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Occupational Wage Survey

BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA
APRIL 1961

Bulletin No. 1285-53




UN ITED S T A T E S D EPA R TM EN T O F LA BO R
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU O F LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




Occupational Wage Survey




BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA
APRIL 1961

Bulletin No. 1285-53
May 1961

UN ITED S T A T ES D EPA R TM EN T O F LA BO R
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU O F LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing O ffice, Washington 25, D.C.

Price 20 cents




Preface

Contents
Page

The Community Wage Survey Program
Wage trends for selected occupational groups_________________________
The Bureau of Labor Statistics regularly conducts
areawide wage surveys in a number of important industrial
centers. The studies, made from late fall to early spring,
relate to occupational earnings and related supplementary
benefits. A preliminary report is available on completion
of the study in each area, usually in the month following
the payroll period studied. This bulletin provides additional
data not included in the earlier report.
A consolidated
analytical bulletin summarizing the results of all of the
yearns surveys is issued after completion of the final area
bulletin for the current round of surveys.




Table s:
1.
2.

A:

Establishments and workers within scope of survey__________
Percents of increase in standard weekly salaries and
straight-time hourly earnings for selected
occupational groups ____________________________________________
Occupational earnings: *
A - l . Office occupations________________________________________
A -2 . Professional and technical occupations _________________
A - 3. Maintenance and powerplant occupations ________________
A -4 . Custodial and material movement occupations__________

Appendix:

Occupational descriptions __________________________________

* NOTE: Similar tabulations for these and other items,
including data on establishment practices and supplemen­
tary wage provisions, are available in the Birmingham
area reports for April 1952, January 1957, and March
I960. A directory indicating date of study and the price
of the reports, as well as reports for other major areas,
is available upon request.
Union scales, indicative of prevailing pay levels,
are also available for the following trades or industries:
Building construction, printing, local - transit operating
employees, and motortruck drivers and helpers.

2
2

00

This report was prepared in the Bureau*s regional
office in Atlanta, Ga., by Donald M. Cruse, under the di­
rection of Louis B. Woytych, Assistant Regional Director
of Wages and Industrial Relations.

3

H




Occupational W age Survey—Birmingham, Ala.
Introduction

This area is one of several important industrial centers in
which the U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics
conducts surveys of occupational earnings and related wage benefits
on an area basis.
The bulletin presents current occupational employment and
earnings information obtained largely by mail from the establishments
visited by Bureau field economists in the last previous survey for occu­
pations reported in that earlier study. Personal visits were made
to nonrespondents and to those respondents reporting unusual changes
since the previous survey.
In each area, data are obtained from representative establish­
ments within six broad industry divisions: Manufacturing; transpor­
tation, 1 communication, and other public utilities; wholesale trade; re­
tail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. Major
industry groups excluded from these studies are government operations
and the construction and extractive industries. Establishments having
fewer than a prescribed number of workers are omitted also because
they furnish insufficient employment in the occupations studied to war­
rant inclusion. Wherever possible, separate tabulations are provided
for each of the broad industry divisions.
These surveys are conducted on a sample basis because of the
unnecessary cost involved in surveying all establishments. To obtain
appropriate accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of large
than of small establishments is studied. In combining the data, how­
ever, all establishments are given their appropriate weight. Estimates
based on the establishments studied are presented, therefore, as re­
lating to ail establishments in the industry grouping and area, ex­
cept for those below the minimum size studied.

take account of interestablishment variation in duties within the same
job. (See appendix for listing of these descriptions. ) Earnings data are
presented (in the A-series tables) for the following types of occupa­
tions: (a) Office clerical; (b) professional and technical; (c) mainte­
nance and powerplant; and (d) custodial and material movement.
Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for
full-time workers, i. e. , those hired to work a regular weekly sched­
ule in the given occupational classification. Earnings data exclude
premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and
late shifts. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded also, but cost-ofliving bonuses and incentive earnings are included. Where weekly
hours are reported, as for office clerical occupations, reference is
to the work schedules (rounded to the nearest half hour) for which
straight-time salaries are paid; average weekly earnings for these
occupations have been rounded to the nearest half dollar.

Average earnings of men and women are presented separately
for selected occupations in which both sexes are commonly employed.
Differences in pay levels of men and women in these occupations are
largely due to (l) differences in the distribution of the sexes among
industries and establishments; (2) differences in specific duties per­
formed, although the occupations are appropriately classified within
the same survey job description; and (3) differences in length of serv­
ice or merit review when individual salaries are adjusted on this basis.
Longer average service of men would result in higher average pay
when both sexes are employed within the same rate range.
Job
descriptions used in classifying employees in these surveys are usu­
ally more generalized than those used in individual establishments to
allow for minor differences among establishments in specific duties
performed.

Occupations and Earnings
The occupations selected for study are common to a variety
of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries. Occupational clas­
sification is based on a uniform set of job descriptions designed to
1 Railroads, formerly excluded from the scope of these studies,
were included in ail of the areas studied since JuLy 1959, except Balti­
more (September 1959 and December I960), Buffalo (October 1959),
Cleveland (September 1959), and Seattle (August 1959).




Occupational employment estimates represent the total in all
establishments within the scope of the study and not the number actu­
ally surveyed. Because of differences in occupational structure among
establishments, the estimates of occupational employment obtained
from the sample of establishments studied serve only to indicate the
relative importance of the jobs studied. These differences in occu­
pational structure do not materially affect the accuracy of the earn­
ings data.




2

T a b le 1.

E s ta b lis h m e n ts and w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e o f s u r v e y and n u m b e r stu d ie d in B ir m in g h a m , A la . , 1
b y m a jo r in d u s t r y d iv is io n , 2 A p r i l 1961
N u m b er o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s

In d u s try d iv is io n

A l l d iv is io n s

W ithin s c o p e
o f stu d y 3

W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s
W ithin s c o p e
o f study

S tudied

S tudied

__________________________________________________________

407

130

9 4 ,0 0 0

6 4 ,2 4 0

M a n u fa ctu r in g ________________________________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ____________________________________________________
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and
o t h e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s 4 __________________________________________
W h o le s a le tra d e 5 ------------------ ------------------------------------------------------R e t a il t r a d e 5 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e sta te 5 _________________________
S e r v i c e s 5> 6 ________________________________________________________

155
252

53
77

5 3 ,5 0 0
4 0 ,5 0 0

4 0, 180
24, 060

39
63
74
45
31

19
15
22
11
10

1 2 ,2 0 0
6, 700
1 1 ,9 0 0
6, 100
3, 600

10,
2,
6,
3,
1,

270
320
640
190
640

1 T he B ir m in g h a m S ta n da rd M e t r o p o lit a n S t a tis t ic a l A r e a ( J e f f e r s o n C ou n ty ).
T he " w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e o f stu d y " e s t im a t e s sh ow n in th is ta b le
p r o v id e a r e a s o n a b ly a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f the s iz e and c o m p o s i t i o n o f the la b o r f o r c e in c lu d e d in the s u r v e y .
T he e s t im a t e s a r e not in ten d ed ,
h o w e v e r , to s e r v e a s a b a s is o f c o m p a r is o n w ith o t h e r a r e a e m p lo y m e n t in d e x e s to m e a s u r e e m p lo y m e n t t r e n d s o r l e v e l s s in c e (1) pla n n in g o f w a g e
s u r v e y s r e q u i r e s the u s e o f e s t a b lis h m e n t data c o m p ile d c o n s id e r a b l y in a d v a n c e o f the p a y r o ll p e r io d stu d ied , and (2) s m a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s a r e e x c lu d e d
f r o m the s c o p e o f the s u r v e y .
2 T he 1957 r e v i s e d e d it io n o f the S ta n da rd I n d u s tria l C l a s s if ic a t i o n M anual w a s u s e d in c l a s s i fy in g e s t a b lis h m e n t s b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n .
M a jo r
ch a n g e s f r o m the e a r l i e r e d it io n (u s e d in the B u r e a u ’ s la b o r m a r k e t w ag e s u r v e y s c o n d u c t e d p r i o r to J u ly 1958) a r e the t r a n s f e r o f m ilk p a s t e u r iz a t io n
pla n ts and r e a d y -m i x e d c o n c r e t e e s t a b lis h m e n t s f r o m tr a d e (w h o le s a le o r r e t a il) to m a n u fa ctu rin g , and the t r a n s f e r o f r a d io and t e le v i s io n b r o a d c a s t in g
f r o m s e r v i c e s to the t r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s d iv is io n .
3 I n clu d e s a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith t o ta l e m p lo y m e n t at o r a b o v e the m in i m u m -s i z e lim it a t io n (5 0 e m p l o y e e s ).
A l l o u tle ts (w ith in the a re a ) o f
c o m p a n ie s in su c h in d u s t r ie s a s t r a d e , fin a n c e , auto r e p a i r s e r v i c e , and m o t io n - p i c t u r e t h e a t e r s a r e c o n s id e r e d a s 1 e s t a b lis h m e n t .
4 T a x ic a b s and s e r v i c e s in c id e n t a l to w a te r t r a n s p o r t a t io n w e r e e x c lu d e d .
5 T h is in d u s t r y d iv is io n is r e p r e s e n t e d in e s t im a t e s f o r " a ll in d u s t r ie s " and "n o n m a n u fa c t u r in g " in the S e r i e s A t a b le s .
S e p a ra te p r e s e n t a t io n
o f data f o r th is d iv is io n is not m a d e f o r on e o r m o r e o f the fo llo w in g r e a s o n s :
(1) E m p lo y m e n t in the d i v is i o n is to o s m a ll to p r o v id e en ou gh data
to m e r i t s e p a r a t e stu d y, (2) the s a m p le w a s not d e s ig n e d in it ia lly to p e r m it se p a r a te p r e s e n t a t io n , (3) r e s p o n s e w a s in s u ffic ie n t o r in a d eq u a te to p e r m it
s e p a r a t e p r e s e n t a t io n , (4) th e r e is p o s s ib i li t y o f d i s c lo s u r e o f in d iv id u a l e s t a b lis h m e n t data.
6 H o te ls ; p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s ; b u s in e s s s e r v i c e s ; a u t o m o b ile r e p a i r s h o p s ; m o t io n p ic t u r e s ; n o n p r o fit m e m b e r s h ip o r g a n iz a t io n s ; and e n g in e e r in g
and a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s .

T a b le 2. P e r c e n t s o f in c r e a s e in sta n d a rd w e e k ly s a la r i e s
and s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n a l
g r o u p s in B ir m in g h a m , A la . , M a rc h I960 to A p r il 1961

O c c u p a tio n a l g r o u p s

O ffic e c l e r i c a l (w o m e n ) ________
In d u s tria l n u r s e s (w o m e n ) --------S k illed m a in te n a n ce (m e n ) --------U n sk ille d pla n t (m e n ) __________

A ll in d u s t r ie s

M a n u fa ctu r in g

3. 2
1 .6
3. 5
1 .6

3. 2
1 .5
3. 3
.4

3

Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups

Presented in table 2 are percents of change in salaries of
women office clerical workers and industrial nurses, and in average
earnings of selected plant worker groups.
For office clerical workers and industrial nurses, the per­
cents of change relate to average weekly salaries for normal hours
of work, that is, the standard work schedule for which straight-time
salaries are paid. For plant worker groups, they measure changes
in straight-time hourly earnings, excluding premium pay for over­
time and for work pn weekends, holidays, and late shifts. The per­
centages are based on data for selected key occupations and include
most of the numerically important jobs within each group. The of­
fice clerical data are based on women in the following 18 jobs: Billers,
machine (billing machine); bookkeeping-machine operators, class A
and B; Comptometer operators; clerks, file, class A and B; clerks,
order; clerks, payroll; keypunch operators; office girls; secretaries;
stenographers, general; switchboard operators; switchboard operatorreceptionists; tabulating-machine operators; transcribing-machine op­
erators, general; and typists, class A and B. The industrial nurse
data are based on women industrial nurses. Men in the following
10 skilled maintenance jobs and 3 unskilled jobs were included in the
plant worker data: Skilled— carpenters; electricians; machinists; me­
chanics; mechanics, automotive; millwrights; painters; pipefitters;
sheet-metal workers; and tool and die makers; unskilled—janitors,
porters, and cleaners; laborers, material handling; and watchmen.
Average weekly salaries or average hourly earnings were
computed for each of the selected occupations. The average sal­
aries or hourly earnings were then multiplied by the average employ­
ment in the job during the months indicated in the title of table 2.




These weighted earnings for individual occupations were then totaled
to obtain an aggregate for each occupational group. Finally, the ratio
of these group aggregates for the one year to the aggregate for the
other year was computed and the difference between the result and
100 is the percent of change from the one period to the other.
The percent of change measures, principally, the effects of
(1) general salary and wage changes; (2) merit or other increases
in pay received by individual workers while in the same job; and
(3) changes in the labor force such as labor turnover, force expan­
sions, force reductions, and changes in the proportions of workers
employed by establishments with different pay levels. Changes in the
labor force can cause increases or decreases in the occupational
averages without actual wage changes. For example, a force expansion
might increase the proportion of lower paid workers in a specific
occupation and result in a drop in the average, whereas a reduction
in the proportion of lower paid workers would have the opposite effect.
The movement of a high-paying establishment out of an area could
cause the average earnings to drop, even though no change in rates
occurred in other area establishments.
The use of constant employment weights eliminates the effects
of changes in the proportion of workers represented in each job in­
cluded in the data. Nor are the percents of change influenced by
changes in standard work schedules or in premium pay for overtime,
since they are based on pay for straight-time hours.
Indexes for the period 1953 to I960 for workers in 20 major
labor markets will appear in BLS Bull. 1265-62, Wages and Related
Benefits, 60 Labor Markets, Winter 1959-60.

4

A* Occupational Earnings
Table A-l. Office Occupatbns
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
by in d u s tr y d iv is io n , B irm in g h a m , A l a . , A p r il 1961)
A vebag *

S ex , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s t r y d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

Weekly
houro*
(Standard)

NU M B ER OF W O RK ERS RECE IVIN G ST R AIG H T-TIM E W EEKLY EARN ING S OF—

Weekly
U nder
earnings1
(Standard) $
4 0 . 00

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
4 0 . 00 4 5 . 00 5 0 . 00 5 5 . 00 6 0 . 00 6 5 . 00 7 0 . 00 7 5 . 00 8 0 . 00
under
4 5 .0 0

~

_
5 0 . 00

5 5 .0 0

6 0 . 00

“

_

6 5 . 00

7 0 . 00

%

8 5 . 00

7 5 . 00

8 0 . 00

$
$
$
$
s
$
$
$
$
$
9 0 . 00
9 5 .0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 1 2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 .0 0 1 4 0 .0 0
"

85. 00

9 0 . 00

“

9 5 . 0 0 1 0 0 .0 0

"

~

~

1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0

-

-

-

and

1 2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 .0 0 1 4 0 .0 0

over

M en
C le r k s , a cc o u n tin g , c l a s s A ____________
M a n u fa ctu r in g __________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _____________________

140
75

40. 0
4 0 .0

65

40. 0

$ 1 0 5 .5 0
1 1 5 .5 0
9 4 . 00

C le r k s , a cco u n tin g , c l a s s B ____________
M a n u fa ctu r in g _________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _____________________

77
38
39

4 0 .0
40. 0
40. 0

9 2 . 00
8 6 . 50
9 7 . 00

C le r k s , o r d e r _____________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _____________________

122
75

40. 0
40. 0

C le r k s , p a y r o l l ___________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g _________________________

55

-

-

-

-

-

-

8
-

3

4
-

8
-

-

4

8

5
5

2

10
10

-

-

-

-

"

"

.

_

_

_

2

2

-

-

-

-

t
~

2
1
1

1
1

3

8

!

9

2

3

15
7
8

10
1

8
-

30
4

6

8

26

9

8
6
2

2
1

17
16
1

8
6
2

9
7
2

4
4

1

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

6

2
2

_

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

5

_

_

_

_

16
9
7

“

6
5-------

"

"

22
2

40
34

2
1

1
1

3
"

2
2

-

-

"

-

-

-

-

-

-

5
5

2
2

4
4

7
7

8
2

6

5

6

5

3
3

2
2

1
1

1
1

1
1

3
3

2
2

3
3

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

'

_

1

_

2

2

5

.

1

2

10

2

3
3

13
12

2
2

4
3

2
2

4

1

10
7
3
3

7
4
3
3

5
5
-

2
2
-

-

-

_

_

_
_

_
_

_
_

_
_

-

-

-

1
1

-

-

7 6 . 00
7 3 . 50

_

_

-

9
9

7
4

4
2

17
ll

10

40. 0

9 9 .5 0

-

-

-

-

40. 0

9 9 . 00

-

-

-

l
1

-

49

5
5

1
1

-

O ffic e b o y s _________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _____________________

57
46

40. 0
40. 0

6 0 . 00
6 0 .5 0

1
"

3
2

2
2

21
20

7
2

4
4

7
6

6
5

T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c l a s s A ___________________________________

25

40. 0

1 0 7 .0 0

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c l a s s B ___________________________________
N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g _____________________

35
27

3 9 .5
39. 0

8 0 .5 0
7 5 . 50

2
2

2
2

2
1

|

12

6
4

6
4
2

-

-

10

9

1

2

1

W om en
B i ll e r s , m a c h in e (b illin g m a ch in e ) ____
M a n u fa ctu r in g __________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _____________________
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 2 ___________________

105
34
71
32

39. 5
40. 0
3 9 .5

B i ll e r s , m a c h in e (b o o k k e e p in g
m a ch in e ) __________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _____________________
B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c l a s s A ___________________________________
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g _____________________
B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c l a s s B ___________________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g _________________________
N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g _____________________
C le r k s , a cco u n tin g , c l a s s A ____________
M a n u fa ctu r in g _________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _____________________
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 2 ___________________

-

15
2

6
-

14
1

10
-

20
4

13

6

-

-

"

13
6

10
3

16
10

9
4
4

-

39. 0

6 2 .5 0
7 3 . 00
5 7 . 50
67. 50

53
47

40. 0
40. 0

5 9 . 00
5 6 . 50

.

5
5

1
1

7
7

16
16

12
12

.
-

6
6

5

-

53
37

4 1 .5
42. 0

7 3 . 50
66750

_

_

_

_

1

20

3

9

10

"

-

"

1

20

3

9

4

294

40. 5
40. 0

5 7 . 50
7 0 . 00

-

23
-

56
-

71
15

39
-

45
5

9
4

28
10

9
9

9
9

40. 5

5 4 . 50

-

23

56

56

39

40

5

18

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0
3 9 .5

8 0 . 50

_

_

_

17

_

1

10

19

30

49
7
42
5

18

_

30
-

20

_

19
-

28

9 6 . 00
77. 50

10
-

3
15
2

3
14
13

57
237
262
43
219
64

9 9 . 00

13

6
22

-

2
-

1
1

2
2

-

1

.

„

19
1

_

.

-

-

2

_

3

_

2

2

_

2
2

3
3

_
-

16
4
12
7

4
4

2
1
1
1

-

.

1
-

-

5
1

.

.

-

-

-

-

"

1

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6
3

27
-

3
2

27
27

1
1

8
8
-

4
4
_

_

3
3

-

_
_

_
-

S ee fo o t n o t e s at end o f t a b le .




NOTE:

"

E s tim a t e s f o r a ll in d u s t r ie s , n o n m a n u fa ctu r in g , and p u b lic u t ilit ie s in c lu d e da ta f o r r a il r o a d s (SIC 4 0), o m it t e d f r o m the s c o p e
o f a ll la b o r m a r k e t w a g e s u r v e y s m a d e b e fo r e J u ly 1959.
W h e r e s ig n ific a n t , th e e ff e c t o f the in c lu s io n o f r a il r o a d s is g r e a t e s t
on the da ta sh ow n s e p a r a t e ly f o r th e p u b lic u t ilit ie s d iv is io n .

_

_

5

Table A-l. Office Occupations-Continued
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a r n in g s fo r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s studie/d o n an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d i v is i o n , B ir m in g h a m , A la . , A p r i l 1961)
N U M BER OF WO RK ERS R E CEIVING ST R AIG H T-TIM E W EEKLY EARN INGS OF—

S e x , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s tr y d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
'$
$
$
$
$
Weekly,
Weekly , U n der 4 0 . 00 4 5 . 00 50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 9 5 .0 0 1 00.00 1 05.00 110 .00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130 .00 135 .00 *140.00
hours 1 earnings 1
and
and
(Standard) (Standard) $
u n d er
4 0 . 00
4 5 .0 0 50. 00 65, 00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 15. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 1 00.00 105 .00 1 1 0 .0 0 115.00 120 .00 125.00 130.00 1 35.00 140.00 o v e r

W o m e n — C on tin u ed
1
C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s B ____________
M a n u fa ctu r in g _________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _____________________

596
108
488

39. 0
4 0. 0
38. 5

$ 6 4 .0 0
75. 50
61. 50

9
9

15
15

38
38

117
6
111

86
3
83

90
14
76

58
14
44

22
11
11

C l e r k s , f i l e , c l a s s A ________ _________
M a n u fa ctu r in g _________________________
N on m a n u fa c tu rin g _____________________

86
29
57

39. 5
40. 0
39. 5

65. 50
79. 50
58. 50

"

7
_

4
4

17
7
10

12
12

4

7

14
2
12

2
2 j

7
7

4
4
-

3
3
_

C l e r k s , f i l e , c l a s s B ____________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g _________________________
N on m a n u fa c tu rin g _____________________

251
48
203

39. 5
40. 0
39. 5

53. 00
77. 00
4 7 . 50

11
11

67
67

65
5
60

53
6
47

8
8

4
4

5
5

_
-

9
9
-

C l e r k s , o r d e r _____________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _____________________

45
26

40. 0
40. 0

67. 00
58. 00

_

3
3

_
-

1
1

4
4

17
14

6
4

_

-

C l e r k s , p a y r o l l ___________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g _________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _____________________

212
125
87

39. 5
40. 0
39. 5

7 1. 00
74. 00
67. 00

8
8

9
9

5
3
2

10
1
9

31
22
9

26
20
6

31
21
10

C o m p to m e t e r o p e r a t o r s _________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g _________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _____________________

192
44
148

39. 5
40. 0
39. 5

63. 00
69. 00
| 6 1 .5 0

_
-

13
13

16
16

15
3
12

27
10
17

44
9
35

25
2
23

D u p lic a t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s
(M im e o g r a p h o r D itto)
K eyp u n ch o p e r a t o r s _______________________
M a n u fa ctu rin g
_________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _____________________
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 2 ___________________
O ffic e g ir ls
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g

6
6
-

-

"

-

.
"

_
-

_
"

_
-

-

.
-

9
8
1

_
-

_
"

_
"

.
"

_
-

.
-

_
-

_
"

_
-

.
-

_
-

.
-

_
"

_
-

_
-

.
-

_
"

1
-

_

2
-

_

_

_

_

_

_

.

_

-

-

-

"

-

-

12
8
4

9
7
2

16
11
5

-

6
2
4

_
"

_
-

3
2
1

_
-

_
-

~

-

1
1

11
i r
6

2
2

_
"

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
"

_
-

!

2
1
1

_
-

_
"

_
"

11
10
1

30
1
29

1
1
-

4
4

2
2

1
1
-

2
2
-

_
-

28
28

1
1

5
-

_

6
-

1
1
-

23

22
17
5

|

22
6
16

10
5
5

“

i
!
j
!

“

10
13 !

5
2

27
233
72
161
58

39. 5

56. 50

39.
40.
39.
39.

69.
85.
62.
63.

0
0
0
0

00
00
50
50

-

i

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

16
12
4
-

45
35
10
6

_

_

.

.

.

_

_

_

_

_

_
-

_

-

.
_

_

-

-

13
1

_
_

.

.

4
3
1
1
_

-

-

-

"

-

"

25
3
22
4

88
29
59
4

53
13
40
3

78
23
55
8

84
39
45
14

43
9
34
8

56
34
22
14

31
12
19
7

37
22
15
8

60
49
11
5

80
28
52
46

2
2
2

2
2
2

5
3
2
2

80
29
51
32

69
20
49
22

50
27
23
7

53
38
15
9

52
17
35
19

100
92
8
4

1
1
1

9
8
1
-

2
2
-

18
6
12
9
-

4
1
3
3

103
30
73
10

39
30
9
9
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

-

"

8
1
7

2
-

6
1

21
3

2
1

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

.
-

_
-

_
-

5

18

1

20
20
-

_
-

2

2
2

-

-

"

-

-

-

-

-

-

19
11
8

7

1
1

4

_
-

4
4

_
-

_
-

1

6
1

16
14

1

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5
4

5
3

21
20

2
2

_

-

2

_

_

_

_

_

_

“

“

"

17

-

4

5
5
-

40
1
39
18

18
3
15
12

48
2
46
10

19
18

13
1}

3
3

_

31
5
26
-

11
n

:
i

759
307
452
148

39.
4 0.
39.
39.

5
0
5
5

88.
94.
83.
102.

00
00
50
00

_
-

12
12
-

2
2
-

9
1
8
-

S t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l _________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _____________________
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 2 ___________________

861
307
554
168

40.
40.
39.
39.

0
0
5
0

72.
83.
66.
72.

00
00
00
00

9
9

7
7

37
37

96
16
80
14

S w itc h b o a rd o p e r a t o r s ___________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g _________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _____________________

155
40
115

40. 5
39. 0
41. 0

!

17
17

13 1
4 !

S w itc h b o a rd o p e r a t o r - r e c e p t i o n is t s ____
M a n u fa ctu r in g _________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _____________________

110
57
53

40. 0

!

39. 5
40. 5

j

16
3

11
8

T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c la s s R
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g _____________________

59
52

-

66
127
11
19
55 I 108
19 ! 31

38. 5
38. 0

64. 00
8 3 .5 0
57. 00
6 4 . 50
7 0 . 00
5 8 . 50

7 2 .0 0
7 1 .0 0

!

!
3 22 j____

!

!

22

6

17
17

-

11

1

-

-

11

1

-

1

-

1
------ ~
"

i

2

3

8

13

1

2

j------ T ~

9

i

I
1

4
4

-

i

19
10
9
19
9
10

3

i

-

15
9
6
5

8

S e c r e t a r ie s
M a n u fa ctu r in g __________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _____________________
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 2 ___________________

57. 50
4 9 . 50

39. 5
39. 5

i

-

17
17
1 — F~~
16
11
6
_
1
1
-

-

_
- i
_
- !

-

1

_____________________




93
16
30
8
63 |
8

i

60
47

See fo o t n o t e s at end o f ta b le .

!

;
1
1

!

15
14
i

-

1

4

-

“

-

3
3

i
i
I

“

_

“

_

-

~

J
_______

6

Table A-l. Office Occupations-Continued
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
by in d u str y d iv is io n , B irm in g h a m , A l a . , A p r il 1961)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF

Average
Sex,

o c c u p a tio n ,

and in d u s tr y d iv i s io n

$
$
s
s
!s
S
$
$
$
$
$
$
S
$
$
$
$
S
i
$
S
$
Weekly
Weekly
U n d er 4 0 . 00 4 5 . 00 5 0 . 00 5 5 . 00 6 0 . 00 6 5 . 00 7 0 . 00 7 5 . 00 8 0 . 00 8 5 . 00 9 0 . 00
9 5 .0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 1 2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 .0 0 1 4 0 .0 0
earnings1 $
and
+
(Standard) (Standard) <>
•
and
under
4 0 . 00
4 5 . 00 5 0 . 00 5 5 . 00 6 0 . 00 6 5 . 00 7 0 . 00 7 5 . 0 0 ' 8 0 . 0 0 8 5 . 00 9 0 . 00 9 5 . 00 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 1 2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 .0 0 1 4 0 .0 0 o v e r

Number
of
w
orkers

i
W o m e n — C on tin u ed

[

|

T r a n s c r ib in g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
general
.....
M a n u fa c tu r in g ____________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _______________________

79
34
45

39- 5
40. 0
3 9 -5

;$ 5 9 . 50
1 6 6 .5 0
5 4 . 50

-

____________________________
____________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _______________________

1 40
54
86

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

| 6 7 .5 0
1 8 1 .5 0
i 5 9 . 00

_
-

T y p is t s , c l a s s B ____________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g ____________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _______________________

263
47
216

39. 0
40. 0
39. 0

5 3 . 50
I 6 8 .5 0
! 5 0 .0 0

12
12

T y p is t s , c la s s A
M a n u fa c tu rin g

-

8
8

_
■

50
50

!
!

3
2
1

17
15
2

15
7
8

14
14

42
3
39

12

15
!
i

15

i
_____5 _ i i i . .
1
1
4
5
7

36
15
21

12

Z5
2
23

-

13
1
12

30
30

j

11
10
1

2
1
1

1
75
1
74

I
i

11

6
6

11
i
1
1 17
1 13
1

j

i
j

4
12
12

|
I

1
1

i
I

10
9
1

1

!

i
1

_

21
21

1

i

-

_

4
4

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

"

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

“

"

"

1
1
1

-

1

-

-

_

i

1
1

-

!
i

-

1
1
|

■

-

i
________

-

-

-

-

~

“

-

i
i

!

i ------------

L

_

-

-

-

_
-

|

-

_
-

_
-

-

1 S ta n da rd h o u r s r e f le c t the w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv e t h e ir r e g u la r s t r a ig h t - t im e s a la r i e s and th e e a rn in g s c o r r e s p o n d to t h e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .
2 T r a n s p o r t a t io n , co m m u n ic a t io n , and o th e r p u b lic u t il it i e s .
3 W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d as f o l lo w s ; 2 at $ 20 to $ 2 5 ; 4 at $ 30 to $ 3 5 ; 16 at $ 3 5 to $ 4 0 .

Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a rn in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
by in d u s tr y d iv is io n , B irm in g h a m , A l a . , A p r il 1961)
Average
S ex , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s t r y d i v is i o n

Number
of

Weekly
hours’1
(Standard)

Weekly
earnings1
(Standard)

NUM BER OF W O RK ERS RECEIVING ST R AIG H T-TIM E W EEKLY EARN ING S OF

$
$
%
$
s
$
%
$
S
$
$
$
s
$
$
$
$
S
$
U n der 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 8 0. 00 8 5. 00 90. 00 $ 9 5.0 0 1 00 .00 105 .00 110 .00 115 .00 1 2 0 .00 125 .00 130 .00 135 .00 1 40 .00 1 45 .00 1 50 .00 155 .00 1 6 0 .00 165 .00
and
and
er
6 5 .0 0 u n d 00 75. 00 8 0 .0 0 8 5 .0 0 9 0. 00 95. 00 1 00.00 1 05 .00 110 .00 115 .00 120 .00 1 2 5 .00 130 .00 1 35 .00 140 .00
70.
1 45 .00 1 5 0 .00 155 .00 1 60 .00 1 6 5 .00

1

|

M en
D r a ft s m e n , le a d e r ________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g __________________________

40
37

40. 0
40. 0

-

-

-

-

-

"

"

_

_

_

2

“

-

-

-

9 3.0 0
96.0 0
8 4 .5 0

3 22
13

7
5
2

14
10
4

5

9 7.0 0
99-00

_

2
1

2

_

D r a ft s m e n , s e n io r ________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g _________________________

393
338

4 0. 0
40. 0

131 .50
1 3 4 .50

D r a ft s m e n , ju n io r
M a n u fa ctu r in g
_
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g

187
137
50

4 0. 0
40. 0
4 0. 5

38
30

3 9 .5
4 0. 0

_

_
"

$ 1 6 1 .5 0
162 .50

9

8
3

-

i

-

-

“

-

~
-

-

4
4

7
7

6
4

6
4

1 11
4

14
7
7

13
10
3

20
14
6

28
23
5

9
5
4

5
5

2
2

5
4

6
4

4
4

22
16
7
7
,

j
1
i

_
- J

_

-

"

|

8
8

1

_

“

-

4
3

2
2

3
3

8
7

2 14
14

21
19

17
15

13
13

22
22

7
6

23
23

57
57

17
17

.
-

!

1

I
23 !

40
32

49
43

30
29

11 1
6 ;
5

4
4
-

30
30
-

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

1
1

_

1
1

_

_

3
9

_

_

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

"

1
1

_

"

W om en
N u r s e s , in d u s t r ia l ( r e g i s t e r e d )
M a n u fa ctu rin g

__

6
5

3
2

1 S ta n da rd h o u r s r e f l e c t the w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e i v e t h e ir r e g u la r s t r a i g h t - t im e s a la r i e s and the e a rn in g s c o r r e s p o n d to t h e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .
2 W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d a s f o l lo w s ; 4 at $ 165 to $ 175; 4 at $ 175 to $ 185; 6 at $ 195 to $ 2 05.
3 W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r ib u t e d a s f o l l o w s ; 6 at $ 5 5 to $ 6 0 ; 16 at $ 6 0 to $ 6 5 .
NOTE;

See n ote on p . 4 , r e la t iv e to the in c lu s io n o f r a il r o a d s .




~

~

7

Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r m e n in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n , B ir m in g h a m , A l a . , A p r i l 1961)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Number

O c c u p a tio n an d in d u s t r y d iv is io n

of

workers

$
s
S
Average
hourly . J n d e r 1. 30 1 .4 0 1. 50 1 . 60
and
earnings $

1

1 .3 0

C a r p e n t e r s , m a in te n a n ce --------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g ------------------------------------

312
294

$ 2. 88
2 .9 1

1
-

E l e c t r i c i a n s , m a in te n a n ce -------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g -----------------------------------------

682
665

3. 29
3. 30

_

_

E n g in e e r s , s t a t io n a r y -------------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g ----------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ------------------------------

187
157
30

2. 85
2. 94
2. 34

1. 50

2. 50
2. 73

H e lp e r s , t r a d e s , m a in te n a n ce ------------M a n u fa ctu r in g ________________________
MAnma nnfa rtnri-ng
DiiKlir n tili ti a e ^

556
512
44
31

2 .4 2
2. 48
1 .7 9
2. 02

M a c h in e -t o o l o p e r a t o r s , t o o lr o o m -------------------

161
161

1. 90

s
$
?
2. 00 2. 10 2. 20

1. 60

1 .7 0

2. 00

2. 10

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

-

-

4
3

_

_

_

1

-

_

-

-

"

-

6
6

20
20

8

2

-

-

-

-

8

2

-

6
-

1. 80

1. 90

S

-

-

62
53

$
1. 80

$

2. 30

3

_
-

1
1

2

_

_

_

_

9
9

_
2
2

10
6
4

_

_
-

-

1
1

2. 30

2, 20

2. 40

$

2 .4 0

2. 50

2. 50

$

$

2. 60

$

$
$
$
2. 90 3. 00 3. 10

2 .6 0

2 .7 0

2. 80

2. 70

2. 80

2. 90

3. 00

52
32
20
20

3. 10

3. 20

-

3
-

5
3

5
3

5
2

6
6

35
34

11
11

218
217

2
2

-

6
2

_

_

"

-

13
13

13
10

3
1

5
5

30
30

15
15

84
83

75
69

5
5

3
3

6

7
5
2

11
11

3
i
2

19
18
1
_

_

2

-

-

-

-

6

-

2

_

_

"

-

14
10
4
4

14
14

"
8
8

85
84
1
1

!
!

-

9
4
5
5

2. 97
2. 97

10
2 10
1

$

$

S

3. 20

3. 30

3. 30

3. 40

$
$
$
$
3 .4 0 3. 50 3. 60 3. 70

u n d er
1 .4 0

F ir e m e n , s t a t io n a r y b o i l e r ____________
M a n u fa ctu r in g ------ ---------------------------

1. 70

4
4

129
129

_

-

"
4
4

3. 70

and
over

11
11

-

-

-

-

22
22

5
5

28
28

60
60

70
70

236
236

10
10

13
13
-

15
14
1

21
20
1

22
20
2

20
20

-

10
10
-

_

20
20

_

_

_

_

_

_

"

10
10

-

"

"

“

58
58

15
15

-

-

12
12

-

-

-

-

_

38
38

18
18

5

2

2

4

290
290

8
8

1
3 |
3

97
97

3. 60

-

"

42
42

2

3. 50

-

-

-

I

1
2
9 1 39
Q
2
M dnuiaC lu r in g 1 -------------------39
7

42
42

j

692
691

3. 29
3. 29

312
107
205
157

2.
2.
2.
2.

M e c h a n ic s , m a in te n a n ce ---------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g ________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g -----------------------------

657
582
75

2 .9 9
3. 07
2. 42

M illw r ig h t s ----------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g ________________________

359
359

3. 02
3. 02

O il e r s ________________ ______ _________
M a n u fa ctu rin g ------------------------------------

157
157

2. 48
2. 48

M a c h in is t s , m a in te n a n ce ---------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g ------------------------------------

M e c h a n ic s , a u to m o tiv e
(m a in te n a n ce ) ---------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g ________ t
---------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g -----------------------------

53
52
53
62

.
■

.

"

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

6
6

-

-

6
6

_

-

-

|

10
4

-

6

6

5
37
2 1 25
3 ! 12

49

8

6

_

_

2
2

6
6

6

-

_

_

i

“

5
3
2

-

3
3

-

15
11
4

1
“

-

-

-

_

6
6

-

6

-

34
23
11
_

-

-

8

7
7

15
15

2
2

12
12

35
35

70
70

55
55

119
119

28
28

6
6

6
6

26
26

7
3
4

22
3
19
18

6
.6

87
4
83
74

18
16
2
2

8
8

11

-

1
1

_

_

_

_

11

-

18
18

4

-

-

-

-

4

_
-

_
-

_
-

45
21
24

47
42
5

8
5
3

13
6
7

76
76

132
131
1

6
6

_

61
61

32
32

_

-

-

-

“

40
40
-

94
94

-

-

-

9
9

42
42

24
24

23
23

159
159

.
-

-

-

78
78

-

-

-

6
6

-

20
20

-

-

-

-

"

"

-

4
4

7
7

14
14

5
2

12
12

2

3

6

55

1

10

49
40

1

g

32
24
8

13
8
5

7
4
3

_

18
18

6
6

17
17

10
10

18
18

9
9

22
22

4
4

2
2

3
3

10
9

18
18

15

33
33

11
11

5
5

3

_
-

-

i

P a in t e r s , m a in te n a n ce _________________
M a n u fa ctu rin g
---------------------------------

73
62

2 .8 1
2. 85

T o o l and d ie m a k e r s ____________________

108
108

2. 88
2. 88

1

1
1

[

1
_____"

1 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m pa y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s, h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s .
2 W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d a s fo llo w s : 1 at $ 1 to $ 1. 10; 5 at $ 1. 1 0 to $ 1. 20; 4 at $ 1. 20 to $ 1 .3 0 .
3 T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o th e r p u b lic u t il it i e s .
NOTE:

See n ote on p. 4 , r e la t iv e to the in c lu s io n o f r a ilr o a d s ,




-

_

(y

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

8

Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(A verage stra igh t-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, B irm in gham , A la . , A p ril 1961)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

Under 0. 60 0. 70
and
$
0. 60 under
70
. 80

Occupation 1 and industry division

E levator op era to rs, p assen ger
(men)
Nonmanufacturing

1. 10

1. 50

1. 90

2. 10

10
. 0

1 . 20

1, 60

2. 00

2. 20

2. 60

2. 90

3. 00
and

^20

$ 1. 06

E levator op era to rs, passen ger
(women)
Nonmanufacturing

0. 90

. 65

Guards ______________________________
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing

J anitors, p o r te r s, and cleaners
(men)
Manufacturing ____
Nonmanufacturing
Public utilitie s 4

~T7oT

10
1
92

iT7

2. 31
1. 98

520
594
115

IT

1 .8 4
1. 15
1. 70

J anitors, p o r te r s, and cleaners

. 86

~T74F

Manufacturing ________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________

.

81

L ab orers , m aterial handling __
Manufacturing ________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________
Public utilities 4 __________

1 ,6 7 8
838
840
279

1. 91
1. 52
2. 18

Order fille r s ______________________
Manufacturing ________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________

46
266

2. 20
1. 39

60
51

12 ;

12

113

78 '
34
34

22
7
7

50
40
40

3 '
10

10
19

59
59

69

T

To

73 |
1!

66
7

T *T
56
27 !

8 1

74 ]
5"
6 : 28
1 | 25

34 ‘

8 i

12

1

!

2;

31 !

3!

3~
18

1 127 | 112

1. 96
2. 34
1. 51

79

“54T
15

461
81

ST
47

1

64 I
457
19 !
13

14
2
12

61

125
82
75

211

6
3

IT

36
~36"'

~jr

3 '
88
88

26
26 "

11

4

P a c k e r s, shipping _______________
Nonmanufacturing ____________

R eceiving clerk s _________________
Manufacturing ________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________

Shipping clerk s __________________
Manufacturing ________________

Shipping and receivin g clerk s __
Manufacturing ________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________

See footnotes at end of table.




TST

163
79

2. 64
2. 17

1
13

26

“2 "
6

2'
25

6 56
10
4

9
12

14
4

~sS~

9

Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations-Continued
(A verage stra igh t-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Birm ingham , A la ., A p ril 1961)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

Occupation1 and industry division

of
w
orkers

$
$
$
S
$
Average
hourly , Under 0. 60 0. 70 0. 80 0. 90 1 . 0
earningsc $
and
under
0. 60
. 80
. 70
. 90 1. 00 1 . 1

1, 875
649
1, 226
533

$ 2 . 00
1 . 18
1.9 1
2 .5 1

T ru ck d rivers, light (under
IV 2 tons) _________________________ __
Manufacturing ______________________
Nonmanufacturing _________________

183
54
129

1 .3 1
1 .5 4
1 .2 2

-

-

-

-

15
15

2. 00
03
1 .9 9
2. 51

-

-

-

4
4

13
13

T ru ck d rivers, medium ( I V 2 to
and including 4 tons)
___
____
Manufacturing ______________________
Nonmanufacturing _________________
Public utilities 4 ________________

1, 263
318
945
521

1.

-

“

Tru ck d rivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
tra ile r type) _________________________
Nonmanufacturing _________________

152
102

1 .9 4
2. 13

-

T ru ck d rivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
other than t ra ile r type) _____________

73

1 .9 4

T ru ck ers, power (forklift) ______________
Manufacturing __________________________
Nonmanufacturing ______ _____________

401
294
107
33

2. 13
2. 27
1 .7 5
2. 65

79
53

2. 11
2 .4 0

198
104
94

1 .4 5
1 .6 6
1 .2 1

P iih lir . u t i l i t i e s 4

T ru ck ers, power (other than
forklift)
__
_ _ _ _

_

_ _

M aniifar.tiirin g

Watchmen

__________________________________

M a n u fa c tu rin g

.

_ _

Nonmanufactur mg

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

-

"

-

-

4
4

-

28
28

See note on p. 4 ,




1. 20

1. 30

1 .4 0

82
82

134
134

175
10
165

101
28
73

"

"

22
22

1
1

64
5
59

60
60

1. 50

$
$
$
$
1. 60 1. 70 1 .8 0 1 .

1. 50

1. 60

1. 70

1. 80

1. 90

2 . 0 0

2. 10

145
112
33
~

87
60
27

-

2
2

14
10
4

5
3
2

"

“

6
3
3
3

"

"

7
r

17
3

-

3
3

1
1

59
38
21

-

3
3
-

-

$

9 0

$
$
2. 00 2

. 1 0

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
2. 20 2. 30 2. 40 2. 50 2. 60 2. 70 2. 80 2. 90 3. 00
and

0

84
106
- —
106
79

43
20 —
23

58
8
50

1

9 9
6 7

32

2. 30

2. 40

2. 50

2. 60

2. 70

2. 80

2. 90

3. 00

over

19
5
14
4

131
45
86
42

22
15
7

11
11
-

-

'

395
137
258
253

16
16
-

■

43
12
31
2

363

70
68

"

"

■

-

-

-

4
4

5
5
-

-

-

-

-

~

1
1

-

-

-

-

14
10
4

5
3
2

70
70
68

16
7
9
2

338
155
183
161

8
1
7
1

47
3
44
40

16
9
7
“

260
6
254
249

"

3
3
"

"

2
2

20
20

6
6

45
42

"

4
4

"

-

-

'

"

9 2
2 2

1 6 0

203
161

■

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

■

"

1 8

“

“

"

~

1
1

-

“

39
~

8

“

9
9

18

"

-

-

-

-

-

-

18

9

-

-

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

20

-

-

20

-

3

-

-

-

-

-

7
7

3
3

15

30

35
35
-

58
58
-

-

-

1
1

32
25
7

3
2
1
1

29
28
1
1

10
6
4

7

-

7
7

18

-

4

2
2
-

15
15
-

18
18
-

48
21
27
27

30
30
-

4
4
-

8 44
44
-

-

3

7
7

13
5

-

17
17

2
2

6
6

_

6
6

-

9

17
17

_
-

6
6

_
-

_

_
_

-

_

_

16

_

-

9 16

_

relative to the inclusion of railroad s.

3

-

15

-

-

-

4

42
~n
31

3

16

3

18
11
7

_

4

_

“

4
4

-

-

-

-

6
6

10

3
l

27
24
3

4
3
1

9

4

9

14
13
1

— r —2

late sh ifts.
60.
8 at $ 3. 30 and over.
30; 20 at $ 3. 50 and over.
14 at $ 3. 20 to $ 3. 30; 12 at $ 3. 50 to $ 3. 60.

-

-

2 . 2 0

-

Data lim ited to m en w orkers except w here otherw ise indicated.
Excludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on weekends, holidays, and
W ork ers w ere distributed as fo llo w s: 38 at $ 0. 40 to $ 0. 50; 3 at $ 0. 50 to $ 0.
Transportation, communication, and other public u tilities.
W ork ers w ere distributed as fo llo w s; 6 at $ 3 to $ 3 . 1 0 ; 14 at $ 3. 20 to $ 3. 30;
W ork ers w ere distributed as fo llo w s: 28 at $ 3. 10 to $ 3. 20; 8 at $ 3. 20 to '$ 3.
Includes all d rivers regard le ss of size and type of truck operated.
W ork ers w ere distributed as follow s : 8 at $ 3 to $ 3. 10; 10 at $ 3. 10 to $ 3. 20;
A ll w orkers w ere at $ 0. 50 to $ 0. 60.

N O TE :

$
$
1. 30 1 .4 0

“

T ru ck d rivers 7 ____________________________
Manufacturing __________ _____________
Nonmanufacturing __ ________________
Public utilities 4 ___________________

$
s
1. 10 1 .2 0

0

_

9

3

4

.

_ _
_

_

.

_




11

A ppendix: Occupational Descriptions
The primary purpose o f preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to a ssist its
field staff in cla ssifyin g into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping o f occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because o f this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field economists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers,
part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.
O F F IC E
BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statements, b ills, and in voices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May a lso keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerica l work inciden­
tal to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine,
are cla ssified by type o f machine, as follow s:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or with­
out a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.

Biller , machine (billing machine)— U ses a sp ecia l billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, E lliott Fisher, Burroughs, e tc ., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandum, etc. Usually involves application o f prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry o f necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number o f carbon cop ies
of the b ill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.
Biller , machine (bookkeeping machine)— U ses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, e tc ., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare custom ers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on custom ers’ ledger
record. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a num­
ber of vertical columns and computes and usually prints auto­
matically the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowl­
edge of bookkeeping. Works from uniform and standard types o f
sales and credit slip s.




Class A — Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure o f the particular accounting system used. Deter­
mines proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to
be used in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated re­
ports, balance sheets, and other records by hand.
Class B — Keeps a record of one or more phases or section s
of a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic
bookkeeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, pay­
roll, customers’ accounts (not including a simple type of billing
described under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense d is­
tribution, inventory control, etc. May check or a ss is t in prep­
aration o f trial balances and prepare control sheets for the a c­
counting department.

CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A — Under general direction of a bookkeeper or a c­
countant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a
complete set of books or records relating to one phase of an e s ­
tablishment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and

12

CLERK, ACCOUNTING— Continued
balancing subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receiv­
able or accounts payable; examining and coding invoices or vouch­
ers with proper accounting distribution; requires judgment and ex­
perience in making proper assignations and allocations. May
assist in preparing, adjusting, and closing journal entries; may
direct cla ss B accounting clerks.

Class B— Under supervision, performs one or more routine
accounting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers,
accounts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers. This job does not require a knowledge of
accounting and bookkeeping principles but is found in o ffice s in
which the more routine accounting work is subdivided on a func­
tional basis among several workers.

CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the n eces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers*
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker’ s name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and distrib­
uting pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.
COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathe­
matical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of
statistical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of
a Comptometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to
performance of other duties.
DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)

CLERK, FILE

Class A — Responsible for maintaining an established filing
system. C lassifies and indexes correspondence or other material;
may also file this material. May keep records of various types
in conjunction with files or supervise others in filing and locating
material in the files. May perform incidental clerical duties.

Class B— Performs routine filing, usually of material that
has already been cla ssified , or locates or a ssists in locating ma­
terial in the files. May perform incidental clerica l duties.

CLERK, ORDER
R eceives customers' orders for material or merchandise by
mail, phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination o f the
following: Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet
listing the items to make up the order; checking prices and quantities
of items on order sheet; distributing order sheets to respective de­
partments to be filled. May check with credit department to deter­
mine credit rating of customer, acknowledge receipt o f orders from
customers, follow up orders to see that they have been filled , keep
file of orders received, and -ch eck shipping invoices with original
orders.




Under general supervision and with no supervisory respon­
sib ilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten
matter, using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjust­
ments such as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is
not required to prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file o f used
stencils or Ditto masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed
material.

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards
by punching a series of holes in the cards in a sp ecified sequence,
using an alphabetical or a numerical keypunch machine, following
written information on records.
May duplicate cards by using the
duplicating device attached to machine. May keep files of punch
cards. May verify own work or work of others.
OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands,
operating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening
and distributing mail, and other minor clerica l work.

13

SECRETARY

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST

Performs secretarial and clerica l duties for a superior in an
administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receiving people coming into o ffice ; answering and
making phone ca lls; handling personal and important or confidental
mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative; taking
dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand
or by Stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the re­
corded information reproduced on a transcribing machine. May pre­
pare special reports or memorandums for information of superior.

In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may
type or perform routine clerica l work as part of regular duties.
typing or clerical work may take the major part of this worker's
while at switchboard.

TABULATTNG-MACHINE

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a
normal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a type­
writer. May also type from written copy. May a lso set up and keep
files in order, keep simple records, etc. Does not include transcribing
machine work (see transcribing-machine operator).

p osi­
also
This
time

OPERATOR

Operates machine that automatically analyzes and translates
information punched in groups of tabulating cards and prints trans­
lated data on forms or accounting records; sets or adjusts machine;
does simple wiring of plugboards according to established practice
or diagrams; places cards to be tabulated in feed magazine and starts
machine. May file cards after they are tabulated. May, in addition,
operate auxiliary machines.

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype Or similar machine, involving a
varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or
reports on scien tific research and to transcribe this dictation on a
typewriter. May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep
files in order, keep simple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-

Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal
routine vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May a lso type
from written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing
dictation involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such
as legal briefs or reports on scien tific research are not included. A
worker who takes dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar
machine is cla ssified as a stenographer, general.

machine work.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
TYPIST
Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office
ca lls. May record toll ca lls and take m essages. May give information to
persons who ca ll in, or occasion ally take telephone orders. For workers
who also act as receptionists see switchboard operator-receptionist.




Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May do clerical work involving little special training, such as keeping
simple records, filing records and reports or sorting and distributing
incoming mail.

14

TYPIST— Continued

TYPIST— Continued
Class A — Performs one or more o f the following: Typing ma­
terial in final form from very rough and involved draft; copying
from plain or corrected copy in which there is a frequent and varied
use of technical and unusual words or from foreign-language copy;
combining material from several sources, or planning layout of
complicated statistical tables to maintain uniformity and balance

in spacing; typing tables from rough draft in final form. May type
routine form letters, varying details to suit circumstances.
Class B — Performs one or more o f the following: Typing from
relatively clear or typed drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance
p o licie s, e tc., setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying
more complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

PR O F E SSIO N A L AND T E C H N IC A L

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.
DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration of working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Duties
involve a combination o f the following: Interpreting blueprints, sketches,
and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures; assigning
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problems. May a ssist subordinates during emergencies or as a
regular assignment, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
ministrative nature.
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
p oses. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Preparing work­
ing plans, detail drawings, maps, cr o s s-s e ctio n s , e tc., to scale by use
of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as those
involved in strength of materials, beams and trusses; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quantities;




DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued
writing specification s; making adjustments or changes in drawings or
specifications. May ink in lines and letters on pencil drawings, prepare
detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings. Work is frequently
in a specialized field such as architectural, electrical, mechanical, or
structural drafting.

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combiner
tion o f the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending To
subsequent dressing of em ployees’ injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants
and em ployees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.

TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. Uses
T-square, compass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

15

MAINTENANCE

D PO W E R PL A N T

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’ s handtools, portable
power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; selecting materials n ec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or a ssist in repairing boilerroom equipment.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, d is­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specification s; locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c ­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; using a variety of
electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In gen­
eral, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.
ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a record of
operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May also
supervise these operations. Head or ch ief engineers in establishments

employing more than one engineer are excluded.




HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
A ssists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing sp e cific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are a lso performed by workers on a full-time basis.
MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools, gauges,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most o f the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making necessary adjustments during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating oils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classification .
MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Interpreting written instructions and
specification s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
chinist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and

16

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued

MILLWRIGHT— Continued

operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to clo se toler­
ances; makingstandardshopcomputationsrelatingto dimensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assembling parts into me­
chanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally requires
a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

are required. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specification s; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers o f gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment, and parts
to be used; installing and maintaining in good order power transmission
equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the mill­
wright's work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an e s ­
tablishment. Work involves most o f the following: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assemblies in the vehicle
andmaking necessary adjustments; alining wheels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves most o f the following: Examining machines and mechan­
ica l equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly d is ­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replace­
ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop
for major repairs; preparing written specification s for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling ma­
chines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In general,
the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classification are workers
whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.
MILLWRIGHT
Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout




OILER
Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
fa ces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.
PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, o ils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper
color or consistency. In general, the work of the maintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other written specification s; cutting various sizes of pipe to correct
lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with stocks and d ies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to pressures,
flow , and size of pipe required; making standard tests to determine
whether finished pipes meet specifications* In general, the work of the
maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building

sanitation or heating systems are excluded .

17

TOOL AND DIE MAKER

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber's snake. In
general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.
SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, models,
or other specification s; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; installing sheetmetal articles as required. In general, the work of the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

(Diemaker; jig maker; toolmaker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most o f the following: Planning and laying out of work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specification s;
using a variety of tool and die maker's handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding of the working properties of common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
o f work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to clo s e tolerances; fitting and assembling
o f parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selecting appropriate
materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die maker's
work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification .

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT
ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued

Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Workers
who specialize in window washing are excluded.

GUARD
Performs rojutine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gate-

men who are stationed at gate and check on identity o f employees and
other persons entering.
JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial




LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more o f the follow­
ing: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or

18

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING— Continued
from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting d evices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; trans­
porting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.

Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded .
ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, customers'
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating items filled or omitted, keep records o f outgoing orders, requisi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued
For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified as follow s:

Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
TRUCKDRIVER
Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of estab­
lishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers’ houses or places of business. May also load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers

are excluded.

PACKER, SHIPPING
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the sp ecific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number o f units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or more o f
the following: Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify
content; selection of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closin g and sealing container; applying labels or
entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make wooden

boxes or crates are excluded .
SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­
sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Shipping
work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes,
available means of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or a ssist in
preparing the merchandise for shipment. Receiving work involves: Veri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipments against
bills of lading, in voices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing merchandise or materials to proper de­
partments; maintaining necessary records and file s.




For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are cla ssified by size
and type of equipment, as follow s: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis o f trailer capacity.)

Truckdriver (combination o f sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under lV2 tons)
Truckdriver, medium (1% to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)
TRUCKER, POWER
Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified by type of
truck, as follow s:

Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)
WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.
U .S . GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1 9 6 1

O — 594720







Occupational Wage Surveys
Occupational wage surveys will be conducted in the 82 major labor markets listed below during late I960 and early 1961. Bulletins, when available, may be
purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C., or from any of the BLS regional sales offices shown on the
inside front cover.
A summary bulletin containing data for 80 labor markets, combined with additional analysis, will be issued early in 1962.
Akron, Ohio— Bull. 1285Albany—
Schenectady-Troy, N.Y.— Bull. 1285-51
Albuquerque, N. Mex.— Bull. 1285Allentown—
Bethlehem—
Easton,
Pa.-N.J.— Bull. 1285-47
Atlanta, Ga.— Bull. 1285* Baltimore, Md.— Bull. 1285-34
Beaumont—
Port Arthur, Tex.-—Bull. 1285Birmingham, Ala.— Bull. 1285-53

*Green Bay, Wis.— Bull. 1285-2
Greenville, S.C.— Bull. 1285Houston, Tex.— Bull. 1285* Indianapolis, Ind.— Bull. 1285-28
* Jackson, Miss.— Bull. 1285-42
* * Jacksonville, Fia.— Bull. 1285-30
❖ Kansas City, Mo.-Kans.— Bull. 1285-18
Lawrence—
Haverhill, Mass.—
N.H.— Bull. 1285* * Little Rock-North Little Rock, Ark.— Buil. 1285-6

Boise, Idaho— Bull. 1285❖ ❖ Boston, Mass.— Bull. 1285-15
* * Buffalo, N.Y.— Bull. 1285-31
Burlington, Vt.— Bull. 1285*57
* Canton, Ohio— Bull. 1285-29
Charleston, W Va.— Bull. 1285.
Charlotte, N.C.— Bull. 1285* * Chattanooga, Tenn.—
Ga.— Bull. 1285*14
Chicago, 111.— Bull. 1285-

Los Angeles—
Long Beach, Calif.— Bull. 1285Louisville, Ky.—
Ind.— Bull. 1285Lubbock, Tex.— Bull. 1285* Manchester, N.H.— Bull. 1285-1
* Memphis, Tenn.— Bull. 1285-35
* Miami, Fla.— Bull. 1285-33
Milwaukee, Wis.— Bull. 1285* * Minneapolis— Paul, Minn.— Bull. 1285-39
St.
Muskegon—
Muskegon Heights, Mich.— Bull. 1285-

Cincinnati, Ohio—
Ky.— Bull. 1285Cleveland, Ohio— Bull. 1285-11
* *Columbus, Ohio— Bull. 1285-38
**Dallas, Tex.— Bull. 1285-21
❖ ❖ Davenport—
Rock Island—
Moline, Iowa—
111.—
Bull. 1285- 16
❖ Dayton, Ohio— Bull. 1285-41
^Denver, Colo.— Bull. 1285*27
*Des Moines, Iowa— Bull. 1285*43
**Detroit, Mich.— Bull. 1285-37
❖ ❖ Fort Worth, Tex.— Buil. 1285-23

*Newark and Jersey City, N.J.— Bull. 1285*40
New Haven, Conn.— Bull. 1285-46
New Orleans, La.— Bull. 1285-48
New York, N.Y.— Bull. 1285Norfolk—
Portsmouth and Newport News—
Hampton, Va.— Bull. 1285❖ ❖ Oklahoma City, Okla.— Bull. 1285-3
❖ ❖ Omaha, Nebr.—
Iowa— Bull. 1285-13
Paterson—
Clifton—
Passaic, N.J.— Bull. 1285* ❖ Philadelphia, Pa.— Bull. 1285-24
Phoenix, Ariz.— Bull. 1285*55

Pittsburgh, P a.— Bull. 1285-44
* Portland, Maine— Bull. 1285*19
Portland, Oreg.—
Wash.— Bull. 1285Providence—
Pawtucket, R .I.—
Mass.— Bull. 1285’
❖ ❖ Raleigh, N.C.— Bull. 1285- 5
* Richmond, Va.— Bull. 1285*26
Rockford, 111.— Bull. 1285❖ ❖ St. Louis, Mo.—
111.— Bull. 1285-10
* *S a lt Lake City, Utah— Bull. 1285-32
San Antonio, Tex.— Bull. 1285❖ San Bernardino—
Riverside—
Ontario,
C alif.— Bull. 1285-4
San Francisco—
Oakland, C alif.— Bull. 1285-36
Savannah, Ga.— Bull. 1285❖ ❖ Scranton, Pa.— Bull. 1285-8
sjojc Seattle, Wash.— Bull. 1285-7
❖ ❖ ❖ Sioux Falls, S. Dak.— Bull. 1285-17
South Bend, Ind.— Bull. 1285-54
Spokane, Wash.— Bull. 1285“

Toledo, Ohio— Bull. 1285-50
* * Trenton, N.J.— Bull. 1285-25
* * Washington, D.C.—
Md.—
Va.-—Bull. 1285-22
Waterbury, Conn.-—Bull. 1285-56
❖ Waterloo, Iowa— Bull. 1285*20
❖ ❖ Wichita, Kans.— Bull. 1285-9
* * Wilmington, D e l.-N .J .— Bull. 1285-12
Worcester, Mass.— Buli. 1285York, Pa.— Bull. 1285-45

An asterisk preceding a labor market indicates the availability and
price of the bulletin.
Please do not order copies in advance.

*
*❖
❖ ❖❖




Price 20 cents.
Price 25 cents.
priCe 15 cents.





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102