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Occupational Wage Survey

PORTLAND, OREGON—WASHINGTON
MAY 1961

Bulletin No. 1285-72




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




Occupational Wage Survey
PORTLAND, OREGON-WASHINGTON




M AY 1961

Bulletin No. 1285-72
July 1961

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. - Price

cents




Preface

Contents
Page

T h e C om m u n ity W age S u rv ey P r o g r a m

In trod u ction _________________________________________________________________
W age tren d s f o r s e le c t e d o c cu p a tio n a l g r o u p s ___________________________

T h e B u rea u o f L a b o r S ta tistic s r e g u la r ly con d u cts
a re a w id e w age s u r v e y s in a n u m b er o f im p orta n t in d u str ia l
cen ters.
T h e s tu d ie s, m a d e fr o m la te fa ll to e a r ly s p rin g ,
r e la te to o ccu p a tio n a l ea rn in g s and r e la te d su p p lem en ta ry
b e n e fits .
A p r e lim in a r y r e p o r t is a v a ila b le on c o m p le tio n
o f the study in ea ch a r e a , u su a lly in the m on th fo llo w in g
the p a y r o ll p e r io d stu d ied . T h is b u lle tin p r o v id e s ad d ition a l
data not in clu d ed in the e a r lie r r e p o r t .
A c o n s o lid a te d
a n a ly tica l b u lletin su m m a r iz in g the r e s u lts o f a ll o f the
y e a r ’ s su r v e y s is is s u e d a fte r c o m p le tio n o f the fin a l a r e a
b u lletin fo r the c u r r e n t roun d o f s u r v e y s .

T a b le s :

T h is r e p o r t w as p r e p a r e d in the B u r e a u 's r e g io n a l
o ffic e in San F r a n c is c o , C a lif. , b y W illia m P . O ’C on n or,
under the d ir e c tio n o f John L . D ana, A s s is ta n t R e g io n a l
D ir e c t o r fo r W ages and In d u stria l R e la tio n s .

A ppendix:

\

3




1.
2.

A:

E s ta b lis h m e n ts and w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e o f s u r v e y ____________
In dexes o f stan dard w e e k ly s a la r ie s and s t r a ig h t -tim e
h o u r ly ea rn in g s fo r s e le c t e d o c cu p a tio n a l g ro u p s ,
and p e r c e n ts o f in c r e a s e fo r s e le c t e d p e r io d s __________________

2

O ccu p a tion a l e a rn in g s: *
A - 1. O ffic e occu p a tio n s ______________________________
A - 2. P r o fe s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l o c cu p a tio n s _______
A - 3. M ain ten an ce and p ow erp la n t o c cu p a tio n s _____
A -4 . C u sto d ia l and m a te r ia l m o v e m e n t o ccu p a tio n s
O ccu p a tion a l d e s c r ip tio n s

____________________________________

* N O TE:
S im ila r ta bu la tion s f o r th e se and oth er ite m s ,
in clu d in g e sta b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and su p p lem en ta ry w age
p r o v is io n ^ , a r e a v a ila b le in the P o r tla n d a r e a r e p o r t s
f o r June 1951, S ep tem b er 1952 and 1953, A p r il o f ea ch
y e a r fr o m 1955 th rough 1959, and M ay I9 60.
The A p r il
1959 r e p o r t w a s lim ite d to o ccu p a tio n a l e a rn in g s.

i ii

2

11




Occupational W aae Survey—Portland, Oreg.-Wash.
Introduction

This area is one of several important industrial centers in
which the U. S. Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics
conducts surveys of occupational earnings and related wage benefits
on an area basis.
The bulletin presents current occupational employment and
earnings information obtained largely by mail from the establishments
visited by Bureau field economists in the last previous survey for occu­
pations reported in that earlier study. Personal visits were made
to nonrespondents and to those respondents reporting unusual changes
since the previous survey.
In each area, data are obtained from representative establish­
ments within six broad industry divisions: Manufacturing; transpor­
tation, 1 communication, and other public utilities; wholesale trade; re­
tail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. Major
industry groups excluded from these studies are government operations
and the construction and extractive industries. Establishments having
fewer than a prescribed number of workers are omitted alsc because
they furnish insufficient employment in the occupations studied to war­
rant inclusion. Wherever possible, separate tabulations are provided
for each of the broad industry divisions.
These surveys are conducted on a sample basis because of the
unnecessary cost involved in surveying all establishments. To obtain
appropriate accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of large
than of small establishments is studied. In combining the data, how­
ever, all establishments are given their appropriate weight. Estimates
based on the establishments studied are presented, therefore, as re­
lating to all establishments in the industry grouping and area, ex­
cept for those below the minimum size studied.

take account of interestablishment variation in duties within the same
job. (See appendix for listing of these descriptions. ) Earnings data are
presented (in the A-series tables) for the following types of occupa­
tions: (a) Office clerical; (b) professional and technical; (c) mainte­
nance and powerplant; and (d) custodial and material movement.
Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for
full-time workers, i. e. , those hired to work a regular weekly sched­
ule in the given occupational classification. Earnings data exclude
premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and
late shifts. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded also, but cost-ofliving bonuses and incentive earnings are included. Where weekly
hours are reported, as for office clerical occupations, reference is
to the work schedules (rounded to the nearest half hour) for whicl
straight-time salaries are paid; average weekly earnings for these
occupations have been rounded to the nearest half dollar.

Average earnings of men and women are presented separately
for selected occupations in which both sexes are commonly employed.
Differences in pay levels of men and women in these occupations are
largely due to (l) differences in the distribution of the sexes among
industries and establishments; (2) differences in specific duties per­
formed, although the occupations are appropriately classified within
the same survey job description; and (3) differences in length of serv­
ice or merit review when individual salaries are adjusted on this basis.
Longer average service of men would result in higher average pay
when both sexes are employed within the same rate range.
Job
descriptions used in classifying employees in these surveys are usu­
ally more generalized than those used in individual establishments to
allow for minor differences among establishments in specific duties
performed.

Occupations and Earnings
The occupations selected for study are common to a variety
of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries. Occupational clas­
sification is based on a uniform set of job descriptions designed to
1 Railroads, formerly excluded from the scope of these studies,
were included in all of the areas studied since July 1959, except Balti­
more (September 1959 and December I960), Buffalo (October 1959),
Cleveland (September 1959), and Seattle (August 1959).




Occupational employment estimates represent the total in all
establishments within the scope of the study and not the number actu­
ally surveyed. Because of differences in occupational structure among
establishments, the estimates of occupational employment obtained
from the sample of establishments studied serve only to indicate the
relative importance of the jobs studied. These differences in occu­
pational structure do not materially affect the accuracy of the earn­
ings data.

2

Table 1.

E stablishm ents and w ork ers within scope of survey and number studied in
Portland, O r e g .— ash. , 1 by m ajor industry division, 2 May 1961
W
Number of establishm ents

Industry division

A ll divisions

___________________

Within scope
of study 3

W ork ers in establishm ents

Studied

Within scope
study

Studied

532

151

103, 900

58, 170

222
310

63
88

49, 200
54, 700

27, 070
31. 100

61
83
82
43
41

_____________________________________

Manufacturing _________________________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________________________________________
Transportation, communication, and
other public utilities 4 _____________ __________________________
W h olesale trade 5 _________________________________________________
Retail trade ________________________________________________________
Finance, insurance, and real e s ta te 5 _________________________
Services 5* 6
_

24
19
23
10
12

19,
7,
15,
7,
3,

15,
2,
7,
3,
1,

900
900
700
400
800

360
510
990
810
430

1 The Portland Standard M etropolitan S tatistical A r e a (C lackam as, Multnomah, and W ashington Counties, O r e g ., and Clark County, W a s h .).
The
"w o rk ers within scope of study" estim ates shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate d escription of the size and com position of the labor
forc e included in the survey.
The estim ates are not intended, however, to serve as a b a sis of com parison with other area em ploym ent indexes to
m easu re em ployment trends or le vels since (1) planning of wage su rveys requ ires the use of establishm ent data com piled considerably in advance
of the payroll period studied, and (2) sm a ll establishm ents are excluded from the scope of the survey.
2 The 1957 revised edition of the Standard Industrial C lassification Manual was used in classifyin g establishm ents by industry d ivision.
M ajor
changes from the ea rlie r edition (used in the B ureau's labor m arket wage surveys conducted prior to July 1958) are the tra n sfer of m ilk pasteurization
plants and read y-m ixed concrete establishm ents from trade (w holesale or retail) to manufacturing and the tra n sfer of radio and television broadcasting
from se r v ic e s to the transportation, communication, and other public u tilities division.
3 Includes all establishm ents with total em ployment at or above the m in im u m -siz e lim itation (50 em ployees).
A ll outlets (within the area) of
com panies in such industries as trade, finance, auto repair serv ic e, and m otion -p icture theaters are considered as 1 establishm ent.
4 Taxicabs and se r v ic e s incidental to water transportation w ere excluded.
5 This industry division is represented in estim ates for "a l l in d u str ie s" and "nonm anufacturing" in the S eries A tables.
Separate presentation
of data for this d ivision is not m ade for one or m ore of the following r ea so n s: (1) E m ploym ent in the division is too sm a ll to provide enough data
to m e rit separate study, (2) the sam ple w as not designed initially to p erm it separate presentation, (3) response w as insufficient or inadequate to
perm it separate presentation, (4) there is p ossib ility of d isclosu re of individual establishm ent data.
6 H otels; p erson al s e r v ic e s ; business' s e r v ic e s ; autom obile repair sh ops; m otion p ic tu r e s; nonprofit m em b ersh ip organ ization s; and engineering
and architectu ral se r v ic e s.

Table 2.

Indexes of standard w eekly sa la r ie s and stra igh t-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupational groups in r o iu a n d , O r e g .— a s h .,
W
May 1961 and May i9 6 0 , and p ercen ts of in crea se for selected periods
Indexes
(Septem ber 1952 * 100)

Industry and occupational group
May 1961

May I960

P ercent in crea ses from —
A p ril I9 60
to
May 1961

A p ril 1959
to
May i9 6 0

A p ril 1958
to
A p ril 1959

A p ril 1957
to
A p ril 1958

A p ril 1956
to
A p ril 1957

A p ril 1955
to
A p ril 1956

Septem ber 1953
to
A p ril 1955

Septem ber 1952
to
Septem ber 1953

A ll in d u str ie s:
Office c le r ic a l (women) ___________
Industrial nurses (women) ------Skilled maintenance (men) ________
Unskilled plant (men)
-------- --------

139.
138.
144.
139.

6
0
1
8

135. 1
1 3 5 .7
138. 9
135. 4

3. 3
1 .7
3. 8
3 .2

3. 7
2 .9
3. 6
4. 1

3.
6.
4.
3.

2
3
4
8

5. 1
7 .4
5. 8
5. 2

3.
2.
5.
4.

6
1
5
6

5.
4.
4.
3.

2
3
9
0

5. 4
6 .9
3 .9
5. 4

4.
1.
5.
4.

7
6
5
9

M anufacturing:
Office c le r ic a l (women) ----------------Industrial nurses (women) ________
Skilled maintenance (men) ------------Unskilled plant (men) ---------------------

139. 8
1 3 4 .4
145. 0
138. 9

135. 1
1 3 3 .6
140. 0
136. 3

3 .5
.6
3. 6
1 .9

4.
1.
3.
4.

3.
6.
4.
2.

1
3
2
1

3. 8
7 .5
6 .2
5. 3

5.
.
6.
4.

3
7
2
6

4.
5.
5.
3.

0
0
1
1

5.
7.
4.
6.

4.
.
4.
5.

3
8
6
5




7
8
4
5

6
8
7
7

3

Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups

Presented in table 2 are indexes of salaries of office clerical
workers and industrial nurses, and of average earnings of selected
plant worker groups. In areas which Were not surveyed during the
fiscal 1953 base year (July 1952 to June 1953) this table is limited
to percents of change between selected periods.
For office clerical workers and industrial nurses, the indexes
relate to average weekly salaries for normal hours of work, that is,
the standard work schedule for which straight*time salaries are paid.
For plant worker groups, they measure changes in straight-time hourly
earnings, excluding premium pay for overtime and for work on week­
ends, holidays, and late shifts. The indexes are based on data for
selected key occupations and include most of the numerically important
jobs within each group. The office clerical data are based on women in
the following 18 jobs: Billers, machine (billing machine); bookkeepingmachine operators, class A and B; Comptometer operators; clerks, file,
class A and B; clerks, order; clerks, payroll; keypunch operators;
office girls; secretaries; stenographers, general; switchboard opera­
tors; switchboard operator-receptionists; tabulating-machine opera­
tors; transcribing-machine operators, general; and typists, class A
and B. The industrial nurse data are based on women industrial
nurses. Men in the following 10 skilled maintenance jobs and 3 unskilled
jobs were included in the plant worker data: Skilled-—carpenters;
electricians; machinists; mechanics; mechanics, automotive; m ill­
wrights; painters; pipefitters; sheet-metal workers; and tool and die
makers; unskilled—janitors, porters, and cleaners; laborers, ma­
terial handling; and watchmen.
Average weekly salaries or average hourly earnings were
computed for each of the selected occupations. The average salaries
or hourly earnings were then multiplied by the average of 1953 and
1954 employment in the job. These weighted earnings for individual
occupations were then totaled to obtain an aggregate for each occupa­
tion^ group. Finally, the ratio of these group aggregates for a given
year to the aggregate for the base period (survey month, winter 1952—
53)
was computed and the result multiplied by the base year index (100) to
net the index for the given year.




Similar procedures were followed in compiling "percents of
change" in ar£as not surveyed during 1953.
Adjustments have been made where necessary to maintain
comparability so that the year-to-year comparisons are based on the
same industry and occupational coverage. For example, railroads
have been included in the coverage of the surveys only since July 1959.
In computing the indexes for the first year in w£ich railroads were
included, data relating to railroads were excluded. Indexes for subse­
quent years include data for railroads.
The indexes measure, principally, the effects of (1) general
salary and wage changes; (2) merit or other increases in pay received
by individual workers while in the same job; and (3) changes in the
labor force such as labor turnover, force expansions, force reduc­
tions, and changes in the proportion of workers employed by estab­
lishments with different pay levels. Changes in the labor force can
cause increases or decreases in the occupational averages without
actual wage changes. For example, a force esqpansion might increase
the proportion of lower paid workers in a specific occupation and re­
sult in a drop in the average, whereas a reduction in the proportion
of lower paid workers would have the opposite effect. The movement
of a high-paying establishment out of an area could cause the average
earnings to drop, even though no change in rates occurred in other
area establishments.
The use of constant employment weights eliminates the effects
of changes in the proportion of workers represented in each job in­
cluded in the data. Nor are the indexes influenced by changes in
standard work schedules or in premium pay for overtime, since they
are based on pay for straight-time hours.
Indexes for the period 1953 to I960 for workers in 20 major
labor markets are presented in BLS Bull. 1265-62, Wages and Re­
lated Benefits, 60 Labor Markets, Winter 1959-60.

4

A* Occupational Earnings
Table A-l. Office Occupations
(A verage stra igh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area b asis
by industry division, P ortland, O r e g .—W ash. , May 1961)
Avebagb
Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

$

Weeklyhours 1
(Standard)

40. 00
Weekly
and
earnings1
(Standard) under
45 . 00

$
45. 00

$
50. 00

$
55. 00

50. 00

55. 00

60. 00

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100. 00 105. 00 n o . oo 115. 00 120. 00 125. 00
and
65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100. 00 105. 00 n o . oo 115. 00 120. 00 125. 00 over

Men
0
0
0
0

$1 0 9 .5 0
105.00
111.00
115.00

_
-

.
-

-

.
-

_
-

-

75
34
41
31

3 9 .5
39. 5
40. 0
40 . 0

91.50
81.50
100.00
102.50

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

173
45
128

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

103.00
111.00
100.00

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

C le r k s, accounting, c la ss A _____________________________
Manufacturing ___________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing -----------------------------------------------------------Public u tilit ie s 3 _ __________________ _____________

250
60
190
81

C le r k s, accounting, c la s s B _____________________________
Manufacturing ___________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ______________________________________
Public u tilities 3 _____________________________________
C lerk s, ord er ______________________________________________
Manufacturing ----------------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ______________________________________

40 .
40 .
40 .
40 .

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

_
-

_
-

6
6
-

28
22
6

-

_
-

_
-

4
4

_
-

1
1
-

8
8
-

15
4
11
3

33
17
16
5

37
12
25
11

36
11
25
14

30
5
25
12

50
1
49
6

14
5
9
9

2 26
4
22
21

7
7
7

7
7
7

11
11
9

8
8
6

_
-

_
.
-

_
_

-

6
6
-

-

-

-

2
_
2
2

19
1
18

5
5

25
13
12

21
4
17

40
3
37

8
8

7
7

13
5
8

19
10
9

12
’ 9
3

2

7

1

2

_

1

2
_

_____________________________________________

35

4 0 .0

9 1 .00

_

.

-

.

_

9

-

2

4

5

_

__________________________________________________

83
33
50

4Q. 0
40. 0
3 9 .5

59.00
53.50
6 2 .00

_
-

10
10
-

20
12
8

28
3
25

10
3
7

1
1

5
3
2

3
1
2

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

6
6

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

________________

23

40 . 0

118.00

-

_

-

_

.

_

.

.

_

1

_

1

2

2

4

1

2

5 10

Tabulating - machine op erators, c la s s B ________________
Manufacturing _______ __ ---------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ___________________________ _______ -

67
31
36

40 . 0
40. 0
39. 5

100.00
98 .50
101.00

.
-

-

-

.
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

3
3
-

4
3
1

2
2

14
7
7

12
7
5

12
2
10

8
3
5

5
1
4

3
1
2

4
4
-

-

B ille r s , machine (billing machine) ______________________
N<">nmanufacturing ______________________________________

_ _ 5 i ____
71

39. 5
40 . 0

71 .50
72 .50

_

1
-

6
5

7
7

12
8

24
14

12
10

4
3

9
9

15
12

1
-

«
.

3
3

_

_

_

_

.

-

“

-

B ille r s , machine (bookkeeping machine) ----------------------Nonmanufacturing ----------------------------------------------------------

31
29

40 . 0
40 . 0

59.00
57.00

_

11
11

4
4

5
5

5
5

_

_

2

_

_

_

_

_

-

4
4

-

-

-

-

-

B ookkeeping-m achine op erators, c la ss A ______________
Manufacturing
---------------------------------------------------- __ __
Nonmanufacturing ----------------------------------------------------------

75
42
33

40 . 0
40 . 0
40. 0

82 .00
83.50
80 .0 0

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

8
8

_
-

18
11
7

23
20
3

6
6
-

11
3
8

1
-

-

4
4

Bookkeeping-m achine op erators, c la ss B ------------— —
Manufacturing __________ _____ ___ _________ ________
Nonmanufacturing ------------------------- ------------- ------------R etail trade ----------------------------------------------------------------

450
62
388
61

4 0 .0
3 9 .5
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

67.50
75 .5 0
6 6 .00
6 9 .00

_
-

13
13
1

44
44
4

62
62
4

92
4
88
15

70
15
55
6

58
3
55
18

48
26
22

15
5
10

10
1
9
5

7
7

3

31
8
23
5

C le r k s, accounting, c la ss A --------------------------------------- —
Manufacturing _______________________________ __________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________ ________________
R etail trade ______ _______________________________ _

220
80
140
50

39. 5
3 9 .5
40 . 0
40 . 0

8 6 .00
90 .5 0
8 3 .00
8 0 .00

4
4

33

10
10
6

22
7
15
7

32
19
13
2

34
13
21
6

34
17
17
9

19

C le r k s, payroll
o f f ic e b o y s

Manufacturing _____________ ______________ ____ ___ _______
Nonmanufacturing ---------------------------------------------------------Tabulating-m achine op erators, c la ss A

_

W omen

-

-

_
-

_
-

_

-

-

33

14

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

_
-

3
1
2

_
_

.
_

_
_

-

-

-

_
-

_

_
-

_
-

_
_
_

..
_
_

-

-

_

_

2
_
2

“

~

-

1

3

16
4

-

16
14
2
2

-

-

7
6
1

3

4

1
2

_
4

'
see footnotes at end of table,




-

'

'

5
Table A-1. Office Occupations-Continued
(A verage stra igh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry d ivision, P ortland, O r e g .—W ash. , M ay 1961)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF

Avebaqb
S ex,

Number
of
workers

o c c u p a t io n , a n d in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n

Weekly
hours 1
(Standard)

$
4 0 . 00
Weekly
and
earnings1
(Standard) u n d e r
4 5 .0 0

$
$
$
$
$
$
$.
9 5 . 00 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 n o . o o 115. 00 1 2 0 .0 0 1 2 5 . 00

$
4 5 .0 0

$
50. 00

$
55. 00

*
6 0 . 00

$
6 5. 00

$
7 0 . 00

$
7 5 . 00

$
8 0 .0 0

$
8 5 . 00

$
9 0 . 00

50. 00

55. 00

6 0 .0 0

6 5 . 00

7 0 . 00

7 5 . 00

8 0 . 00

8 5 . 00

9 0 . 00

9 5 . 00 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 . 00 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 . 00 1 2 0 .0 0

and
125. 00

over

W o m e n — C o n tin u e d

613
137
476
77
191

4 0 .0
40. 0
4 0 .0
40. 0
4 0 .0

-

44
43

39. 5
3 9 .5

7 5 . 00
7 5 .0 0

M a n u f a c t u r i n g _ -------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g _
____ ______ ______________________

307
40
267

3 9 .5
40. 0
39. 0

56. 00
6 2 . 50
55. 00

C le r k s , o r d e r
___ _ _
_ _____________ __ __ __ __ __
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ------ __ __ _
--------- __ -------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ___________________________________________

278
92
186

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

7 5 . 50
7 2 . 00
7 7 . 00

C le r k s , p a y r o ll _
— _
_ _
_
--------------- — —
M a n u fa c t u r in g _
—
------------------------------- __ ---------- _
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g —
—
_ __ —
__ _
— __
P u b lic u t il it ie s 3 _
-------------------- --------- __ --------R e t a i l t r a d e ___ _ __ ___ _ ______________
____

276
119
157
54
57

40.
39.
40.
40.
40.

81.
80.
82.
95.
70.

C o m p t o m e t e r o p e r a t o r s _____
__
__ __ —
-----M a n u f a c t u r i n g ___ __________________________________________—
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g —
__ -----------__• —
__ __
_ ------ —
- — —
R e t a i l t r a d e — ----------

404
186
218
83

4 0 .0
40. 0
4 0 .0
40. 0

C l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g , c l a s s B ___________
____ ______ —
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _ ---------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g —
------------------------------------------- — „
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 3 --------------------------- ------- --------- --------R e t a il t r a d e _
_ __ __________ __________ __ — --------C le r k s , file , c la s s A
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

----------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

D u p lic a t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s
( M i m e o g r a p h o r D it t o ) _____

K eyp u n ch o p e ra to rs
M a n u fa c tu r in g
_
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g
P u b lic u t i l i t i e s 3

_
_
_ __
_

O f f i c e g i r l s -----_
_
M a n u fa c t u r in g _ _ _
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g
S e c r e ta r ie s
__ __
M a n u fa c t u r in g
_
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g
P u b lic u t i l i t i e s 3
R e t a il t r a d e _

__
_ _
__

____

—
—
_ _ _
—
—

__

_
_
—

__ _
_

_

—

------__
_ _ _
_ _
_

_
__

_
_

S ten og ra p h ers, g e n e ra l _
M a n u fa c tu r in g _
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g
P u b lic u t il it ie s 3 -

_

_

_

-

_

_
_

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
— —
—

_

_

50
50
50
50
50

25
3
22
5

40
3
37
18

48
6
42
17

117
19
98
5
73

122
34
88
6
48

99
33
66
9
21

44
17
27
16
4

31
12
19
9
3

14
2
12
7

18
2
16
16

-

38
38
2

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

9
9

12
11

7
7

_

-

7
7

3
3

4
4

11
1
10

1 39
5
134

34
6
28

28
2
26

32
11
21

12
8
4

16
1
15

19
1
18

7
4
3

1
1

_

7
4
3

13
8
5

46
21
25

43
13
30

45
9
36

23
7
16

19
19

15
6
9
-

43
9
34
6
18

7
1
6
2
2

30
13
17
1
9

21
6
15
8

38
13
25
5

_

_

_

_

_




1
-

2
2
2
-

-

1
1

1

_

_

_

_

_

1

-

-

-

4
4

1
1

3
3

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

63
4
59

5
2
3

2
2

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

"

10
5
5

32
21
11
1
3

48
26
22
14
4

26
9
17
3

15
12
3
3

4
7
6

7
7
7

1
-

*

-

11
11
7
4

-

-

84
21
63
34

35
28
7
2

116
97
19
-

24
6
18

8
1
7

3
3

_
-

_
-

-

“

"

-

-

-

2

1

-

-

1

-

_

-

-

-

-

1
1

-

-

-

-

"

_

-

-

-

-

4
4
4

9

22
18
4
4

7 7 . 00
8 1 . 50
7 3 .5 0
6 6 . 50

_
-

6
6
6

13
13
7

29
2
27
19

27
12
15
2

_

4

-

15

8

6

-

19
6
13

41
13
28
3

57
18
39
17

55
18
37
7

55
11
44
22

20
10
10
7

24
8
16
14

22
3
19
16

16
2
14
9

1
1

_

3
1
2

1
1

4
4

2
1
1

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

54
28
26
12
3

79
34
45
10
13

137
34
103
9
26

81
28
53
7

31
l
25
21

20
7
13
12

7

2

-

57
25
32
13
2

-

"

73
17
56

161
38
123
15

85
21
64
20

73

42

62

29

10

6

“ T 3—

— 5—
5

6

4

6

37

4 0 .0

6 6 . 00

326
94
232
98

3 9 .5
40. 0
3 9 .5
4 0 .0

7 4 .0 0
71 . 50
7 4 . 50
8 1 . 00

-

-

-

15
5
10
2

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .0

5 2 . 50
54. 50
5 2 .0 0

20
20

41
36

66
16
50

18
1
17

10
1
9

670
255
415
123

3 9 .5

_

_

l

8

-

-

1
-

-

19
11
8
-

55

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

8 8 . 00
8 6 . 50
8 9 .0 0
99. 00
8 2 . 00

-

-

-

-

-

862
228
634
146

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .5
4 0 .0

77. 00
8 0 .0 0
7 5 . 50
9 0 . 50

_

_

-

-

27
1
26

42
2
40

121
20
101
1

5

5
3

33

18
15

4
2
128
“ 35—
92

6

7

T

5—
28
14

72
28

27
17
10

44
4

~ lz

20
18

4

—

7
55

41

15
11

-

-

"

n

-

-

_

'

See footnotes at end o f table.

3
3
2

50
50
50
00
50

-

.

11
5
6
5

2
2

-

4 0 .0

!

-

_

_

165
25
140

_____________

_

0
5
0
0
0

$71.
76.
70.
87.
67.

"
1

"
_

4
4
4

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

"

34

9

8

5

4

5

29
19
-

5
5

3

1
1

3

-

-

2
2
2

_

-

6

Table A-1. Office Occupations-Continued
(A verage stra ig h t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area b asis
by industry d ivision, P ortland, O r e g .— ash . , May 1961)
W
Avebaqs
Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number

of

workers

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

$
Weekly,
Weekly j 4 0 . 00
hours
and
(Standard) (Standard) under
4 5 . 00

$
4 5 . 00

$
50. 00

$
5 5 .0 0

*
60. 00

$
65. 00

$
$
$
$
70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 8 5 .0 0

50. 00

55. 00

60. 00

65. 00

70. 00

75. 0Q

8 0 .0 0

6
6
6

31
1
30
8

27
4
23
-

43
17
26
4
9

22
4
18
4
1

23
2
21
12

7
1
6
3
"

45
23
22
4
~

45
19
26
6

8 5 .0 0

90. 00

$
9 0 .0 0

$
$
95. 00 1 0 0 .0 0

$
$
$
S
$
105. 00 1 1 0 .0 0 115. 00 120. 00 125. 00
and
"
-

95. 00 1 0 0 .0 0 105. 00 1 1 0 .0 0 115. 00 1 2 0 .0 0

125. 00

over

W omen— Continued

Switchboard op erators __________ _______ _______ ______
Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing _______________________ _____________
Public u tilit ie s 3 ________ __
—
------------------Retail trade ____
_____ — __ _____
___

191
31
160
51
25

4 0 .0
40. 0
4 0 .0
40. 0
40. 0

Switchboard o p erator-recep tion ists ______ __
__ __
Manufacturing ----__ __ __ ------------------- __ — —
-------- ----_ —
Nonmanufacturing ______ __
Public u tilit ie s 3 ____ __ _____ —
_______ _____
R etail trade __________________________________________

277
114
163
28
31

39.
39.
39.
40.
40.

5
5
5
0
0

_

.

-

-

“

-

50
00
50
00
00

_

_

-

"

36
10
26
10

35
8
27
3
6

53
27
26
8
9

_

_

_

_

_

1

“

"

1

_

!

23
3
20

23

$ 7 1 . 00
7 0 .0 0
71 . 50
84 . 50
60. 50

69 .
71 .
68.
73.
61 .

Tabulating-m achine o p erators, c la ss B ________________
Nonmanufacturing ]
----------------------------------------------------------

67
51

40. 0
40. 0

86. 50
86 . 50

~

_

Tabulating-m achine op era to rs, c la ss C

------------------------

26

40. 0

69 . 50

_

_

T ran scrib in g-m ach in e o p erators, general ------ --------Manufacturing ___ ________ — __ _________ _________
Nonmanufacturing __ _________ __ ________ ________

190
45
145

3 9 .5
40. 0
39. 5

69. 50
7 6 .0 0
67. 50

“

-

T y p ists, c la ss A ________ __ __ — __ ____ _____________
Manufacturing __________ _____ ______________ ___ —
Nonmanufacturing -------- --------------- ----------------------- ----

275
87
188

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

70. 00
76. 00
6 7 .0 0

1
2
3
4
5

_

_

-

-

4

23
23

4
-

-

4

23

1

1
1
1
-

14
1
13
9

26
18
8
3
"

15
1
14
4
_

23
2
21
21
2
2
“

10
4
6
3
■

3
1
2
“

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

.

_

6
5

15
10

8
6

20
18

4
1

7
5

2
1

2
2

~

2
2

_

10

4

5

_

1

j

_

_

_

_

_

.

_

28
3
25

22
4
18

10
5
5

48
14
34

22
8
14

6
6
“

5
1
4

3
1
2

“

“

-

-

-

-

68
17
51

66
7
59

30
9
21

42
26
16

26
14
12

!
1

12
11
1

3
2
1

_

_

.

.

-

-

-

-

-

Standard hours r efle ct the workweek for which em ployees r eceive their regular stra igh t-tim e sa la r ie s and the earnings correspond to these w eekly h ours.
W ork ers w ere distributed as follow s: 1 3 at $ 1 2 5 to $ 1 3 0 ; 9 at $ 1 3 0 to $ 1 3 5 ; 1 at $ 1 3 5 to $ 1 4 0 ; 3 at $ 1 4 0 to $ 1 4 5 .
Tran sportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities.
W ork ers w ere distributed as follow s: 3 at $ 1 2 5 to $ 1 3 0 ; 6 at $ 1 3 5 to $ 1 4 0 .
W ork ers w ere distributed as follow s: 5 at $ 1 2 5 to $ 1 3 0 ; 3 at $ 1 3 0 to $ 1 3 5 ; 2 at $ 1 3 5 to $ 1 4 0 .




1
1
-

_
-

~

7
Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations
(A verage stra ig h t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, P ortland, O r e g .—W ash. , May 1961)
Avdbaqb
Number

Sex, occupation, and industry division

of

workers

Weekly
hours1
(Standard)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

$65. 00 *70. 00 $
75. 00 $80. 00
Weekly
and
eairnings1
(Standard) under
70. 00 7 5 .0 0 80. 00 85. 00

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 1 0 0 .0 0 105. 00 n o . oo 115. 00 *20. 00 125. 00 1 3 0 .0 0 135. 00 1 4 0 .0 0 145. 00 1 5 0 .0 0
90. 00

95. 00 100. 00 1 0 5 .0 0 110. 00 115. 00 120. 00 1 2 5 .0 0 130. 00 135. 00 140. 00 145. 00 150. 00

and
over

Men

D raftsm en, senior -__________________________________________
Manufacturing --------- ----- -------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -----------------------------------------------------------Public u tilities 2 ---------------------------------------------------------

163
115
48
41

4 0 .0
40 . 0
40 . 0
40 . 0

$1 17 .5 0
116.50
120.00
121.00

■

D raftsm en , junior ----------------- ----------------------------------- —
Manufacturing ____________________________________________

77

55

40. 0
40 . 0

98 .0 0
96 .0 0

2
2

34
29

40. 0
.40. 0

8 9 .00
8 6 .00

1
1

2
2

1
1
“

“

“

-

9
9

"

3
3

10
10

4
4

2
2

2
1

-

~
4
3

6
6
-

21
21
-

~

14
10
4
4

12
9
3
3

43
20
23
16

28
25
3

14
7
7

3

1

7

13
5
8
8

“

22
15

19
12

12
10

2

3

~

1

-

3
3

3
3

1
1

3

3

1
1

Wom en

N u r se s, industrial (registered)
Manufacturing

----------------------------------------

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for. which em ployees receive their
2 Transportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities.




!
1

2

regular stra igh t-tim e salarie s and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.

2
2
-

-

■

3
3
_

"

-

"

4
4
'

-

8

Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(A verage stra ig h t-tim e hourly earningo ±or m en in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry d ivision, Portland, O r e g .— ash. , M ay 1961)
W
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Number
of
workers

O c c u p a t io n an d in d u s t r y d iv is io n

$
Average
hourly , U n d e r 2 . 10
earnings
and
$
under
2. 10
2. 20

117
57

$ 3 . 04
3 . 04

Nonmanufacturing _____________________________
Public u tilities 2 _____
__ __ __________

60
45

3 .0 3
2. 85

E le c tr ic ia n s, maintenance _______________________
Manufacturing __________________________________

305
268

3. 14
3. 16

-

E n gin ee rs, stationary ____________________________
Manufacturing ___ _________ __________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________________

269
226
43

2 .9 1
2 .9 2
2. 89

_
-

F ir e m e n , stationary b oiler ______________________
Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------------

136
115

2. 50
2 .4 8

4
4

-

H e lp e r s, tra d e s, maintenance __________________
Manufacturing __________________________________
Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------------------Public utilities 2 _______ __________________

121
85
36
32

2 .4 2
2 .4 0
2 .4 6
2 .4 2

_
-

M ach in e-tool op erators, toolroom _____________
Manufacturing _____________________ __________

39
39

2 .9 1
2 .9 1

M ach in ists, m aintenance
___ __ __ __________
Manufacturing _____
_________ ______________

204
184

3. 11
3. 12

C a r p e n t e r s , m a i n t e n a n c e ________ ________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g __________________ ________________

$
2 . 30

2 . 30

-

-

-

-

-

-

17
11

6
6

-

-

_

■

_

-

2 50

-

-

2 .4 0

$
2 .4 0

$
2. 6 0

$
2. 70

%
2 .8 0

$
2. 9 0

$
3 . 00

-

-

-

-

-

2. 60

-

12
12

-3 ..I 0

3 ,2 0 ...

-

13
13
-

5
5
-

-

-

-

_

17
17

25
25

54
40
14

16
12
4

10
10

7
7

11

27
25

35

_

40
40

11

-

-

6
6

$
3 . 30
-

3 . 30

24
7

$
3 .4 0

$
3 . 50

3 .6 0

$
3. 70

$
3. 80

$
3. 90

$
4 . 00

$
4 . 10

3 .6 0

3 .7 0

3. 80

3. 90

4 . 00

4 . 10

4 . 20

-

3 .4 0

3 . 50
1

-

-

1
-

16
5

1

1

11

-

-

-

4
_

_
_

-

17
15

-

"

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

77
77

25
25

27
27

7
6

27
27

4

_

_

_

_

"

-

-

~

-

-

34
28

45
34
11

48
48

49
40
9

10
10
"

!
1

_
-

_
-

2
2

-

.
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4
4

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

4
4

"

■

-

_

.
-

4

80
80

_

11
11
-

6
6
-

52
36
16
16

20
8
12
12

19
19
-

9
5
4
4

4
4
“

_
'

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

.
-

"

-

_

_

_

_

_

.

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

“

12
12

_

-

9
9

1

-

1
1

_

-

16
16

-

1

-

-

-

-

_

-

_

_

-

43
31

57
57

32
32

8
8

_

13
8

_

_

"

30
27

_

"

5
5

-

1Z

_

“

“ '

_
-

_

"

_
_

~

M ech an ics, m aintenance _____ __ _________ __
Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------------

525
509

2. 98
2. 98

_

-

_

5
5
"

8
8
-

38
30
8
8

63
63
63

108
87
21
21

298
35
263
212

28
22
6
6

4
4
-

16
5
11
6

_

_

■

"

40
40

113
113

17
6

41
41

73
73

56
56

100
100

42
37

_

"

7
7

_

_

_

_

_

"

-

-

11
11

26

3
3

M illw rights ______________ __ __ __ __ __ _ ___
Manufacturing ___ _________ __ ______________

178
178

3. 06
3 .0 6

O ilers ---------- --------- -------------------_ _ _
Manufacturing __ ___ _____ __ ______ __ __

68
68

2 .4 7
2 .4 7

5
5

P ainters . m aintenance _
_____
Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------------

60
47

3. 12
3. 09

_

_

_

_

-

-

"

"

2
-

-

P ip efitte rs, maintenance __ __ __ _________ ___
Manufacturing __
____________ ______________

106
105

3. 08
3 .0 8

_

_

_

_

_

39

3. 01

_

2
2

"

‘
_

2 6

“
_

_

E xcludes p rem iu m pay for overtim e and for work on w eekends, h olid ays, and late shifts,
T ransportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities.

_

_

_

-

“
_
-

-

12
10

.
-

-

"

-

_

_

_

-

-

“

-

-

_

_

_

_

"

-

-

-

16
16

*

_
-

-

_
-

..
-

.
-

-

7
7
7

_
-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

~

*

_

-

_

36
36

_

_

.

.

-

-

-

_

"
_
-

8
8

22
22

.

_

.

1

127
127

_
-

"

-

-

8
8

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

■

“

_

_

"

"

-

■

-

2
1

1
1

6
6

21
21

6
6

7
2

2
2

4 ’
2

2
-

1

.

-

2
2

-

_

_

64
64

14
14

14
14

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

■

10
9

_

"

~

■

"

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

25

2

_

_

_

. _

_

.

_

.

.

18
18

1
1

1
1

_
~

13
13

4
4
4
4

_

9

_

J

“

-

-

_




12
-

12
12

3 . 00

-

10
"

2 .8 8
2 .8 3
2 .9 1
2 .9 0

______

18
6

2 .9 0

$
3 . 20

6
6

587
192
395
333

____

2. 80

-

4
4

M ech an ics, autom otive (maintenance) _________
.Manufacturing ______________ __________________
Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------------------Public u tilit ie s 2 ------------- __ __ ___________

S h e et-m e tal w o rk ers, m aintenance

2. 70

%
3 . 10

_
-

-

_
-

$
2 . 50
-

$
2 . 20

1

_

_

3

“

_

.

9
Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(A verage stra ig h t-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Portland, O r e g .— ash . , May 1961)
W
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

Num
ber
of
w
orkers

Occupation1 and industry division

Average
hourly
earnings

$
Under 1. 20 $ 30
1.
and
$
under
1 .2 0
1 .3 0
1 .4 0

$
1. 50

$
1. 60

$ 70
1.

$ 80
1.

90

1. 00

$
2. 10

$2. 20

$
2. 30

$
2. 40

$
2. 50

$
2. 60

$
2. 70

$ 80
2.

1 . 90

$
3. 00

1. 50

1. 60

1 .7 0

1. 80

1 .9 0

2. 00

2. 10

2. 20

2. 30

2 .4 0

2. 50

2. 60

2. 70

2. 80

2. 90

3. 00

3. 10

23
23

4
4

.

.

65
2
63
40

24
1
23
16

48
31
17
5
5

144
42
102
18
32

96
27
69
33
31

255
42
213
127

124
26
98
40
-

79
69
10
5
1

163
143
20
7
1

13
7
6
6
-

60
44
16
1

-

8
5
3
3

1 .6 3
1 .6 2
1 .6 3

7
7

7
7

16
12
4

23
23
22

32
32
1

51
5l
47

8

44
44

"

-

~

14
9
9

5
1
1

-

-

-

-

1, 561
727
834
418

2.
2.
2.
2.

36
27
43
52

.
-

1
1

.
-

4
4

4
4

8
8

46
39
7

17
10
7

25
25
-

24
20
4

92
60
32
1

366
364
2

312
41
271
29

196
19
177
128

Order fille r s ______________________ _____________
Manufacturing __________ ____________________
Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------------Retail trade ____________________ _________

831
115
716
149

2.
2.
2.
2.

38
40
38
38

-

-

'

1

3
3
-

2
2

-

-

"

15
3
12
2

4
4
4

16
4
12
12

47
34
13
3

3
3
3

20
8
12
-

379
12
367
8

P ack ers, shipping _______________________ ______
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________

315
298

2. 39
2. 42

2

13

.

2
I

7
6

-

Elevator op erators, p assen ger (women)

_____

66
66

$ 1 . 34
1. 34

39
9

--------- ---------------------------

31

2 .4 1

.

Janitors, p o rte rs, and clean ers (men) _______
Manufacturing _________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------------Public u tilities 4 ___________________________
Retail trade ________________________________

1, 127
480
647
115
256

1. 88
2. 02
1. 78
1 .8 8
1 .6 8

-

Janitors, p orte rs, and clean ers (women) ____
^numamifartiiring
Public u tilities 4 __________________________

207
186
84

L a b o re rs, m a teria l handling __________________
Manufacturing ______________ _________________
Nonmanufacturing ______ ____________________
PiiKli r ntili+ipfi ^

20
20

$ 40
1.

Guards

----------------------------

R eceiving clerk s
_______________________________
Manufacturing _________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________
R etail trade __________________ __________ ____

163
82
81
30

2 .4 8
2. 53
2. 42
2. 27

.
"

Shipping clerk s ------------------------ — -------------------Manufacturing _________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________

151
67
84

2. 50
2. 53
2. 48

-

Shipping and receiving clerk s _________________
Manufacturing _________________________________
Nonmanufacturing _________________ __

179
83
96

2. 57
2 .6 6
2 .4 9

_

4

1
1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6
6
-

-

-

-

-

_

.

_

_

6

_

-

-

1
1
-

2
2
-

8

4

2




3. 20

3. 30

7

48
41
7
-

-

-

_

_

_
_

-

-

-

"

-

-

-

-

-

363
132
231
214

52
2
50
36

40
4
36
10

11
" ii
-

242
242
94

42
3
39
15

7
4
3
3

34
28
6
5

188
166

9
9

94
94

-

-

31
24
7
3

12
6
6
5

51
2
49
3

6

.
_
.

_
_
_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

_
_

_
_

16
ns
.

-

-

_
_

_

-

-

-

~

-

~

-

-

10
6
4
4

_
-

9
9
-

6
o
-

4
4
-

2
2
_

6
6
_

~

-

*

*

-

-

9
.9
-

8
3
5

1
1

12
12
-

-

_

-

23
23

1
1

.
-

1
1

_
-

8
8

7
7
-

6
4
2
2

14
3
11
11

2
1
1

3
3

13
5
8

l
l

-

24
24

-

“

-

70
3
67

2
2

_

_

_

_

_

32
12
20

7
1
6

70
22
48

31
15
16

-

6

.

-

See footnotes at end of table.
N O TE :

20

10
10

1
1
1

-

10

%.

Wage negotiations involving se v era l m aterial m ovem ent jobs in a number of establishm ents w ere still in p roce ss
of com pletion of the su rvey.
R esults of the negotiations are not reflected in the rates shown.

at the time

'

_
_

-

-

10
Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations-Continued
(A verage stra igh t-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area b asis
by industry division, P ortland, O r e g .—W ash. , May 1961)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
O ccupation1 and industry division

T r u c k d r iv e r s5 -------------------- ---------------------------------Manufacturing ___________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ---------------------------------------------Public u tilities 4 ------------------------------------------R etail trade ---------------------------------------------------

Num
ber
of
w
orkers

2 .7 6 0
623
2, 137
1 ,6 3 0
248

T ru ck d rivers, light (under \ l h tons) ________
Manufacturing _____________________ __ ------

215
48

T ru ck d rivers, m edium ( 1 V 2 to
and including 4 tons) — ------------------------------Manufacturing ------ -------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ---------------------------------------Public u tilit ie s 4 ------------- ----------------- _
Retail trade -------------------------------------

1. 320
154
1, 166
1, 080
49

T ru ck d rivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
tra ile r type) ___ _______________________________
Manufacturing --------------------------- __ -----------Nonmanufacturing ---------------------------------------Public u tilities 4 --------------------------------------

$
$
$
$
Average
hourly , Under 1. 20
1 .4 0
1. 50
1. 30
w rn g
a in s
and
$
under
1. 20
1 .4 0 -I x l f l - 1.6 0L-30

$2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

61
69
59
56
61

-

-

-

-

“

6
6
6

“

$
1 .6 0

$
1. 70

$
1. 80

$
1 .9 0

$
2. 00

$
2. 10

$
2. 20

$
2. 30

1 .7 0

1. 80

1 .9 0

2. 00

2. 10

2. 20

2. 30

5
5
-

-

-

•

5
5

.

-

6
*

.

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

•

-

_

2 .4 1
2. 23

6
3
3
3

12
12
•

3. 20

389
89
300
224
70

i4 4 6
83
1363
1339
24

93
39
54
36
1

381
99
282
18
120

118
46
72
6

88
88
_
-

58
58
_

-

-

129
12

9

10
-

-

2
2
2

239
14
225
219
“

886
12
874
850
24

14
14
6

-

29
14
15
-

20
20
-

1
1
-

~

■

•

5
5
“

•

'

■

-

■

-

-

-

“

"

“

80
75
5

-

1

-

2
~

~

“

39
59
“

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

■

"

■

“

■

T ru ck ers, power (forklift) ___
_______________
Manufacturing ___________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ---------------------------------------------Public u tilities 4 ____________________________

683
403
280
132

2 .4 7
2 .4 2
2. 53
2 .4 9

.

_

"

“

“

"

5
5
“

“

10
10
“

8
8
-

~

"

T ru ck ers, power (other than
forklift) ________,._________ _____
_______________
Manufacturing _
— —--------------------------- - —

58
56

2 .4 7
2 .4 7

_

_

_

_

_

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

177
100

1 .9 7
1 .9 7
1 .9 7
2. 13

_
-

1
1
-

_
-

16
16
8

29
29
-




3. 10

-

-

Data lim ited to m en w orkers except where otherw ise indicated.
E xcludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on w eekends, h olidays, and late sh ifts.
A ll w orkers w ere at $ 1 to $ 1. 10.
Transportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities.
Includes a ll d riv ers r eg a rd le ss of size and type of truck operated.

3. 00

5

-

1
2
3
4
5

2. 90

18
12

2 .7 1
2. 56

48

2 .8 0

8
8

328
203

8
8
4

2 .7 0

12

■

T ru ck d rivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
other than tra iler type) ______________________
Nonmanufacturing — ----------------------------

6
1
5

2. 60

7
7

"

-

2. 50

6
3

-

7

2 .4 0

■

“

7

$
2. 90

.

'

77

$
2. 80

20
12
8
6
2

2 .6 9
2. 67
2 .6 9
2. 59

Watchmen — — _ — ------ ---------------------------------Manufacturing ----- ------------- ------------------- —
Nonmanufacturing __ __ ____________ __ __
Public u tilit ie s 4 _
--------------- -------- — -

$
2. 70

11
11
-

851
275
576
308

-

$
2 .6 0

32
20
12
6

_
_
-

_

$
2. 50

30
14
16
1
'

56
64
55
55
62

2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

2 .4 0

%

.

1
.

13
3
10
2

25
21
4

30
30
-

14
5
9
9

56
38
18
6
7

1

$

3. 00

$
$
3. 10 3. 20
3. 30

—

9
r
3
_
3

-

39
34
5
-

6
6
-

42
42
_

_
_
_

_
_
_

-

37
6
31
3
25

“

-

-

-

-

300
34
266
266

55
24
31
30

305
92
213
6

13
13
6

75
30
45
“

6
6
“

10
10
■

7
4
3

.65
65

131
106

-

27
27

~

12
4

40
-

48
-

2

~

142
125
17
8

181
55
126
120

176
77
99
4

77
41
36

9
7
2

8
8
-

-

~

~

8
8
-

■

"

“

“

■

24
22

16
16

10
10

6
6

-

_

2
2

_

_

_

-

-

-

23
23
23

3
3
-

2
2
2

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_

_

-

-

11

Appendix*.

Occupational Descriptions

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to a ssist its
field staff in classifyin g into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and frdm area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field econom ists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers,
part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.
O F F IC E
BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statements, b ills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerica l work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
cla ssified by type of machine, as follow s:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.

Biller, machine (billing machine)— U ses a special billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, e tc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of predetermihed discounts and shipping charges and entry ot necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon cop ies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.

Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine) — Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, e tc ., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers*
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types of sales and
credit slips.




Class A — Keeps a set o f records requiring a knowledge o f
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance
sheets, and other records by hand.
Class B— Keeps a record o f one or more phases or section s of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping.
Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type o f billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, ptc. May check or a ssist in preparation o f trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.
CLERK, ACCOUNTING

Class A— Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more section s o f a com ­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase o f an establish­
ment's business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

12

C L E R K , A C C O U N T IN G — C ontinued

payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper a c ­
counting distribution; requires judgment and experience in making
proper assignations and allocation s. May a ssist in preparing, ad­
justing and closin g journal entries; may direct cla ss B accounting
clerks.
C lass B— Under supervision, performs one or more routine a c ­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or a c ­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data. This
job does not require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping
principles but is found in offices in which the more routine account­
ing work is subdivided on a functional basis among several workers.

CLERK, PAYROLL

Computes wages o f company employees and enters the n e ce s­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers*
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker's name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and a ssist paymaster in making up and distribut­
ing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.
COM PTOM ETER O P E R A TO R

Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

C L E R K , F IL E

Class A — In an established filing system containing a num­
ber of varied subject matter file s , cla ss ifie s and indexes corres­
pondence or other material; may also file this material. May keep
records of various types in conjunction with files or may super­
vise others in filing and locating material in the file s . May per­
form incidental clerical duties.
C lass B— Performs routine filing, usually of material that has
already been cla ssified or which is ea sily identifiable, or locates
or a ssists in locating material in file s . May perform incidental
clerica l duties.

CLER K , ORDER

R eceives customers* orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination o f the follow ing:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; distributing order sheets to respective departments to be filled .
May check with credit department to determine credit rating of customer,
acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders to see
that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check ship­
ping invoices with original orders..




D U P L IC A T IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R (M IM E O G R A P H O R D I T T O )

Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
b ilities, reproduces multiple cop ies o f typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare sten cil or Ditto master. May keep file of used stencils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

KEYPUNCH O PER ATO R

Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
b ilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards by
punching a series of holes in the cards in a sp ecified sequence, using
an alphabetical or a numerical keypunch machine, following written in­
formation on records. May duplicate cards by using the duplicating de­
v ice attached to machine. May keep files of punch cards. May verify
own work or work of others.
O F F IC E B O Y O R G IR L

Performs various routine duties such as running errands, op­
erating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and
distributing mailj and other minor clerica l work.

13

SECRETARY

Performs secretarial and clerica l duties for a superior in an ad­
ministrative or executive position. Duties include making appointments
for superior; receiving people coming into o ffice ; answering and making
phone ca lls; handling personal and important or confidential mail, and
writing routine correspondence on own initiative; taking dictation (where
transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded information
reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare special reports or
memorandums for information of superior.
STEN O G R APH ER , G E N E R A L

Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a nor­
mal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter.
May also type from written copy. May a lso set up and keep files in or­
der, keep simple records, etc. D oes not include transcribing-machine
work (see transcribing-machine operator).
STE N O G R A P H E R , T E C H N IC A L

Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a varied
technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on
scientific research and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter. May
also type from written copy. May also set up and keep file s in order,
keep simple records, etc. D oes not include transcribing-machine work.
SW IT C H B O A R D O P E R A T O R

Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or o ffice ca lls .
May record toll ca lls and take m essages. May give information to per­
sons who ca ll in, or occasion ally take telephone orders. For workers
who also act as receptionists see switchboard operator-receptionist.
SW IT C H B O A R D O P E R A T O R -R E C E P T IO N IS T

In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single p o si­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may a lso type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. This typing
or clerica l work may take the major part o f this worker's time while at
switchboard.




T A B U L A T IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R

Class A— Operates a variety of tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignments without clo se supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating sequences of long and complex reports.
Does not include working supervisors performing tabulating-machine
operations anc? day-to-day supervision of the work and production of
a group of tabulating-machine operators.
Class B— Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter,,reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under
sp e cific instructions and may include the performance of some wir­
ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but
small tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are well established. May a lso include the training
of new employees in the basic operation of the machine.
Class C— Operates simple tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with sp e cific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions o f' a
work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs, or re­
petitive operations.
T R A N S C R IB IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R , G E N E R A L

Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May a lso type from written
copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation in­
volving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal briefs
or reports on scien tific research are not included. A worker who takes
dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is cla ssified
as a stenographer general.

14

T Y P I S T — C ontinued

T Y P IS T

Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to make
ouc bills after calculations have been made by another person. May in­
clude typing of sten cils, mats, or similar materials for use in duplicat­
ing p rocesses. May do clerica l work involving little sp ecia l training,
such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting
and distributing incoming mail.

tuation, etc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; planning layout and typing of complicated statistical tables
to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine
form letters varying details to suit circum stances.
Class B— Performs one or more o f the follow ing: Copy typing
fromroughor clear drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance p o licie s,
e tc.; setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying more com­
plex tables already set up and spaced properly.

Class A ~ Performs one or more o f the following : Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punc-

P R O

F E S S I O

N

A L

D R A F T S M A N , JU N IO R

(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.
DRAFTSM AN, L E A D E R

Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration of working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Duties
involve a combination o f the follow ing: Interpreting blueprints, sketches,
and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures; assigning
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problems. May a ssist subordinates during emergencies or as a
regular assignment, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
ministrative nature.

A N D

T E C H

N

I C A

L

D R A F T S M A N , S E N IO R — Continued

involved in strength of materials, beams and trusses; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quantities;
writing specification s; making adjustments or changes in drawings or
specification s. May ink in lines and letters on pencil drawings, prepare
detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings. Work is frequently
in a specialized field such as architectural, electrical, mechanical, or
structural drafting.
N U R S E , IN D U S T R IA L (R E G IS T E R E D )

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combina
tion o f the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing or em ployees’ injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants
and employees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.

-

D R A F T S M A N , S E N IO R
t r a c e r

Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
p oses. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Preparing work­
ing plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-section s, e tc., to sca le by use
o f drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as those




Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. Uses
T-square, com pass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

15

M AINTENANCE

D PO W E R PL A N T

C A R P E N T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E

F IR E M A N , S T A T IO N A R Y B O IL E R

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’ s handtools, portable
power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; selecting materials n ec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or a ssist in repairing boilerroom equipment.

E L E C T R I C I A N , M A IN T E N A N C E

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, d is­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
o f electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specification s; locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c ­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; using a variety of
electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In gen­
eral, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.
E N G IN E E R , S T A T IO N A R Y

Operates and maintains and may a lso supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, motors »
turbines, ventilating apd refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a record of
operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May also
supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establishments
employing more than one engineer are excluded.




H E L P E R , T R A D E S , M A IN T E N A N C E

A ssists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing sp e cific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are a lso performed by workers on a full-time basis.
M A C H IN E -T O O L O P E R A T O R , T O O L R O O M

Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools, gauges,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most o f the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items reauiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety or pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making necessary adjustments during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-topl operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classification .
M A C H IN IST , M A IN T E N A N C E

Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Interpreting written instructions and
specification s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
chinist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and

16

M A C H IN IST , M A IN T E N A N C E — Continued

M IL L W R IG H T — C ontinued

operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to clo se toler­
ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assembling parts into me­
chanical equipment. In general, the m achinist's work normally requires
a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

are required. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specification s; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment, and parts
to be used; installing and maintaining in good order power transmission
equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the mill­
wright's work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

M E C H A N IC , A U T O M O T IV E (M A IN T E N A N C E )

Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an e s ­
tablishment. Work involves most o f the following: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassem bling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in disassem bling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assem blies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; alining wheels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work o f the automotive
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
M E C H A N IC , M A IN T E N A N C E

Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves most o f the following : Examining machines and mechan­
ica l equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly d is­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replace­
ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop
for major repairs; preparing written specification s for major repairs or
fo r the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling ma­
ch ines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In general,
the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this cla ssifica tion are workers
w h ose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.
MILLW RIGHT

Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
in s ta lls machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout




O IL E R

Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.
P A IN T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E

Paints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, o ils , white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper
color or con sistency. In general, the work of the maintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
P I P E F I T T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E

Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other written specification s; cutting various size s of pipe to correct
lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with stocks and d ies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to pressures,
flow , arid size of pipe required; making standard tests to determine
whether finished pipes meet specifications* In general, the work of the
maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building
sanitation or heating system s are excluded.

17

T O O L A N D D IE M A K E R

P L U M B E R , M A IN T E N A N C E

Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake. In
general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.
S H E E T -M E T A L W O R K ER , M A IN T E N A N C E

Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) o f an
establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, models,
or other specification s; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; installing sheetmetal articles as required. In general, the work of the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

C U S T O

D

I A L

A N D

M

(Diemaker; jig maker; toolmaker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most o f the following: Planning and laying out of work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specification s;
using a variety of tool and die maker’ s handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding of the working properties of common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
o f work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to clo s e tolerances; fitting and assembling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selecting appropriate
materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die maker’ s
work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this cla ssifica tion .

A T E R I A L

M

O V E M

E N T

E L E V A T O R O P E R A T O R , PASSENGER

J A N IT O R , P O R T E R , O R C L E A N E R — C ontinued

Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Workers
who specialize in window washing are excluded.

GUARD

Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity o f employees and
other persons entering.
J A N IT O R , P O R T E R , O R C L E A N E R

(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office , apartment house, or commercial




L A B O R E R , M A T E R IA L H A N D L IN G

(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more o f the follow­
ing: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or

18

L A B O R E R , M A T E R IA L H A N D L IN G — .Continued

S H IP P IN G A N D R E C E IV IN G C L E R K — C ontinued

from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting d evices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; trans­
porting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.

For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssifie d as follow s:

Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded.

Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk

ORDER F IL L E R

(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specification s on sales slips, customers9
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating items filled or omitted, keep records o f outgoing orders, requisi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.

Receiving clerk

T R U C K D R IV E R

Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of estab­
lishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers* houses or places of business. May a lso load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers
are excluded.

P A C K E R , SH IP P IN G

Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the sp ecific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, siz e , and number o f units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing o f items in shipping containers and may involve one or more o f
the following: Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify
content; selection of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closin g and sealing container; applying labels or
entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make wooden
boxes or crates are excluded.
S H IP P IN G A N D R E C E IV IN G C L E R K

Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­
sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Shipping
work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes,
available means of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or a ssist in
preparing the merchandise for shipment. Receiving work involves: Veri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipments against
bills of lading, in v oices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing merchandise or materials to proper de­
partments; maintaining necessary records and file s .




For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are cla ssified by size
and type o f equipment, as follow s: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis o f trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver (combination o f siz e s listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under lV2 ton s)
Truckdriver, medium (1% to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)
T R U C K E R , POW ER

Operates a manually controlled ga solin e- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssifie d by type of
truck, as follow s:
Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)
W ATC H M AN

Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.
☆ U .S . G O V E R N M E N T P R IN T IN G O F F I C E : 1961 O - 6 0 2647


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102