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Occupational Wage Survey

GREENVILLE, SOUTH CAROLINA
APRIL 1961

Bulletin No. 1285-63




UNITED STA TES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretory
BUREAU O F LA B O R S T A T IS T IC S
Ewon Clogue, Commissioner




Occupational Wage Survey
GREENVILLE, SOUTH CAROLINA




A P R IL 1961

Bulletin No. 1285-63
June 1961

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, W ashington 25, D.C.

Price 2 0 cents




Contents

Preface

P age
The C om m u n ity W age S u rv ey P r o g r a m

T h is r e p o r t w as p r e p a r e d in the B u r e a u 's re g io n a l
o ffic e in A tlan ta, G a. , by D onald M . C r u s e , under the
d ir e c tio n o f L ou is B . W oytych , A s s is ta n t R e g io n a l D ir e c to r
fo r W ages and In du stria l R e la tio n s .




1
3

T a b le s :
1.
2.

A:

E s ta b lis h m e n ts and w o r k e r s w ithin sc o p e o f su r v e y ___________
P e r c e n ts o f in c r e a s e in stan dard w eek ly s a la r ie s and
s tra ig h t-tim e h o u rly ea rn in g s fo r s e le c t e d occu p a tio n a l
g rou ps _____________________________________________________________
O ccu p a tion a l e a r n in g s :*
A - 1. O ffic e o c c u p a tio n s _______________________________
A - 2 . P r o fe s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l o c c u p a t io n s _______
A - 3 . M ain ten an ce and p ow erp la n t o c c u p a t io n s _____
A - 4 . C u stod ia l and m a te r ia l m ov em en t occu p a tio n s

A pp endix:

O ccu p a tion a l d e s c r ip tio n s ____________________________________

* N O TE : S im ila r tabu lation s are a v a ila b le in the G r e e n ­
v ille , S .C . , a r e a r e p o r t fo r M ay I9 60, w hich a ls o in clu d es
data on e sta b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and su p p lem en ta ry w age
p r o v is io n s .
A d ir e c t o r y in d ica tin g date o f study and the
p r ic e o f this r e p o r t , as w ell as the r e p o r ts fo r oth er
m a jo r a r e a s , is a v a ila b le upon r e q u e st.
C u rren t r e p o r ts on o c cu p a tio n a l e a rn in g s and s u p ­
p lem en ta ry w age p r a c t ic e s in the G re e n v ille a r e a are a lso
a v a ila b le fo r syn th etic te x tile s (A ugust I9 6 0 ), and cotton
te x tile s (A ugust I9 60).

2

2

m m vo

The B u reau o f L a b o r S ta tistics r e g u la r ly con d u cts
a rea w id e w age su r v e y s in a n u m ber o f im p orta n t in d u stria l
c e n t e r s . The stu d ie s, m ade fr o m late fa ll to e a r ly s p rin g ,
rela te to o c cu p a tio n a l ea rn in g s and r e la te d su p p lem en ta ry
b e n e fit s . A p r e lim in a ry r e p o r t is a v a ila b le on c o m p le tio n
o f the study in ea ch a r e a , u su a lly in the m onth fo llo w in g
the p a y r o ll p e r io d stu d ied. T h is b u lletin p r o v id e s additional
data n ot in clu d ed in the e a r lie r r e p o r t .
A c o n s o lid a te d
a n a ly tica l b u lle tin su m m a rizin g the r e s u lts o f a ll o f the
y e a r 's s u r v e y s is is s u e d a fter c o m p le tio n o f the fin a l a r e a
b u lletin fo r the c u r r e n t round o f s u r v e y s .

In trod u ction ________________________________________________________________
W age tren ds fo r s e le c t e d o c cu p a tio n a l g r o u p s _______ -___________________

7




Occupational W age Survey—Greenville, S.C.
Introduction

This area is one of several important industrial centers in
which the U. S. Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics
conducts surveys of occupational earnings and related wage benefits
on an area basis.
The bulletin presents current occupational employment and
earnings information obtained largely by mail from the establishments
visited by Bureau field economists in the last previous survey for occu­
pations reported in that earlier study. Personal visits were made
to nonrespondents and to those respondents reporting unusual changes
since the previous survey.
In each area, data are obtained from representative establish­
ments within six broad industry divisions: Manufacturing; transpor­
tation, 1 communication, and other public utilities; wholesale trade; re­
tail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. Major
industry groups excluded from these studies are government operations
and the construction and extractive industries. Establishments having
fewer than a prescribed number of workers are omitted also because
they furnish insufficient employment in the occupations studied to war­
rant inclusion. Wherever possible, separate tabulations are provided
for each of the broad industry divisions.
These surveys are conducted on a sample basis because of the
unnecessary cost involved in surveying all establishments. To obtain
appropriate accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of large
than of small establishments is studied. In combining the data, how­
ever, all establishments are given their appropriate weight. Estimates
based on the establishments studied are presented, therefore, as re­
lating to all establishments in the industry grouping and area, ex­
cept for those below the minimum size studied.
Occupations and Earnings
The occupations selected for study are common to a variety
of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries. Occupational clas­
sification is based on a uniform set of job descriptions designed to
1 Railroads, formerly excluded from the scope of these studies,
were included in all of the areas studied since July 1959, except Balti­
more (September 1959 and December I960), Buffalo (October 1959),
Cleveland (September 1959), and Seattle (August 1959).




take account of interestablishment variation in duties within the same
job. (See appendix for listing of these descriptions. ) Earnings data are
presented (in the A -series tables) for the following types of occupa­
tions: (a) Office clerical; (b) professional and technical; (c) mainte­
nance and powerplant; and (d) custodial and material movement.
Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for
full-time workers, i. e. , those hired to work a regular weekly sched­
ule in the given occupational classification. Earnings data exclude
premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and
late shifts. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded also, but cost-ofliving bonuses and incentive earnings are included. Where weekly
hours are reported, as for office clerical occupations, reference is
to the work schedules (rounded to the nearest half hour) for which
straight-time salaries are paid; average weekly earnings for these
occupations have been rounded to the nearest half dollar.

Average earnings of men and women are presented separately
for selected occupations in which both sexes are commonly employed.
Differences in pay levels of men and women in these occupations are
largely due to (l) differences in the distribution of the sexes among
industries and establishments; (2) differences in specific duties per­
formed, although the occupations are appropriately classified within
the same survey job description; and (3) differences in length of serv­
ice or merit review when individual salaries are adjusted on this basis.
Longer average service of men would result in higher average pay
when both sexes are employed within the same rate range.
Job
descriptions used in classifying employees in these surveys are usu­
ally more generalized than those used in individual establishments to
allow for minor differences among establishments in specific duties
performed.

Occupational employment estimates represent the total in all
establishments within the scope of the study and not the number actu­
ally surveyed. Because of differences in occupational structure among
establishments, the estimates of occupational employment obtained
from the sample of establishments studied serve only to indicate the
relative importance of the jobs studied. These differences in occu­
pational structure do not materially affect the accuracy of the earn­
ings data.

2




T a b le 1.

E s ta b lis h m e n t s and w o r k e r s w ith in sc o p e of su rv e y and n u m b e r stu d ied in G r e e n v ille ,

by m a jo r in d u stry d iv is io n , 2 A p r il 1961

N u m b e r of e s t a b lis h m e n ts
In d u stry d iv is io n

A ll d iv is io n s

_________________________________

W ith in
sc o p e of
study 3

W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n ts
W ith in
s c o p e of
study

Studied

Studied

______________________________

128

75

35 , 6 0 0

28, 540

M a n u fa c tu rin g _______________________________________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g __________________________________________________________
T r a n sp o r ta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and other
p u b lic u tilit ie s 4 _______ ______________________________________________
W h o le s a le tra d e 5 __ !___________________________________________________
R e ta il tra d e 5 ____________________________________________________________
F in a n c e , in su r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e 5 ___________________________
S e r v ic e s 5> 6 ____________________________________________________________

75
53

42
33

28, 800
6 , 80 0

2 3 , 05 0
5, 49 0

14
4
19
4
12

10
2
11
4
6

1, 8 0 0
200
2, 7 0 0
1, 00 0
1, 10 0

1, 51 0
120
2, 23 0
1, 00 0
63 0

1 Th e G r e e n v ille Stan d ard M e tr o p o lita n S ta t is t ic a l A r e a (G r e e n v ille C ou n ty ).
Th e "w o r k e r s w ith in sc o p e of stvidy" e s t im a t e s show n in this
ta b le p r o v id e a r e a so n a b ly a c c u r a te d e s c r ip t io n of the s iz e and c o m p o s itio n o f the la b o r f o r c e in clu d ed in the s u r v e y .
The e s t im a t e s a r e not in tend ed ,
h o w e v e r , to s e r v e as a b a s is of c o m p a r is o n w ith oth e r a r e a e m p lo y m e n t in d e x e s to m e a s u r e e m p lo y m e n t tre n d s o r le v e ls s in c e (1) p lann in g of w age
s u r v e y s r e q u ir e s the u se of e s ta b lis h m e n t data c o m p ile d c o n s id e r a b ly in ad van ce of the p a y r o ll p e r io d stu d ied , and (2) s m a l l e s t a b lis h m e n ts a re
ex clu d ed f r o m the sc o p e of the su r v e y .
2 The 19 57 r e v is e d e d ition o f the Stan d ard In d u str ia l C la s s if ic a t io n M an u al w a s u sed in c la s s if y in g e s t a b lis h m e n ts by in d u str y d iv is io n . M a jo r
ch an ges f r o m the e a r l i e r e d ition (u se d in the B u r e a u 's la b o r m a r k e t w age s u r v e y s cond ucted p r io r to July 1958) a r e the t r a n s f e r o f m ilk p a s t e u r i­
z a tio n p lan ts and r e a d y -m ix e d c o n c r e te e s t a b lis h m e n ts f r o m tra d e (w h o le s a le o r r e ta il) to m a n u fa c tu r in g , and the t r a n s f e r of r a d io and t e le v is io n
b r o a d c a stin g f r o m s e r v i c e s to the tra n sp o r ta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and oth e r p u b lic u tilit ie s d iv is io n .
3 In c lu d es a ll e s t a b lis h m e n ts w ith to ta l e m p lo y m e n t at or ab ove the m in i m u m -s i z e lim ita t io n ( 5 0 e m p lo y e e s ).
A l l o u tle ts (w ith in the a r e a ) of
c o m p a n ie s in su ch in d u s tr ie s a s tra d e , fin a n c e, au to r e p a ir s e r v ic e , and m o t io n -p ic t u r e th e a te r s a r e c o n s id e r e d as 1 e s t a b lis h m e n t.
4 T a x ic a b s and s e r v i c e s in c id e n ta l to w a te r t r a n sp o r ta tio n w e r e ex clu d e d .
5 T h is in d u str y d iv is io n is r e p r e s e n t e d in e s t im a t e s fo r " a l l i n d u s t r ie s " and "n o n m a n u fa c t u r in g " in the S e r ie s A t a b le s .
S e p a r a te p r e se n ta tio n
of data f o r th is d iv is io n is n ot m a d e f o r one o r m o r e o f the fo llo w in g r e a s o n s :
(1 ) E m p lo y m e n t in the d iv is io n i s to o s m a l l to p r o v id e enough data
to m e r it s e p a r a te stud y, (2) the s a m p le w a s not d e sig n e d in itia lly to p e r m it se p a r a te p r e se n ta tio n , (3) r e s p o n s e w a s in s u ffic ie n t or in adeq uate to
p e r m it s e p a r a t e p r e se n ta tio n , (4) t h e r e is p o s s ib ility of d is c l o s u r e of in d iv id u a l e s ta b lis h m e n t d ata.
6 H o t e ls ; p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s ; b u s in e s s s e r v i c e s ; a u to m o b ile r e p a ir s h o p s ; m o tio n p ic t u r e s ; n o n p ro fit m e m b e r s h ip o r g a n iz a t io n s ; and e n g in e e r in g
and a r c h it e c tu r a l s e r v i c e s .

T a b le 2 . P e r c e n t s o f in c r e a s e in sta n d a rd w e e k ly s a la r ie s and
s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly ea rn in g s fo r s e le c te d o c cu p a tio n a l
grou p s in G r e e n v ille , S . C . , M a y I 9 6 0 to A p r il 1961
O c c u p a tio n a l g rou p s

A ll in d u str ie s

M a n u fa c tu rin g

O ffic e c le r i c a l (w o m e n )----------------------In d u str ia l N u r s e s _______________________
S k ille d m a in te n a n c e ( m e n ) ___________
U n s k ille d p lant (m en ) _________________

2 .0
2. 1
1. 5
1. 9

3. 7
2. 1
1 .8
1 .4

3

Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups

P r e s e n te d in ta ble 2 a r e p e r c e n ts o f change in s a la r ie s o f
w om en o ffic e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s and in d u s tr ia l n u r s e s , and in a v e r a g e
e a rn in g s o f s e le c t e d plant w o r k e r g ro u p s.

F o r o ffic e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s and in d u str ia l n u r s e s , the p e r ­
cen ts o f change r e la te to a v e r a g e w e e k ly s a la r ie s f o r n o r m a l h ou rs
o f w o rk , that is , the stan dard w ork sch e d u le f o r w h ich s t r a ig h t -tim e
s a la r ie s a r e p a id .
F o r plant w o r k e r g ro u p s , th ey m e a s u r e ch a n ges
in s t r a ig h t -tim e h o u r ly e a rn in g s, ex clu d in g p r e m iu m pa y f o r o v e r ­
tim e and f o r w o rk pn w eek en d s, h o lid a y s , and la te s h ifts . The p e r ­
cen ta g es a r e b a s e d on data f o r s e le c t e d k e y o c cu p a tio n s and in clu d e
m o s t o f the n u m e r ic a lly im p orta n t jo b s w ithin e a c h g rou p .
The o f ­
fic e c l e r i c a l data a r e b a se d on w om en in the fo llo w in g 18 jo b s : B i lle r s ,
m a ch in e (b illin g m a ch in e ); b o o k k e e p in g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s , c la s s A
and B ; C o m p to m e te r o p e r a t o r s ; c le r k s , f ile , c la s s A and B ; c le r k s ,
o r d e r ; c le r k s , p a y r o ll; k eyp u n ch o p e r a t o r s ; o f f ic e g ir l s ; s e c r e t a r ie s ;
s t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l; sw itch b o a rd o p e r a t o r s ; s w itch b o a rd o p e r a t o r r e c e p t io n is t s ; ta b u la tin g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s ; t r a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e o p ­
e r a t o r s , g e n e r a l; and ty p is ts , c la s s A and B .
The in d u str ia l n u rse
data a r e b a s e d on w om en in d u stria l n u r s e s .
M en in the fo llo w in g
10 s k ille d m a in ten a n ce jo b s and 3 u n s k ille d jo b s w e re in clu d ed in the
plant w o r k e r data: S k illed — c a r p e n t e r s ; e le c t r ic ia n s ; m a c h in is ts ; m e ­
c h a n ic s ; m e c h a n ic s , a u tom otiv e; m illw r ig h ts ; p a in t e r s ; p ip e fit t e r s ;
s h e e t-m e ta l w o r k e r s ; and to o l and d ie m a k e r s ; u n s k ille d — ja n it o r s ,
p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s ; la b o r e r s , m a te r ia l han dlin g; and w atch m en .
A v e r a g e w eek ly s a la r ie s o r a v e r a g e h o u r ly e a rn in g s w e re
com p u ted f o r e a ch o f the s e le c t e d o c cu p a tio n s .
The a v e r a g e s a l ­
a r ie s o r h o u r ly ea rn in g s w e r e then m u ltip lie d by the a v e r a g e e m p lo y ­
m en t in the jo b du ring the m onths in d ica te d in the title o f ta ble 2.




T h e s e w eig h ted e a rn in g s f o r in d iv id u a l o c cu p a tio n s w e r e then tota led
to ob ta in an a g g re g a te f o r e a c h o c cu p a tio n a l g rou p . F in a lly , the ra tio
o f th ese g rou p a g g re g a te s f o r the on e y e a r to the a g g re g a te f o r the
o th e r y e a r w as com p u ted and the d iffe r e n c e b etw een the r e s u lt and
100 is the p e r c e n t o f ch a n ge fr o m the on e p e r io d to the o th e r .

The p e r c e n t o f change m e a s u r e s , p r in c ip a lly , the e ffe c t s o f
(1) g e n e r a l s a la r y and w age ch a n g e s; (2) m e r it o r o th e r in c r e a s e s
in p a y r e c e iv e d b y in d iv id u a l w o r k e r s w h ile in the sa m e jo b ; and
(3) ch a n g es in the la b o r f o r c e su ch as la b o r tu r n o v e r , f o r c e e x p a n ­
s io n s , f o r c e r e d u c tio n s , and ch a n g es in the p r o p o r t io n s o f w o r k e r s
e m p lo y e d b y e sta b lis h m e n ts w ith d iffe r e n t p a y le v e ls . Changes in the
la b o r f o r c e can c a u se in c r e a s e s o r .d e c r e a s e s in the o c cu p a tio n a l
a v e r a g e s w ithout a ctu a l w age ch a n g e s. F o r e x a m p le , a f o r c e ex p a n sion
m igh t in c r e a s e the p r o p o r t io n o f lo w e r p a id w o r k e r s in a s p e c ifi c
o c cu p a tio n and r e s u lt in a d r o p in the a v e r a g e , w h e re a s a r e d u ctio n
in the p r o p o r t io n o f lo w e r p a id w o r k e r s w ould have the o p p o s ite e ffe c t .
The m o v e m e n t o f a h ig h -p a y in g e sta b lis h m e n t out o f an a r e a cou ld
ca u se the a v e r a g e ea rn in g s to d r o p , ev en though no change in ra tes
o c c u r r e d in o th e r a r e a e sta b lis h m e n ts .
The u se o f con stan t e m p lo y m e n t w eigh ts e lim in a te s the e ffe c t s
o f ch a n ges in the p r o p o r t io n o f w o r k e r s r e p r e s e n t e d in e a c h jo b in ­
clu d ed in the data.
N o r a r e the p e r c e n ts o f change in flu e n ce d by
ch a n ges in stan dard w o rk sc h e d u le s o r in p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e ,
s in c e they a r e b a s e d on pa y f o r s t r a ig h t -tim e h o u r s .
In dexes f o r the p e r io d 1953 to I960 f o r w o r k e r s in 20 m a jo r
la b o r m a rk e ts w ill a p p ea r in B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 -6 2 , W ages and R ela ted
B e n e fits , 60 L a b o r M a r k e ts, W in ter 1 9 5 9 -6 0 .

4




A* Occupational Earnings
Table A-l. Office Occupations
(A verage stra igh t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area b asis
by industry division, G reen ville, S. C. , A p ril 1961)
Average
N ber
um
of
w
orkers

Sex, occupation, and industry division

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

W
eekly
Weekly.
hours 1 earnings*
(Standard) (Standard)

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
35. 00 40. 00 45. 00 50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 9 0 .0 0 95. 00 100. 00
and
and
■
■
“
under
40. 00 45. 00 50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100. 00 over

Men
C lerk s, accounting, c la ss A

16

39. 0

$92. 50

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

-

1

3

-

5

24

C lerk s, order

20

3 8 .5

87. 50

_

_

_

_

_

_

1

5

3

1

3

1

_

18

3 9 .0

76. 00

_

_

_

_

_

5

_

5

_

.5

1

_

2

36
_

39
32

4 0 .0
40. 0

57. 50
56. 50

_

2
2

10
9

9
5

6
6

2
2

3
3

4
4

_

_

_

2
_

_

-

_

1
1

Tabulating-m achine op erators, c la ss B

_____

_____

__

W om en
B ille r s, m achine (billing machine)
Manufacturing __
_
___
B ille r s , m achine (bookkeeping machine) _______________
Nonmanufacturing ______________________________________

25
21

4 1 .0
4 1 .0

53. 00
52. 00

5
5

1
l

6
6

3
1

3
3

1
1

5
3

-

-

1
1

Bookkeeping-m achine op erators, c la ss B ______ _____
Manufacturing
_____ ___
__ __ __ __ ________ __
Nonmanufacturing ________________________ _____ __ __

62
l6
46

40. 0
40 . 0
40. 0

55. 50
64. 50
52. 50

2
2

6
6

24
2
22

15
2
13

5
4
1

1
1
-

-

26
22

3 9 .5
40 . 0

70. 50
72. 00

-

_

-

-

4
3

2
2

2
-

6
5

6
6

2
2

65
42
23

40 . 0
40. 0
40. 5

54. 00
54. 00
54. 50

11
3
8

9
8
1

22
20
2

6
1
5

5
4
1

7
3
4

1
1

40. 0

50. 50

2

13

5

2

-

-

2
2
2

1
1

24

_

3
3
1
1

6
4
2

C lerk s, accounting, c la ss A
Manufacturing
_ _

_
■_

_

_

43

46. 50
4 7 .5 0
45. 50

_
-

16
7
9

16
------1 ----10

10
9
1

-

1
1

_

----- 2 2 ----21

4 0 .0
40. 0
3 9 .5

-

_
-

23
19

4 0 .5
40 . 0

56. 00
5$. 00

2
2

1
1

3
3

90
73
17

40 . 0
4 0 .0
40. 0

2
_
-

8
7

58. 50
59. 00
56. 50

13
n —
i

_
_
-

Keypunch operators __________
_________________________
Manufacturing ___________________________________________

71
36

39. 0
40 . 0

53. 00
55. 00

_
_
-

-

_
_
-

S ecretaries
_
______
__ ___
Manufacturing ___________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________ _____ __ __ __ __ __

167
69
98

3 9 .0
40 . 0
3 8 .5

72. 00
-76. 00
69. 00

Stenographers, general ___________________________________
Manufacturing
_________ ________ ___________ _____
Nonmanufacturing ______________________________________

103
60
43

40 . 0
40 . 0
3 9 .5

18

4 1 .5

____

_____

____________

__

C lerk s, accounting, c la ss B _____________________________
Manufacturing ___ ____________
_____ _____ __ __
Nonmanufacturing
_ _ _
_
_
C lerk s, file , c la ss A
C lerk s, file , c la ss B
Manufacturing __
Nonmanufacturing
C lerk s, order
Manufacturing

___

________________ _____
_ _ _ _ _ _

__ _____

__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __

C lerk s, p ayroll
Manufacturing ________________________
Nonmanufacturing _

Switchboard operators

________

____________
___

____

__ __ _____

__ __ __ _____

__

__

1
4
— 3—
l

_
-

_
-

_
-

3
z—
1

5
1
4

7
6

2
2

19
7
12

18
6
12

25
13
12

25
7
18

25
17
8

8
8
-

5
2
3

64. 00
63. 50 '
65. 00

-

4
1
3

8
1
7

25
12
13

33
25
8

9
8
1

12
10
2

3
1
2

2
2

49. 50

3

3

6

1

3

1

-

-

2
2
-

_
-

.

.

-

2
2

-

-

Tabulating-m achine operators, c la ss C

__ _. __ __ __

_

_

_
_

2
2
2

T yp ists, c la ss B
________ __
__ __ __ __ __ __ __
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing ______________________________________

-

18
4
14

66. 50

19

4 0 .0

56. 00

22
—

.

_
-

21
13

59. 00
57. 00

_

_

_
_

10
2
8

3 9 .5
39. 5

_

_

18
4

3 9 .5

_

_
_

1
1
_

3
3

15

Typ ists, c la ss A
_ _
Nonmanufacturing

_
_

3
3

11
6

23

____________

_
_
_

-

-

3
3

39. 0

53. 50

n

19
—

39. 0
3 9 .0

61. 00
5$. 50

92
30
62

3 8 .5
40 . 0
38. 0

49. 50
54. 00
47. 50

_

27

-

4

23

_

-

_

1

_
_
_

4

3

1

2

6

5

6

_

_

_

_

_

_

6

6

3

3

2

_

_

_

_

_

-

1
1

8
8

2
2

3
3

22
11
11

9
7

7
6
1

2
_
-

_

_

_
-

-

1
_
-

_

-

-

-

-

1 Standard hours refle ct the workweek for which em ployees receive their regular stra igh t-tim e sa la r ie s and the earnings correspond to these w eekly hours.
2 W ork ers w ere distributed as follow s; 1 at $ 100 to $ 105; 1 at $ 105 to $ 110; 2 at $ 115 to $ 120.
3 W ork ers w ere distributed as fo llo w s; 2 at $ 1 0 0 to $ 1 0 5 ; 2 at $ 110 to $ 1 1 5 ; 2 at $ 1 1 5 to $ 120.

_

_
_

2

-

_

-

6
4

4

2

2
_
•2

_

9
6

-

1
1

3
-

-

9
7

-

26
----- 1 ----24

3

.

3
3

_

2
1

—

1
1

.

2
1

-

_
-

_
_
_
_

n
2

__ _____

Tran scrib in g-m achin e op erators, general

7
3
4

15
20
— r§— ~ T 4 ----- "
2
1

_
-

_
_
-

Tabulating - machine op erators, c la ss B

33

6
6
21
14
7

_
_

9
9
1
1

Switchboard o p erator-recep tion ists ____________________
Manufacturing ___ _______
__ __ __ „ __ __ __ __
__ __

-

_

-

_

_
-

_
_
-

_
-

5

Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupatbns
(A verage stra igh t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, G reenville, S. C . , A p ril 1961)

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which em ployees receive their regular straight-tim e salarie s and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.

Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(A verage straight-tim e hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Greenville, S. C. , A p ril 1961)
NUM BER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

Occupation and industry division

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings

--------------------.......... .............................
E lectrician s, maintenance -------------------Manufacturing _____________________

53
47

$ 1 .7 0
1 .6 9

80
79

1 .8 9
1 .8 9

Engineers, stationary -----------------------------------------Manufacturing _________________________________

26
21

F irem en , stationary boiler --------------------------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------------

C arpenters, maintenance
Manufacturing ............

1

10

*1 .2 0

$
1. 30

$
1.4 0

Vso

1. 20

$

1 .3 0

1 .4 0

1. 50

1 .6 0

V

1 /0 0
and
under
1. 10

* 1 .6 0

$ 1 . 70

1 .7 0

1 .8 0

$

1 .8 0

$ 1 . 90

1. 90

2. 00

$

2. 00

$2. 10

$2. 20

$2. 30

$ 40
2.

$ 2. 50

*2. 60
,

2. 10

2. 20

2. 30

2. 40

2. 50

2. 60

2. 70

9
9

12
12

22
16

2
2

2
2

2
2

3
3

18
17

16
16

30
30

8
8

.

6
4

5
5

2
2

3
3

_
_
-

_

1
1
_

_

.

_
_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3
3

_
-

.
-

.
-

.
-

_
-

_
-

2. 00
2. 02

_

_
-

_
-

_

-

-

1
1

51
45

1. 27
1. 32

26
-

6
6

15
15

14
14

10
10

1
_
-

.
-

H elpers, trades, maintenance __________________
Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------------

70
68

1. 37
1. 37

1
1

16
15

9
8

6
6

25
25

4
4

M achinists, maintenance ------------------------------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------------

97
97

1. 88
1. 88

.
-

.
-

18
18

36
36

27
27

7
7

5
5

2. 21
2. 30
2. 22

2
-

-

3
1
1

1
1
1

1
1
1

3
1
1

9
6
6

2
2
2

_
-

145
144

2. 02
2. 02

_

3
3

51
42
23

.
_

-

M echanics, automotive (maintenance) -------------Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------------------Public utilities 3 -----------------------------------------

9
9
_
_

_
_
-

-

_

-

-

2
2

5
5

11
11

25
25

28
28

20
20

12
12

_

13
13

M echanics, maintenance
Manufacturing

-------------------------------------

_

_

-

------------------------------O ilers ------------------------------------------Manufacturing --------- ------ --------------P ainters, maintenance --------------------- ---Manufacturing -------------------------------

129
129

1 .3 3
1. 33

-

-

47
47

74
74

7
7

1
1

23
20

1. 56
1. 55

-

-

1
1

1

7

5

P lum bers, maintenance ---------------------- --------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------------

15
15

1.71

_

.

_

1.7 1

-

1
1

Excludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Includes 2 w orkers at $ 0 . 80 to $ 0 . 90 and 1 worker at $ 0 . 90 to $ 1.
Transportation, communication, and other public u tilities.




_

-

-

-

-

8
6

_
-

_
-

_
-

8
8

1
1

1.
1

7

5

_

1
1

3
3

-

4
4

_
-

_
-

2
1
_
_

3
3

-

.
-

-

_
_

-

.
_
-

1
_
_
.
-

2
2
2

20
20
1

7
7

4
4

_
-

_
-

_
-

_

-

1
1

•

_

-

1
1

_

-

_
_
.

_

-

1
1

_
_
.
-

_

$

2. 70
and

over

_
1
1
_
_
-

8
8
8

.
_
-

.
-

2
1

4
4

1
1

11
11

_
-

_
-

_

.

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

1
1

6
Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(A verage straight-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, G reenville, S . C . , A p ril 1961)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

$
1 .2 0

1. 10

1. 20

57
30
27
5

30

$ . 50
1

1 .3 0

1 .4 0

1 .6 0

85
75
10
1

187
179
8
5

61
52
9
6

7
7
-

32
28

12
9

3
3

_

57
32
25
-

122
122
-

156
156
-

4
4
-

21
17

Janitors, p orters, and cleaners (men) ------------Manufacturing _________________________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________________
Public utilitie s 3 -----------------------------------------

432
350
82
19

$1. 19
1 .2 2
1 .0 4
1. 27

3
3
-

6
6
-

8
8

Janitors, p orters, and clean ers (women) _____
Manufacturing _________________________________

54
40

1 .0 0
1 .0 6

4
-

3
-

_

-

-

L ab orers, m aterial handling -----------------------------Manufacturing -------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing _____________________________
Public u tilities 3 -----------------------------------------

396
327
69
31

1. 28
1. 19
1 .6 9
2. 33

_
-

_
-

_
-

.
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

Order fille r s _____ _________________________________
Manufacturing _________________________________

104
69

1 .4 0
1.3 3

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

15
14

P ackers, shipping ________________________________
Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------------

89
86

1 .3 9
1 .4 0

_

_

_

.

_

-

•

1
-

-

Receiving clerk s
Manufacturing

_________________________________
_________________________________

29
20

1. 54
1 .4 9

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

Shipping clerk s ----------------------------------------------------Manufacturing _________________________________

18
16

1 .6 2
1 .6 6

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

"

-

Shipping and receiving clerk s ----------------------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------------

36
36

1 .6 8
1. 68

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

Truckdrivers 4 ------------------------------------------------------Manufacturing --------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------------------Public utilities 3 -----------------------------------------

185
82
103
68

1 .6 6
1 .3 0
1 .9 5
2. 07

_
-

_
-

“

“

_
-

2
2
-

_
-

40
7
33
24

Tru ck d rivers, medium (lV z to and
including 4 tons) -------------------------------------------Manufacturing ______________________________
Nonmanufacturing ---------------------------------------

109
59
50

1. 33
1 .2 4
1 .4 4

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

T ru ck d rivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
tra iler type) _________________________________
Nonmanufacturing _________________________
DnWiV iitilitioo ^

44
37
31

2. 42
2. 56
2. 67

T ru ck d rivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
other than tra iler type) _____________________

22

1 .9 4

-

T ru ck ers, power (forklift) _______________________
Manufacturing ---------- ---------- -----------------------------

53
43

1 .4 3
1. 28

.
-

Watchmen ___________________________ ____________
Manufacturing --------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing _____________________________

133
115
18

1. 23
1 .2 6
1. 03

_
-

1
2
3
4
5
6

“

4
4

-

"
-

.

'

Y

60

1 .7 0

6
3
3
1

4
4
-

_

_

-

5
3
2
1

10
6

10
8

5
3

4

-

12
10

4
4

38
38

9
9

_

_
-

4
4

2
1

_

2

-

-

_

_

Y

70

1 .8 0

Y

80

Y 90

1 .9 0

$

2. 00

$
2. 10

$
2. 20

$2. 30

$2. 40

$2. 50

$ 60
2.

2. 00

2. 10

2. 20

2. 30

2. 40

2. 50

2. 60

2. 70

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

1
1
1

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

22'

1
1
-

1
1
-

_
-

.
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

22
22
22

-

-

4
4

35
17

-

-

15
15

5
5

4
4

6
6

4
2

1

12
7

“

-

_

_

-

-

6
6

4
4

3
3

_

-

3
3

-

_

2
2

4
4

6
6

9
9

3
3

_

-

6
6

-

17
13
4
“

31
30
1
-

12
12
"

13
13
-

1
1
-

_
-

2
2
-

12
4
8

33
3
30

16
12
4

30
29
1

12
12
-

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

3
-

-

-

-

"

9
13
2

1
1

-

_
-

-

6
6
6

_

_

.

_

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

.

.

-

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

«- _
•

_

_

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

.

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

6
6

-

-

-

-

-

_
“

_
“

1
1
-

6
6
4

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

5 48
48
40

5
5

-

_
-

-

4

_
-

_
-

_
-

4

7
3

-

-

-

-

-

-

33
33
31

-

-

-

7

-

-

6
66

-

-

-

1
1

-

-

1

1

-

8

-

-

2

-

-

-

1

2

6
6

22
22

1
1

1
1

6
6

2
2

7
-

.

.

.

.

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

19
16
3

43
42
1

20
20
“

19
19

1
1

3
3
"

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

.
-

“

2
2

_

"

_
-

"

“

-

-

.

.

-

-

-

-

5
5

5
5

3

.
-

3

3
3

15
14
1

-

Data lim ited to men w orkers except where otherw ise indicated.
Excludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Transportation, communication, and other public u tilities.
Includes all d rivers regard less of size and type of truck operated.
Includes 6 w orkers at $ 2. 70 to $ 2. 80.
A ll w orkers were at $ 2. 70 to $ 2. 80.




Y

tc
f.
O

o

O'

$
1. 10

1 .0 0

3
3

$
1 .0 0

tn
o

$
0. 90

o
00

Average
$
$ ,
hourly
0. 70
Under 0. 60
earnings 2
and
$
under
0. 60
.8 0
_J 0 _

«o°'

Occupation1 and industry division

N ber
um
of
'w rk
o ers

~

■

-

.

3

"

7

Appendix*. Occupational Descriptions
The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the B ureaus wage surveys is to a ssist its
field staff in classifyin g into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes in applying these job descriptions, the Bureau's field economists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers,
part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.

O

F F I C

E

B I L L E R , MACHINE

BO O KKEEPIN G -M A CH IN E O P E R A T O R

Prepares statements, b ills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerica l work inciden­
tal to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine,
are cla ssified by type of machine, as follow s:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or with­
out a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.

Biller , machine (billing machine)— U ses a specia l billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, e tc ., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers* purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry o f necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carton cop ies
of the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.
Biller , machine (bookkeeping machine)— Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, e tc., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers*
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers* ledger
record. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a num­
ber of vertical columns and computes and usually prints auto­
matically the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowl­
edge of bookkeeping. Works from uniform and standard types of
sales and credit slips.




Class A — Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Deter­
mines proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to
be used in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated re­
ports, balance sheets, and other records by hand.
Class B — Keeps a record of one or more phases or section s
of a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic
bookkeeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, pay­
roll, customers* accounts (not including a simple type of billing
described under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense d is­
tribution, inventory control, etc. May check or a ssist in prep­
aration of trial balances and prepare control sheets for the a c­
counting department.

C L E R K , ACCOUNTING
Class A — Under general direction of a bookkeeper or a c­
countant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a
complete set of books or records relating to one phase of an e s ­
tablishment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and

8
CLERK, ACCOUNTING— Continued
balancing subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receiv­
able or accounts payable; examining and coding invoices or vouch­
ers with proper accounting distribution; requires judgment and ex­
perience in making proper assignations and allocations. May
assist in preparing, adjusting, and closin g journal entries; may
direct cla ss B accounting clerks.
Class B — Under supervision, performs one or more routine
accounting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers,
accounts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers. This job does not require a knowledge of
accounting and bookkeeping principles but is found in o ffice s in
which the more routine accounting work is subdivided on a func­
tional basis among several workers.

CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages o f company employees and enters the n eces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers*
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker’ s name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and a ssist paymaster in making up and distrib­
uting pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.
COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathe­
matical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of
statistical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of
a Comptometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to
performance of other duties.
DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)

CLERK, FILE
Class A — R esponsible for maintaining an established filing

system. C lassifies and indexes correspondence or other material;
may also file this material. May keep records of various types
in conjunction with files or supervise others in filing and locating
material in the file s. May perform incidental clerical duties.
Class B — Performs routine filing, usually of material that
has already been cla ssified , or locates or a ssists in locating ma­
terial in the files. May perform incidental clerica l duties.

CLERK, ORDER
R eceives customers’ orders for material or merchandise by
mail, phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination o f the
following:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet
listing the items to make up the order; checking prices and quantities
of items on order sheet; distributing order sheets to respective de­
partments to be filled. May check with credit department to deter­
mine credit rating of customer, acknowledge receipt o f orders from
customers, follow up orders to see that they have been filled , keep
file of orders received, and check shipping invoices with original
orders.




Under general supervision and with no supervisory respon­
sib ilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten
matter, using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjust­
ments such as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is
not required to prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file of used
stencils or Ditto masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed
material.

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards
by punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence,
using an alphabetical or a numerical keypunch machine, following
written information on records.
May duplicate cards by using the
duplicating device attached to machine. May keep files of punch
cards. May verify own work or work of others.

OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands,
operating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening
and distributing mail, and other minor clerical work.

9

SECRETARY

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST

Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an
administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receiving people coming into o ffice ; answering and
making phone ca lls ; handling personal and important or confidental
mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative; taking
dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand
or by Stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dictation or therecorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine. May pre­
pare special reports or memorandums for information of superior.

In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may
type or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties.
typing or clerical work may take the major part of this worker's
while at switchboard.

TABULATING-MACHINE

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a
normal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a type­
writer. May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep
files in order, keep simple records, etc. Does not include transcribingmachine work (see transcribing-machine operator).

posi­
also
This
time

OPERATOR

Operates machine that automatically analyzes and translates
information punched in groups of tabulating cards and prints trans­
lated data on forms or accounting records; sets or adjusts machine;
does simple wiring of plugboards according to established practice
or diagrams; places cards to be tabulated in feed magazine and starts
machine. May file cards after they are tabulated. May, in addition,
operate auxiliary machines.

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a
varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or
reports on scien tific research and to transcribe this dictation on a
typewriter. May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep
files in order, keep simple records, etc. Does not include transcribing•

Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal
routine vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May a lso type
from written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing
dictation involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such
as legal briefs or reports on scien tific research are not included. A
worker who takes dictation in shorthand or* by Stenotype or similar
machine is classified as a stenographer, general.

machine work.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
TYPIST
Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office
calls. May record toll calls and take m essages. May give information to
persons who ca ll inf or occasionally take telephone orders. For workers
who also act as receptionists see switchboard operator-receptionist.




Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May do clerical work involving little special training, such as keeping
simple records, filing records and reports or sorting and distributing
incoming mail.

10
TYPIST— Continued

TYPIST— Continued

Class A — Performs one or more o f the following: Typing ma­
terial in final form from very rough and involved draft; copying
from plain or corrected copy in which there is a frequent and varied
use of technical and unusual words or from foreign-language copy;
combining material from several sources, or planning layout of
complicated statistical tables to maintain uniformity and balance

in spacing; typing tables from rough draft in final form. May type
routine form letters, varying details to suit circumstances.

Class B— Performs one or more o f the following: Typing from
relatively clear or typed drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance
p o licie s, e tc., setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying
more complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

P R O F E S S IO N A L AND T E C H N IC A L

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to sca le units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.
DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration of working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Duties
involve a combination o f the following: Interpreting blueprints, sketches,
and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures; assigning
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problems. May a ssist subordinates during emergencies or as a
regular assignment, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
ministrative nature.
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
p oses. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Preparing work­
ing plans, detail drawings, maps, cro ss-se ctio n s, e tc ., to scale by use
of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as those
involved in strength of materials, beams and trusses; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quantities;




DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued
writing specification s; making adjustments or changes in drawings or
specification s. May ink in lines and letters on pencil drawings, prepare
detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings. Work is frequently
in a specialized field such as architectural, electrical, mechanical, or
structural drafting.

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combina­
tion o f the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of em ployees’ injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants
and employees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.

TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. Uses
T-square, compass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

M A IN T E N A N C E

11
PO W ERPLANT

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’ s handtools, portable
power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; selecting materials n ec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or a ssist in repairing boilerroom equipment.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, d is­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specification s; locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c ­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; using a variety of
electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In gen­
eral, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.
ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may a lso supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, motors
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a record of
operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May also
supervise these operations. Head or ch ief engineers in establishments

employing more than one engineer are excluded .




HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
A ssists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing sp e cific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts ot a trade
that are a lso performed by workers on a full-time basis.
MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools, gauges,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most o f the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making necessary adjustments during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils . For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this cla ssifica tion .
MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Interpreting written instructions and
specification s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
ch in ist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and

12
MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued

MILLWRIGHT— Continued

operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to clo se toler­
ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assembling parts into me­
chanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally requires
a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

are required. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specification s; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selectin g standard tools, equipment, and parts
to be used; installing and maintaining in good order power transmission
equipment . such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the mill­
wright’ s work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an e s ­
tablishment. Work involves most o f the following: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
perf Arming repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assem blies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; alining wheels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves most o f the following: Examining machines and mechan­
ica l equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly d is­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replace­
ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop
for major repairs; preparing written specification s for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling ma­
chines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In general,
the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classification are workers
whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.
MILLWRIGHT
Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout




OILER
Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.
PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, o ils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper
color or consisten cy. In general, the work of the maintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other written specification s; cutting various sizes of pipe to correct
lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with stocks and d ies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to pressures,
flow , and size of pipe required; making standard tests to determine
whether finished pipes meet specification s. In general, the work of the
maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building

sanitation or heating systems are excluded .

13

TOOL AND DIE MAKER

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake. In
general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.
SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) jpf an
establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, models,
or other specification s; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; installing sheetmetal articles as required. In general, the work of the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

(Die maker; jig maker; to o l maker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most o f the following: Planning and laying out of work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specification s;
using a variety of tool and die maker’ s handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding of the working properties of common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
o f work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to clo se tolerances; fitting and assembling
o f parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selecting appropriate
materials, tools, and p rocesses. In general, the tool and die maker’ s
work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification .

C U S T O D IA L A N D M A T E R IA L M O V E M E N T
ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER
Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.
GUARD

JA N ITO R , PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued
or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Workers
who specialize in window washing are excluded.

Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gate-

men who are stationed at gate and check on identity o f employees and
other persons entering,.
JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office , apartment house, or commercial




LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more o f the follow­
ing: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or

14
TOOL AND DIE MAKER

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake. In
general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.
SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, models,
or other specification s; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; installing sheetmetal articles as required. In general, the work of the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most o f the following: Planning and laying out of work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specification s;
using a variety of tool and die maker’ s handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding of the working properties of common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
o f work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to clo s e tolerances; fitting and assembling
o f parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selecting appropriate
materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die maker’ s
work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this cla ssifica tion .

C U S T O D IA L A N D M A T E R IA L M O V E M E N T
ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER
Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.
GUARD

JA N ITO R , PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued
or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Workers
who specialize in window washing are excluded.

Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gate-

men who are stationed at gate and check on identity o f employees and
other persons entering.
JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office , apartment house, or commercial




LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more o f the follow­
ing: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or
☆

U.S. GOVERNM
ENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1961

0 — 598622


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102