Employment in the division is too sm all to provide enough data to m erit separate study, (2) the sample was not designed initially to permit separate
presentation, (3) response was insufficient or inadequate to permit separate presentation, (4) there is possibility of disclosure of individual establishment data.




7

H o te ls ; p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s ; b u s in e s s s e r v i c e s ; a u to m o b ile r e p a ir s h o p s ; m o t io n p ic t u r e s ; n o n p r o fit m e m b e r s h ip o r g a n iz a t io n s ; a n d e n g in e e r in g an d a r c h it e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s .

3
Shift d iffe r e n tia l data (table B - l ) a r e lim ite d to m anu factu ring
in d u strie s .
This in form a tion is p r e s e n te d both in te r m s o f (a) e s t a b ­
lish m en t p o l i c y , 2 p r e se n te d in te r m s o f total plant w o r k e r e m p lo y ­
m ent, and (b) e ffe c tiv e p r a c t ic e , p r e s e n te d on the b a s is o f w o rk e r s
a ctu a lly e m p loy ed on the s p e c ifie d sh ift at the tim e o f the su rv ey .
In esta b lish m en ts having v a r ie d d iffe r e n tia ls , the am ount applying to
a m a jo r ity was u sed o r , if no am ount ap p lied to a m a jo r ity , the c l a s ­
s ific a tio n " o t h e r 1 w as u sed.
'
In esta b lish m en ts in w hich so m e la te sh ift h ou rs a re p a id at n o rm a l r a te s , a d iffe r e n tia l was r e c o r d e d on ly
if it a p plied to a m a jo r ity o f the sh ift h ou rs.

M inim u m en tran ce rates (table B -2 ) re la te on ly to the e s t a b ­
lish m en ts v is ite d .
They a re p r e se n te d on an esta b lish m en t, rath er
than on an em p loym en t b a s is .
P a id h o lid a y s ; pa id v a ca tio n s ; and
health, in su ra n ce, and p en sion plans a r e tre a te d s ta t is t ic a lly on the
b a s is that th ese a re a p p lica b le to a ll plant o r o ffic e w o rk e r s if a m a ­
jo r it y o f su ch w o rk e r s a re e lig ib le o r m a y even tu a lly qu alify f o r the
p r a c t ic e s lis te d . S ch eduled h ou rs a re tre a te d s ta t is t ic a lly on the b a sis
that th ese a re a p p lica b le to a ll plant o r o ffic e w o rk e r s if a m a jo r ity
a re c o v e r e d . 3 B e ca u se o f rounding, su m s o f in dividu al item s in th ese
tabulations m a y not equal tota ls.
The fir s t part- o f the paid h olida ys table p r e s e n ts the n u m ­
b e r o f w hole and h alf h olid a ys a ctu a lly p r o v id e d .
The se co n d p a rt
c om b in es w hole and h alf h olida ys to show total h olid a y tim e.

Data a r e p r e s e n te d f o r a ll h ealth, in su r a n ce , and p e n sio n
plans fo r w hich at le a s t a p a r t o f the c o s t is b orn e by the e m p lo y e r ,
ex cep tin g on ly le g a l r e q u ire m e n ts su ch as w o rk m e n 's com p en sa tion ,
s o c ia l s e c u r it y , and r a ilr o a d r e tir e m e n t.
Such plans in clu d e th ose
u n d erw ritten by a c o m m e r c ia l in su ra n ce com p a n y and th ose p r o v id e d
through a union fund o r p a id d ir e c t ly by the e m p lo y e r out o f c u r re n t
op era tin g funds o r fr o m a fund se t a s id e f o r this p u rp o s e .
D eath
b en efits a r e in clu d ed as a fo r m o f life in su ra n ce .
S ick n ess and a c c id e n t in su ra n ce is lim ite d to that type o f in ­
su ra n ce u nder w hich p r e d e te r m in e d ca sh pa ym en ts a r e m ade d ir e c t ly
to the in su red on a w eek ly o r m on th ly b a s is du ring illn e s s o r a c c id e n t
d is a b ility .
In form a tion is p r e s e n te d f o r a ll su ch plans to w hich the
e m p lo y e r co n trib u te s.
H ow ev er, in N ew Y o rk and N ew J e r s e y , w hich
have en acted te m p o r a r y d is a b ility in su ra n ce law s w hich r e q u ir e e m ­
p lo y e r c o n t r ib u t io n s ,4 plans a r e in clu d ed on ly if the e m p lo y e r (1) c o n ­
trib u tes m o r e than is le g a lly re q u ire d , o r (2) p r o v id e s the em p lo y e e
with b en efits w hich e x c e e d the re q u ire m e n ts o f the law . T abu lations
o f paid s ic k -le a v e plans a re lim ite d to fo r m a l plans 5 w hich p r o v id e
fu ll pay o r a p r o p o r t io n o f the w o r k e r 's pay du ring a b se n ce fr o m w ork
b e c a u s e o f illn e s s .
S ep arate tabu lation s a r e p r o v id e d a c c o r d in g to
(1) .plans w hich p r o v id e fu ll pa y and no w aiting p e r io d , and (2) plans
p r o v id in g eith er p a rtia l pay o r a w aiting p e r io d .
In ad dition to the
p re se n ta tio n o f the p r o p o rtio n s o f w o rk e r s who a r e p r o v id e d s ic k n e s s
and a c c id e n t in su ra n ce o r p a id s ic k le a v e , an u ndu plicated total is
show n o f w o r k e r s who r e c e iv e e ith e r o r both types o f b e n e fits.

The su m m a ry o f v a ca tion plans is lim ite d to fo r m a l a r r a n g e ­
m en ts, ex clu din g in fo rm a l plans w h ereb y tim e o ff with pay is granted
at the d is c r e tio n o f the e m p lo y e r .
S ep arate e stim a tes a re p r o v id e d
a c c o rd in g to e m p lo y e r p r a c tic e in com pu tin g v a ca tion p a ym en ts, su ch
as tim e pa ym en ts, p e r c e n t o f annual e a rn in g s, o r fla t-s u m am oun ts.
H ow ever, in the tabulations o f v a ca tion a llo w a n ce s , paym en ts not on
a tim e b a s is w e re co n v e rte d ; fo r ex a m p le, a paym en t o f 2 p e r c e n t o f
annual earn in gs was c o n s id e r e d as the equ ivalen t o f 1 w e e k 's pay.

C a ta stroph e in su ra n ce , s o m e tim e s r e fe r r e d to as exten ded
m e d ic a l in su ra n ce , in clu d es th ose plans w hich a r e d e s ig n e d to p r o te c t
e m p lo y e e s in c a s e o f s ick n e s s and in ju ry in volvin g ex p e n s e s beyon d
the n o rm a l c o v e r a g e o f h o sp ita liza tio n , m e d ic a l, and s u r g ic a l p la n s.
M e d ica l in su ra n ce r e fe r s to plans p ro v id in g f o r co m p le te o r p a rtia l
p a ym en t o f d o c t o r s ' fe e s . Such plans m a y be u n d erw ritten b y c o m m e r ­
c ia l in su ra n ce com p a n ies o r n on p rofit o rg a n iz a tio n s o r th ey m a y be
s e lf-in s u r e d . T abu lations o f r e tir e m e n t p e n sio n plans a r e lim ite d to
th ose plans that p r o v id e m on th ly paym en ts f o r the r e m a in d e r o f the
w o r k e r 's life .

2
An esta b lish m en t was c o n s id e r e d as having a p o lic y if it m et
e ith er o f the follow in g con d ition s: (1) O p era ted late sh ifts at the tim e
o f the su rv e y , o r (2) had fo r m a l p r o v is io n s c o v e r in g late sh ifts.
3
S ch eduled w eek ly h ou rs f o r o ffic e w o rk e r s (fir s t s e c tio n o f
table B -3 ) in s u rv e y s m ade p r io r to July 1957 w e re p r e s e n te d in
te r m s o f the p r o p o r tio n o f w om en o ffic e w o rk e r s e m p lo y e d in o ffic e s
with the in d ica ted w eek ly h ou rs f o r w om en w o r k e r s .

4
The te m p o r a r y d is a b ility law s in C a lifo rn ia and R hode Islan d
do not r e q u ir e e m p lo y e r con trib u tion s.
5
An esta b lis h m e n t w as c o n s id e r e d as having a fo r m a l plan if
it e sta b lis h e d at le a s t the m in im u m n u m ber o f days o f s ic k le a v e that
cou ld be e x p e cte d by e a ch e m p lo y e e . Such a plan n eed not be w ritten ,
but in fo rm a l s ic k -le a v e a llo w a n ce s , d e te rm in e d on an in dividu al b a s is ,
w e re e x clu d ed .




4

A* Occupational Earnings
Table A -l. O ffice Occupations
(Average straight-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Spokane, W a sh ., May 1961)
Avebaqe
Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number

of

Weekly
hours 1
(Standard)

workers

Weekly
earnings1
(Standard)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

$
$
$
40. 00 45. 00 50. 00
and
under
4 5 .0 0 5 0 .0 0 55. 00

5

55. 00

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
60. 00 65. 00 $70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100. 00 10 5 .0 0 n o . oo 115. 00 120. 00 125. 00

60. 00

65. 00

70. 00

75. 00

-

-

-

-

80. 00

85. 00

90. 00

-

2
3
3

7
1
6
4

9
5
4
1

12
4
8
7

10
4
6
5

4
4

7
5

3
2

7
4

3
2

1
-

95. 00 10 0 .0 0 105. 00 n o . oo 115. 00 12 0 .0 0 125. 00

and
over

Men

C lerk s, accounting, class A --- ----------------------------------Manufacturing _____________ ____________ ____________
Nonmanufacturing _ ___________________ _____ __ —
Public utilities 2 ___________________________
__

70
22
48
31

4 0 .0
40. 0
39. 5
40. 0

$107.00
105.00
107.50
104.50

-

C lerk s, accounting, class B ____________________________
Manufacturing ____________________________ __ ______

30
19

40. 0
4 0 .0

86.00
84.00

C lerk s, order ____________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________ __ __

38
31

40. 0
40. 0

94.50
93.00

Tabulating-machine operators, class A ______________

18

4 0 .0

116.50

B ille r s, machine (billing machine) ____________________
Nonmanufacturing _________________________ _________

19
16

40. 0
40. 0

Bookkeeping-machine operators, class A _____________
Nonmanufacturing ________________________________ __

25
19

Bookkeeping-machine operators, c la ss B _____________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________________

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

"

-

2
-

2
2

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

"

-

-

_

_

_

_

72.00
65.00

_

_
-

6
6

_

-

40. 0
40. 0

78.00
73.00

_

_

_

-

-

186
177

3 9 .5
39. 0

57.50
57.00

4
4

10
10

C lerk s, accounting, class A _______________________ —
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________________
Public u tilitie s2 _________ _______________________

64
51
20

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

82.00
82.00
90.00

_
-

C lerk s, accounting, cla ss B __ ____________ _________
Nonmanufacturing ________________________ ______ —
Public utilities 2 _______________________ _________

115
85
17

39. 5
39. 5
40. 0

71.50
67.00
79.00

_
-

C lerk s, file , class B ____________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________________

56
55

39. 5
39. 5

54.00
53.00

C lerk s, payroll __________________________________________
Manufacturing ____________________________________ __
Nonmanufacturing _________________________ _________

57
28
29

40. 0
40. 0
4 0 .0

Comptometer operators _________________________________
Nonmanufacturing __________________ _____ _________

68
53

Keypunch operators
_________________ _______________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________________

_
-

5
-

15
3
12
11

3
3
-

1
1
-

8
3
5
“

_

_

_

-

1
-

_

-

-

2
-

-

_

_

*

-

5
5

12
10

4
4

_

-

15
12

_

-

-

"

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

4

!

5

4
4

2
2

1
1

_

3
3

_

.

_

_

3

-

-

-

-

-

_

5
5

2
2

3
3

3
3

5
5

1
1

3

3

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

58
58

51
49

36
36

16
15

2
2

_

9
3

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

.

_

-

-

"

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

2
2

9
6
-

8
6
2

4
2
2

19
16
9

8
6
4

2
1
-

1
1
1

1
1

2
2
2

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

8
8
-

-

-

-

8
8
-

5
5
-

8
8
"

20
18
-

15
13
1

12
12
7

10
9
3

27
6
2

4
4
2

_
-

_
-

2
2
2

.
-

4
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

7
7

6
6

20
20

17
17

3
3

2
2

_

_

_

_

_

_

“

"

"

-

-

1
-

79.50
81.50
77.50

_
-

3
3

_
-

_
-

3
2
1

11
7
4

5
3
2

4
1
3

7
4
3

15
3
12

2
2
-

3
3
-

_
-

1
1

40. 0
40. 0

68.50
66.00

_

4
4

11
11

10
9

9
8

3
3

9
3

5
4

4
4

10
4

2
2

1
1

_

_

55
40

39. 0
39. 0

79.00
74.00

_

_

7
6

_

9
8

3
1

8
7

1
1

3
3

14
14

_

_

_

-

-

-

Office girls ________________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------------- ---------

22
22

40. 0
40. 0

59.50
59.50

3
3

9
9

_

1
1

2
2

_

_

_

_

_

"

-

3
3

_

-

4
4

-

“

Secretaries ________________________________________________
Manufacturing _________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________________ _____

122
50
72

3 9 .5
40. 0
39. 5

87.00
98.50
79.00

_

_

1

4

6

-

-

-

-

-

9

1

4

6

9
2
7

11
2
9

18
5
13

13
6
7

20
12
8

4
1
3

8

Women

See footnotes at end of table.




.

-

-

-

9

-

_

-

-

-

.

_

.

_

.

1
1

1
1

-

-

_
1
1
-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

3

11
9
2

_

2
2

_

3

10

-

11
11

_

5

Table A-1. O ffice Occupations-Continued
(Average straight-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Spokane, W ash. , May 1961)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

A verage

of

$

Weekly,
hours
(Standard)

$

$

5 0 .0 0

$
55. 00

$

$

65. 00

$
70. 00

$

$

80. 00

$
85. 00

$
90. 00

45. 00

Sex, occupation, and industry division

5 0 .0 0

55. 00

60. 00

65. 00

7 0 .0 0

75. 00

80. 00

85. 00

9 0 .0 0

95. 00 10 0.00 105. 00 110.00 115. 00 120. 00 125. 00

Weekly , 40. 00
earnings
and
(Standard) under

45. 00

60. 00

75. 00

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
95. 00 1 0 0.00 105. 00 n o . oo 115. 00 120. 00 125. 00
and
over

W omen — Continued

Stenographers, general ______ __ __ _____ ______ ___
Manufacturing --------- --------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing __ __ __ __ — ----------------------------Public utilities 2 ____________________________________

143
24
119
43

3 9 .5
40 . 0
39. 5
40 . 0

Switchboard operators _______ __ — __
______ _____
Nonmanufacturing ________ ______ ________ ________
Public utilities 2 ____________________________________

48
43
18

39. 5
3 9 .5
40. 0

7 2. 50
71. 50
84. 50

_

Switchboard operator-receptionists ____________________
Manufacturing --------------------- ------- ----------------------------Nonmanufacturing ______ _____ __ ___________________

71
22
49

40. 0
40 . 0
40. 0

T yp ists, class A

____________

19

T yp ists, class B ______ _____ „
__ _______________
Nonmanufacturing _________ __ ----------------------------------

57
35

_____________

__ ________

-

1
'

7
2
5
“

20
5
15
1

13
1
12
-

39
10
29
7

12

-

4
-

12
2

2
2
-

3
3
-

8

7
-

3
3
-

11
9
1

_

"

64. 50
72. 50
60. 50

2
2

2
2
-

2
2

22
2
20

20
2
18

1

8

-

38. 5

68. 00

_

_

2

7

40. 0
40. 0

71. 00
55. 50

7
7

6

13
13

7

$75.
77.
75.
85.

50
00
50
50

4
-

"

1

6

-

8
8

19

3

6
-

2

9

-

6

-

-

-

-

6
6

2
1

3
2

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

2
-

_

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

"

1
1
-

_

2

.

_

_

_

-

-

4

19
18

3
2

2
2
1

4
4
3

13
13
13

5
2
3

3
3

_

_

-

-

"

-

1

5
5
"

_

5
3

3

_

2

3

_

_

_

_

8

3
1

2
1

-

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-tim e salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
2 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.




Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations

Salaries of professional and technical workers, are omitted
from this report.
Data do not meet publication criteria.

18

6

Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(Average straight-tim e hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Spokane, Wash. , May 1961)
NUMBER OF WORKEBS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
hourly .
earn gs
in

Occupation and industry division

$
2

.

$
0 0

under
2 . 1 0

C arpenters, maintenance _______________________
Manufacturing _________________________________

36
26

$ 2 . 93
2 . 82

E lectricians, maintenance ______________________
Manufacturing _____________ _________________

107
85

3. 24
3. 20

Engineers, stationary ___________________________
Manufacturing _________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________
Public utilities 2 __________________________

90
57
33
15

2 . 81
2 .9 5
2. 56
2. 55

Firem en, stationary boiler _____________________

2 2

2

M achinists, maintenance ________________________
Manufacturing _________________________________

95
91

2

.

2

"
.

$

.

$

1 0

2

2 0

“
2. 30

1

2 0

2. 30
'
2. 40

5
4

-

1

-

-

1

.
-

.
-

.
-

“

"

2 .4 0
2. 50

-

.
-

%

-

j

3. 05
3. 05

. 49

6

"

2. 50

$
2

"

1 1

. 80

1

2

-

1

1

2

2

$
2

. 80

2

. 90

5
5

$
2

.

1
1

1

-

1

1

'

1

33
30
3
3

8

3. 00
3. 10

4
4

$

3. 10
3. 20

$

3. 20
3. 30

7
7

1 6

$

3. 30
3. 40

$

3 .4 0
3. 50

$

%

3. 50

3. 60

3 .6 0

3 .7 0

3

4

-

16

-

8

$
9 0

3. 00

2

-

3

-

"

61
61

-

18
-

3

1 1

2

6

'

2. 70

3
3

2

5

4
4

$

~
2. 70

6

19
19

. 60

. 60

6

.

"

$

1

6

1

_

13
13
-

-

5
5
-

"

-

-

18
18

"

2 1

6

_

2 1

3

7
"

41
41

71
14

6

9
9

4
4

18
18

.

.

.

„

6

5
1

_
-

_
-

-

38
38

_
-

1

-

“

s

Mechanics, automotive (maintenance) _________
Manufacturing ___________________ ____________

153
65

2. 87
2. 90

Mechanics, maintenance ________________________
Manufacturing _____________________________ __

177
158

3. 14
3. 10

O ilers ---------------------------------------------------------------------Manufacturing _________________________________

44
44

2. 51
2. 51




.
“
_

_

1

1

1

'

2
2

1
1

_

_

4
4

18
18

Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts,
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.

9
-

.

_

_

_

_

■

_

_

4
4

"

2 1
2 1

6

1 1

-

9
9

3
-

115
115

_

.

-

-

19
-

-

.

.

-

-

7
Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(Average straight-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Spokane, Wash. , May 1961)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

Occupation

1

and industry division

of
w
orkers

$

h rly , Under 1 . 2 0
ou
earn gs
in
and
$
under
1 . 2 0
1. 30

$
1. 30

$
1 .4 0

1.4 0

1. 50

Janitors, p orters, and cleaners (men) ________
Manufacturing _________________
__________
Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------------Public utilities 3 ______________ __________

281
96
185
39

$ 1 .9 0
2. 36

Janitors, p orters, and cleaners (women) _____
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________

59
59

1. 34
1.3 4

-

19
19

23
23

L ab orers, m aterial handling ___ ______ ______
Manufacturing _______________________ _______
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________

347
TFT~
185

2. 37
2 .4 2
2. 32

-

-

-

Order fille rs ______________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________

124
117

1 . 6 6

2. 05

. 39
2. 38

1 1

-

1 1

9
9
-

45
45

$

1. 50

$
1.6 0

. 60

1.7 0

1

6

6

55
55

-

2

1 1

_

1 1

-

5
5

-

_
-

1

-

$
1. 70

$
1 .8 0

. 80

1. 90

10

2

1

10

1

$
1. 90
2

.

0 0

10

-

1

10

1

10

-

9

16

-

7

"

$

$

$

2

.

0 0

2

.

10

2

.

2

.

10

2

.

2 0

2

. 30

14

-

Receiving clerks ________________________ _______
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________

29

2 .4 8
2. 37

.

.

"

Shipping clerks ___________________________________
Manufacturing __________
__ __ __________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________

34
17
17

. 60
2. 58
2 . 62

-

-

Shipping and receiving clerks ______

2 0

2. 64

-

-

-

-

_____ ___

Truckdrivers 4 ____________________________________
Manufacturing ________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________ ______
Public u tilitie s 3 ___________________________

335
90
245
140

2. 58
2.7 1
2. 54
2. 52

T ru ckdrivers, medium (IV 2 to
and including 4 tons)
Manufacturing _________________ __ ______
Nonmanufacturing __________________ .______
Public utilities 3 _______________________

224
42
182
131

2.
2.
2.
2.

Tru ckdrivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
trailer type) _______ ________ __ __________
Nonmanufacturing _________________________

46
42
31

1

~

.

-

-

-

-

14

65
54

50

45
24

Tru ckdrivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
other than trailer type) _____________________
T ru ck ers, power (forklift) ______________________

T ru ck ers, power (other than
forklift)
Manufacturing _____________
Watchmen

1
2
3
4
5

__________________

55
65
53
52

2

-

1

2

1

15

8
2 1

-

-

-

-

10

-

10

9
1

__ _________________

17

1.77

2

2

. 60

_

_

.

10

4

1 1

"

30
30

3
7
7

-

2

-

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

3
3

-

-

2

.

_

1

_

_
20

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4
16

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
1

1

8

1

4
4

-

-

-

44
_

18
18

3
"

2 1

-

24
18
_

10

_

_

_

_

2

_

_

3

6

9
9
53

_

1

_

3

.

$
2

.

9 0

3. 00

-

$
3. 00

$
3. 10

$
3. 20

3. 10

3. 20

3. 30

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

1

_

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

5
5

_
-

_
-

“

_
-

-

"

2

1

6

4

_

8

_

9

10

155

_

_

_

4

6

-

2

7
5

10

1

46
5
41

9

29
5
24
17
17

10

-

3

-

36

5

1

3

8

9

8

-

_

_

_

-

2

1 1

2

1

1
1

6

33

-

2 1

6

1 2

-

135
117

2 0

_

_

2

2 0

_

-

r ~

148
123

_

_

- —

9
13

_

-

2

1 2

-

_

_

14
14

5
7
5

-

_

-

8

168

_

2 1

_

1

2 2

-

6

-------- 5"

-

15
14
1

_

_

1

4
4
-

-

-

-

4
-

-

-

-

-

8
8

-

3
3
-

1

1

-

1 2

-

1 2

-

8
8

-

-

-

2

14

-

-

-

83
39

47

62

_

.

„

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

_

_
-

-

2

1 2

.
-

2 1

9

8

_

-

-

6

5
3

8

1 2

1 2

_

. 80

• -

7
7

_

2

-

-

4

-

_

$

2. 90

2

55
55

91
87

.

1

$
2. 70
. 80

2 .7 0

1

-

Data lim ited to men workers except where otherwise indicated.
Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes all drivers regardless of size and type of truck operated.
A ll workers were at $ 1 to $ 1. 10.




-

1

.

. 28
.21

37
19

2

________

_____

. 60

$

-

2

60
60
-

29

10

-

.

$
2. 50

1

2. 56
. 62
2. 54

2. 50

2. 73
2.7 1

255
54

2 .4 0

-

2. 37

2

$
2 .4 0

28

*

54

2 1

$
2. 30

39
14
25
25

2
1 2

2

_______________________________

P ackers, shipping

2 0

_

-

_

_

_

_




8

B? Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Table B-l. Shift Differentials
(Shift differentials of manufacturing plant workers by type and amount of differential,
Spokane, Wash. , May 1961)
Percent of manufacturing plant workers—

Shift differential

In establishments having form al
provisions 1 for—

Actually working on—

Second shift
work

Total ________________________ _____________________

Third or other
shift work

Second shift

90. 5

7 9 .9

15. 7

Third or other
shift

11. 3

With shift pay differential ______________________

90. 5

7 9 .9

1 5 .7

1 1 .3

Uniform cents (per hour) ____________________

90. 5

7 9 .9

15. 7

11. 3

5 cents _______________ — . . _____________
6 cents _____________________________________
7 cents _______________ _________________ _
7 l / z cents __ ________
_____ _____ ______
8 cents _____________________
_____________
9 cents ____________________
_____________
1 0 cents
__________ ________ __ __ ______
1 1
cents ___________________________________
1 2 cents
___ — __ _____ — _____________
15 cents ___________________________________
25 cents ___ ______ __________ ______ __

1 6 .8
4. 1
-

9 .2
4. 8
9. 1
2 .4
50. 2

.9
10 .7
2 . 6
.8
.7

2 . 6
8 .7
. 1

1 . 0

40. 9
9. 1
8 .4
2 .9
4. 3
3. 1

1 . 0

3. 1

No shift pay differential ------------- --------------------'

1
Includes establishments currently operating late shifts,
even though they were not currently operating late shifts.

'

'

and establishments with form al provisions covering late shifts

9
Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salaries for Women Office Workers
(Distribution of establishments studied in all industries and in industry divisions by minimum entrance salary for selected categories
of inexperienced women office w orkers, Spokane, Wash, , May 1961)
Inexperienced typists
M an u factu rin g
M in im u m w e e k ly s a l a r y 1

---------------------------------------------------------------------------

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

u nder
u nder
u nder
u nder
u nder
u nder
u nder
u nder
u nder
u nder
u nder
u nder
over

40

A ll
sc h e d u le s

M a n u fa c tu rin g

A ll
s c h e d u le s

40

N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g

1
B a s e d on sta n d a rd w e e k ly h o u rs 3 of—

A ll
in d u str ie s

67

23

XXX

44

XXX

67

40

40

XXX

23

A ll
sc h e d u le s

44

XXX

_____________________

15

4

4

11

10

19

3

3

16

14

$ 4 2 . 50 ________ _____ _____________________
$ 4 5 . 0 0 ____________ __ „ _____ __ __ ___
$ 4 7 . 50 ___________ ____________________________
$ 50 . 00 ------------------- -------- -----------------------------$ 52 . 50 _________________________________________
$ 5 5 . 00 _ __ _____ _
_
______________________
$ 5 7 . 50 ----------------- ------------------------------------------$ 6 0 . 00 ------------------------------- --------------------------$ 6 2 . 50 _________________________________________
$ 6 5 . 0 0 ________ __ _____________
_______
$ 6 7 . 50 _________________________________________
$ 7 0 . 0 0 _________________________________________
_______________________________________ ___________

1
2
1
1
2
1

_

-

_
-

1
2
1
1

1
2
1

2
2

1

2

-

1
6

2
2
2
1

2

-

_
-

2
2

3

_
-

2

2

-

-

1

-

-

-

4
-

3
-

1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1

E s ta b lis h m e n ts h aving a sp e c ifie d m in im u m
$ 4 0 . 00
$ 4 2 . 50
$ 4 5 . 00
$ 4 7 . 50
$ 50. 00
$ 5 2 . 50
$ 5 5 . 00
$ 5 7 . 50
$ 6 0 . 00
$ 6 2 . 50
$ 6 5 .0 0
$ 6 7 . 50
$ 7 0 . 00

Other inexperienced clerical workers 2
N on m an u factu rin g

B a se d on stan d ard w e e k ly h ou rs 3 of—

A ll
in d u str ie s

A ll
sc h e d u le s

E s ta b lis h m e n ts studied

1
1

1

2
1
1

3

2

1

1

1
1

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

1

1

-

-

-

1

-

-

1

1

XXX

13

4

XXX

9

XXX

XXX

35

16

XXX

19

XXX

1

1

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

1

1

1

1

E s ta b lis h m e n ts h aving no s p e c ifie d m in im u m ____________________

12

4

XXX

8

E s ta b lis h m e n ts w hich did not e m p lo y w o r k e r s
in th is c a te g o r y __________________________________ ___________________

40

15

XXX

25

1

1
1
-

1 Lowest salary rate form ally established for hiring inexperienced workers for typing or other clerical job s.
2 Rates applicable to m e ssen gers, office g ir ls, or sim ilar subclerical jobs are not considered.
3 Hours reflect the workweek for which em ployees receive their regular straight-tim e salarie s.
Data are presented for all workweeks combined, and for the m ost common workweek

reported.

Table B-3. Scheduled W eekly Hours
(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by scheduled weekly hours
of fir st-sh ift w orkers, Spokane, W a sh ., May 1961)
OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

Weekly hours
All industries 1

A ll workers

_________________

100

35 hours ____________ ___________________________
37V 2 hours ______________________________________
40 hours
__ ____________________________________
43 1 / z hours ______________________________________
44 hours
______________________ __ ____________

4
1
95

1
2
3
4

__________________

-

(4)

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

100

100

1
99

_

-

100
_

All industries3

Manufacturing

100

100

1

3

84
13
2

59
35
3

Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
L e ss than 0. 5 percent.




Public utilities 2

100

96
4

10

Table B-4. Paid Holidays
(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by number of paid holidays
provided annually, Spokane, W ash. , May 1961)
OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

Item
All industries1

A ll workers

----------------------------------------------------------

W orkers in establishments providing
paid holidays ___________________________________
W orkers in establishments providing
no paid holidays ___ _____ ____________________

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

All industries3

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

96

99

96

4

1

4

42
3
41
10

28
5
53
13

72
24

N um ber o f d a y s

6 holidays _______________ __ ____________________
6 holidays plus 2 half days _____________________
7 holidays _____ __ __ ___________________________
8 holidays ________________________________________
10 holidays __________ __ _______________________

40
2
41
16
1

33
6
46
15

1
56
43

Total h o lid a y tim e 4

10 days ___________________________________________
8 or m ore days __________________________________
7 or m ore days __________________________________
6 or m ore days __________________________________

1
2
3
4
no half




1
17
60
100

.

_

_

.

.

15
67
100

43
99
100

10
54
96

13
71
99

24
96
96

Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
A ll combinations of full and half days that add to the same amount are combined; for example, the proportion of workers receiving a total of 7 days includes those with 7 full days and
days, 6 full days and 2 half days, 5 full days and 4 half days, and so on.
Proportions were then cumulated.

11

Table B-5. Paid Vacations
(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, Spokane, W ash. , May 1961)
PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS
Vacation policy
M
anufacturing

P
ublic utilitiesc

100

100

100

100
100
-

100
100
-

100
100
-

'

'

4
27
4

_
6
-

49
-

43
53
4

34
66
-

49
51
-

21
8
67
4

31
69
-

_
94
1
4

93
2
(4 )
4

All in u
d stries *

A ll w orkers

__________________________

_________

All industries3

M
anufacturing

P
ublic utilities2

100

100

100

99
99
-

99
99
-

100
100
-

1

“

M e th o d o f p a y m e n t

W orkers in establishments providing
paid vacations ____________ __ ________________
L ength-of-tim e payment ________________ __
Percentage payment _________________________
F la t-su m payment ___________________________
Other
_
W orkers in establishments providing
no paid vacations

“

(4 )

A m ou nt o f v a c a tio n p a y 5

After 6 months of service
Under 1 week ____________________________________
1 week ____________________________________________
2 weeks

_

_

_

6
10

-

-

-

34
-

85
14
-

95
4
-

62
38
-

19
30
51
"

53
47
-

87
12

62
38
-

_
94
6
“

_
100
-

2
13
85
-

2
35
62
-

4
96
-

-

-

93
6
1

100
-

A fter 1 year of service
1 Week ____________________________________________
2 weeks _____________________________ ____________
3 weeks _________________________ ________________
After 2 years of service
1 wpp It
Over 1 and under 2 weeks ______________________
2 weeks
3 weeks
A fter 3 years of service
1 week
Over 1 and under 2 weeks ____ ________ ______
2 weeks ___________________________________________
Over 2 and under 3 weeks ___________ _________
3 weeks ___________________________________________

-

After 5 years of service
2 weeks _________________________ __ ____________
Over 2 and under 3 weeks ______________________
3 weeks
4 weeks _____________________ ____________________

See footnotes at end of table.




99
1

98
1

100
-

12

Table B-5. Paid Vacations-Continued
(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, Spokane, Wash. , May 1961)
OFFICE WORKERS
Vacation policy

Amount of vacation

All industries1

M
anufacturing

PLANT WORKERS
Public utilities2

All in u
d stries 3

M
anufacturing

75
25

55
15
30

P
ublic utilities2

p a y 5------- Continued

A fter 10 years of service

2 weeks _________________________________________
Over 2 and under 3 weeks ____________________
3 weeks _________________________________________
Over 3 and under 4 weeks ____________________
4 weeks

60
1
34
1
4

20
4
70
6
-

10
1
82
2
5

5
4
83
6
1

10
1
72
15
1

5
4
82
3
6

10
1
40

5
4
69

-

-

23
38
38
_

-

-

-

1

-

14
1
84
-

-

(4)

2
4
92
1

1
75
24

14
1
76
8
"

2
4
87
6

1

14
1
46

I

13
25

2
4
34
35
25

84
_
16
_

A fter 15 years of service

2 weeks _________________________________________
Over 2 and under 3 weeks ____________________
3 weeks ______________________ _________________
Over 3 and under 4 weeks ___________________
4 weeks __________________________________

-

99

_
100
_
-

A fter 20 years of service
2 weeks ____________________________________ ___
Over 2 and under 3 weeks ____________________
3 weeks __________________________________________
4 weeks ________________________________________
Over 4 weeks ________________ _________________

-

_
89
11
-

After 25 years of service
2 weeks _________________________________________
Over 2 and under 3 weeks ____________________
3 weeks _________________________________________
Over 3 and under 4 weeks ____________________
4 weeks _________________________________________
Over 4 weeks ------------------------------------------------------

1
2
3
4
5
service

to

-

48
1

-

16
6

1
50
49

-

34

Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, read estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
L e ss than 0. 5 percent.
Periods of service were arbitrarily chosen and do not n ecessarily reflect the individual provisions for progression s.
For example, thechanges in proportions
include changes in provisions occurring between 5 and 10 ye ars.

NO TE : In the tabulations of vacation allowances by years of service, payments other than "length of tim e " such as percentage
an equivalent time b a sis; for example, a payment of 2 percent of annual
earnings was considered as 1 w eek's pay.




-

66

of annualearnings or flat-su m

indicated

payments,

were

at 10

years'

converted

13

Table B-6. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
(Percent of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions employed in establishments providing
health, insurance, or pension benefits, Spokane, Wash. , May 1961)
PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS
Type of benefit

A ll workers

—

---

-------

---------------------------------

All industries1

100

M
anufacturing

P
ublic utilities2

100

100

A in u
ll d stries^

M
anufacturing

P
ublic utilities 2

100

100

100

W orkers in establishments providing:
Life insurance --------- --- ------- -----------------Accidental death and dismem berment
insurance _____________________ —
--------Sickness and accident insurance or
sick leave or both4 --------- __ ____ ___ _

85

98

100

82

91

100

61

44

69

50

50

51

83

84

76

74

90

55

Sickness and accident insurance ______
Sick leave (full pay and no
waiting period) _________________________
Sick leave (partial pay or
waiting period) ____ __ ________ _____

36

73

20

57

90

16

50

50

31

11

-

4

25

12

-

34

Hospitalization insurance __________________
Surgical insurance __________________ ___ _
Medical insurance ___ __________________ __
Catastrophe insurance --------------------------------Retirement pension ____________ ____ __ __
No health, insurance, or pension p l a n ___

67
67
64
68
81
1

48
48
48
73
70

81
81
78
40
60
4

94
94
94
10
80
5

56
56
56
79
55

17
97
97
97
25
90
2

1 Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
2 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
3 Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
4 Unduplicated total of workers receiving sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately below.
Sick-leave plans are lim ited to those which definitely establish at least the
minimum number of days’ pay that can be expected by each em ployee. Informal sick-leave allowances determined on an individual basis are excluded.







IS

A ppendix:

Occupational Descriptions

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to a ssist its
field staff in classifyin g into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau's field economists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers,
part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.
O F F IC E
BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statements, b ills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerica l work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
cla ssified by type of machine, as follow s:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.

Biller, machine (billing machine)— Uses a special billing ma­

chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, etc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon cop ies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.
Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine)— Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, e tc ., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) tp prepare custom ers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types o f sales and
credit slip s.




Class A — Keeps a set o f records requiring a knowledge o f
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance
sheets, and other records by hand.
Class B — Keeps a record o f one or more phases or sections of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keepingPhases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type of billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation o f trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.

CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A — Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more section s o f a com­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase o f an establish­
ment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

16

CLERK, ACCOUNTING— Continued
payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper a c ­
counting distribution; requires judgment and experience in making
proper assignations and allocations. May a ssist in preparing, ad­
justing and closin g journal entries; may direct cla ss B accounting
clerks.

Class B— Under supervision, performs one or more routine a c ­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or a c ­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data. This
job does not require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping
principles but is found in offices in which the more routine account­
ing work is subdivided on a functional basis among several workers.

CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the n eces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers’
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker’ s name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and a ssist paymaster in making up and distribut­
ing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.
COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

CLERK, FILE

Class A — In an established filing system containing a num­
ber of varied subject matter file s, cla ssifie s and indexes corres­
pondence or other material; may also file this material. May keep
records of various types in conjunction with files or may super­
vise others in filing and locating material in the file s . May per­
form incidental clerical duties.
Class B— Performs routine filing, usually of material that has
already been cla ssified or which is easily identifiable, or locates
or a ssists in locating material in file s. May perform incidental
clerical duties.

CLERK, ORDER
R eceives customers’ orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination o f the following:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; distributing order sheets to respective departments to be filled.
May check with credit department to determine credit rating of customer,
acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders to see
that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check ship­
ping invoices with original orders.




DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
b ilities, reproduces multiple cop ies o f typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file of used stencils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

KEYPUNCH

OPERATOR

Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
b ilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards by
punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence, using
an alphabetical or a numerical keypunch machine, following written in­
formation on records. May duplicate cards by using the duplicating de­
vice attached to machine. May keep files of punch cards. May verify
own work or work of others.
OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands, op­
erating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and
distributing mail, and other minor clerica l work.

17

SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerica l duties for a superior in an ad­
ministrative or executive position. Duties include making appointments
for superior; receiving people coming into o ffice ; answering and making
phone ca lls; handling personal and important or confidential mail, and
writing routine correspondence on own initiative; taking dictation (where
transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded information
reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare special reports or
memorandums for information of superior.
STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a nor­
mal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter.
May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep files in or­
der, keep simple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine
work (see transcribing-machine operator).
STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a varied
technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on
scien tific research and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter. May
also type from written copy. May also set up and keep files in order,
keep simple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work,
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or o ffice ca lls .
May record toll calls and take m essages. May give information to per­
sons who ca ll in, or occasion ally take telephone orders. For workers
who also act as receptionists see switchboard operator-receptionist.
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single p o si­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may a lso type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. This typing
or clerica l work may take the major part of this worker’ s time while at
switchboard.




TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Class A — Operates a variety of tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignments without clo s e supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating sequences of long and complex reports.
Does not include working supervisors performing tabulating-machine
operations and day-to-day supervision of the work and production of
a group of tabulating-machine operators.
Class B — Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under
sp e cific instructions and may include the performance of some wir­
ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but
small tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are well established. May a lso include the training
of new employees in the basic operation of the machine.
Class C — Operates simple tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with sp ecific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs, or re­
petitive operations.

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May a lso type from written
copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation in­
volving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal briefs
or reports on scien tific research are not included. A worker who takes
dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is cla ssified
as a stenographer, general.

18

TYPIST— Continued

TYPIST
Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to make
out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May in­
clude typing of sten cils, mats, or similar materials for use in duplicat­
ing processes. May do clerica l work involving little specia l training,
such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting
and distributing incoming mail.

Class A— Performs one or more o f the following: Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punc-

tuation, e tc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; planning layout and typing of complicated statistical tables
to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine
form letters varying details to suit circum stances.

Class B— Performs one or more o f the following: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing o f forms, insurance p o licie s,
e tc.; setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying more com­
plex tables already set up and spaced properly.

PR O F E SSIO N A L AND T E C H N IC A L
DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.
DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration of working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Duties
involve a combination o f the following: Interpreting blueprints, sketches,
and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures; assigning
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problems. May a ssist subordinates during emergencies or as a
regular assignment, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
ministrative nature.
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
poses. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Preparing work­
ing plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-section s, e tc., to scale by use
of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as those




DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued
involved in strength of materials, beams and trusses; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quantities;
writing specification s; making adjustments or changes in drawings or
specifications. May ink in lines and letters on pencil drawings, prepare
detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings. Work is frequently
in a specialized field such as architectural, electrical, mechanical, or
structural drafting.
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of em ployees' injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants
and employees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.
TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. Uses
T-square, compass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

19

M A IN T E N A N C E

D PO W ERPLANT

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’ s handtools, portable
power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; selecting materials n ec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom equipment.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, d is­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specification s; locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c ­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; using a variety of
electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In gen­
eral, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.
ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may a lso supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a record of
operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May also
supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establishments

employing more than one engineer are excluded .




HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
A ssists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing sp e cific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are a lso performed by workers on a full-time basis.
MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools, gauges,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most o f the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making necessary adjustments during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classification .
MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Interpreting written instructions and
specification s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
chinist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and

20

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued

MILLWRIGHT— Continued

operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to clo se toler­
ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assembling parts into me­
chanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally requires
a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

are required. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specification s; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment, and parts
to be used; installing and maintaining in good order power transmission
equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the mill­
wright’ s work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an e s ­
tablishment. Work involves most o f the following: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assem blies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; alining wheels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves most o f the following: Examining machines and mechan­
ica l equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly d is ­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replace­
ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop
for major repairs; preparing written specification s for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling ma­
chines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In general,
the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classification are workers
whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.
MILLWRIGHT
Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout




OILER
Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.
PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, o ils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper
color or consistency. In general, the work of the maintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other written specification s; cutting various sizes of pipe to correct
lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to pressures,
flow , and size of pipe required; making standard tests to determine
whether finished pipes meet specification s. In general, the work of the
maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building

sanitation or heating systems are excluded .

21

TOOL AND DIE MAKER

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake. In
general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience'usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.
SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, models,
or other specifications; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; installing sheetmetal articles as required. In general, the work of the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most o f the following: Planning and laying out of work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specification s;
using a variety of tool and die maker’ s handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding of the working properties of common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to clo se tolerances; fitting and assembling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selecting appropriate
materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die maker’ s
work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification .

C U S T O D IA L AND M A T E R IA L M O V E M E N T
ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued

Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Workers
who specialize in window washing are excluded.

GUARD
Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gate-

men who are stationed at gate and check on identity o f employees and
other persons entering.
JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial




LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more o f the follow­
ing: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or

22

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING— Continued
from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting d evices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; trans­
porting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.

Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded .
ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
Fills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, customers’
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders, requisi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued
For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified as follow s:
R e c e iv in g clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk

TRUCKDRIVER
Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of estab­
lishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers’ houses or places of business. May also load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers

are excluded.

PACKER, SHIPPING
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the sp ecific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or more o f
the following: Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify
content; selection of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closin g and sealing container; applying labels or
entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make wooden

boxes or crates are excluded .
SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­
sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Shipping
work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes,
available means of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or a ssist in
preparing the merchandise for shipment. R e c e iv in g work involves: Veri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipments against
bills of lading, in voices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing merchandise or materials to proper de­
partments; maintaining necessary records and file s.




For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are cla ssified by size
and type of equipment, as follow s: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis of trailer capacity.)

Truckdriver (combination o f sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under lV2 tons)
Truckdriver, medium ( l l2 to and including 4 tons)
/
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons , trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons , other than trailer type)
TRUCKER, POWER
Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified by type of
truck, as follow s:

Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)
WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.
☆

U .S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE:

1961

O — 602551


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102