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Occupational Wage Survey ALBUQUERQUE, NEW MEXICO MAY 1961 Bulletin No. 1285-61 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS Ewan Clague, Commissioner Bureau of Labor Statistics Regional O ffices Occupational Wage Survey ALBUQUERQUE, NEW MEXICO M A Y 1961 Bulletin No. 1285-61 June 1961 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS Ewan Clague, Commissioner For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. Price 20 cents Contents Preface P age The C om m u n ity W age S u rvey P r o g r a m T h is r e p o r t w as p r e p a r e d in the B u r e a u 's r e g io n a l o ffic e in San F r a n c is c o , C a lif. , by W illia m P . O 'C on n or, under the d ir e c tio n o f John L. D ana, A s sis ta n t R e g io n a l D ir e c t o r fo r W ages and In d u stria l R e la tio n s . 1 3 T able s : 1. 2. A: E sta b lish m en ts and w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e o f s u r v e y ____________ P e r c e n ts o f in c r e a s e in stan dard w e e k ly s a la r ie s and str a ig h t-tim e h o u rly ea rn in g s fo r s e le c t e d occu p a tio n a l grou ps _______________________________________________________________ O ccu p a tion a l e a rn in g s: * A - 1. O ffice o ccu p a tio n s ____________________________________________ A - 2. P r o fe s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l occu p a tio n s ____________________ A - 3. M aintenance and p ow erp la n t occu p a tio n s __________________ A -4 . C u stod ia l and m a te r ia l m ov e m e n t o ccu p a tio n s ____________ A ppendix: O ccu p a tion a l d e s c r ip tio n s * N O TE: S im ila r tabu lation s fo r th ese and oth er it e m s , in clu d in g data on e sta b lish m en t p r a c t ic e s and s u p p le m e n ta ry w age p r o v is io n s , a re a v a ila b le in the A lbu qu erqu e a r e a r e p o r t fo r M ay I960. A d ir e c t o r y in d ica tin g date o f study and the p r ic e o f this r e p o r t , as w e ll as r e p o r t s fo r oth er m a jo r a r e a s , is a v a ila b le upon r e q u e st. Union s c a l e s , in d ica tiv e o f p r e v a ilin g pay l e v e ls , a re a ls o a v a ila b le fo r sev en s e le c t e d b u ildin g tr a d e s in the A lbu qu erque a r e a . iii 2 2 t<in in "O } The B u reau o f L a b or S ta tistics r e g u la r ly con d u cts area w id e w age s u rv e y s in a n um ber o f im p orta n t in d u stria l cen ters. The s tu d ie s , m ade fr o m late fa ll to e a r ly s p rin g , re la te to o c cu p a tio n a l ea rn in g s and r e la te d su p p lem en ta ry b e n e fits . A p r e lim in a r y r e p o r t is a v a ila b le on c o m p le tio n o f the study in ea ch a r e a , u su a lly in the m onth fo llo w in g the p a y r o ll p e r io d studied. T h is b u lletin p r o v id e s a d dition a l data not in clu d ed in the e a r lie r r e p o r t . A c o n s o lid a te d a n a ly tica l b u lletin s u m m a r iz in g the r e s u lts o f a ll o f the y e a r 's su rv e y s is is s u e d a fter c o m p le tio n o f the fin a l a r e a b u lletin fo r the c u r re n t round o f s u r v e y s . I n t r o d u c t io n ______ ____________________________________________________________ W age tren d s fo r s e le c t e d o c cu p a tio n a l grou p s ___________________________ 7 Occupational W age Survey—Albuquerque, N. Mex. Introduction This a r e a is one o f s e v e r a l im p orta n t in d u stria l c e n te r s in w h ich the U. S. D ep artm en t o f L a b o r 's B u reau o f L a b o r S ta tistics con d u cts su r v e y s o f o ccu p a tio n a l ea rn in g s and re la te d w age b e n e fits on an a r e a b a s is . The b u lle tin p r e s e n ts c u r re n t occu p a tio n a l em p lo y m e n t and earn in g s in fo rm a tio n obtained la r g e ly b y m a il fr o m the e sta b lish m en ts v is ite d by B u reau fie ld e c o n o m is t s in the la st p r e v io u s s u r v e y fo r o c c u pation s r e p o r t e d in that e a r lie r study. P e r s o n a l v is it s w e re m ade to n on resp on d en ts and to th ose resp on d en ts r e p o rtin g unusual changes s in c e the p r e v io u s s u r v e y . In e a ch a r e a , data a r e obtain ed fr o m r e p r e s e n ta tiv e e s t a b lis h m en ts w ith in s ix b r o a d in d u stry d iv is io n s : M an u fa ctu rin g; tr a n s p o r ^tion, 1 c o m m u n ica tio n , and oth er p u b lic u tilitie s ; w h o le s a le tra d e; r e l tra d e; fin a n ce , in s u r a n ce , and r e a l esta te; and s e r v ic e s . M a jo r li^ u s t r y g rou p s ex clu d e d fr o m th ese stu d ies a r e g o v e rn m e n t op era tion s and the c o n s tr u c tio n and e x tr a c tiv e in d u s tr ie s . E sta b lish m en ts having fe w e r than a p r e s c r ib e d n u m ber o f w o r k e r s a r e om itted a ls o b e c a u s e they fu rn ish in s u ffic ie n t em p lo y m e n t in the occu p a tio n s studied to w a r rant in clu s io n . W h e re v e r p o s s ib le , s e p a r a te tabu lation s a r e p r o v id e d fo r ea ch o f the b r o a d in d u stry d iv is io n s . T h ese su r v e y s a r e con d u cted on a sa m p le b a s is b e c a u s e of the u n n e c e s s a r y c o s t in v olv ed in su rv e y in g a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts . T o obtain a p p ro p r ia te a c c u r a c y at m in im u m c o s t , a g r e a te r p r o p o r tio n o f la rg e than o f s m a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts is stud ied. In com b in in g the data, h ow e v e r , a ll esta b lis h m e n ts a r e g iv en th eir a p p ro p r ia te w eigh t. E stim a tes b a se d on the esta b lis h m e n ts studied a re p r e s e n te d , t h e r e fo r e , as r e lating to a ll esta b lis h m e n ts in the in d u stry grou p in g and a r e a , e x cep t f o r th ose b e lo w the m in im u m s iz e stud ied. take a ccou n t o f in te re sta b lish m e n t v a r ia tio n in duties w ithin the sa m e jo b . (See appendix fo r lis tin g o f th ese d e s c r ip tio n s . ) E arn in gs data a re p r e s e n te d (in the A - s e r i e s ta b le s ) fo r the fo llo w in g types o f o c c u p a tio n s : (a) O ffice c le r i c a l; (b) p r o fe s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l; (c ) m a in te n an ce and p ow erp lan t; and (d) c u s to d ia l and m a te r ia l m ov em en t. O ccu p ation a l em p loy m en t and earn in g s data a re show n fo r fu ll-t im e w o r k e r s , i. e. , th ose h ire d to w o rk a r e g u la r w eek ly s c h e d u le in the g iven occu p a tio n a l c la s s ific a tio n . E arn in gs data ex clu d e p re m iu m pay fo r o v e r tim e and fo r w o r k on w eek en d s, h o lid a y s , and late s h ifts. N on produ ction b on u ses a r e e x clu d ed a ls o , but c o s t - o f liv in g bon u ses and in cen tiv e earn in g s a r e in clu d ed . W h ere w eek ly h ou rs a r e r e p o r te d , as fo r o ffic e c le r i c a l o c cu p a tio n s, r e fe r e n c e is to the w o r k sch e d u le s (rounded to the n e a r e s t h a lf h ou r) fo r w h ich s tr a ig h t-tim e s a la r ie s a r e paid; a v e ra g e w e e k ly ea rn in gs fo r th ese occu p a tio n s have b e e n rounded to the n e a r e s t h a lf d o lla r . A v e ra g e ea rn in g s o f m en and w om en a r e p re se n te d s e p a r a te ly fo r s e le c t e d o ccu p a tion s in w h ich both s e x e s a re co m m o n ly e m p lo y e d . D iffe r e n c e s in pa y le v e ls o f m en and w om en in th ese occu p a tion s a re la r g e ly due to ( l ) d iffe r e n c e s in the d is trib u tio n o f the s e x e s am ong in d u strie s and esta b lis h m e n ts; (2) d iffe r e n c e s in s p e c ific duties p e r fo r m e d , although the occu p a tion s a r e a p p ro p r ia te ly c la s s ifie d w ithin the sa m e su r v e y jo b d e s c r ip tio n ; and (3) d iffe r e n c e s in length o f s e r v ic e o r m e r it r e v ie w when in dividu al s a la r ie s a r e ad ju sted on this b a s is . L on g er a v e ra g e s e r v ic e o f m en w ould r e s u lt in h ig h er a v e r a g e pay w hen both s e x e s a r e em p lo y e d w ithin the sa m e ra te ra n g e. J ob d e s c r ip tio n s u sed in c la s s ify in g e m p lo y e e s in th ese su r v e y s a r e u s u a lly m o r e g e n e r a liz e d than th ose u sed in in dividu al e sta b lish m en ts to a llo w f o r m in o r d iffe r e n c e s am on g e sta b lish m en ts in s p e c ific duties p e r fo r m e d . O ccu p ation s and E arn in gs The occu p a tio n s s e le c t e d fo r study a r e c o m m o n to a v a r ie ty o f m a n u fa ctu rin g and n on m an u fa ctu rin g in d u s tr ie s . O ccu p a tion a l c l a s s ific a tio n is b a s e d on a u n ifo rm se t o f jo b d e s c r ip tio n s d esig n ed to 1 R a ilr o a d s , fo r m e r l y ex clu d ed fr o m the s c o p e o f th ese stu d ie s, w e r e in clu d ed in a ll o f the a r e a s studied s in c e July 1959, e x ce p t B a lti m o r e (S ep tem b er 1959 and D e c e m b e r I9 6 0 ), B u ffa lo (O cto b e r 1959), C lev ela n d (S ep tem b er 1959), and Seattle (A ugust 1959). O ccu p ation a l em p loy m en t e stim a te s r e p r e s e n t the total in a il e sta b lish m en ts w ithin the s c o p e o f the study and n ot the n u m ber a c tu a lly su r v e y e d . B e ca u se o f d iffe r e n c e s in o ccu p a tio n a l s tru c tu re am ong e s ta b lis h m e n ts, the e stim a te s o f o ccu p a tio n a l em p loy m en t obtained fr o m the sa m p le o f e sta b lish m en ts studied s e r v e on ly to in d ica te the r e la tiv e im p o rta n ce o f the jo b s stu d ied. T h ese d iffe r e n c e s in o c c u pation al s tru c tu re do n ot m a te r ia lly a ffe c t the a c c u r a c y o f the e a r n ings data. Table 1. Establishm ents and w orkers within scope of survey and number studied in Albuquerque, N. M ex. , 1 by m ajor industry division, 2 May 1961 Number of establishm ents Industry division Within scope of study 3 W orkers in establishm ents Within scope of study Studied Studied ____________________________________________________________ 116 73 24, 500 2 1 ,1 3 0 Manufacturing _______________________________________ _________________ Nonmanufacturing _____________________________________________________ Transportation, communication, and other public u tilit ie s 4 _______ __________________________________ W holesale trade 5 ___________________________________________________ R etail trade 5 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Finance, insurance, and real estate 5 ---------------------------------------Services 5 6 _________________________________________________________ 26 90 22 51 4 , 800 1 9 ,7 0 0 4, 500 1 6 ,6 3 0 17 13 34 14 12 12 6 15 9 9 4, 800 700 3, 800 1 ,4 0 0 9, 000 4, 510 340 1 ,8 9 0 1, 180 8, 710 A ll divisions 1 The Albuquerque Standard Metropolitan Statistical A rea (B ern alillo County). The "w ork ers within scope of study" estim ates shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate description of the size and com position of the labor force included in the survey. The estim ates are not intended, how ever, to serve as a b asis of com parison with other area em ployment indexes to m easure em ployment trends or le v els since (1) planning of wage surveys requires the use of establishm ent data com piled considerably in advance of the payroll period studied, and (2) sm all establishm ents are excluded from the scope of the survey. 2 The 1957 revised edition of the Standard Industrial C lassific ation Manual was used in classifyin g establishm ents by industry division. M ajor changes from the e a rlier edition (used in the Bureau’ s labor m arket wage surveys conducted p rior to July 1958) are the transfer of m ilk pasteurization plants and read y-m ixed concrete establishm ents from trade (w holesale or retail) to manufacturing, and the tra nsfer of radio and television broadcasting from se r v ic e s to the transportation, communication, and other public utilities division. 3 Includes all establishm ents with total em ployment at or above the m in im u m -siz e lim itation (50 em ployees). A ll outlets (within the area) of companies in such industries as trade, finance, auto repair se r v ic e , and m otion -picture theatres are considered as 1 establishm ent. 4 Taxicabs and ser v ic es incidental to water transportation w ere excluded. 5 This industry division is represented in estim ates for "a l l in d u strie s" and "nonm anufacturing" in the S eries A tables. Separate presentation of data for this division is not m ade for one or m ore of the following reasons: (1) Em ploym ent in the division is too sm all to provide enough data to m e rit separate study, (2) the sam ple was not designed initially to perm it separate presentation, (3) response was insufficient or inadequate to perm it separate presentation, (4) there is possib ility of d isclosu re of individual establishm ent data. 6 H otels; personal se r v ic e s; business se r v ic e s; automobile repair shops; motion pictures; nonprofit m em bersh ip organizations; and engineering and architectural se r v ic e s. Table 2. P ercen ts of in crease in standard weekly salarie s and stra igh t-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupational groups in Albuquerque, N. M ex. , May I9 60 to M ay 1961 Occupational group Office c le r ic a l (women) ________________________________ Skilled maintenance (men) ____________________________ U nskilled plant (men) ---------------------------------------------------- A ll industries 1. 5 3. 9 .7 3 Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups P r e s e n te d in table 2 a re p e r c e n ts o f change in s a la r ie s o f w om en o ffic e c l e r i c a l w o rk e r s and in d u stria l n u r s e s , and in a v era g e ea rn in gs o f s e le c t e d plant w o rk e r g rou p s. F o r o ffic e c le r i c a l w o rk e r s and in d u stria l n u r s e s , the p e r cents o f change re la te to a v e r a g e w eek ly s a la r ie s f o r n o rm a l h ou rs o f w ork , that is , the standard w ork sch ed u le f o r w hich s tr a ig h t-tim e s a la r ie s a r e p a id. F o r plant w o rk e r g ro u p s, th ey m e a s u re changes in s tr a ig h t-tim e h ou rly e a rn in g s, ex clu d in g p r e m iu m pay f o r o v e r tim e and f o r w ork on w eek en ds, h o lid a y s , and la te sh ifts. The p e r cen tag es a r e b a s e d on data fo r s e le c t e d k ey occu p a tio n s and in clu de m o s t o f the n u m e r ic a lly im portan t jo b s w ithin ea ch grou p . The o f fic e c le r i c a l data a re b a sed on w om en in the fo llo w in g 18 jo b s : B ille r s , m a ch in e (b illin g m a ch in e); b o o k k e e p in g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s , c la s s A and B ; C om p tom eter o p e r a t o r s ; c le r k s , file , c la s s A and B; c le r k s , o r d e r ; c le r k s , p a y r o ll; keypun ch o p e r a t o r s ; o ffic e g ir l s ; s e c r e t a r ie s ; ste n o g r a p h e rs , g e n e r a l; sw itch b oa rd o p e r a t o r s ; sw itch b oa rd o p e r a t o r r e c e p t io n is t s ; ta b u la tin g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s ; tr a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , g e n e r a l; and ty p is ts , c la s s A and B. The in d u stria l n u rse data a re b a se d on w om en in d u stria l n u r s e s . M en in the follow in g 1 0 sk ille d m a in ten an ce jo b s and 3 u n sk illed jo b s w e re in clu d ed in the plant w o r k e r data: S killed— c a r p e n te r s ; e le c t r ic ia n s ; m a ch in is ts ; m e ch a n ic s ; m e c h a n ic s , a u tom otiv e; m illw rig h ts ; p a in te rs ; p ip e fitte r s ; s h e e t-m e ta l w o r k e r s ; and to o l and d ie m a k e r s ; u n s k ille d — ja n ito r s , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s ; la b o r e r s , m a te r ia l handling; and w atch m en . A v e ra g e w eek ly s a la r ie s o r a v e ra g e h o u rly earn in g s w ere com pu ted fo r ea ch o f the s e le c t e d o c cu p a tio n s. The a v e ra g e s a l a r ie s o r h o u rly earn in g s w e re then m u ltip lie d by the a v e ra g e e m p lo y m en t in the jo b during the m onths in d ica ted in the title o f table 2 . T h ese w eigh ted earn in g s f o r in dividu al occu p a tion s w e re then tota led to obtain an a g g reg a te f o r e a ch o ccu p a tio n a l g rou p. F in a lly , the ra tio o f th ese grou p a g g re g a te s f o r the one y e a r to the a g g reg a te fo r the oth e r y e a r w as com pu ted and the d iffe r e n c e b etw een the r e s u lt and 1 00 is the p e r c e n t o f change fr o m the one p e r io d to the oth er. The p e r c e n t o f change m e a s u r e s , p r in c ip a lly , the e ffe c t s o f ( 1 ) g e n e r a l s a la r y and w age ch a n g es; ( 2 ) m e r it o r oth er in c r e a s e s in pay r e c e iv e d b y in dividu al w o rk e r s w hile in the sa m e jo b ; and ( 3 ) changes in the la b o r f o r c e su ch as la b o r tu r n o v e r, fo r c e ex p a n s io n s , f o r c e re d u ctio n s , and changes in the p r o p o r tio n s o f w o rk e r s em p lo y e d b y e sta b lish m en ts with d iffe r e n t pay le v e ls . Changes in the la b o r f o r c e can ca u se in c r e a s e s o r d e c r e a s e s in the o ccu p a tio n a l a v e ra g e s w ithout a ctu al w age ch a n g es. F o r e x a m p le, a f o r c e exp an sion m ight in c r e a s e the p r o p o r tio n o f lo w e r paid w o rk e r s in a s p e c ific occu p a tion and re s u lt in a d rop in the a v e r a g e , w h erea s a red u ction in the p r o p o r t io n o f lo w e r paid w o rk e r s w ould have the o p p o s ite e ffe c t. The m ov em en t o f a h igh -p a yin g esta b lish m en t out o f an a r e a cou ld cau se the a v e ra g e earn in gs to d rop , even though no change in ra tes o c c u r r e d in o th e r a r e a e sta b lis h m e n ts. The use o f constan t em p loym en t w eigh ts e lim in a tes the e ffe c t s o f changes in the p r o p o r t io n o f w o r k e r s r e p re s e n te d in ea ch jo b in clu d ed in the data. N or a re the p e r c e n ts o f change in flu en ced by changes in stan dard w ork sch e d u le s o r in p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r tim e , sin c e they a re b a se d on pay f o r str a ig h t-tim e h ou rs. In dexes fo r the p e r io d 1953 to I960 f o r w o rk e r s in 20 m a jo r la b o r m a rk e ts w ill ap p ea r in B LS B u ll. 1 2 65 -62, W ages and R ela ted B e n e fits, 60 L a b o r M a rk ets, W inter 1 9 59 -60. 4 A* Occupational Earnings Table A-l. Office Occupations (A verage stra igh t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis, by industry division, Albuquerque, N. M ex. , M ay 1961) Avebagb Sex, occupation, and industry division Number of workers Weeklyt (Standard) NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF— $ 40. 00 Weekly earnings and (Standard) under 45. 00 $ 45. 00 1 50. 00 $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ 50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 $80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100. 00 105. 00 110. 00 1 1 5 .0 0 120. 00 125. 00 55. 00 60. 00 _6 5. 00. 70. 00 _75,_00 80. O . 85, .00 _ 9 jO 0 . 00 _ 95. 00 100..00 105. 00 n o . oo 115. 00 1 2 0 .0 0 125. 00 and over Men C le r k s, accounting, c la ss A _____________________________ Nonmanufacturing ______________________________________ 31 21 40. 5 40. 0 $9 5. 00 93. 00 - - - _ _ - 1 - - 1 1 1 _ _ ______________________________________________ 19 40 . 0 84. 00 _ __________________________________________________ 23 40. 0 55. 00 ro 1 3 B ille r s , machine (billing machine) ______________________ Nonmanufacturing ______________________________________ 25 19 40. 0 40 . 0 64. 50 64. 50 2 2 8 8 3 1 6 6 1 - 2 - Bookkeeping-machine op erators, c la ss A ______________ Nonmanufacturing __ __________________________________ 27 24 40. 5 40. 5 69. 50 69. 50 _ 6 5 5 4 _ - 5 5 8 8 Bookkeeping-machine op erators, c la ss B ______________ Nonmanufacturing ______________________________________ 120 116 40 . 0 40. 0 59. 00 58. 50 32 32 33 32 11 11 2 2 C lerk s, accounting, c la ss A _____________________________ Nonmanufacturing ______________________________________ 25 16 40. 0 40. 0 86. 00 84. 00 - - - 3 3 1 1 2 1 4 4 1 1 _ - C le r k s, accounting, c la ss B _____________________________ Manufacturing ___________________________________________ Nonmanufacturing ______________________________________ 99 32 67 40. 0 40. 0 40. 0 63. 50 64. 00 63. 50 3 3 " 15 1 14 11 4 7 23 7 16 13 5 8 8 1 7 1 1 - 5 3 2 C le r k s, file , c la ss A ______________________________________ Nonmanufacturing ______________________________________ 25 25 40. 0 40. 0 71. 00 71. 00 4 4 _ - 1 1 7 7 1 1 _ - 1 1 _ C le r k s, file , c la ss B ______________________ ______________ Nonmanufacturing ____________ ________________________ 36 33 40. 0 40 . 0 54. 50 53. 00 9 9 3 3 11 11 2 2 3 3 2 1 C le r k s, order ______________________________________________ Nonmanufacturing ____________________ ________________ 50 33 40 . 0 40 . 0 56. 50 62. 00 11 2 9 8 25 21 40 . 5 40 . 5 82. 50 84. 00 _ 1 _ 18 16 C le r k s, p ayroll ____________________________________________ Nonmanufacturing ______________________________________ 4 _ 3 2 _ - - - 1 1 5 3 C om ptom eter op erators ___________________________________ 15 40. 0 66. 00 _ _ 2 1 4 Keypunch operators ________________________________________ Nonmanufacturing ______________________________________ 59 52 40. 0 40. 0 72. 50 70. 50 4 4 7 7 5 5 S ecretaries __________________________________________________ Manufacturing _________________________ ________________ Nonmanufacturing ______________________________________ Public u tilities 2 ____________________________________ 197 32 165 33 40. 40 . 40. 40. 93. 96. 93. 88. 3 1 2 - Stenographers, general ___________________________________ Nonmanufacturing ______________________________________ Public u tilities 2 ____________________________________ 128 101 37 4 0 .0 40 . 0 40. 0 _ _ - 8 8 4 C le r k s, ord er Office boys 2 5 4 8 6 - 4 _ 4 1 - 5 3 2 1 1 1 1 10 9 i 1 _ i 1 - 2 - - 1 - 1 Women 0 0 0 0 50 00 00 50 7 6 .5 0 76. 00 68. 50 i _ _ _ _ 6 6 _ _ _ 3 3 - 33 31 _ _ 5 5 _ _ - 2 1 - _ _ _ _ 1 1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - - - - - _ _ _ - 6 5 _ _ 4 2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - _ - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - - - - _ _ _ _ 1 1 _ 3 - 2 - - - 1 1 _ _ 7 3 4 11 3 8 1 1 1 1 _ 3 3 _ _ _ 7 7 _ _ _ - 1 _ _ 1 1 _ _ - - - 3 3 1 - 10 10 2 _ 6 _ _ _ 5 5 2 2 - 8 7 15 12 12 10 1 - - - - - - 4 1 3 - 4 1 3 1 12 3 9 1 7 7 5 12 1 11 3 12 4 8 3 7 7 1 18 18 6 15 3 12 7 67 2 65 3 13 11 2 1 3 2 1 - _ _ - _ _ - 11 11 8 12 12 8 8 8 5 11 1 1 16 9 5 12 5 - 8 6 - 34 33 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 _ _ _ 20 3 17 2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ - - _ _ _ _ _ _ - 40 . 5 40. 5 59. 50 59. 00 3 2 8 8 14 14 8 6 3 3 2 2 3 3 22 40 . 0 65. 00 _ 3 2 2 2 7 2 T yp ists, c la ss A ______________________ ___________________ Nonmanufacturing ______________________________________ 171 142 40. 0 40. 0 71. 00 71. 00 - 6 6 17 15 19 19 9 9 19 5 15 4 T yp ists, c la ss B ___________________________________________ Nonmanufacturing ______________________________________ 69 68 40 . 0 40 . 0 51. 00 51. 00 10 10 17 17 27 26 11 11 3 3 _ 1 1 - 1 1 _ 2 1 51 45 - 1 1 1 1 _ _ _ 3 2 2 - 1 2 5 5 _ 43 18 18 24 23 - - - - - - - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ■ " _ _ “ " - - - 44 1 Standard hours refle ct the workweek for which em ployees receive their regular stra igh t-tim e sa la rie s and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours. Transportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities. _ _ 2 2 - Switchboard o p erator-recep tion ists _____________________ 1 * 3 2 _ _ - 1 1 Switchboard operators ____________________________________ Nonmanufacturing ______________________________________ . - _ _ - 5 Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations (A verage stra igh t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis^ by industry division, Albuquerque, N. M e x ., May 1961) NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF— A vebaqb Number Sex, occupation, and industry division of workers $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00- *85.00 90. 00 95. 00 100. 00 1 0 5 .0 0 Weekly, Weekly hours earnings and (Standard) (Standard) under 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100. 00 10_5_._00 n t h op. 1 1 Men Draftsm en, junior _________________________________________ 70 40. 0 $ 9 3 .5 0 3 3 3 1 6 1 33 11 8 l 1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which em ployees receive their regular stra igh t-tim e salarie s and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours. Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations (A verage stra igh t-tim e hourly earnings for m en'in selected occupations studied on an area b asi^ by industry division, Albuquerque, N. M e x ., May 1961) NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF— Occupation and industry division N ber um of w orkers Average $ hourly , Under 2. 00 earnings1 and $ under 2. 00 2. 10 C arpenters, m ain tenan ce2 _____________________ 22 _____________________ 57 $ 2. 30 $ 2. 40 $ 2. 50 $ 2. 60 2. 20 2. 30 2. 40 2. 50 2. 60 2. 70 2. 12 36 M echanics, automotive (maintenance) _______ Manufacturing _________________________________ Nonmanufacturing ____________________________ Public utilities 5 __________________________ 106 27 79 69 2. 2. 2. 2. 77 56 84 86 7 *4 . 8 2 - - 7 7 - 19 5 14 14 - - - ________________________ 43 3. 11 1 _ _ _ 2 1 3 _____________________________________________ 20 2. 27 2 6 2 6 1 3 67 3. 46 M echanics, maintenance O ilers 6 - Tool and die m akers ____________________________ 3 1 . 90 2. 80 2. 90 3. 00 $ 3. 00 $ 3. 10 $ 3. 20 $ 3. 30 $ 3. 40 $ 3 .5 0 3. 10 3. 20 3. 30 3. 40 3. 50 3. 60 - - - - - - 1 3 1 40 14 2 8 21 20 1 39 39 39 6 6 ~ 5 5 - 4 25 - 2 3 5 5 - - 1 - 17 1 16 16 1 1 1 _ _ _ _ . . 6 . . 1 1 Excludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. 2 Employm ent d ecrease is due mainly to a r e classificatio n of w ork ers in 1 large establishm ent; earnings w ere also affected by the rec la ssific a tio n . 3 A ll w ork ers w ere at $ 1. 60 to $ 1 .7 0 . 4 A ll w orkers w ere at $ 1 .9 0 to $ 2 . 5 Transportation, communication, and other public u tilities. and over 26 6 3. 60 9 7 % 8 2. 96 22 . 1 45 E ngineers, stationary $ 2 .8 0 3 1 H elpers, trades, m ain tenan ce2 ________________ 2. 70 $ 1 3. 14 __________________________ $ 2. 20 1 $ 3 . 09 E lectrician s, maintenance $ 2. 10 - - _ 10 6 Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations (A verage stra igh t-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area b asis by industry d ivision , Albuquerque, N . M ex. , May 1961). NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF— N ber um of w orkers Occupation 1 and industry division $ $ Average hourly 2 Under 1 .0 0 1. 10 earnings and $ under 1. 00 1. 10 1. 20 $ 1. 20 $ 1. 30 $ 1 .4 0 $ 1. 50 $ 1 .6 0 $ 1. 70 $ 1. 80 $ 1. 90 $ 2. 00 $ 2. 10 $ 2. 20 $ 2. 30 1 .3 0 1 .4 0 1. 50 1. 60 1 .7 0 1 .8 0 1 .9 0 2. 00 2. 10 2. 20 2. 30 2 .4 0 2 .4 0 $ 2. 50 $ 2. 60 $ 2. 70 $ 2. 80 2. 50 2 .6 0 2. 70 2. 80 2. 90 % 62 67 60 72 4 4 ' 22 11 11 ' 24 5 19 “ 24 1 23 6 25 5 20 6 20 9 11 6 8 1 7 2 2 2 - 15 15 14 44 1 43 6 35 35 - 3 1 2 1 45 32 13 13 - - - - - - - - - - “ 33 31 1 .4 7 1 .4 8 " 3 3 11 11 1 " 2 1 - 5 5 - - 4 4 4 4 3 3 - - ' - - - - - L ab orers , m aterial handling4 __________________ Manufacturing __________________________________ Nonmanufacturing _____________________________ Public utilities 3 _________________ ________ 231 68 163 121 2. 06 1. 74 2. 20 2 .4 2 _ ' _ - _ - 22 1 21 - 4 1 3 ' 13 11 2 ' 11 9 2 " 6 6 3 21 21 - 7 7 - 4 2 2 1 12 8 4 4 16 1 15 15 18 7 11 11 7 7 - 2 2 - 88 88 87 _ - _ - _ - Order fille r s _______________________________________ Manufacturing ______________ _________________ Nonmanufacturing ______ __ ____________ __ 154 41 113 1. 80 1. 99 1. 72 _ - _ - 8 2 6 10 2 8 8 £ 6 57 3 54 11 2 9 2 2 “ _ - 1 1 - 15 1 14 31 22 9 _ - _ - _ - - 7 4 3 _ - - 4 4 - - _ ■ _ - _____________________ 26 1 .4 9 . _ . 6 _ 2 16 _ . 2 - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Receiving clerk s ___ _____ _____________________ Nonmanufacturing _____________________________ 44 27 2. 29 2. 31 _ _ _ _ _ 1 - 1 - _ 1 _ _ 1 - - 2 2 15 - 1 1 2 2 11 11 2 2 . - 8 8 - Shipping and receivin g clerk s ________________ Nonmanufacturing _____________________________ 30 22 2. 10 2. 03 . _ _ 2 2 2 - 1 - 6 6 1 - - 4 2 _ - 2 2 - - 1 1 - - 6 6 - - 2 2 3 1 T ru ck d rivers 5 _________________________ __________ Manufacturing __________________________________ Nonmanufacturing ______ __ _________________ Public u tilitie s 3 __________________ _______ 369 189 180 69 2. 2. 2. 2. 02 00 05 53 5 5 - _ - 1 1 - 3 3 45 45 - 2 2 - 10 5 5 - 2 2 3 3 3 18 7 11 - 78 1 77 61 8 1 7 5 6 1 5 " _ - T ru ck d riv ers, light (under lV 2 tons) _______ Nonmanufacturing ________________ _______ 82 70 2. 10 2. 14 5 5 _ 3 3 1 _ 2 2 11 11 33 33 _ " 11 11 _ 1 1 1 _ - 1 1 - T r u ck d riv ers, m edium ( I V 2 to and including 4 tons) _________ __________________ Manufacturing ________ ______________ __ Nonmanufacturing __________________________ 87 50 37 2. 09 1. 96 2. 27 - - - - 2 - 4 _ 2 - 26 26 T r u ck d riv ers, heavy (over 4 tons, tra iler type) _______ — ________ _____ ___ Manufacturing _______ __ ________________ 43 28 2. 30 2. 11 - 2 2 T ru ck d rivers , heavy (over 4 t o n s , other than tra iler type) ______________________ Manufacturing ___ _________________________ 95 94 1. 98 1. 98 - - - - 93 2. 24 _ _ . _ 20 1 .6 3 J anitors, p o r te r s, and clean ers (men) ________ Manufacturing ___ __ -------- --------------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------ ----Public utilities 3 ...... ............................................ 271 68 203 54 Jan itors, p o r te r s, and clean ers (women) __________________________________ _________ Nonmanufacturing _____________________________ P a c k e r s, shipping ________ T r u c k e r s, power (forklift) ___ Watchm en 1 2 3 4 5 __________________ __________________ _______________ ____ $1. 1. 1. 1. - " . - 4 _ - - 28 26 2 64 64 - 37 36 1 " 38 38 - 2 2 8 - 2 - 2 - _ - 2 ‘ 20 18 2 2 2 " 29 28 2 1 6 r~ - - - - 6 6 - 60 60 - - 12 4 11 10 - ------ 5 ~ 4 11 “ - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - 5 5 - - 2 2 - " " - 3 _ _ _ 1 3 1 7 2 3 _ - - ' — - _ ' 2 2 - - - - - - - 9 9 2 2 - 27 27 - 1 " 7 3 3 Data lim ited to m en w orkers except where otherw ise indicated. Excludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on w eekends, h olid ays, and late sh ifts. Tran sportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities. Employm ent d ecrease is due m ainly to a rec la ssific a tio n of w ork ers in 1 large establishm ent; earnings w ere also affected by the r e classificatio n . Includes all d rivers regard le ss of size and type of truck operated. - 62 - " - - - - - - - 4 1 8 1 6 1 - - - - - - - ' - - - 2 . . _ _ 7 Appendix: Occupational Descriptions The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to a ssist its field staff in classifyin g into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content. Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability o f occupational content, the Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those prepared for other purposes in applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field economists are instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers, part-time, temporary, and probationary workers. O F F I C E BILLER, MACHINE BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR Prepares statements, b ills, and invoices on a machine other than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerica l work inciden tal to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are cla ssified by type of machine, as follow s: Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, E lliott Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or with out a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions. B ille r , m achine (b illin g m ach in e) — U ses a specia l billing ma chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, e tc., which are combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders, shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede termined discounts and shipping charges and entry o f necessary extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine. The operation usually involves a large number of carbon cop ies of the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine. B ille r , m achine (b o o k k e e p in g m a ch in e)— Uses a bookkeeping machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, e tc., which may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare custom ers’ bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers’ ledger record. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a num ber of vertical columns and computes and usually prints auto matically the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowl edge of bookkeeping. Works from uniform and standard types of sales and credit slips. C la s s A — Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with the structure of the particular accounting system used. Deter mines proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated re ports, balance sheets, and other records by hand. C la s s B — Keeps a record of one or more phases or section s of a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic bookkeeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, pay roll, custom ers’ accounts (not including a simple type of billing described under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense d is tribution, inventory control, etc. May check or a ss is t in prep aration of trial balances and prepare control sheets for the a c counting department. CLERK, ACCOUNTING C la s s A — Under general direction of a bookkeeper or a c countant, has responsibility for keeping one or more section s o f a complete set of books or records relating to one phase of an e s tablishment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and 8 CLERK, ACCOUNTING— Continued balancing subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receiv able or accounts payable; examining and coding invoices or vouch ers with proper accounting distribution; requires judgment and ex perience in making proper assignations and allocations. May assist in preparing, adjusting, and closin g journal entries; may direct cla ss B accounting clerks. C la s s B — Under supervision, performs one or more routine accounting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers, accounts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers; reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled by general ledgers. This job does not require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping principles but is found in o ffice s in which the more routine accounting work is subdivided on a func tional basis among several workers. CLERK, PAYROLL Computes wages of company employees and enters the n eces sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers* earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker’ s name, working days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and distrib uting pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine. COMPTOMETER OPERATOR Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathe matical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of statistical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comptometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance of other duties. DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO) CLERK, FILE C la s s A — Responsible for maintaining an established filing system. C lassifies and indexes correspondence or other material; may also file this material. May keep records of various types in conjunction with files or supervise others in filing and locating material in the files. May perform incidental clerical duties. C la s s B — Performs routine filing, usually of material that has already been cla ssified , or locates or a ssists in locating ma terial in the files. May perform incidental clerica l duties. CLERK, ORDER R eceives customers* orders for material or merchandise by mail, phone, or personally. Duties involve an y com b in a tio n o f the fo llo w in g : Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order sheet; distributing order sheets to respective de partments to be filled. May check with credit department to deter mine credit rating of customer, acknowledge receipt o f orders from customers, follow up orders to see that they have been filled , keep file of orders received, and check shipping invoices with original orders. Under general supervision and with no supervisory respon sib ilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten matter, using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjust ments such as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file o f used stencils or Ditto masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material. KEYPUNCH OPERATOR Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi bilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards by punching a series of holes in the cards in a sp ecified sequence, using an alphabetical or a numerical keypunch machine, following written information on records. May duplicate cards by using the duplicating device attached to machine. May keep files of punch cards. May verify own work or work of others. OFFICE BOY OR GIRL Performs various routine duties such as running errands, operating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and distributing mail, and other minor clerical work. 9 SECRETARY SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint ments for superior; receiving people coming into o ffice ; answering and making phone ca lls; handling personal and important or confidental mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative; taking dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dictation or therecorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine. May pre pare special reports or memorandums for information of superior. In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may type or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. typing or clerical work may take the major part of this worker's while at switchboard. TABULATING-MACHINE STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons, either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a normal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a type writer. May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep files in order, keep simple records, etc. Does not include transcribing machine work (see transcribing-machine operator). posi also This time OPERATOR Operates machine that automatically analyzes and translates information punched in groups of tabulating cards and prints trans lated data on forms or accounting records; sets or adjusts machine; does simple wiring of plugboards according to established practice or diagrams; places cards to be tabulated in feed magazine and starts machine. May file cards after they are tabulated. May, in addition, operate auxiliary machines. TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons, either in shorthand or by Stenotype Or similar machine, involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on scien tific research and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter. May also type from written copy. May also set up and ke£p files in order, keep simple records, etc. Does not include transcribing machine work. Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May a lso type from written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal briefs or reports on scien tific research are not included. A worker who takes dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is classified as a stenographer, general. SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR TYPIST Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard. Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office ca lls. May record toll calls and take m essages. May give information to persons who ca ll in, or occasionally take telephone orders. For workers who also act as receptionists see switchboard operator-receptionist. Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to make out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May do clerical work involving little special training, such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports or sorting and distributing incoming mail. 10 T Y P IS T — Continued T Y P IS T — Continued C la s s A — Performs on e or more o f the fo llo w in g : Typing ma terial in final form from very rough and involved draft; copying from plain or corrected copy in which there is a frequent and varied use of technical and unusual words or from foreign-language copy; combining material from several sources, or planning layout of complicated statistical tables to maintain uniformity and balance P R O F E S S I O N A L DRAFTSM AN, JUNIOR (A ssistant draftsman) Draws to sca le units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction of a draftsman. DRAFTSM AN, L E A D E R Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep aration of working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Duties involve a com bination o f the fo llo w in g : Interpreting blueprints, sketches, and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures; assigning duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif ficult problems. May a ssist subordinates during emergencies or as a regular assignment, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad ministrative nature. DRAFTSMAN, SEN IO R Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur poses. Duties involve a com bin ation o f the fo llo w in g : Preparing work ing plans, detail drawings, maps, cro s s-s e ctio n s , e tc ., to sca le by use of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as those involved in strength of materials, beams and trusses; verifying com pleted work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quantities; in spacing; typing tables from rough draft in final form. May type routine form letters, varying details to suit circumstances. C la s s B — Performs o n e or more o f th e fo llo w in g : Typing from relatively clear or typed drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance p o licie s, e tc., setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying more complex tables already set up and spaced properly. A N D T E C H N I C A L DRAFTSM AN, SEN IO R — Continued writing specification s; making adjustments or changes in drawings or specifications* May ink in lines and letters on pencil drawings, prepare detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings. Work is frequently in a specialized field such as architectural, electrical, mechanical, or structural drafting. NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED) A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a com bina tion o f the fo llo w in g : Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to subsequent dressing of employees* injuries; keeping records of patients treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes; conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants and em ployees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel. TRACER Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing trac ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. Uses T-square, compass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw ings and do simple lettering. 11 M A IN T E N A N C E PO W ERPLANT CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs, counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’ s handtools, portable power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work; selecting materials n ec essary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water and safety valves. May clean, oil, or a ssist in repairing boilerroom equipment. ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, d is tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards, controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems, or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay out, or other specification s; locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; using a variety of electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In gen eral, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. ENGINEER, STATIONARY Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, motors turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a record of operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May also supervise these operations. Head or ch ief engineers in establishments employing more than one engineer are excluded . HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE A ssists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades, by performing sp e cific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools; performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade that are also performed by workers on a full-time basis. MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes, or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and op eration sequence; making necessary adjustments during operation to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recog nize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils . For cross-industry wage study purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification . MACHINIST, MAINTEN ANCE Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Interpreting written instructions and specification s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma ch inist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and 12 MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued MILLWRIGHT— Continued operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to clo se toler ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work, tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop erties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts, and equipment required for his work; fitting and assembling parts into me chanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally requires a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. are required. Work involves m ost o f the fo llo w in g : Planning and laying out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specification s; using a variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment, and parts to be used; installing and maintaining in good order power transmission equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the mill wright’ s work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE) Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an e s tablishment. Work involves m ost o f the fo llo w in g : Examining automotive equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches, gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting valves; reassembling and installing the various assem blies in the vehicle and making necessary adjustments; alining wheels, adjusting brakes and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment. Work involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Examining machines and mechan ica l equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly d is mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replace ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop for major repairs; preparing written specification s for major repairs or for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling ma chines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In general, the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and ex perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. Excluded from this classification are workers whose prim ary d u tie s involve setting up or adjusting machines. MILLWRIGHT Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout OILER Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur faces of mechanical equipment of an establishment. PAINTER, MAINTENANCE Paints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es tablishment. Work in v o lv e s the fo llo w in g : Knowledge of surface pecu liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May mix colors, o ils , white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper color or con sisten cy. In general, the work of the maintenance painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings or other written specification s; cutting various sizes of pipe to correct lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma chine; threading pipe with stocks and d ies; bending pipe by hand-driven or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to pressures, flow, and size of pipe required; making standard tests to determine whether finished pipes meet specification s. In general, the work of the maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex perience. W orkers p rim a rily en g ag ed in in s ta llin g and re p a irin g b u ild in g sa n ita tio n or h e a tin g s y s te m s are e x c lu d e d . 13 T O O L AND D IE MAKER P LU M B ER , M AINTENANCE Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order. Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake. In general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv alent training and experience. S H E E T -M E T A L W ORKER, M AINTENANCE Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans, shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an establishment. Work involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Planning and lay ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, models, or other specification s; setting up and operating all available types of sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting, bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; installing sheetmetal articles as required. In general, the work of the maintenance sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. (Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gauge maker) Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work involves m ost o f the fo llo w in g : Planning and laying out of work from models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specification s; using a variety of tool and die maker’ s handtools and precision meas uring instruments, understanding of the working properties of common metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions o f work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve required qualities; working to clo s e tolerances; fitting and assembling o f parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selecting appropriate materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die maker’ s work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this cla ssifica tion . C U S T O D IA L A ND M A T E R IA L M O V E M E N T E L E V A T O R O P E R A T O R , PA SS EN G ER Transports passengers between floors of an office building, apartment house, department store, hotel or similar establishment. Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as those of starters and janitors are excluded. GUARD J A N IT O R , PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued or other establishment. Duties involve a com bin ation o f the fo llo w in g : Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips, trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte nance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Workers who specialize in window washing are excluded. Performs routine police-duties, either at fixed post or on tour, maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. In c lu d e s g a te men who are sta tio n e d at gate and c h eck on id e n tity o f e m p lo y e e s and L A B O R E R , M A T ER IA L HANDLING oth er person s en terin g . JAN ITO R, P O R T E R , OR C L E A N E R (Sweeper; charwoman; janitress) Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial (Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper) A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store, or other establishment whose duties involve on e or more o f the fo llo w ing: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or 14 L A B O R E R , M A T ER IA L HANDLING— Continued from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting d evices; unpacking, shelv ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; trans porting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow. L o n g sh o rem en , w ho load and unload s h ip s are e x c lu d e d . O R D ER F I L L E R (Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman) F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, customers' orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi cating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders, requisi tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform other related duties. SH IPPING AND R E C E IV IN G C L E R K — Continued For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified as follow s: R e c e iv i n g clerk Shipping clerk Shipping and r e c e iv in g clerk T R IJC K D R IV E R Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of estab lishments such a s: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses, wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments and customers’ houses or places of business. May also load or unload truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers are excluded. P A C K E R , SH IPPIN G Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing them in shipping containers, the sp ecific operations performed being dependent upon the type, size, and number o f units to be packed, the type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the placing of items in shipping containers and may in v o lv e on e or more o f the fo llo w in g : Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify content; selection of appropriate type and size of container; inserting enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent breakage or damage; closin g and sealing container; applying labels or entering identifying data on container. P a c k e r s who a ls o m ake w ood en b o x e s or cra tes are e x c lu d e d . SHIPPING AND R E C E IV IN G C L E R K Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Shipping work i n v o l v e s : A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes, available means of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or assist in preparing the merchandise for shipment. R e c e iv in g work i n v o l v e s : Veri fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipments against bills of lading, in voices, or other records; checking for shortages and rejecting damaged goods; routing merchandise or materials to proper de partments; maintaining necessary records and file s. For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are cla ssified by size and type o f equipment, as follow s: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on the basis o f trailer capacity.) Tru ckdriver (com bin ation o f s i z e s li s t e d s e p a r a te ly ) Truckdriver, ligh t ( under 1% t o n s ) Tru ckdriver, medium (IV 2 to and inclu din g 4 to n s) T ru ckdriver, h e a v y (o v e r 4 to n s, trailer t y p e ) Truckdriver, h e a v y ( o v e r 4 to n s, oth er than trailer ty p e ) T R U C K E R , POWER Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or elec trie-powered truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment. For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified by type of truck, as follow s: Trucker, p o w er (fo rk lift) Trucker, p o w e r (o th er than fo rk lift) WATCHMAN Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property against fire, theft, and illegal entry. * U .S . GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1961 0 — 5 9 9 0 2 9 Occupational Wage Surveys Occupational wage surveys will be conducted in the 82 major labor markets listed below during late I960 and early 1961. Bulletins, when available, may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C., or from any of the BLS regional sales offices shown on the inside front cover. A summary bulletin containing data for 80 labor markets, combined with additional analysis, will be issued early in 1962. Akron, Ohio— Bull. 1285❖ Albany— Schenectady— Troy, N .Y .— Bull. 1285-51 Albuquerque, N. Mex.— Bull. 1285-61 ❖ Allentown—Bethlehem— Easton, P a .-N .J .— Bull. 1285-47 Atlanta, Ga.— Bull. 1285❖ Baltimore, Md.— Bull. 1285-34 Beaumont— Port Arthur, T ex .— Bull. 1285❖ Birmingham, A la.— Bull. 1285*53 Boise, Idaho— Bull. 1285-62 ❖ ❖ Boston, Mass.— Bull. 1285-15 ❖ ❖ Buffalo, N.Y.— Bull. 1285-31 ❖ Burlington, Vt.— Bull. 1285-57 ❖ Canton, Ohio— Bull. 1285-29 Charleston, W. Va.— Bull. 1285-60 Charlotte, N .C.— Bull. 1285-58 ❖ ❖ Chattanooga, Tenn.— Ga.— Bull. 1285-14 Chicago, 111.— Bull. 1285-66 ❖ ❖ ❖ ❖ ❖ ❖ ❖ ❖ ❖ ❖ ❖ ❖ ❖ ❖ ❖ Cincinnati, Ohio— Ky.— Bull. 1285-59 Cleveland, Ohio— Bull. 1285-11 Columbus, Ohio— Bull. 1285-38 Dallas, T ex.— Bull. 1285-21 Davenport— Rock Island— Moline, Iowa— 111.— Bull. 1285-16 Dayton, Ohio— Bull. 1285-41 Denver, C olo.— Bull. 1285-27 Des Moines, Iowa— Bull. 1285-43 Detroit, Mich.— Bull. 1285-37 Fort Worth, T ex.— Bull. 1285-23 ❖ Green Bay, Wis.— Bull. 1285-2 Greenville, S.C.— Bull. 1285-63 Houston, Tex.— Bull. 1285❖ Indianapolis, Ind.— Bull. 1285-28 ❖ Jackson, Miss.— Bull. 1285-42 ❖ ❖ Jacksonville, Fla.— Bull. 1285-30 ❖ Kansas City, Mo.— Kans.— Bull. 1285-18 Lawrence— Haverhill, Mass.— N.H.— Bull. 1285❖ ❖ Little Rock— North Little Rock, Ark.— Bull. 1285-6 ❖ ❖ Los Angeles— Long Beach, Calif.— Bull. 1285-52 ❖ ❖ Louisville, Ky.— Ind.— Bull. 1285-49 Lubbock, Tex.— Bull. 1285-67 ❖ Manchester, N.H.— Bull. 1285-1 ❖ Memphis, Tenn.— Bull. 1285-35 ❖ Miami, Fla.— Bull. 1285-33 Milwaukee, Wis.— Bull. 1285-64 ❖ ❖ Minneapolis— Paul, Minn.— Bull. 1285-39 St. Muskegon— Muskegon Heights, Mich.— Bull. 1285- ❖ ❖ ❖ ❖ ❖ Newark and Jersey City, N.J.— Bull. 1285-40 ❖ New Haven, Conn.— Bull. 1285-46 ❖ New Orleans, La.— Bull. 1285-48 New York, N.Y.— Bull. 1285-65 Norfolk— Portsmouth and Newport News— Hampton, Va.— Bull. 1285❖ Oklahoma City, Okla.— Bull. 1285-3 ❖ Omaha, Nebr.— Iowa— Bull. 1285-13 Paterson— Clifton— Passaic, N.J.— Bull. 1285❖ Philadelphia, Pa.— Bull. 1285-24 ❖ Phoenix, Ariz.— Bull. 1285-55 ❖ ❖ Pittsburgh, Pa.— Bull. 1285-44 ❖ Portland, M aine-Bull. 1285-19 Portland, Oreg.— Wash.— Bull. 1285Providence— Pawtucket, R.I.— Mass.— Bull. 1285❖ ❖ Raleigh, N.C.— Bull. 1285-5 ❖ Richmond, Va.— Bull. 1285-26 Rockford, 111.— Bull. 1285❖ ❖ St. Louis, M o.-Ill.— Bull. 1285-10 ❖ ❖ Salt Lake City, Utah— Bull. 1285-32 San Antonio, Tex.— Bull. 1285❖ San Bernardino— Riverside— Ontario, Calif.— Bull. 1285-4 ❖ ❖ San Francisco— Oakland, Calif.— Bull. 1285-36 Savannah, Ga.— Bull. 1285❖ ❖ Scranton, Pa.— Bull. 1285-8 ❖ ❖ 'Seattle, Wash.— Bull. 1285-7 ❖ ❖ ❖ Sioux Falls, S. Dak.— Bull. 1285-17 ❖ South Bend, Ind.— Bull. 1285-54 Spokane, Wash.— Bull. 1285❖ ❖ Toledo, Ohio— Bull. 1285-50 ❖ ❖ Trenton, N.J.— Bull. 1285-25 ❖ ❖ Washington, D.C.-M d.-Va.— Bull. 1285-22 Waterbury, Conn.— Bull. 1285-56 ❖ Waterloo, Iowa— Bull. 1285-20 ❖ ❖ Wichita, Kans.— Bull. 1285-9 ❖ ❖ Wilmington, D el.-N .J.— Bull. 1285-12 Worcester, Mass.— Bull. 1285❖ York, Pa.— Bull. 1285-45 An asterisk preceding a labor market indicates the availability and price of the bulletin. Please do not order copies in advance. ❖ *❖ Price, 20 cents. Price, 25 cents. ❖ ❖ ❖ Price, 15 cents.