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Occupational Wage Survey

TOLEDO, OHIO
MARCH 1961

Bulletin No. 1285-50




U N ITED S T A T E S D EPA R TM EN T O F LA BO R
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU O F LABOR STATISTICS
E w m ClagM , Commissioner




Occupational Wage Survey




TOLEDO, OHIO
MARCH 1961

Bulletin No. 1285-50
May 1961

UN ITED ST A T ES D EPA RTM EN T OF LA BO R
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents; U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.

Price 25 cents




Preface

Contents
Page

The C om m u n ity Wage S u rvey P r o g r a m

T a b les:

A

This r e p o r t w as p r e p a r e d in the B u r e a u 's r e g io n a l
o ffic e in C h ica g o, 111. , by W ood row C. Linn, under the
d ir e c tio n o f G e o rg e E . V otava, A s s is ta n t R eg ion a l D ir e c to r
fo r W ages and In du stria l R e la tio n s .

E s ta b lish m en ts and w o r k e r s w ithin sc o p e o f su rv e y
O ccu p ation a l earn in g s: *
A - 1. O ffice o ccu p a tio n s ______________________________
A - 2. P r o fe s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l o ccu p a tio n s _______
A - 3. M aintenance and pow erp lan t o ccu p a tio n s _____
A - 4. C u stod ia l and m a te r ia l m ov em en t o ccu p a tio n s
E sta b lish m en t p r a c t ic e s and su p p lem en ta ry w age
p r o v is io n s :
B - 1.
Shift d iffe r e n tia ls ____________________________________________
B -2 .
M inim um en tra n ce s a la r ie s fo r w om en o ffic e w o r k e r s __
B -3 .
Sch edu led w eek ly h ou rs _____________________________________
B -4 .
P aid h olid a y s ________________________________________________
B -5 .
P aid v a ca tio n s ------------------------------------------------------------------------B -6 .
Health, in su r a n ce , and p en sion plans ______________________

Appendix:

O ccu p ation a l d e s c r ip tio n s ---------------------------------------------------------

* N O TE: S im ila r tabu lation s fo r th ese and oth er ite m s a r e
a v a ila b le in the r e p o r ts fo r su rv ey s in oth er m a jo r a r e a s .
A d ir e c t o r y in d icatin g date o f study and the p r ic e o f the
r e p o r t s , is a v a ila b le upon re q u e st.
Union s c a le s , in d ica tiv e o f p r e v a ilin g pay le v e ls ,
a re a v a ila b le fo r the fo llo w in g tra d e s o r in d u strie s : B u ild ­
ing co n s tr u c tio n , prin tin g, lo c a l-t r a n s it op era tin g e m p lo y ­
e e s , and m o to r tr u c k d r iv e r s and h e lp e r s .

li i

vO t"- 00

1.

B:




1

V

The B u reau o f L a b o r S ta tistics r e g u la r ly con d u cts
a reaw id e w age s u rv e y s in a n um ber o f im p orta n t in d u stria l
cen ters.
The stu d ies, m ade fr o m la te fa ll to e a r ly sp rin g ,
r ela te to occu p a tio n a l ea rn in g s and r e la te d su p p lem en tary
b e n e fits. A p r e lim in a r y r e p o r t is a v a ila b le on c o m p le tio n
o f the study in ea ch a r e a , u su a lly in the m on th fo llo w in g
the p a y r o ll p e r io d studied.
T h is b u lletin p r o v id e s ad d i­
tion a l data not in clu d ed in the e a r lie r r e p o r t.
A c o n s o li­
dated a n a ly tica l b u lletin su m m a rizin g the r e s u lts o f all o f
the y e a r 's su r v e y s is is s u e d a fter c o m p le tio n o f the fin al
a re a b u lletin fo r the c u r re n t roun d o f s u r v e y s .

In trod u ction

10
11
H
12
13
13
17




Occupational Wage Survey—Toledo, Ohio
Introduction

This a re a is one o f s e v e r a l im p orta n t in d u stria l ce n te rs in
w h ich the U. S. D ep artm en t o f L a b o r 's B u reau o f L a b or S ta tistics has
con du cted su r v e y s o f occu p a tio n a l earn in g s and rela ted w age b en efits
on an a re a w id e b a s is . In this a r e a , data w e re obtained b y p e r s o n a l
v is it s o f B u reau fie ld e c o n o m is ts
to r e p re s e n ta tiv e esta b lish m en ts
w ithin six b r o a d in d u stry d iv is io n s :
M an ufacturin g; tra n sp o rta tio n , 1
co m m u n ica tio n , and oth er p u b lic u tilitie s ; w h o le sa le trad e; r e ta il
tra d e; fin a n ce , in s u r a n ce , and r e a l e sta te; and s e r v ic e s . M a jo r in ­
d u stry g rou p s ex clu d ed fr o m th ese stu d ies a r e g ov ern m en t op era tion s
and the c o n s tr u c tio n and e x tr a c tiv e in d u s tr ie s . E sta b lish m en ts having
fe w e r than a p r e s c r ib e d n u m ber o f w o r k e r s a r e om itted a ls o b e c a u s e
they fu rn ish in su ffic ie n t e m p loy m en t in the o ccu p a tion s studied to w a r ­
rant in clu s io n . W h e re v e r p o s s ib le , sep a ra te tabu lation s a r e p ro v id e d
fo r ea ch o f the b r o a d in d u stry d iv is io n s .
T h ese s u rv e y s a r e con du cted on a sa m p le b a s is b e c a u s e o f the
u n n e c e s s a r y c o s t in v olv ed in su rv ey in g a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts. To obtain
a p p ro p r ia te a c c u r a c y at m in im u m c o s t , a g re a te r p r o p o r t io n of la rg e
than o f s m a ll e sta b lish m en ts is studied. In com b in in g the data, h ow ­
e v e r , a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts a r e g iven th eir a p p ro p ria te w eigh t. E stim a tes
b a s e d on the e sta b lish m en ts studied a r e p r e s e n te d , t h e r e fo r e , as r e ­
latin g to a ll e sta b lish m en ts in the in d u stry grou p in g and a r e a , e x ­
cep t fo r th ose b e lo w the m in im u m s iz e studied.
O ccu p ation s and E arn in gs
The occu p a tio n s s e le c t e d fo r study a r e c o m m o n to a v a r ie ty
o f m a n u fa ctu rin g and n on m an u fa ctu rin g in d u s tr ie s . O ccu p ation a l c l a s ­
s ific a tio n is b a se d on a u n ifo rm set of jo b d e s c r ip tio n s design ed to
take a ccou n t of in te re sta b lish m e n t v a ria tio n in duties w ithin the sa m e
jo b . (See appendix fo r lis tin g o f th ese d e s c r ip tio n s . ) E arn in gs data are
p r e se n te d (in the A - s e r i e s ta b le s ) fo r the fo llo w in g types of o c c u p a ­
tion s: (a) O ffice c le r i c a l; (b) p r o fe s s io n a l and te ch n ica l; (c ) m a in te ­
n an ce and p ow erp lan t; and (d) c u s to d ia l and m a te r ia l m ov em en t.

late sh ifts.
N on produ ction bon u ses a re exclu d ed a ls o , but c o s t - o f liv in g b on u ses and in cen tive earn in g s a re in clu ded .
W here w eek ly
h ou rs a r e r e p o r te d , as fo r o ffic e c le r i c a l o ccu p a tio n s, r e fe r e n c e is
to the w o rk sch ed u les (rounded to the n e a r e s t h alf h ou r) fo r w hich
s tra ig h t-tim e s a la r ie s a r e paid; a v e ra g e w eek ly earn in gs fo r these
o ccu p a tion s have b een rounded to the n e a r e s t h alf d o lla r .
A v e ra g e earn in gs o f m en and w om en a r e p resen ted se p a r a te ly
fo r s e le c te d o ccu p a tion s in w h ich both s e x e s a r e c o m m o n ly e m p loy ed .
D iffe r e n c e s in pay le v e ls o f m en and w om en in th ese occu p a tion s a re
la r g e ly due to ( l ) d iffe r e n c e s in the d istrib u tion of the s e x e s am ong
in d u stries and esta b lis h m e n ts; (2) d iffe r e n c e s in s p e c ific duties p e r ­
fo r m e d , although the occu p a tion s a re a p p ro p r ia te ly c la s s ifie d w ithin
the sa m e su r v e y jo b d e s cr ip tio n ; and (3) d iffe r e n c e s in length of s e r v ­
ic e o r m e r it r e v ie w when in dividu al s a la r ie s a re adju sted on this b a s is .
L on g er a v e ra g e s e r v ic e o f m en w ould r e s u lt in h igh er a v e ra g e pay
when both se x e s a re em p loyed w ithin the sa m e rate ran ge.
Job
d e s c r ip tio n s u sed in c la s s ify in g e m p lo y e e s in these su rv ey s a r e u su ­
a lly m o r e g e n e r a liz e d than th ose u sed in in dividual esta b lish m en ts to
allow fo r m in o r d iffe r e n c e s am ong esta b lish m en ts in s p e c ific duties
p e r fo r m e d .
O ccu p ation a l em p loy m en t estim a tes r e p r e s e n t the total in a ll
esta b lish m en ts w ithin the sc o p e of the study and not the n u m ber a ctu ­
a lly su rv e y e d . B eca u se of d iffe r e n c e s in occu p a tion a l stru ctu re am ong
e s ta b lis h m e n ts, the e stim a tes o f occu p a tion a l em p loym en t obtained
fr o m the sa m p le o f esta b lish m en ts studied s e r v e only to in dicate the
r e la tiv e im p o rta n ce o f the jo b s studied.
T h ese d iffe r e n c e s in o c c u ­
pa tion al s tru ctu re do not m a te r ia lly a ffe c t the a c c u r a c y o f the e a r n ­
ings data.
E sta b lish m en t P r a c t ic e s and Su pplem en tary W age P r o v is io n s

In form ation is p resen ted a ls o (in the B - s e r i e s ta b le s ) on s e ­
le c te d esta b lish m en t p r a c t ic e s and su p p lem en tary b en efits as they r e ­
late to o ffic e and plant w o r k e r s .
The term " o ffic e w o r k e r s , " as u sed
O ccu p a tion a l em p loy m en t and earn in g s data a r e shown fo r
in this b u lletin , in clu d es w ork in g s u p e r v is o r s and n o n s u p e r v is o r y
fu ll-t im e w o r k e r s , i. e. , th ose h ire d to w o rk a re g u la r w eek ly s c h e d ­
w o r k e r s p e r fo r m in g c le r i c a l or rela ted fu n ction s, and ex clu d es a d m in ­
u le in the g iven o ccu p a tio n a l c la s s ific a t io n .
E a rn in gs data ex clu de
is tr a tiv e , e x e cu tiv e , and p r o fe s s io n a l p e r so n n e l. "P la n t w o r k e r s " in ­
p re m iu m pay fo r o v e r tim e and fo r w o rk on w e e k e n d s, h o lid a y s , and
clude w ork in g fo r e m e n and a ll n o n s u p e r v is o r y w o rk e r s (including lea d m en and tr a in e e s ) engaged in n o n o ffic e fu n ction s.
A d m in istra tiv e ,
e
1
R a ilr o a d s , f o r m e r ly e x clu d ed fr o m the s c o p e of th ese stu d ie s,x e cu tiv e , and p r o fe s s io n a l e m p lo y e e s , and fo r c e -a c c o u n t c o n s tru ctio n
e m p lo y e e s who a re u tiliz e d as a sep a ra te w o rk fo r c e a r e ex clu d ed .
w e r e in clu d ed in a ll o f the a r e a s studied sin c e July 1959, e x ce p t B a lti­
C a fe te r ia w o r k e r s and rou tem en a r e ex clu d ed in m a n u factu rin g in du s­
m o r e (S ep tem b er 1959 and D e c e m b e r I9 6 0 ), B u ffalo (O cto b e r 1959^,
t r ie s , but a re in clu ded as plant w o r k e r s in nonm an ufacturin g in d u strie s .
C levela n d (S ep tem b er 1959), and Seattle (A ugust 1959).




2

T ab le 1.

E sta b lish m e n ts and w o r k e r s within scope of su rv e y and num ber studied in T o led o , O hio, 1 by m a jo r in du stry d iv isio n , 2 M a rc h 1961

M in im um
em ploym en t
in e s t a b lis h ­
m en ts in scope
of study

Industry d iv isio n

N u m b er of e sta b lish m e n ts
W ithin
scope of
study 3

W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts
W ithin scope of study

Studied

Studied
Total 4

O ffice

Plant

T otal 4

______________________________________________________

50

298

121

7 8 ,0 0 0

12, 900

4 8 ,8 0 0

55, 590

M anufacturing ____________________________________________________
N onm anufacturing ____________________________________ ____ ______
T ra n sp o rta tio n , c o m m u n ication , and
other public u tilitie s 5 ___ ____ _____________________________
W h o lesa le trade _______________________________________________
R e ta il trade -----------------------------------------------------------------------------F in a n c e, in su r a n ce , and r e a l estate _____________________
S e r v ic e s 7 ______________________________________________________

50
50

140
158

63
58

4 8 ,4 0 0
2 9 ,6 0 0

7, 500
5, 400

31, 800
1 7 ,0 0 0

3 7 ,4 6 0
18, 130

50
50
50
50
50

33
30
49
20
26

17
9
19
5
8

1 0 ,0 0 0
3, 600
10, 700
2, 600
2, 700

1, 800

5, 000

7, 660
1 ,4 6 0
6, 570
1, 270
1, 170

A ll d iv isio n s

( 6)
( 6)
( 6)
( 6)

( 6)
( 6)
( 6)
( 6)

1 The T oled o Standard M e tro p o lita n S ta tistica l A r e a (L u ca s C ounty).
The "w o r k e r s within scope of stu d y " e s tim a te s shown in this table provide a r e a so n a b ly a c cu ra te d e sc r ip tio n o f the siz e
and co m p o sitio n of the la b o r fo r c e in clu d ed in the su rv e y .
The e s tim a te s a re not intended, h ow ever, to s e r v e as a b a s is of c o m p a r iso n with other a rea em p loym en t in dexes to m e a s u r e em ploym en t
trend s or le v e ls sin ce (1) planning of w age su rv e y s r e q u ir e s the u se of e sta b lish m e n t data c o m p iled c o n sid e r a b ly in advance o f the p a y r o ll p eriod studied, and (2) sm a ll e sta b lish m e n ts a re excluded
fr o m the scope o f the su rv e y .
2 The 1957 r e v is e d edition of the Standard In d ustrial C la s s ific a tio n M anual w as u sed in c la s s ify in g e sta b lish m e n ts by in d u stry d iv isio n .
M a jo r chan ges fr o m the e a r lie r edition (u sed in the
B u r e a u 's la b o r m a r k e t wage su rv e y s conducted p r io r to July 1958) a r e the tr a n s fe r of m ilk p a ste u riz a tio n plants and r e a d y -m ix e d c o n c rete e sta b lish m e n ts fr o m trade (w h o lesa le or retail) to m an u ­
fa c tu rin g , and the t r a n s fe r of rad io and te le v is io n b ro a d ca stin g fr o m s e r v ic e s to the tra n sp ortation , c o m m u n ication , and other public u tilitie s d iv isio n .
3 Includes a ll e sta b lish m e n ts with total em p lo y m en t at or above the m in im u m -s iz e lim ita tio n .
A ll ou tlets (w ithin the area) o f c om p an ie s in such in d u str ie s as tra d e , fin a n c e, auto rep a ir s e r v ic e ,
and m o tio n -p ic tu r e th e a te rs are c o n sid e r e d as 1 e sta b lish m e n t.
4

I n c lu d e s e x e c u t iv e ,

p r o fe s s io n a l,

and o th e r w o r k e r s e x c lu d e d fr o m

th e s e p a r a t e o f f i c e a n d p la n t c a t e g o r i e s .

5 T a x ic a b s and s e r v ic e s in cid en tal to w ater tra n sp o rta tio n w ere ex clu d ed .
6 T h is in d u stry d iv isio n is r e p r e se n te d in e s tim a te s fo r " a l l in d u s tr ie s " and "n o n m a n u fa ctu rin g " in the S e r ie s A and B ta b le s .
Sep arate p resen ta tio n of data fo r this d iv isio n is not m ade for
one or m o r e of the follow in g r e a so n s:
(1) E m p lo y m en t in the d iv isio n is too s m a ll to p rovide enough data to m e r it sep arate study, (2) the sam p le w as not d esign ed in itia lly to p e r m it sep arate
p resen tation , (3) r e sp o n se w as in su fficie n t or inadequate to p erm it sep arate p resen tation , (4) there is p o s s ib ility o f d is c lo s u r e of in dividu al e sta b lish m e n t d ata.
7 H o tels; p er so n a l s e r v ic e s ; b u sin e ss s e r v ic e s ; au tom obile re p a ir sh ops; m otion p ic tu r e s; n onprofit m e m b e r sh ip o r g a n iza tio n s; and en gin eerin g and a r c h ite c tu r a l s e r v ic e s .




3
Shift d iffe r e n tia l data (table B - l ) a re lim ite d to m anu factu ring
in d u strie s .
This in form a tion is p r e se n te d both in te r m s o f (a) e s t a b ­
lish m en t p o l i c y , 2 p r e se n te d in te r m s o f total plant w o rk e r e m p lo y ­
m en t, and (b) e ffe c tiv e p r a c t ic e , p r e se n te d on the b a sis o f w o rk e r s
actu a lly em p loy ed on the s p e c ifie d sh ift at the tim e o f the su rv ey .
In estab lish m en ts having v a r ie d d iffe r e n tia ls , the am ount applying to
a m a jo r ity was u sed o r , if no am ount ap p lied to a m a jo r ity , the c l a s ­
sifica tio n " o t h e r " was u sed.
In e sta b lish m en ts in w hich so m e la te sh ift h ours a re p a id at n o rm a l r a te s , a d iffe r e n tia l was r e c o r d e d on ly
if it ap plied to a m a jo r ity o f the sh ift h ou rs.
M inim u m en tran ce rates (table B -2 ) re la te on ly to the e s t a b ­
lish m en ts v is ite d .
T hey a re p r e se n te d on an esta b lish m en t, rath er
than on an em p loym en t b a s is .
P a id h olid a y s ; paid v a c a tio n s ; and
health, in su ra n ce, and p en sion plans a re trea ted s ta t is t ic a lly on the
b a s is that th ese a re a p p lica b le to all plant o r o ffic e w o rk e r s if a m a ­
jo r it y o f such w o rk e r s a re e lig ib le o r m a y even tu ally qu alify fo r the
p r a c t ic e s lis te d . Sch eduled h ours a re trea ted s ta tis tic a lly on the b a sis
that th ese a re a p p lica b le to a ll plant o r o ffic e w o rk e r s if a m a jo r ity
a re c o v e r e d . 3 B e ca u se of. rounding, su m s o f in dividu al item s in th ese
tabulations m a y not equal to ta ls .
The fir s t p a rt o f the pa id h olid a ys ta ble p r e s e n ts the n u m ­
b e r o f w hole and h a lf h olida ys a ctu a lly p r o v id e d .
The se co n d p a rt
com b in es w hole and h alf h olida ys to show total h olid a y t im e .

Data a re p r e s e n te d fo r a ll health, in su ra n ce , and p en sion
plans fo r w hich at le a s t a p a rt o f the c o s t is born e by the e m p lo y e r ,
excep tin g on ly le g a l re q u ire m e n ts su ch as w o rk m e n 's com p en sa tion ,
s o c ia l s e c u r ity , and r a ilr o a d re tir e m e n t. * Such plans in clu d e th ose
u n derw ritten by a c o m m e r c ia l in su ra n ce com pa n y and th ose p r o v id e d
through a union fund o r pa id d ir e c t ly by the e m p lo y e r out o f cu r re n t
op eratin g funds o r fr o m a fund set a sid e f o r this p u rp o s e .
Death
ben efits a r e in clu ded as a fo r m o f life in su ra n ce .
S ick n ess and a ccid e n t in su ra n ce is lim ite d to that type o f in ­
su ra n ce under w hich p r e d e te r m in e d ca sh paym en ts a re m ade d ir e c tly
to the in su red on a w eekly o r m on th ly b a sis du ring illn e s s o r a ccid e n t
d is a b ility .
In form a tion is p r e se n te d f o r a ll su ch plans to w hich the
e m p lo y e r co n trib u te s.
H ow ever, in New Y ork and New J e r s e y , w hich
have en acted te m p o r a r y d is a b ility in su ra n ce law s w hich r e q u ir e e m ­
p lo y e r c o n t r ib u t io n s ,4 plans a r e in clu d ed on ly if the e m p lo y e r (1) c o n ­
trib u tes m o r e than is le g a lly re q u ire d , o r (2) p r o v id e s the em p lo y e e
with ben efits w hich e x c e e d the req u ire m e n ts o f the law . T abulations
o f paid s ic k -le a v e plans a re lim ite d to fo r m a l plans 5 w hich p ro v id e
fu ll pay o r a p r o p o r tio n o f the w o r k e r 's pay du ring a b sen ce fr o m w ork
b e c a u se o f illn e s s .
S eparate tabulations a re p r o v id e d a c c o r d in g to
(1) .plans w hich p r o v id e fu ll pay and no w aiting p e r io d , and (2) plans
p ro v id in g eith er p a rtia l pay o r a w aiting p e r io d .
In addition to the
p resen ta tion o f the p r o p o rtio n s o f w o rk e r s who a re p r o v id e d s ic k n e s s
and a ccid e n t in su ra n ce o r pa id s ic k le a v e , an u nduplicated total is
show n o f w o rk e r s who r e c e iv e eith er o r both types o f b e n e fits.

The su m m a ry o f v a ca tion plans is lim ite d to fo r m a l a r r a n g e ­
m en ts, exclu din g in fo rm a l plans w h ereb y tim e o ff with pay is granted
at the d is c r e tio n o f the e m p lo y e r .
Sep arate e stim a tes a r e p r o v id e d
a c c o r d in g to e m p lo y e r p r a c tic e in com puting v a ca tion p a ym en ts, such
as tim e p a ym en ts, p e r c e n t o f annual e a rn in g s, o r fla t-s u m am oun ts.
H ow ever, in the tabulations o f v a ca tion a llo w a n ce s , paym en ts not on
a tim e b a s is w e re c o n v e rte d ; fo r ex a m p le, a paym en t o f 2 p e r c e n t o f
annual earn in gs was c o n s id e r e d as the equ ivalen t o f 1 w e e k 's pay.

C atastroph e in su ra n ce, so m e tim e s r e fe r r e d to as exten ded
m e d ica l in su ra n ce , in clu d es th ose plans w hich a re d esig n ed to p r o te c t
e m p lo y e e s in c a se o f sick n e s s and in ju ry in volvin g ex p en ses beyon d
the n o rm a l c o v e r a g e o f h osp ita liza tion , m e d ica l, and s u r g ic a l p la n s.
M ed ica l in su ra n ce r e fe r s to plans p rov id in g fo r c o m p le te o r p a rtia l
paym en t o f d octors* fe e s . Such plans m ay be u n derw ritten b y c o m m e r ­
c ia l in su ra n ce com p a n ies o r n on p rofit org a n iz a tion s o r they m a y be
s e lf-in s u r e d . T abulations o f re tir e m e n t p en sion plans a re lim ite d to
th ose plans that p ro v id e m on th ly paym en ts fo r the r e m a in d e r o f the
w o r k e r 's life .

2 An esta b lish m en t was c o n s id e r e d as having a p o lic y if it m et
eith er o f the follow in g con d ition s: (1) O p era ted late sh ifts at the tim e
o f the su rv e y , o r (2) had fo r m a l p r o v is io n s c o v e r in g late sh ifts.
3 S ch eduled w eek ly h ou rs f o r o ffic e w o rk e r s (fir s t se c tio n o f
table B -3 ) in su rv e y s m ade p r io r to Ju ly 1957 w e re p r e s e n te d in
te r m s o f the p r o p o r tio n o f w om en o ffic e w o rk e r s em p lo y e d in o ffic e s
with the in d icated w eek ly h ou rs f o r w om en w o r k e r s .

4 The te m p o ra ry d is a b ility law s in C a lifo rn ia and R hode Islan d
do not re q u ire e m p lo y e r con trib u tion s.
5 An esta b lish m en t w as c o n s id e r e d as having a fo r m a l plan if
it esta b lis h e d at le a st the m in im u m n u m ber o f days o f s ic k le a v e that
cou ld be e x p e cte d by ea ch e m p lo y e e . Such a plan n eed not b e w ritten ,
but in fo rm a l s ic k -le a v e a llo w a n ce s , d e term in ed on an in dividu al b a s is ,
w ere ex clu d ed .




A* Occupational Earnings
Table A-l. Office Occupations
(Average straight-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Toledo, Ohio, March 1961)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—
Sex,

o c c u p a tio n ,

a n d in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n

Number
of
workers

$
$
S
s
S
<
S
$
$
$
S
I
%
$
1
%
%
C
Weekly
4 0 . 00 4 5 . 00 5 0 . 00 5 5 . 00 6 0 . 00 6 5 . 00 7 0 . 00 7 5 . 00 8 0 . 00 8 5 . 00 9 0 . 00 9 5 .0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 . 0 0 n o . oo 1 1 5 . 00 1 2 0 . 0 0 1 2 5 . 0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 . 00
earnings1
an d
(Standard) (Standard) u n d e r
and
4 5 . 00 5 0 . 00 5 5 . 00 6 0 . 00 6 5 . 00 7 0 . 00 7 5 . 00 8 0 . 00 8 5 . 00 9 0 . 00 9 5 . 00 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 n o . oo 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 . 00 1 2 5 . 0 0 1 3 0 . 0 0 1 3 5 . 0 0 o v e r
Weekly

M en
C l e r k s , a c c o u n t in g ,
M a n u fa c t u r in g

c la s s A
_
......

C l e r k s , a c c o u n t in g ,
M a n u fa c t u r in g

c l a s s B _____________
..............

-

-

-

-

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

128
122

39. 5
40. 0

$ 1 1 0 .0 0
1 0 9 .5 0

50
42

39. 5
39. 5

9 5 .0 0
9 8 .0 0

28
28

39. 5
39. 5

8 8 .0 0
8 8 .0 0

41
35

40. 0
40. 0

1 0 3 .5 0
1 0 5 .5 0

O f f i c e b o y s ___________________________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g
N o n m a n u fa c t u r i n g _______________________

56
31
25

39. 5
39. 5
39. 0

6 5 .5 0
6 1 .5 0
7 0 .5 0

T a b u la tin g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c la s s A
..................... ......
M a n u fa c t u r in g

39
34

40. 0
40. 0

1 1 4 .0 0
1 1 4 .5 0

T a b u la tin g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c la s s B
.....
M a n u fa c t u r in g
. . .

44
38

40. 0
40. 0

1 0 0 .0 0
1 0 0 .5 0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c l a s s C ______________________________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g ____________________________

34
25

39. 5
40. 0

8 6 .5 0
8 9 .5 0

-

-

-

-

-

B i l l e r s , m a c h in e ( b i l l i n g m a c h in e )
____
M a n u fa c t u r in g ____________________________

41
26

40. 0
40. 0

6 8 .0 0
6 7 .0 0

.
-

2
2

B i l l e r s , m a c h in e ( b o o k k e e p i n g
m a c h in e )

40

40. 0

6 6 .5 0

-

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c la s s A
.......... ...

45

39. 5

8 2 .5 0

312
56
256

39. 0
40. 0
39. 0

85
35
50

C le r k s , o r d e r
M a n u fa c t u r in g

...........

........

. .

C le r k s , p a y r o ll
M a n u fa c t u r in g

._
_

-

12
12

6
6

47
43

10
10

19
19

13
11

4
4

7
7

1
1

-

-

-

5
1

10
10

13
13

4
4

7
7

1
1

1
1

_

-

1
1

_

-

2
2

_

-

2
2

4

-

-

-

1
1

4
4

2
2

6
6

2
2

5
5

.

5
5

1
1

l
l

.

1
1

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

1
1

_

1
1

9
9

10
9

5
5

l

_

-

-

2
2

_

-

6
2

3
3

2
2

2
8
--------T ~ ------ 1
1
6

3
3

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.

_

.

_

-

1
1

11
10
1

7
5
2

6
4
2

5
3
2

11
5
6

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

2
2

-

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

1
1

-

-

_

_

6
6

3
1
2

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

5
4

6
2

8
8

7
7

5
5

2
2

_

-

-

-

2
2

5
4

6
6

10
6

7
7

7
7

2
2

1
1

1
1

-

-

1
1

1

-

-

1
1

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

4

-

-

-

-

5
2

3
3

11
10

6
6

3
2

-

6
4

1
1

14
6

1
1

5
3

4
4

4
4

1
1

_

3

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

15

9

2

7

-

-

1

1

-

-

1

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

2

3

4

5

11

7

10

2

1

-

-

-

_

6 2 .0 0
7 3 .0 0
5 9 .5 0

36
36

16
16

40
3
37

45
4
41

65
ll
54

29
10
19

26
2
24

28
9
19

11
7
4

9
4
5

1
1

3
2
1

3
3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

38. 0
39. 5
37. 0

9 4 .5 0
1 0 0 .5 0
9 0 .5 0

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

5
5

1
1

13
3
10

_

_

-

-

-

12
1
11

8
8

-

11
9
2

1
1

-

11
2
9

_
-

-

10
3
7

1
1

-

10
10

1
1

-

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

284
T09
175

39. 5
3 9 .5
39. 5

7 3 .0 0
7 7 .5 0
7 0 .5 0

_
-

_
-

68
19
49

56
16
40

46
12
34

37
12
25

17
ll
6

21
13
8

21
19
2

9
1
8

_
-

1
1

_
-

1
1

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

5
3
2

_
-

-

2
1
1

-

-

-

-

43
30

39. 5
40. 0

7 3 .0 0
7 3 .5 0

_

2

_

4

3

1

12

1

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

1

11

2
2

_

3

5
5

13

2

-

W om en

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c l a s s B ______________________________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g ___________________________
N o n m a n u fa c t u r i n g
C l e r k s , a c c o u n t in g , c l a s s A
M a n u fa c t u r in g
N o n m a n u fa c t u r i n g
_

______

C l e r k s , a c c o u n t in g , c l a s s B
M a n u fa c t u r in g ___________________________
N o n m a n u fa c t u r i n g
_ _
______
C le r k s , file , c la s s A
M a n u fa c t u r in g




.

............
. .

See footnote at end of table.

6

‘

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

5
Table A-1. Office Occupatbns-Continued
( A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e w e e k l y h o u r s a n d e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s t u d ie d o n a n a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d iv i s i o n , T o le d o , O h io , M a r c h 1961)
A verage

S e x , o c c u p a t io n , a n d in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n

Number
of
workers

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

S
Weekly,
hours
(Standard!

Weekly j
earnings
(Standard)

4 5 . 00

$
4 5 . 00

$
5 0 . 00

$
55. 00

-

4 0 . 00

“

“

50. 00

5 5. 00

6 0 . 00

$
6 0 . 00

$
6 5 . 00

$
7 0 . 00

"
6 5 . 00

$
7 5 . 00

$
!$
$
8 0 . 00 8 5 . 00

90. 0 0

~

7 0 . 00

7 5 . 00

8 0 . 00

8 5 . 00

90. 0 0

”

$

$
9 5 .0 0

$

"

9 5. 00

$

$

$

$

100.00 1 0 5 . 0 0 110.00 1 1 5 . 0 0 120.00 1 2 5 . 0 0

$
$
1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 .0 0

"

100.00 1 0 5 . 0 0 110.00 1 1 5 . 0 0 120.00 1 2 5 . 0 0

1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 .0 0

and
over

W o m e n — C o n t in u e d

C le r k s, f ile , c la ss B ____________________
Manufacturing __________________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________

126
36
90

39. 5
39. 5
39. 5

C le r k s , order _____________________________
Manufacturing __________________________

83
63

C lerk s , p ayroll ___________________________
Manufacturing __________________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________

147
97
50

C om ptom eter operators __________________
Manufacturing __________________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________

132
70
62

39. 5
40. 0
39. 0

Keypunch op erators ______________________
Manufacturing __________________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________

171
134

39. 5
40. 0

37

39. 5

7 9. 00
7 0. 00

Office girls ________________________________
Manufacturing __________________________

48
30

39. 5
39. 5

5 8 . 50
5 8 . 50

S ecretaries ________________________________
Manufacturing __________________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________
Public u tilities 2 ___________________

723
577

39. 5
40. 0

99. 0 0
102. 0 0

146
53

39. 0
38. 5

8 7. 00
8 4 . 00

S te n ograp h ers, general __________________
Manufacturing _________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________
Public u tilities 2 ___________________

438
310
128
41

39. 5
40. 0

78.
79.
77.
.

Stenograph ers, technical _________________
Manufacturing _________________________

11
2
119

26
5

23

40

59. 00
6 4 . 50
56. 50

-

2
1

40. 0
40. 0

7 3. 00
7 4 . 50

_

_

-

40. 0
40. 0

7 7 . 00
8 0 . 00

-

-

4

1
1
1
0
1
0
6

40. 0

7 1 . 50

-

-

-

4

7 4 . 50
7 8. 00

_
-

_
-

_
-

70 . 00

-

-

-

2
1
5
1
6

7 7. 00

.
-

_
-

3

4

-

1

-

-

3

3

_

_

-

“

2
1
1
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1
1
0
1
1

-

"

-

“

-

-

6
5
1

39. 5
40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

$

50
00
00
00

92
86. 5 0
86. 0 0

-

1
2
2
7
7
4

9
31

2
1
4
17

5

14

2

16

8
8
1
0
4

1
6
6
1
0
2
30
28

2
-

-

2
0
14
6
4

15

8

27

2
0

-

"

.

_

29

1
1

17

-

1
1

34

-

3
3

18

2

4

2

1
2

3

2

3

14
14

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
2
1
2

4
4

_
-

1
1

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

22

2

2
“
13
13

1
2

15

_

5

5

1
0

18

6
5
1
1
1
2

4

2

6
4

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

_

_

-

-

-

“

-

-

-

-

-

96

73

47
43
4

25
24

42

22

1

8
8
15
7

-

8
6
1
0
4

-

5
4

2
2
-

-

2

1
1

-

1
0
9
1

-

1

42

-

17

31

17

31

-

-

-

-

-

2
-

2
2
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

17
5
5

32
15
17
14

19
19

24
24

15
15

2
2

1
1
1
1

-

-

-

-

34

15

4
3

2
2
-

-

_
-

-

1
1

- '
-

18

1
1
7
7

-

24

3

1

2
2
-

-

-

22

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

14

4
4

7
7

3

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.

_

_

1
0

1
2

9
5

2

7

2

5

6

2

1

5
5

7

-

5
7

11

1
0

1
1

71

-

68. 0 0

_
-

29
5

-

64. 50

_
-

60
31

2

39. 0

-

2
2

22
-

8
6

-

1
1
-

70
48

25
25

_
-

-

2

23
23

-

-

4
31
27
4

_
-

-

2
2

9

6
6
55
1
1
8

_

■-

-

22

1
2
1

_

-

-

1
1

-

59

_

-

-

-

19

2

1
1

-

2
2

70
51

1
6

7
7

-

-

13

13
3

40. 0

-

-

-

53

-

54
38

6

_
-

7

2
2

40

7

2

1
1

7
13

_
-

7
3

1
2
1
0
1
0

63

2

75. 50

-

1
0

1
1

-

“

3

47

3

40. 0

2
2
0

13

-

51

9
7

78

3

T r a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,

7

65

-

T a b u la tin g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c la s s C
______________________________

1
1

22

9

_

18

52

-

_

13

1
2
1

_

30

3

_

-

7

71. 00
8 5 . 00

_

2
2

13

8
6

15

_

9

_

_

-

86. 0 0

8

_

8

7

39. 0

3
3

30
24

"

28

17

1
0

28
25
3

5

T abulating-m achine o p era to rs,
c la ss B
___________________________________

-

17
17

-

"

-

36
28

3

"

“

5

-

-

-

4

9

39. 5

-

1
2

3

13

3
3

5

7 7 . 00
8 4 . 50

-

6
2
4

2
2

6
6
1
2
1
1
1
1

-

1

15

2
14

5
4

16

3
3

59




14

23

"

7 1 . 00
7 3 . 50
6 7 . 50

S e e f o o t n o t e s a t e n d o f t a b le ,

7

8

7
7

-

39. 5
40. 0

____________________

9

1
1

6

2

-

149
90

M a n u fa c t u r in g

17

14

7

5
3

.

Switchboard op era to r-rec ep tio n ists ----Manufacturing __________________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________

29

25

7
4

-

126
56
70

5
5
5
0

1
1

-

Switchboard op erators ___________________
Manufacturing _________________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________
Public u tilities 2 ___________________

39.
39.
39.
40.

6
5
1
1
2
2

4
4

-

1

1

-

_
1

_

_

6
Table A-l. Office Occupations-Continued
(A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d o n an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n , T o le d o , O h io, M a r c h 1961)
A verage
Number
of
workers

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIM E W E E KLY EARNINGS OF—

o c c u p a tio n ,

a n d in d u s t r y d iv i s i o n

L.

5
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
9 5 . 0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 1 2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 .0 0
_
and
9 0 . 00 3 5 . 00 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 1 2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 .0 0 o v e r
1
1

$

$

$

$

S

$

S

$

$

Weekly
4 0 . 00
earnings 1 a n d
(Standard) u n d e r

4 5 . 00

5 0 . 00

5 5 . 00

60. 00

65 . 00

7 0 . 00

7 5 . 00

8 0 . 00

8 5 . 00

9 0 . 00

4 5 . 00

S ex,

$

5 0 . 00

$
Weekly
hours 1
(Standard)

-

-

-

5 5 . 00

6 0 . 00

65. 00

-

-

-

7 0 . 00

;

7 5 . 00

8 0 . 0 0 '8 5 . 00

W o m e n — C o n tin u e d
T y p i s t s , c l a s s A _________________ ___________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________
T y p i s t s , c l a s s B _____________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 2 ____________________

312
208
104
2 21
97
124
43

39. 0
39. 5
37. 5
39.
39.
38.
40.

0
5
5
0

_

$ 7 6 .5 0
: 7 7 .5 0
7 4 . 00

-

j --------1--- !
-

!

_
-

;

1

-

____ L i _

-

6 4 . 50
1 6 4 .0 0
6 4 . 50
7 1 .0 0

-

i
_

10

i

;
1

2

1

2
2

!

;

L

1
2

L -jz .J 1
!
1 27
15
2

i _____i
_

24
12

1
6

72
37
35

5
3
2
1

32
16

97
76
21

7 3 -.

i
1

51
24

11
6
5

[ - . 4 8 .. |
I
7
41

23
10
13
1

26
12
14
4
4

1

i
'

31
22
9

!

3
3

i

;

1

-

34

21
16
5

_

2
1
1

j

1
1

!

-

-

.

-

I

_

_

i

_
_

!

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

!

.

-

_

-

j

'

3
3
3

■

.
_
_

1

_
_

I

I

|

U

________ —

1
r j

j

--------------i

1 S ta n d a rd h o u r s r e f l e c t the w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e i v e t h e ir r e g u la r s t r a ig h t - t im e s a la r i e s and the e a r n in g s c o r r e s p o n d to t h e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .
2 T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o t h e r p u b lic u t il it i e s .

Table A -2. Professional and Technical Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d o n an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n , T o le d o , O h io, M a r c h 1961)
A verage

Sex,

o c c u p a t io n ,

a n d in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n

Number
of
workers

NUM BER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIM E W E E KLY EARNINGS OF—
$

Weekly
hours 1
(Standard)

Weekly
earnings1
(Standard)

$

$

$

$

65. 00
and
under
7 0 . 00

7 0 . 00

7 5 . 00

8 0 . 00

8 5 . 00

9 0 . 00

-

-

-

-

$
-

7 5 . 00

8 0 . 00

8 5 . 00

9 0 . 00

9 5 . 00

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
9 5 . 00 1 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 5 . 0 0 1 1 0 . 0 0 1 1 5 . 0 0 1 2 0 . 0 0 1 2 5 . 0 0 1 3 0 . 0 0
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

$

$

$

$

1 3 5 . 0 0 1 4 0 . 0 0 1 4 5 . 0 0 1 5 0 . 00
-

-

and

1 5 0 . 00

over

-

1 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 5 . 0 0 n o . oo 1 1 5 . 0 0 1 2 0 . 0 0 1 2 5 . 0 0 1 3 0 . 0 0 1 3 5 . 0 0 1 4 0 . 0 0 1 4 5 . 0 0

M en
D r a f t s m e n , s e n i o r ---------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------------------------------------------------------------

170
167

40. 0
40. 0

$ 1 2 7 .0 0
1 2 6 .5 0

D r a f t s m e n , j u n i o r ______________________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________________________________

107
105

40. 0
40. 0

1 0 9 .0 0
1 0 8 .5 0

50
46

40. 0
40. 0

9 7 . 50
9 9 . 00

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

2
2

3
3

6
6

4
4

12
12

19
19

27
27

9
9

16
16

6
6

12
12

18
18

27
25

28
8

10
10

_

6
6

6
6

4
4

1
1

4
4

11
11

_

1
1

41
41

1
1

_

4

4
4

_

-

4
4

6

-

-

-

3

_

4
4

6
6

14
14

1

7
7

5
5

5
5

1

3
3

1
1

_

_

_

_

1

W om en
N u r s e s , i n d u s t r i a l ( r e g i s t e r e d ) ____________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________________________________

1
2

_

S ta n d a rd h o u r s r e f l e c t the w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e i v e t h e ir r e g u la r s t r a ig h t - t im e s a la r i e s and the e a r n in g s c o r r e s p o n d to th e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .
In c lu d e s 1 w o r k e r at $ 6 0 to $ 6 5 .




9

8

7
Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
( A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r m e n in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d o n a n a r e a b a s is
b y i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , T o l e d o , O h io , M a r c h 1 9 6 1 )

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
O c c u p a t io n and in d u s t r y d i v is i o n

___ __
C a r p e n t e r s , m a in t e n a n c e
________
M a n u fa ctu r in g ...............................................................

Number
of
workers

68
48

$
Average
$
hourly , Unde r 1 .8 0
1 .9 0
earnings
and
$
under
1. 80
2. 00
1 .9 0

$ 2 .9 9
3. 12

E l e c t r i c i a n s , m a in te n a n c e ______________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g .............................................. ................
N on m a n u fa c tu rin g ......................................................
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 2 ____________________________

386
316
70
60

3.
3.
3.
3.

E n g in e e r s , s t a t io n a r y ...................................................
M a n u fa ctu r in g ......... .....................................................

100
73

3. 08
3. 15

12
09
26
35

$
2. 00

S
2. 10

$
2. 20

2. 10

2. 20

2 ,3 0

____3 _ J
“
1
1
-

-

-

-

"

_

_

“

“

1
1

5
----- 5-----

1
1

.

~

4
“

1

,
1

1
1

2
2
_

|

15
8

12 1

3

12!

2

■ ;

"

23 |
23 1
-

15
13
2
-

_

4
4

1
1

21
15

8
8

:

3. 30 _3 . 40

$
3. 40

$
3. 50

$
3. 60

$
3. 70

3. 50_ „ 3 . 60

3 .7 0

3. 80

$
3. 80
and
q ve r_

“

12
12

"

■

-

-

27
27
27 -----27
-

20
20
-

1
1
-

4
4
-

-

-

25
1
24
24

-

_

11

10
9

j
1

3
3

3
1

l
l

5

7
4

13
10

13
1

19
7

28
28

_

17
17

29
15

5
5

.

'

1

11
2

1
1

5
5

3
3

25
25

72
72

-

-

"

"

-

-

"

-

3
3

15
12

-

4
4

-

-

8
8

27
27

101
101

46
46

2
2

2
2

-

-

3
3

_

_

_

_

25
25

2
2

6
6

1
1

17
12

41
41

36
36

21
21

9
9

_

_

_

-

_

6
'

3

10
9
l
1

i
;

5

i
|

1

“

J

20
15
5 1
3

20 ! 181
17 | 151
30
3 !
1
30

$
3. 30

" 1
1
1

-

1

7
4

$
3. 20

4
4

-

-

“

$
1
2. 50 $2. 60

$
$
!$
$
2. 70
2. 80 ! 2. 90 *3. 00
3. 10
!
i
1
.
_2. 40 | 2. 50 . 2. 60 j 2. 70 1 2. 80 j 2, 90 j 3. 00 1„ 3. 1 0 . 3. 20
|
j

1

■

-

$
1$
2. 30
2. 40

"

-

17
14

_

8
4

8
8

_

.

.

.

-

.

-

8

-

"

j

8
8

F ir e m e n , s t a t io n a r y b o i l e r _____________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g ..............................................................

180
129

2. 53
2. 50

3 23
20

H e lp e r s , t r a d e s , m a in te n a n c e __________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g __________________________________

137
117

2. 66
2. 73

2
2

_____ ______
M a c h i n e -t o o l o p e r a t o r s , t o o l r o o m
M a n u fa ctu r in g ____________________________ _____

208
205

3. 16
3. 17

-

-

-

"

M a c h in is t s , m a in te n a n c e ________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g __________________________________

185
176

3. 11
3. 12

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

24
20

-

-

M e c h a n ic s , a u t o m o tiv e (m a in te n a n ce ) ________
M a n u fa ctu r in g ...............................................................
N on m a n u fa c tu rin g _____________________________
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 2 ___________________________

260
96
164
131

2.
2.
2.
2.

83
98
74
76

3
3
-

1
1
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

13
13
13

18
2
16
16

5
5
5

19
4
15
9

9
2
7
7

78
50
28

8

76
76
73

21
21
-

5
5
-

2
2
-

_
-

1
1
-

_
-

_
-

9
9
-

_
-

M e c h a n ic s , m a in te n a n c e _________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g __________________________________

405
384

3. 02
3. 02

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

~

“

"

20
20

32
32

16
16

2
1

28
25

153
137

8
7

61
61

6
6

58
58

4
4

_

"

15
15

2
2

-

M illw r ig h t s ________________________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g ------------- --------------------------------------

322
jn —

2 .9 3
2 .9 3

1
1

11
— n

2
2

1
"

9
9

33
33

11
11

38
38

15
15

136
136

38
38

27
27

-

-

O il e r s _________ _____________________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g __________________________________

56
55

2. 52
2 .5 2

1
1

1
1

4
4

1
-

6
6

32
32

4
4

6
6

-

-

-

-

"

"

-

P a in t e r s , m a in te n a n c e ___________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g ____________ _____________________

53
40

2. 84
2 .9 9

2

2

5

.

_

1
1

6
5

1
1

8
8

3
1

8
8

6
5

10
10

1
1

.

P ip e fit t e r s , m a in te n a n ce ________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g __________________________________

142
130

3. 09
3. 09

20
20

1
1

1
"

7
5

58
49

“

26
26

-

29
29

"

"

T o o l and d ie m a k e r s _____________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g __________________________________

688
688

3. 32
3. 32

13
13

6
6

35
35

20
20

37
37

48
48

301
301

108
108

48
48

68
68

1
2
3

1
1

7
7

6
6

-

-

4
~
10
6

.

"

-

-

1
1

-

-

■

.
.

_

.

.

_

.

-

-

.

"

.

-

_

"

-

"

“

.

_

E x c l u d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e an d f o r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s , h o li d a y s , an d la t e s h ift s .
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , an d o t h e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .
W o r k e r s w e r e d is tr ib u te d a s f o l l o w s : 20 at $ 1 .6 0 to $ 1 .7 0 ; 3 at $ 1 .7 0 to $ 1 .8 0 .




8

4
4

_

.

.

_

_

-

-

-

-

“

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

8
Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(A verage stra ig h t-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area b asis
by industry division, Toledo, Ohio, M arch 1961)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIM E HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

O ccupation1 and industry division

Num
ber
of
w
orkers

$
Average $
hourly
1 .0 0
1. 10
earnings 2 and
under
1. 10
1. 20

E levator op erators, p assen ger (women) ______
Manufacturing _________________________________

38
33

$ 1 .5 2
1 .4 8

_

Guards ______________________________________________
Manufacturing _________________________________

813
239

1 .9 4
2 .4 1

"

Janitors, p o rte rs, and c lean ers (men) ________
Manufacturing -------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing _____________________________
Public u tilities 3 -----------------------------------------

942
696
246
64

2. 04
2. 12
1 .8 1
2. 12

8
8

Janitors, p o r te r s, and c lean ers (women) ____
Manufacturing _________________________________
Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------------------

166
84
82

1 .6 9
1 .8 8
1. 50

12
12

L a b o r e rs, m aterial handling ___________________
Manufacturing _________________________________
Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------------------Public u tilities 3 -----------------------------------------

1. 218
783
435
196

2.
2.
2.
2.

34
29
42
63

"

$
1 .2 0

$
1. 30

$
1 .4 0

$
1 .5 0

$
1 .6 0

$
1 .7 0

$
1 .8 0

$
1. 90

$
2. 00

$
2. 10

$
2. 20

$
2. 30

$
2. 40

$
2. 50

$
2. 60

$
2. 70

$
2. 80

$
2. 90

$
3. 00

$
3. 10

1. 30

1 .4 0

1. 50

1 .6 0

1 .7 0

1 .8 0

1 .9 0

2. 00

2. 10

2. 20

2 .3 0

2 .4 0

2. 50

2. 60

2. 70

2 .8 0

2 .9 0

3 .0 0

3. 10

and
over

"

“

-

-

-

-

34
4

19
19

26
1
25
_

_

"

7
7

21
21

"

56
"

48

57

"

"

48
37
11

“

10
2
8
1

4
2
2

14
13
1

9
2
7

4

6
5

1

47
7

224
-

92
3

"

56
13
43
-

35
27
8
1

31
31

36
15
21

3
3

3

41
27
14
"

9
9
-

8

“

"

■

-

-

-

-

6
6
-

-

-

4

"

"

"

"

3
"

35
28
7

3
“

“

12
10

9
8

2
“

105
85

15
10

7
7

23
23

63
63

67
60
7
1

44
26
18
12

85
65
20
7

65
25
40
23

179
168
11
11

174
151
23
2

92
90
2

6
_
6
6

3
1
2

-

_
-

"

“

“

9
3
6

10
10

-

6
2
4

30
30

5
5

-

-

-

-

“

6
4
2

'

"

"

"

"

8

27
21
6
2

69
40
29
“

81
41
40
14

106
58
48
42

340
323
17
17

146
58
88
■

61
28
33

138
125
13

-

90
90
"

35
35

49
11
38

48
32
16

-

"

-

134
134

38
34
4

49
49
“

78
78

-

”

“

-

44
36
8

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

.
-

.
-

■

"

13
10
3

-

-

-

-

■

■

_

"

-

1
1
-

■

-

121
121
121

-

"

1
Order f ille r s _______________________________________
Manufacturing -------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------------------

320
191
129

2 .4 3
2. 51
2. 32

P a c k e rs, shipping (men) ________________________
Manufacturing -------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing _____ _______________________

405
347
58

2. 36
2. 41
2. 01

30

85
48
37

2 .4 0
2 .4 7
2. 32

-

-

12
1

■

"

1
1

-

-

-

4
4

2
2

"

Shipping c lerk s -----------------------------------------------------Manufacturing _________________________________

86
76

2. 41
2. 45

Shipping and receiving clerk s ---------------------------Manufacturing --------------------------------------------------

92
83

2 .4 6
2 .4 5

See footnotes at end of table




1
1

4
4

12
2
10

9
9
~

“

6
6

6
6

29
29

'

-

11
11

_

1
1

“

-

24
10
14

47
11
36

“

'

-

-

-

'

"

-

-

2
2

"

-

-

“

-

_

■

■

10

11

5

-

1
1

-

5
5

-

-

6
6

-

-

"

-

3
3
”

8
1
7

4
1
3

14
14

"

"

13
6
7

14
3
11

9
7
2

3
3
"

2
2

■

1
1

9
4

6
3

1
1

■

3
2

12
12

27
26

8
8

5
5

6
6

6
6

9
9

1
1

7
5

17
17

4
4

22
16

13
12

“

'

'

1
1

3
3

4 36
36

■

2

1 .5 8

Receiving clerk s ---------------------------------------------------Manufacturing _________________________________
Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------------------

"

"
P a c k e rs, shipping (women) --------------------------------

~

-

"

2

~

3
3
_

-

2
2

-

7
7

-

2
2

4
4

9

Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations-Continued
(A verage stra igh t-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area b asis
by industry d ivision, Toledo, Ohio, M arch 1961)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
hourly ,

$
1 .0 0

$
1. 10

$
1. 20

$
1 .3 0

$
1 .4 0

$
1. 50

$
1. 60

$
1 .7 0

$
1 .8 0

$
1 .9 0

$
2. 00

$
2. 10

$
2. 20

$
2. 30

$
2. 40

under
1. 10

O ccupation1 and industry d ivision

of

1. 20

1 .3 0

1 .4 0

-

1 .6 0

1 .7 0

1 .8 0

1 .9 0

2 .0 0

2. 10

2. 20

-

-

2. 30

2. 40

2. 50

1
1
-

9
2
7

6

2
2

29
18
11
6

14
4
10

69
47
22
22

82
25
57
47

74
34
40

45
11
34

“

■

12
2
10

20
20

28
7
21

12

"

8
1
7

12

"

10
10

2
2

22

-

22
22

48
12
36
26

22
14
8

22
1
21

26
22
4

12
12

1. 50

T r u c k d r iv e r s5 ____________________________________
Manufacturing _________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------------Public u tilities 3 -----------------------------------------

1. 165
486
679
237

$2. 68
2 .6 6
2. 69
2. 75

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

“

-

■

"

-

“

"

“

“

'

T ru ck d rivers, light (under 1V 2 tons) --------Manufacturing --------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------------

134
55
79

2. 26
2. 17
2. 33

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6
1
5

29
22
7

-

■

9
2
7

T ru ck d rivers, m edium ( I V 2 to
and including 4 tons) ---------------------------------------------Manufacturing _____________________________
Nonmanufacturing -----------------------------------------------Public u tilit ie s 3 _____________________________

238
107
131
86

2.
2.
2.
2.

67
74
61
64

T ru ck d rivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
tra iler type) -----------------------------------------------------------------Manufacturing _____________________________________
Nonmanufacturing _______________________________
Public u tilit ie s 3 _____________________________

412
46
366
124

2.
2.
2.
2.

77
54
80
89

T ru ck ers, power (forklift) ______________________
Manufacturing _________________________________________

408
322

2. 38
2. 33

________

25

2. 37

Watchmen __________________________________________
Manufacturing --------------------------------------------------

71
50

2. 09
2. 25

T ru ck ers, power (other than forklift)

■

_

_

"

■

"

-

■

1

5

31
24
7

_

_

_

_

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

"

"

~

"

'

■

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

2

-

1
1

-

-

"

"

■

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

"

“

-

5

6
3

1

3

17
17

2

_
-

2
2

-

-

-

6
6

14
9

4
4

_
-

14
14

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

$
2. 60
-

60

70

-

17
10
7

80

250
22
228

150
-

150

1
1

10
9

-

“

-

-

“

-

-

46
46

38
38

46
46

45
45

130
74

54
29

8
8

3

3

15
13

4
3

2

8

15
15

3

$
2. 80

$
2. 90

-

'

"

-

$
2. 70

9

1 Data lim ited to m en w orkers except where otherw ise indicated.
2 E xcludes p rem iu m pay for overtim e and for w ork on weekends, h olidays, and late sh ifts.
3 Transportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities.
4 A ll w ork ers w ere at $ 3 . 10 to $ 3 . 2 0 .
5 Includes all d riv ers r eg a r d le ss of size and type of truck operated.




-

$
2. 50

4
4

-

$
3. 00
-

$
3. 10
and

?. Q
O

8 00

492
236
256
162

56
56
-

5
5
-

-

“

■

-

-

-

-

■

"

-

43
43

_

_

-

-

-

-

■

49
11
38
38

214
5
209
124

'

5 10

"

_

hvp r
*

■

_

-

5
5

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

10




B : Establishment Practices and Supplem entary W age Provisions
Table B-l. Shift Differentials
(Shift d iffe r e n tia ls o f m a n u fa c tu r in g p lant w o r k e r s by type and am ou nt o f d if f e r e n t ia l,
T o le d o , O h io , M a r c h 1961)
P e r c e n t o f m a n u fa c tu r in g p lant w o r k e r s —
In e s t a b lis h m e n ts h avin g fo r m a l
p r o v is io n s 1 fo r —

Shift d iffe r e n tia l

S econ d sh ift
w ork

T h ir d or oth er
sh ift w ork

A c t u a lly w o rk in g on—

S econ d sh ift

T h ir d or oth e r
sh ift

94. 1

9 0 . 0

14. 3

4 .4

_________________________

92. 8

9 0 . 0

13. 8

4 .4

U n ifo r m c en ts (p er hour) _______________________

8 5 .4

80. 7

13. 5

4. 3

2.
2.
.
.
3.
1.
1.
.
.
-

(2 )

T o ta l

_____________________________________________________

W ith sh ift p ay d iffe r e n tia l

5 c en ts
__________________________________________
6 cen ts
__________________________________________
6 V 2 cen ts _______________________________________
7 c en ts
__________________________________________
7 V 2 c e n ts ----------------------------------------------------------8 c en ts
__________________________________________
9 c en ts
10 c e n ts _________________________________________
12 c en ts _________________________________________
I 2 V 2 c en ts
_____________________________________
16 c en ts _________________________________________
18 cen ts _________________________________________
2 9 V3
c e n ts
--------------------------------------------------------

10.
9.
1.
3.
27 .
11.
5.
10.
3.
1.
-

3
8
8
3
2
2
8
7
7

4. 2
-

2. 3
11. 1
2. 8
10. 2
27 . 2
13. 8
.4
4. 9
2. 1
1. 7

0
7
3
3
8
7

. 2
-

-

(2 )
1. 7
. 1
1. 1
. 8
. 1
. 2

_____________________________

6. 1

6. 1

-

-

5 p e r c e n t _______________________________________
10 p e r c e n t ______________________________________
15 p e r c e n t ______________________________________

5. 5
. 6
-

5. 5
. 6

"

-

_________________

1. 3

3. 1

.4

. 2

___________________________

1. 3

U n ifo r m p e r c e n ta g e

O th e r f o r m a l p ay d iffe r e n tia l
No sh ift p ay d iffe r e n tia l

7

-

1 In c lu d es e s t a b lis h m e n ts c u r r e n tly o p e r a tin g la te s h ift s ,
ev en though th e y w e r e not c u r r e n tly o p e r a tin g la te s h ift s .
2 L e s s than 0. 05 p e r c e n t.

8
8
2

. 5

and e s t a b lis h m e n ts w ith f o r m a l p r o v is io n s

c o v e r in g la te

sh ifts

11
Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salaries for W omen O ffice W orkers
(D istrib u tion of e sta b lish m e n ts studied in a ll in d u strie s and in in du stry d iv ision s by m in im u m en tran ce sa la r y for se le c te d c a te g o r ie s
of in exp erien ced w om en office w o rk ers , T o le d o , O h io, M a rc h 1961)
Other in exp erien ced c le r ic a l w o r k e r s

In exp erien ced typ ists

M in im u m w ee k ly sa la r y 1

A ll
in d u strie s

$

62 .

$65.
$ 67.
$ 70.
$ 72 .
$ 75 .
$ 77.

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

A ll
sch edu les

37 Vz

A ll
sch ed u les

40

62

XXX

XXX

59

XX X

4

25

16

5

9

2

2
1
4
1
1
1
2
2

1
1

-

-

3
1

1

-

-

1
1
1

37 Vz

1

2

A ll
sch edu les

57

1

$ 4 2 . 50
$ 4 5 . 00
$ 4 7 . 50
$ 5 0 .0 0
$ 52. 50
$ 55. 00
$ 57. 50
$ 6 0 .0 0
$ 62. 50
$ 65 . 00
$ 67 . 50
$ 7 0 .0 0
$ 7 2 . 50
$ 7 5 . 00
$ 77. 50
$ 8 0 .0 0

37 V2

XXX

30

4

E sta b lish m e n ts having a sp e c ifie d m in im u m
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

40

46

E sta b lish m e n ts studied

00
50
00
50
00
50
00
50
00
50
00
50
00
50
00
50

37 Vz

N onm an ufactu ring

B a sed on standard w eekly h ours 3 of—

A ll
in d u strie s

B a sed on standard w eekly hours 3 of—
A ll
sch edu les

$40.
$42.
$45.
$47.
$ 50.
$ 52.
$ 55.
$ 57.
$60.

M anufacturing

N on m anufacturing

M anufacturing

59

-

1

-

-

-

7

3
7
3
5
3
3
1

1
2

2
5
3
5
3
1
1

8
4

6
5
5
1
1
1

1
1

-

1

1
1

1
2

3

11
7
7
5
4
4
4

1

1
1
1

1
1

21

10

XXX

XXX

11

XXX

XXX

24

13

11

XXX

54

E sta b lish m e n ts having no sp e c ifie d m in im u m
E sta b lish m e n ts w hich did not em p lo y w o rk ers
in this c a te g o r y
__________________________________

22

XXX

XXX

32

XXX

XXX

40

16

24

XXX

1 L o w e st s a la r y rate fo r m a lly esta b lish ed for h irin g in exp erien ced w o rk ers for typing or other c le r ic a l jo b s .
2 R ates ap plicab le to m e s s e n g e r s , o ffic e g i r ls , or s im ila r s u b c le r ic a l job s are not c o n sid ere d .
3 H ou rs r e fle c t the w orkw eek for w hich e m p lo y ee s r e c e iv e their r eg u la r s t r a ig h t-tim e s a la r ie s .
Data are p resen ted for a ll w orkw eeks c om b in e d , and for the m o s t com m on w orkw eeks

rep orted .

Table B-3. Scheduled W eek ly Hours
(P e r c e n t d istrib u tion of o ffic e and plant w o rk ers in a ll in d u strie s and in in du stry d iv isio n s by schedu led w eekly h ours
of f i r s t - s h i f t w o r k e r s , T o le d o , O h io, M a rc h 1961)
PLAN T W O RK ERS

O F FIC E W O R K E R S

W e e k ly h ours
All industries *

A ll w o rk ers

-------------------------------------------------------------

Under 37 Vz h ours --------------------- ------------------------37 V z h ours
--------- -----------------------------------------------O ver 37 V 2 and under 40 h ours _________________
40 h ours ____________________________________________
O ver 40 and under 44 h ours ____________________
44 and under 4 8 h ou rs ------------------------------------ —
48 h ours and o v e r
------------------- -------------------------

100
1
11

2
84
(4 )
1
"

M anufacturing

100

_
7
3
89
(4 )

Public utilities2

100

All industries3

M anufacturing

100
1

(4 )

-

2

2

-

100
_
-

-

-

97

92

94

-

1

1

100
-

-

2

3

-

(4 )

1

1 Includes data fo r w h o lesa le tra d e ; r e ta il tra d e ; fin a n c e , in su r a n c e , and r e a l e sta te ; and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in du stry d iv isio n s shown se p a r a te ly .
2 T r a n sp o r ta tio n , co m m u n ic a tio n , and other public u tilitie s .
3 Includes data fo r w h o lesa le tra d e , r e ta il tr a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in du stry d iv isio n s shown s e p a r a te ly .
4
L e s s than 0. 5 p e r c e n t.




100

3

Public utilities2

-

12
Table B~4. Paid Holidays
(P e r c e n t d istrib u tion of o ffic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u str ie s and in in d u stry d iv isio n s by num b er o f paid holid ays
p rovided annually, T o led o , O hio, M a r c h 1961)
P LAN T W O RK ERS

OFFICE WORKERS

Item
All industries

A ll w o r k e r s

-------------------------------------------------------------

W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts providin g
paid h olid ays --------------------------------------------------------W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts p roviding
no paid h olid ays ---------------------------------------------------

1

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

1 0 0

1 0 0

1 0 0

1 0 0

1 0 0

1 0 0

All industries 3

1 0 0

97
3

Manufacturing

1 0 0

99

Public utilities 2

1 0 0

1 0 0

1

'

Number of days
4 h olid ays -------------------------- -------------------------------------5 h olid ays ----------------------------------------------------------------6 h olid ays
----- ----------- ------------------------------------- --------- ----------------------------------6 h olid ays plus 1 half day
6 h olid ays plus 2 h alf days
______________________
6 h olid ays plus 3 h alf days
______________________
7 h olid ays ________________ _____ ____________________
7 h olid ays plus 2 h alf days ______________________
7 h olid ays plus 3 h alf days ---------------------------------8 h olidays
----------------------------------------------------------------8 h olidays plus 2 h alf days
______________________
1 0
h olid ays _________________________________________

(4 )
(4 )
30
3
28
1

_

_

-

14
63
-

1 0

4
45
1

1

31
3
5
(4)

(4)

1

(4)
24

_

_

-

19
73
-

1 1

2

2

35
25

53
-

2

(4 )

4
-

8

8

8

-

-

-

1

28
2

(4 )
7

23
-

2 1

'

“

Total holiday time5
1 0
days ---------------------------------------------------------------------9 days ------------------------------------------------------------------------8 V 2 days
------------------------------------------------------------------8 days
------------------------------------------------------------------------7 V 2 days
------------------------------------------------------------------7 d ays ________________________________________________
6 V 2 d ays
------------------------------------------------------------------6 days
------------------------------------------------------------------------5 days ________________________________________________
4 days -------------------------------------------------------------------------

1 1

1 0

_
23
23

6 6

8 6

8 6

(4 )

1

1

1

1

1

1 0

69

9

90

8 6

1 0 0

1 0 0

1 0 0

1 0 0

1 0 0

1 0 0

1 0 0

1 0 0

1 0 0

_

_

-

-

(4)
1 0
1 0

70
72
96
96
97

1 2

_
8

1 2

8

8 6

81
81

8 8

99
99
99

1 0 0
1 0 0
1 0 0

Includes data fo r w h o le sa le tra d e; r e ta il tra d e ; fin a n ce, in su r a n ce , and r e a l e sta te; and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in d u stry d iv isio n s shown s e p a r a te ly .
T ra n sp o rta tio n , c om m u n ic ation , and other public u tilit ie s .
In cludes data fo r w h o lesa le tra d e , r e ta il tra d e , r e a l e sta te , and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in d u stry d iv isio n s shown se p a r a te ly .
4
L e s s than 0. 5 p erc en t.
5
A ll com b in ation s o f fu ll and h alf days that add to the sa m e am ount a r e com b ined; fo r ex a m p le , the p rop ortion o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g a total of 7 d ays in clu d es th ose with 7 fu ll days and
no h alf d a y s, 6 full days and 2 h alf d a y s, 5 fu ll days and 4 h alf d ays, and so on. P ro p o rtio n s w ere then cum u lated .
1

2

3




13

Table B-5. Paid Vacations
(P e r c e n t d istrib u tion of office and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u strie s and in in du stry d iv isio n s by vacatio n pay
p r o v isio n s, T o led o , Ohio, M a r c h 1961)
OFFICE WORKERS

V a c a tio n p olicy

1

All industries

A ll w o r k e r s

_________________________________________

Manufacturing

PLANT WORKERS

Public utilities

2

3

All industries

Manufacturing

Public utilities

100

100

100

100

100

100

100
97
3

100
95
5

100
100
-

100
65
35

100
50
49

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1

100
92
8
-

■

~

“

-

"

5
50
9
3

7
61
14
5

_
2
3

26
10
4

39
13
4

_
5

-

-

-

2
65
17
16

1
57
26
16

1
42
20
37
(5)

1
47
29
23
1

50
2
48

-

"

14
46
38

100

Method of payment
W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts p rovidin g
paid v a catio n s ____________________________________
L e n g t h -o f-tim e p aym ent _____________________
P erc en ta g e p aym ent ___________________________
F la t -s u m p aym ent _____________________________
O ther _____________________________________________
W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts providin g
no paid v a catio n s ________________________________

Amount of vacation p a y 4
A fte r 6 m on th s o f s e r v ic e
Under 1 w eek _______________________________________
1 w eek ________________________________________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w eeks
2 w eek s ______________________________________________

(5)

A fte r 1 y e a r of se r v ic e
Under 1 w eek _______________________________________
1 w eek ________________________________________________
O ve r 1 and under 2 w eeks _______________________
2 w eeks ______________________________________________

_

_

1
27
_
72

_

_

_

3

22
28
51

12

78

-

-

88

22

_
95
_

5

A fte r 2 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
Under 1 w eek _______________________________________
1 w eek
O ver 1 and under 2 w eeks _______________________
2 w eeks ______________________________________________
O ve r 2 and under 3 w eeks _______________________
3 w eeks ____ _________________________________________

5
4
90
( 5)
(5)

-

97
( 5)
( 5)

-

-

_
_

A fte r 3 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w eek
O ver 1 and under 2 w eeks
_ .
2 w eeks _ _
_ _ _
O v e r 2 and under 3 w eeks
3 w eek s ______________________________________________

(5)
(5)
94
3
2

(5)
91
6
4

(5)
91
6
2

88
8
4

_
2
98

11
30
58

_
_

-

-

-

-

-

2

2

-

2
98

9
71
16
4

13
57
24
6

A fte r 5 y e a r s o f se r v ic e
O ver 1 and under 2 w eek s _______________________
2 w eeks ______________________________________________
O ver 2 and under 3 w ee k s _______________________
3 w eeks ______________________________________________

See footnotes at end of ta b le.




_

-

_
100
-

2

14

Table B-5. Paid Vacations-Continued
(P e r c e n t d istrib u tion of o ffic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u str ie s ard in in du stry d iv isio n s by vacatio n pay
p r o v isio n s, T o led o , Ohio, M a r c h 1961)
OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

V acation p o lic y
All industries*

2

3

Public utilities

Manufacturing

All industries

i

Manufacturing

2

Public utilities

i

Amount of vacation p ay 4-------- Continued
A fte r 10 y e a r s of se r v ic e

O v e r 1 and under 2 w eek s
_ _ _ _
_____
2 w eeks
_
_ _ _ _ _
___
O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s _____ _____ ____________
3 w eek s ______________________________________________
O ver 3 and under 4 w eeks ____ _____ _____________

i z

34
6
61

2
72
3
23

-

“

-

7
3
89
1

6
5
90
_

3
97
-

-

-

7
( 5)
75
_
17

6
( 5)
71
23

"

-

( 5)
43
5

35
34
31
1

27
51
21
1

75
(5)
25

8
4
72
15
1
(5)

3
6
69
22
_

2
_
98
_
_

(5)

-

3
_
87
9
■

7
3
63
15
12

1
5
60
22
11

2
_
81
_
16

(5)

( 5)

-

3
41
56

7
3
46
6
37

1
5
51
9
33
(5)

2
40
_
58

-

A lte r 15 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e

2 w eeks _
O v e r 2 and under 3 w eek s
_ _.
3 w eek s
. ___
O v e r 3 and under 4 w eek s _______________________
4 w eek s ______________________________________________
O ver 4 w eeks _______________________________________

( 5)

A fte r 20 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e

2 w eeks _ .
___
O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s
_____
3 w eeks ______________________________________________
O ver 3 and under 4 w eeks _______________________
4 w eeks
O ver 4 w eeks ...... ..................................... ........................

A fte r 25 y e a r s of s e r v ic e

2 w eek s
_ _
. _ .......
O ver 2 and under 3 w eeks _______________________
3 w eeks
.......
O ver 3 and under 4 w eek s _______________________
4 w eeks ______________________________________________
O v e r 4 w eeks _______________________________________

1
2
3
4
s e r v ic e
5

7

6

(5)
52
40
1

( 5)
59
_
36

^

( 5)

In cludes data fo r w h o lesa le tra d e ; r e ta il t r a d e ; finance, in su ra n ce , and r e a l e sta te ; and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in du stry d iv isio n s shown s e p a r a te ly .
T ra n sp o rta tio n , com m u n ication , and other public u t ilit ie s .
In clud es data fo r w h o lesa le tra d e , r e ta il tra d e , r e a l e sta te, and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in du stry d iv isio n s shown se p a r a te ly .
P e r io d s of se r v ic e w e r e a r b itr a r ily c h ose n and do not n e c e s s a r ily r e fle c t the individual p r o v isio n s fo r p r o g r e s s io n s .
F o r ex am p le, the changes in p r op ortion s
include changes in p r o v isio n s oc cu r r in g betw een 5 and 10 y e a r s .
L e s s than 0. 5 p e r c e n t.

N O T E : In the tabulations of vacatio n a llo w a n ces by y e a r s o f s e r v ic e , p aym ents other than "le n g th of t i m e "
to an equivalent tim e b a s is ; fo r ex a m p le, a p aym ent o f 2 percen t of annual earn ings w as c o n sid ere d as 1 w e e k 's pay.




such as p ercen tage o f

annual ea rn in g s or

in dicated at 10 y e a r s '

f la t -s u m p aym e n ts,

w e r e converted

15
Table B-6. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
(P erc en t of o ffic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u strie s and in in du stry d iv isio n s em ployed in e sta b lish m en ts providin g
h ea lth , in su r a n c e , or pen sion b e n e fit s , T o le d o , O h io, M a rc h 1961)
OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

Type of b en efit
All industries

A ll w o rk ers

________________________________________

*

Manufacturing

100

100

2

Public utilities

3

All industries

Manufacturing

Public utilities

100

100

100

2

100

98

W o r k e r s in esta b lish m en ts providin g:
L ife in su ran ce _________________________________
A cc id e n ta l death and d ism e m b e r m e n t
in su ran ce
____________________________________
S ick n ess and acciden t in su ran ce or
sic k leave or b o th 4 ---------------------------------------

94

100

99

96

98

66

83

36

62

68

30

81

92

72

87

93

60

S ick n ess and accid en t in su ran ce ----------Sick le ave (full pay and no
__________________________
w aiting p eriod )
S ick le a v e (p a r tia l pay or
w aiting p eriod)
---------------------------------------

60

82

16

74

86

18

48

58

38

10

7

11

5

1

22

7

4

31

H o sp ita liza tio n in su ran ce ___________________
S u r g ic a l in su ran ce
___________________________
M e d ic a l in suran ce ____________________________
C ata strop h e in su ran ce _______________________
R e tire m e n t p en sion ___________________________
No h ealth , in su r a n c e , or pen sion plan -----

84
84
67
51
81
1

100
100
79
49
93

75
75
75
69
69
1

95
93
68
19
77

100
99
67
13
88

78
78
78
60
58
2

( 5)

1 Includes data for w h o lesa le tra d e; r e ta il tra d e ; fin a n c e, in su r a n c e , and r e a l e sta te ; and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in du stry d iv ision s shown sep a r a te ly .
2 T r a n sp o r ta tio n , c om m u n ic ation , and other public u t ilit ie s .
3 Includes data for w h o lesa le t r a d e , r e ta il tra d e , r e a l e s ta te , and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in du stry d iv isio n s shown s e p a r a te ly .
4 U nduplicated total of w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g sic k leave or sic k n e ss and accident in su ran ce shown sep a r a te ly b elo w .
S ic k -le a v e plans are lim ite d to those which d efin ite ly e sta b lish at le a st
the m in im u m num ber of d a y s ' pay that can be expected by each em p lo y e e .
In form al s ic k -le a v e allo w a n ces d eterm in ed on an individual b a sis are excluded.
5 L e s s than 0. 5 p erc en t.







17

A ppendix:

Occupational Descriptions

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to a ssist its
field staff in classifyin g into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau's field economists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers,
part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.
O F F IC E
BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statements, b ills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerica l work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
cla ssified by type of machine, as follow s:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.

Biller , machine (billing machine)— Uses a special billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, e tc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon cop ies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.

Biller , machine (bookkeeping machine)— Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, e tc ., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare custom ers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on custom ers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types o f sales and
credit slip s.




Class A — Keeps a set o f records requiring a knowledge o f
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance
sheets, and other records by hand.
Class B— Keeps a record o f one or more phases or sections of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping.
Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type of billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or a ssist in preparation o f trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.
CLERK, ACCOUNTING

Class A — Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more section s o f a com­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase o f an establish­
ment's business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

18

CLERK, ACCOUNTING— Continued
payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper a c ­
counting distribution; requires judgment and experience in making
proper assignations and allocation s. May a ssist in preparing, ad­
justing and closin g journal entries; may direct cla ss B accounting
clerks.

Class B— Under supervision, performs one or more routine a c ­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or a c ­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data. This
job does not require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping
principles but is found in offices in which the more routine account­
ing work is subdivided on a functional basis among several workers.

CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the n e ce s­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers'
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker's name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and a ssist paymaster in making up and distribut­
ing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.
COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

CLERK, FILE

Class A — In an established filing system containing a num­
ber of varied subject matter file s , cla ss ifie s and indexes corres­
pondence or other material; may also file this material. May keep
records of various types in conjunction with files or may super­
vise others in filing and locating material in the file s . May per­
form incidental clerica l duties.
Class B— Performs routine filing, usually of material that has
already been cla ssified or which is easily identifiable, or locates
or a ssists in locating material in file s. May perform incidental
clerica l duties.

CLERK, ORDER
R eceives customers* orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination o f the following:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; distributing order sheets to respective departments to be filled.
May check with credit department to determine credit rating of customer,
acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders to see
that they have been filled , keep file of orders received, and check ship­
ping invoices with original orders.




DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
b ilities, reproduces multiple cop ies of typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file of used stencils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

KEYPUNCH

OPERATOR

Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
b ilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards by
punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence, using
an alphabetical or a numerical keypunch machine, following written in­
formation on records. May duplicate cards by using the duplicating de­
vice attached to machine. May keep files of punch cards. May verify
own work or work of others.
OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands, op­
erating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and
distributing mail, and other minor clerica l work.

19

SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerica l duties for a superior in an ad­
ministrative or executive position. Duties include making appointments
for superior; receiving people coming into o ffice; answering and making
phone ca lls; handling personal and important or confidential mail, and
writing routine correspondence on own initiative; taking dictation (where
transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded information
reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare special reports or
memorandums for information of superior.
STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a nor­
mal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter.
May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep files in or­
der, keep simple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine
work (see transcribing-machine operator).
STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a varied
technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on
scien tific research and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter. May
also type from written copy. May also set up and keep files in order,
keep simple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work.
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or o ffice ca lls .
May record toll ca lls and take m essages. May give information to per­
sons who ca ll in, or occasion ally take telephone orders. For workers
who also act as receptionists see switchboard operator-receptionist.
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single p o si­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may a lso type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. This typing
or clerical work may take the major part o f this worker’ s time while at
switchboard.




TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Class A — Operates a variety of tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignments without clo se supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating sequences of long and complex reports.
Does not include working supervisors performing tabulating-machine
operations and day-to-day supervision of the work and production of
a group of tabulating-machine operators.
Class B— Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter,,reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under
sp e cific instructions and may include the performance of some wir­
ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but
small tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are well established. May a lso include the training
of new employees in the basic operation of the machine.
Class C— Operates simple tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with sp e cific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs, or re­
petitive operations.
TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May a lso type from written
copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation in­
volving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal briefs
or reports on scien tific research are not included. A worker who takes
dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is cla ssified
as a stenographer, general.

20

TYPIST

TYPIST— -Continued

Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to make
out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May in­
clude typing of sten cils, mats, or similar materials for use in duplicat­
ing p rocesses. May do clerica l work involving little sp ecia l training,
such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting
and distributing incoming mail.

Class A— Performs one or more o f the following: Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punc-

tuation, e tc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; planning layout and typing of complicated statistical tables
to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine
form letters varying details to suit circum stances.

Class B— Performs one or more o f the following: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing o f forms, insurance p o licie s,
e tc.; setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying more com­
plex tables already set up and spaced properly.

PR O F E SSIO N A L AND T E C H N IC A L
DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued

Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.

involved in strength of materials, beams and trusses; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quantities;
writing specification s; making adjustments or changes in drawings or
specification s. May ink in lines and letters on pencil drawings, prepare
detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings. Work is frequently
in a specialized field such as architectural, electrical, mechanical, or
structural drafting.

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)

Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration of working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Duties
involve a combination o f the following: Interpreting blueprints, sketches,
and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures; assigning
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problems. May a ssist subordinates during emergencies or as a
regular assignment, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
ministrative nature.

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of em ployees' injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants
and employees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
TRACER
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
p oses. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Preparing work­
ing plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-section s, e tc ., to sca le by use
of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as those




Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or p encil. Uses
T-square, compass, and other drafting to o ls. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

21
M A IN T E N A N C E

D PO W ERPLANT

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter's handtools, portable
power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; selecting materials n ec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or a ssist in repairing boilerroom equipment.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, d is­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specification s; locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c ­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; using a variety of
electrician 's handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In gen­
eral, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.
ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may a lso supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, motors
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a record of
operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May also
supervise these operations. Head or ch ief engineers in establishments

employing more than one engineer are excluded .




HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
A ssists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing sp e cific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or toc^ls;
performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts o f a trade
that are a lso performed by workers on a full-time basis.
MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools, gauges,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most o f the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making necessary adjustments during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classification .
MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Interpreting written instructions and
specification s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
chinist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and

22

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued

MILLWRIGHT— Continued

operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to clo se toler­
ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds o f machining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assembling parts into me­
chanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally requires
a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

are required. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specification s; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment, and parts
to be used; installing and maintaining in good order power transmission
equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the mill­
wright’ s work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an e s ­
tablishment. Work involves most o f the following: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assem blies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; alining wheels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves most o f the following: Examining machines and mechan­
ica l equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly d is­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replace­
ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop
for major repairs; preparing written specification s for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling ma­
chines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In general,
the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classification are workers
whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.
MILLWRIGHT
Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes ,in the plant layout




OILER
Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.
PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, o ils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper
color or con sistency. In general, the work of the maintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other written specification s; cutting various sizes of pipe to correct
lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with stocks and d ies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to pressures,
flow, and size of pipe required; making standard tests to determine
whether finished pipes meet sp ecifica tion s• In general, the work of the
maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building

sanitation or heating systems are excluded .

23

TOOL AND DIE MAKER

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake. In
general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.
SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, models,
or other specifications; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; installing sheetmetal articles as required. In general, the work of the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most o f the following: Planning and laying out of work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specification s;
using a variety of tool and die maker’ s handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding of the working properties of common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to clo s e tolerances; fitting and assembling
o f parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selecting appropriate
materials, tools, and p rocesses. In general, the tool and die maker’ s
work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross “industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this cla ssifica tion .

C U S T O D IA L A N D M A T E R IA L M O V E M E N T
ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued

Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures;polish ­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Workers
who specialize in window washing are excluded.

GUARD
Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gate-

men who are stationed at gate and check on identity o f employees and
other persons entering.
JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial




LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more o f the follow­
ing: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or

24

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING— Continued
from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting d e v ice s; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; trans­
porting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.

Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded .
ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specification s on sales slip s, customers’
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating items filled or omitted, keep records o f outgoing orders, requisi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued

For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssifie d as follow s:
Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
TRUCKDRIVER
Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of estab­
lishments such a s: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers’ houses or places of business. May also load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers

are excluded .

PACKER, SHIPPING
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the sp ecific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number o f units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing o f items in shipping containers and may involve one or more o f
the following: Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify
content; selection of appropriate type and size o f container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closin g and sealing container; applying labels or
entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make wooden

boxes or crates are excluded .
SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­
sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Shipping
work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes,
available means of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up bills o f lading, posting weight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or a ssist in
preparing the merchandise for shipment. Receiving work involves: Veri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipments against
bills of lading, in v oices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing merchandise or materials to proper de­
partments; maintaining necessary records and file s .




For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are cla ssified by size
and type o f equipment, as follow s: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis o f trailer capacity.)

Truckdriver (combination o f sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under 1% tons)
Truckdriver, medium (1% to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons , trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons , other than trailer type)
TRUCKER, POWER
Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified by type of
truck, as follow s:

Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)
WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.
■fr U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1961

O — 594023

Occupational Wage Surveys
Occupational wage surveys will be conducted in the 82 major labor markets listed below during late I960 and early 1961. Bulletins, when available, may be
purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C., or from any of the BLS regional sales offices shown on the
inside front cover.
A summary bulletin containing data for 80 labor markets, combined with additional analysis, will be issued early in 1962.
Akron, Ohio— Bull. 1285Albany—
Schenectady-Troy, N.Y.— Bull. 1285-51
Albuquerque, N. Mex.— Bull. 1285Allentown—
Bethlehem—
Easton,
P a .-N .J .— Bull. 1285-47
Atlanta, Ga.— Bull. 1285♦Baltimore, Md.— Bull. 1285-34
Beaumont—
Port Arthur, T ex.— Bull. 1285Birmingham, Ala.— Bull. 1285 -53

♦Green Bay, Wis.— Bull. 1285-2
Greenville, S.C.— Bull. 1285Houston, Tex.— Bull. 1285♦ Indianapolis, Ind.— Bull. 1285-28
♦ Jackson, Miss.— Bull. 1285-42
♦♦Jacksonville, Fla.— Bull. 1285-30
♦Kansas City, Mo.—
Kans.— Bull. 1285-18
Lawrence—
Haverhill, Mass.—
N.H.— Bull. 1285♦♦ Little Rock—
North Little Rock, Ark.— Buil. 1285-6

Boise, Idaho— Bull. 1285♦*Boston, Mass.— Bull. 1285-15
**B uffalo, N.Y.— Bull. 1285-31
Burlington, Vt.— Bull. 1285-57
♦Canton, Ohio— Bull. 1285-29
Charleston, W. Va.— Bull. 1285Charlotte, N .C.— Bull. 1285**Chattanooga, Tenn.—
Ga.— Bull. 1285-14
Chicago, 111.— Bull. 1285-

Los Angeles—
Long Beach, Calif.— Bull. 1285-52
Louisville, Ky.—
Ind.— Bull. 1285-49
Lubbock, Tex.— Bull. 1285♦ Manchester, N.H.— Bull. 1285-1
♦ Memphis, Tenn.— Bull. 1285-35
♦ Miami, Fla.— Bull. 1285-33
Milwaukee, Wis.— Bull. 1285* * Minneapolis— Paul, Minn.— Bull. 1285- 39
St.
Muskegon—
Muskegon Heights, Mich.— Bull. 1285-

Cincinnati, Ohio—
Ky.— Bull. 1285**Cleveland, Ohio— Bull. 1285-11
♦*Columbus, Ohio— Bull. 1285*38
♦♦Dallas, T ex.— Bull. 1285-21
♦♦Davenport—
Rock Island—
Moline, Iowa—
111.—
Bull. 1285-16
♦Dayton, Ohio— Bull. 1285*41
♦Denver, C olo.— Bull. 1285-27
Des Moines, Iowa— Bull. 1285*43
**Detroit, Mich.— Bull. 1285-37
**F ort Worth, Tex.— Bull. 1285-23

♦ Newark and Jersey City, N.J.— Bull. 1285-40
New Haven, Conn.— Bull. 1285-46
New Orleans, La.— Bull. 1285-48
New York, N.Y.— Bull. 1285Norfolk—
Portsmouth and Newport News—
Hampton, Va.— Bull. 1285♦♦ Oklahoma City, Okla.— Bull. 1285-3
♦♦ Omaha, Nebr.—
Iowa— Bull. 1285-13
Paterson—
Clifton—
Passaic, N.J.— Bull. 1285♦♦ Philadelphia, Pa.— Bull. 1285-24
Phoenix, Ariz.— Bull. 1285-55

Pittsburgh, Pa.— Bull. 1285-44
♦Portland, Maine— Bull. 1285-19
Portland, Oreg.—
Wash.— Bull. 1285Providence—
Pawtucket, R .I.—
Mass.— Bull. 1285*
♦♦Raleigh, N.C.— Bull. 1285-5
♦Richmond, Va.— Bull. 1285*26
Rockford, 111.— Bull. 1285♦♦St. Louis, M o.-Ill.— Bull. 1285-10
♦♦Salt Lake City, Utah— Bull. 1285-32
San Antonio, Tex.— Bull. 1285* San Bernardino—
Riverside—
Ontario,
C alif.— Bull. 1285-4
San Francisco—
Oakland, C alif.— Bull. 1285-36
Savannah, Ga.— Bull. 1285♦ ♦Scranton, Pa.— Bull. 1285-8
**Seattle, Wash.— Bull. 1285-7
♦♦♦Sioux Falls, S. Dak.— Bull. 1285-17
South Bend, Ind.— Bull. 1285-54
Spokane, Wash.— Bull. 1285Toledo, Ohio— Bull. 1285-50
♦♦Trenton, N.J.— Bull. 1285-25
♦ ♦Washington, D .C .-M d .-V a .— Bull. 1285-22
Waterbury, Conn.-—Bull. 1285-56
* Waterloo, Iowa— Bull. 1285-?°
♦ ♦Wichita, Kans.— Bull. 1285-9
♦♦ Wilmington, D el.—
N.J.— Bull. 1285-12
Worcester, Mass.— Bull. 1285York, Pa.— Bull. 1285-45

An asterisk preceding a labor market indicates the availability and
price of the bulletin.
Please do not order copies in advance.

*
Price, 20 cents.
♦♦ Price, 25 cents.
* * * Price, 15 cents.







Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102