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Occupational Wage Survey

BEAUMONT-PORT ARTHUR, TEXA S
MAY 1961

Bulletin No. 1285-75




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
B U R EA U O F LA B O R S T A T IS T IC S
Ew an C la g u # , C om m issioner




Occupational Wage Survey
BEAUMONT-PORT ARTHUR, TEXAS




M AY

1961

Bulletin No. 1285-75
July 1961

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT O F LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BU REAU O F LA BO R ST A T IST IC S
Ew an C la g u e , Com m issioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.

-

Price 20 cents




Contents

Preface

Page

The Community Wage Survey P rogram
The Bureau of Labor Statistics regularly conducts
areawide wage surveys in a number of important industrial
centers. The studies, made from late fall to early spring,
relate to occupational earnings and related supplementary
benefits. A prelim inary report is available on completion
of the study in each area, usually in the month following
the payroll period studied. This bulletin provides additional
data not included in the earlier report.
A consolidated
analytical bulletin summarizing the results of all of the
year! s surveys is issued after completion of the final area
bulletin for the current round of surveys.




Tables:
1. Establishments and workers within scope of s u r v e y ----------------2. Percents of increase in standard weekly salaries and
straight-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupational
groups _____________________________________________________________
A:

Occupational earnings: *
A - 1. Office occupations __________________________________________
A - 2. P rofession al and technical occupations __________________
A - 3. Maintenance and powerplant occupations ________________
A - 4. Custodial and m aterial movement occupations _________

Appendix:

Occupational descriptions ___________________________________

* NOTE: Sim ilar tabulations for these and other item s,
including data on establishment practices and supplementary
wage provisions, are available in the Beaumont—
Port Arthur
area report for May I960.
A directory indicating date of
study and the price of this report, as well as the reports
for other m ajor areas, is available upon request.

1
3

2

2

vO t ''- o o

This report was prepared in the B u rea u s regional
office in Atlanta, Ga. , by Donald M. C ruse, under the
direction of Louis B. Woytych, A ssistan t Regional D ir e c ­
tor for Wages and Industrial Relations.

Introduction_________________________________________________________________
Wage trends for selected occupational groups _________________________

9




Occupational W age Survey ^-Beaumont-Port Arthur, Tex.
Introduction

This area is one of, several important industrial centers in
which the U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics
conducts surveys of occupational earnings and related wage benefits
on an area basis.
The bulletin presents current occupational employment and
earnings information obtained largely by mail from the establishments
visited by Bureau field economists in the last previous survey for occu­
pations reported in that earlier study. Personal visits were made
to nonrespondents and to those respondents reporting unusual changes
since the previous survey.
In each area, data are obtained from representative establish­
ments within six broad industry divisions: Manufacturing; transpor­
tation, 1 communication, and other public utilities; wholesale trade; re­
tail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. Major
industry groups excluded from these studies are government operations
and the construction and extractive industries. Establishments having
fewer than a prescribed number of workers are omitted also because
they furnish insufficient employment in the occupations studied to war­
rant inclusion. Wherever possible, separate tabulations are provided
for each of the broad industry divisions.
These surveys are conducted on a sample basis because of the
unnecessary cost involved in surveying all establishments. To obtain
appropriate accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of large
than of small establishments is studied. In combining the data, how­
ever, all establishments are given their appropriate weight. Estimates
based on the establishments studied are presented, therefore, as re­
lating to ail establishments in the industry grouping and area, ex­
cept for those below the minimum size studied.

take account of interestablishment variation in duties within the same
job. (See appendix for listing of these descriptions. ) Earnings data are
presented (in the A-series tables) for the following types of occupa­
tions: (a) Office clerical; (b) professional and technical; (c) mainte­
nance and powerplant; and (d) custodial and material movement.
Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for
full-time workers, i. e. , those hired to work a regular weekly sched­
ule in the given occupational classification. Earnings data exclude
premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and
late shifts. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded also, but cost-ofliving bonuses and incentive earnings are included. Where weekly
hours are reported, as for office clerical occupations, reference is
to the work schedules (rounded to the nearest half hour) for which
straight-time salaries are paid; average weekly earnings for these
occupations have been rounded to the nearest half dollar.

Average earnings of men and women are presented separately
for selected occupations in which both sexes are commonly employed.
Differences in pay levels of men and women in these occupations are
largely due to (l) differences in the distribution of the sexes among
industries and establishments; (2) differences in specific duties per­
formed, although the occupations are appropriately classified within
the same survey job description; and (3) differences in length of serv­
ice or merit review when individual salaries are adjusted on this basis.
Longer average service of men would result in higher average pay
when both sexes are employed within the same rate range.
Job
descriptions used in classifying employees in these surveys are usu­
ally more generalized than those used in individual establishments to
allow for minor differences among establishments in specific duties
performed.

Occupations and Earnings
The occupations selected for study are common to a variety
of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries. Occupational clas­
sification is based on a uniform set of job descriptions designed to

Occupational employment estimates represent the total in all
establishments within the scope of the study and not the number actu­
ally surveyed. Because of differences in occupational structure among
establishments, the estimates of occupational employment obtained
from the sample of establishments studied serve only to indicate the
1
Railroads, formerly excluded from the scope of these studies,
relative importance of the jobs studied. These differences in occu­
were included in all of the areas studied since July 1959, except Balti­
pational structure do not materially affect the accuracy of the earn­
more (September 1959 and December I960), Buffalo (October 1959),
ings data.
Cleveland (September 1959), and Seattle (August 1959).




2




T a b l e 1.

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s a n d w o r k e r s w it h i n s c o p e o f s u r v e y a n d n u m b e r s t u d ie d in B e a u m o n t —P o r t A r t h u r , T e x . , 1
b y m a j o r i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , 2 M a y 1961
N u m b e r o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s

In d u s try d iv is io n

A l l d i v i s i o n s _____

-

_____

W it h in s c o p e
o f stu d y 3

_____

|

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
W it h in s c o p e
o f stu d y

S t u d ie d

S t u d ie d

1 45

M a n u f a c t u r in g __________________ ________ _________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g ____________ ____________________________________________
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , co m m u n ic a tio n , and o th e r
p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 4 _________ ____________________________________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e 5 ______________________________________________________
R e t a i l t r a d e 5 __________________________________________________
F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te 5
S e r v i c e s 5» 6 ______________________________________________________________

77

4 0 ,0 0 0

3 2, 960

55
90

31
46

2 6 ,7 0 0
1 3 ,3 0 0

2 3 ,7 7 0
9 , 190

25
15
28
9
13

15
8
11
5
7

6, 000
1 ,0 0 0
3 ,8 0 0
700
1 ,8 0 0

4 ,9 9 0
550
2, 380
370
900

1 T h e B e a u m o n t —P o r t A r t h u r S t a n d a r d M e t r o p o l i t a n S t a t i s t i c a l A r e a ( J e f f e r s o n a n d O r a n g e C o u n t i e s ) .
T h e " w o r k e r s w it h in s c o p e o f s t u d y " e s t i ­
m a t e s s h o w n in t h is t a b l e p r o v i d e a r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f th e s i z e a n d c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e l a b o r f o r c e in c l u d e d in t h e s u r v e y .
T h e e s tim a te s
a r e n o t i n t e n d e d , h o w e v e r , t o s e r v e a s a b a s i s o f c o m p a r i s o n w it h o t h e r a r e a e m p l o y m e n t i n d e x e s t o m e a s u r e e m p l o y m e n t t r e n d s o r l e v e l s s i n c e
(1 ) p l a n n in g o f w a g e s u r v e y s r e q u i r e s t h e u s e o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t d a t a c o m p i l e d c o n s i d e r a b l y in a d v a n c e o f t h e p a y r o l l p e r i o d s t u d ie d , a n d (2 ) s m a l l
e s t a b lis h m e n t s a r e e x c lu d e d f r o m th e s c o p e o f th e s u r v e y .
2 T h e 1 95 7 r e v i s e d e d i t i o n o f t h e S t a n d a r d I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a n u a l w a s u s e d in c l a s s i f y i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s b y in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n .
M a jo r
c h a n g e s f r o m t h e e a r l i e r e d i t i o n ( u s e d in t h e B u r e a u 's l a b o r m a r k e t w a g e s u r v e y s c o n d u c t e d p r i o r t o J u ly 1 9 5 8 ) a r e t h e t r a n s f e r o f m i l k p a s t e u r i z a t i o n
p la n t s a n d r e a d y - m i x e d c o n c r e t e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s f r o m t r a d e ( w h o l e s a l e o r r e t a i l ) t o m a n u f a c t u r i n g , a n d th e t r a n s f e r o f r a d i o a n d t e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t i n g
f r o m s e r v i c e s to th e t r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o t h e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s d i v is i o n .
3 I n c l u d e s a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w it h t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t a t o r a b o v e t h e m i n i m u m - s i z e l i m i t a t i o n (5 0 e m p l o y e e s ) .
A l l o u t le t s (w it h in t h e a r e a ) o f
c o m p a n i e s in s u c h i n d u s t r i e s a s t r a d e , f i n a n c e , a u t o r e p a i r s e r v i c e , a n d m o t i o n - p i c t u r e t h e a t e r s a r e c o n s i d e r e d a s 1 e s t a b l i s h m e n t .
4 T a x ic a b s and s e r v i c e s in c id e n t a l to w a te r t r a n s p o r t a t io n w e r e e x c lu d e d .
5 T h is in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n i s r e p r e s e n t e d in e s t i m a t e s f o r " a l l i n d u s t r i e s " a n d " n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g " in t h e S e r i e s A t a b l e s .
S e p a ra te p r e s e n t a t io n
o f d a t a f o r t h is d i v i s i o n i s n o t m a d e f o r o n e o r m o r e o f th e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s :
(1 ) E m p l o y m e n t in t h e d i v i s i o n is t o o s m a l l t o p r o v i d e e n o u g h d a t a
t o m e r i t s e p a r a t e s t u d y , (2 ) th e s a m p l e w a s n o t d e s i g n e d i n i t i a l l y t o p e r m i t s e p a r a t e p r e s e n t a t i o n , (3 ) r e s p o n s e w a s i n s u f f i c i e n t o r in a d e q u a t e t o
p e r m i t s e p a r a t e p r e s e n t a t i o n , (4 ) t h e r e i s p o s s i b i l i t y o f d i s c l o s u r e o f i n d iv i d u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t d a t a .
6 H o t e ls ; p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s ; b u s in e s s s e r v i c e s ; a u t o m o b ile r e p a ir s h o p s ; m o t io n p ic t u r e s ; n o n p r o fit m e m b e r s h ip o r g a n iz a t io n s ; and e n g in e e r in g
and a r c h ite c tu r a l s e r v i c e s .

T a b l e 2 . P e r c e n t s o f i n c r e a s e in s t a n d a r d w e e k l y s a l a r i e s a n d
s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p s
in B e a u m o n t —P o r t A r t h u r , T e x . , M a y I 9 6 0 t o M a y 1961
O c c u p a t io n a l g ro u p
O f f i c e c l e r i c a l (w o m e n ) ______________
I n d u s t r i a l n u r s e s (w o m e n )
S k i l l e d m a in t e n a n c e (m e n )
U n s k i l l e d p la n t (m e n ) ________________

A l l in d u s t r ie s
4.
4.
4.
2.

5
5
3
7

M a n u f a c t u r in g
6.
4.
4.
4.

8
5
6
5

3

W Trends for Selected Occupational Groups
age
Presented in table 2 are percents of change in salaries of
women office clerical workers and industrial nurses, and in average
earnings of selected plant worker groups.

For office clerical workers and industrial nurses, the p e r ­
cents of change relate to average weekly salaries for normal hours
of work, that is , the standard work schedule for which straight-tim e
salaries are paid. For plant worker groups, they m easure changes
in straight-tim e hourly earnings, excluding premium pay for o ver­
tim e and for work pn weekends, holidays, and late shifts. The p e r ­
centages are based on data for selected key occupations and include
m ost of the numerically important jobs within each group.
The o f­
fice clerical data are based on women in the following 18 jobs: B ille rs,
machine (billing machine); bookkeeping-machine operators, class A
and B; Comptometer operators; clerks, file, class A and B; clerks,
order; clerks, payroll; keypunch operators; office g irls; secreta ries;
stenographers, general; switchboard operators; switchboard operatorreceptionists; tabulating-machine operators; transcribing-m achine op­
erators, general; and typists, class A and B.
The industrial nurse
data are based on women industrial nurses.
Men in the following
10 skilled maintenance jobs and 3 unskilled jobs were included in the
plant worker data: Skilled— carpenters; electricians; m achinists; m e ­
chanics; mechanics, automotive; m illwrights; painters; pipefitters;
sheet-m etal workers; and tool and die m akers; unskilled— janitors,
porters, and cleaners; laborers, m aterial handling; and watchmen.
Average weekly salaries or average hourly earnings were
computed for each of the selected occupations.
The average s a l­
aries or hourly earnings were then multiplied by the average em ploy­
ment in the job during the months indicated in the title of table 2.




These weighted earnings for individual occupations were then totaled
to obtain an aggregate for each occupational group. Finally, the ratio
of these group aggregates for the one year to the aggregate for the
other year was computed and the difference between the result and
100 is the percent of change from the one period to the other.

The percent of change m easu res, principally, the effects of
(1) general salary and wage changes, (2) m erit or other increases
in pay received by individual workers while in the same job; and
(3) changes in the labor force such as labor turnover, force expan­
sions, force reductions, and changes in the proportions of workers
employed by establishments with different pay lev els. Changes in the
labor force can cause increases or decreases in the occupational
averages without actual wage changes. For example, a force expansion
might increase the proportion of lower paid workers in a specific
occupation and result in a drop in the average, whereas a reduction
in the proportion of lower paid workers would have the opposite effect.
The movement of a high-paying establishment out of an area could
cause the average earnings to drop, even though no change in rates
occurred in other area establishments.
The use of constant employment weights eliminates the effects
of changes in the proportion of workers represented in each job in­
cluded in the data.
Nor are the percents of change influenced by
changes in standard work schedules or in premium pay for overtim e,
since they are based on pay for straight-tim e hours.
Indexes for the period 1953 to I960 for workers in 20 m ajor
labor markets will appear in BL& Bull. 1265 -6 2, Wages and Related
Benefits, 60 Labor M arkets, Winter 1959 -6 0.

4

A* Occupational Earnings
Table A-1. Office Occupations
(A verage stra igh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area b a sis
bv industry division, Beaumont—P ort A rth ur, Tex. , M ay 1961)
Aveeage
Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number

of

workers

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF-

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
%
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
v $$
Weekly
Weekly
40 . 00 45 . 00 50. 00 55. 00 6 0 .0 0 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95 .00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 12 5.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00
earnings1
hours 1
(Standard) (Standard) under
and
45 . 00 50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 13 0.00 135.00 140.00 145.00 over

Men

C le r k s, accounting, c la ss A ____________
Manufacturing --------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing _____________________

108
85
23

40 . 0
40 . 0
40. 0

$134 .0 0
140.50
109.50

C le r k s, accounting, c la ss B ____________
Manufacturing __________________________

49
39

40 . 0
40 . 0

96 .50
100.50

C le r k s, ord er _____________________________
Manufacturing __________________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________

55
25
30

40 . 0
40 . 0
40. 0

102.00
119.50
87 .50

“

-

-

-

"
.

“

-

■
_

_

_

_

4

2

2

-

2

_

_

.

_

.

1

2

-

-

-

Tabulating-m achine op erators,
c la ss B __ _________________________________
Manufacturing _________ ________________

20
20

40 . 0
40 . 0

114.50
114.50

.

_

_

-

-

"

-

-

-

-

B ille r s , m achine (bookkeeping
machine) __________________________________

15

41. 5

66 .0 0

2

4

-

5

B ookkeeping-m achine op erators,
c la ss A __________ _________________________

20

40 . 5

80 .5 0

-

-

-

B ookkeeping-m achine op erators,
c la ss B ________________ „___
___________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________

83
77

40 . 0
40. 0

56.00
54.50

"

17
15

C le r k s, accounting, c la ss A ____________
Manufacturing ________ ________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________

45
25
20

4 0 .0
40. 0
40 . 0

96 .0 0
9 9 .50
91 .5 0

_
“

1
1
-

C le r k s, accounting, c la ss B ____ — —
Manufacturing __________________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________

220
66
154

4 0 .0
40. 0
40 . 0

7 8 .0 0
94 .5 0
7 1 .0 0

8
8

6
3
3

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

6

-

3

35
35

17
17

4
4

6
6

-

-

-

-

3
1
2

2
2

3
2

.
-

2
2

"

1

3
1
2

10
3
7

23
8
15

16
8
8

24
24

26
1
25

2

-

1
1
"

9
3
6

-

5
5

3
3
~

-

.

.

1
1

3

11
10
1

3
3
~

52
2 51 "
1

2
2

2
2

3
1
2

4
4
"

2
2

-

j

1
1
■

-

-

3

2

4

2

1
1

1
“

2
2

2
2

3
3

-

1

1

5 .
35
-

1

-

-

"

-

3
3

"

_

.

127.50
142.00

2
2
"

_

2
2

-

“

3
3

4 1 .0
40. 0

3
1
2

_

-

21
15

2
2

■

3
3

Tabulating-m achine op erators,
c la ss A ____________________________________
Manufacturing __________________________

7
6

4
2
2

“

2

4
2

2
2

-

6 9 .00

1
1

14
4
10

-

40. 5

6
2
4

4
4

4
2

16

4
4

4
4

4
3

_________________________________

2
2
.

2
"

130.00

4
2
2

4
4

2
2

40 . 0

2
2

4
4

-

15

5
3

~

___________________________

Office boys

-

-

_

C le r k s , payroll

6
4
2

-

1

-

-

*6
6

-

-

-

-

1
1

5
5

2
2

2
2

2
2

2
2

-

4
4

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

4

-

-

.

-

-

-

-

-

4

-

2

1

-

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

2
-

1

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

*

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.

_

-

6
6

!

-

"

2
2

■

11
11

47
47

2
2

2
2

Wom en

-

h

-

■

2
2
"

4
2
2

12
4
8

3
3

.

.

"

-

-

■

■

i
i
■

11
5
6

1
1

4
4

8
8

1
1

.
_

5
5

12
12

See footnotes at end of table.




2
2
~

'

'

1

'

1

1

_
■

5

Table A-l. Office Occupations-Continued
(A verage stra igh t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area b asis
by industry division, Beaumont—P ort A rthur, T ex. , May 1961)
Average
Number

Sex, occupation, and industry division

of

workers

1

Weekly,
hours
(Standard)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$ .
s
95 .0 0 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00
and
45 . 00 50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00 over

$

$

$

$

$

*

$

$

$

$

40 . 00 45 . 00 50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00
Weekly
earnings1
and
(Standard) under
-

$

Women— Continued
C le r k s, file , c la ss A -------------------------------

23

' 40 . 5

$ 92.50

_

-

2

3

-

5

1

-

-

-

-

C le r k s, file , c la ss B ------------------------------Manufacturing -------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------

54
16
38

40. 0
40. 0
40 . 0

62.50
68.50
60.00

1
1

2
2

24
8
16

6
6

-

6
6

5
3
2

4
2
2

1
1

1
1

"

3
3

C le r k s, payroll ---------------------------------------Manufacturing -------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------

61
29
32

40 . 5
40. 0
40 . 5

85.50
103.50
69.50

1
1

-

3
3

10
3
7

4
4

5
3
2

7
2
5

1
1

7
2
5

1
1
“

-

3

1

_

_

.

3

2

-------------------------

32

40 . 0

73 .50

_

Keypunch op erators ---------------------------------Manufacturing --------------------------------------

80
47

4 0 .0
40 . 0

7 8 .00
86.00

4

S ecretaries ----------------------------------------------Manufacturing -------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------Public u tilities 5 __________________

229
141
88
41

40.
40 .
40.
40 .

0
0
5
0

100.50
108.50
87.50
102.00

Stenographers, general ------------------- ------Manufacturing -------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------

275
165
110

40 . 0
40. 0
40 . 0

85.50
9 4 .50
7 1 .50

Switchboard op erators ---------------------------Manufacturing -------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------

68
25
43

4 1 .0
40 . 0
4 1 .5

68.50
90 .50
56.00

“

C om ptom eter op erators

Switchboard o p erator-rec ep tion ists ----Manufacturing --------------------------------------

28
16

40. 0
40. 0

-

2

2

2

1

_

■

-

1
1

-

-

“

"

_

-

-

-

4
4

-

“

1

2
2
-

1
1
■

3
3

-

2

.

.

1

1
1

4
1
3

1

1

4

8

3

4

.

-

4
4

7
3

7
5

6

-

-

13
2

1
-

10
6

3
3

7
6

5
5

5
5

6
6

_
-

2
2

1
1

2
2
■

9
6
3

17
7
10

20
12
8
1

10
2
8
5

19
8
11
2

7
1
6
2

16
9
7
5

10
3
7
7

13
4
9
5

13
11
2
2

15
13
2
2

15
12
3
3

11
10
1

16
7
9

13
3
10

23
7
16

23
3
20

17

15
4
11

21
16
5

20
15
5

34
19
15

32
30
2

14
14
_

19
19
~

10
10
_

11
11
“

2
2

17

3
1
2

1
1

5
5

2
2

11
2
9

2
1
1

4

1
1
■

12
12

2
2

1
1
“

3
3
"

_
-

“

"

-

6 11

9

~

-

-

11

9

65.00
7 6 .00

7

.

2
-

T y p ists, c la ss A ----- ------------------------------Manufacturing --------------------------------------

42
30

40 . 0
40 . 0

8 3 .00
86.50

1
“

T yp ists, c la ss B __ --------------------------------Manufacturing -------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------

63
30
33

40 . 0
4 0 .0
40 . 0

62 .50
7 1 .50
54.50

-

1
2
3
4
5
6

“

1

11
2
9

5
2

1
“

6
6

2
2

-

“
6
6

3
3

3
3

-

3
2

_

15
1
14

■

7
4

"

5
5

-

2

3
1
2

-

4

"
2
2

2
2

1

"

1

_

-

-

-

-

_

~

■

~

2
2

1
1
~

3
3

1
1
"

-

-

-

-

20
18
2
2

7
5
2
2

5
5
-

10
9
1
1

7
6
1
1

4
4
■

-

1
1

-

.

■

"

-

-

■

-

_

•

1
1
~

~

“

-

~

-

-

"

-

-

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5
5

14
10

4
4

1
1

4
4

-

-

-

-

16
14
2

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Standard hours refle ct the workweek for which em ployees receive their regular stra igh t-tim e salarie s and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
W ork ers w ere distributed as follow s: 7 at $ 145 to $ 150; 5 at $ 1 5 0 to $ 1 5 5 ; 35 at $ 1 5 5 to $160; 4 at$ 1 7 0 to$ 1 7 5 .
W ork ers w ere distributed as follow s: 1 at $ 155 to $ 160; 4 at $ 165 to $ 170.
W ork ers w ere distributed as follow s: 2 at $ 145 to $ 150; 4 at $ 155 to $ 160.
Transportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities.
Includes 2 w orkers at $ 2 5 to $ 3 0 ; 6 at $ 3 0 to $ 3 5 .




_

1
1

!
1

1

3

-

6

Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations
(A verage stra igh t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area b asis
by industry division, Beaumont—
Port A rthur, T e x ., May 1961)
Average
Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

Weekly
hours 1
(Standard)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
s
95 .00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00 150.00 155.00 160.00 165.00 170.00
and
“
70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00 150.00 155.00 160.00 165.00 170.00 over

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

Weekly
65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00
earnings1
(Standard)

Men
.

.

.

.

_

.

.

.

"

"

_

'

~

“

■

■

.

.

.

_

.

.

-

"

4
4

.

-

-

■

2
2

2
2

6

13

r

3

12

_

_

_

2
2

_

D raftsm en , leader -----------------------------------Manufacturing __________________________

28
28

40. 0
40. 0

$ 1 6 7 .0 0
167.00

D raftsm en , sen ior -----------------------------------Manufacturing __________________________

90
85

40. 0
40. 0

135.50
136.50

.
-

D raftsm en , junior ________________________
Manufacturing ---------------------------------------

71
58

40. 0
40. 0

105.00
105.50

8
8

32
32

40. 0
40. 0

116.50
116.50

.

_

_

.

.

.

'

"

"

13
12

3

5
1

8

3

3

3

3

4
4

1
1

2
2

.

2
2

"

12
12

8
4

3

7
7

3

3

3

6
6

6
6

2
2

3

1
1

.

2
2

■

-

1
1

3

10
10

“

29
9

17
17

5
5

2
2

4
4

6
6

-

5
5

8
8

9
9

2
2

_

_

_

.

.

”

■

'

6
6

1
1

_

.

.

3

'

3

~

W om en

N u rses, industrial (registered) ________
Manufacturing __________________________

1
2

2
2

Standard hours reflect the workweek for which em ployees receive their regular stra igh t-tim e sa la rie s and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
W ork ers w ere distributed as fo llo w s : 3^at $ 170 to $ 190; 3 at $ 190 to $ 210; 3 at $ 210 to $ 230.




.

-

7
Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(A verage stra ig h t-tim e hourly earnings for m en in selected occupations studied on an area b asis
by industry division, Beaumont—P ort A rth ur, T ex. , M ay 1961)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

Occupation and industry division

Number
of
workers

$
Average
Under 1 .3 0
hourly
earnings1 $
and
1 .3 0

C arp e n ters, m aintenance -----------------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------

256
246

$ 3 . 20
3. 25

E le c tr ic ia n s, maintenance ----------------------M anufacturing __________________________

314
306

3. 27
3 .2 9

-

E n gin eers, stationary ____________________
Manufacturing ---------------------------------------

71
65

3. 10
3. 20

6 8

2. 97
2 .9 7

3
3

under
1. 50
1 .4 0

“

F ir e m en , stationary b oile r ______________
Manufacturing ---------------------------------------

$
$
S
$
$
$
1 .4 0 1. 50 1 . 60 1 .7 0 1 .8 0 1

H elp e rs, tra d e s, m aintenance __________
Manufacturing ---------------------------------------

M ach in ists, m aintenance _________________
Manufacturing ---------------------------------------

M ech anics, autom otive
(maintenance) -------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing

---------------------------------

M ech anics, m aintenance ------------------------ Manufacturing --------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing _ ----------------------------

O ilers _______________________________________
Manufacturing __________________________

6 8

948
917
31

2 .7 0
2. 74
1 .4 3

437
433

2. 84
3. 08
2 .4 5

361
326
35

3. 12
3. 15
2 . 82

26
24

2. 65
2 .6 9

255
238

3. 15
3. 24

P ip efitte rs, m aintenance _________________

717
717

45
45

2

.

1 0

2

.

2

.

1 0

2

.

2 0

2. 30

2 0

$
$
$
$
$
S
$
2. 30 2 . 40 2. 50 2 . 60 2. 70 2 . 80 2 .

1 .7 0

1 .8 0

2

1 .9 0

2

0 0

2. 40

2. 50

2

. 60

2. 70

6

2

. 80

6

4

2

2

1

-

-

.

.

-

-

:

-

-

.

_
“

3
3

~

-

2

_

1

1

1

■

1 6

5
3 1 1

9
3
6

9
5
4

$

$

3. 10

3. 20

3. 30

2L9.Q. - ^ . 0 0 . .-lOJL ..3 ,2 0

3 ,3 0

3 ,.40

3. 00

“

~
4
4

.

-

3
3

.

_

"

_

~

■

4
4

4
4

.

4

1

.

2

-

-

$
$
3 .4 0 3. 50

-

3

.

-

1

-

-

-

1

1

1

-

-

1

6

-

!

.

.

2 0

6

1 0

8

208
208

.

3
3

.

■

579
579

.

"

303
303

2 2

16

2 1

is

1

•

18
18

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

233
233

128
128

62
62

-

28
28

-

_

_

“

“

-

-

_

“

.

4
4

47
47

19
19

.

.

over

9
9

2

_

8

2 1 0

2

6

_

1 0

-

-

2 0

“

3 .5 0

2 1 0

6

2

.

.

5
5

6

-

4
4

2

$

$
9 0

and
1 .6 0

2

6
6

38
38

13
13

-

-

1 0
1 0

_

2

1

-

-

"

.
-

“

■

-

-

_

■

.
-

-

3
3
“

7
3
4

2

2

2

2

_
-

_

“

4

1

-

6

_

-

2

-

2

2

3

4
4

4 '

3
3

-

1

.

-

-

1

■

-

2

1

2

2

1

.

.

2

_

*

-

_

-

3

_
_

1

•

-

■

1

.

1

-

1 0

3

13
_

.

.

_

~

~

■

3. 30
3. 30

1 E xcludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on weekends, h olidays, and late sh ifts.
2 A ll w orkers w ere at $ 3. 50 to $ 3. 60.
3 W ork ers w ere distributed as follow s: 3 at $ 0. 90 to $ 1; 6 at $ 1 to $ 1. 10; 2 at $ 1 .2 0 to $ 1. 30.




.

0 0

3. 31
3. 31

S h e et-m e tal w ork ers,
maintenance ______________________________
Manufacturing __________________________

$

.

-

-

P ain ters, maintenance ___________________
Manufacturing ---------------------------------------

8

$

2

3 .2 9
3. 30

65
40
25

$
. 9 0

4
4
"

13
3

4
4

-

1

“

1 6

2
2

2

5
4
1

2

-

_
■

-

2

-

5
5

9

■

25

3

15

2 2

2

.
-

13

1

-

3

-

9
9

-

-

-

-

-

60

129
129

2

"

8

4
4

3

1

7
7

4
4

1

~
4
4

-

-

2

‘

6 0

233
232

434
434

29
29

1 2

25

1 2

2 2

1 2

33
33

6 6

_

213

1 2

6 6

1 6
16

y 1 'l

-

_

8
Table A-4. Custodial and M aterial Movement Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u rly ea rn in g s fo r se le c te d occu p ation s stud ied on an a r e a b a s is
by in d u stry d iv is io n , B eau m on t—P o r t A r th u r , T e x . , M ay 1961)
N U M B E R OF W O R K E R S R E C E IV IN G S T R A IG H T -T IM E H O U R L Y E A R N IN G S OF—

O ccu p ation 1 and in d u str y d iv isio n

Number

of

workers

$
Average
hourly , 0 . 80
earnings c
and
u nder
.9 0

$
$
$
1 .0 0 9 1. 10 1. 20
0

%
0

.

1. 00

1. 10

1. 20

1. 30

1. 30

$
1 .4 0

$
1. 50

$
1 .6 0

$
1 .7 0

$
1 .8 0

$
1. 90

$
2 .0 0

$
$
$
$
2. 10 2. 20 2. 30 2 .4 0

1 .4 0

1. 50

1 .6 0

1 .7 0

1 .8 0

1 .9 0

2. 00

2. 10

2. 20

“

2
2

5
5

8
6
2

7
5
2
2

%

$
$
$
2. 50 2. 60 2. 70

$
2. 80

$
2. 90

$
3. 00

$
3. 10
and

3. 00

3. 10

over

2 .4 0

2. 50

2. 60

2. 70

2. 80

2. 90

-

2
2

2
2

7
7

16
16

46
46

48
48

-

2
2

3 22
22

35
35

7
7

108
108

3
3

-

13
13

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

“

■

-

“

-

_

29
25
4
4

4
4
4

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

"

"

"

2. 30

-

-

-

-

-

4
4

-

3
-

-

2
2

2
2

1 .7 5
2. 16
1 .3 2
1 .6 7

26
26

40
6
34
3

18
2
16
■

38
7
31
7

33
2
31
3

24
11
13
1

25
18
7
2

12
12
12

10
3
7
3

29
29
29

6
6
-

~

9
3
6
■

341
236
105
53

1. 94
2. 12
1. 55
1 .8 2

„

_

-

-

22
12
10

25
21
4

"

-

-

26
22
4
3

15
11
4
2

23
12
11
10

7
' 7
7

4
2
2
2

4
4
4

4
4
4

1
1

-

9
9
1

28
4
24

-

11
11
9

1

-

129
127
2
2

O r d e r f i lle r s _________________________________
N on m an u factu rin g ______________________

69
62

1. 58
1 .4 3

_

_

_

24
24

8
8

12
12

3
3

_

_

_

_

_

2

_

_

.

_

5

_

■

3
3

_

■

1
1

_

"

11
11

R e c e iv in g c le r k s ____________________________
M an ufactu ring
______________________
N on m an ufactu ring ______________________

52
17
35

2. 08
2. 54
1 .8 6

_

_

_

1

_

_

4

5

3

5

5

2
2

5

3

5

5

■

“

“

3
1
2

2
2

4

1
1
-

3
3

-

1
1

2
2

"

“

-

1

1
1

_

-

6
2
4

_

-

8
4
4

-

-

•

Shipping c le r k s

______________________________

20

2. 30

_

_

_

_

_

_

2

_

4

_

_

_

3

_

2

1

_

2

_

2

_

_

_

54

Shipping and r e c e iv in g c le r k s ____________
M an ufactu ring ___________________________

37
23

2. 38
2. 75

_

.

!

!

_

.

2

_

.

_

"

5
5

_

-

3
~

!

~

_

-

_

“

8
8

5
b5

T r u c k d r iv e r s 7 _______________________________
M an u factu rin g ____________________ ____
N on m an u factu rin g ------------ -----------------P u b lic u tilitie s 4 ___ ___________________

419
203
216
117

2 .3 9
2. 70
2. 09
2. 57

2
2
~

_

34
34
3

45
45
-

6
6
-

_

_

-

-

~

1
1
1

"

~

T r u c k d r iv e r s , light (under
1 V 2 tons) ________________________________
M an ufactu ring -------------- ------------------

46
28

2. 16
2. 70

2

-

-

12

-

-

-

T r u c k d r iv e r s , m e d iu m ( I V 2 to
and in clu d ing 4 tons) __________________
M an u factu rin g _______________________
N on m an u factu rin g __________________
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 4 __________________

148
41
107
72

2.
2.
2.
2.

31
51
23
63

-

-

-

-

-

-

'

-

-

T r u c k d r iv e r s , h eavy (o v e r 4
to n s, t r a ile r type) ________ ____________
N on m an u factu rin g ___________________

76
73

1 .9 9
1 .9 6

-

-

T r u c k e r s , p ow er (fo r k lift) ________________
M an ufactu ring ___________________________

135
125

2. 62
2. 71

_

_

G u ards _________________________________________
M an u factu rin g -------------- ------------------------

163
160

$ 2. 73
2. 76

J a n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s -----------M an u factu rin g ___________________________
N on m an u factu rin g ______________________
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 4 _____________________

45 1
235
216
62

L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l handling ____________
M an u factu rin g -------- -----------------------------N on m an u factu rin g ______________________
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 4 _____________________

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

-

1

-

"

_

1

_

"

“

5
■

_

“

1
■

_

■

4
4

_

“

7
5
2-

2
2

_
-

~

“

1
1
■

1
1
_

4
4
2

3
2
1
_

2
2
1

8
4
4
2

5
5
3

25
2
23
23

30
12
18
4

199
123
76
76

2
2

2

-

6
6

18
18

2.
2

-

-

-

"

-

4
2
2
2

1
1

6
6
-

62
18
44
44

-

6
6
-

-

-

-

-

-

"

“

■

-

“

-

“

~

-

"

-

"

"

-

10
10
-

8
3
5

11
1
10

2
2

2

-

-

1
1
-

1
1
-

4
4
2

3
2
1
"

1
1

-

1
1
-

1
1

12
12

10
10

10
10

2
2

2
2

_

3
1

-

1

-

4

1

1

“

D ata lim ite d to m e n w o r k e r s .
E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m pay fo r o v e r t im e and fo r w ork on w ee k e n d s, h o lid a y s , and late s h ifts .
W o r k e r s w e r e d istrib u te d as fo llo w s: 16 at $ 3 . 20 to $ 3 . 4 0 ; 4 at $ 3 . 4 0 to $ 3. 6 0 ; 2 at $ 3. 60 to $ 3. 8 0 .
T r a n sp o r ta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and other p ub lic u tilit ie s .
W o r k e r s w e r e d istrib u te d as fo llo w s: 1 at $ 3. 10 to $ 3. 20; 2 at $ 3. 20 to $ 3. 30; 1 at $ 3 . 50 to $ 3. 6 0 .
W o r k e r s w e r e d istrib u te d as fo llo w s : 1 at $ 3 . 10 to $ 3 . 20; 4 at $ 3. 90 to $ 4 .
In clud es a ll d r iv e r s r e g a r d le s s of s iz e and type of tru c k o p era ted .




-

4
4
2

19
3
16
~

21
1
20

'

-

2
"

-

1

25
2
23
23

4
4
-

4
1

4
4

-

10
10

_

_

_

9
9

8
8

35
32

2
2

47
47

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

9
9

34
34

_

9

Appendix:

Occupational Descriptions

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to a ssist its
field staff in classifyin g into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field econom ists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers,
part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.
O F F IC E
BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statements, b ills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerica l work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
cla ssified by type of machine, as follow s:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.

B ille r , m achine (h illin g m ach in e) —

Uses a special billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, etc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shippingmemorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.
B iller, m achine (b o o k k e e p in g m a ch in e) — Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, e tc ., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare custom ers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types o f sales and
credit slips.




C la s s A — Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge o f
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance
sheets, and other records by hand.
C la s s B — Keeps a record o f one or more phases or section s of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping.
Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type o f billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or a ssist in preparation o f trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.

CLERK, ACCOUNTING
C la s s A — Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more section s o f a com ­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase o f an establish­
ment's business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

10

C L E R K , A C C O U N T IN G — Continued

payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper a c ­
counting distribution; requires judgment and experience in making
proper assignations and allocations. May assist in preparing, ad­
justing and closin g journal entries; may direct cla ss B accounting
clerks.

Class B— Under supervision, performs one or more routine a c ­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or a c ­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data. This
job does not require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping
principles but is found in offices in which the more routine account­
ing work is subdivided on a functional basis among several workers.

CLERK, PAYROLL

Computes wages of company employees and enters the n eces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers*
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker’ s name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and a ssist paymaster in making up and distribut­
ing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.
COM PTOM ETER O P E R A TO R

Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

C L E R K , F IL E

Class A — In an established filing system containing a num­
ber of varied subject matter file s, cla ssifie s and indexes corres­
pondence or other material; may also file this material. May keep
records of various types in conjunction with files or may super­
vise others in filing and locating material in the file s . May per­
form incidental clerical duties.
Class B— Performs routine filing, usually of material that has
already been cla ssified or which is easily identifiable, or locates
or a ssists in locating material in file s. May perform incidental
clerica l duties.

CLERK, ORDER

R eceives customers* orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination o f the following:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; distributing order sheets to respective departments to be filled .
May check with credit department to determine credit rating of customer,
acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders to see
that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check ship­
ping invoices with original orders.




D U P L IC A T IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R (M IM E O G R A P H O R D IT T O )

Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
b ilities, reproduces multiple cop ies of typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file of used stencils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

KEYPUNCH O PERATOR

Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
b ilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards by
punching a series of holes in the cards in a sp ecified sequence, using
an alphabetical or a numerical keypunch machine, following written in­
formation on records. May duplicate cards by using the duplicating de­
vice attached to machine. May keep files of punch cards. May verify
own work or work of others.
O F F IC E B O Y O R G IR L

Performs various routine duties such as running errands, op­
erating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and
distributing mail, and other minor clerica l work.

11
SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerica l duties for a superior in an ad­
ministrative or executive position. Duties include making appointments
for superior; receiving people coming into o ffice ; answering and making
phone ca lls; handling personal and important or confidential mail, and
writing routine correspondence on own initiative; taking dictation (where
transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded information
reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare special reports or
memorandums for information of superior.
STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a nor­
mal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter.
May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep files in or­
der, keep simple records, etc. D o e s not in c lu d e tra n scrib in g -m a ch in e
w ork (see transcribing-machine operator).
STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a varied
technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on
scien tific research and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter. May
also type from written copy. May also set up and keep files in order,
keep simple records, etc. D o e s not in c lu d e tra n scrib in g -m a ch in e w ork.
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or o ffice ca lls.
May record toll ca lls and take m essages. May give information to per­
sons who ca ll in, or occasion ally take telephone orders. For workers
who also act as receptionists see switchboard operator-receptionist.
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single p o si­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may a lso type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. This typing
or clerica l work may take the major part of this worker’ s time while at
switchboard.




TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
C la s s A — Operates a variety of tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignments without clo se supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating sequences of long and complex reports.
D o e s n ot in c lu d e working supervisors performing tabulating-machine
operations andday-to-day supervision of the work and production of
a group of tabulating-machine operators.
C la s s B — Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under
sp e cific instructions and may include the performance of some wir­
ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but
small tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are well established. May also include the training
of new employees in the basic operation of the machine.
C la s s C — Operates simple tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with sp ecific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs, or re­
petitive operations.

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May a lso type from written
copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation in­
volving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal briefs
or reports on scien tific research are not included. A worker who takes
dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is cla ssified
as a stenographer, general.

12

TYPIST

TYPIST— Continued

Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to make
out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May in­
clude typing of s te n cils , mats, or similar materials for use in duplicat­
ing p rocesses. May do clerica l work involving little sp ecia l training,
such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting
and distributing incoming, mail.
C la s s A — Performs one o r more o f the fo llo w in g : Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punc-

tuation, e tc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; planning layout and typing of com plicated statistical tables
to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine
form letters varying details to suit circum stances.
C la s s B — Performs one o r more o f the fo llo w in g : Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing o f forms, insurance p o licie s,
e tc.; setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying more com­
plex tables already set up and spaced properly.

P R O F E SSIO N A L AND T E C H N IC A L
DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.
DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration of working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Duties
involve a com bin ation o f the fo llo w in g : Interpreting blueprints, sketches,
and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures; assigning
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problems. May a ssist subordinates during emergencies or as a
regular assignment, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
ministrative nature.
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
p oses. Duties involve a com b in a tion o f the fo llo w in g : Preparing work­
ing plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-section s, e tc., to sca le by use
of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as those




DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued
involved in strength of materials, beams and trusses; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quantities;
writing specification s; making adjustments or changes in drawings or
specification s. May ink in lines and letters on pencil drawings, prepare
detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings. Work is frequently
in a specialized field such as architectural, electrical, m echanical, or
structural drafting.
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a com bin er
tio n o f the fo llo w in g : Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of employees* injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants
and em ployees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of a ll personnel.
TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or p en cil. Uses
T-square, com pass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

13

M A IN T E N A N C E

D PO W ERPLAN T

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casin gs, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g :
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter's handtools, portable
power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; selectin g materials n ec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or o il burner; checks water and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom equipment.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, d is­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specification s; locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c ­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; using a variety of
electrician 's handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In gen­
eral, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.
ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may a lso supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, motors,
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a record of
operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May a ls o
supervise these operations. H e a d o r c h ie f e n g in e e rs in e sta b lis h m e n ts
em p lo yin g more than one e n g in e e r are e x c lu d e d .




HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
A ssists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing sp e cific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are a lso performed by workers on a full-time basis.
MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools, gauges,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making necessary adjustments during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils . For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this cla ssifica tion .
MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Interpreting written instructions and
specification s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
chin ist's handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and

14

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued

MILLWRIGHT— Continued

operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to clo se toler­
ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assembling parts into me­
chanical equipment. In general, the machinist's work normally requires
a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

are required. Work involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specification s; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancingof equipment; selectin g standard tools, equipment, and parts
to be used; installing and maintaining in good order power transmission
equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the mill­
wright's work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an e s ­
tablishment. Work involves m ost o f the fo llo w in g : Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assem blies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; alining wheels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves m ost o f the fo llo w in g : Examining machines and mechan­
ica l equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly d is­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replace­
ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop
for major repairs; preparing written specification s for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling ma­
chines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In general,
the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classification are workers
whose prim ary d u tie s involve setting up or adjusting machines.
MILLWRIGHT
Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout




OILER
Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.
PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates Walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work in v o lv e s the fo llo w in g : Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, o ils , white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper
color or con sistency. In general, the work of the maintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g :
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other written specification s; cutting various sizes of pipe to correct
lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with stocks and d ies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to pressures,
flow , and size of pipe required; making standard tests to determine
whether finished pipes meet specifications* In general, the work of the
maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. W orkers p rim a rily en g ag ed in in s ta llin g and re p a irin g b u ild in g
sa n ita tio n o r h e a tin g s y s te m s are e x c lu d e d .

15

TOOL AND DIE MAKER

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an-establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber's snake. In
general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.
SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishment. Work involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, models,
or other specification s; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; installing sheetmetal articles as required. In general, the work of the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves m ost o f the fo llo w in g : Planning and laying out of work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specification s;
using a variety of tool and die maker's handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding of the working properties of common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools andrelated
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to clo s e tolerances; fitting and assembling
o f parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selecting appropriate
materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die maker's
work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this cla ssifica tion .

C U STO D IA L AND M A T E R IA L MOVEMENT
ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued

Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

or other establishment. Duties involve a co m b in a tio n o f the fo llo w in g :
Sweeping, mopping o r scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte*
nance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Workers
who specialize in window washing are excluded.

GUARD
Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. In c lu d e s g atemen who are s ta tio n e d at g ate and c h e c k on id e n tity o f e m p lo y e e s and
o th e r p erso n s e n te rin g .

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial




LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one o r more o f the fo llo w ­
in g : Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or

16

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING— Continued
from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting d evices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; trans­
porting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.
L o n g sh o re m e n , w ho lo a d and un loa d s h ip s are e x c lu d e d .

ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, customers’
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders, requisi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued
For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssifie d as follow s:
R e c e iv in g c le r k
S h ip p in g c le r k
S h ip p in g and r e c e iv in g c le r k

TRUCKDRIVER
Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of estab­
lishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers* houses or places of business. May also load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. D r iv e r -s a le s m e n and o ve r-th e -ro a d d r iv e rs
are e x c lu d e d .

PACKER, SHIPPING
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the sp ecific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may in v o lv e one o r more o f
the fo llo w in g : Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify
content; selection of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closin g and sealing container; applying labels or
entering identifying data on container. P a c k e r s who a ls o make w ooden
b o x e s or c r a te s are e x c lu d e d .

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­
sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. S h ip p in g
w ork in v o lv e s : A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes,
available means of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or assist in
preparing the merchandise for shipment. R e c e iv in g w o rk in v o lv e s : Veri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipments against
bills of lading, in v oices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing merchandise or materials to proper de­
partments; maintaining necessary records and file s.




For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are cla ssified by size
and type of equipment, as follow s: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis o f trailer capacity.)
T r u c k d r iv e r
T r u c k d r iv e r ,
T r u c k d r iv e r ,
T r u c k d r iv e r ,
T r u c k d r iv e r ,

(co m b in a tio n o f s i z e s l i s t e d s e p a r a t e ly )
lig h t (u n d e r lV2 t o n s )
meaium ( l l 2 to an d in c lu d in g 4 to n s )
/
h e a v y (o v e r 4 to n s, t r a ile r ty p e )
h e a v y (o v e r 4 to n s, o th e r than t r a ile r ty p e )

TRUCKER, POWER
Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssifie d by type of
truck, as follow s:
T r u c k e r , p o w e r ( f o r k li f t )
T r u c k e r , p o w e r (o th e r than f o r k li f t )

WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.
* U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1961 0 — 6 0 1 6 0 8


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102