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Occupational Wage Survey

MILWAUKEE, WISCONSIN
APRIL 1961

Bulletin No. 1285-64




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT O F LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU O F LABO R STA TISTIC S
Ewan C la g u e , Com m issioner




Occupational Wage Survey
MILWAUKEE, WISCONSIN




APRIL 1961

Bulletin No. 1285-64
June 1961

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT O F LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU O F LA BO R STA T IST IC S
Ewan C la g u e , Com m issioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, W ashington 25, D.C.

-

Price 2 5 cunts




Contents

Preface

Page
The C om m u n ity W age S u rvey P r o g r a m

In trod u ction ________________________________________________________________
W age tren d s fo r s e le c t e d o c cu p a tio n a l g rou p s _________________________

The B u reau o f L a b o r S ta tistics r e g u la r ly con d u cts
a rea w id e w age s u r v e y s in a n u m ber o f im p orta n t in d u stria l
cen ters.
The stu d ie s, m ade fr o m la te fa ll to e a r ly sp rin g ,
r e la te to o c cu p a tio n a l e a rn in g s and r e la te d su p p lem en ta ry
b e n e fits .
A p r e lim in a r y r e p o r t is a v a ila b le on c o m p le tio n
o f the study in ea ch a r e a , u su a lly in the m on th fo llo w in g
the p a y r o ll p e r io d stu d ied.
T h is b u lletin p r o v id e s a d d i­
tion a l data not in clu d ed in the e a r lie r r e p o r t .
A c o n s o l­
id a ted a n a ly tica l b u lle tin su m m a r iz in g the r e s u lts o f all
o f the y e a r ’ s s u r v e y s is is s u e d a fte r c o m p le tio n o f the
fin a l a r e a b u lle tin fo r the c u r r e n t roun d o f s u r v e y s .

T a b les:

T h is r e p o r t w as p r e p a r e d in the B u rea u ’ s re g io n a l
o ffic e in C h ic a g o , 111. , b y W o o d ro w C. Lin n , under the
d ir e c tio n o f G e o rg e E . V otav a, A s s is ta n t R eg ion a l D ir e c t o r
fo r W ages and In d u stria l R e la tio n s .

B:




1.
2.

A

E sta b lish m en ts and w o r k e r s w ithin s c o p e o f s u r v e y ___________
In dexes o f stan dard w eek ly s a la r ie s and s tr a ig h t-tim e
h o u rly ea rn in g s fo r s e le c t e d o ccu p a tio n a l g ro u p s,
and p e r ce n ts o f in c r e a s e fo r s e le c t e d p e r io d s ________________
O ccu p a tion a l e a r n in g s :*
A - 1.
O ffice o ccu p a tio n s _________________________________________
A - 2.
P r o fe s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l o c cu p a tio n s __________________
A - 3.
M ain ten an ce and p o w e r plant o c cu p a tio n s ________________
A - 4.
C u stod ia l and m a te r ia l m o v e m e n t o c cu p a tio n s _________
E sta b lish m en t p r a c t ic e s and su p p lem en ta ry w age
p r o v is io n s :
B -l.
Shift d iffe r e n tia ls __________________________________________
B -2 . M inim u m e n tra n ce s a la r ie s fo r w om en o ffic e
w o r k e r s ____________________________________________________
B -3 .
Sch edu led w eek ly h ou rs ___________________________________
B -4 .
P a id h olid a y s ______________________________________________
B -5 .
P a id v a c a tio n s ______________________________________________
B -6 .
H ealth, in s u r a n ce , and p en sion plans ___________________

A ppendix:

O ccu p a tion a l d e s c r ip tio n s

___________________________________

* N O TE: S im ila r tabu lation s a r e a v a ila b le in the M ilw au kee
a r e a r e p o r t s fo r M a rch 1952, A p r il 1953, A p r il 1954,
N o v e m b e r 1955, A p r il 1957, M ay 1958, and in A p r il o f
1959, I960, and 1961. The 1959 r e p o r t w as lim ite d to
e a rn in g s, and the 1957 r e p o r t to the ea rn in g s o f plant
w o r k e r s in m a n u factu rin g .
A d ir e c t o r y in d ica tin g date o f
study and the p r ic e o f the r e p o r t s , as w e ll as r e p o r t s fo r
oth er m a jo r a r e a s , is a v a ila b le upon r e q u e st.
C u rren t r e p o r ts on o c cu p a tio n a l ea rn in g s and
su p p lem en ta ry w age p r a c t ic e s in the M ilw au kee a r e a a r e
a ls o a v a ila b le fo r flu id m ilk (June I9 6 0 ), h o te ls (June I9 6 0 ),
p o w e r la u n d rie s and d r y c le a n e r s (Ju ly I9 6 0 ), banking
(Ju ly I9 60), and n o n fe r ro u s fo u n d r ie s (June I9 6 0 ).
U nion
s c a le s , in d ic a tiv e o f p r e v a ilin g pay le v e ls , a r e a v a ila b le
fo r the fo llo w in g tra d e s o r in d u str ie s :
B u ild in g c o n s t r u c ­
tion , prin tin g, lo c a l-t r a n s it op era tin g e m p lo y e e s , and m o ­
to r tr u c k d r iv e r s and h e lp e r s .

iii

1
4

3

3

5
8
9
10

12
13
14
15
16
18
19




Occupational W age Survey—Milwaukee, Wis.
Introduction

This a r e a is one o f s e v e r a l im p orta n t in d u stria l c e n te rs in
w h ich the U. S. D ep a rtm en t o f L a b o r 's B u reau o f L a b o r S ta tistics has
con d u cted s u r v e y s o f o c cu p a tio n a l ea rn in g s and re la te d w age b e n e fits
on an a r e a w id e b a s i s . In this a r e a , data w e re obtain ed b y p e r s o n a l
v is it s o f B u reau fie ld e c o n o m is ts
to r e p r e s e n ta tiv e e sta b lish m en ts
w ith in six b r o a d in d u stry d iv is io n s :
M an u fa ctu rin g; tr a n sp o rta tio n , 1
c o m m u n ica tio n , and oth er p u b lic u tilitie s ; w h o le s a le tra d e; r e ta il
tra d e; fin a n ce , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l esta te; and s e r v ic e s . M a jo r in ­
d u stry g rou p s e x clu d e d fr o m th ese stu d ies a r e g o v e rn m e n t op era tion s
and the c o n s tr u c tio n and e x tr a c tiv e in d u s tr ie s . E sta b lish m en ts having
fe w e r than a p r e s c r ib e d n u m ber o f w o r k e r s a r e om itted a ls o b e c a u s e
they fu rn ish in s u ffic ie n t em p lo y m e n t in the occu p a tio n s studied to w a r ­
rant in clu s io n . W h e re v e r p o s s ib le , se p a ra te tabu lation s a r e p r o v id e d
fo r ea ch o f the b r o a d in d u stry d iv is io n s .
T h ese s u r v e y s a r e con d u cted on a sa m p le b a s is b e c a u s e o f the
u n n e c e s s a r y c o s t in v olv ed in su rv e y in g a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts. To obtain
a p p ro p r ia te a c c u r a c y at m in im u m c o s t , a g re a te r p r o p o r t io n o f la rg e
than o f s m a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts is stu d ied. In com b in in g the data, h ow ­
e v e r , a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts a r e g iven th eir a p p ro p r ia te w eigh t. E stim a tes
b a s e d on the esta b lis h m e n ts studied a r e p r e s e n te d , th e r e fo r e , as r e ­
latin g to a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts in the in d u stry g rou p in g and a r e a ,
ex­
ce p t f o r th ose b e lo w the m in im u m s iz e studied.
O ccu p a tion s and E a rn in gs
The occu p a tio n s s e le c t e d fo r study a r e co m m o n to a v a r ie ty
o f m a n u fa ctu rin g and n on m an u fa ctu rin g in d u s tr ie s . O ccu p a tion a l c l a s ­
s ific a tio n is b a se d on a u n ifo rm se t o f jo b d e s c r ip tio n s d esign ed to
take a ccou n t o f in te r e sta b lish m e n t v a r ia tio n in duties w ithin the sa m e
jo b . (See ap pendix fo r lis tin g o f th ese d e s c r ip tio n s . ) E a rn in gs data a re
p r e s e n te d (in the A - s e r i e s ta b le s ) fo r the fo llo w in g ty pes o f o c c u p a ­
tio n s : (a) O ffice c le r i c a l; (b) p r o fe s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l; (c ) m a in te ­
n an ce and p ow erp la n t; anji (d) c u s to d ia l and m a te r ia l m o v e m e n t.
O ccu p a tion a l em p lo y m e n t and ea rn in g s data a r e show n fo r
fu ll-t im e w o r k e r s , i. e. , th ose h ire d to w o r k a r e g u la r w e e k ly s c h e d ­
u le in the g iv en o c cu p a tio n a l c la s s ific a t io n .
E arn in gs data ex clu d e
p r e m iu m pay fo r o v e r t im e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and

1 R a ilr o a d s , fo r m e r l y ex clu d e d fr o m the s c o p e o f th ese stu d ie s,
w e r e in clu d ed in a ll o f the a r e a s studied s in c e July 1959, e x ce p t B a lti­
m o r e (S ep tem b er 1959 and D e c e m b e r I9 6 0 ), B u ffalo (O cto b e r 1959),
C levela n d (S ep tem b er 1959), and Seattle (A ugust 1959).




late sh ifts.
N on p rod u ction b on u ses a re e x clu d ed a ls o , but c o s t - o f liv in g b on u ses and in cen tiv e earn in g s a r e in clu d ed .
W h ere w eek ly
h ou rs a r e r e p o r t e d , as fo r o ffic e c le r i c a l o c cu p a tio n s , r e fe r e n c e is
to the w o r k sch e d u le s (rounded to the n e a r e s t h a lf h ou r) f o r w h ich
s t r a ig h t-tim e s a la r ie s a r e paid; a v e r a g e w eek ly ea rn in g s fo r th ese
occu p a tio n s have b e e n rounded to the n e a r e s t h a lf d o lla r .
A v e ra g e earn in g s of m en and w om en a r e p re se n te d se p a r a te ly
fo r s e le c t e d o ccu p a tio n s in w h ich both s e x e s a r e co m m o n ly em p lo y e d .
D iffe r e n c e s in pay le v e ls o f m en and w om en in th ese occu p a tion s a r e
la r g e ly due to ( l ) d iffe r e n c e s in the d istrib u tion of the s e x e s am ong
in d u strie s and e sta b lis h m e n ts; (2) d iffe r e n c e s in s p e c ific duties p e r ­
fo r m e d , although the occu p a tion s a r e a p p ro p r ia te ly c la s s ifie d w ithin
the sa m e s u r v e y jo b d e s c r ip tio n ; and (3) d iffe r e n c e s in length of s e r v ­
ic e o r m e r it r e v ie w w hen in dividu al s a la r ie s a r e ad ju sted on this b a s is .
L o n g e r a v e r a g e s e r v ic e o f m en w ould r e s u lt in h igh er a v e r a g e pay
w hen both s e x e s a r e e m p loy ed w ithin the sa m e rate ra n ge.
Job
d e s c r ip tio n s i^sed in c la s s ify in g e m p lo y e e s in th ese s u rv e y s a r e u su ­
a lly m o r e g e n e r a liz e d than th ose u sed in in dividu al e sta b lish m en ts to
a llow f o r m in o r d iffe r e n c e s am ong e sta b lish m en ts in s p e c ific duties
p e r fo r m e d .
O ccu p a tion a l em p loy m en t e stim a te s r e p r e s e n t the total in a ll
e sta b lis h m e n ts w ithin the s c o p e of the study and not the n u m ber a c tu ­
a lly su r v e y e d . B eca u se of d iffe r e n c e s in occu p a tion a l stru ctu re am ong
e s ta b lis h m e n ts , the, e stim a te s o f o ccu p a tio n a l em p loym en t obtained
fr o m the sa m p le o f esta b lish m en ts studied s e r v e on ly to in d icate the
r e la t iv e im p o rta n ce o f the jo b s studied.
T h ese d iffe r e n c e s in o c c u ­
pa tion al s tru c tu re do n ot m a te r ia lly a ffe c t the a c c u r a c y o f the e a r n ­
ings data.
E sta b lish m en t P r a c t ic e s and S u pplem en tary W age P r o v is io n s
In form a tion is p re se n te d a ls o (in the B - s e r i e s ta b le s ) on s e ­
le c te d esta b lish m en t p r a c t ic e s and su p p lem en ta ry b en e fits as they r e ­
late to o ffic e and plant w o r k e r s .
The term " o f f i c e w o r k e r s , " as u sed
in this b u lle tin , in clu d es w ork in g s u p e r v is o r s and n o n s u p e r v is o r y
w o r k e r s p e r fo r m in g c le r i c a l o r re la te d fu n ctio n s, and e x clu d e s ad m in ­
is tr a tiv e , e x e c u tiv e , and p r o fe s s io n a l p e r s o n n e l. "P la n t w o r k e r s " in­
clud e w ork in g fo r e m e n and a ll n o n s u p e r v is o r y w o r k e r s (in cluding lea d m en and tr a in e e s ) engaged in n o n o ffic e fu n ctio n s.
A d m in istra tiv e ,
e x e c u tiv e , and p r o fe s s io n a l e m p lo y e e s , and f o r c e -a c c o u n t con s tr u c tio n
e m p lo y e e s w ho a re u tiliz e d as a sep a ra te w o rk f o r c e a r e ex clu d ed .
C a fe te r ia w o r k e r s and rou tem en a r e e x clu d ed in m a n u fa ctu rin g in du s­
t r ie s , but a r e in clu d ed as plant w o r k e r s in n on m an u fa ctu rin g in d u str ie s .

2
Shift differential data (table B -l) are limited to manufacturing
industries. This information is presented both in terms of (a) estab­
lishment policy,2 presented in terms of total plant worker employ­
ment, and (b) effective practice, presented on the basis of workers
actually employed on the specified shift at the time of the survey.
In establishments having varied differentials, the amount applying to
a majority was used or, if no amount applied to a majority, the clas­
sification "other" was used. In establishments in which some lateshift hours are paid at normal rates, a differential was recorded only
if it applied to a majority of the shift hours.
Minimum entrance rates (table B-2) relate only to the estab­
lishments visited. They are presented on an establishment, rather
than on an employment basis. Paid holidays; paid vacations; and
health, insurance, and pension plans are treated statistically on the
basis that these are applicable to all plant or office workers if a ma­
jority of such workers are eligible or may eventually qualify for the
practices listed. Scheduled hours are treated statistically on the basis
that these are applicable to all plant or office workers if a majority
are covered. 3 Because of rounding, sums of individual items in these
tabulations may not equal totals.
The first part of the paid holidays table presents the num­
ber of whole and half holidays actually provided. The second part
combines whole and half holidays to show total holiday time.

Data are presented for all health, insurance, and pension
plans for which at least a part of the cost is borne by the employer,
excepting only legal requirements such as workmen's compensation,
social security, and railroad retirement. Such plans include those
underwritten by a commercial insurance company and those provided
through a union fund or paid directly by the employer out of current
operating funds or from a fund set aside for this purpose. Death
benefits are included as a form of life insurance.
Sickness and accident insurance is limited to that type of in­
surance under which predetermined cash payments are made directly
to the insured on a weekly or monthly basis during illness or accident
disability. Information is presented for all such plans to which the
employer contributes. However, in New York and New Jersey, which
have enacted temporary disability insurance laws which require em­
ployer contributions,4 plans are included only if the employer (1) con­
tributes more than is legally required, or (2) provides the employee
with benefits which exceed the requirements of the law. Tabulations
of paid sick-leave plans are limited to formal plans 5 which provide
full pay or a proportion of the worker's pay during absence from work
because of illness. Separate tabulations are provided according to
(1) .plans which provide full pay and no waiting period, and (2) plans
providing either partial pay or a waiting period. In addition to the
presentation of the proportions of workers who are provided sickness
and accident insurance or paid sick leave, an unduplicated total is
shown of workers who receive either or both types of benefits.

The summary of vacation plans is limited to formal arrange­
ments, excluding informal plans whereby time off with pay is granted
at the discretion of the employer. Separate estimates are provided
according to employer practice in computing vacation payments, such
as time payments, percent of annual earnings, or flat-sum amounts.
However, in the tabulations of vacation allowances, payments not on
a time basis were converted; for example, a payment of 2 percent of
annual earnings was considered as the equivalent of 1 week's pay.

Catastrophe insurance, sometimes referred to as extended
medical insurance, includes those plans which are designed to protect
employees in case of sickness and injury involving expenses beyond
the normal coverage of hospitalization, medical, and surgical plans.
Medical insurance refers to plans providing for complete or partial
payment of doctors' fees. Such plans may be underwritten by commer­
cial insurance companies or nonprofit organizations or they may be
self-insured. Tabulations of retirement pension plans are limited to
those plans that provide monthly payments for the remainder of the
worker's life.

2 An establishment was considered as having a policy if it met
either of the following conditions: (1) Operated late shifts at the time
of the survey, or (2) had formal provisions covering late shifts.
3 Scheduled weekly hours for office workers (first section of
table B-3) in surveys made prior to July 1957 were presented in
terms of the proportion of women office workers employed in offices
with the indicated weekly hours for women workers.

4 The temporary disability laws in California and Rhode Island
do not require employer contributions.
5 An establishment was considered as having a formal plan if
it established at least the minimum number of days of sick leave that
could be expected by each employee. Such a plan need not be written,
but informal sick-leave allowances, determined on an individual basis,
were excluded.




3

T a ble 1.

E sta b lish m e n ts and w o r k e r s w ithin s c o p e o f su rve y and num ber studied in M ilw aukee, W i s . , 1 by m a jo r in d u stry d iv isio n , 2 A p r il 1961

Industry d iv is io n

A ll d iv is io n s

N um ber o f e sta b lish m e n ts

M in im um
e m p loym en t
in e s t a b lis h ­
m ents in s c o p e
o f study

W ithin
scop e of
study 3

W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m en ts
W ithin s c o p e of study

Studied

Studied
T o ta l4

O ffic e

Plant

T o ta l4

___________„_____________________________________

50

777

185

243, 000

43, 000

159, 900

159, 720

M anufacturin g _______________________________________________
N onm anufacturing _ ____ __
T ra n sp orta tion , co m m u n ica tio n , and
oth er pu b lic u tilitie s 5 __________________________________
W h o le s a le trade
____
R eta il trade
F in an ce, in s u r a n c e , and r e a l esta te ________________
_____
S e r v i c e s 7 ___________

50
50

400
377

92
93

165, 300
77, 700

24, 100
18, 900

116, 800
43, 100

111, 030
48, 690

50
50
50
50
50

50
81
127
55
64

20
17
25
14
17

21,
10,
27,
10,
8,

000
700
100
400
500

4, 000
( 6)
( )
( 6)
( 6)

11, 700
( 6)
(*)
( 6)
( 6)

18,
3,
17,
6,
3,

060
490
510
440
190

1 The M ilw aukee Standard M e tro p o lita n S ta tis tica l A r e a (M ilw au kee and W aukesha C ou n ties).
The " w o r k e r s w ithin s c o p e o f stu dy" e s tim a te s show n in this table p r o v id e a rea s on a b ly a ccu ra te
d e s c r ip tio n o f the s iz e and c o m p o s it io n o f the la b o r f o r c e in clu d e d in the su rv e y .
The e s tim a te s a r e not intended, h o w e ve r, to s e r v e as a b a s is of c o m p a r is o n w ith oth er a r e a em p loy m en t in d exes
to m e a s u r e em p lo ym e n t tren d s o r le v e ls s in ce (1) planning o f w age s u rv e y s r e q u ir e s the u se o f e sta b lish m e n t data c o m p ile d c o n s id e r a b ly in advance o f the p a y r o ll p e r io d studied, and (2) s m a ll
esta b lish m en ts a r e ex clu d e d f r o m the s c o p e o f the s u rv e y .
2 The 1957 r e v is e d ed itio n o f the Standard In d u strial C la s s ific a t io n M anual w as u sed in c la s s ify in g e sta b lish m e n ts by in du stry d iv is io n .
M a jor ch an ges fr o m the e a r lie r e d itio n (u sed in the
B u re a u 's la b o r m a r k e t w age su r v e y s con d u cted p r io r to July 1958) a r e the t r a n s fe r o f m ilk p a s te u riz a tio n plants and r e a d y -m ix e d c o n c r e te esta b lish m en ts fr o m trad e (w h o le s a le o r reta il) to
m an u factu rin g, and the t r a n s fe r o f r a d io and te le v is io n b ro a d c a s tin g fr o m s e r v ic e s to the tra n sp o rta tio n , co m m u n ica tio n , and other p u b lic u tilitie s d iv is io n .
3 In clu d es a ll e sta b lish m e n ts w ith total em p lo ym e n t at o r above the m in im u m -s iz e lim ita tio n .
A ll ou tlets (w ithin the a rea) o f c om p a n ies in su ch in d u s tr ie s as tra d e, fin a n ce, auto r e p a ir
s e r v ic e , and m o t io n -p ic t u r e th e a te rs a r e c o n s id e r e d as 1 e sta b lish m e n t.
4 In clu d es e x e cu tiv e , p r o fe s s io n a l, and other w o r k e r s e xclu d ed fr o m the se p a ra te o ffic e and plant c a t e g o r ie s .
5 T a x ica b s and s e r v ic e s in cid e n ta l to w a te r tr a n s p o r ta tio n w e r e e x clu d e d .
6 Th is in du stry d iv is io n is r e p r e s e n te d in e s tim a te s fo r " a ll in d u s t r ie s " and "n o n m an u factu rin g" in the S e r ie s A and B ta b le s .
S eparate p re s e n ta tio n o f data f o r this d iv is io n is not m ade
f o r one o r m o r e o f the fo llo w in g r e a s o n s : (1) E m p loym en t in the d iv is io n is too s m a ll to p r o v id e enough data to m e r it se p a ra te study, (2) the sam p le w as not d esig n ed in itia lly to p e r m it sep a ra te
p resen ta tion , (3) r e s p o n s e w as in s u ffic ie n t o r inadequate to p e r m it se p a ra te p re se n ta tio n , (4) th e re is p o s s ib ilit y of d is c lo s u r e o f individ ual esta b lish m en t data.
7 H otels ; p e r s o n a l s e r v ic e s ; b u s in e s s s e r v ic e s ; au to m o b ile r e p a ir sh o p s; m o tio n p ic tu r e s ; n o n p ro fit m e m b e r s h ip o r g a n iz a tio n s ; and en gin eerin g and a r c h ite c tu r a l s e r v ic e s .

T a b le 2.

In dexes of standard w e e k ly s a la r ie s and s tr a ig h t-tim e h ou rly earnings f o r s e le c t e d occu p a tio n a l grou p s in M ilw aukee, W is. ,
A p r il 1961 and A p r il I960, and p e r c e n ts of in c r e a s e fo r s e le c t e d p e r io d s
Indexes
(A p r il 1953 = 100)

P e r c e n t i n c r e a s e s fr o m —

Industry and o ccu p a tio n a l group
A p r il 1961

A p r il I960

A p ril I960
to
A p r il 1961

A p ril 1959
to
A p r il I960

M ay 1958
to
A p r il 1959

N ov em b er 1955
to
M ay 1958

A p r il 1954
to
N o v em b er 1955

A p r il 1953
to
A p r il 1954

M a r c h 1952
to
A p r il 1953

A ll in d u s tr ie s :
O ffice c le r i c a l (w om en) _____________________
In du strial n u r s e s (w om en) __________________
S k illed m ain ten an ce (m en) __________________
U n skilled plant (m en) _________ ______________

1 3 7 .4
147. 3
144. 7
1 3 8 .9

1 3 3 .4
140. 2
139. 7
134. 5

3 .0
5. 0
3. 6
3. 3

3 .6
2. 3
4 .9
2. 5

2 .9
4. 2
3. 9
3. 8

13.
14.
13.
13.

6
4
5
7

5.
9.
6.
6.

3
0
7
2

4. 5
5. 5
5 .9
4. 6

6 .5
5. 8
7. 4
9. 9

M an u factu rin g:
O ffic e c le r i c a l (w om en) _____________________
In du strial n u r s e s (w om en) __________________
S k illed m ain ten an ce (m en) __________________
U n sk illed plant (m en) _______________________

142.
147.
145.
139.

136.
140.
140.
134.

4. 0
5. 0
3. 6
3 .4

3. 6
2 .9
4. 8
2 .4

3.
4.
4.
3.

13.
14.
13.
12.

0
4
4
3

6.
9.
6.
7.

7
0
9
4

5. 5
5. 5
6. 3
5 .8

6 .8
6. 7
6. 8
1 0 .4




1
9
7
3

7
9
6
8

8
2
2
2

4

Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups

Presented in table 2 are indexes of salaries of office clerical
workers and industrial nurses, and of average earnings of selected
plant worker groups. In areas which were not surveyed during the
fiscal 1953 base year (July 1952 to June 1953) this table is limited
to percents of change between selected periods.
For office clerical workers and industrial nurses, the indexes
relate to average weekly salaries for normal hours of work, that is,
the standard work schedule for which straight-time salaries are paid.
For plant worker groups, they measure changes in straight-time hourly
earnings, excluding premium pay for overtime and for work on week­
ends, holidays, and late shifts. The indexes are based on data for
selected key occupations and include most of the numerically important
jobs within each group. The office clerical data are based on women in
the following 18 jobs: Billers, machine (billing machine); bookkeepingmachine operators, class A and B; Comptometer operators; clerks, file,
class A and B; clerks, order; clerks, payroll; keypunch operators;
office girls; secretaries; stenographers, general; switchboard opera­
tors; switchboard operator-receptionists; tabulating-machine opera­
tors; transcribing-machine operators, general; and typists, class A
and B. The industrial nurse data are based on women industrial
nurses. Men in the following 10 skilled maintenance jobs and 3 unskilled
jobs were included in the plant worker data: Skilled-—carpenters;
electricians; machinists; mechanics; mechanics, automotive; m ill­
wrights; painters; pipefitters; sheet-metal workers; and tool and die
makers; unskilled—janitors, porters, and cleaners; laborers, ma­
terial handling; and watchmen.
Average weekly salaries or average hourly earnings were
computed for each of the selected occupations. The average salaries
or hourly earnings were then multiplied by the average of 1953 and
1954 employment in the job. These weighted earnings for individual
occupations were then totaled to obtain an aggregate for each occupa­
tional group. Finally, the ratio of these croup aggregates for a given
year to the aggregate for the base period (survey month, winter 1952--53)
was computed <and the result multiplied by the base year index (100) to
get the index for the given year.




Similar procedures were followed in compiling "percents of
change" in ar£as not surveyed during 1953.
Adjustments have been made where necessary to maintain
comparability so that the year-to-year comparisons are based on the
same industry and occupational coverage. For example, railroads
have been included in the coverage of the surveys only since July 1959.
In computing the indexes for the first year in which railroads were
included, data relating to railroads were excluded. Indexes for subse­
quent years include data for railroads.
The indexes measure, principally, the effects of (1) general
salary and wage changes; (2) merit or other increases in pay received
by individual workers while in the same job; and (3) changes in the
labor force such as labor turnover, force expansions, force reduc­
tions, and changes in the proportion of workers employed by estab­
lishments with different pay levels. Changes in the labor force can
cause increases or decreases in the occupational averages without
actual wage changes. For example, a force expansion might increase
the proportion of lower paid workers in a specific occupation and re­
sult in a drop in the average, whereas a reduction in the proportion
of lower paid workers would have the opposite effect. The movement
of a high-paying establishment out of an area could cause the average
earnings to drop, even though no change in rates occurred in other
area establishments.
The use of constant employment weights eliminates the effects
of changes in the proportion of workers represented in each job in­
cluded in the data. Nor are the indexes influenced by changes in
standard work schedules or in premium pay for overtime, since they
are based on pay for straight-time hours.
Indexes for the period 1953 to I960 for workers in 20 major
labor markets will appear in BLS Bull. 1265-62, Wages and Related
Benefits, 60 Labor Markets, Winter 1959—
60.

5

A* Occupational Earnings
Table A-l. Office Occupations
(A verage straigh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings fo r selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division , Milwaukee, W is. , A p ril 1961)
Average
S e x , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s t r y d iv i s i o n

of
workers

Weekly,
hours
(Standard)

Weekly ,
earnings
(Standard)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OE

U nder
$
4 5 . 00

$

4 5 . 00
and
under
5 0 . 00

$
5 0 . 00

$
5 5 . 00

$
6 0 . 00

$
6 5 . 00

$
7 0 . 00

$
7 5 . 00

$
8 0 . 00

$
8 5 . 00

$
9 0 . 00

-

-

-

-

*

-

-

-

-

5 5 . 00 _6 0 . 00

J > 5 . 00_ _ I 0 , 0 0

7 5,. 0 0 .

8 0 , 00_ 8 5 , 00 ._9_0,00

$
$
$
$
9 5 . 0 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 5 . 00 n o .
-

-

-

oo

-

$
$
$
1 1 5 . 00 1 2 0 . 00 1 2 5 . 0 0
and
-

9 5 , 00_ 1 0 0 . 0 0 .1 0 5 , 0 0 1 1 0 . 0 0 1 J 5 ,.0 0 1-2.0-l.QO i 2 5 n m . . o v e r _

M en

C l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g , c l a s s A ________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r in g _______________________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------------------------------------

427
319
108

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

$ 1 1 2 . 50
1 1 5 . 00
1 0 5 . 50

.

.

.

.

.

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

C l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g , c l a s s B ________________________________
M a n u fa c tu r in g
______________________________________________

187
144

40. 0
40. 0

8 8 . 00
8 8 . 00

-

-

-

"

-

14
12

3

"

4
4

C l e r k s , o r d e r ___________________________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________________________________

252
131
121

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

9 7 . 50
9 9 . 00
9 6 . 00

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

2
2

-

-

-

-

C l e r k s , p a y r o l l _______________________________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________________________________

65
54

40. 0
40. 0

1 0 3 .0 0
1 0 2 . 50

O f f i c e b o y s ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g __________________________________________

198
139
59

39. 5
40. 0
39. 5

T a b u l a t i n g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s A _________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________________________________

114
84

T a b u l a t i n g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B _________________
M a n u f a c t u r in g _______________________________________ _______
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g __________________________________________
T a b u l a t i n g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s C _________________
M a n u f a c t u r in g _______________________________________________

2
2
9
9

4
1
3

2

_

"

-

2

1
1
-

5
3
2

19
9
10

35
22
13

26
14
12

51
33
18

47
33
14

64
51
13

63
52
11

61
58
3

53
*43
10

10
9

24
12

36
26

26
25

20
16

29
23

3
3

5
4

2
1

-

2

-

-

24
22
2

13
1
12

29
4
25

22
11
11

40
24
16

52
26
26

21
15
6

18
6
12

5
5
"

3
1
2

17
13
4

_

6
6

1
1

6
6

11
7

11
11

12
7

5
4

8
8

3
2

1
1

2
2

8
8

9
9
“

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

“

9

8
4

20
12

15
13

16
13

21
21

12
8

13
7

1
1

2
2

_

_

_

_

_

1

-

-

-

"

"

1

6 1 . 00
6 1 . 50
5 9 . 50

_
“

42
34
8

25
15
10

36
34
2

31
13
18

38
20
18

39. 5
39. 5

1 1 2 . 00
1 1 2 . 50

_

.

-

-

_

.

_

-

_

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

163
101
62

39. 5
40. 0
3 9 .0

9 2 . 50
9 5 . 00
8 8 . 00

16
12
4

20
6
14

33
16
17

26
17
9

26
21
5

5
4
1

11
10
1

7
4
3

8
6
2

-

-

78
59

39. 5
40. 0

7 6 . 00
7 8 . 00

1
1

_

_

_

_

.

”

-

-

B i l l e r s , m a c h i n e ( b i l l i n g m a c h i n e ) ________________________
M a n u f a c t u r in g
______________________________________________

109
70

40. 0
40. 0

B i l l e r s , m a c h i n e ( b o o k k e e p i n g m a c h i n e ) ------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------------------------------------

113
72

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c la s s A
---------------------M a n u f a c t u r in g _______________________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------------------------------------B o o k k e e p i n g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B -----------------------M a n u f a c t u r in g
----------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------------- ----------------------- -----------------------

-

-

3
1
2

4
3
1

“

--------

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

"

-

"

~

-

8
2
6

-

-

-

-

"

"

"

6
2

20
16

13
8

17
13

5
4

11
10

3
3

2
2

6 9 . 00
7 0 . 00

.

2

11
2

6
3

16
14

15
11

34
24

12
8

9
7

1
1

.

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

40. 0
40. 0

7 0 . 00
6 4 . 50

.

-

31
31

12
5

13
3

30
16

1
1

_

10

_

_

.

.

_

“

10
10

_

-

6
6

“

"

-

-

-

-

-

113
6i
52

40. 0
39. 5
40. 0

8 1 . 00
8 6 . 50
7 5 . 00

-

-

2

20
7
13

24
12
12

11
11

14
12
2

8
8

1
1

1
1

3
3

_

-

-

-

-

16
4
12

-

-

9
1
8

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

339
110
2 29

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

6 8 . 50
7 1 . 50
6 6 . 50

_

54

27
18
9

31
12
19

32
12
20

31
14
17

3
1
2

_

.

_

.

_

_

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

W om en

"

-

11
-

11

-

3
-

1
1

2

-

3

“

11
3
8

35
7
28

104
17
87

IF

28

See footnotes at end of table.




NOTE:

Estim ates for all industries, nonm anufacturing, and public utilities include data for railroads (SIC 40), om itted from the scope
o f all labor m arket wage surveys made before July 1959.
Where significant, the effect of the inclusion of railroads is greatest
on the data shown separately fo r the public utilities division.

-

_

6
Table A-l. Office Occupations-Continued
(A verage straigh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings fo r selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Milwaukee, W is. , A p ril 1961)
Avbbaqb
Number

NUM BER OF W ORKERS R E CEIVING STR AIG H T-TIM E W E E KLY EARNINGS OF—

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
45. 00 50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95.00 100. 00 105.00 n o . o o 115.00 120. 00 125. 00
and
and
~
■
■
~
~
under
50. 00 55 . 00^ -6 0 -Op _65. 00. 70.00 7 5. 0.0 80.00 .85. 00 -.9 0 . o o 95. 00 100.00 _105. 00 110.00 115.00 120^.00 125. 00 over

of

Weekly.
hours 1
(Standard)

C lerk s, accounting, cla s s A ---------------------------------------Manufacturing ----------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ---------------------------------------------------Public utilities 3 _________________________________

330
177
153
33

39.5
40. 0
39.5
40. 5

$ 91.00
95.00
87.00
91.00

-

-

-

~

C lerk s, accounting, c la s s B __________________________
M anufacturing _______________________ _---------------------Nonmanufacturing __________________________________

1,086
319
767

39. 5
40. 0
39. 5

69.00
74.00
66.50

19
19

19
4
15

109
1
108

C lerk s, file , cla ss A __________________________________
Manufacturing ----------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing __________________________________

126
75
51

39. 5
39. 5
39.0

71.50
75.50
65.50

_
-

_
-

C lerk s, file , cla ss B ---------------------------------------------------Manufacturing ______________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ---------------------------------------------------Public utilities 3 _________________________________

666
232
434
54

39. 5
40. 0
39.0
40. 0

58.00
68.00
52.50
61.50

55
-

107
8
99

C lerk s, ord er _________
___
_
___
Manufacturing ______________________________________
Nonmanufacturing __________________________________

394
145
249

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

64.00
69.00
61.50

C lerks, p ayroll ________________________________________
Manufacturing ________________________,______________
Nonmanufacturing ---------------------------------------- > --------->
Public utilities 3 _________________________________

576
438
138
55

40.
40.
40.
40.

0
0
0
0

74.50
75.00
74.00
77.00

Com ptom eter operators -----------------------------------------------Manufacturing ______________________________________
Nonmanufacturing -----------------------------------------------------

668
203
465

39. 5
40. 0
39. 0

69.50
74.50
67.50

12
12

D uplicating-m achine op erators
(M im eograph or Ditto) ____________ ________ ________
Manufacturing ______________________ ______________
Nonmanufacturing -----------------------------------------------------

137
76
61

39. 5
4 0 .0
38. 5

60.50
62.50
58.50

Keypunch op erators
__________________________________
Manufacturing ______________________________________
Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------------------------Public utilities 3 _________________________________

790
453
337
53

39 .5
40. 0
39.0
40. 0

69.00
73.00
64.00
71.00

O ffice g irls ______________________________________ ____
Nonmanufacturing -----------------------------------------------------

190
143

39. 0
39. 0

55.00
52.50

S ecretaries __________________________________________ Manufacturing ----------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing __________________________________
Public utilities 3 _____________________________________________

1. 528
894
634
61

39.5
40. 0
39. 5
40. 0

90.50
93.00
86.50
102.50

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Weekly .
earnings *
(Standard)

Under
S

Women— Continued

See footnotes at end of table,




5
5

5
5
-

35
15
20
-

43
20
23
1

50
25
25
18

68
34
34

124
22
102

211
68
143

116
39
77

32
78

117
42
75

135
38
97

58
36
22

6
6

19
3
16

12
4
8

24
19
5

20
19
1

15
5
10

11
9
2

130
45
85
31

85
39
46
7

27
18
9
1

22
9
13
9

55
51
4
4

18
6
12

n o

7

23
13
10
1

32
22
10
6

23
19
4
-

15
15
-

3
3
-

6
1
5
-

4
4
-

51
22
29

7
6
1

6
6
-

2
2
-

1
1

1
1
-

_
“

_
-

12
12
“

4
3
1

2
2

1
1
“

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

8
8
-

17
17
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

.
-

"

-

14
13
1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

16
11
5

6
2
4

5
3
2

-

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

30
26
4
4

“

2
2
•

_
■

~

--

146
24
122
1
53
53

54
20
34

65
25
40

62
39
23

29

-

40
40

15
14

62
28
34

4
4
-

20
9
11
■

62
41
21
12

84
69
15
2

74
57
17
2

73
62
11
2

50
36
14
10

73
62
11
9

43
26
17
12

23
21
2
1

26
18
8
1

10
6
4
“

4
4

30
2
28

67
10
57

124
30
94

126
28
98

105
35
70

96
48
48

42
16
26

30
12
18

20
16
4

10
4
6

1
1

-

4
4
“

31
4
27

25
17
8

38
20
18

25
23
2

9
5
4

3
2
1

1
-

“

1
1
-

-

128
57
71
12

131
68
63
5

82
49
33
11

90
59
31
“

85
64
21
7

67
60
7
2

45
38
7
"

44
27
17
11

14
10
4

6
-

-

2
2

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

169
87
82

135
84
51

5

5

192
132
60
3

154
111
43
8

161
102
59
12

105
82
23
4

54
36
18
10

66
36
30
3

18
14
4
1

39
23
16
6

4 55

~

_
-

-

_

6

-

-

-

6
■

94
17
77
5

5 21
21

14
12

78
71

38
27

21
8

5
1

4

_

_

9

-

-

-

29
19
10

88
23
65

144

-

8
2
6

9

' 'IT
80

157
79
78
4

1

-

1
-

1

1
1
-

-

_

1
1
“

-

-

-

-

“

-

-

-

_
-

3
3
-

1
1
-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

“

_

7

Table A-1. Office Occupatbns-Continued
(A verage straigh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings fo r selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Milwaukee, W is. , A p ril 1961)
Avbbaqb

N UM BER OF WORKERS R E CEIVING ST R AIG H T-TIM E W E E KLY EARN INGS OF

Number

Sex, occupation, and industry division

of

workers

Weekly
hours1
(Standard)

Weekly
earnings1
(Standard)

$
Under 45. 00
and
$
under
45. 00
50. 00

$

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100.00 105. 00 110.00 115. 00 120.00 125. 00
and
.
__
55. 00 _6P._0p_ .6 5 . 00. _70. 0 0 75. 00 80,00 _ 85, 00. 90. 00. .9 .5, 00 IPO. oo. 105. 00 1.10.. 0.0 115. 00 120. 00 12.5j_0Q -.over
$

50. 00 55. 00

60. 00

Women— Continued
263
173
90
18

4
4

16
16

29
29

3

1

27
1
26
'

40
4
36
4

31
2
29
4

30
9
21
12

16
12
4
1

12
3
9

94
37
57

62
48
14

44
31
13

-

-

3
3

22
19

.
"

27
27

28
28

_

26
4
22

48
5
43

1

24

"

74. 00
71. 00

-

"

-

-

69.
83.
63.
77.

50
00
50
50

9

2

-

-

9
"

2
'

27
27
“

40. 0
40. 0
39. 5

69. 00
73. 00
64. 00

7
7

"

66
i ...
60

40. 0
40. 0

76. 50
75. 00

.

.

-

~

.

.

Stenographers, technical ---------------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ---------------------------- ----------------------------------------

60
51

3 9.0
39. 0

Switchboard op erators _________________________________
Manufacturing --------------------------------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------------------------------------------Public utilities 3 ________________________________

245
77
168
32

40.
40.
40.
40.

Switchboard op era to r-re ce p tio n ists ----------------------------Manufacturing ______________________________________
Nonmanufacturing _________________________ ______

440
235
205

Tabulating - m achine o p erators, cla s s B ---------------------Nonmanufacturing __________________________________

85
69

0
0
0
0

Tabulating-m achine o p era tors, cla ss C ---------------------Nonmanufacturing __________________________________

150
130

39.5
39. 5

69. 00
67. 50

T ran scribing-m achine operators, general ________ —
M anufacturing ______________________________________
Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------------------------------------------------

344
188
156

39.5
40. 0
39. 5

68. 00
71. 50
63. 00

Typists, cla ss A ------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------Manufacturing _____________________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing _______________________________________________
Public utilities 3 ---------------------------------------------------------------------

775
517
258
43

40. 0
40. 0
39.5
40. 0

75.
80.
66.
69.

00
00
00
50

1. 318
726
592
56

39. 5
40. 0
39. 5
4 0.0

61.
65.
57.
57.

50
00
00
00

1
2
3
4
5

372
268
104
39

“

$74.50
78. 50
70. 00
76. 50

______________________________________________________

231
124
107
23

93
21
72
1

39. 5
40. 0
39.5
40. 0

Nonmanufacturing _______________________________________________
Public utilities 3 ---------------------------------------------------------------------

310
109
201
19

10
1
9

2, 259
1, 278
981
177

Typists, cla ss B

260
116
144
14

-

Stenographers, general ------------------------------------------------Manufacturing ----------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing __________________________________
Public utilities 3 --------------------------------------------------

“
.
■

-

-

-

-

-

1
"

24

70
33
37

335
84
251
19

"
4
4
-

229
90
139
19

163 3
128
35
8

145
111
34
20

59
42
17
3

20
19
1
1

9
7
2

-

2
2
-

-

"

3
2

1
-

-

18
17
1
"

20
13
7
7

9
5
4
2

12
10
2
2

3
3

1
1

-

-

_

“

76
62
14

47
28
19

12
12
"

10
1
9

7
5
2

2
1
1

■

_

9
9

24
19

19
16

1
1

5
2

1
-

-

1
“

-

46
41

12
7

12
8

13
13

4
4

4
2

2
-

1
-

80
46
34

69
39
30

41
30
11

34
20
14

14
14

26
24
2

5
5

67
11
56
3

126
64
62
9

90
49
41
18

107
73
34
9

52
41
11
1

40
26
14
“

195
189
6
“

43
38
5
1

304
166
138
26

193
125
68
8

88
45
43
1

91
51
40
1

156
141
15
1

64
64

8
8

-

-

_

3
-

2
2
-

■

3

-

_

-

-

-

-

~

_

■

_

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

.
"

1
1
-

-

_

-

-

-

-

“

"

-

_
1
1

1

-

-

"

25
21
4
2

3
3

1
1

1
1

-

-

-

5
5

-

-

-

-

-

Standard hours re fle c t the workweek fo r which em ployees re ce iv e their regular straigh t-tim e salaries and the earnings corresp on d to these w eekly hours.
W orkers w ere distributed as follow s: 17 at $ 125 to $ 135; 7 at $ 135 to $ 145; 19 at $ 170.
Transportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities.
W orkers w ere distributed as follow s: 8 at $35 to $40; 47 at $40 to $45.
W orkers w ere distributed as follow s: 2 at $35 to $40; 19 at $40 to $45.




88
62
26
12

-

-

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

8
Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations
(Average straigh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division , M ilwaukee, W is. , A p ril 1961)
NUM BER OF W ORKERS R E CEIVING STR AIGH T-TIM E WEEKLY EARN INGS OF

A verage

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
■workers

Weeklyj
(Standard)

Weekly j Under
earnings
(Standard) $

65. 00

$
$
S
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00 150.00 155.00 * 6 0 .0 0 *165.00
and
and
under
70.J10 75. 00 80. 00 8 5 .0 0 90. 00 95. 00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00 150.00 155.00 160.00 165.00 over

$

Men

_________
D raftsm en , leader ________
Manufacturing _________________________

105
104

40 . 0
40 . 0

D raftsm en , senior _______________________
Manufacturing ________________________
Nonmanufacturing _________ __ ______

1 ,0 9 4
1 ,0 2 9
65

40 . 0
40 . 0
40 . 0

40. 0
40 . 0

1 0 1

169
159

221
199

D raftsm en , junior
Manufacturing

_______________________
________________________________

T ra c ers ______________________ ___________ _______
Manufacturing _______________________________

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

"

123. 00
123. 00
1 2 4 .5 0

- 668
638“

_

$155. 50
156. 00

"

-

“

■

■

“

■

2
2

25

44
43
1

93
90
3

90
84
6

121

5

.

_

-

-

■

•

.

.

-

-

"

"

'

13
13
“

20

_

1 0 1 .0 0

2

12

2

10
9

7

. 00

3

12

26
25

80
77

70
67

97
96

105
105

40. 0
40 . 0

78. 00
79. 00

3 30
20

19
19

22
22

27
27

20
20

22
22

13
13

12

12

94. 00
94. 00

_

3

11

34

1

8

33

28
25

51
50

40
37

25
23

_

9
9

_

4

132
124
8

136
132
4

99
92

67
62

39
38

6

15
12

6
4

"

125

6
6

_

54
51
3

73
6o
13

12
12

20

17

10
9

2
2

_

_

16

2

2

16

1

2

110
104
6

64
58
6

46
44

53
49
4

4

8
8

.

_

.

4

-

“

-

“

-

_

.

.

.

.

.

.

2

1
1

21
21

2 38
38

13
13

6
6
-

15
15
.

4
4

40. 0
40. 0

6
6

4
4

Women

N u r se s, industrial (registered) -----------------Manufacturing ________________________________

4

Standard hours re fle c t the w orkweek fo r which em ployees r e ce iv e their regular straigh t-tim e salaries and the earnings corresp on d to these w eekly hours.
W orkers w ere distributed as follow s: 10 at $ 165 to $ 175; 23 at $ 175 to $ 185; 5 at $ 185 and over.
W orkers w ere distributed as follow s: 2 at $ 50 to $ 55; 5 at $ 55 to $ 60; 23 at $ 60 to $ 65.
NOTE:

See note on p. 5, relative to the inclusion o f railroads.




9
Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(A verage straight-tim e hourly earnings for m en in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Milwaukee, W is. , A p ril 1961)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

Occupation and industry division

Num
ber
of
w
orkers

$
Average $
h
ourly . 1 .7 0
1 .8 0
earnin 1 and
gs
under
1 .8 0
1 .9 0

$2.
2.
2.
2.

86
94
72
50

$
1 .9 0

$
2. 00

$
2. 10

$
2. 20

$
2. 30

$
2. 40

$
2. 50

$
2. 60

$
2. 70

$
2. 80

$
2. 90

$
3. 00

$
3. 10

$
3. 20

$
3. 30

$
3. 40

$
3. 50

$
3. 60

$
3. 70

$
3. 80
and

2. 00

2. 10

2. 20

2. 30

2 .4 0

2. 50

2. 60

2. 70

2. 80

2. 90

3. 00

3. 10

3. 20

3. 30

3 .4 0

3. 50

3. 60

3. 70

3. 80

over

Manufacturing -------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------------------Public u tilities 2 -----------------------------------------

312
191
121
60

E lectrician s, maintenance ---------------------------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------------

1 ,0 9 4
880

3. 17
3. 14

-

“

-

-

Engineers, stationary ------------------------------------------Manufacturing --------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------------------

247
181
66

2. 89
2. 97
2 .6 6

_
-

_
-

_
"

_
-

Firem en , stationary boiler --------------------------------Manufacturing -------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------------------

527
452
75

2. 54
2. 57
2. 34

18
18
-

46
22
24

7
7
-

8
4
4

H elpers, trades, maintenance ---------------------------Manufacturing --------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------------------

401
236
165

2. 30
2. 20
2. 44

16
16
-

41
37
4

_
"

9
8
1

M achine-tool op erators, toolroom -------------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------------

656
619

3. 10
3. 12

_

_

_

-

-

-

M achinists, maintenance ------------------------------------Manufacturing --------------------------------------------------

700
669

3. 28
3. 30

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

“

-

M echanics, automotive (maintenance) -------------Manufacturing -------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------------------Public utilities 2 -----------------------------------------

560
152
408
370

2. 87
2 .9 1
2. 85
2. 87

_
-

_
“

5
5
"

.
“

5
5
-

M echanics, maintenance ------------------------------------Manufacturing --------------------------------------------------

1. 056
994

2. 90
2. 89

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

Millwrights ------------------------------------------------------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------------

457
445

2 .9 9
2 .9 9

_

_

_

_

O ilers _______________________________________________
Manufacturing --------------------------------------------------

325
325

2. 64
2. 64

P ainters, maintenance ----------------------------------------Manufacturing -------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------------------

193
141
52

P ipefitters, maintenance ------------------------------------Manufacturing --------------------------------------------------

_

24
1
23
23

54
23
31
22

16
14
2
-

35
12
23
4

13
9
4
4

17
14
3
3

25
22
3
3

27
23
4
1

10
5
5
-

56
40
16
"

23
23
-

4
4
-

7
7
-

-

_

-

2
1

-

36
31

22
22

24
17

42
40

86
70

42
39

44
38

202
196

220
121

156
154

137
125

19
-

_
-

_
-

7
1
6

20
1
19

17
15
2

20
13
7

28
16
12

12
10
2

54
40
14

12
12

49
47
2

16
16

10
10
“

2
2

_
-

2
2

56
50
6

78
78

35
34
1

61
44
17

56
52
4

13
11
2

23
12
11

76
76

17
17

“

31
25
6

_
-

_
-

_
-

42
40
2

52
49
3

66
43
23

77
15
62

79
11
68

5
3
2

2
2

12
12

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_

_

_

-

-

-

7
7

38
38

48
13

53
53

46
44

24
24

Ill
111

72
72

92
92

-

1
1

12
12

8
1

14
7

3
3

34
34

19
19

25
24

52
51

_
-

7
7
4

14
14
-

9
9
-

127
12
115
115

42
27
15
9

30
13
17
15

205
30
175
172

62
5
57
49

-

3
3

11
11

24
24

54
54

191
185

86
81

141
133

209
194

_

_

9
9

43
43

18
18

17
17

25
25

10
8

68
68

-

"

-

_

_

_

_

"

_

_

-

-

2. 96
2. 94
3. 00

"

-

328
299

3. 06
3. 07

_

_

-

-

Sheet-m etal w ork ers, maintenance -----------------Manufacturing --------------------------------------------------

142
136

3. 10
3. 11

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

Tool and die m akers --------------------------------------------Manufacturing --------------------------------------------------

1 .3 5 7
1, 356

3 .4 2
3 .4 2

_

_

_

_

See note on p. 5, relative to the inclusion of railroad s.




-

-

14
12

44
10

4
4

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

33
33

60
60

42
42

2
2

4
4

24
24

78
63

251
251

92
92

107
107

4
4

_

_

-

-

13
1
12
6

10
10
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

31
31
~

_
-

52
49

81
79

144
134

18
15

32
31

7
1

1
-

2
-

42
42

81
71

88
88

56
56

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

-

-

-

_

_

_

.

_

_

_

-

-

_

16
16

6
6

21
21

72
72

25
25

38
38

26
26

18
18

83
83

-

-

4
4
“

4
4
-

5
3
2

18
15
3

5
5
-

16
5
11

16
15
1

44
28
16

4
4
-

30
25
5

7
5
2

37
28
9

1
1

_

_

-

-

-

1
1

1
1

7
7

8
8

16
10

16
16

38
35

45
30

14
14

57
57

44
44

36
36

45
40

_

_

_

_

-

-

1
-

7
7

8
8

31
31

8
3

23
23

40
40

19
19

1
1

3
3

_

“

1
1

_

_

.

_

_

4

19
18

45
45

43
43

58
58

201
201

207
207

165
165

300
300

300
300

8
8

-

1 Excludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
2 Transportation, communication, and other public u tilities.
NOTE:

1
1
-

_

_

4

12
12

-

"

_

15
15

_

10
Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(A verage straight-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Milwaukee, W i s . , A p ril 1961)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

_____

53

Guards ____________________________________________
Manufacturing ________________________________

500
475

Janitors, p orters, and cleaners (men) _______
Manufacturing ________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________
Public u tilitie s3 ____________ _____________

1, 956
1, 478
478
102

E levator operators, p assenger (women)

A
verage $
$
hourly 2 1 .0 0
1. 10
earnin
gs
and
under
1. 10
1 .2 0

N ber
um
of
w
orkers

Occupation1 and industry division

$
1. 30

$
1. 40

$
1 .5 0

$
1. 60

$
1. 70

$
1 .8 0

$
1. 90

$
2. 00

$
2. 10

$
2. 20

$
2. 30

$
2. 40

$
2. 50

$
2. 60

$
2. 70

$
2. 80

$
2. 90

$
3. 00

$
3. 10
and

1. 30

1. 40

1. 50

1. 60

1. 70

1. 80

1 .9 0

2. 00

2. 10

2. 20

2. 30

2. 40

2. 50

2. 60

2. 70

2. 80

2. 90

3. 00

3. 10

over

1

8

“

-

3
3

14
14
“

34
15
19
-

52
8
44
"

$ 1 .2 3

33

2. 28
I T

2.00
o r
1 .7 0
2. 08

T

$
1 .2 0

Janitors, p orters, and cleaners (women) ____
Manufacturing ________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________
Public utilities 3 ___________________________

1, 020
451
569
150

1.6 1
1 .9 8
1 .3 1
1 .4 4

60
2
58
"

38
1
37
9

191
12
179
"

L ab orers, m aterial handling ___________________
Manufacturing ________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________
Public utilities 3 ___________________________

3, 847
2, 692
1, 155
396

2. 31
2 .2 9
2. 34
2 .6 6

62
62
-

8
8
-

3
3
"

Order fille r s ______________________________..______
Manufacturing ________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________

1, 397
385
1, 012

2. 36
2. 28
2 .3 9

-

.
-

.
-

-

-

-

P ackers, shipping (men) _______________________
Manufacturing _________________ _____________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________

841
------ £88
153

2. 31
2. 33
2. 25

5
5

.
“

.
-

P ackers, shipping (women) ____________________
Manufacturing ________________________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________ _____________

298
181
117

1 .8 4
2. 00
1 .6 0

8
8

3
3

Receiving clerk s _____________________ _________
Manufacturing ______ _______________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________

366

2. 38

.

TW~

2. 39 '

-

176

2 .3 6

Shipping clerk s ____________ ____________________
Manufacturing __________ ____ * _____________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________

Shipping and receiving clerks _________ ______
Manufacturing ________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________

261
ZoF“
56

193
--------- T T
96

10
“
83
33
50
■

15
11 '
4
“

6
-

6
-

89
43
46
8

147
60
87
6

18
— 15”

87
36
51
_

-

-

107
59
48
29

188
176
12

201
184
17
1

220
196
24
13

254
237
17
15

308
284
24
19

139
130
9
3

12
3
9
8

.
-

.
-

3
5
-

-

-

■

3
3
“

-

-

.
-

12
l2

.
-

.
-

.
-

-

-

■

“

■

-

■

118
100
18
3

120
94
26
2

240
178
62
2

532
457
75
6

286
"“280
6
1

333
233
100
42

475
405
70
-

419
515
204
6

80
6
74

260
id !
159
134

198
18
180
179

321
321
-

3
3
-

7
7
-

13
7
6

21
2
19

51
4
47

163
28
135

121
28
93

142
50
92

163
103
60

140
59
81

201
74
127

206
206

123
6
117

13
13

4
4

1
1

4
4

40
36
2

36
25
11

70
14
56

37
37
“

169
169
~

92
84
8

166
T el

“

95
51
44

49
37
12

16
10
6

11
9
2

7
6
1

.
-

~

16
16
~

24
9
15

10
10

40
37
3

30
18
12

17
17

8
8

22
15
7

39
35'
4

5
3
2

13
11
2

30
30
-

2
2
-

6
6
"

3
5
-

_
"

_
-

.
~

.
-

2
2

3
3

1
1

8
8

31
16
15

14
1
13

15
2
13

21
18
3

33
15
18

41
55
8

53
27
26

54
50
4

30
2d
10

19
1
18

26
4
22

12
5
9

3
3

_
-

9
8
1

_

_

_

“

-

7
6
1

1
1
_

4
4
-

22
22

31
30

“

1

34
15
16

38
31
6

38
13
25

'28

"

2

24
24
"

21
19
2

2
1
1

2
1
1

_

_
-

16
16

1

-

57
5
52

11
6
5

6
4
2

6
6

27
21
6

9
1
8

22
2o
2

16
2
14

10
6
4

-

135
118
17
~

9
4
5

18
12
6

20
20

_
-

_
-

_
-

■

"

.

.

_

_

-

-

-

-

1

_

1

-

-

-

1

-

■

12
12

-

5
5

_

.
-

-

1
1

■

2
2

-

79
79

“

12
10
2

2753“

77
77

■

5
5

2. 44

17
17

~

9
5
4

_

113
“T O

22
22

47
17
30
2

_

53
53

120
119
1
1

67
17
50
19

~

28
28

43
42
1
“

14
10
4
“

.

34
34

52
48
4
4

29
21
8

_

46
46

52
52
-

79
49
30
29

119
112"
7
■

4
4

22
22
-

31
23
8
~

131
ll
120
68

1
1

1




-

1

v
See footnotes at end of table,

4

_
-

'
.
-

1

2

138
15
123
39

2 .5 3
2. 52
2 .5 8

2. 35

4

16

-

“

_

~
14
14
_

9
9

11
Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations-Continued
(Average straight-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Milwaukee, W is . , A p ril 1961)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

Occupation 1 and industry division

T

kd

4

Manufacturing _________________________________
N on m an u fac tu rin g ___
_
_
Public utilities 3 ___________________________

N ber
um
of
w
orkers

$
A
verage $
h
ourly , 1. 00
1. 10
earnin
gs
and
under
1. 20
1. 10

3 ,0 4 4
$2. 67
2. 57
885"
2. 72
2, 158
2. 80
1 ,4 4 9

$

1. 20

$
1. 30

$
1 .4 0

$
1. 50

$
1. 60

$
1. 70

$
1. 80

$
1. 90

$
2. 00

$
2. 10

$
2. 20

$
2. 30

$
2. 40

$
2. 50

$
2. 60

$
2. 70

$
2. 80

$
2. 90

$
3. 00

$
3. 10
and

1. 30

1 .4 0

1. 50

1 .6 0

1. 70

1. 80

1 .9 0

2 .0 0

2. 10

2. 20

2. 30

2 .4 0

2. 50

2. 60

2. 70

2. 80

2. 90

3. 00

3. 10

over

730
196
534
408

1056
61
995
892

75
72
3
-

44
44
-

-

.
"

17
17

-

-

8

17

8
"

17
"

-

~

-

_

.

1

-

48

1
1
■

-

_

48
"

_

_

1

_

T r u ck d r iv e r s, light (under 11/2 tons) _______
Manufacturing ______________________________

638
167

2. 61
2. 36

_

T ru ck d rivers, m edium ( l 1^ to and
including 4 tons) _____________________________
Manufacturing ______________ „ . . _______
Nonmanufacturing _ _ _
Public utilities 3 _______________________

863
322
541
342

2.
2.
2.
2.

53
52
53
77

-

T ru ck d rivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
_ _
tra iler type) __
Manufacturing ____________________ _______
N onmanufacturing
___
______ __ _
Public utilities 3 ________________________

860
191
669
494

2.
2.
2.
2.

84
73
87
88

T ru ck d riv ers, heavy (over 4 tons,
other than tra iler type) _____________________
Nonmanufacturing
__
_____

393
229
883
728
155
67

2.
2.
2.
2.

56
56
58
70

_

_

.

.

-

-

-

-

8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

"

"

T ru ck ers, power (other than forklift) _________
Manufacturing ____________________________ ___

381
354

2 .4 3
2 .4 3

"

“

"

■

"

"

Watchmen __________________
Manufacturing

495
264

1.7 1
2. 08

2

163

30
7

10
7

2

2

“

2. 68
2 .6 9

T r u ck e r s, power (forklift) __________ __________
Manufacturing ________________________________
Nonmanufacturing __ __ ______ _ _____
Public u tilitie s3

9

1
2
3
4

__ _________________

8
8
"

16
16
-

-

"

“

-

-

-

-

See note on p. 5, relative to the inclusion of railroad s.




8

28
18
10

19
19
"

.

-

-

-

-

48
48
-

-

-

-

27
18
9
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

61
55
6
-

86
57
29
26

_

8

_

12
12

58
6
51 ------ 5“

10
10
-

16
11
5
-

58
33
25
24

29
26
3
2

-

-

3
3

8
8

-

"
8
------- 6”

221
91
130
26

413
190
223
8

-

69
21

57
7

356

52
31
21
17

112
42
70
26

126
72
54
-

88
28
60
60

270
51
219
213

3
3
-

-

_

-

-

5
5

2
2

29
12
17
7

174
102
72
"

546
10
536
487

49
49

44

_
.

44
-

-

-

-

-

186
102

106
46

64
64

6
-

-

"

23
12

-

"

“

-

72
71
1
-

31
31
-

51
50
1
-

196
134
62
3

20
19
1
-

108
59
49
39

116
114
2
-

15
14
1
"

12
----- 12
-

-

175
150
25
25

12
12

17
17

29
17

67
59

155
148

14
14

53
53

29
19

1
1

4
4

64
54

■

1
1

5
2

5
4
1
-

2
2
-

43
42
1
-

24
23
1
"

"

"

9
9

49
49

41
31

29
25

7
7

50
50

-

128
42
86
32

44
44

1
1

5
5

100
85
15
7

9
9

1
1

Data lim ited to men w orkers except where otherwise indicated.
Excludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on weekends , h olidays, and late shifts.
Transportation, communication, and other public u tilities.
Includes all d rivers regard less of size and type of truck operated.

NO TE:

9
"

.
"

24
24

5
5

-




12

B: Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Table B-l. Shift Differentials
(Shift d iffe r e n tia ls o f m an u fa c tu rin g plant w o r k e r s by type and am ou nt of d iffe r e n tia l,
M ilw a u k ee, W is . , A p r il 1961)
P e r c e n t of m an u factu rin g plant w o r k e r s —
In e sta b lis h m e n ts h aving f o r m a l
p r o v is io n s 1 fo r —

Shift d iffe r e n tia l

S econd sh ift
w ork

T h ir d or other
sh ift w ork

9 3 .9

86. 2

W ith sh ift pay d iffe r e n tia l ----------------------------------------

9 2 .9

U n ifo r m c en ts (p er hour) ________________________

71. 1

U nder 5 cen ts ---------------------------------------------------5 cen ts ___________________________________________
6 cen ts ___________________________________________
7 cen ts ___________________________________________
7 l /z c en ts ----------------------------------------------------------8 c en ts ___________________________________________
8V 2 cen ts — ____________________________________
9 c en ts ----------------------------------------------------------------10 c en ts -------------------------------------------------------------11 c en ts -------------------------------------------------------------12 c en ts _________________________________________
13 cen ts _________________________________________
I 3 V 3 c en ts ---------------------------------------------------------14 c en ts -----------------------------------------------1 5 c en ts _________________________________________
16 cen ts -----------------------------------------------17 c en ts ______________________________________________
O ve r 17 c en ts ______________________________________

.8
9 .9
5 .4
.4
3. 2
.7
.9
22. 1
11. 1
1.8
.8
6. 8
3. 6
1. 5
2 .1

2. 1
15. 4
1 .4
2. 2
8. 1

U n ifo r m p er c e n ta g e -----------------------------------

20. 9

20. 9

T o ta l

____________________________________________________

-

-

A c t u a lly w ork ing on—

Second sh ift

T h ird o r other
sh ift

18. 6

4 .9

85. 9

18. 6

4 .9

57 . 3

13. 0

2 .9

_
. 5
. 3
. 3

. 5
14. 8
1.0
10. 6
-

-

. 1
2. 0

_

-

_
-

1. 1
( 2)
.4
. 2
. 2
3. 2

2. 2
. 1
. 5
1. 6
. 5

. 1

( 2)
.9
( 2)
.4

( 2)
. 8

.3
.6

. 1
. 1
.4

5. 5

1 .2

5 p e r c e n t ____________________________________________
6 p e r c e n t ____________________________________________
7 p e r c e n t ____________________________________________
9 p e r c e n t ----------------------------------------------10 p e r c e n t --------------------------------------------

14 . 0
6. 3

-

4. 3
1. 2

.6

3. 0
4. 2
13. 8

. 1
. 5

( 2)

.6

---------------------

.8

7. 6

-

.7

________________________________

1. 1

.4

( 2)

O ther f o r m a l pay d iffe r e n tia l
No sh ift p ay d iffe r e n tia l

1 In clu d es e s ta b lis h m e n ts c u r r e n tly o p eratin g la te
ev en though th ey w e r e not c u r r e n tly op era tin g la te s h ifts .
2 L e s s than 0 . 05 p e r c e n t.

s h ifts ,

-

and e sta b lis h m e n ts w ith fo r m a l p r o v is io n s c o v e r in g la te

sh ifts

13

Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salaries for W omen O ffice W orkers
(D istrib u tio n of e sta b lish m en ts studied in a ll in d u strie s and in in du stry d iv isio n s by m in im u m en tran ce sa la r y for s e le c te d c a te g o r ie s
of in exp erien ced w om en o ffice w o r k e r s , M ilw au k ee, W is . , A p r il 1961)
O ther in ex p erien c ed c le r ic a l w o rk ers

In exp erienced typ ists
M anufacturing
M in im u m w ee k ly s a la r y 1

A ll
in d u strie s

A ll
sch edu les

E sta b lish m e n ts studied

________________________________________________

40

A ll
schedu les

N on m an ufactu ring

M an ufacturing

N on m anufacturing

B a sed on standard w eekly hours 3 of—

A ll
in d u stries

B ased on standard ■ eekly h ours 3 of—
w

A ll
schedu les

40

2

40

A ll
sch edu les

40

93

XXX

47

41

185

92

XXX

93

XXX

185

92

_____________________

93

54

50

39

34

102

55

5
0

$ 37. 50 and under $ 4 0 . 00 _________________________________________
$ 4 0 . 00 and under $ 4 2 . 50 _________________________________________
$ 4 2 . 50 and under $ 4 5 . 00 _________________________________________
$ 4 5 . 00 and under $ 4 7 . 50 _________________________________________
$ 4 7 . 50 and under $ 50. 00 _________________________________________
$ 50. 00 and under $ 52. 50 _________________________________________
$ 52 . 50 and under $ 55. 00 _________________________________________
$ 55. 00 and under $ 57. 50 _________________________________________
$ 57. 50 and under $ 60 . 00 _________________________________________
$ 6 0 . 00 and under $ 62 . 50 _________________________________________
$ 6 2 . 50 and under $ 65 . 00 _________________________________________
$ 65 . 00 and under $ 6 7 . 50 _________________________________________
$ 67. 50 and under $ 7 0 . 0 0 _________________________________________
O ver $ 70 . 00 _________________________________________________________

_
2
2
6
10
27
8
11
12
1
4
5
2
3

_

_
1
4
2
14
4
10
7

_

_
1
1
1
7
9
4
1
3
1
1
4
1
"

1
5
6
11
12
23
7
13
8
6
3
2
2
3

1
2
6
3
16
3
9
6
2
2
1
1
3

2
6
3
14
3
9
4
2
2
1
1
3

5
4
5
9
7
4
4
2
4
1
1
1
-

4
4
3
7
7
4
3
2
4
1
1
1
"

E sta b lish m e n ts having a sp ec ified m in im u m

-

-

3
1
1
3

3
1
1
3

2
1
2
8
11
4
1
3
1
1
4
1
“

-

1
4
2
16
4
10
9

XXX

-

___________________

31

18

XXX

13

XXX

41

20

XXX

21

XXX

E sta b lish m e n ts w hich did not em p loy w o rk ers
in this c a te g o r y _______________________________________________________

61

20

XXX

41

XXX

42

17

XXX

25

XXX

E s ta b lish m e n ts having no sp e c ifie d m in im u m

1 L ow e st sa la r y rate fo r m a lly e sta b lish e d for h irin g in exp erien ced w o r k e r s for typing or other c le r ic a l jo b s .
2 R ates ap plicab le to m e s s e n g e r s , o ffic e g i r l s , or s im ila r su b c le r ic a l jo b s are not c o n sid ere d .
3 H ou rs r e fle c t the w ork w eek for w hich e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv e th eir regu lar s tr a ig h t-tim e s a la r ie s .
D ata are p resen ted for a ll w orkw eeks c om b in e d , and for the m o st com m on w orkw eek rep orted .
NOTE:

See note on p.




14, re la tiv e to the in clu sio n of r a ilr o a d s .

14

Table B-3. Scheduled W e e k ly Hours
(P e r c e n t d istrib u tion of office and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u strie s and in in d u stry d iv isio n s by schedu led w eekly h ours
of f i r s t - s h i f t w o r k e r s , M ilw au k ee, W is . , A p r il 1961)
OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

W e ek ly hours
All industries1

--------------------------------------------------------------

100

Under 35 hours --------------------------------------------------------35 h ours ---------------------------------------------------------------------3 6 1/* h ours __________________________________________
3 7 l /z h ours __________________________________________
O v e r 3 7 1/z and under 40 h ours ---------------------------4 0 h ours --------------------------------------------------------------------O ver 40 and under 48 h ours _____________________
4 8 h ours and ove r ---------------------------------------------------

1
1
8
5
85
1

A ll w o r k e r s

1
2
3
4

Manufacturing

100

(4 )
3
4
93
-

Public utilities2

All industries 3

100

100

-

Manufacturing

3
2
89
2
3

100
-

100

1
3
2
-

91
1
1

Includes data fo r w h o lesale tra d e; r e ta il tra d e ; fin a n ce, in su r a n ce , and r e a l esta te; and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in d u stry d iv isio n s shown s e p a r a te ly .
T ran sp o rta tio n , com m u n ication , and other public u tilit ie s .
Includes data fo r w h o lesa le tra d e , r e ta il tra d e , r e a l e sta te , and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in d u stry d iv isio n s shown s e p a r a te ly .
L e s s than 0. 5 p erc en t.




NOTE:

E s tim a te s fo r a ll in d u strie s and public u tilitie s include data fo r r a ilr o a d s (SIC 4 0 ), om itted fr o m the scop e o f a ll lab or m a rk et
w age su rv e y s m ad e b efo re July 1 9 5 9 . W h ere sig n ifica n t, the e ffe ct o f the in clu sio n o f r a ilr o a d s is g r e a te st on the data shown s e p ­
a r a te ly fo r the public u tilitie s d iv isio n .

Public utilities2

100

-

94
6

15

Table B 4 . Paid Holidays
(P e r c e n t d istrib u tion of o ffic e and plant w o rk ers in a ll in d u strie s and in in du stry d iv isio n s by num ber of paid holid ays
p rovided annually, M ilw au k ee, W is . , A p r il 1961)
PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS

Item
All industries!

A ll wo rke r s

________________________________________

W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts providin g
paid h olid ays ______________________________ _____
W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts p roviding
no paid h olid ays _________________________________

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

All industries3

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

100

100

100

100

100

100

99

100

100

96

100

100

4

-

1
25
1
23
36
2
2
4
4

12
1
28
44
2
3
4
5

4
4
4
9
11
70
70
95
95
96

5
5
5
12
14
86
87
99
99
100

(4)
'

'

(4)
9
1
33
45
3
(4)
4
4

11
29
59
-

Number of days
L e s s than 6 h olid ays --------------------------------------------6 h olid ays ___________________________________________
6 h olid ays plus 1 h alf day ----------------------------------6 h olid ays plus 2 h alf days ---------------------------------7 h olid ays ___________________________________________
7 h olid ays plus 1 h alf day ----------------------------------7 h olid ays plus 2 h alf days ---------------------------------8 h olid ays ___________________________________________
8 h olid ays plus 2 h alf days ______________________
9 h olid ays plus 1 h alf day ----------------------------------9 h olid ays plus 2 h alf days ---------------------------------10 h olid ays _________________________________________

(4 )
20
8
23
33
2
1
4
1
4
(4 )
2

_

!
40
17
43
■

Total holiday time5
10 days ---------------------------------------------------------------------9 V 2 or m o r e days ------------------------------------------------ 9 or m o r e days ------------------------------------------------------8 or m o r e days ____________________________________
7 V 2 or m o r e days ------------------------------------------------7 or m o r e days ------------------------------------------------------6V 2 or m o r e days -------------------------------------------------6 or m o r e days ____________________________________
3 or m o r e days ------------------------------------------------------1 or m o r e days ____________________________________

3
7
8
13
15
71
79
99
99
99

4
4
4
9
12
90
91
100
100
100

.
89
89
100
100
100

_
_
60
60
100
100
100

1 Includes data for w h o lesa le tra d e; r e ta il tra d e ; fin a n ce, in su r a n ce , and r e a l esta te; and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in du stry d iv isio n s shown s e p a r a te ly .
2 T r an sp ortation , c om m u n ication , and other public u tilitie s .
3 Includes data fo r w h o lesa le tra d e , r e ta il tra d e , r e a l e sta te , and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in d u stry d iv isio n s shown se p a r a te ly .
4 L e s s than 0. 5 p erc en t.
5 A ll com b ination s o f fu ll and h alf days that add to the sam e am ount a re com bined; fo r e x a m p le, the proportion of w o rk ers r ec eiv in g a total of 7 days in clu d es those with 7 fu ll days and
no h alf d ays, 6 fu ll days and 2 h alf d a y s, 5 fu ll days and 4 h alf d a y s, and so on. P ro p o rtio n s w ere then cu m u lated .
NOTE:

See note on p. 1 4 , r e la tiv e to the in clu sio n o f r a ilr o a d s .




16

Table B-5. Paid Vacations
(P e r c e n t d istrib u tion of offic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u strie s and in in du stry d iv isio n s by vacatio n pay
p r o v is io n s , M ilw au k ee, W is . , A p r il 1961)
P LANT WORKERS

OFFICE W ORKERS

V a c a tio n p o lic y
All industries 1

A ll w o r k e r s

_________________

_____________________

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

All industries2

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

100

100

100

100

100

100

99
99
-

100
100
-

99
99
-

99
86
14

100
99

-

-

-

100
82
18
_

_

(4 )

“

1

(4 )

"

~

5
52
1

6
52

29

15
9
1

20
1
1

19

46

49

86
6
8

88
8
4

80
_
20

57
17
26
-

66
22
13

69

21
33
46

23
43
33
1

Method of payment
W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts p rovidin g
paid vacatio n s __ _______________
____
____
L e n g t h -o f-tim e paym ent __
P er c e n ta g e p aym ent _
F la t-sv im p aym ent ______________________________
Other ...................................................................................................... ..
W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts p rovidin g
no paid vacations

(4 )

(4 )

Amount of vacation p a y 5
A fte r 6 m onths of s e r v ic e
Under 1 w eek
____
__
____
1 w e e k ___________ ________________________________________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w eek s
__

_

-

_

A fte r 1 y e a r o f s e r v ic e
1 w eek _
O ve r 1 and under 2 w eek s ______________ ____________
2 w eeks _______________________________________________

69
-

(4 )

(4 )

54

51

30

8
3
89
1

9
2
89
-

7
9
83

2
3
95
1

1
4
95
-

1
-

(4 )
(4 )
91
3
5

(4 )
(4 )
89
5

A fte r 2 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w eek
O ve r 1 and under 2 w eeks ________________________
2 w eeks
3 w eeks ___
______ __
___

-

31
_

-

A fte r 3 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w eek
____ _________ ____ __________ _______ ______
_
O v e r 1 and under 2 w eeks _________ _____________
2 w eeks
3 w eeks ______________________________________________

99
-

(4 )

_
_
100
-

A fte r 5 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w eek ________________________________________________
O v e r 1 and under 2 w eeks _________ __
___
2 w ee k s _______________________ __ „
__________________
O v e r 2 and under 3 w eeks ________________________
3 w eek s __

See footnotes at end o f table,




7

_
99

1
1
84

-

7

-

7

(4 )
1
81
10
8

_
94
6

17

Table B-5. Paid Vacations-Continued
(P e r c e n t d istrib u tion of o ffic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u strie s and in in du stry d iv isio n s by v acatio n pay
p r o v isio n s, M ilw au k ee, W is . , A p r il 1961)

P LAN T W O RK ERS

OFFICE WORKERS

V acation p olicy

All industries1

Manufacturing

(4 )
41
15
41

(4 )
40
27
29

Public utilities2

All industries3

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

Amount of vacation p a y 5--------Continued
A fte r 10 y e a r s of se r v ic e

4 w eeks

4

2

55
44

_

1
34
29
28
3
4

(4 )
31
40

54

20

46

1
9
78
8
4

(4)
4
80

1
9
60
9

4
5

A fte r 15 y e a r s of s e r v ic e

1 w eek
w eeks
O ver

5

(4)
5
89

...........

3 w eeks

.......
and u n d e r 4 w e e k s

.. _

(4 )
3
91

2

2

3

4

(4)
5
75

4 w eeks

(4 )
3
78
4
16

32
95
1

_

_
100

11

5

A fte r 20 y e a r s of se r v ic e

1 w eek

_______________________________________

2 w eeks
3 w eeks
O ver

........

-

.. .

2

3 and u n d e r 4 w e e k s

18

4 w eeks

O ver 4 w eeks

_______________________________

(4)

(4)
4
64
13
19
(4 )

3
16
1
79

1
8
32
5
50
3

(4)
4
33
7
51
4

3
51
1
44

21

_
39
61

A fte r 25 y e a r s of se r v ic e

1 w eek
w eeks
w eeks

_____ ______________
. .

2
3

O ver

___

3 and u n d e r 4 w e e k s

4 w eeks

O ver 4 w eeks

. ..

______________________________________

(4)
5
34
3
58
1

(4 )
3
32
5
60
(4 )

19
81

1 Includes data fo r w h o lesa le tra d e ; r e ta il tra d e ; fin a n ce, in su ra n ce , and r e a l e sta te ; and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in du stry d iv isio n s shown s e p a r a te ly .
2 T ran sp ortation , com m u n ication , and other public u tilitie s .
3 In cludes data fo r w h o le sa le tra d e, r e ta il tra d e , r e a l e sta te, and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in du stry d iv isio n s shown s e p a r a te ly .
4 L e s s than 0. 5 p e r c e n t.
5 P e r io d s of se r v ic e w e r e a r b itr a r ily chosen and do not n e c e s s a r ily r e fle c t the individual p r o v isio n s fo r p r o g r e s s io n s .
F o r ex am p le, the changes in p r op ortion s in dicated at 10 y e a r s '
se r v ic e include changes in p r o v isio n s o c cu rrin g betw een 5 and 10 y e a r s .
NOTE:
See note on p. 1 4 , re la tiv e to the in clu sion of r a ilr o a d s .
In the tabulations of v acatio n a llo w a n ces by y e a r s of s e r v ic e , p aym ents other than "le n g th of t im e " su ch as p ercen tage
of annual ea rn in g s or f la t -s u m p aym en ts, w e r e con verted to an equ ivalent tim e b a s is ; fo r e x a m p le, a p aym ent of 2 p erc en t of annual earn ings w as c o n sid e r e d as 1 w e e k 's p ay.




18
Table B-6. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
(P e r c e n t o f o ffic e and plant w o rk ers in a ll in d u strie s and in in d u stry d iv isio n s em p loyed in e sta b lish m e n ts providin g
h ealth, in su r a n ce , or pen sion b e n e fits, M ilw au k ee, W is . , A p r il 1961)
OFFICE W ORKERS

PLANT W ORKERS

Type o f b en efit
All industries1

A ll w o r k e r s

-------------------------------------------------------------

100

Manufacturing

100

Public utilities2

All industries3

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

100

100

100

100

W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts providing;
L ife in su ran ce _________________________________
A c c id e n ta l death and d ism e m b e r m e n t
in su ran ce --------------------------------------------------------S ick n ess and accid en t in su ran ce or
sic k le a v e o r b o th 4 _________________________

96

98

99

94

98

100

55

71

45

56

65

41

83

93

99

90

95

95

S ick n ess and accid en t in su ran ce ----------S ick le a v e (fu ll pay and no
w aiting p eriod) ___________________________
S ick le a v e (p artial pay or
w aiting period) -----------------------------------------

65

91

38

81

94

41

47

45

90

6

1

35

3

6

1

38

H osp ita liza tio n in su ran ce ___________________
S u rg ic a l in su ran ce ____________________________
M e d ic a l in su ran ce -------------------------------------------C ata strop h e in su ran ce ----------------------------------R e tire m e n t p en sion ___________________________
No health, in su r a n ce , or p en sion plan ___

92
91
82
36
82
1

100
99
87
8
79

82
82
80
55
81

2
99
99
90
18
88
(5)

64
64
63
73
79
1

96
94
79
12
74
(5)

1 In cludes data fo r w h o lesa le tra d e ; r e ta il tra d e ; fin a n c e, in su r a n ce , and r e a l e sta te; and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in du stry d iv isio n s shown s e p a r a te ly .
z
T ra n sp o rta tio n , co m m u n ic a tio n , and other public u tilit ie s .
3 In cludes data fo r w h o le sa le tra d e , r e ta il tra d e , r e a l e sta te , and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in d u stry d iv isio n s shown s e p a r a te ly .
4 Unduplicated total of w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s ic k le a v e o r s ic k n e ss and accid en t in su ran ce shown s e p a r a te ly b elo w .
S ic k -le a v e plans a r e lim ite d to those w hich d efin ite ly e sta b lish at le a s t
the m in im u m num ber o f d a y s' pay that can be ex p e cted by ea ch e m p lo y e e . In form al s ic k -le a v e a llo w a n ces d eterm in ed on an individual b a s is a re ex clu d ed .
5 L e s s than 0. 5 p erc en t.
NOTE;

See note on p. 14 , r e la tiv e to the in clu sio n o f r a ilr o a d s .




19

A ppendix:

Occupational Descriptions

The primary purpose o f preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to a ssist its
field staff in classifyin g into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field economists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers,
part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.
O F F IC E
BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statements, b ills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerica l work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
cla ssified by type of machine, as follow s:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record o f business transactions.

B ille r , m achine (b illin g m achine ) —

Uses a special billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, e tc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon cop ies of
the bill being prepared and is often done oh a fanfold machine.
B ille r , m achine (b o o k k e e p in g m achine j — U s e s a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, e tc ., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare custom ers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers’ ledgerrecr
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types o f sales and
credit slips.




C la s s A — Keeps a set o f records requiring a knowledge o f
and experience in b asic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance
sheets, and other records by hand.
C la s s B — Keeps a record o f one or more phases or section s of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of b asic book­
keeping » Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type o f billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or a ssist in preparation o f trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.

CLERK, ACCOUNTING
C la s s A — Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more section s o f a com ­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase o f an establish­
ment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

20

C L E R K , A CCO U N TIN G — Continued
payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper a c ­
counting distribution; requires judgment and experience in making
proper assignations and allocation s. May a ssist in preparing, ad­
justing and closin g journal entries; may direct cla ss B accounting
clerks.
C la s s B — Under supervision, performs one or more routine a c­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or a c­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers, or posting simple co st accounting data. This
job does not require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping
principles but is found in offices in which the more routine account­
ing work is subdivided on a functional basis among several workers.

C LER K , PA YRO LL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the n eces­
sary data on the payroll sh eets. Duties involve: Calculating workers*
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker*s name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and a ssist paymaster in making up and distribut­
ing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.
CO M PTO M ETER O P E R A T O R
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

C LER K , F IL E
C la s s A — In an established filing system containing a num­
ber of varied subject matter file s , cla ss ifie s and indexes corres­
pondence or other material; may also file this material. May keep
records of various types in conjunction with files or may super­
vise others in filing and locating material in the file s . May per­
form incidental clerical duties.
C la s s B — Performs routine filing, usually of material that has
already been cla ssified or which is easily identifiable, or locates
or a ssists in locating material in file s . May perform incidental
clerica l duties.

C L E R K , O R D ER
R eceives customers* orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any com bination o f the fo llo w in g :
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; distributing order sheets to respective departments to be filled .
May check with credit department to determine credit rating of customer,
acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders to see
that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check ship­
ping invoices with original orders.




D U P LIC A TIN G -M A CH IN E O P E R A T O R (MIMEOGRAPH O R D IT T O )
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
b ilities, reproduces multiple cop ies o f typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare sten cil or Ditto master. May keep file of used sten cils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

K EY P U N C H

O PERATO R

Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
b ilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards by
punching a series of holes in the cards in a sp ecified sequence, using
an alphabetical or a numerical keypunch machine, following written in­
formation on records. May duplicate cards by using the duplicating de­
vice attached to machine. May keep files of punch cards. May verify
Own work or work of others.
O F F I C E B O Y O R G IR L
Performs various routine duties such as running errands, op­
erating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and
distributing mail, and other minor clerica l work.

21

SECRETA RY
Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an ad­
ministrative or executive position. Duties include making appointments
for superior; receiving people coming into o ffice ; answering and making
phone ca lls; handling personal and important or confidential mail, and
writing routine correspondence on own initiative; taking dictation (where
transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded information
reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare special reports or
memorandums for information of superior.
ST EN O G R A P H ER , G E N E R A L
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a nor­
mal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter.
May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep files in or­
der, keep simple records, etc. D o e s n ot in clu de tran scribing-m ach in e
work (see transcribing-machine operator).
ST EN O G R A P H ER , T E C H N IC A L
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a varied
technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on
scientific research and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter. May
also type from written copy. May also set up and keep files in order,
keep simple records, etc. D o e s not in clu d e tran scribing-m ach in e w ork .
SWITCHBOARD O P E R A T O R
Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or o ffice ca lls .
May record toll calls and take m essages. May give information to per­
sons who ca ll in, or occasion ally take telephone orders. For workers
who also act as receptionists see switchboard operator-receptionist.
SWITCHBOARD O P E R A T O R -R E C E P T IO N IS T
In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single p o si­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may a lso type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. This typing
or clerica l work may take the major part of this worker’ s time while at
switchboard.




TABULATIN G-M ACHIN E O P E R A T O R
C la s s A — Operates a variety of tabulating .or electrical a c­
counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignments without clo se supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating sequences of long and complex reports.
D o e s n ot in clu de working supervisors performing tabulating-machine
operations and day-to-day supervision of the work and production of
a group of tabulating-machine operators.
C la s s B — Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under
sp e cific instructions and may include the performance of some wir­
ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but
small tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are well established. May a lso include the training
of new employees in the basic operation of the machine.
C la s s C — Operates simple tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the so r te r , reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with sp e cific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs, or re­
petitive operations.

TRANSCRIBING-M ACHINE O P ER A T O R , G E N E R A L
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May a lso type from written
copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation in­
volving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal briefs
or reports on scien tific research are not included. A worker who takes
dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is classified
as a stenographer, general.

22

T Y P IS T

T Y P IS T — Continued

Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to make
out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May in­
clude typing of s ten cils, mats, or similar materials for use in duplicat­
ing p rocesses. May do clerica l work involving little sp ecia l training,
such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting
and distributing incoming mail.
A— Performs on e or more o f the fo llo w in g : Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, puncC la s s

tuation, e tc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; planning layout and typing of complicated statistical tables
to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine
form letters varying details to suit circum stances.
C la s s B — Performs on e or more o f the fo llo w in g : Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance p o licie s,
e tc .; setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying more com­
plex tables already set up and spaced properly.

PR O F E SSIO N A L AND T E C H N IC A L
DRAFTSM AN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.
DRAFTSM AN, L E A D E R
Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration of working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Duties
involve a com bination o f the fo llo w in g : Interpreting blueprints, sketches,
and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures; assigning
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problems. May a ssist subordinates during emergencies or as a
regular assignment, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
ministrative nature.

DRAFTSM AN, SEN IO R — Continued
involved in strength of materials, beams and trusses; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quantities;
writing specification s; making adjustments or changes in drawings or
specification s. May ink in lines and letters on pencil drawings, prepare
detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings. Work is frequently
in a specialized field such as architectural, electrical, mechanical, or
structural drafting.
N U RSE, IN D U S TR IA L (R E G IS T E R E D )
A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a com biner
tion o f the fo llo w in g : Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing o f employees* injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants
and em ployees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.

DRAFTSM AN, SEN IO R
TRACER
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
p oses. Duties involve a com bin ation o f the fo llo w in g : Preparing work­
ing plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-section s, e tc ., to sca le by use
of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as those




Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. Uses
T-square, com pass, and other drafting to o ls. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

23

M

A I N T E N A N C E

D

P O

W

E R P L A N

T

C A R P E N T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E

F IR E M A N , S T A T IO N A R Y B O IL E R

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’ s handtools, portable
power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; selecting materials n ec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or a ssist in repairing boilerroom equipment.

E L E C T R IC IA N , M A IN T E N A N C E

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, d is­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specifications;.locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c ­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; using a variety of
electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In gen­
eral, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.
E N G IN E E R , S T A T IO N A R Y

Operates and maintains and may a lso supervise the operation
o f stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera?
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, motors
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a record of
operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May also
supervise these operations. Head or ch ief engineers in establishments

employing more than one engineer are excluded .




H E L P E R , T R A D E S , M A IN T E N A N C E

A ssists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing sp e cific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: .In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are a lso performed by workers on a full-time basis.
M A C H IN E -T O O L O P E R A T O R , T O O L R O O M

Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools, gauges,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most o f the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making necessary adjustments during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to se le ct proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classification .
M A C H IN IST , M A IN T E N A N C E

Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Interpreting written instructions and
specification s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
chinist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and

24

M A C H IN IST , M A IN T E N A N C E — Continued

M IL L W R IG H T -—C ontinued

operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to clo se toler­
ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assembling parts into me­
chanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally requires
a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

are required. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specification s; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selectin g standard tools, equipment, and parts
to be used; installing and maintaining in good order power transmission
equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the mill­
wright’ s work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

M E C H A N IC , A U T O M O T IV E (M A IN T E N A N C E )

Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an e s ­
tablishment. Work involves most o f the following: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassem bling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assem blies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; alining wheels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
M E C H A N IC , M A IN T E N A N C E

Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves most o f the following: Examining machines and mechan­
ica l equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly d is­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replace­
ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machiue shop
for major repairs; preparing written specification s for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling ma­
chines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In general,
the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classification are workers
whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.
M IL L W R IG H T

Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout




O IL E R

Lubricates, with o il or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of mechanical equipment o f an establishment.
P A IN T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E

Paints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, o ils , white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper
color or con sisten cy. In general, the work of the maintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
P I P E F I T T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E

Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other written specification s; cutting various size s of pipe to correct
lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with stocks and d ies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to pressures,
flow , and size of pipe required; making standard tests to determine
whether finished pipes meet specifications* In general, the work o f the
maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building

sanitation or heating systems are excluded .

25

T O O L A N D D IE M A K E R

P L U M B E R , M A IN T E N A N C E

Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake. In
general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.
S H E E T -M E T A L W O R K ER , M A IN T E N A N C E

Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, models,
or other specification s; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; installing sheetmetal articles as required. In general, the work of the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

(Die maker; jig maker: tool maker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most o f the following: Planning and laying out of work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specification s;
using a variety of tool and die maker’ s handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding of the working properties of common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
o f work, speeds, feeds, and tooling o f machines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to clo s e tolerances; fitting and assembling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selecting appropriate
materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die maker’ s
work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this cla ssifica tion .

C U S T O D IA L A N D M A T E R IA L M O V E M E N T
E L E V A T O R O P E R A T O R , PASSENGER

J A N IT O R , P O R T E R , O R C L E A N E R — C ontinued

Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures;polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Workers
who specialize in window washing are excluded.

GUARD

Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gate-

men who are stationed at gate and check on identity o f employees and
other persons entering.
J A N IT O R , P O R T E R , O R C L E A N E R

(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office , apartment house, or commercial




L A B O R E R , M A T E R IA L H A N D L IN G

(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more o f the follow­
ing: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or

26

L A B O R E R , M A T E R IA L H A N D L IN G — Continued

S H IP P IN G A N D R E C E IV IN G C L E R K — Continued

from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting d evices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; trans­
porting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.

For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified as follow s:

Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded .

Shipping clerk
Shipping and receivin g clerk

Receiving clerk

ORDER F IL L E R
T R U C K D R IV E R

(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slip s, customers*
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating items filled or omitted, keep records o f outgoing orders, requisi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.

Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various tvpes of estab­
lishments such a s: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers’ houses or places o f business. May a lso load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers

are excluded .

P A C K E R , S H IP P IN G

Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the sp ecific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number o f units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or more o f
the following: Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify
content; selection of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closin g and sealing container; applying labels or
entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make wooden

boxes or crates are excluded .
SH IP P IN G A N D R E C E IV IN G C L E R K

Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­
sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Shipping
work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes,
available means of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or a ssist in
preparing the merchandise for shipment. Receiving work involves: Veri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipments against
b ills of lading, in v oices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing merchandise or materials to proper de­
partments; maintaining necessary records and file s .




For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are cla ssified by size
and type o f equipment, as follow s: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis o f trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver (combination o f s iz e s lis te d separately)
Truckdriver9 light (under 1% ton s)

Truckdriver, medium (1% to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons , trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons , other than trailer type)
T R U C K E R , POWER

Operates a manually controlled ga solin e- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified by type o f
truck, as follow s:

Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)
W ATC H M AN

Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.
U.S. GOVERNM ENT P R IN T IN G OFFICE : 1961 0 — 598821


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102