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Occupational Wage Survey
PROVIDENCE-PAWTUCKET,
RHODE ISLAND-MASSACHUSETTS
MAY 1961

Bulletin No. 1285-70




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




Bureau off Labor Statistics R eg ion al Offffices

Occupational Wage Survey
PROVIDENCE-PAWTUCKET, RHODE ISLAND-MASSACHUSETTS




MAY 1961

Bulletin No. 1285-70
July 1961

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner
For solo by H»o Suporintondont of Documents, U.S. Govommont Printing O ffice, Washington 25, D.C. - Prieo

25 conts




Contents

Preface

Page
The Community Wage Survey Program

Tables:
1.
2.

Establishments and workers within scope of survey __________
Indexes of standard weekly salaries and straight-tim e
hourly earnings for selected occupational groups, and
percents of increase for selected periods ____________________

B:

Establishment practices and supplementary wage
provisions: *
B -l.
Shift differentials __________________________________________
B -2 . Minimum entrance salaries for women office
workers ____________________________________________________
B -3 .
Scheduled weekly hours ___________________________________
B -4 .
Paid holidays _______________________________________________
B -5 .
Paid vacations ________________
B -6 .
Health, insurance,and pension plans _____________________

Appendix:

Occupational descriptions

___________________________________

* NOTE: Sim ilar tabulations are available in the Providence—
Pawtucket area reports for December 1951 and 1952, and
March 1956 and I960.
Most of the reports also include data
on these or related establishment practices and supplementary
wage provisions.
A directory indicating date of study and the
price of the reports, as well as reports for other m ajor
areas, is available upon request.
A current report on occupational earnings and sup­
plementary wage practices in the Providence—Pawtucket area
is also available for power laundries and dry cleaners (April
I960) and banking (June I960).
Union scales, indicative of
prevailing pay le v els, are available for the following trades
or industries:
Building construction, printing, local-tra n sit
operating em ployees, and m otortruck drivers and helpers.

in

3

oo c>

Occupational earnings: *
A - 1. Office occupations ______________________________
A - 2. P rofessional and technical occupations _______
A - 3. Maintenance and powerplant occupations _____
A -4 . Custodial and m aterial movement occupations

3

n

A:

This report was prepared in the Bureau’ s regional
office in Boston, M a ss. , by Leo Epstein, under the d ire c­
tion of Paul V. Mulkern, A ssistant Regional Director for
Wages and Industrial Relations.




1
4

in

The Bureau of Labor Statistics regularly conducts
areawide wage surveys in a number of important industrial
centers.
The studies, made from late fall to early spring,
relate to occupational earnings and related supplementary
benefits.
A prelim inary report is available on completion
of the study in each area, usually in the month following
the payroll period studied.
This bulletin provides addi­
tional data not included in the earlier report.
A con soli­
dated analytical bulletin summ arizing the results of all of
the year*s surveys is issued after completion of the final
area bulletin for the current round of surveys.

Introduction ________________________________________________________________
Wage trends for selected occupational groups _________________________

11
12
13
14
15
17
19




Occupational W age Survey—Providence-Pawtucket, R. I.-Mass
Introduction

T his a r e a is one o f s e v e r a l im p orta n t in d u s tr ia l c e n te rs in
w h ich the U. S. D ep a rtm en t o f L a b o r ’ s B u rea u o f L a b o r S ta tistic s has
con d u cted s u r v e y s o f o c cu p a tio n a l ea rn in g s and r e la te d w age b e n e fits
on an a r e a w id e b a s i s . In this a r e a , data w e r e obtain ed b y p e r s o n a l
v is it s o f B u reau fie ld e c o n o m is t s
to r e p r e s e n t a t iv e e s ta b lis h m e n ts
w ith in six b r o a d in d u str y d iv is io n s :
M a n u fa ctu rin g; tr a n s p o rta tio n , 1
c o m m u n ic a tio n , and o th e r p u b lic u tilitie s ; w h o le s a le tra d e; r e ta il
tr a d e ; fin a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e sta te ; and s e r v i c e s . M a jo r in ­
d u s tr y g ro u p s e x clu d e d fr o m th ese stu d ies a r e g o v e r n m e n t o p e r a tio n s
and the c o n s tr u c tio n and e x tr a c tiv e in d u s tr ie s . E s ta b lis h m e n ts h aving
fe w e r than a p r e s c r i b e d n u m b er o f w o r k e r s a r e om itted a ls o b e c a u s e
th ey fu rn is h in s u ffic ie n t e m p lo y m e n t in the o c cu p a tio n s stu d ied to w a r ­
ran t in c lu s io n . W h e r e v e r p o s s ib le , se p a r a te tabu la tion s a r e p r o v id e d
f o r e a ch o f the b r o a d in d u stry d iv is io n s .
T h e se s u r v e y s a r e con d u cted on a sa m p le b a s is b e c a u s e o f the
u n n e c e s s a r y c o s t in v o lv e d in s u r v e y in g a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts . To obtain
a p p r o p r ia te a c c u r a c y at m in im u m c o s t , a g r e a te r p r o p o r t io n o f la rg e
than o f s m a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts is stu d ied . In co m b in in g the data, h o w ­
e v e r , a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts a r e g iven th e ir a p p ro p r ia te w eigh t. E s tim a te s
b a s e d on the e sta b lis h m e n ts studied a r e p r e s e n te d , t h e r e fo r e , as r e ­
la tin g to a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts in the in d u stry g rou p in g and a r e a ,
ex­
ce p t f o r th ose b e lo w the m in im u m s iz e stu d ied.
O ccu p a tion s and E a rn in gs
The o c cu p a tio n s s e le c t e d fo r study a r e c o m m o n to a v a r ie ty
o f m a n u fa ctu rin g and n on m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s tr ie s . O ccu p a tion a l c l a s ­
s ific a t io n is b a se d on a u n ifo r m set o f jo b d e s c r ip tio n s d esig n ed to
take a cco u n t o f in te r e s ta b lis h m e n t v a r ia tio n in du ties w ith in the sa m e
jo b . (See a p pen dix fo r lis tin g o f th ese d e s c r ip t io n s . ) E a rn in gs data a re
p r e s e n te d (in the A - s e r i e s ta b le s ) fo r the fo llo w in g ty p es o f o c c u p a ­
tio n s : (a) O ffice c l e r i c a l ; (b) p r o fe s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l; (c ) m a in te ­
n an ce and p ow erp la n t; and (d) c u s to d ia l and m a te r ia l m o v e m e n t.

late sh ifts .
N on p rod u ction b o n u s e s a r e ex clu d ed a ls o , but c o s t - o f liv in g b o n u se s and in ce n tiv e e a rn in g s a r e in clu d ed .
W h ere w e e k ly
h o u rs a r e r e p o r t e d , as f o r o ffic e c l e r i c a l o c c u p a tio n s , r e fe r e n c e is
to the w o r k sc h e d u le s (rou n ded to the n e a r e s t h a lf h ou r) f o r w h ich
s t r a ig h t -tim e s a la r ie s a r e paid; a v e r a g e w e e k ly ea rn in g s fo r th ese
o c cu p a tio n s have b een roun ded to the n e a r e s t h a lf d o lla r .
A v e r a g e ea rn in g s o f m en and w om en a r e p r e s e n te d s e p a r a te ly
fo r s e le c t e d o c cu p a tio n s in w h ich both s e x e s a r e c o m m o n ly e m p lo y e d .
D iffe r e n c e s in pay le v e ls o f m en and w om en in th ese o c cu p a tio n s a r e
la r g e ly due to ( l ) d iffe r e n c e s in the d is tr ib u tio n of the s e x e s am ong
in d u str ie s and e s ta b lis h m e n ts ; (2) d iffe r e n c e s in s p e c if i c duties p e r ­
fo r m e d , although the o c cu p a tio n s a r e a p p r o p r ia te ly c la s s ifie d w ithin
the sa m e s u r v e y jo b d e s c r ip tio n ; and (3) d iffe r e n c e s in length of s e r v ­
ic e o r m e r it r e v ie w w hen in div id u al s a la r ie s a r e a d ju sted on this b a s is .
L o n g e r a v e r a g e s e r v ic e o f m en w ould r e s u lt in h ig h e r a v e r a g e pay
w hen both s e x e s a r e e m p lo y e d w ith in the sa m e rate ra n ge.
Job
d e s c r ip tio n s u sed in c la s s ify in g e m p lo y e e s in th ese su r v e y s a r e u s u ­
a lly m o r e g e n e r a liz e d than th ose u sed in in dividu al e sta b lis h m e n ts to
a llo w f o r m in o r d iffe r e n c e s am on g e s ta b lis h m e n ts in s p e c ifi c duties
p e r fo r m e d .
O ccu p a tion a l e m p lo y m e n t e s tim a te s r e p r e s e n t the total in a ll
e sta b lis h m e n ts w ithin the s c o p e o f the study and not the n u m b er a c tu ­
a lly su r v e y e d . B e c a u se of d iffe r e n c e s in o c cu p a tio n a l s tru c tu re am ong
e s ta b lis h m e n ts , the e s tim a te s o f o ccu p a tio n a l em p lo y m e n t obtained
fr o m the sa m p le o f e s ta b lis h m e n ts stud ied s e r v e on ly to in d ica te the
r e la t iv e im p o rta n ce o f the jo b s stu d ied.
T h e se d iffe r e n c e s in o c c u ­
p a tion a l s tru c tu re do n ot m a t e r ia lly a ffe c t the a c c u r a c y o f the e a r n ­
ings data.
E s ta b lis h m e n t P r a c t ic e s and S u p p lem en ta ry W age P r o v is io n s

In form a tion is p r e s e n te d a ls o (in the B - s e r i e s ta b le s ) on s e ­
le c te d e sta b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and su p p le m e n ta ry b e n e fits as they r e ­
late to o ffic e and plant w o r k e r s .
The te r m " o f f i c e w o r k e r s , " as u sed
O ccu p a tion a l e m p lo y m e n t and e a rn in g s data a r e show n fo r
in this b u lle tin , in clu d es w ork in g s u p e r v is o r s and n o n s u p e r v is o r y
fu ll-t im e w o r k e r s , i. e. , th ose h ire d to w o r k a r e g u la r w e e k ly s c h e d ­
w o r k e r s p e r fo r m in g c l e r i c a l o r r e la te d fu n c tio n s, and e x clu d e s a d m in ­
u le in the g iv en o c cu p a tio n a l c la s s ific a t io n .
E a rn in g s data ex clu d e
is t r a t iv e , e x e c u tiv e , and p r o fe s s io n a l p e r s o n n e l. "P la n t w o r k e r s " in ­
p r e m iu m pay fo r o v e r t im e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and
clu d e w ork in g fo r e m e n and a il n o n s u p e r v is o r y w o r k e r s (in clu din g le a d m en and tr a in e e s ) en gaged in n o n o ffic e fu n c tio n s.
A d m in is tr a tiv e ,
1
R a ilr o a d s , fo r m e r l y e x clu d e d fr o m the s c o p e o f th e se stu d iee x e c u tiv e , and p r o fe s s io n a l e m p lo y e e s , and f o r c e - a c c o u n t c o n s tr u c tio n
s,
e m p lo y e e s w ho a re u tiliz e d as a se p a ra te w o rk f o r c e a re e x clu d e d .
w e r e in clu d ed in a ll o f the a r e a s stu d ied s in c e July 1959, e x c e p t B a lti­
C a fe te r ia w o r k e r s and ro u te m e n a r e ex clu d e d in m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s­
m o r e (S e p te m b e r 1959 and D e c e m b e r I9 6 0 ), B u ffa lo (O c to b e r 1959^,
t r i e s , but a r e in clu d ed as plant w o r k e r s in n on m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s tr ie s .
C le v e la n d (S e p te m b e r 1959), and S eattle (A u gu st 1959).




2
Shift d iffe r e n t ia l data (ta ble B - l ) a r e lim ite d to m a n u fa ctu rin g
in d u s tr ie s .
T h is in fo rm a tio n is p r e s e n te d both in te r m s o f (a) e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t p o l i c y , 2 p r e s e n te d in te r m s o f tota l plant w o r k e r e m p lo y ­
m en t, and (b) e ffe c t iv e p r a c t ic e , p r e s e n te d on the b a s is o f w o r k e r s
a ctu a lly e m p lo y e d on the s p e c ifie d sh ift at the tim e o f the su r v e y .
In e sta b lis h m e n ts having v a r ie d d iffe r e n t ia ls , the am ount a p plyin g to
a m a jo r it y w as u se d o r , if no am ount a p p lied to a m a jo r it y , the c l a s ­
s ific a tio n " o t h e r 1 w as u sed .
’
In esta b lis h m e n ts in w h ich s o m e la t e sh ift h o u rs a r e p a id at n o r m a l r a te s , a d iffe r e n t ia l w as r e c o r d e d on ly
if it a p p lied to a m a jo r it y o f the sh ift h o u r s.

M in im u m en tra n ce ra tes (ta ble B -2 ) r e la te on ly to the e s t a b ­
lis h m e n ts v is it e d .
T h ey a r e p r e s e n te d on an e sta b lis h m e n t, ra th er
than on an e m p lo y m e n t b a s is .
P a id h o lid a y s ; p a id v a c a tio n s ; and
h ealth, in s u r a n ce , and p e n s io n plans a r e tr e a te d s t a t is t ic a lly on the
b a s is that th ese a r e a p p lic a b le to a ll plant o r o ffic e w o r k e r s if a m a ­
jo r it y o f su ch w o r k e r s a r e e lig ib le o r m a y ev en tu a lly q u a lify f o r the
p r a c t ic e s lis te d . S ch ed u led h ou rs a r e tr e a te d s t a t is t ic a lly on the b a s is
that th e se a r e a p p lic a b le to a ll plant o r o ffic e w o r k e r s i f a m a jo r it y
a r e c o v e r e d . 3 B e c a u s e o f roun din g, su m s o f in d iv id u a l ite m s in th ese
ta bu la tion s m a y not equ al to ta ls .
The f ir s t p a rt o f the p a id h olid a y s ta b le p r e s e n ts the n u m ­
b e r o f w hole and h a lf h o lid a y s a ctu a lly p r o v id e d .
The s e c o n d p a rt
c o m b in e s w hole and h a lf h olid a y s to sh ow tota l h o lid a y t im e .

D ata a r e p r e s e n te d f o r a ll h ealth, in s u r a n c e , and p e n sio n
p la n s f o r w h ich at le a s t a p a r t o f the c o s t is b o r n e b y the e m p lo y e r ,
e x ce p tin g on ly le g a l r e q u ire m e n ts su ch as w o r k m e n ^ c o m p e n sa tio n ,
s o c ia l s e c u r it y , and r a ilr o a d r e tir e m e n t.
Such p la n s in clu d e th ose
u n d erw ritten by a c o m m e r c i a l in s u r a n ce c om p a n y and th o se p r o v id e d
th rou gh a union fund o r p a id d ir e c t ly b y the e m p lo y e r out o f c u r re n t
o p e r a tin g funds o r fr o m a fund s e t a s id e f o r th is p u r p o s e .
D eath
b en e fits a r e in clu d ed as a fo r m o f life in s u r a n c e .
S ick n e ss and a c c id e n t in s u r a n ce is lim ite d to that type o f in ­
su r a n ce u n der w h ich p r e d e te r m in e d c a s h p a ym en ts a r e m a d e d ir e c t ly
to the in su r e d on a w eek ly o r m on th ly b a s is d u rin g illn e s s o r a c c id e n t
d is a b ilit y .
In fo rm a tio n is p r e s e n te d f o r a ll su ch p la n s to w h ich the
e m p lo y e r c o n trib u te s .
H o w e v e r , in N ew Y o rk and N ew J e r s e y , w h ich
have en a cted te m p o r a r y d is a b ilit y in s u r a n ce la w s w h ich r e q u ir e e m ­
p lo y e r c o n t r ib u t io n s ,4 plan s a r e in clu d e d o n ly if the e m p lo y e r (1) c o n ­
tr ib u te s m o r e than is le g a lly r e q u ir e d , o r (2) p r o v id e s the e m p lo y e e
w ith b e n e fits w h ich e x c e e d the r e q u ire m e n ts o f the la w . T ab u lation s
o f p a id s i c k - le a v e p la n s a r e lim ite d to fo r m a l pla n s 5 w h ich p r o v id e
fu ll p a y o r a p r o p o r t io n o f the w o rk e r * s pa y d u rin g a b s e n c e fr o m w ork
b e c a u s e o f illn e s s .
S ep a ra te ta bu la tion s a r e p r o v id e d a c c o r d in g to
(1) .plans w h ich p r o v id e fu ll p a y and no w aitin g p e r io d , and (2) p la n s
p r o v id in g e ith e r p a r t ia l p a y o r a w aitin g p e r io d .
In ad d ition to the
p r e s e n ta tio n o f the p r o p o r t io n s o f w o r k e r s who a r e p r o v id e d s ic k n e s s
and a c c id e n t in s u r a n ce o r p a id s ic k le a v e , an u n du plica ted tota l is
show n o f w o r k e r s who r e c e iv e e ith e r o r both ty p es o f b e n e fits .

The su m m a r y o f v a c a tio n p la n s is, lim ite d to fo r m a l a r r a n g e ­
m e n ts , e x clu d in g in fo r m a l plan s w h e r e b y tim e o ff w ith p a y is g ra n ted
at the d is c r e t io n o f the e m p lo y e r .
S ep a ra te e s tim a te s a r e p r o v id e d
a c c o r d in g to e m p lo y e r p r a c t ic e in com p u tin g v a c a tio n p a y m e n ts , su ch
as tim e p a y m e n ts , p e r c e n t o f annual e a r n in g s , o r fla t -s u m a m ou n ts.
H o w e v e r, in the ta bu la tion s o f v a c a tio n a llo w a n c e s , p a ym en ts not on
a tim e b a s is w e r e c o n v e r te d ; f o r e x a m p le , a pa ym en t o f 2 p e r c e n t o f
annual ea rn in g s w as c o n s id e r e d as the eq u iv a len t o f 1 w e e k ls pa y.

C a ta strop h e in s u r a n c e , s o m e tim e s r e f e r r e d to as ex ten d ed
m e d ic a l in s u r a n c e , in clu d e s th o se pla n s w h ich a r e d e s ig n e d to p r o t e c t
e m p lo y e e s in c a s e o f s ic k n e s s and in ju ry in v o lv in g e x p e n s e s bey on d
the n o r m a l c o v e r a g e o f h o s p ita liz a tio n , m e d ic a l, and s u r g ic a l p la n s .
M e d ic a l in su r a n ce r e fe r s to p la n s p r o v id in g f o r c o m p le te o r p a r t ia l
p a ym en t o f d o c to r s * fe e s . Such p la n s m a y b e u n d erw ritten b y c o m m e r ­
c ia l in su r a n ce c o m p a n ie s o r n o n p r o fit o r g a n iz a tio n s o r th ey m a y be
s e lf-in s u r e d . T ab u lation s o f r e tir e m e n t p e n s io n p la n s a r e lim ite d to
th o se pla n s that p r o v id e m on th ly p a ym en ts f o r the r e m a in d e r o f the
w o rk e r* s life .

2
A n esta b lis h m e n t w as c o n s id e r e d as having a p o li c y if it m e t
e ith e r o f the fo llo w in g c o n d itio n s: (1) O p era ted la te sh ifts at the tim e
o f the s u r v e y , o r (2) had fo r m a l p r o v is io n s c o v e r in g la te s h ifts.
3
S ch edu led w eek ly h ou rs f o r o ffic e w o r k e r s (fir s t s e c tio n o f
ta b le B -3 ) in su r v e y s m a d e p r i o r to Ju ly 1957 w e r e p r e s e n te d in
te r m s o f the p r o p o r t io n o f w om en o ffic e w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in o ffic e s
w ith the in d ica te d w e e k ly h ou rs f o r w om en w o r k e r s .

4
The te m p o r a r y d is a b ilit y la w s in C a lifo r n ia and R h ode Islan d
do not r e q u ir e e m p lo y e r co n trib u tio n s .
5
A n e s ta b lis h m e n t w as c o n s id e r e d as h aving a fo r m a l p la n i f
it e s ta b lis h e d at le a s t the m in im u m n u m b er o f days o f s ic k le a v e that
c o u ld b e e x p e cte d b y e a c h e m p lo y e e . Such a p la n n e e d n ot b e w ritten ,
but in fo r m a l s i c k - le a v e a llo w a n c e s , d e te rm in e d on an in d iv id u a l b a s is ,
w e r e e x clu d e d .




3

T ab le 1.

E sta b lish m e n ts and w o r k e r s w ithin sc o p e of su rv e y and num b er studied in P r o v id e n ce —Paw tucket,

R .'I .—M a s s . , 1 by m a jo r in du stry d iv isio n , 2 M ay 1961

N u m b er of e sta b lish m e n ts
M in im u m
em p lo y m en t
in e s t a b lis h ­
m e n ts in scope
of study

In d ustry d iv isio n

A ll d iv isio n s

W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts
W ithin scop e of study

W ithin
scope of
study 3

Studied

Studied
T o t a l4

O ffic e

P lant

T otal 4

_______________________________________________________

50

710

135

137, 400

18, 600

99, 400

58, 410

M an ufactu ring _____________________________________________________
N on m an ufactu ring
____ __________________________ _______ _______
T ra n sp o rta tio n , com m u n ic a tio n , and
other public u tilitie s 5 _____ ____ ________ _______ _________ _
W h o le sa le trade _______________________ _______ ____ _______ _
_
R e ta il tra de ........... ....................................... .........................................
F in an c e, in su r a n ce , and r e a l esta te
S e r v i c e s 7 ____________________ _____ __________ ____ ____ _______

50
50

530
180

77
58

103, 300
34, 100

9, 900
8, 700

79, 600
1 9 , 800

37, 660
20 , 750

50
50
50
50
50

29
27
64
34
26

14
7
21
9
7

1, 500

5, 400

( 6)
1, 200

( 6)
11, 300

( 6)
( 6)

( 6)
( 6)

7, 610
530
7, 590
4, 110

8,
2,
14,
6,
2,

600
100
100
800
500

9 1 0

1 The P r o v id e n ce —P aw tucket Standard M e tro p o lita n S ta tistic a l A r e a (C e n tr a l F a lls , C ran ston , E a st P ro v id en ce , P aw tucket, P ro v id en ce , and W o o n so ck e t c itie s ,
and 7 towns in P ro v id en ce
C ounty; N a r r a g a n se tt and N orth K ingstow n towns in W ash ington C ounty; W a r w ic k city and 3 tow ns in Kent C ounty; a ll of B r is t o l C ounty; J am e stow n town in N ew port County, R. I. ; a ls o A ttle b o ro
C ity and 8 contiguous towns in B r is to l, N o r fo lk , and W o r c e s t e r C ou n ties, M a s s . ) .
The "w o r k e r s within scop e of stu d y " e s tim a te s shown in this table p rovid e a r ea so n a b ly a c cu r a te d e sc r ip tio n
of the s iz e and c o m p o sitio n of the la b o r fo r c e included in the su rv e y .
The e s tim a te s are not intended, h ow ever, to s e r v e as a b a s is of c o m p a r iso n w ith other a r e a em p lo y m en t in d exes to
m e a s u r e em p lo y m en t tren d s or le v e ls sin ce (1) planning of w age su rv e y s r e q u ir e s the u se of e sta b lish m e n t data co m p iled c o n sid e r a b ly in advance of the p a y r o ll p eriod studied, and (2) sm a ll
e sta b lish m e n ts are exclu d ed fr o m the sc o p e of the su rv e y .
2 The 1957 r e v is e d edition of the Standard In d u strial C la s s ific a tio n M anual w as u sed in c la s s ify in g e sta b lish m e n ts by in du stry d iv isio n .
M a jo r chan ges fr o m the e a r lie r ed ition (used in the
B u r e a u 's la b o r m a r k e t w age su rv e y s conducted p r io r to July 1958) a r e the tr a n s fe r of m ilk p a ste u r iz a tio n plants and r e a d y -m ix e d co n c rete e sta b lish m e n ts fr o m trade (w h o le sa le or retail)
to
m an u factu rin g, and the tr a n s fe r of rad io and te le v is io n b r o a d c a s t in g ' fr o m s e r v ic e s to the tra n sp o rta tio n , c o m m u n ication , and other public u tilitie s d iv isio n .
3 Includes a ll e sta b lish m e n ts with total em p loym en t at or above the m in im u m -s iz e lim ita tio n .
A ll ou tlets (w ithin the area) of com p a n ie s in su ch in d u str ie s as tra d e , fin a n ce, auto rep a ir
s e r v ic e , and m o tio n -p ic tu r e th e a te rs are co n sid ere d as 1 e sta b lish m e n t.
4 In cludes ex ec u tiv e, p r o fe s s io n a l, and other w o r k e r s excluded fr o m the se p a r a te office and plant c a te g o r ie s .
5 T a x ic a b s and s e r v ic e s in cid en tal to w ater tra n sp o rta tio n w e r e exclu d ed .
6 T h is in du stry is re p r e se n te d in e stim a te s fo r " a l l in d u s tr ie s " and "n o n m a n u fa ctu r in g " in the S e r ie s A and B t a b le s .
S ep arate p r e se n ta tio n of data fo r this d iv isio n is not m ad e for one
or m o r e of the follow in g r e a s o n s :
(1) E m p lo y m en t in the d iv isio n is too s m a ll to p rovide enough data to m e r it sep a r a te study, (2) the sa m p le w as not d esign ed in itia lly to p e r m it sep a ra te
p resen ta tio n , (3) re sp o n se w as in su fficie n t or inadequate to p e r m it sep a ra te p resen ta tio n , (4) th ere is p o s s ib ility of d is c lo s u r e of individual esta b lish m e n t data.
7 H o te ls; p er so n a l s e r v i c e s ; b u sin e ss s e r v i c e s ; au tom obile r ep a ir sh o p s; m otion p ic tu r e s; nonprofit m e m b e r sh ip o r g a n iza tio n s; and en gin eerin g and a r c h ite c tu r a l s e r v ic e s .

T ab le 2. In d exes of standard w eekly s a la r ie s and s t r a ig h t -t im e h ou rly ea rn in g s fo r se le c te d occu p ation al grou ps in
P r o v id en ce—Paw tucket, R. I . — a s s . , M ay 1961 and M a rc h I9 6 0 , and p e r c e n ts of in c r e a s e fo r se le c te d p er io d s
M
In d exes
(D e c e m b e r 1952 = 100)

P e r c e n t in c r e a s e s fr o m —

Industry and occu p ation al group
M ay 1961

M a r c h I9 6 0

M a rc h I9 6 0
to
M ay 1961

M a r c h 1956
to
M a r c h i9 6 0

D e c e m b e r 1952
to
M a r c h 1956

D e c e m b e r 1951
to
D e c e m b e r 1952

A ll in d u str ie s :
O ffice c le r ic a l (w om en) _____________________________________
In d u strial n u r se s (w om en) __________________________________
S killed m ain tenan ce (m en) _________ ________________ _______ _
U n sk illed plant (m en) ____ ____ _______ _____ _________________

1 3 5.
133.
13 9.
131.

8
3
8
2

130.
124.
135.
128.

9
8
0
3

3.
6.
3.
2.

7
9
6
3

1 5 .9
9. 0
18. 7
16. 1

13.
14.
13.
10.

0
5
8
5

5.
5.
4.
4.

0
4
7
5

M a n u fa c tu rin g :
O ffice c le r ic a l (w om en)
______________ ________ _________ ___
In d u stria l n u r s e s (w om en) __________________________________
S killed m ain tenan ce (m en) _______ ________ __________ ______ _
U n sk illed p lant (m en)
------------------------- -------------- --------------------

140.
13 2.
137.
123.

2
4
9
8

133.
123.
134.
121.

6
9
0
6

5.
6.
2.
1.

0
9
9
8

17.
7.
17.
15.

14.
15.
13.
5.

0
4
6
6

3.
4.
4.
4.

1
5
7
7




2
4
9
2

4

Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups

P r e s e n te d in ta b le 2 a r e in d e x e s o f s a la r ie s o f o ffic e c l e r i c a l
w o r k e r s and in d u s tr ia l n u r s e s , and o f a v e r a g e e a rn in g s o f s e le c t e d
plan t w o r k e r g r o u p s .
In a r e a s w h ich w e r e n ot s u r v e y e d d u rin g the
f i s c a l 1953 b a s e y e a r (J u ly 1952 to June 1953) th is ta b le is lim ite d
to p e r c e n t s o f ch a n g e b e tw e e n s e le c t e d p e r io d s .

F o r o f f ic e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s and in d u s tr ia l n u r s e s , the in d e x e s
r e la t e to a v e r a g e w e e k ly s a la r ie s f o r n o r m a l h o u r s o f w o rk , that is ,
the sta n d a rd w o r k sc h e d u le f o r w h ich s t r a ig h t -t im e s a la r ie s a r e pa id .
F o r p la n t w o r k e r g ro u p s , th ey m e a s u r e ch a n g e s in s t r a ig h t -tim e h o u r ly
e a r n in g s , ex clu d in g p r e m iu m pa y f o r o v e r t im e and f o r w o r k on w e e k ­
en ds, h o lid a y s , and la te sh ifts.
The in d e x e s a r e b a s e d on data fo r
s e le c t e d k e y o c cu p a tio n s and in clu d e m o s t o f the n u m e r ic a lly im p o rta n t
jo b s w ith in e a c h g rou p . The o f f ic e c l e r i c a l data a r e b a s e d on w o m e n in
the fo llo w in g 18 jo b s : B i lle r s , m a ch in e (b illin g m a ch in e ); b o o k k e e p in g m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s , c la s s A and B ; C o m p to m e te r o p e r a t o r s ; c le r k s , f ile ,
c la s s A and B ; c le r k s , o r d e r ; c le r k s , p a y r o ll; k eyp u n ch o p e r a t o r s ;
o f f ic e g ir l s ; s e c r e t a r ie s ; s te n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l; s w itch b o a rd o p e r a ­
t o r s ; s w itch b o a rd o p e r a t o r - r e c e p t io n is t s ; ta b u la tin g -m a c h in e o p e r a ­
t o r s ; tr a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , g e n e r a l; and ty p is ts , c la s s A
and B .
The in d u s tr ia l n u r s e data a r e b a s e d on w o m e n in d u s tr ia l
n u r s e s . M en in the fo llo w in g 10 s k ille d m a in ten a n ce jo b s and 3 u n s k ille d
jo b s w e r e in clu d e d in the pla n t w o r k e r data:
Skilled-— c a r p e n t e r s ;
e le c t r ic ia n s ; m a c h in is ts ; m e c h a n ic s ; m e c h a n ic s , a u to m o tiv e ; m i l l ­
w r ig h ts ; p a in t e r s ; p ip e fit t e r s ; s h e e t -m e t a l w o r k e r s ; and t o o l and d ie
m a k e r s ; u n s k ille d — ja n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s ; la b o r e r s , m a ­
t e r ia l h an dlin g; and w a tch m en .
A v e r a g e w e e k ly s a la r ie s o r a v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s w e r e
c o m p u te d f o r e a c h o f the s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n s .
The a v e r a g e s a la r ie s
o r h o u r ly e a r n in g s w e r e then m u ltip lie d b y the a v e r a g e o f 1953 and
1954 e m p lo y m e n t in the jo b . T h e s e w eig h ted e a rn in g s f o r in d iv id u a l
o c c u p a tio n s w e r e th en to ta le d to ob ta in an a g g r e g a te f o r e a c h o c c u p a ­
tio n a l g ro u p . F in a lly , the r a t io o f th e s e c r o u p a g g r e g a te s f o r a giv^n
y e a r to the a g g r e g a te f o r the b a s e p e r io d (s u r v e y m on th , w in te r 1952—53)
w as c o m p u te d «and the r e s u lt m u ltip lie d b y the b a s e y e a r in d e x (10 0) to
g e t the in d e x f o r the g iv e n y e a r .




S im ila r p r o c e d u r e s w e r e fo llo w e d in c o m p ilin g ‘ 'p e r c e n ts o f
c h a n g e " in a r £ a s n ot s u r v e y e d d u rin g 1953.

Adjustments have been made where necessary to maintain
comparability so that the yea r-to -y e a r com parisons are based on the
same industry and occupational coverage.
For example, railroads
have been included in the coverage of the surveys only since July 1959.
In computing the indexes for the first year in which railroads were
included, data relating to railroads were excluded. Indexes for subse­
quent years include data for railroads.
The in d e x e s m e a s u r e , p r in c ip a lly , the e ffe c t s o f (1) g e n e r a l
s a la r y and w a g e ch a n g e s; (2) m e r it o r oth er in c r e a s e s in pay r e c e iv e d
b y in d iv id u a l w o r k e r s w h ile in the sa m e jo b ; and (3) ch a n g es in the
la b o r f o r c e su ch a s la b o r tu r n o v e r , f o r c e ex p a n sio n s, f o r c e r e d u c ­
tio n s , and ch a n g es in the p r o p o r t io n o f w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d b y e s ta b ­
lis h m e n ts w ith d iffe r e n t pa y le v e ls .
C h an ges in the la b o r f o r c e can
c a u s e in c r e a s e s o r d e c r e a s e s in the o c cu p a tio n a l a v e r a g e s w ithout
a ctu a l w a g e ch a n g e s. F o r e x a m p le , a f o r c e ex p a n sio n m ig h t in c r e a s e
the p r o p o r t io n o f lo w e r p a id w o r k e r s in a s p e c ifi c o c cu p a tio n and r e ­
su lt in a d r o p in the a v e r a g e , w h e r e a s a r e d u c tio n in the p r o p o r t io n
o f lo w e r p a id w o r k e r s w ou ld h ave the o p p o s ite e ffe c t . The m o v e m e n t
o f a h ig h -p a y in g e s ta b lis h m e n t out o f an a r e a c o u ld ca u s e the a v e r a g e
e a r n in g s to d r o p , ev en though n o ch a n ge in r a te s o c c u r r e d in oth er
a r e a e s ta b lis h m e n ts .
The u se o f con sta n t e m p lo y m e n t w e ig h ts e lim in a te s the e ffe c t s
o f ch a n g es in the p r o p o r t io n o f w o r k e r s r e p r e s e n t e d in ea ch jo b in ­
clu d ed in the data.
N or a r e the in d e x e s in flu e n ce d b y ch a n g e s in
stan dard w o r k s c h e d u le s o r in p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e , s in c e they
a r e b a s e d on p a y f o r s t r a ig h t -tim e h o u r s .

In d exes f o r the p e r io d 1953 to I9 60 f o r w o r k e r s in 20 m a jo r
la b o r m a r k e ts w ill a p p e a r in B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 -6 2 , W a ges and R ela ted
B e n e fits , 60 L a b o r M a r k e ts, W in ter 1959—60.

5

A* Occupational Earnings
Table A-1. O ffice Occupations
(A verage stra ig h t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area b asis
by industry division, P rovidence—Pawtucket, R. I . —M a s s ., May 1961)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

Average
Sex,

o c c u p a tio n ,

a n d in d u s t r y d iv is io n

Number
of

Weekly^
(Standard)

$
$
$
$
$
$
Weekly ^ 3 5 .j p ° 4 0 . 0 0 4 5 . 0 0 5 0 . 0 0 5 5 . 0 0 6 0 . 0 0
(Standard) u n d e r
4 0 . 00

6 5 . 00

$
$
*
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
7 0 . 00 7 5 . 00 8 0 . 00 8 5 . 00 9 0 . 00
9 5 . 0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 1 2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4 5 . 00

5 0 . 00

55. 00

6 0 . 00

6 5 . 00

7 0 . 00

7 5 . 00

8 0 . 00

8 5 . 00

9 0 . 00

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

9 5 . 0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 1 2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 .0 0

M en
61
30
31

39. 0
40. 0
38. 0

$ 8 9 .0 0
8 4 . 50
9 3 . 50

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

_

-

-

30

42. 5

6 6 . 00

_

1

1

2

1

4

------------------

73
47

39. 5
40. 0

8 0 . 00
8 3 . 00

-

-

-

4
4

-

O f f i c e b o y s -------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________

118
74
44

39. 0
39. 5
39. 0

5 0 . 50
5 2 . 50
4 7 . 50

_

41
16
25

5
2
3

39
30
9

T a b u la tin g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c l a s s B _________ __________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________ ________

64
28
36

37. 5
39. 0
37. 0

8 3 . 00
8 1 . 00
8 5 , 00

-

-

-

-

■

■

B i l l e r s , m a c h i n e ( b i l l i n g m a c h i n e ) ------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________________

111
90

40. 0
40. 0

6 2 . 00
6 4 . 00

_

6

-

-

B i l l e r s , m a c h in e (b o o k k e e p in g
m a c h i n e ) _____________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------R e t a i l t r a d e ------------------------------------------

47
46
29

38. 5
38. 5
38. 0

55. 00
54. 50
5 2 . 50

_

6
6

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c l a s s A _______________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________________

146
75

38. 5
39. 0

6 2 . 50
7 1 .0 0

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c l a s s B ------------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------R e t a i l t r a d e ___________________________

371
1 57
214
66

38.
38.
38.
39.

54.
56.
53.
52.

C l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g , c l a s s A -------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g --------------------- ----------

254
160
94

38. 5
39. 0
38. 0

7 6 . 50
7 6 . 50
7 6 . 50

C l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g , c l a s s B _____________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ______________ __________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 2 -------------------------------R e t a i l t r a d e ------------------------------------------

504
200
304
45
124

38.
39.
38.
39.
39.

57.
66.
52.
60.
49.

C l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g , c l a s s A -------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------

M a n u fa c t u r in g

---------------------

-

"

_

“

17
12
5

18

1

1

5
5

10
5

16

5
4
1

21
20
1

7
2
5

■

1
1

3
3

3
2
1

5
1
4

5
3
2

4
2

18
17

31
25

7
7

6

8
8
8

8
8
8

12
12
A

-

-

9
9
9

27
21

2
2

25
25

_

-

11
-

-

11

"

1

_

1

3
3

4
4

_

_

-

-

13
13

_

"

2
1
1

_

_

1
1

_

3
3

-

-

2
2

_

2
2

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

9
3
6

_

_

8
2

-

8
8

15
15

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

~

-

"

-

-

“

"

-

-

3
1
2

22
15
7

6
1
5

4
2
2

3
2
1

1
1

4
1
3

-

~

1
1

-

“

3
3

10
10

27
27

2
2

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

*

*

-

*

-

-

3
3

1
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

-

-

“

-

23
21

17
17

5
5

5
5

2
2

-

_

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

23
12
11

13
3
10

1
1
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

-

4
4

6
6

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

"

"

-

-

-

W om en

0
0
0
0

5
5
0
0
0

50
00
50
50

50
00
00
00
00

-

-

.

_

18

-

-

33
2

14

-

24
10
14
3

90
30
60
12

1 07
48
59
13

69
13
56
38

19
15
4
"

-

-

“

-

-

-

-

2
2

1
1

2
2

3
3

12
1
11

49
26
23

41
32

61
60
1

18
8
10

14
11
3

27
15
12

14
7
7

49
1
48
1
19

107
11
96

55
18
37

50
19
31

49
27

11
7

_

_

_

_

.

-

-

-

-

-

3

7
6
1
-

_

4

18
18
-

_

7

2
2
-

_

22

69
49
20

-

-

-

1

6

-

-

_
"
18
18
-

18

7

8

4

69
42
27
11

37

15

19

9

-

,

9

4

-

-

S ee fo o t n o t e s at en d o f t a b le .




N O TE :

E stim ate s for all in d u strie s, nonmanufacturing, and public u tilities include data for railroad s (SIC 40 ), om itted fr o m the scope
of a ll labor m ark et wage su rveys m ade before July 1959.
W here significant, the effect of the inclusion of r ailroad s is greatest
on the data shown sep arately for the public u tilities division.

-

6
Table A-1. O ffice Occupations-Continued
(A verage stra ig h t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings £or selecte d occupations studied on an area b asis
by industry d ivision , P rovidence—Pawtucket, R. I . — a s s . , M ay 1961)
M
Average
S ex, occupation, and industry d ivision

Number
of
workers

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

«
$
$
$
$
$
$
50. 00 $
55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 *70. 00 75 . 00 *80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95 .0 0 100.00 105.00 110.00 *115.00 *120.00 *125.00 130.00
”
■
“
“
“
"
“
"
“
"
“
“
4 0 . 00 4 5 . 00 50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 6 5 .0 0 70. 00 75. 00 80 . 00 8 5 .0 0 90. 00 95. 00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00
$

Weekly,
Weekly , 35. 00 4 0 . 00 4 5 . 00
earnings
hours
(Standard) (Standard)
-

W om en— Continued
C le r k s , file , c la ss A
Manufacturing ____________ _____ ____
Nonmanufacturing ___________________

119
48
71

38. 0
39. 5
37. 0

$ 6 1 . 00
61 . 50
61. 00

_
-

6
6

14
14

25
13
12

16
11
5

16
11
5

5
2
3

13
7
6

17
4
13

5
5

_
-

-

C le r k s , file , c la ss B _____________________
M anufacturing __ __ __ __ ___________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________
R etail trade

466
166
300
67

38. 0
39. 0
37. 0
3 9 .0

4 9 . 50
51. 50
4 8 . 00
4 5 .0 0

6
6
-

130
10
120
39

153
55
98
23

76
42
34
5

71
52
19
-

11
6
5
“

9
1
8
-

10
10
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

C le r k s , ord er _____ _____ _______________
M anufacturing __
___
_
Nonmanufacturing ____ __ _____ ____
R etail trade ________ __ ___________

233
176
57
28

39. 5
3 9 .5
39. 0
40. 0

62.
64.
56.
48.

00
50
00
50

_
-

25
3
22
10

28
17
11
11

29
26
3
3

18
16
2
2

34
32
2
2

22
21
1
-

14
14
-

44
28
16
-

5
5
'

C le r k s , p ayroll ______________ ___________
M anufacturing _
______
_
____
Nonmanufactsuring _____________________
R etail trade _________________________

434
355
79
43

39.
39.
38 .
39.

0
0
5
0

66.
66.
62 .
55.

00
50
50
50

_
-

_
-

13
4
9
8

56
31
25
15

91
81
10
9

48
44
4
3

77
68
9
8

36
34
2
-

65
54
11
-

C om ptom eter op erators ________ _______
M anufacturing _________ __ _________ _
Nonmanufacturing ____ __ ___________
R etail trade _ ______________________

134
68
66
41

38.
39.
38.
38.

5
0
0
5

65. 50
69. 50
6 1 .0 0
53. 50

3
3
3

9
9
9

10
1
9
8

10
2
8
6

7
3
4
2

16
14
2
1

21
15
6
5

22
11
11
5

Keypunch op erators
__
____
Manufacturing
__ __ _______________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________
P ublic u tilities 2 ____________________

312
152
160
29

38. 0
39. 5
3 7 .0
38. 0

60. 50
6 3 .0 0
58. 50
69. 00

_

1

-

-

-

1
-

35
10
25
5

61
5
56
2

45
31
14
2

82
54
28

26
14
12
1

O ffice g ir ls _________________________________
M anufacturing _____ __ __ ___________
Nonmanufacturing

84
53
31

39. 0
40. 0
37. 5

4 7 . 50
4 6 . 00
4 9 . 50

_

25
8
17

10
9
1

2
2
-

2

-

40
32
8

S e c r e ta r ie s _________________________________
M anufacturing _________________ _______
Nonmanufacturing _ __ _______________

898
566
332

38. 5
39. 0
37. 0

76. 00
77 . 00
7 4 .0 0

_
-

_
-

36

-

-

11
11

36

38
22
16

S tenograp h ers, general _____________________
Manufacturing _____ ___________________
Nonmanufacturing ________________________
Public u tilities 2 ____________________

689
320
369
40

38. 5
3 9 .5
38. 0
38. 0

62. 00
6 7 .0 0
57. 50
7 2 .0 0

_

56

-

56
-

90
20
70
-

59
11
48
3

Switchboard op erators ____________________
M anufacturing __ _____ ____________ _
Nonmanufacturing _ _____ ___________
Public u tilit ie s 2 __ ____________ _
R etail trade _ _________ ___________

179
51
128
27
63

38. 5
40. 0
3 8 .0
38. 5
38. 0

5 6 .0 0
57. 50
55. 50
7 5 . 50
4 8 . 50

7
7
7

15
2
13
10

41
10
31

Switchboard o p e r a t o r -r e c e p t io n is t s ____
M anufacturing __ „ __ __ ___ ___ _
Nonmanufacturing . „ _________ _ _
_

334
272
62

3 9 .0
3 9 .0
38. 0

60 . 50
6 0 . 00
62 . 00

_
-

T ab u latin g-m ach ine op era to rs,
c la s s B _______ _
_ _________________
Manufacturing __
— __
— - .
Nonmanufacturing _ _____ ____ _____

80
42
38

38. 5
3 9 .5
37. 0

7 3 .0 0
7 5 .0 0
7 1 .0 0

-

See footnotes at end of table,




-

-

-

1
1

1
1

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

-

-

12
12
-

2
2
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

22
17
5

6
5
1
-

9
9
-

1
1
-

2
2
-

_
-

8
8
-

18
9
9
1

9
6
3
1

7
7
-

.
-

1

.
-

_
-

36
32
4
3

18
-------4
14
14

3

_
-

_

_
-

1

4
2
2
1

2

3
2
1

_
-

1
1

_
-

1
1

_
-

-

63
23
40

136
114
22

173
132
41

107
58
49

108
73
35

63
48
15

63
36
27

55
16
39
2

147
102
45
-

66
30
36
5

86
47
39
7

76
48
28
23

45
43
2
-

5
3
2
-

11

44
15
29
4
23

13
6
7
5

17
8
9
7

13
3
10
1
-

12
4
8
8
-

9
1
8
8
“

1
1
1
-

_
"

42
42
-

43
32
11

54
48
6

77
63
14

71
46
25

27
22
5

10
9
1

”

"

-

-

14
14

-

29
20
9

17
13
4

-

-

'

-

'

-

-

-

1
-

-

-

-

.
-

-

.
-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

1
1
-

_
-

_
-

_
“

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

1
-

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
' “

43
20
23

23
23

8
4
4

4
3
1

-

-

19
8
11

1

-

-

1

_

3

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
-

-

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

6
2
4
4
-

_
-

_
-

1
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

_
-

_
-

-

_
-

6
6
-

4
4
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
“

_
-

_
-

_
-

18
9
9

-

1
1

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

1

1

1

1

2
2

_
_
_
-

7
Table A-1. Office Occupations-Continued
(A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d o n an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d i v is i o n , P r o v id e n c e — a w t u c k e t , R . I . —M a s s . , M a y 1961)
P
Average

S e x , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s t r y d i v is i o n

Number
of
workers

NUMBER OP WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

$
$
$
S
$
$
$
$
$
s
$
$
$
S
$
s
$
$
Weekly,
Weekly
3 5. 00 4 0 . 00 4 5 . 00 50. 00 $
55. 00 6 0. 00 6 5 . 00 7 0 . 00 7 5 . 00 8 0. 00 8 5 . 00 9 0 . 00 9 5 .0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 1 2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0
hours 1 earnings1
and
(Standard) (Standard) u n d e r
4 0. 00 4 5 . 00 5 0. 00 .551.0,0 .6 0 , O 6 5 .0 0 7 0 . 00 7 5 . 00 8 0 . 00 8 5 . 00 9 0. 00 9 5 .0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 1 20 .00 1 2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 1 35 .00
O.
$

W o m e n — C on tin u e d
T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c l a s s C - -------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ________ _____ „ _

61
37

38. 0
3 7 .0

$ 5 8 .5 0
54. 00

T r a n s c r ib in g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
g e n e r a l _ — __________________________ __
M a n u fa ctu r in g — ---------------- -------- __
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _____________________

214
145
69

3 8. 5
3 9. 5
3 6. 5

6 0 .0 0
6 1 . 50
5 7. 50

T y p is t s , c l a s s A ----------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g __________________________

-3 9 8
288

38. 5
3 9 .5

6 0 .0 0
6 1 . 50

T y p is t s , c l a s s B ___________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g --------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _ ------ l.--------------- __
R e t a il t r a d e __________ I_____________

923
381
542
46

-.3 8 ,,.5 „ ..
39. 5
3 7. 5
3 8. 5

5 0, 5.0
5 2 .0 0
4 9 . 00
5 0. 50

1

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

"

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

27
24
3

2
_
2

5
4
1

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

56
53

35
35

6
6

6
2

5
5

1
-

2
-

1
-

_

_

_

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

26
7
19
1

11
5
6

4
2
2

1

*

_

.

.
_
_

_
_

_

6
6

20
20

3
2

7
3

22
3

1

2

10
10
-

14
5
9

42
15
27

31
19
12

47
46
1

36
22
14

_

19
10

52
22

53
17

71
50

.91
88

4

214
41
173
2

292
101
191
23

154
99
55
3

126
81
45
6

91
45
46
8

"

4
3

2

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

1

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

S ta n d a rd h o u r s r e f l e c t the w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e i v e t h e ir r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t im e s a la r i e s and the e a r n in g s c o r r e s p o n d to t h e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o t h e r p u b lic u t il it i e s .

Table A-2. Professional apd Technical Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s an d e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d o n an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n , P r o v id e n c e — a w t u c k e t , R . I . —M a s s . , M a y 1961)
P
Average
S ex,

o c c u p a tio n ,

Number
of
workers

a n d in d u s t r y d iv is io n

Weekly,
hours 1
(Standard)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING ST IAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

U nder
Weekly
earnings1
(Standard)
L o o

$,
6 0 .0 0
and
under
6 5 .0 0

65. 00
7 0 . 00

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
7 0 . 00
75. 00
8 0 . 00 8 5 . 00
9 0 . 00
9 5 . 00 1 0 0 .0 0 10 5 . 00 n o . o o 1 1 5 . 00 1 2 0 . 00 12 5 . 00 1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 . 00 1 4 0 .0 0
~
7 5 . 00

“
8 0 . 00

“
8 5 . 00

“
9 0 . 00

■
~
~
9 5 . 00 1 0 0 . 00 1 0 5 . 00 n o . o o 1 1 5 . 00 12 0 . 00 1 2 5 . 00 1 3 0 . 00 1 3 5 . 00 14 0 . 00

and
over

M en
248
227

3 9 .5
3 9 .5

$ 1 0 8 .0 0
1 0 9 .0 0

_

_

—

-

-

D r a f t s m e n , j u n i o r ____ __ __
—
----------- _ ~ —
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------------------------------------------

174
170

40. 0
40. 0

8 7 . 00
8 7 . 50

8
8

2

80
70

3 9 .5
4 0 .0

7 8 .0 0
7 7 . 50

7
5

D r a f t s m e n , s e n i o r ___ __
M a n u f a c t u r i n g __
—

~ —
__ _

—
__

__

------- —
—
_

—

_

1
1

10
10

1
1

20
19

-

22
20

34
23

32
29

21
19

25
23

7
7

18
18

19
19

17
17

10
10

13
12

1

41
41

26
26

10
10

10
10

24
24

2
2

1
1

_

_

-

26
25

_

1

7
7

6
5

8
7

13
13

11
11

8
6

11
9

6
4

3
3

_

_

_

_

■

11
11

10
10

_

_

-

"

-

_

_

-

-

W om en
N u r s e s , i n d u s t r i a l ( r e g i s t e r e d ) -----------------------------------------M a n u fa c t u r in g
—
--------------- . . .

1

S ta n d a rd h o u r s r e f l e c t th e w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e t h e ir r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t im e s a la r i e s an d the e a r n in g s c o r r e s p o n d to t h e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .

NOTE:

S ee n o te o n p . 5 , r e l a t i v e to th e in c lu s io n o f r a i l r o a d s .




■

_
"

_

8

Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(A verage stra ig h t-tim e hourly earnings for m en in selected occupations studied on an area b asis
by industry d ivision , P rovid en ce—
Paw tucket, R . I. —M a s s . , M ay 1961)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Number

of

O c c u p a t io n an d in d u s t r y d i v is i o n

workers

Average
hourly
earnings

$
$
$
U n der $ . 30 1 .4 0 1. 50 1 .6 0
1
and
$
under
1. 30
1 .4 0 1. 50 1 .6 0 1 .7 0

1

C a r p e n t e r s , m a in t e n a n c e _______________
M a n u fa ctu r in g _________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ____________________

197
157
40

$ 2 . 27
2. 19
2. 61

E l e c t r i c i a n s , m a in t e n a n c e ____________
M a n u fa ctu r in g — _________ __________

389
32!

2 .4 5
2. 35

_

E n g i n e e r s , s t a t io n a r y ___________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g --------------------------------------

282
142

2 .5 1
2. 28

"

-

F ir e m e n , s t a t io n a r y b o i l e r __________ _
M a n u fa ctu r in g _________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g -------------------------------

344
281
63

1 .9 9
1 .9 0
2 .4 0

33
2 30
3

_
-

H e l p e r s , t r a d e s , m a i n t e n a n c e _________
M a n u fa ctu r in g _________________________
N nnm annfa rtn ri ng
P u b lic u t il it i e s 3 ___________________

257
218
39
38

2. 02
1 .9 9
2. 20
2. 21

_
-

M a ch in e -to o l o p e r a to r s ,
t o o l r o o m _________________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g _________________________

161
161

2 .3 4
2. 34

M a c h in is t s , m a in t e n a n c e ________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g --------------------------------------

563
559

M e c h a n ic s , a u t o m o tiv e
(m a in t e n a n c e ) ------ -----------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g --------------------------- _
P u b lic u t il it i e s 3 _________________

$
1 .8 0

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
1. 90 2. 00 2. 10 2. 20 2. 30 2 .4 0 2. 50 2. 60 2. 70 2. 80 2. 90 3. 00 3. 10 3. 20 3. 30 3 .4 0 3. 50

1 .8 0

1 .9 0

2 .0 0

2. 10

2 .2 0

2 .3 0

4
2
2

20
18
2

46
39
7

12
12

19
19
-

6
6

"

27
27
-

and
2. 50

2 .6 0

2. 70

2 .8 0

10
9
1

2
2

-

3
2
1

40
40

46
46

11
10

14
11

21
17

1
1

16
16

4

_

-

5
4

_
-

-

6
6
-

1

-

5
5

3
2
1

23
13
10
10

16
16

20
20

5
5

64
64

16
16

86
86

52
52

71
71

63
62

28
28

2. 90

3. 00

3. 10

3. 20

3. 30

3. 40

3 ™

nvpr

24
24

"

24
13
11
11

-

-

-

-

_

.

_

_

"

-

"

-

10
10

13
13

40
39

31
30

39
34

_

_

_

6

6

22
22

_
-

16
12

U
1]

52
47

_
-

4
4
-

63
60
3

108
102
6

18
18
"

21
12
9

5
5

-

3
3
-

1
1

_
-

21
21

53
53

-

37
36
1
1

28
28

-

7
4
3
2

-

-

31
18
13
13

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6
6

_

_

_

-

-

15
15
-

-

2 .4 0

25
14
11

"

-

-

$
1 .7 0

.

1

2
2

36
29

-

12
9

8
8
-

-

5
_
5

1
_
1

7
6

5
5

31
21

37
6

26
1

30

36

2
-

26
8

16
15

-

-

-

29
14
15

18
18

8
8

_
-

_
-

15
15

_
_

_
_

_
_

_
_

-

-

-

-

22
22

3
3

5
5

_

_

2
2

_

_

-

2
2

_

-

-

-

-

-

13
13

33
33

13
13

85
85

34
34

16
16

_

9
6

28
28

2
2

_

15
15

2
-

1
1
1

5
3
-

8
8
-

_
_

_
_

_
_

_
_

-

-

-

-

-

12
2
10

2
2

-

-

-

_

_

.

"

-

-

8
4

_

_

-

-

-

"

-

2. 42
2 .4 2

_

_

_

-

-

-

225
160
140

2 .4 4
2 .4 6
2 .4 1

_
-

-

_
-

-

-

-

3
3
-

-

*

9
5
5

10
10
10

16
11
11

60
30
30

22
22
22

-

20
17
17

6
4
4

54
37
31

M e c h a n ic s , m a in t e n a n c e ________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g --------------------------------------

4 22
380

2. 36
2. 29

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

9
9

33
33

52
52

83
83

18
17

25
25

15
15

2
2

22
22

55
52

62
50

14
10

4
2

22
2

2
2

4
4

“

-

-

M illw r ig h t s -------- -------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g -----------------------------------

102
102

2. 32
2. 32

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

16
16

19
19

23
23

1
1

10
10

_

_

_

_

_

“

-

10
10

_

-

6
6

_

-

2
2

_

-

15
15

-

-

-

O i l e r s ____________________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g ----------------------------------

_

160
158

1 .7 4
1. 73

1
1

52
52

_

18
18

20
20

12
12

3
3

5
5

_

_

-

17
17

-

-

5
4

11
10

16
16

P a i n t e r s , m a in t e n a n c e ________________ _
M a n u fa ctu r in g _________________________

74
58

2. 21
2. 19

_

_

_

_

6
2

4
4

15
15

6
5

8
5

2
1

2
2

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

11
7

_

-

17
15

_

"

2
2

_

-

1
-

-

“

-

P i p e f i t t e r s , m a in t e n a n c e ________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g --------------------------------------

115
115

2. 34
2. 34

_

_

_

_

_

1

18
18

17
17

17
17

11
11

1
1

5
5

14
14

3
3

1
1

_

1

_

_

_

1

12
12

4

-

5
5

1

-

-

-

5
5

S h e e t -m e t a l w o r k e r s ,
m a in t e n a n c e --------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g -------------------------------

32
30

2 .4 9
2 .4 9

1
1

4

3
3

1
-

2
2

-

-

1
1

_

-

2
2

_

-

5
5

_

-

7
6

-

4

-

-

2
2

T o o l an d d ie m a k e r s 4 -------------------------- _
M a n u fa ctu r in g --------------------------------------

436
436

2 .8 4
2 .8 4

21
21

1
1

51
51

65
65

31
31

4
4

14
14

29
29

26
26

30
30

21
21

30
30

6
6

30
30

-

"

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

-

"

-

-

4

1 E xcludes p rem iu m pay for overtim e and for work on w eekends, h olidays, and late sh ifts.
2 A ll w ork ers w ere at $ 1 t o '$ 1. 10.
3 T ran sportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities.
4 Excludes w ork ers in je w e lr y manufacturing in d u stries.
N O TE :




See note on p. 5 , relative to the in clu sion of ra ilr o a d s.

9
9 .
9

-

4

-

_

-

77
77

-

_

_

9
Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(A verage stra ig h t-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, P rovidence—Paw tucket, R. I . —M a s s ., M ay 1961)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
O c c u p a t io n 1 an d in d u s t r y d iv is io n

of
workers

hourly ,
earnings

$

$
1 .0 0
under
1. 10

1. 20

$
1. 20
1. 30

$
1 .3 0

$
1 .4 0

$
1. 50

$
1. 6 0

$
1 .7 0

“

1. 10

_

"
1 .6 0

“
1 .7 0

~
1. 8 0

1 .4 0

1. 50

E le v a t o r o p e r a t o r s , p a s s e n g e r
( m e n ) ____________________________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------------------------------------------------

41
36

$ 1 . 19
1. 17

8
8

15
15

16
12

-

-

-

-

-

-

E le v a t o r o p e r a t o r s , p a s s e n g e r
( w o m e n ) _________________________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _________________________________
R e ta il tr a d e
_
___

43
39
29

1. 22
1 . 19
1. 11

8
8
8

21
21
21

1
1

-

11
9

-

“

“

-

-

G u a r d s ____________________________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ______________________________________

159
49

1. 55
1. 8 5

42

8
2

_

-

1
1

“

21
6

J a n ito r s , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s
( m e n ) ____________________________ ______________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _____ ______________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _________________________________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 3 _______________________________
R e t a i l t r a d e _____________________________________

1 ,0 3 0
750
280
64
112

1. 53
1. 53
1. 54
1 .9 5
1. 27

27
23
4
-

44
20
24
-

-

23

159
107
52
41

171
126
45
3
40

J a n ito r s , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s
( w o m e n ) --------------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ______________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _________________________________

211
71
1 40

1. 30
1 .4 3
1. 24

16
12
4

12
4
8

127
6
121

L a b o r e r s , m a t e r i a l h a n d lin g
______________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ______________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _________________________________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 3 _______________________________
R e t a i l t r a d e _____________ ______________________

1 ,2 1 3
788
425
206
96

1 .8 4
1. 67
2 . 15
2 .4 2
1 .8 1

34
20
14
14

3
3
3

41
30
11
11

O r d e r f i l l e r s ____________________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ______________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _________________________________

408
191
217

1 .7 0
1 .5 9
1 .7 9

_
-

47
37
10

P a c k e r s , s h i p p i n g ( m e n ) ____________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ___________________ _________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _________________________________
R e ta il tra d e

707
645
62
44

1 .6 3
1 .6 6
1. 3 8
1. 26

8
8
8

P a c k e r s , s h i p p i n g ( w o m e n ) _________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ______________________________________

192
175

1. 25
1. 26

R e c e i v i n g c l e r k s _______________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _________________________ ___________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ___ ___ ______________________
R e t a i l t r a d e _____________________________________

217
T E o~
57
32

S h ip p i n g c l e r k s ____ __________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _______
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _________________________________
S h ip p i n g a n d r e c e i v i n g c l e r k s ______________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ______________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ________ __________ __________
R e t a i l t r a d e ________ __________________________

See footnotes at end of table,




$
1 .8 0

$
2. 00

”
l . Q0

$
1 .9 0

“
2 . 10

2 .0 0

$
2 . 10

$
2 . 20

2 , 20

"
2 . 30

$
2 . 30

$
2 .4 0

$
2 . 50

2 .4 0

“
2 . 50

"
2 .6 0

$
2,. 6 0

$
2. 80

$
2. 90

"
2,, 7 0

$
2. 70

2. 90

over

2 .8 0

and

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

“

26
1

2
2

13
8

8
8

8
8

10

2
2

5
5

1
1

_

7

_

_

_

-

5
5

-

“

-

123
76
47
1
1

115
102
13
8
5

1 48
1 43
5
1
1

59
54
5
1

47
19
28
9
1

16
10
6
1

24
13
11
7

68
33
35
30

20
17
3
3

2
2
-

-

7
7
-

-

-

-

-

“

-

-

"

-

-

6
4
2

11
11

21
21

3
3

-

2
2

-

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

11
6
5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

28
24
4
4

120
115
5
-

278
248
30
11

141
1 23
18
1

61
27
34
14

46
44
2
2

37
30
7
1

15
15
-

32
7
25
25

100
12
88
53

49
-

_

-

-

-

125
13
112
79
32

2
2
-

-

95
80
15
3

-

-

-

-

41
25
16

20
10
10

101
43
58

86
41
45

4
4

5
5

38
2
36

8
8

_

-

-

-

4
4

_

"

13
12
1

_
-

-

2
2

7
7

-

32
5
27

112
1 03
9
9

35
21
14
14

57
51
6
6

17
16
1
1

30
30
-

145
139
6

62
62
-

32
32
-

12
12
-

7
7
-

58
58
-

7
6
7 --------6 "
-

3
3
-

-

8
8
-

1
1
-

-

-

107
89
18
6

-

-

-

-

57
45

78
75

2

10
10

_

2
2

37
37

1
1

_

_

_

"

"

1 .8 3
1 .8 0
1 .9 0
1 .9 2

-

_
-

2
2
-

-

16
14
2
2

16
16
-

-

1
1
1

67
59
8
8

18
2
16
5

21
12
9
1

19
12
7
7

5
4
1
1

213
180
33

1 .9 3
1 .8 8
2 . 21

_

_

!

-

-

2
2

-

47
47

16
16

43
43

"

-

-

"

-

-

39
34
5

5
5

-

3
3

9
4
5

26
25
1

128
9335
26

1 .9 1
1 .9 1
1 .9 1
1 .7 1

.
-

-

_
-

_
-

12
10
2
2

18
15

22
15

8
8

3
3

7
7

-

9
5
4
4

9
8
1

17
17
-

10
-

-

_
-

1
6
6
6

-

-

_

1

-

-

49
49
_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

6
6
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

'

-

_

.

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

5
5

-

1

-

-

22
15
7
1

14
14
-

1
1
-

2
2
-

3
3
-

10
4
6
6

-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

2

_

_

-

2
2

-

-

2

-

"

-

_

-

-

-

-

_

-

10

-

_
"

7
3
4
3

-

-

12
2
10

6
6

_
-

8
-

2
2

8

-

10

Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations-Continued
(A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d i v is i o n , P r o v id e n c e — a w t u c k e t , R . I , —M a s s . , M a y 1961)
P
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

Occupation 1 and industry d ivision

of
w
orkers

hourly ,
earnings

T r u c k d r iv e r s 4 ___________________________ _________
M anufacturing ____________ ____________________
Nonmanufacturing ______________________________
Public u tilities 3 _____________ ____________
R etail trade _________________________________

1, 211
315
896
523
100

$ 2. 32
1 .8 6
2 .4 8
2. 51
2 .3 9

T r u c k d r iv e r s, light (under
1 l / z tons) ----------------------------------------------------------Manufacturing ______________________________
Nonmanufacturing __________________________

117
91
26

T r u c k d r iv e r s, m edium ( 1 V 2 to
and including 4 tons) _________________________
M anufacturing ______________________________
Nonmanufacturing __________________________
Public u tilit ie s 3
_
______________

T r u c k d r iv e r s, heavy (over 4 tons,
tra ile r type) ________ ______ _______________
M anufacturing __ _____ ____________________
Nonmanufacturing __________________________
Public u tilit ie s 3 _________________________

$
$
1 .0 0
1. 10
and
under
1. 10
1 .2 0

$ .
1. 20

$
1. 30

$
1 .4 0

$
1. 50

$
1 .6 0

1 .3 0

1 .4 0

1 .5 0

1 .6 0

1 .7 0

2
2
-

-

42
31
11
11

17
11
6

6
6
■

32
21
11

16

-

10
id
-

-

33
27
6
-

6
6
-

-

"

1 .4 9
1. 52
1 .3 9

-

354
149
205
48

2. 13
1 .9 1
2. 29
2. 50

-

591
53
538
386

2.
2.
2.
2.

-

■

1 6

-

-

-

$
2 .4 0

$
2. 50

$
2 .6 0

$
2. 70

$
2. 80

$
2. 90
and

1 .8 0

1 .9 0

2 .0 0

2. 10

2. 20

2. 30

2 .4 0

2. 50

2. 60

2 .7 0

2 .8 0

2. 90

over

32
6

2
2
"

-

11
11
-

21
12
9

-

-

2 6

“

57

2. 13

-

-

-

-

-

T r u c k e r s , power (forklift) _______________________
Manufacturing ___________________

42 2
363

2. 03
1 .9 5

“

■

_

20
20

"

T r u c k e r s , power (other than
fork lift) ___________________________ _________________
M anufacturing ___________________________ _____

74
61

1 .8 8
1 .8 0

-

-

-

-

"

■

796
494

1 .4 3
1. 54

201
15

61
31

1. 52

6




$
2. 30

2
2

"

8
8

7
7
-

15
15
-

-

37
25
12
6

-

-

8
8
~

7
7
~

5
5
“

4
4
"

15
15
2

37
12
25

22

2
2
-

-

-

1
1
-

1
1
“

-

1
1

-

10
10
-

4
2
2

103
6
97
■

1
1
-

3
3

■

574
30
544
518

14
14
-

-

3
3
-

-

-

-

5 146
146
46

-

-

-

-

•

"

6
6
-

-

"

96
30
66
46

35
32
3
"

"

386
386
386

-

-

"

“

4

9

1

1

1

3

-

12

-

34
34

15
15

2
2

2
2

22
22

9
4

12
12

44
6

2
2

8
8

12
12

-

17
4

-

-

-

“

"

“

30
27

14
2

13
13

30
30

39
5

17
17

1
1

1
-

3

12

-

2

33
33

38
38

no

12
12

11
11

1 2

72
64

69
49

76
71

117
116

3

8

1 1 0

1 2

1
1

“

4
2

-

-

“

-

-

■

"

■

15

-

6

144
42
102
2
22

~

-

“

51
51

8
8

1 6

15
3
12
3
6

10
1
9
"

■

D a ta li m it e d to m e n w o r k e r s e x c e p t w h e r e o t h e r w is e in d ic a t e d .
E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o l id a y s , and la t e s h ift s .
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o t h e r p u b lic u t il it i e s .
I n c lu d e s a ll d r i v e r s r e g a r d l e s s o f s i z e and ty p e o f t r u c k o p e r a t e d .
W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r ib u t e d a s f o l lo w s : 4 6 at $ 2. 90 t o $ 3; 100 at $ 3 to $ 3. 10.
S e e n o te on p . 5 , r e l a t i v e to th e in c lu s io n o f r a i l r o a d s .

$
2. 20

-

-

“

NOTE:

$
2. 10

56
28
28
-

■

1
2
3
4
5

$
2. 00

25
25
-

“

32

$
1 .9 0

33
24
9
3

“

W atchm en __ _____ __ ___________________________
M anufacturing __________________________________
Nonmanufacturing:
Rptail traHp

$
1 .8 0

58
37
21
6

59
15
63
51

T r u c k d r iv e r s, heavy (over 4 tons,
other than tra ile r type)

1. 70

%

-

-

140
140

“

-

3 .

6

81
65

■

■

■

-

-

-

-

■

■

-

-

-

-

-




11

B : Establishment Practices and Supplementary W age Provisions
Table B-1. Shift Differentials
(Shift d iffe r e n tia ls of m an ufacturin g plant w o r k e r s by type and am ount of d iffe r e n tia l,
P ro v id en ce—P aw tucket, R. I . —M a s s . , M ay 1961)
P e r c e n t of m an ufacturin g plant w o r k e r s—
In e sta b lish m e n ts having f o r m a l
p r o v isio n s 1 fo r —

Shift d iffe r e n tia l

Second shift
w ork

T o ta l

___________________________________________________

W ith sh ift pay d iffe r e n tia l _________________________
U n ifo rm cen ts (p er hour) ______________________
4
5
6
7

cen ts _________________________________________
c en ts _________________________________________
cen ts _________________________________________
c en ts _________________________________________
7 V 2 cen ts
__________ _________________________
8 c en ts _________________________________________
10 cen ts _______________________________________
12 cen ts _______________________________________
15 c en ts _______________________________________

73. 3

T h ird or other
sh ift w ork

A c tu a lly wo>rking on—

Second shift

T h ird or other
shift

62 . 0

13. 6

5. 3

54. 1

5 6 .9

9 .4

4. 6

4 1 .8

4 1 .7

7. 5

4. 0

7.
4.
3.
3.
1.
4.
14.
2.

9
6
3
3
9
3
5
0

_

2. 5
.7
1 .3
.7
.4
. 5
1 .0
.4

_

-

2. 3
2. 0
15. 1
2. 2
10. 4
3 .4
6. 3

U n ifo rm p ercen tage _____________________________

10. 0

1 1 .6

1. 6

5 p erc en t ______________________________________
7 p ercen t ______________________________________
10 p erc en t _____________________________________

1. 2
1. 2
7. 6

1. 2
1. 2
9. 2

. 2

2. 2

3. 6

. 2

( 2)

19. 2

5. 2

4. 2

.7

Other fo r m a l pay d iffe r e n tia l
No sh ift pay d iffe r e n tia l

-------------------------

___________________________

1 In clud es esta b lish m e n ts c u r r e n tly op erating late
even though they w ere not c u r r e n tly operatin g late sh ifts.
2 L e s s than 0. 05 p erc en t.

sh ifts,

-

( 2)
1 .4

.
.
2.
.
.
.
.

1
1
4
5
5
2
2

. 5
. 1
-

.4

and esta b lish m e n ts with f o r m a l p r o v isio n s c o v e r in g la te

sh ifts

12

Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salaries for W om en O ffice W orkers
(D istr ib u tio n of e sta b lish m e n ts studied in a ll in d u str ie s and in in d u stry d iv isio n s by m in im u m en tran ce s a la r y fo r se le c te d c a te g o r ie s
o f in ex p erien c ed w om en o ffic e w o r k e r s , P r o v id e n ce —P aw tu cket, R . I . —M a s s . , M ay 1961)
In ex p e rie n c ed typ ists

M in im u m w ee k ly s a l a r y 1

M an ufactu ring

B a sed on stand ard w ee k ly h ours 3 of—

A ll
in d u str ie s

A ll
sch ed u les

A ll
sch e d u les

E sta b lish m e n ts studied

Other in e x p e r ie n c e d c le r ic a l w o r k e r s 2

N on m an ufactu ring

M an ufactu ring

A ll
in d u str ie s
A ll
sch e d u les

37V 2

3 5 .0 0
3 7 . 50
4 0 . 00
4 2 . 50
4 5 . 00
4 7 . 50
50. 00
52. 50
55. 00
57. 50
6 0 . 00
62 . 50

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
over

A ll
sc h e d u les

3 7 1/ 2

__________________________

26

E sta b lish m e n ts having a s p e c ifie d m in im u m
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$

N onm an ufactu ring

B a se d on standard w ee k ly h ours 3 of—

$ 3 7 .5 0
$ 4 0 . 00
$ 4 2 . 50
$ 4 5 . 00
$ 4 7 . 50
$ 50. 00
$ 52. 50
$ 55. 00
$ 57. 5^
$ 6 0 . 00
$ 6 2 . 50*
---------------

2
2
23
9
15
6
7
3
4
1
3
2

2
2
14
5
7
4
1
1
1
1

9
4
8
2
6
2
3

7
3
5
2
6
1
2

3
1

3
1

1

1

2
4
26
8
1
6
6
2
4
1
4
1

5
3
3
2

1
9
3
1

5
2
5
1
3
4

7
2
4
2
5
2

2
3
17
5
6
4
1
1
1
1

1
4
1
2
2
1
1

7
3
2
2

1

4
1

1

E sta b lish m e n ts having no s p e c ifie d m in im u m

26

21

xxx

5

XXX

xxx

25

19

xxx

6

xxx

xxx

E sta b lish m e n ts w hich did not e m p lo y w o r k e r s
in this c a te g o r y -----------------------------------------------------

32

18

xxx

14

xxx

xxx

35

25

xxx

10

xxx

xxx

1
2
3

L o w e st s a la r y rate fo r m a lly e sta b lish e d fo r h irin g in ex p erien c ed w o r k e r s fo r typing or other c le r ic a l jo b s .
R a tes a p p licab le to m e s s e n g e r s , o ffic e g i r ls , or s im ila r su b c le r ic a l jo b s a re not c o n sid e r e d .
H ou rs r e fle c t the w ork w eek fo r w hich em p lo y e e s r e c e iv e th e ir re g u la r s t r a ig h t -t im e s a la r ie s .
Data a re p resen ted fo r a ll w ork w eek s c om b in e d , and fo r the m o st c o m m o n w ork w eek s r ep o rted .

NOTE:

See note on p. 13, r e la tiv e to the in c lu sio n of r a ilr o a d s .




13

Table B-3. Scheduled W e e k ly Hours
(P e r c e n t d istrib u tion of o ffic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u str ie s and in in d u stry d iv isio n s by sch ed u led w eekly hours
of f i r s t - s h i f t w o r k e r s , P r o v id en ce—P aw tu cket, R . I . —M a s s . , M ay 1961)
OFFICE WORKERS
W e e k ly hours

A ll w o r k e r s

All
industries 1

-------------------------------------------------------------

U nder 35 h ours _____________________________________
35 h ours _____________________________________________
3 6 V 4 h ours
--------------------------------------------------------------O ver 3 6 1/4 and under 3 7 1 / z h ours --------------------3 7 V 2 h ours
__________________________________________
O ver 3 7 1/ 2 and under 3 8 3/4 h ours --------------------3 8 3/4 h ours _________________________________________
40 h ours _____________________________________________
O ver 4 0 and under 44 h ours ____________________
44 h ours _____________________________________________
45 h ours _____________________________________________
46 h ours _____________________________________________
O ver 46 and under 50 h ours ____________________
50 h ours and o v e r _________________________________

1
2
3
4

Manufacturing

100

100

Public,
utilities

PLANT WORKERS

Retail trade

Finance

3
'3

All
industries

Manufacturing




2

Retail trade

100

100

100

100

-

(4 )
1
1

2
3
1
-

(4 )

7
7
21
7
5
51
2

1
3
-

12
1
9
75
-

1
2
77
20
-

(4 )
80
2

(4 )
82
1

-

-

-

-

2

2

-

-

-

-

3

3

2

3

2

2

6
-

6

2

2

(4)
5
8
4
27
2
7
48

(4 )
3
(4 )

Includes data fo r w h o le sa le tra d e ; fin a n ce, in su r a n ce , and r e a l e sta te ; and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in d u stry d iv isio n s shown s e p a r a te ly .
T r a n sp o r ta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and other public u tilit ie s .
Includes data fo r w h o lesa le tra d e , r e a l e sta te , and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in d u stry d iv isio n s shown se p a r a te ly .
L e s s than 0. 5 p erc en t.

NOTE:

Public
utilities

E s tim a te s fo r a ll in d u str ie s and public u tilitie s include data fo r r a ilr o a d s (SIC 4 0 ), om itted fr o m the scop e of a ll la b o r m a r k e t
wage su rv e y s m ad e b e fo r e July 19 59 .
W h ere sig n ifica n t, the e ffe ct of the in clu sio n of r a ilr o a d s is g r e a te st on the data shown
s e p a r a te ly fo r the public u tilitie s d iv isio n .

100

100

_
_
-

4
3
6
6
3
69
-

-

2

9 4

14

Table B-4. Paid Holidays
(P e r c e n t d istrib u tio n of o ffic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u str ie s and in in d u stry d iv isio n s by n um ber of paid h olid ays
p rovid e d an nually, P r o v id e n c e —P aw tu cket, R . I. —M a s s . , M ay 1961)
OFFICE WORKERS

Item

A ll w o r k e r s

All
industries1

________________________________________

W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts p rovidin g
paid h olid ays _____________________________________
W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts p rovid in g
no paid h olid ays ...............................................................

Manufacturing

Public,
utilities2

PLANT WORKERS

Retail trade

Finance

All
3
industries

Manufacturing

Public 2
utilities

Retail trade

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

99

100

100

91

97

99

97

86

■

9

3

1

3

14

_

_

2

.

4
-

1

'

Number of days
5 h olid ays or le s s __________________________________
5 h olid ays plus 1 h a lf day
----------------------------------6 h olid ays ___________________________________________
6 h olid ays plus 1 h a lf day _______________________
7 h olid ays
___________________________________________
_____ __________________
7 h olid ays plus 1 h a lf day
8 h olidays ___________________________________________
8 h olid ays plus 1 h a lf day _____________________________
9 h olid ays .................... ..........................................................
9 h olid ays plus 1 h a lf day _______________________
10 h olid ays
_________________________________________
10 h olid ays plus 1 h a lf day ---------------------------------11 h olid ays
------ -----------------------------------------------------

(4 )
2
6
(4 )

8
(4 )

7
1
28
8
18
4
16

(4 )
4
12

1

-

2

-

-

2

2

-

24

28

-

-

-

3

3

-

-

12

7

9

20

10

6

1

-

-

17
1
15
1
23
5
4

1
19
1
15
6

-

-

-

4

13
3
38
16
3
-

'

8
40
46
"

5
77
-

-

-

26

72

-

-

62

-

-

-

(4 )

"

(j)
(4 )

”

_

_

_

-

-

-

62
62
87
87
87
87
97
97
97
97
97
97

72
72
76
76
82
82
82
82
82
86

-

~

“

Total holiday time5
11 days __________________________________________________________
or m o r e days -----------------------------------------------10 or m o r e days ----------------------------------------------------9 V2
or m o r e days -------------------------------------------------9 or m o r e days ____________________________________
8 V2
or m o r e days -------------------------------------------------8 or m o r e days _____________________________________
7 V2
or m o r e days -------------------------------------------------7 or m o r e days ____________________________________
6 V 2 ° r m o r e days _____________________ _________
6 or m o r e days ____________________________________
5 V 2 or m o r e days
____ __________________________
5 or m o r e days ____________________________________
1 or m o r e days ____________________________________
IO V 2

1
2
3
4
5
no h a lf

16
19
38
46
74
76
83
83
91
91
97
99
99
99

_
-

3
19
56
59
72
72
84
85
96
100
100
100

_
46
85
85
93
93
93
93
100
100
100
100
100
100

_
-

Includes data for w h o le sa le tra d e ; fin a n c e, in su r a n c e , and r e a l e sta te ; and s e r v ic e s in addition to
T r a n sp o r ta tio n , com m u n ic a tio n , and other public u tilit ie s .
Includes data for w h o le sa le tr a d e , r e a l e s ta te , and s e r v ic e s in addition to th ose in du stry d iv isio n s
L e s s than 0 . 5 p e r c e n t.
A ll com b ination s of fu ll and h alf days that add to the sa m e am ount are com b in ed ; for e x a m p le , the
d a y s, 6 fu ll days and 2 h a lf d a y s, 5 fu ll days and 4 h a lf d a y s, and so on.
P r o p o r tio n s w e r e then

NOTE:

See note on p.




13, r e la tiv e to the in clu sio n of r a ilr o a d s .

4

77
77
82
82
91
91
91
91
91
91

9

32
33
48
49

66
69
93
94
95
97

th ose in d u stry d iv isio n s

6
22
23
42
42
63
66
94
96
97
99

shown se p a r a te ly .

shown se p a r a te ly .
p rop ortion of w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g a total of 7 d ays in clu d es th ose with 7 fu ll days and
cu m u lated .

15
Table B-5. Paid Vacations
(P e r c e n t d istrib u tio n of offic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u str ie s and in in du stry d iv isio n s by v ac atio n pay
p r o v is io n s , P r o v id e n ce —Paw tucket, R . I . — a s s . , M ay 1961)
M
OFFICE WORKERS

V ac ation p o lic y

A ll w o r k e r s

All
industries

1

________________________________________

Manufacturing

Public
utilities

6

P LANT WORKERS

Retail trade

Finance

All
industries'*

Manufacturing

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

98

98

96

100

100

65

2

3

-

-

30

-

-

(4)

1

-

-

-

-

Public ,
utilities

Retail trade

100

100

98

100

100

58

100

100

37

-

-

2
_

3
_

_

_

“

2

2

-

Method of payment
W o r k e r s in e s ta b lish m e n ts p rovidin g
paid va c a tio n s ____________________________________
L e n g t h -o f -t i m e p aym ent ............. .. .......................
P e r c e n ta g e p aym ent .................................................
F la t -s u m p aym ent ... .......................... ................. ..
Other _____________________________ _________________ ________
W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts p rovidin g
no paid va c a tio n s ..................................... ................. ............ ..

Amount of vacation pay

5

A fte r 6 m on th s of se r v ic e

U nder 1 w eek ................................................................. ...................
1 w eek ___________________________________________________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w eeks ______________________
2 w eeks _____________________________________________

11

20

4

47

57

49

43

15

61

15

5
11

2
4

2

-

11
1

40

-

12
86
2

35
4

1
2

-

4
15

1
24

43

_
-

A fte r 1 y e a r of s e r v ic e
1 w eek _______________________________________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w eeks ______________________
2 w eeks _____________________________________________
3 w eeks
_____________________________________________

27
1
72
(4)

40
1
58

20
2
78
( 4)

34
3
62

12
4
83
-

21
8
70
-

-

61

-

78
6
14
( 4)

84
7

66
12
20
(4 )

76

7

-

41

59

_
59
1

37

4
-

A fte r 2 y e a r s of se r v ic e
1 w eek _______________________________________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w eeks ______________________
2 w eeks ------ -------- ----------------- ----------------------------------3 w eeks
............... .................... .................... ........ ............—

-

1
7
91
2

18
82

5
90
4

34
27
36
1

40
33
24
1

(4)

-

5
58
32
4

7
83
4
4
( 4)

7
84
5
2

-

15

7
-

25
_
74
1

28
_
72

15
_
84
1

10

-

A fte r 3 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w eek _______________________________________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w eeks ______________________
2 w eek s _____________________________________________
O ver 2 and under 3 w eeks ______________________
3 w eeks
........... ........................ ........................................... .

( 4)

-

1
97
2

4

7
89
( 4)
4

_
98
2

_
86
3

A fte r 5 y e a r s of se r v ic e
1 w eek .... ...................................... .......... ........................ ........
2 w eek s _____________________________________________
O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s ............. ...........................
3 w eeks ............................................................ ......................
O ver 3 and under 4 w eek s __________ ____ ______ _

See footnotes at end of table.




91
( 4)
4
(4)

_

10

99

63

-

-

1

23
3

16

Table B-5. Paid Vacations-Continued
(P e r c e n t d istrib u tio n of o ffic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u str ie s and in in d u stry d iv isio n s by vacatio n pay
p r o v is io n s , P r o v id e n c e —P aw tu cket, R. I . —M a s s . , M ay 1961)
OFFICE WORKERS

V a c a tio n p o lic y

All
industries 1

Manufacturing

Public
utilities 2

PLAN T WORKERS

Retail trade

Finance

All
industries

°

Manufacturing

Public ,
utilities 2

Retail trade

Amount of vacation p a y 5---------- Continued
A fte r 10 y e a r s of s e r v ic e

1 w eek _____________________________ _______ __________
_
w eek s
_______________ ___________________________ _____
O ver 2 and under 3 w eeks
________________________
3 w eek s
______________________________________________
4 w eek s
______ _____ _______________ ___________________________
2

A fte r

15 y e a r s

4

7

58

72

3

6

54
-

5

33

14

1

-

1

7

10

37
_

66

73

10

13

52
_

24
_

46

38

13

5

45

47

-

20

2

-

2

19

24

of s e r v ic e

w eek ___________________________________________________________
w eek s ................................................................... ........ .....................
O ver 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s
____________________________
3 w eek s
_________ _____ ___ ____ _____________________
O ver 3 and under 4 w eeks ______________________
4 w eek s _____________________________________________
1

4

7

5

7

7

2

30

40

2

37

42

47

_

1

1

-

-

3

4

-

.

63

51

98

35

41

38

98

42

-

-

-

-

1

1

-

_

2

( 4)

-

23

3

1

2

24

_
-

24

68

23

10

A fte r 20 y e a r s of s e r v ic e

1 w eek _________ ____ _ _______ ______________________
_
2 w eek s
_____________________________________________
O ver 2 and under 3 w eeks ______________________
3 w eek s
____________________ ________________________
O ver 3 and under 4 w eeks ______________________
4 w eek s
________________________ _____ _______________

4

7

5

7

7

28

36
1

2

37

40

45

-

-

3

4

55

69

26

41

1

-

_

1

32

43

-

24
-

1
59

-

-

39
1

29

32

8

7
35

5

7

7

2

37

39

44

1

-

-

10

_

-

8

(4)

4
28
1

_

A fte r 25 y e a r s of s e r v ic e

1 w eek
2 w eeks _____________________________________________
O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s ______________________
3 w eek s _____________________________________________
O ver 3 and under 4 w eek s ______________________
4 w eeks
_____________________________________________

3

4

10

49
1

46

16

19

31

-

-

2

33
3

26

1

-

-

17

9

83

39

16

7

74

46

1 In clud es data fo r w h o le sa le tr a d e ; fin a n ce, in su r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te ; and s e r v ic e s in addition to th ose in d u stry d iv isio n s shown se p a r a te ly .
2 T ra n sp o rta tio n , c o m m u n ication , and other public u tilit ie s .
3 In clud es data fo r w h o le sa le tra d e , r e a l e sta te , and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in d u stry d iv isio n s shown se p a r a te ly .
4 L e s s than 0. 5 p e r c e n t.
5 P e r io d s of s e r v ic e w e r e a r b itr a r ily c h ose n and do not n e c e s s a r ily r e fle c t the in divid u al p r o v isio n s fo r p r o g r e s s io n s .
F o r e x a m p le,
s e r v ic e include chan ges in p r o v isio n s o c c u r r in g b etw een 5 and 10 y e a r s .

the

21

chan ges in p ro p o rtio n s in dicated at 10 y e a r s '

NOTE:
See note on p. 13, r e la tiv e to the in c lu s io n of r a ilr o a d s .
In the tabu lations of v a c a tio n a llo w a n c es by y e a r s of s e r v ic e , p aym e n ts other than "le n g th of t i m e " such as p erc en ta g e
of annual ea rn in g s or f la t -s u m p a y m e n ts, w e r e co n v e rte d to an eq u ivalent tim e b a s i s ; fo r e x a m p le , a p aym en t of 2 p e r c e n t of annual ea rn in g s w as c o n sid e r e d as 1 w e e k 's p ay.




17

Table B-6. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
(P e r c e n t of offic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u str ie s and in in du stry d iv isio n s e m p loyed in e sta b lish m e n ts p rovidin g
h ealth, in su r a n ce , or p en sion b en efits, P r o v id en ce—P aw tu cket, R . I. —M a s s . , M ay 1961)
O F F IC E W O R K E R S

Type of b en efit

A ll w o r k e r s

All
industries

________________________________________

M anufacturing

100

100

Public 2
utilities 2

PL A N T W O RK ERS

Retail trade

100

100

Finance

All
industries

100

3

M anufacturing

100

Public ,
utilities 2

100

Retail trade

100

W o r k e r s in e s ta b lish m e n ts p ro v id in g :
L ife in su ra n ce _________ _____ ___________________
A c c id e n ta l death and d is m e m b e r m e n t
in su ran ce ______________________________________
S ick n ess and accid en t in su ra n ce or
sic k le a v e or b o th 4 _________________________

80

73

97

79

79

78

99

81

56

48

76

37

58

59

74

48

70

53

91

77

42

34

80

76

S ick n ess and accid en t in su ra n ce _______
S ick le a v e (fu ll pay and no
w aiting p eriod ) .............. .............. .............. ...............
Sick le a v e (p a r tia l pay or
w aiting p eriod ) ___________________________

24

34

30

14

34

32

52

37

59

35

91

56

8

2

22

37

(5)

-

-

7

2

1

24

2

H osp ita liza tio n in su ra n ce .............. ...........................
S u rg ic a l in su ra n ce _______ _________ _____________
M e d ic a l in su ra n ce
------------------- -----------------------------C ata strop h e in su ran ce _______________________
R e tire m e n t p en sion .................... .................. ..........
No h ealth, in su ra n ce , or p en sion plan ___

93
92
86
33
68
1

96
94
89
23
58

59
59
55
50
87

82
82
43
7
30
11

91
91
78
9
44
3

93
94
82
8
44
1

73
73
73
39
87

87
87
55
2
34
9

(5 )

1 Includes data for w h o le sa le tra d e ; fin a n ce, in su r a n ce , and r e a l e sta te ; and s e r v ic e s in addition to th ose in du stry d iv isio n s show n se p a r a te ly .
2 T ra n sp o rta tio n , com m u n ication , and other public u tilitie s .
3 In clud es data fo r w h o le sa le tra d e , r e a l e sta te , and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in d u stry d iv isio n s shown s e p a r a te ly .
4 U nduplicated total of w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g sic k le a v e or sic k n e s s and accid en t in su ran ce shown se p a r a te ly b elo w .
S ic k -le a v e plans a r e lim ite d to th ose w hich d efin ite ly e s ta b lis h at le a s t
the m in im u m num ber of d ays' pay that can be expected by each e m p lo y e e .
In fo r m a l s ic k -le a v e a llo w a n c es d ete r m in e d on an in divid u al b a s is a r e ex clu d ed .
5 L e s s than 0. 5 p erc en t.
NOTE:

See note on p. 13,




r e la tiv e to the in clu sio n of r a ilr o a d s .




19

A ppendix:

Occupational Descriptions

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureaus wage surveys is to a ssist its
field staff in classifyin g into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field economists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers,
part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.
O F F IC E
B I L L E R , MACHINE

BO O KKEEPIN G -M A CH IN E O P E R A T O R

Prepares statements, b ills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerica l work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
cla ssified by type of machine, as follow s:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.

Biller, machine (hilling machine) — Uses a special billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, e tc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.

Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine) — Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, e tc ., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare custom ers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types of sales and
credit slip s.




Class A — Keeps a set o f records requiring a knowledge o f
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance
sheets, and other records by hand.
Class B— Keeps a record of one or more phases or section s of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of b asic book­
keeping.
Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type o f billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or a ssist in preparation o f trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.
C L E R K , ACCO UNTIN G

Class A — Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more section s o f a com ­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase of an establish ­
ment's business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

20

C L E R K , A CCO U N TIN G — Continued
payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper a c ­
counting distribution; requires judgment and experience in making
proper assignations and allocation s. May a ssist in preparing, ad­
justing and closin g journal entries; may direct cla ss B accounting
clerks.
C lass B— Under supervision, performs one or more routine a c ­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or a c ­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers, or posting simple c o s t accounting data. This
job does not require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping
principles but is found in offices in which the more routine account­
ing work is subdivided on a functional basis among several workers.

C LER K , PA YRO LL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the n e ce s­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers'
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker's name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and a ssist paymaster in making up and distribut­
ing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.
CO M PTO M ETER O P E R A T O R
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

C LER K , F IL E
C lass A — In an established filing system containing a num­
ber of varied subject matter file s , cla ss ifie s and indexes corres­
pondence or other material; may also file this material. May keep
records of various types in conjunction with files or may super­
vise others in filing and locating material in the file s . May per­
form incidental clerical duties.
Class B— Performs routine filin g, usually of material that has
already been cla ssified or which is easily identifiable, or loca tes
or a ssists in locating material in file s . May perform incidental
clerica l duties.

C L E R K , O RD ER
R eceives custom ers'orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination o f the follow ing:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; distributing order sheets to respective departments to be filled .
May check with credit department to determine credit rating of customer,
acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders to see
that they have been filled , keep file of orders received, and check ship­
ping invoices with original orders.




D U PLIC A TIN G -M A CH IN E O P E R A T O R (MIMEOGRAPH OR D IT T O )
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
b ilities, reproduces multiple cop ies of typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare sten cil or Ditto master. May keep file of used sten cils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

KEYPU N CH

O PERATO R

Under general supervision and with no supervisory respon si­
b ilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards by
punching a series of holes in the cards in a sp ecified sequence, using
an alphabetical or a numerical keypunch machine, following written in­
formation on records. May duplicate cards by using the duplicating de­
vice attached to machine. May keep files of punch cards. May verify
own work or vrork of others.
O F F I C E B O Y OR G IR L
Performs various routine duties such as running errands, op­
erating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and
distributing mail, and other minor clerica l work.

21

SECRETARY

Performs secretarial and clerica l duties for a superior in an ad­
ministrative or executive position. Duties include making appointments
for superior; receiving people coming into o ffice ; answering and making
phone ca lls; handling personal and important or confidential mail, and
writing routine correspondence on own initiative; taking dictation (where
transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded information
reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare special reports or
memorandums for information of superior.
STENOGRAPHER, G ENERAL

Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a nor­
mal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter.
May a lso type from written copy. May a lso set up and keep file s in or­
der, keep simple records, etc. D oes not include transcribing-machine
work (see transcribing-machine operator).
STE N O G R A P H E R , T E C H N IC A L

Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a varied
technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on
scien tific research and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter. May
also type from written copy. May a lso set up and keep file s in order,
keep simple records, etc. D oes not include transcribing-machine work.
S W IT C H B O A R D O P E R A T O R

Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or o ffice c a lls .
May record toll ca lls and take m essages. May give information to per­
sons who ca ll in, or occasion ally take telephone orders. For workers
who also act as receptionists see switchboard operator-receptionist.
S W IT C H B O A R D O P E R A T O R -R E C E P T IO N I S T

In addition to performing duties o f operator, on a single p o si­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may a lso type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. This typing
or clerica l work may take the major part o f this worker's time while at
switchboard.




T A B U L A T IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R

C lass A— Operates a variety of tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu-*
la tor, calculator, interpreter, collator and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignments without clo s e supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are o f irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating sequences o f long and complex reports.
D oes not include working supervisors performing tabulating-machine
operations and day-to-day supervision of the work and production of
a group of tabulating-machine operators.
Class B— Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under
sp e cific instructions and may include the performance o f some wir­
ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but
small tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually o f a recurring nature where
the procedures are well established. May a lso include the training
of new employees in the basic operation of the machine.
Class C— Operates simple tabulating or electrica l account­
ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with sp e cific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs, or re­
petitive operations.
T R A N S C R IB IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R , G E N E R A L

Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May a lso type from written
copy and do simple clerica l work. Workers transcribing dictation in­
volving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal briefs
or reports on scien tific research are not included. A worker who takes
dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is cla ssified
as a stenographer, general.

22

TYPIST

TYPIST— Continued

Uses a typewriter to make cop ies o f various material or to make
out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May in­
clude typing of s te n cils , mats, or similar materials for use in duplicat­
ing p rocesses. May do clerica l work involving little sp e cia l training,
such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting
and distributing incoming mail.

tuation, e tc ., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; planning layout and typing o f com plicated statistical tables
to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine
form letters varying details to suit circum stances.
C lass B—“Performs one or more o f the follow ing: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing o f forms, insurance p o licie s,
e tc .; setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying more com­
plex tables already set up and spaced properly.

C lass A— Performs one or more o f the follow ing: Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punc-

P R O

F E S S I O

N

A

L

D R A F T S M A N , J U N IO R

(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to sca le units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Uses various types- of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.
D R AFTSM AN, L E A D E R

Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration of working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Duties
involve a combination o f the follow ing: Interpreting blueprints, sketches,
and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures; assigning
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problems. May a ssist subordinates during em ergencies or as a
regular assignment, or perform related duties o f a supervisory or ad­
ministrative nature.

A N D

T E C H

N

I C A

L

D R A F T S M A N , S E N IO R — C on tin u ed

involved in strength o f materials, beams and trusses; verifying com*
pleted work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quantities;
writing sp ecification s; making adjustments or changes in drawings or
specification s. May ink in lines and letters on pencil drawings, prepare
detail units o f complete drawings, or trace drawings. Work is frequently
in a specialized field such as architectural, electrical, m echanical, or
structural drafting.
N U R S E , IN D U S T R IA L (R E G IS T E R E D )

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combiner
tion o f the follow ing: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing o f em ployees’ injuries; keeping records o i patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations o f applicants
and em ployees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation o f plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety o f a ll personnel.

D R A F T S M A N , S E N IO R
TRACER

Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur*
p oses. Duties involve a combination o f the follow ing: Preparing work­
ing plans, detail drawings, maps, crossf-sections, e tc ., to sca le by use
of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as those




Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or p en cil. U ses
T-square, com pass, and other drafting to o ls. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

23

MAINTENANCE

3 PO W E R P L A N T

C A R P E N T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E

F IR E M A N , S T A T IO N A R Y B O IL E R

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casin gs, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’ s handtools, portable
power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; selectin g materials n ec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or a ssist in repairing boilerroom equipment.

E L E C T R I C I A N , M A IN T E N A N C E

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, d is­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Installing or repairing any o f a variety
o f electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit system s,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specification s; locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c ­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; using a variety of
electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In gen­
eral, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.
E N G IN E E R , S T A T IO N A R Y

Operates and maintains and may a lso supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, motors
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a record of
operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May also
supervise these operations. Head or ch ie f engineers in establishm ents
employing more than one engineer are excluded




.

H E L P E R , T R A D E S , M A IN T E N A N C E

A ssists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing sp e cific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and to o ls; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is nermitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts o f a trade
that are a lso performed by workers on a full-time b asis.
M A C H IN E -T O O L O P E R A T O R , T O O L R O O M

S pecializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools, gauges,
jig s, fixtures, or d ies. Work involves most o f the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making necessary adjustment^ during operation tc
achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to se le ct proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils . For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this cla ssifica tion .
M A C H IN IS T , M A IN T E N A N C E

Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Interpreting written instructions and
sp ecification s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
chinist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and

24

M A C H IN IST, M A IN T E N A N C E — Continued

M ILLW R IG H T— Continued

operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to clo se toler­
ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assembling parts into me­
chanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally requires
a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

are required. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specification s; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment, and parts
to be used; installing and maintaining in good order power transmission
equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the mill­
wright’ s work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

M E C H A N IC , A U T O M O T IV E (M A IN T E N A N C E )

Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an e s ­
tablishment. Work involves most o f the following: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassem bling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assem blies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; alining wheels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
M E C H A N IC , M A IN T E N A N C E

Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves most o f the following: Examining machines and mechan­
ica l equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly d is­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replace­
ment part by a machine-shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop
for major repairs; preparing written specification s for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling ma­
chines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In general,
the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classification are workers
whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.
M IL L W R IG H T

Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout




O IL E R

Lubricates, with o il or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
fa ces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.
P A IN T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E

Paints and redeeprates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types o f paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, o ils, white ledd, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper
color or con sistency. In general, the work of the maintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
P IP E F I T T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E

Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other written specification s; cutting various size s of pipe to correct
lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with stocks and d ies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to pressures,
flow , and size of pipe required; making standard tests to determine
whether finished pipes meet specifications* In general, the work of the
maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily engaged in .installing and repairing building
sanitation or heating systems are excluded .

25

T O O L A N D D IE M AK ER

P L U M B E R , M A IN T E N A N C E

Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber's snake. In
general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.
S H E E T -M E T A L W O R K E R , M A IN T E N A N C E

Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, models,
or other specification s; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; installing sheetmetal articles as required. In general, the work of the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most o f the following: Planning and laying out of work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specification s;
using a variety of tool and die maker's handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding of the working properties of common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to clo s e tolerances; fitting and assembling
o f parts to prescribed tolerances and allowances; selecting appropriate
materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die maker's
work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification .

C U S T O D IA L A N D M A T E R IA L M O V E M E N T
E L E V A T O R O P E R A T O R , PASSENGER

J A N IT O R , P O R T E R , O R C L E A N E R — Continued

Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Workers
who specialize in window washing are excluded.

GUARD

Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gate-

men who are stationed at gate and check on identity o f employees and
other persons entering.
J A N IT O R , P O R T E R , O R C L E A N E R

(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial




L A B O R E R , M A T E R IA L H A N D L IN G

(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more o f the follow­
ing: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or

26

LABORER MATERIAL HANDLING— Continued

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued

from freight ca rs, trucks, or other transporting d e v ice s; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; trans­
porting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.
Longshoremen, who lead and unload ships are excluded

.

ORDER FILLER

For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssifie d as follow s:
R eceiv in g clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receivin g clerk

TRUCKDRIVER

(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specification s on sales s lip s , customers’
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to fillin g orders and indi­
cating items filled or omitted, keep records o f outgoing orders, requisi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.

Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of estab­
lishments such a s: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers* houses or places of business. May a lso load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. Driver-salesm en and over-the-road drivets
cure excluded

.

PACKER, SHIPPING
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the s p e cific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number o f units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method o f shipment. Work requires the
placing o f items in shipping containers and may ijivolve one or more o f
the following: Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify
content; selection of appropriate type and size o f container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closin g and sealing container; applying labels or
entering identifying data on container. P a ckers who also make wooden
boxes or crates are excluded

.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­
sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Shipping
work in volves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes,
available means o f transportation and rates; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or a ssist in
preparing the merchandise for shipment. R eceivin g work in volves: Veri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipments against
b ills of lading, in v oices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing merchandise or materials to proper de­
partments; maintaining necessary records and file s .




For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are cla ssifie d by size
and type o f equipment, as follow s: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis o f trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver (combination o f s iz e s listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under ly2 ton s)
Truckdriver, medium (1% to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer typ e)
Truckdriver, heavy (o v er 4 tons, other than trailer type)

TRUCKER, POWER
Operates a manually controlled gasolin e- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssifie d by type of
truck, as follow s:
Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)

WATCHMAN
Makes rounds o f premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.
U.S. GOVERNM
ENT PRINTING OFFICB: 1961

O— 601618


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102