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Occupational Wage Survey

SOUTH BEND, INDIANA
MARCH 1961

Bulletin No. 1285-54




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretory
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




I

fNew England Region
18 Oliver Screet
Boston 10, Mass.
I Liberty 2-2113

Occupational Wage Survey




SOUTH BEND, INDIANA
MARCH 1961

Bulletin No. 1285-54
May 1961

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 2 5, D.C.

Price 20 cents




Preface

Contents
Page

T h e C o m m u n ity W a ge S u rv ey P r o g r a m

T h is r e p o r t w as p r e p a r e d in the B u r e a u 's r e g io n a l
o f f ic e in C h ic a g o , 111., by W o o d r o w C . Linn, u n d er the
d ir e c t io n o f G e o r g e E. V ota v a , A s s is ta n t R e g io n a l D ir e c t o r
f o r W a g e s and In d u s tr ia l R e la tio n s .




1
3

T a b le s :
1.
2.

A:

E s ta b lis h m e n ts and w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e o f s u r v e y _____
P e r c e n t s o f in c r e a s e in sta n d a rd w e e k ly s a la r ie s and
s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n a l
g ro u p s ________________________________________________________
O cc u p a tio n a l ea r n in g s :*
A - 1. O ffic e o c c u p a tio n s _______________________________
A - 2. P r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n ic a l o c c u p a t io n s ______
A - 3. M a in ten a n ce and p o w e rp la n t o c c u p a t io n s ____
A - 4 . C u s to d ia l and m a t e r ia l m o v e m e n t o c c u p a tio n s

A p p en d ix :

O cc u p a tio n a l d e s c r ip t io n s

* N O T E : S im ila r ta b u la tio n s a r e a v a ila b le in the South
Bend, Ind. , a r e a r e p o r t f o r A p r il I9 6 0 , w h ich a ls o in ­
c lu d e s da ta on e s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and su p p le m e n ta r y
w a g e p r o v i s io n s .
A d ir e c t o r y in d ic a tin g date o f
study
an d th e p r ic e o f th is r e p o r t , as w e ll as the r e p o r t s f o r
o th e r m a jo r a r e a s , is a v a ila b le u pon r e q u e s t.
U nion s c a l e s , in d ic a t iv e o f p r e v a ilin g pay le v e ls ,
a r e a ls o a v a ila b le f o r s e v e n s e le c t e d bu ild in g t r a d e s in the
South B end a r e a .

2
2

^ vo r- oo

T h e B u rea u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s r e g u la r ly c o n d u c ts
a r e a w id e w a g e s u r v e y s in a n u m b e r o f im p o rta n t in d u s tr ia l
cen ters.
T h e s tu d ie s, m a d e fr o m la te fa ll to e a r ly s p rin g ,
r e la te to o c c u p a t io n a l ea r n in g s and r e la t e d su p p le m e n ta r y
b e n e fits .
A p r e lim in a r y r e p o r t is a v a ila b le on c o m p le t io n
o f th e study in e a c h a r e a , u s u a lly in the m on th fo llo w in g
the p a y r o ll p e r io d stu d ied . T h is b u lle tin p r o v id e s ad d ition a l
data not in c lu d e d in the e a r l i e r r e p o r t .
A c o n s o lid a te d
a n a ly tic a l b u lle tin s u m m a r iz in g th e r e s u lts o f a ll o f the
y e a r 's s u r v e y s is is s u e d a ft e r c o m p le t io n o f the fin a l a r e a
b u lle tin f o r the c u r r e n t roun d o f s u r v e y s .

In tr o d u c tio n _________________________________________________________________
W age tr e n d s f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p s _________________________

9




Occupational W age Survey—South Bend, Ind.
Introduction

This area is one of several important industrial centers in
which the U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics
conducts surveys of occupational earnings and related wage benefits
on an area basis.
The bulletin presents current occupational employment and
earnings information obtained largely by mail from the establishments
visited by Bureau field economists in the last previous survey for occu­
pations reported in that earlier study. Personal visits were made
to nonrespondents and to those respondents reporting unusual changes
since the previous survey.
In each area, data are obtained from representative establish­
ments within six broad industry divisions: Manufacturing; transpor­
tation, 1 communication, and other public utilities; wholesale trade; re­
tail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. Major
industry groups excluded from these studies are government operations
and the construction and extractive industries. Establishments having
fewer than a prescribed number of workers are omitted also because
they furnish insufficient employment in the occupations studied to war­
rant inclusion. Wherever possible, separate tabulations are provided
for each of the broad industry divisions.
These surveys are conducted on a sample basis because of the
unnecessary cost involved in surveying all establishments. To obtain
appropriate accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of large
than of small establishments is studied. In combining the data, how­
ever, all establishments are given their appropriate weight. Estimates
based on the establishments studied are presented, therefore, as re­
lating to ail establishments in the industry grouping and area, ex­
cept for those below the minimum size studied.

take account of interestablishment variation in duties within the same
job. (See appendix for listing of these descriptions. ) Earnings data are
presented (in the A -series tables) for the following types of occupa­
tions: (a) Office clerical; (b) professional and technical; (c) mainte­
nance and powerplant; and (d) custodial and material movement.
Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for
full-time workers, i. e. , those hired to work a regular weekly sched­
ule in the given occupational classification. Earnings data exclude
premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and
late shifts. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded also, but cost-ofliving bonuses and incentive earnings are included. Where weekly
hours are reported, as for office clerical occupations, reference is
to the work schedules (rounded to the nearest half hour) for which
straight-time salaries are paid; average weekly earnings for these
occupations have been rounded to the nearest half dollar.

Average earnings of men and women are presented separately
for selected occupations in which both sexes are commonly employed.
Differences in pay levels of men and women in these occupations are
largely due to (l) differences in the distribution of the sexes among
industries and establishments; (Z) differences in specific duties per­
formed, although the occupations are appropriately classified within
the same survey job description; and (3) differences in length of serv­
ice or merit review when individual salaries are adjusted on this basis.
Longer average service of men would result in higher average pay
when both sexes are employed within the same rate range.
Job
descriptions used in classifying employees in these surveys are usu­
ally more generalized than those used in individual establishments to
allow for minor differences among establishments in specific duties
performed.

Occupations and Earnings
The occupations selected for study are common to a variety
of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries. Occupational clas­
sification is based on a uniform set of job descriptions designed to

Occupational employment estimates represent the total in all
establishments within the scope of the study and not the number actu­
ally surveyed. Because of differences in occupational structure among
establishments, the estimates of occupational employment obtained
from the sample of establishments studied serve only to indicate the
1
Railroads, form erly excluded from the scope of these studies,
relative importance of the jobs studied. These differences in occu­
were included in all of the areas studied since July 1959, except Balti­
pational structure do not materially affect the accuracy of the earn­
more (September 1959 and December I960), Buffalo (October 1959),
ings data.
Cleveland (September 1959), and Seattle (August 1959).




2




T a b le 1.

E s ta b lis h m e n t s and w o r k e r s w ithin s c o p e o f s u r v e y and n u m b e r stu d ied in South B en d, I n d ., 1
b y m a jo r in d u str y d iv is io n , 2 M a r c h 1961
N u m b e r o f e s t a b lis h m e n ts

In d u stry d iv is io n

W ith in sc o p e
o f stud y3

W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n ts
W ith in sc o p e
o f study

Studied

Studied

________________________________________________________________

137

75

3 9 .9 0 0

3 4 . 210

M a n u fa c tu rin g ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------T r a n s p o r ta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and
oth e r p u b lic u t i l i t i e s 4 ______________________________________________
W h o le s a le tra d e 5 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------R e ta il tra d e 5 ___________________________________________________________
F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te 5 -----------------------------------------S e r v i c e s 5* 6 _____________________________________________________________

55
82

32
43

2 9 ,4 0 0
10 , 500

2 7 ,3 9 0
6, 82 0

22
12
26
7
15

17
5
10
5
6

A l l d iv is io n s

3,
1,
3,
2,
1,

100
00 0
30 0
00 0
100

2, 20 0
420
1, 89 0
1, 8 0 0
510

1 The South B en d Stan d ard M e tr o p o lita n S ta t is t ic a l A r e a (S t. J o se p h C o u n ty ).
The "w o r k e r s w ithin sc o p e of s t u d y " e s t im a t e s show n in th is
ta b le p r o v id e a r e a s o n a b ly a c c u r a te d e s c r ip t io n of the s iz e and c o m p o s itio n o f the la b o r f o r c e in clu d e d in the s u r v e y .
T h e e s t im a t e s a r e not
in ten d ed , h o w e v e r , to s e r v e a s a b a s is o f c o m p a r is o n w ith oth e r a r e a e m p lo y m e n t in d e x e s to m e a s u r e e m p lo y m e n t tre n d s o r le v e ls s in c e ( l ) planning
o f w age s u r v e y s r e q u ir e s the u s e o f e s t a b lis h m e n t data c o m p ile d c o n s id e r a b ly in ad van ce o f the p a y r o ll p e r io d stu d ied , and (2) s m a l l e s t a b lis h m e n ts
a r e ex clu d e d f r o m the sc o p e of the s u r v e y .
2 The 19 57 r e v is e d ed itio n of the S tan d ard In d u str ia l C la s s if ic a t io n M an u al w a s u s e d in c la s s if y in g e s t a b lis h m e n ts b y in d u s tr y d iv is io n .
M a jo r
c h a n g es f r o m the e a r l ie r ed itio n (u se d in the B u r e a u ’ s la b o r m a r k e t w age s u r v e y s con d u cted p r io r to J uly 1958) a r e the t r a n s f e r o f m il k p a s te u r iz a tio n
p la n ts and r e a d y -m ix e d c o n c r e te e s t a b lis h m e n ts f r o m tra d e (w h o le sa le o r r e ta il) to m a n u fa c tu r in g , and the t r a n s f e r o f r a d io and t e le v is io n b r o a d c a s tin g
f r o m s e r v i c e s to the t r a n s p o r ta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and o th e r p ub lic u tilit ie s d iv is io n .
3 In c lu d e s a ll e s t a b lis h m e n ts w ith to ta l e m p lo y m e n t at or ab o v e the m i n i m u m -s i z e lim ita t io n (5 0 e m p lo y e e s ) .
A ll o u tle ts (w ith in the a rea ) of
c o m p a n ie s in su ch in d u s tr ie s a s t r a d e , fin a n c e , auto r e p a ir s e r v i c e , and m o t io n -p ic t u r e t h e a te r s a r e c o n s id e r e d a s 1 e s t a b lis h m e n t.
4 T a x ic a b s and s e r v i c e s in cid e n ta l to w a te r tr a n s p o r ta tio n w e r e e x c lu d e d .
5 T h is in d u s tr y d iv is io n is r e p r e s e n t e d in e s t im a t e s fo r " a l l in d u s t r i e s " and "n o n m a n u fa c t u r in g " in the S e r ie s A t a b l e s .
S e p a r a te p r e se n ta tio n
o f data f o r th is d iv is io n is not m a d e fo r one o r m o r e o f the fo llo w in g r e a s o n s :
(1) E m p lo y m e n t in the d iv is io n is too s m a ll to p r o v id e enough data
to m e r it se p a r a te stu d y, (2) the s a m p le w as not d e sig n e d in itia lly to p e r m it se p a r a te p r e s e n ta tio n , (3) r e s p o n s e w a s in s u ffic ie n t o r in ad eq u ate to p e r m it
s e p a r a te p r e s e n ta tio n , (4) th e re i s p o s s ib ilit y o f d is c lo s u r e of in d ivid u al e s t a b lis h m e n t d ata.
6 H o t e ls ; p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s ; b u s in e s s s e r v i c e s ; a u to m o b ile r e p a ir sh o p s; m o tio n p ic t u r e s ; n o n p ro fit m e m b e r s h ip o r g a n iz a tio n s ; and e n g in e e r in g
and a r c h it e c tu r a l s e r v i c e s .

T a b le 2.

P e r c e n ts of in c r e a s e in sta n d a rd w e e k ly s a la r ie s and s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly e a rn in g s fo r
s e le c te d o c cu p a tio n a l gro u p s in South B en d , I n d ., A p r il I9 6 0 to M a r c h 1961

O c c u p a tio n a l gro u p s

O ffic e c le r i c a l (w om en) -----------------------------------------In d u str ia l n u r s e s (w om en ) -----------------------------------S k ille d m a in te n a n c e (m en) -----------------------------------U n s k ille d plant (m en) -----------------------------------------------

A l l in d u s tr ie s

2. 2
2. 7
2 .9
2. 0

M a n u fa c tu rin g

3.
3.
3.
2.

2
2
0
9

3

Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups

Presented in table 2 are percents of change in salaries of
women office clerical workers and industrial nurses, and in average
earnings of selected plant worker groups.
For office clerical workers and industrial nurses, the per­
cents of change relate to average weekly salaries for normal hours
of work, that is, the standard work schedule for which straight-time
salaries are paid. For plant worker groups, they measure changes
in straight-time hourly earnings, excluding premium pay for over­
time and for work pn weekends, holidays, and late shifts. The p er­
centages are based on data for selected key occupations and include
most of the numerically important jobs within each group.
The of­
fice clerical data are based on women in the following 18 jobs: Billers,
machine (billing machine); bookkeeping-machine operators, class A
and B; Comptometer operators; clerks, file, class A and B; clerks,
order; clerks, payroll; keypunch operators; office girls; secretaries;
stenographers, general; switchboard operators; switchboard operator receptionists; tabulating-machine operators; transcribing-machine op­
erators, general; and typists, class A and B. The industrial nurse
data are based on women industrial nurses. Men in the following
10 skilled maintenance jobs and 3 unskilled jobs were included in the
plant worker data: Skilled— carpenters; electricians; machinists; m e­
chanics; mechanics, automotive; millwrights; painters; pipefitters;
sheet-metal workers; and tool and die makers; unskilled—janitors,
porters, and cleaners; laborers, material handling; and watchmen.
Average weekly salaries or average hourly earnings were
computed for each of the selected occupations.
The average sal­
aries or hourly earnings were then multiplied by the average employ­
ment in the job during the months indicated in the title of table 2.




These weighted earnings for individual occupations were then totaled
to obtain an aggregate for each occupational group. Finally, the ratio
of these group aggregates for the one year to the aggregate for the
other year was computed and the difference between the result and
100 is the percent of change from the one period to the other.
The percent of change measures, principally, the effects of
(1) general salary and wage changes; (2) merit or other increases
in pay received by individual workers while in the same job; and
(3) changes in the labor force such as labor turnover, force expan­
sions, force reductions, and changes in the proportions of workers
employed by establishments with different pay levels. Changes in the
labor force can cause increases or decreases in the occupational
averages without actual wage changes. For example, a force expansion
might increase the proportion of lower paid workers in a specific
occupation and result in a drop in the average, whereas a reduction
in the proportion of lower paid workers would have the opposite effect.
The movement of a high-paying establishment out of an area could
cause the average earnings to drop, even though no change in rates
occurred in other area establishments.
The use of constant employment weights eliminates the effects
of changes in the proportion of workers represented in each job in­
cluded in the data. Nor are the percents of change influenced by
changes in standard work schedules or in premium pay for overtime,
s i n c e they are based on pay for straight-time hours.
Indexes for the period 1953 to I960 for workers in 20 major
labor markets will appear in BLS Bull. 1265-62, Wages and Related
Benefits, 60 Labor Markets, Winter 1959-60.

4

A* Occupational Earnings
Table A-l. Office Occupations
(A verage stra igh t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, South Bend, Ind. , M arch 1961)
A verage

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—
$

Weekly
hours 1
(Standard)

Weeklyearnings 1
(Standard)

$

$

$

$

$

$

50. 00

55. 00

60. 00

65. 00

70. 00

under
45. 00

-

■

■

■

■

■

50. 00 _55. 00_ .6 0 , 0.0 _65._00.

O
O

45. 00

O

40. 00

_ 75. 00

$

75. 00
~

$

80. 00
~

80. 00. .8 5 . 00

$

85. 00
-

_9Q .

$

$

9 0 .0 0

-

9 5

.

0 0

-

$
$
$
1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 n o .
-

-

00 . 95. 00_ 1 0 0 .0 0 105. .00 1.10.. 00

1

0 0

$
$
$
1 1 5 .0 0 120. 00 1 2 5 .0 0
-

-

lA-.oo 1 2 0 .0 0 125. 00

and
over

Men
C lerk s, accounting, c la ss A
Manufacturing __

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

47
24
23

C lerk s, ord er
Manufacturing

1 6

C lerk s, p ayroll
Manufacturing

___

_ ___
_______

Office boys __________
Manufacturing ____________

. _

40. 0
40. 0

98.00
106.00

“

-

“

■

40. 0
40. 0

88.50
87.00

~

“

-

-

24
19

_
_
.................
___________________________________________

$1 08 .0 0
112.00
104.00

40

____

40. 0
40. 0
40 . 0

17
15

___

40. 0
40. 0

60.00
62.50

4
4

1
1

6
1

1
1

1
1

_

_

_

_

_

"

“

“

■

"

■

_

_

.
"

1
1

1
1

19
7
12

8
8

28
20

40. 0
40. 0

111.00
'~ri'5.'5o"

47
'" 2 5

40. 0
40. 0

96.50
103.00

_

B ille r s, m achine (billing machine) _ _____
___ _ _
Manufacturing _____________
___
_ __
Nonmanufacturing ______________________________________

46
20
26

4 1 .0
40. 0
4 1 .5

66.50
70.00
63.50

1
1

_
"

6
4
2

Bookkeeping-m achine op erators, c la ss A

_____________

32

40. 0

67.50

_

_

_

5

Bookkeeping-m achine op erators, class B _____________
Manufacturing ___________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ______________________________________

151
30
121

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

60.50
75.50
56.50

10
10

14
14

15
15

C lerk s, accounting, c la ss A _____________________________
Manufacturing ___________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing _ _____ ___________________________

51
id
33

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

78.00
80.50
,7 7 .0 0

.

.

-

-

.
-

■

"

40. 0
40. 0
4 0 .0

64.00
67.50
61.50

.

24
4 1 .0
T 5 ------ " W

74.00
82.06

Tabulating-m achine op erators, c la ss B ________________
Manufacturing __ _______

_
-

4

_

Tabulating-m achine op erators, c la ss A _____
Manufacturing ____
______
_______

_
-

"

-

1
1

1
1

5
5

12
1
11

9
3
6

7
7

1
1

1
1

1
1

2
2

2

8

1

5

1

3

■

~

-

7
7

_

4
~

“

2
2

8
6

16
4

2
2

9
9

2
1

-

-

1
1

1
1

-

2

1
1

-

-

1
------1
-----

■

-

1
1

3
3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

1

4
3

2
2

26
6

_

2

~

2
'

_

_

~

2
1

8
5

3
2

3
1

5
2

8
4

7
1

4
1

4
1

2
2

2
2

3
3
~

1
1

.
-

3
2
1

_
-

_
-

-

2
2
-

-

-

14

2

4

2

2

1

2

_

_

_

47
3
44

26
3
23

10
1
9

16
13
3

4
1
3

1
1

1
1

5
5

2
2

-

-

-

-

"

■

"

-

-

4
4

1
1

4
4

10
2
8

7
7

9
2
7

2
1
1

.
“

1
1

2
2

4
4
-

_
_

1

1

■

_

_

1

2

10
16

_
_

_
_

_
_

_
_

-

-

-

-

.

.

_

_

2

-

W om en

148
65
83

C lerk s, accounting, c la ss B _____________________________
Manufacturing ___________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________ _______________________

C lerk s, file , c la ss A _____________________________________
Manufacturing _____________________ ___________________

See footnotes at end of table,




—

-

■

"

10
2
8

20
5
15

23
7
16

.

.

8

34
17
17

1
----- 1
------

24
11
13

"
11
7
4

11
7
4

8
5
3

11
6
5

3
1
2

4
4

2
2

1

5
5

2
1
— 2------ ----- 1
------

-

.

.
-

-

-

“

'

"

■

■

_

_

_

"

-

-

.
-

.
-

.
-

-

"

■

_

_

.

.

_

5
Table A-1. Office Occupations-Continued
(A verage stra igh t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, South Bend, Ind. , M arch 1961)
Average
Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

Weekly,
hours 1
(Standard)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

Weekly .
earnings1
(Standard)

$
40. 00
and
under
45 . 00

$
45. 00

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

_

1
-

50. 00

$
50. 00

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100. 00 105. 00 110. 00 115. 00 120. 00 125. 00

55. 00 _6Q._ 00 _65. 00 _70. 00 ._7.5j._00_ _8 0 .0 0 .8 5 . 00. _9,0. 00

95.. 00 lo o , oo_ I0_5,.00 110.00 . 115. 00 i2.Q_.jm 125. 00

and
over

Women— Continued

C lerk s, order _____________________________________________
Manufacturing ----------------------------------------------------------------

22
16

41. 0
40. 0

$ 6 4 .5 0
65. 00

C lerk s, p ayroll -----------------------------------------------------------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------------------- -----------

98
79
19

40 . 5
40. 0
41. 5

74. 00
76. 50
64. 00

C om ptom eter op erators --------------------------------------------------Manufacturing ----------------------------------------------------------------

_ - 39
37

40. 0
40. 0

76. 50
78. 00

Duplicating-m achine operators
(M im eograph or Ditto) __________________________________
Manufacturing ----------------------------------------------------------------

24
17

40. 0
40. 0

72. 00
79. 00

Keypunch op erators _______________________________________
Manufacturing ----------------------------------------------------------------

156
81

40. 0
40. 0

69. 00
76. 50

Office g ir ls _________________________________________________
Manufacturing __________________________________________

27
16

40. 0
40. 0

S ec retaries -------------------------------------------------------------------------Manufacturing __________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________________________
Public u tilities 3 ___________________________________

451
306
145
18

40.
40.
40.
40.

Stenographers, general ----------------------------------------------------Manufacturing __________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ---------------------------------------------------------

392
287
105

Switchboard op erators ___________________________________
Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing _____________________________________

-

2
2

4
1

8
8

3
-

1
1

2
2

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

11
3
8

4
4

18
17
1

11
7
4

13
12
1

11
10
1

8
5
3

4
4
-

4
3
1

6
6
-

2
2
"

3
3

2
2

_

-

-

3
2

3
3

16
16

4
4

1
1

2
2

8
8

1
1

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

_

-

-

■

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

“

_
-

-

-

1
1

_
-

2

1

-

-

1
-

2
1

6
6'

-

3
3

3
3

1
1

2
2

13

13
1

26
20

14
6

33
27

18
16

3
3

5
5

2
2

_

“

23
1

_

"

6
-

-

-

57. 50
6 1 .5 0

1
-

5
1

5
4

7
2

1
1

8
8

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

91.
97.
77.
91.

_

-

23
23
-

26
3
23
1

21
3
18
-

39
18
21
3

30
20
10
3

31
22
9
-

59
46
13
1

91
79
12
6

41
36
5
3

34
32
2
-

25
22
3
-

11
11
-

4
4
-

-

-

9
8
1
1

_

_

-

_

3
1

_

_

_

_

_

00
50
50
50

-

4
4
-

-

3
2
1
“

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

76. 00
80. 50
64. 00

2
2

12
2
10

14
4
10

17
7
10

43
21
22

43
21
22

55
41
14

50
42
8

45
38
7

42
42
"

34
34
"

21
21
“

12
12
-

1
1
“

1
1
-

49
30
19

3 9 .5
40. 0
39. 5

69. 50
78. 00
55. 50

4
4

1
1

4
2
2

7
2
5

7
2
5

3
2
1

6
6

3
3
-

4
3
1

4
4

2
2
-

1
1

1
1

1
1
-

1
1
-

_
.

.
-

.

-

-

Switchboard o p erator-rec ep tion ists ____________________
Manufacturing __________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________________________

37
21
16

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

65. 50
67. 00
63. 50

7
5
2

8
3
5

2
2
"

5
5

3
2
1

2
1
1

.

-

-

_
_

_
_

_

"

-

-

-

40. 0
40. 0

82. 00
82. 50

_

_

-

20
19

_

-

Tabulating-m achine op erators, c la ss B ---------------------Manufacturing __________________________________________

_

-

1
1
-

_
_

-

6
2
4

_
-

"

3
3

_

-

_

_

2
2

.

_

_

-

4
4

_

-

11
11

_

-

1
1

_

-

2
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Tran scrib in g-m ach in e op erators, general -----------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------------------------

73
42

40. 0
39. 5

64. 50
69. 50

13
2

15
5

17
11

6
5

9
9

4
3

3
2

3
3

2
2

_

_

_

_

.

.

.

-

1
-

“

-

-

“

-

-

-

T yp ists, c la ss A ___________________________________________
Manufacturing __________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________________________

109
92
17

40. 0
40. 0
39. 5

79. 50
82. 50
62. 00

_

1

1

9
-

17
17
-

9
9
-

-

_

-

-

_

_

9

14
14
-

_

1

13
11
2

_

-

16
16
-

_

1

19
18
1

_

-

8
6
2

_

-

2
1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

Typ ists, c la s s B ___________________________________________
Manufacturing __________________________________________

272
71

40. 0
40. 0

58. 00
67. 50

56
1

82
7

30
6

32
4

44
31

16
11

6
6

2
2

3
3

0
0
0
0

_
-

_

1

“

_
-

-

'

1 Standard hours refle ct the workweek for which em ployees receive their regular stra igh t-tim e sa la rie s and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
2 W ork ers w ere distributed as follow s: 5 at $ 125 to $ 130; 1 at $ 130 to $ 135.
3 Transportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities.




-

_
-

6
Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations
(A verage stra igh t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, South Bend, In d ., M arch 1961)
number

OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

Sex, occupation, and industry division

40. 0
40. 0

D raftsm en , senior ________
Manufacturing __________

D raftsm en , junior
Manufacturing __________

N u rses, industrial ( registered)
Manufacturing ________________

69

$135.50
136.00

3 9 .5
3 9 .5

100.50
104.50

15
15“

10
TO"

95.00
"9 5 3 0 -

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which em ployees receive their regular stra igh t-tim e sa la rie s and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
2 W ork ers w ere distributed as follow s; 1 at $ 60 to $ 6 5 ; 6 at $ 65 to $ 7 0 ; 1 at $ 70 to $ 7 5 .




7

Table A-3. Maintenance and Power-plant Occupations
(A verage stra igh t-tim e hourly earnings for m en in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry d ivision, South Bend, Ind. , M arch 1961)
NUMBER OF WORKEES RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Occupation and industry division

of
w
orkers

hourly ,
earnings 1

$

1. 80

under
1. 90

$

1. 90
“
2. 00

$

2. 00
”
2. 10

C arpen ters, maintenance ________________________
Manufacturing _________________________________

35
34

$ 3. 06
3. 05

E le ctr icia n s, maintenance ______________________
Manufacturing _________________________________

168

3. 09
3. 09

E n gin ee rs, stationary ___________________________
Manufacturing _________________________________

27
21

2. 91
3766"

_

F ir e m e n , stationary boiler _____________________
M an u factu rin g______________________ __________

55
55

2. 70
2. 70

4
4

H e lp e r s, tra d e s, maintenance _________________
Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------------

25
21

2. 38
2 .4 4

_

_

_

-

-

-

M achin e-tool operators , toolroom _____________
Manufacturing __________________________________

61
61

2. 93
2. 93

-

-

-

M a c h in ists, maintenance ________________________
Manufacturing _________________________________

49
49

2. 82
2. 82

.
“

"

M ech anics, automotive (maintenance) ________
Manufacturing _____ ,___________________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________________
Public utilities 2 ___________________________

124
55
69
66

2. 83
2766"
2. 81
2. 82

M ech anics, maintenance _________________________
Manufacturing
--------------------------------------------------

93
93

3. 06
3706

M illw rights _________________________________________
Manufacturing _________________________________

166
166

3. 07
3. 07

O ilers _______________________________________________
Manufacturing __________ _____________________

44
44

Painters , maintenance __________________________
Manufacturing _________________________________
P ip efitte rs, maintenance ________________________
Manufacturing _________________________________

16 8

_
2. 20

$
2 .4 0

"
2. 30

“
2 .4 0

2. 50

$
2. 80

2 .8 0

“
2. 90

2. 70

$

2. 90

$

3. 00

$

3. 10

$
3. 20

”
3. 20

“
3. 30

-

19
19

6
6

65
65

45
45

11
11

_

.

_

_

-

-

“

-

'

_

_

1
1

3
2

.
-

4
4

3
3

10
10

8
8

10
10

4
4

12
12

4
-

7
7

3
3

7
7

_

2
2

.

2
2

.

"

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

"

-

16
16

-

-

13
13

-

-

5
5

“

-

_

.

_

1
1

_
"

1
1

8
8

9
9

15
15

7
7

3
3

_

"

1
1

2
2
-

2
2
-

2
2
-

23
6
17
17

2
2
-

3
3

1
1
-

"

-

7
4
3
3

26
1
25
25

21

"

5
5
-

-

-

2
2

_

12
12

_

1
1

1
1

20
20

10
10-

_
■

44
44

-

1
1

33
33

7
7

4
4

67
67

45
45

7
7

9
9

_

_

_

3
3

1
1

_

7
7

14
14

_

.

■

"

-

-

_

.

"

_

"

1
1

_

-

-

2
2

2. 59
2. 59

_

_

_

-

19
19

3. 00
3. 00

-

.

117
117

3. 12
3. 12

-

"

_

_

.

-

-

-

_

_

_

26

-

"

-

-

2
2

-

-

_

-

_

-

-

-

-

“

-

-

-

-

-

“

"

"

"

“

_

_

_

_

"

.

-

Excludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on w eekends, h olid ays, and late shifts
T ran sportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities.

-

2 6

“
.

6
---------g—

-

“
3. 60

3
3

"

.

.

.

"

■

"

"

-

_

.

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

26
26

1
1

_

_

-

-

.

_

_

“

4
4

“

-

30
30

.
-

.
-

.
-

-

-

-

-

.
-

-

-

-

■

1
1

2
2

-

2
2

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

_

-

21
21

_

-

-

3 .4 0

“
3. 50

.

1
1

9
9

5
5

_

-

.

55
55

40
40

-

-

"

"

1
1

_

_

_

_

■

_

-

4
4

.
"

3. 50

8
7

_

.

$

14
14

_

“

3 .4 0

1
1

_

1
1

$

2
2

5
“

_
“

_

3. 30

"
3. 10

26
2 6 —

.

"

$

_
3. 00

1
1

.

"

-

-

2. 70

1
1

.

_

3. 32
3. 32

$

~

2
-------- 2

■

_

258
258

2. 60

3
3

_

-

T ool and die m ak ers _____________________________
Manufacturing _________________________________

$

"

_

"

3. 08
3. 08

“
2. 60

1
1

_

24
24

2. 50

1
1

-

_

_

$

2
2

“

-

S h eet-m etal w orkers , maintenance ____________
Manufacturing __ ____________ ______________




2. 20

$
2. 30

-

"

■
_

2. 10

$

3
3

"
_

$

-

-

-

4
4

4
4

-

12
12

-

-

5
5

5
5

1
1

4
4

24
24

7
7

"

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

4
4

.

.

.

-

-

-

16
l6

39
39

157
157

_

8
Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(A verage stra igh t-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, South Bend, Ind. , M arch 1961)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Num
ber
of

Occupation1 and industry division

E levator op erators, passen ger (women)
Nonmanufacturing _____________________________

Average $
$
hourly 2 1. 00
1. 10
earnings
under
1. 10
1 .2 0

$
1 .2 0

$
1. 30

$
1 .4 0

$
1 .5 0

$
1. 60

$
1. 70

1. 30

1 .4 0

1 .5 0

1 .6 0

1. 70

1. 80

19
19

$ 1 .0 0
1 .0 0

3 14
14

2
2

2. 48
2. 49

_

_

_

169
167

-

-

Janitors, p orte rs, and clean ers (men)
Manufacturing
_
_ _ __
Nonmanufacturing
....
Public utilities 4

433
322
111
17

2. 12
2. 30
1 .5 8
1 .8 2

6
6
-

6
6
-

16
1
15

160
49

1 .3 4
1 .9 7

86
-

9
-

290
194
96
36

2.
2.
2.
2.

_
-

_
_

181
93
88

2. 39
2. 52
2. 26

-

-

130
128

2 .4 2
2. 41

_

_

_

-

-

Receiving clerk s
_
... ......................
Manufacturing
_
_ _ _ _ _ _ _
Nonmanufacturing ______________ _______________

80
63
17

2 .4 6
2. 54
2. 16

_
-

_
-

-

Shipping clerk s
Manufacturing

92
77

2. 47
2. 51

305
70
235
130

2. 67
2. 54
2. 71
2 .8 9

T ru ck d rivers, m edium ( I V 2 to and
including 4 tons)
_ _ _
Manufacturing __________ _________________
Nonmanufacturing __________________________

74
28
46

2. 55
2 .4 8
2. 60

-

T ru ck d rivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
tra ile r type) _________________________________
Nonmanufacturing
_______

52
43

2. 58
2. 56

-

-

-

311
305

2. 53
2. 53

_

_

_

-

-

-

35
28

1 .9 6
2. 14

_

_

6

1
1

Guards
Manufacturing

.........

Janitors, p orte rs, and clean ers (women)
Manufacturing
_______
L ab ore rs, m a teria l handling
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing
'PnTVH
r'
Order fille r s
Mannfa rtn ri n
gr
Nonmanufacturing
P ackers, shipping
Manufacturing

_____

_____ _____ __

_

_ _
______

__ ____

_____

_
__

___
_

____________

_ _

____

_____ __

T ru ck d rivers 5 ____________________________________
Manufacturing ___ __
Nonmanufacturing _____________________________
'PnVilir'

T ru ck ers, power (forklift)
Manufacturing ________
W atchmen
_ _______
Manufacturing
___________

1
2
3
4
5




..

42
41
46
82

$

1 .8 0

$
1. 90

$
2. 00

$
2. 10

$
2. 20

$
2. 30

$
2. 40

$
2. 50

$
2. 60

$
2. 70

$
2. 80

$
2. 90

1 .9 0

2. 00

2. 10

2. 20

2. 30

2. 40

2. 50

2. 60

2. 70

2. 80

2. 90

and
over

3
3

"

-

-

-

-

“

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

"

-

-

6
4

“

-

-

18
9
9
3

19
12
7
-

20
1
19
-

15
9
6
1

29
9
20
10

7
2
5
1

33
26
7
1

8
8
-

-

8
8
-

14
10

6
6

10
-

1

-

1

_

_

_

-

-

4
4

-

-

_
-

10
10
_

_
-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

_
-

_
-

-

-

“

_
-

2
2

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

"

-

-

_

12

48
48

_

11
11
_

-

25
22
3
1

-

-

3
3

16
16

10
10

3
3

_
_

18
18
_

60
24
36

27

-

-

1
1

_

_

_

-

-

_
-

1
1

_
-

-

-

"

3
3

_
130
-

-

"

-

.

_

-

103
103

-

-

-

-

139
139
_

72
72
_

1
1
_

_
_
_

_
_

_
_
_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

-

4
4

-

-

-

-

31
31
_

25
25
_

33
21
12

50
45
5

25
25
25

11
_
11
11

10
10
_

10
8
2

25
8
19

52
31
21

29
11
18

24
23
1

14
14
-

-

-

6
6

16
16

67
65

_

_

_

_

-

40
40

-

-

-

-

3
3

_
-

_
-

11
11
-

13
13
-

1
1

1
1
-

_

-

15
4
11

32
32

“

5
2

_

2
2

_

2
2

21
21

43
43

_

_

_

-

16
4

-

-

-

1
1
-

_
-

_
-

1
1
-

16
1
15

23
1
22

40
7
33

49
49
-

36
5
31

4
4

132
2
130

3
3
_

1
1

-

-

1
1

10
1
9

9
1
8

7
7

12

16
3
13

_
-

18

_
_

-

14
14

6
6

6

18
18

-

5
5

_

30
26

23
23

210

-

2
2

25
23

-

1
1

9
9

2
2

4
4

_

_

_

_

10
10
-

_

27

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

“

-

-

_

1

Data lim ited to m en w orkers except where otherw ise indicated.
Excludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Includes 8 w ork ers at $ 0. 80 to $ 0. 90.
Transportation, communication, and other public u tilities.
Includes all d rivers regard less of size and type of truck operated.

_

_

-

_

_

3
3

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

_

19
19

_

9
9

_

----- T T ~

it

-

ZTtP

_

-

-

t

-

_
-

16

_

3
-

9

A ppendix: Occupational Descriptions
The primary purpose o f preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to a ssist its
field staff in cla ssifyin g into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping o f occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because o f this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability o f occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes fa applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field economists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers,
part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.
O F F IC E
BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statements, b ills , and in v oices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May a lso keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other cle rica l work inciden­
tal to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine,
are cla ssified by type o f machine, as follow s:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, E lliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or with­
out a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.

B iller , machine (billing machine} — U ses a sp e cia l billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, e tc ., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers* purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application o f prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry o f pecessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number o f carbon cop ies
of the b ill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.

,

B iller machine (bookkeeping machine}— U ses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, E lliott Fisher, Remington Rand, e tc ., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare custom ers’
b ills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry o f figures on custom ers’ ledger
record. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a num­
ber of vertical columns and computes and usually prints auto­
matically the debit or credit balances. D oes not involve a knowl­
edge of bookkeeping. Works from uniform and standard types o f
sales and credit slip s.




C lass A— Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure o f the particular accounting system used. Deter­
mines proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to
be used in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated re­
ports, balance sh eets, and other records by hand.
C lass B— Keeps a record of one or more phases or section s
of a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic
bookkeeping. Phases or sections include accounts oayable, pay­
roll, customers’ accounts (not including a simple type o f billing
described under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense d is­
tribution, inventory control, etc. May check or a ss is t in prep­
aration o f trial balances and prepare control sheets for the a c­
counting department.

CLERK, ACCOUNTING
C lass A — Under general direction of a bookkeeper or a c­
countant, has responsibility for keeping one or more section s o f a
complete set o f books or records relating to one phase o f an e s ­
tablishment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and

10

CLERK, ACCOUNTING— Continued
balancing subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receiv­
able or accounts payable; examining and coding invoices or vouch­
ers with proper accounting distribution; requires judgment and ex­
perience in making proper assignations and allocation s. May
a ssist in preparing, adjusting, and closin g journal entries; may
direct cla ss B accounting clerks.
C la ss B — Under supervision, performs one or more routine
accounting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers,
accounts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers. This job does not require a knowledge of
accounting and bookkeeping principles but is found in o ffice s in
which the more routine accounting work is subdivided on a func­
tional basis among several workers.

CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the n eces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers*
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker*s name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and distrib­
uting pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.
COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathe­
matical computations. This job is not to be confused with that o f
statistical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of
a Comptometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to
performance of other duties.
DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)

CLERK, FILE
C la ss A — Responsible for maintaining an established filing

system. C la ssifies and indexes correspondence or other material;
may also file this material. May keep records of various types
in conjunction with files or supervise others in filing and locating
material in the file s. May perform incidental clerica l duties.
C lass B — Performs routine filing, usually of material that
has already been cla ssified , or locates or a ssists in locating ma­
terial in the file s. May perform incidental clerica l duties.

CLERK, ORDER
R eceives customers* orders for material or merchandise by
mail, phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination o f the
following:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet
listing the items to make up the order; checking prices and quantities
of items on order sheet; distributing order sheets to respective de­
partments to be filled. May check with credit department to deter­
mine credit rating of customer, acknowledge receipt o f orders from
customers, follow up orders to see that they have been filled , keep
file of orders received, and check shipping invoices with original
orders.




Under general supervision and with no supervisory respon­
sib ilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten
matter, using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjust­
ments such as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is
not required to prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file o f used
stencils or Ditto masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed
material.

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards
by punching a series of holes in the cards in a sp ecified sequence,
using an alphabetical or a numerical keypunch machine, following
written information on records.
May duplicate cards by using the
duplicating device attached to machine. May keep files of punch
cards. May verify own work or work of others.

OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands,
operating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening
and distributing mail, and other minor clerica l work.

11

SECRETARY

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST

Performs secretarial and clerica l duties for a superior in an
administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receiving people coming into o ffice ; answering and
making phone ca lls ; handling personal and important 01 confidental
mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative; taking
dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand
or by Stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine. May pre­
pare special reports or memorandums for information of superior.

In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may
type or perform routine clerica l work as part of regular duties.
typing or clerical work may take the major part of this w orkers
while at switchboard.

TABULATING-MACHINE

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a
normal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a type­
writer. May also type from written copy. May a lso set up and keep
files in order, keep simple records, etc. D oes not include transcribing
machine work (see transcribing-machine operator).

-

p osi­
also
This
time

OPERATOR

Operates machine that automatically analyzes and translates
information punched in groups of tabulating cards and prints trans­
lated data on forms or accounting records; sets or adjusts machine;
does simple wiring of plugboards according to established practice
or diagrams; places cards to be tabulated in feed magazine and starts
machine. May file cards after they are tabulated. May, in addition
operate auxiliary machines.

,

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype Or similar machine, involving a
varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or
reports on scien tific research and to transcribe this dictation on a
typewriter. May also type from written copy. May a lso set up and keep
files in order, keep simple records, e tc. D oes not include transcribing•
machine work

.

Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal
routine vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May a lso type
from written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing
dictation involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such
as legal briefs or reports on scien tific research are not included. A
worker who takes dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar
machine is cla ssified as a stenographer, general.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
TYPIST
Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office
ca lls. May record toll ca lls and take m essages. May give information to
persons who ca ll in, or occasion ally take telephone orders. For workers
who also act as receptionists see switchboard operator-receptionist.




Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May do clerical work involving little special training, such as keeping
simple records, filing records and reports or sorting and distributing
incoming mail.

12

TYPIST— Continued

TYPIST— Continued

Class A— Performs one or more o f the following: Typing ma­
terial in final form from very rough and involved draft; copying
from plain or corrected cop y in which there is a frequent and varied
use of technical and unusual words or from foreign-language copy;
combining material from several sources, or planning layout of
complicated statistical tables to maintain uniformity and balance
PR O F E SSIO N A L

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to sca le units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.
DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration of working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Duties
involve a combination o f the follow ing: Interpreting blueprints, sketches,
and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures; assigning
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problems. May a ssist subordinates during emergencies or as a
regular assignment, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
ministrative nature.
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
p oses. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Preparing work­
ing plans, detail drawings, maps, cr o s s-s e ctio n s , e tc., to sca le by use
of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as those
involved in strength of materials, beams and trusses; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quantities;




in spacing; typing tables from rough draft in final form. May type
routine form letters, varying details to suit circumstances.
Class B— Performs one or more o f the following: Typing from
relatively clear or typed drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance
p o licie s, e tc., setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying
more complex tables already set up and spaced properly.
ND T E C H N IC A L

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued
writing specification s; making adjustments or changes in drawings or
specification s. May ink in lines and letters on pencil drawings, prepare
detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings. Work is frequently
in a specialized field such as architectural, electrical, mechanical, or
structural drafting.

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combina­
tion o f the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of employees* injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants
and employees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.

TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. Uses
T-square, com pass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

13
M AINTENANCE

D PO W E R PL A N T

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casin gs, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’ s handtools, portable
power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; selecting materials n ec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or a ssist in repairing boilerroom equipment.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, d is­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specification s; locating and diagnosingtrouble in the e le c ­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; using a variety of
electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In gen­
eral, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.
ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may a lso supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, motors
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a record of
operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May also
supervise these operations. Head or c h ie f engineers in establishm ents
employing more than one engineer are excluded




.

HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
A ssists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing sp e cific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are a lso performed by workers on a full-time basis.
MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools, gauges,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most o f the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making necessary adjustments during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating oils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classification .
MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Interpreting written instructions and
specification s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
chinist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and

14

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued

MILLWRIGHT— Continued

operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to clo s e tolerances; making standard shop computations re la ting to dimensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assembling parts into me­
chanical equipment. In general, the m achinist's work normally requires
a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

are required. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specification s; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selectin g standard tools, equipment, and parts
to be used; installing and maintaining in good order power transmission
equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the mill­
wright's work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors o f an e s ­
tablishment. Work involves most o f the follow ing: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassem bling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in disassem bling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assem blies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; alining wheels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves most o f the follow ing: Examining machines and mechan­
ica l equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly d is ­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replace­
ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop
for major repairs; preparing written specification s for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling ma­
chines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In general,
the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classification are workers
whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.
MILLWRIGHT
Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout




OILER
Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.
PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work involves the follow ing: Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, o ils , white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper
color or con sisten cy. In general, the work of the maintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other written specification s; cutting various size s of pipe to correct
lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with stocks and d ies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to pressures,
flow , and size o f pipe required; making standard tests to determine
whether finished pipes meet specifications* la general, the work of the
maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building
sanitation or heating system s are excluded

.

15
TOOL AND DIE MAKER

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake. In
general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.
SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, models,
or other specification s; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; installing sheetmetal articles as required. In general, the work of the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

C U

S T O

D

I A L

A N D

M

(Diemaker; jig maker; toolmaker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most o f the following: Planning and laying out of work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specification s;
using a variety of tool and die maker’ s handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding of the working properties of common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
o f work, speeds, feeds, and tooling o f machines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as well as o f finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to clo s e tolerances; fitting and assembling
o f parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selecting appropriate
materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die maker’ s
work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this cla ssifica tion .

A T E R I A L

M

O V E M

E N T

ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued

Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or similar establishm ent.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

or other establishment. Duties involve o combination of the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures;polish ­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Workers
who specialize in window washing are excluded.

GUARD
Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gate-

men who are stationed at gate and check on identity o f employees and
other persons entering.
JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an o ffice , apartment house, or commercial




LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more o f the follow­
ing: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or

16

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING— Continued
from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting d evices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; trans­
porting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.

Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded.
ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slip s, customers"
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating items filled or omitted, keep records o f outgoing orders, requisi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued
For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified as follow s:

Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
TRUCKDRIVER
Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various tvpes of estab­
lishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers’ houses or places o f business. May a lso load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor m echanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers

are excluded.

PACKER, SHIPPING
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the sp ecific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number o f units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or more o f
the following: Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify
content; selection of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closin g and sealing container; applying labels or
entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make wooden

boxes

Or

crates are excluded.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­
sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Shipping
work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes,
available means of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or a ssist in
preparing the merchandise for shipment. Receiving work involves: Veri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipments against
bills of lading, in voices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing merchandise or materials to proper de­
partments; maintaining necessary records and file s .




For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are cla ssified by size
and type o f equipment, as follow s: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis o f trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver ( combination o f s iz e s listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under lV2 ton s)

Truckdriver, medium (1 % to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)
TRUCKER, POWER
Operates a manually controlled ga solin e- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified by type of
truck, as follow s:

Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)
WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.
* U.S. GOVERNM ENT P R IN TIN G OFFICE : 1961 0 — 594712

Occupational Wage Surveys
Occupational wage surveys will be conducted in the 82 major labor markets listed below during late I960 and early 1961. Bulletins, when available, may be
purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C., or from any of the BLS regional sales offices shown on the
inside front cover.
A summary bulletin containing data for 80 labor markets, combined with additional analysis, will be issued early in 1962.

Akron, Ohio— Bull. 1285Albany—
Schenectady—
Troy, N.Y.— Bull. 1285-51
Albuquerque, N. Mex.— Bull. 1285Allentown—
Bethlehem—
Easton,
Pa.—
N.J.— Bull. 1285-47
Atlanta, Ga.— Bull. 1285❖ Baltimore, Md.— Bull. 1285-34
Beaumont—
Port Arthur, Tex.— Bull. 1285Birmingham, Ala.— Bull. 1285-53

❖ Green Bay, Wis.— Bull. 1285-2
Greenville, S.C.— Bull. 1285Houston, Tex.— Bull. 1285*Indianapolis, Ind.— Bull. 1285-28
❖ Jackson, Miss.— Bull. 1285-42
❖ ❖ Jacksonville, Fla.— Bull. 1285-30
❖ Kansas City, Mo.—
Kans.— Bull. 1285-18
Lawrence—
Haverhill, Ma*s.—
N.H.— Bull. 1285❖ ❖ Little Rock—
North Little Rock, Ark.— Buil. 1285-6

Boise, Idaho— Bull. 1285**Boston, Mass.— Bull. 1285-15
❖ ❖ Buffalo, N.Y.— Bull. 1285-31
Burlington, Vt.— Bull. 1285*57
*Canton, Ohio— Bull. 1285-29
Charleston, W Va.— Bull. 1285.
Charlotte, N.C.— Bull. 1285❖ ❖ Chattanooga, Tenn.—
Ga.— Bull. 1285-14
Chicago, 111.— Bull. 1285-

Los Angeles—
Long Beach, Calif.— Bull. 1285-52
Louisville, Ky.—
Ind.— Bull. 1285-49
Lubbock, Tex.— Bull. 1285❖ Manchester, N.H.— Bull. 1285-1
^Memphis, Tenn.— Bull. 1285-35
^Miami, Fla.— Bull. 1285-33
Milwaukee, Wis.— Bull. 1285* * Minneapolis— Paul, Minn.— Bull. 1285- 39
St.
Muskegon—
Muskegon Heights, Mich.— Bull. 1285-

Cincinnati, Ohio—
Ky.— Bull. 1285❖ Cleveland, Ohio— Bull. 1285-11
❖ Columbus, Ohio— Bull. 1285-38
❖ Dallas, Tex.— Bull. 1285-21
❖ Davenport—
Rock Island—
Moline, Iowa—
111.—
Bull. 1285-16
*Dayton, Ohio— Bull. 1285-41
❖ Denver, Colo.— Bull. 1285-27
❖ Des Moines, Iowa— Bull. 1285*43
❖ ^Detroit, Mich.— Bull. 1285-37
❖ ❖ Fort Worth, Tex.— Buil. 1285- 23

❖ Newark and Jersey City, N.J.— Bull. 1285-40
New Haven, Conn.— Bull. 1285-46
New Orleans, L a.— Bull. 1285-48
New York, N.Y.— Bull. 1285Norfolk—
Portsmouth and Newport News—
Hampton, Va.— Bull. 1285❖ ❖ Oklahoma City, Okla.— Bull. 1285-3
❖ ❖ Omaha, Nebr.—
Iowa— Bull. 1285-13
Paterson—
Clifton—
Passaic, N.J.— Bull. 1285❖ ❖ Philadelphia, Pa.— Bull. 1285-24
Phoenix, Ariz.— Bull. 1285-55

❖
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❖
❖

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❖ ❖

Pittsburgh, P a.— Bull. 1285-44
Portland, Maine— Bull. 1285- 1?
Portland, Oreg.—
Wash.— Bull, i285Providence—
Pawtucket, R .I.—
Mass.— Bull. 1285Raleigh, N .C.— Bull. 1285-5
Richmond, Va.— Bull. 1285- 2 6 ~
Rockford, 111.— Bull. 1285St. Louis, Mo.—
111.— Bull. 1285*10
Salt Lake City, Utah— Bull. 1285-32

San Antonio, T ex.— Bull. 1285❖ San Bernardino—
Riverside—
Ontario,
C alif.— Bull. 1285-4
San Francisco—
Oakland, C a lif.— Bull. 1285*36
Savannah, Ga.— Bull. 1285❖ ❖ Scranton, Pa.— Bull. 1285*8___
❖ ❖ Seattle, Wash.— Bull. 1285-7
❖ ❖ ❖ Sioux Falls, S. Dak.— Bull. 1285-17
South Bend, Ind.— Bull. 1285-54

❖ ❖
❖ ❖
❖
❖ ❖
❖ ❖

Spokane, Wash.— Bull. 1285Toledo, Ohio— Bull. 1285*50
Trenton, N.J.— Bull. 1285-25
Washington, D .C.—
Ma.—
Va.— Bull. 1285*22
Waterbury, Conn.— Bull. 1285-56
Waterloo, Iowa— Bull. 1^85-20
Wichita, Kans.— Bull. 1285- 9
Wilmington, D el.— .J.— Bull. 1285-12
N
Worcester, Mass.— Bull. 1285York, P a.— Bull. 1285-45

An asterisk preceding a labor market indicates the availability and
price of the bulletin.
Please do not order copies in advance.

❖
Price, 20 ce n ts.
❖ ❖
Price, 25 ce n ts.
❖ ❖ ❖ Price, 15 cents.








Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102