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Occupational Wage Survey

RALEIGH, NORTH CAROLINA
SEPTEM BER 1960

Bulletin No. 1285-5




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU O F LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clagiie, Commissioner




New England Region
18 Oliver Street
Boston 10, Mass.
Liberty 2-2115_______

Occupational Wage Survey
R A L E I G H , N O R T H C A R O L IN A




SEPTEMBER 1960

Bulletin No. 1285-5
October 1960

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Janies P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. - Price 25* cents




Preface

Contents
Page

T h e C o m m u n ity

W age

S u rvey P ro g r a m

I n t r o d u c t i o n __________________________________________________________________________________

T h e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S ta tis t ic s r e g u la r ly c o n d u c ts
a r e a w i d e w a g e s u r v e y s in a n u m b e r o f i m p o r t a n t i n d u s t r i a l
c e n t e r s . T h e s t u d i e s , m a d e f r o m la t e f a l l t o e a r l y s p r in g ,
r e la t e to o c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s an d r e la t e d s u p p le m e n ta r y
b e n e fit s . A p r e lim in a r y r e p o r t is a v a ila b le on c o m p le tio n
o f th e s tu d y in e a c h a r e a , u s u a l l y in th e m o n t h f o l l o w i n g
th e p a y r o l l p e r i o d s t u d i e d . T h i s b u l l e t i n p r o v i d e s a d d i t i o n a l
d a ta n o t i n c l u d e d in th e e a r l i e r r e p o r t .
A c o n s o lid a te d
a n a l y t i c a l b u l l e t i n s u m m a r i z i n g th e r e s u l t s o f a l l o f th e
y e a r * s s u r v e y s i s i s s u e d a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n o f th e f in a l a r e a
b u l l e t i n f o r th e c u r r e n t r o u n d o f s u r v e y s .

T a b l e s:

T h i s r e p o r t w a s p r e p a r e d in th e B u r e a u * s r e g i o n a l
o f f i c e in A t l a n t a , G a . , b y D o n a ld M . C r u s e , u n d e r th e
d ir e c t io n o f L o u is B . W o y ty ch , A s s is t a n t R e g io n a l D ir e c t o r
f o r W a g e s and In d u s tr ia l R e la t io n s .

B:

1




1.

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s a n d w o r k e r s w it h in s c o p e o f s u r v e y ______________________

2

A:

O c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s : *
A - 1. O f f i c e o c c u p a t i o n s _________________________________________________________
A - 2 . P r o f e s s i o n a l a n d t e c h n i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s _____________________________
A - 3 . M a in t e n a n c e a n d p o w e r p la n t o c c u p a t i o n s ____________________________
A - 4 . C u s t o d i a l a n d m a t e r i a l m o v e m e n t o c c u p a t i o n s _____________________

4
6
6
7

E s t a b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and s u p p le m e n ta r y w a g e
p ro v is io n s : *
B - 1. S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l s __________________________________________________________
B - 2 . M in im u m e n t r a n c e s a l a r i e s f o r w o m e n o f f i c e w o r k e r s __________
B - 3 . S c h e d u le d w e e k l y h o u r s __________________________________________________
B - 4 . P a i d h o l i d a y s ______________________________________________________________
B - 5 . P a i d v a c a t i o n s _____________________________________________________________
B - 6 . H e a lth , i n s u r a n c e , a n d p e n s i o n p l a n s ________________________________

8
9
10
11
12
14

A p p e n d ix :

O c c u p a t i o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n s __________________________________________________

* NOTE:
S i m i l a r t a b u la t io n s f o r t h e s e a n d o t h e r i t e m s a r e a v a i l a ­
b le in th e r e p o r t s f o r s u r v e y s i n ’ o t h e r m a j o r a r e a s .
A d ir e c to r y
in d i c a t in g d a t e o f s tu d y a n d the p r i c e o f th e r e p o r t s i s a v a i l a b l e
upon r e q u e s t.

a v a ila b le

iii

U n io n s c a l e s , i n d i c a t iv e o f p r e v a i l i n g
f o r s e v e n s e l e c t e d b u ild in g t r a d e s

pay le v e ls , a re a ls o
in the R a l e i g h a r e a .

15




Occupational Wage Survey—Raleigh, N.C.
Introduction

This a rea is one o f se v e ra l im portant industrial cen ters in
which the U. S. Departm ent o f L a b o r 's Bureau o f L abor Statistics has
conducted su rveys o f occupational earnings and related wage benefits
on an areawide b a s is . In this area, data w ere obtained by personal
v isits o f Bureau fie ld econ om ists to representative establishm ents
within six broad industry d iv ision s: M anufacturing; tra n sp o rta tio n ,1
com m unication, and other public u tilities; w holesale trade; retail
trade; finan ce, in su ran ce, and rea l estate; and s e r v ic e s . M ajor in ­
dustry groups excluded fr o m these studies are governm ent operations
and the con stru ction and extractive in d u stries. E stablishm ents having
few er than a p r e s c r ib e d num ber o f w ork ers are om itted a lso because
they furnish in su fficien t em ploym ent in the occupations studied to w a r­
rant in clusion. W herever p o s s ib le , separate tabulations are provided
fo r each of the broad industry d iv ision s.
These su rveys are conducted on a sam ple ba sis because o f the
u nn ecessary c o s t involved in surveying a ll establish m en ts. To obtain
appropriate a ccu ra cy at m inim um c o s t, a grea ter p rop ortion o f large
than of sm all establishm ents is studied.
In com bining the data, how ­
ever, all establishm ents are given their appropriate weight. E stim ates
based on the establishm ents studied are presented, th e re fo re , as r e ­
lating to all establishm ents in the industry grouping and area, e x ­
cep t fo r those below the minim um size studied.
Occupations and Earnings
The occupations se le cte d fo r study are com m on to a variety
o f m anufacturing and nonmanufacturing in d u stries. O ccupational c la s ­
sifica tion is based on a uniform set o f jo b d escrip tion s designed to
take account o f interestablishm ent variation in duties within the sam e
jo b . (See appendix fo r listing o f these d e scrip tio n s.) E arnings data are
presented (in the A -s e r ie s tables) fo r the follow ing types o f occu p a ­
tions: (a) O ffice c le r ic a l; (b) p ro fe ssio n a l and tech n ical; (c) m ainte­
nance and power plant; and (d) cu stodial and m aterial m ovem ent.
O ccupational em ploym ent and earnings data are shown fo r
fu ll-tim e w o rk e rs, i. e. , those h ired to work a regu lar weekly sch ed ­
ule in the given occupational cla s s ific a tio n . E arnings data exclude
prem ium pay fo r overtim e and fo r w ork on w eekends, h olidays, and

late sh ifts.
Nonproduction bonuses are excluded a lso , but c o s t - o fliving bonuses and incentive earnings are included.
Where weekly
hours are rep orted , as fo r o ffice c le r ic a l occu p ation s, referen ce is
to the w ork schedules (rounded to the n earest half hour) fo r which
straight-tim e sa la ries are paid; average weekly earnings for these
occupations have been rounded to the nearest* half d olla r.
A verage earnings o f men and women are presented separately
fo r selected occupations in which both sexes are com m only em ployed.
D ifferen ces in pay le v els o f men and wom en in these occupations are
la rg ely due to (l) d ifferen ces in the distribution o f the sexes among
industries and establishm ents; (2) d ifferen ces in sp e cific duties p e r ­
form ed , although the occupations are appropriately c la s s ifie d within
the same su rvey job d escrip tion ; and (3) d ifferen ces in length o f s e r v ­
ic e o r m e rit review when individual sa la ries are adjusted on this basis.
L onger average s e r v ic e o f m en would resu lt in higher average pay
when both sexes are em ployed within the same rate range.
Job
d escrip tion s used in cla ssify in g em p loyees in these su rveys are usu­
ally m ore gen eralized than those used in individual establishm ents to
allow fo r m inor d iffe ren ces among establishm ents in sp e cific duties
pe rform ed
O ccupational employment estim ates rep resen t the total in all
establishm ents within the scop e o f the study and not the num ber actu­
ally su rveyed. B ecause o f d ifferen ces in occupational structure among
establishm ents, the estim ates o f occupational em ploym ent obtained
fro m the sam ple o f establishm ents studied serv e only to indicate the
relative im portance o f the job s studied. T hese d ifferen ces in o c c u ­
pational structure do not m a teria lly affect the a ccu ra cy of the ea rn ­
ings data.
E stablishm ent P r a c tic e s and Supplem entary Wage P ro v isio n s

Inform ation is presented a lso (in the B -s e r ie s tables) on s e ­
lected establishm ent p ra ctices and supplem entary benefits as they r e ­
late to o ffic e and plant w o rk e rs. The term "o ffice w ork e rs, " as used
in this bulletin, includes working su p erv isors and n onsup ervisory
w ork ers p erform in g c le r ic a l o r related functions, and exclu des adm in­
istra tiv e , execu tive, and p rofession a l person n el. "Plant w o rk e rs " in ­
clude working forem en and all n on su p ervisory w ork ers (including lea d men and tra in ees) engaged in nonoffice functions.
A dm in istrative,
1
R a ilroa d s, fo r m e r ly excluded fr o m the scop e of these studies,
execu tive, and p rofession a l em p loyees, and fo rc e -a c c o u n t con stru ction
w ere included in all o f the areas studied sin ce July 1959, except
em ployees who are u tilized as a separate w ork fo r c e are exclu ded.
B altim ore, B uffalo, C leveland, and Seattle.
R ailroad s are now in ­
C afeteria w ork ers and routem en are excluded in m anufacturing indus­
cluded in the scop e o f all la b o r-m a rk e t wage su rveys.
tries, but are included as plant w ork ers in nonmanufacturing industries.




2

T a b le 1.

E s t a b li s h m e n t s an d w o r k e r s w it h in s c o p e o f s u r v e y a n d n u m b e r s t u d ie d in R a le ig h , N . C . , 1 b y m a j o r in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n , 2 S e p t e m b e r i9 6 0

In d u stry d iv is io n

A ll d iv is io n s

_____________________________________________________________

M a n u fa c t u r in g -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n i c a t io n , an d o t h e r
p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s 5 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ _
W h o l e s a le t r a d e - --------- -------------------------------------------------------------------R e t a il t r a d e ----------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------F in a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , an d r e a l e s t a t e ___________________________
S e r v i c e s 7 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

M in im u m
e m p lo y m e n t
in e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t s in s c o p e
o f stu d y

N u m b e r o f e s t a b l is h m e n t s
W ith in
scope of
stu d y 3

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s
W ith in s c o p e o f stu d y

S tu d ie d

Ot U.QI6Q
T o ta l4

O ffice

P la n t

T o ta l4

50

89

62

1 4 ,4 5 0

2, 800

9, 100

12, 340

50
50

27
62

22
40

5 ,4 5 0
9 , 000

500
2, 300

4, 200
4, 900

5, 0 30
7, 310

50
50
50
50
50

10
15
19
13
5

10
7
11
8
4

2,
1,
2,
1,

1, 600
(6)
(6)
(6 )
( 6)

2, 8 10
6 70
2, 0 00
1, 340
490

8 10
3 00
680
660
550

400
(6)
( )
( 6)
(6)

1 T h e R a le i g h S ta n d a rd M e t r o p o l it a n S t a t i s t i c a l A r e a (W a k e C o u n t y ).
T h e " w o r k e r s w it h in s c o p e o f s t u d y " e s t i m a t e s s h o w n in t h is t a b le p r o v i d e a r e a s o n a b ly a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f th e
s i z e an d c o m p o s i t i o n o f th e l a b o r f o r c e in c lu d e d in th e s u r v e y .
T h e e s t i m a t e s a r e n ot in te n d e d , h o w e v e r , t o s e r v e a s a b a s i s o f c o m p a r i s o n w it h o t h e r a r e a e m p l o y m e n t in d e x e s t o m e a s u r e
e m p l o y m e n t t r e n d s o r l e v e l s s i n c e (1 ) p la n n in g o f w a g e s u r v e y s r e q u i r e s th e u s e o f e s t a b l is h m e n t d a ta c o m p i l e d c o n s i d e r a b l y in a d v a n c e o f th e p a y r o l l p e r i o d s t u d ie d an d (2 ) s m a ll e s t a b l is h m e n t s
a r e e x c l u d e d f r o m th e s c o p e o f th e s u r v e y .
2 T h e 1957 r e v i s e d e d i t io n o f th e S ta n d a rd I n d u s t r ia l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a n u a l w a s u s e d in c l a s s i f y i n g e s t a b l is h m e n t s b y in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n .
M a j o r c h a n g e s f r o m the e a r l i e r e d it io n (u s e d in th e
B u r e a u 's la b o r m a r k e t w a g e s u r v e y s c o n d u c t e d p r i o r to J u ly 1 95 8) a r e th e t r a n s f e r o f m il k p a s t e u r i z a t i o n p la n t s a n d r e a d y - m i x e d c o n c r e t e e s t a b l is h m e n t s f r o m t r a d e (w h o l e s a l e o r r e t a il ) to m a n u ­
f a c t u r in g , a n d th e t r a n s f e r o f r a d i o a n d t e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t i n g f r o m s e r v i c e s to th e t r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n i c a t io n , a n d o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s d i v i s i o n .
3 I n c lu d e s a ll e s t a b l is h m e n t s w it h t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t at o r a b o v e th e m i n i m u m - s i z e l i m it a t io n .
A l l o u t le t s (w ith in th e a r e a ) o f c o m p a n i e s in s u c h in d u s t r ie s a s t r a d e , f in a n c e , a u to r e p a i r
s e r v i c e , an d m o t i o n - p i c t u r e t h e a t e r s a r e c o n s i d e r e d a s 1 e s t a b l is h m e n t .
4 I n c lu d e s e x e c u t i v e , p r o f e s s i o n a l , an d o t h e r w o r k e r s e x c l u d e d f r o m th e s e p a r a t e o f f i c e an d p la n t c a t e g o r i e s .
5 T a x i c a b s a n d s e r v i c e s in c id e n t a l t o w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t io n w e r e e x c l u d e d .
6 T h is in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n i s r e p r e s e n t e d in e s t i m a t e s f o r " a l l i n d u s t r i e s " an d " n o n m a n u fa c t u r i n g " in th e s e r i e s A an d B t a b l e s .
S e p a r a t e p r e s e n t a t io n o f d a t a f o r t h is d i v i s i o n i s n ot m a d e
f o r o n e o r m o r e o f the f o l lo w i n g r e a s o n s :
(1 ) E m p lo y m e n t in th e d i v i s i o n i s t o o s m a ll t o p r o v i d e e n o u g h d a ta t o m e r i t s e p a r a t e stu d y , (2 ) th e s a m p le w a s n ot d e s ig n e d i n it ia l ly t o p e r m it s e p a r a t e
p r e s e n t a t io n , (3 ) r e s p o n s e w a s i n s u f f i c i e n t o r in a d e q u a t e t o p e r m it s e p a r a t e p r e s e n t a t io n , (4 ) t h e r e i s p o s s i b i l i t y o f d i s c l o s u r e o f in d iv id u a l e s t a b l is h m e n t d a ta .
7 H o t e l s ; p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s ; b u s i n e s s s e r v i c e s ; a u t o m o b i le r e p a i r s h o p s ; m o t io n p i c t u r e s ; n o n p r o fi t m e m b e r s h i p o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; an d e n g in e e r in g an d a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s .




3
Shift differential data (table B - l ) are limited to manufacturing
industries. This information is presented both in terms of (a) estab­
lishment policy, 2 presented in term s of total plant worker em ploy­
ment, and (b) effective practice, presented on the basis of workers
actually employed on the specified shift at the time of the survey.
In establishments having varied differentials, the amount applying to
a m ajority was used o r, if no amount applied to a m ajority, the c la s ­
sification '’oth er" was used.
In establishments in which some la teshift hours are paid at normal rates, a differential was recorded only
if it applied to a m ajority of the shift hours.
Minimum entrance rates (table B -2 ) relate only to the estab­
lishments visited.
They are presented on an establishment, rather
than on an employment b a sis.
Paid holidays; paid vacations; and
health, insurance, and pension plans are treated statistically on the
basis that these are applicable to all plant or office workers if a m a ­
jority of such workers are eligible or may eventually qualify for the
practices listed. Scheduled hours are treated statistically on the basis
that these are applicable to all plant or office workers if a m ajority
are co v e re d .3 Because of rounding, sums of individual items in these
tabulations may not equal totals.

The first part of the paid holidays table presents the num­
ber of whole and half holidays actually provided.
The second part
combines whole and half holidays to show total holiday tim e.

Data are presented for all health, insurance, and pension
plans for which at least a part of the cost is borne by the em ployer,
excepting only legal requirements such as workmen* s compensation,
social security, and railroad retirem ent.
Such plans include those
underwritten by a com m ercial insurance company and those provided
through a union fund or paid directly by the employer out of current
operating funds or from a fund set aside for this purpose.
Death
benefits are included as a form of life insurance.
Sickness and accident insurance is lim ited to that type of in­
surance under which predetermined cash payments are made directly
to the insured on a weekly or monthly basis during illn ess or accident
disability.
Information is presented for all such plans to which the
employer contributes.
However, in New York and New Jersey, which
have enacted temporary disability insurance laws which require e m ­
ployer contributions,4 plans are included only if the em ployer (1) con­
tributes more than is legally required, or (2) provides the employee
with benefits which exceed the requirements of the law. Tabulations
of paid sick-leave plans are lim ited to form al plans 5 which provide
full pay or a proportion of the w orker's pay during absence from work
because of illn e ss.
Separate tabulations are provided according to
(l) plans which provide full pay and no waiting period, and (2) plans
providing either partial pay or a waiting period.
In addition to the
presentation of the proportions of workers who are provided sickness
and accident insurance or paid sick leave, an unduplicated total is
shown of workers who receive either or both types of benefits.

The summary of vacation plans is lim ited to form al arrange­
m ents, excluding informal plans whereby time off with pay is granted
at the discretion of the em ployer.
Separate estim ates are provided
according to employer practice in computing vacation payments, such
as time payments, percent of annual earnings, or fla t-su m amounts.
However, in the tabulations of vacation allowances, payments not on
a time basis were converted; for example, a payment of 2 percent of
annual earnings was considered as the equivalent of 1 w eek 's pay.

Catastrophe insurance, som etim es referred to as .extended
medical insurance, includes those plans which are designed to protect
employees in case of sickness and injury involving expenses beyond
the normal coverage of hospitalization, m edical, and surgical plans.
Medical insurance refers to plans providing for complete or partial
payment of doctors' fe e s . Such plans may be underwritten by co m m er­
cial insurance companies « r nonprofit organizations or they may be
self-in su red .
Tabulations of retirem ent pension plans are lim ited to
those plans that provide monthly payments for the remainder of the
w o rk er's life.

2 An establishment was considered as having a policy if it met
either of the following conditions: (l) Operated late shifts at the time
of the survey, or (2) had form al provisions covering late shifts.
3 Scheduled weekly hours for office workers (first section of
table B -3 ) in surveys made prior to July 1957 were presented in
term s of the proportion of women office workers employed in offices
with the indicated weekly hours for women w orkers.

4 The temporary disability laws in California and Rhode Island
do not require em ployer contributions.
5 An establishment was considered as having a form al plan if
it established at least the minimum number of days of sick leave that
could be expected by each em ployee. Such a plan need not be written,
but informal sick-leave allowances, determined on an individual b a sis,
were excluded.




A* Occupational Earnings

4

Table A-l. O ffic e ‘ Occupations
(A v e ra g e

s t r a ig h t -t im e w e e k ly h o u r s an d e a r n in g s f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s s tu d ie d o n a n a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n , R a le ig h , N . C . , S e p t e m b e r I9 6 0 )
A vm ai

S ex, o c c u p a t io n , and in d u str y d iv is io n

N um ber
of
w orkers

N U M B E R O F W O R K E R S R E C E IV IN G 8 T R A IG H T -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G 8 OF—
$

W e e k ly
h o u rs 1
(S ta n da rd)

$

30. 00
and
u n d er
35. 00

W e e k ly
e a r n in g s 1
(Sta n da rd)

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

35. 00

4 0 . 00

4 5. 00

50. 00

55. 00

6 0. 00

6 5 . 00

4 0 . 00

4 5 . 00

50. 00

55. 00

6 0. 00

6 5. 00

70. 00

75. 00

3
2

5
3

7 0. 00

$

7 5. 00

$

8 0 .0 0

$

85. 00

$
9 0. 00

85. 00

90. 00

"

3
1

2
1

5
2

2

_

_

.

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

5
4

.

$
S
S
95. 00 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 n o . oo

S

80. 00

95. 00 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0

M en

C le r k s , a cco u n tin g , c l a s s A -------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

29
18

39. 5
38. 5

$ 7 7 .5 0
7 8. 00

C le r k s , a cco u n tin g , c l a s s B -----------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

19
17

39. 5
39. 5

6 6. 00
65. 00

O ffic e b o y s --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g -----------------------------------------------------------

16
15

39. 0
38. 5

5 1 .0 0
5 1 .5 0

T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B ------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g -----------------------------------------------------------

16
15

40. 0
4 0. 0

.

.

'

.

_

.

2

"

.

_

-

_

.

-

6
6

_

-

-

"

6
6

-

3
3

6
6

2
1

6
6

3
3

4
4

-

1
1

.

.

_

'

'

'

'

.

8 6. 50
8 7. 00
'

.

'

3
3

-

-

3
3

-

-

-

1
1

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

1
1

2
2

4
4

"

~

-

3
3

-

-

1
-

"

-

'

W om en

19
19

40. 0
40. 0

67. 00
67. 00

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B --------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ------------------------------------------------------------

56
48

40. 0
40. 5

55. 50
54. 50

C le r k s , a cco u n tin g , c l a s s A ---------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ------------------------------------------------------------

54
50

38. 0
38. 0

69. 00
6 9. 00

C le r k s , a cco u n tin g , c l a s s B ---------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g -----------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

88
26
62

38. 0
39. 5
37. 5

57. 50
6 1 .0 0
56. 00

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s A ______________
M a n u fa ctu r in g ------------------------------------------------------------------

.

.
-

3
3

.

-

-

1
1

5
5

3
3

2
2

2
2

-

12
10

14
13

11
9

11
11

3
2

1
1

1

-

2
2

_

.

.

_

1
-

7
7

12
12

18
17

5
5

2
1

1
1

3
3

5
4

-

12
4
8

15
5
10

11
3
8

11
5
6

6
3
3

3
3
"

-

-

-

-

_

-

2
2

_

.

.

.

"

"

-

.

-

-

-

3
1
2

_

.

_

25
2
23

27
26

38. 0
38. 0

55. 00
55. 00

-

"

"

4
4

13
13

5
4

3
3

68
65

3 9 .0
39. 0

4 6 . 00
4 5. 50

2
2

6
6

23
23

22
20

14
13

"

1
1

C le r k s , p a y r o l l ------------------- ---------------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g -----------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ------------------------------------------------------------

38
16
22

3 9 .5
40. 5
39. 5

6 6. 00
6 4. 00
67. 50

.

.

1

-

-

-

"

-

1

3
2
1

6
2
4

3
2
1

10
5
5

C o m p to m e t e r o p e r a t o r s

32
31

40. 0
40. 0

54. 00
54. 00

_

_

4
4

8
8

8
7

6
6

4
4

C le r k s , f i le , c l a s s A
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

C le r k s , f i l e , c l a s s B
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

S ee fo o tn o te




_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

------------------------------------

at en d o f ta b le .

--------------

.

4
1
3

2
1
1

_

_

_

-

-

-

"

-

-

1

"
3
2
1

-

1

-

-

.

1

1

-

_

-

-

“

-

-

-

1

.

.

3

-

-

-

1

1

-

1

2
2

_

-

-

i

_

-

-

-

l

-

3

-

-

_

_

_

.

5

Table A-l. O ffice Occupations-Continued
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
by in d u s tr y d iv is io n , R a le ig h , N. C . , S e p te m b e r I960)
A verage
Sex,

o c c u p a tio n ,

a n d in d u s t r y d iv i s i o n

N um ber
of
w orkers

W e e k ly
h ou rs 1
(S ta n da rd)

W e e k ly .
e a r n in g s 1
(S ta n da rd)

N U M B E R O F W O R K E R S R E C E IV IN G S T R A IG H T -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S O F—

$
30. 00
and
under
3 5 . 00

$

*3 5 . 0 0

4 0 . 00

4 5 . 00

50. 00

$
55. 00

* 0 . 00

I s . 00

70 . 00

*7 5 . 0 0

*80. 0 0

85. 00

9 0 . 00

S
95. 00 100. 00

?0 5 . 00

4 0 . 00

4 5 . 00

50. 00

55. 00

6 0 . 00

65. 00

7 0 . 00

75. 00

80. 00

8 5. 00

9 0 . 00

9 5 . 00

1 0 0 . 00 1 0 5 .0 0

n o . oo 1 1 5 . 0 0

12
12

14
14

7

1

1

_

4

1

1

-

“

-

13
3

17
4
13
3

18
4
14

20

3
-

2

32
6
26
3

10

3

n o . oo

W o m e n ----- C o n t i n u e d

K e y p u n c h o p e r a t o r s ------------------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

73
65

S e c r e t a r i e s -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------------------------------------------------------------------------P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 2 ------------------------------------------------------------------------

139
28

S t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l ---------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------------------------------------------------------------------------P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 2 ------------------------------------------------------------------------

175
36

40. 0
40. 0

$ 5 9 .0 0
59. 00

0
5
0
5

7 5 . 00
7 5 . 00
7 4 . 50
8 7 .0 0

149
142

38. 5
38. 5

38

39. 5

6 0 . 50
6 0 . 50
6 4 . 50

39.
39.
39.
39.

1
1

-

11
10

22

-

-

-

1

15
4

21

-

-

-

-

8

11

4
17

4
18

~

"

*

1

30

41
40

22

21

12
12

3
2

-

-

-

9

3

8

1

-

"

-

2
2

-

-

~

-

-

-

-

2
2

-

"

■

1

2

'

"

_

3
3

10
9

25
24

“

-

5

29
10

1
1

4
2

5
3

1
1

8
7

-

-

7
5

6

5
5

2

1

4
4

3
3

13
13

10
10

10
10

9
6
3

1
1

3
3

42. 5

4 3 . 00

16

44. 0

4 1 .5 0

5
5

S w i t c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r - r e c e p t i o n i s t s ------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

31

20

39. 5
39. 5

5 6 . 50
5 5. 00

"

T y p i s t s , c l a s s A ________________________________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

43
40

38. 0
38. 0

6 0 . 50

_

_

.

5 9. 00

'

"

'

T y p i s t s , c l a s s B -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

114
15

37. 0
40. 0
36. 5

4 8 . 50
57. 00
4 7 . 00

7
7

25

-

S ta n da rd h o u r s r e f le c t the w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv e t h e ir r e g u la r
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o t h e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .




-

■

-

9

20

99

12

-

------------------------------------------------------------------------

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

13

10

.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------

S w itc h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s

13

4
4

1

42
2

27
2

24

40

25

s t r a ig h t - t im e

"

10

5
15

3
2

4
4
4

-

i
i

-

-

-

■

-

-

-

2

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

_

-

"

_

_

_

_

_

.

"

.

-

_

■

-

"

-

•-

-

-

-

-

-

.
-

-

s a la r i e s and the e a r n in g s c o r r e s p o n d to th e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .

6
Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d o n an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n , R a le ig h , N. C . , S e p t e m b e r I96 0 )
A verage
N um ber
of
w orkers

S ex, o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s t r y d iv is io n

W e e k ly
h o u rs 1
(S ta n da rd )

N U M B E R O F W O R K E R S R E C E IV IN G S T R A I G H T -T I M E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S O F -

$
85. 00
and
u n d er
9 0. 00

W e e k ly
e a rn in g s1
(Sta n da rd)

*
9 0. 00

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
9 5. 00 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 n o . oo 115. 00 1 2 0 .0 0 125. 00 1 3 0 .0 0 135. 00 1 4 0 .0 0

9 5 . 00 1 0 0 .0 0 105. 00 n o . oo 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 125. 00 1 3 0 .0 0 135. 00 1 4 0 .0 0 145. 00

M en

D r a ft s m e n , s e n io r --------------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa ctu r in g ------------------------------------------------------------------

1

21
19

40. 0
40. 0

2
2

$ 1 1 5 .5 0
117 .00

2
2

4
3

S ta n d a rd h o u r s r e f le c t the w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e i v e t h e ir r e g u la r

2
2

4
4

l

2
2

4
4

s t r a ig h t - t im e s a la r i e s and the e a r n in g s c o r r e s p o n d to th e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .

Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r m e n in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n , R a le ig h , N. C . , S e p te m b e r I960)
N U M B ER OF W O RK ER S R E CE IVIN G S T R A IG H T -T IM E HOURLY EA RN IN G S OF—
O c c u p a tio n a n d in d u s tr y d iv is io n

E le c t r ic ia n s ,

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings1

m a i n t e n a n c e ----------------------------------------------

19

24
22

1 .3 0
1 .3 1

H e lp e r s ,

tra d e s,

m a in t e n a n c e

-------------------------------------

26

1. 61

,

$
1 . 10

$
1. 20

$
1. 30

$
1 .4 0

$
1. 50

$
1. 6 0

$
1. 7 0

$
1. 80

$
1 .9 0

1. 20

1 .3 0

1 .4 0

1. 50

1 .6 0

1 .7 0

1 .8 0

1 .9 0

2. 00

$ 2. 53

F i r e m e n , s t a t i o n a r y b o i l e r _____________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------------------------------------------------------

$
1 .0 0
and
under
1. 10

1

6
6

3
3

1

_

4
2

4

5
5

4

"

2

$
2 . 10

$
2 . 20

$
2. 30

1 . 40

$
2 . 50

$
2. 60

$
2. 70

1 . 80

2. 90

$
3. 00

$
3 . 10

2 . 10

2 . 20

2. 30

2. 40

2 . 50

2 . 60

2. 70

2. 80

2. 90

3. 00

3 . 10

3. 20

1

1
1

3

1

2. 00

5

5
5

"

$

_

"

"

9

2

“

_

.

1

"

3

"

.

.

12
12

31

1
1

-

_

8

"

-

-

-

-

-

-

.

I
M e c h a n i c s , a u t o m o t i v e ( m a i n t e n a n c e ) _____________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ______________________________________

67
59

2. 28
2 . 31

M e c h a n i c s , m a i n t e n a n c e ------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ___________________________________________

38
28

2. 08
1 .9 7

“

“

.

_

_

.

4
1

“

“

_

5
5

|

2
2

2

2

2

1

6
5

2
2

'

4

5
5

10
10

_

.

_

29

1
1

2

6
~

“

.

4
4

~

-

6

1

5
1

i_

1 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m pay f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s .




_

_

_

_

_

7
Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s stu d ie d on an a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s tr y d i v is i o n , R a le ig h , N. C . , S e p t e m b e r I96 0 )
N U M B E R OF W O RK EB S RECE IVIN G S T R A IG H T-TIM E H OURLY EA RN IN G S OF—

O c c u p a t io n 1 and in d u s tr y d iv is io n

of
workers

J a n i t o r s , p o r t e r s , and c l e a n e r s (m en ) _______
M a n u fa ctu r in g _ ____ __ _____________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _____________________________
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 3 ___________________________

172
63
109
23

hourly

earnings6

$1.
1.
1.
1.

$

0. 70
and
u n d er
. 80

$

0. 80

$

0. 90

$

1. 10

1. 00

1. 10

39
17
22
1

40
18
22
-

19
25
16
54

18
18

3
3
"

3
3

_____

50

1. 04

4

9

-

140
75
65

1. 37
1. 26
1 .4 8

_

_

_

-

-

-

O r d e r f i l l e r s ----------------------- -------------------------------N on m a n u fa c tu rin g _________ _________________

96
93

1. 55
1. 56

P a c k e r s , sh ip p in g _________________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g __________________________________

22
16

R e c e iv in g c l e r k s ___________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _____________________________
S h ippin g and r e c e iv in g c l e r k s

-

1. 00

. 90

L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l h a n d lin g ___________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g
_________________________________
N on m a n u fa c tu rin g _____________ __ ----------------

J a n i t o r s , p o r t e r s , and c l e a n e r s (w o m e n )

$

1. 20

$

1. 20
1. 30

20
10
10
3

$

1. 30
1 .4 0

19
7
12
6

$

1 .4 0
1. 50

10
1
9
6

$

1. 50
1. 60

-

$

1 .6 0
1 .7 0

4
4
1

1 .8 0
1. 90

$

1. 90
2. 00

$

2. 00

$
2. 10

2. 10

2. 20

$

2. 20
2. 30

-

-

5
5

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

10
10

5
5

15
1
14

11
11

_
-

_

_

-

-

4
4

3
3

9
7

10
10

5
5

15
15

10
10

35
35

_

_

_

6
4

4
4

-

4
4

_

-

-

-

-

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

5
2

5
4

6
-

1
1

1
1

-

4
3

2
2

3
2

-

3

7

-

1

.

_

_

.

-

-

-

-

_

-

6
2

-

-

32
19

1 .7 2
1 .8 5

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

1
"

15

1 .8 5

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

T r u c k d r iv e r s 4
________________ _________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g _________________ ______________
N on m a n u fa c tu rin g --- -------------------------------------

72
16
56

1 .4 2
1. 27
1 .4 6

_

_

2

"

-

-

13
1
12

12
1
11

4
4

1
1

2

18
5
13

4
4
~

T r u c k d r i v e r s , lig h t (u n d er I V e t o n s) _______

18

1. 20

_

_

_

11

3

-

2

_

1

T r u c k d r i v e r s , m e d iu m ( 1 1 /z to and
in c lu d in g 4 t o n s)
___________ ____ ______
N on m a n u fa c tu rin g _______ ________________

34
30

1. 57
1 .6 1

-

-

1
1

7
7

1

7
7

2

1

-

~

“

T r u c k e r s , p o w e r (f o r k lif t ) _______________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g _________________ ______________

37
18

1. 59
1 .4 4

-

-

_

-

-

2

5
5

_

"

6
3

-

-

2
2

W a tch m e n

21

1. 15

1

_

_

9

3

2

4

1

1

_

D ata lim it e d to m e n w o r k e r s e x c e p t w h e re o t h e r w is e in d ic a t e d .
E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o l id a y s , and la te s h ift s .
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o th e r p u b lic u t il it i e s .
I n clu d e s a ll d r iv e r s r e g a r d le s s o f s iz e and ty p e o f t r u c k o p e r a t e d .

2

"

5

_

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

4

-

“

-

-

-

-

“

2
2

2
2

-

-

-

1

1

13

_

-

-

1
1

3
3

“

~

1
1

-

-

_

-

-

-

1

-

-

and
over

_

16
2
14

"

2 .4 0

-

_

_

$

"

21
8
13

1. 30
1. 37

2 .4 0

"

_

_

2. 30

-

14
11
3

-

$

5
-

31
28
3

-




11
10
1
1

$

33

_

1
2
3
4

1 .8 0

3

_

_________________________________________

1 .7 0

17
14
3

-

__________________

$

13

4

-

-

-

1
1

1
1

-

-

13
13

-

-

-

18

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

6

_

_

“
-




B : Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions

8

Table B-l. Shift Differentials
(S h ift d i ff e r e n t ia l s o f m a n u fa ctu rin g plant w o r k e r s b y ty p e and am ou n t o f d iff e r e n t ia l,
R a le ig h , N . C . , S e p t e m b e r I960)
P e r c e n t o f m a n u fa ctu rin g p la n t w o r k e r s —
In e s t a b lis h m e n t s h a vin g fo r m a l
p r o v is io n s 1 fo r—

Shift d iff e r e n t ia l

A c t u a lly w o r k in g on—

S e co n d sh ift
w ork

72. 4

6 1 .1

14. 9

1 1 .2

-------- — —

25. 9

2 8. 8

4. 7

2. 1

--------------------------------------

9 .2

12. 1

2. 2

2. 1

5 c e n ts ----------------------------------------------------------------10 ce n t s ------------------- -----------------------------------------13V 3 ce n t s ---------------------------------------------------------15 c e n ts ------------- -------- ------- — --------------------

T ota l

T h ir d o r o t h e r
sh ift w o r k

2. 2
7. 0

------------------ -------------------------------------------------------------

W ith sh ift pay d i ff e r e n t ia l

U n ifo r m c e n ts (p e r h ou r)

U n ifo r m p e r c e n t a g e

10 p e r c e n t

------------------

T h ir d o r o t h e r
sh ift

2. 1
-

-

2. 2

2. 2
-

16. 7

16. 7

2. 5

-

---------------------------

16. 7

1 6 .7

2. 5

-

----------------------------------------------

46. 5

32. 3

10. 2

-------------

-------------------------------

-----------------------------

N o sh ift p a y d i ff e r e n t ia l

7. 7
2. 3

S e co n d sh ift

1
I n c lu d e s e s t a b lis h m e n t s c u r r e n t ly o p e r a t in g la te
th ou g h th ey w e r e not c u r r e n t ly o p e r a t in g la te s h ift s .

-

s h ift s ,

and e s t a b lis h m e n t s w ith fo r m a l p r o v is i o n s

9. 1

c o v e r i n g la te s h ift s ev e n

9
Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salaries for W om en O ffice W orkers
( D i s t r i b u t i o n o f e s t a b l is h m e n t s s t u d ie d in a ll i n d u s t r ie s an d in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y m in im u m e n t r a n c e s a la r y f o r s e l e c t e d c a t e g o r i e s
o f i n e x p e r i e n c e d w o m e n o f f i c e w o r k e r s , R a le i g h , N . C . , S e p t e m b e r I9 6 0 )
O th er in e x p e r ie n c e d c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s 2

I n e x p e r ie n c e d ty p is ts
M a n u fa c t u r in g
M in im u m w e e k l y s a l a r y 1

A ll

M a n u fa c t u r in g

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g
A ll
i n d u s t r ie s

B a s e d on sta n d a rd w e e k ly h o u r s 3 o f—
A ll
s c h e d u le s

40

A ll
s c h e d u le s

3 8 3/4

40

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

B a s e d on sta n d a rd w e e k ly h o u r s 3 o f—
A ll
s c h e d u le s

A ll
s c h e d u le s

40

3 8 3/4

40

62

22

XXX

40

XXX

XXX

62

22

XXX

40

XXX

XXX

20

6

5

14

3

7

35

12

10

23

3

12

1
2
5

1
-

1
2
5

1
1
1
2
8

2

1
1

1
1

1
1

_
1
1
1
_
-

1
_
_
6

2

1
3
1
1
1
-

-

3

1
1
1
-

2
1

2

1
1
-

-

-

-

---------------------

3

-

XX X

3

E s t a b li s h m e n t s w h ic h d id n ot e m p l o y w o r k e r s in
t h is c a t e g o r y ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

39

16

XX X

23

E s t a b li s h m e n t s s t u d ie d

-----------------------------------------------------------------

E s t a b li s h m e n t s h a v in g a s p e c i f i e d m in im u m

$ 3 0 .0 0
$ 3 2 . 50
$ 3 5 .0 0
$ 3 7 . 50
$ 4 0 .0 0
$ 4 2 .5 0
$ 4 5 .0 0
$ 4 7 .5 0
$ 5 0 .0 0
$ 5 2 .5 0
$ 5 5 .0 0
$ 5 7 .5 0

and
and
an d
and
an d
an d
an d
and
an d
an d
and
and

under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under
under

$ 3 2 .5 0
$ 3 5 .0 0
$ 3 7 .5 0
$ 4 0 . 00
$ 4 2 . 50
$ 4 5 .0 0
$ 4 7 .5 0
$ 5 0 .0 0
$ 5 2 .5 0
$ 5 5 .0 0
$ 5 7 .5 0
$ 6 0 . 00

-------------------------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------____________________________________
____________________________________
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

E s t a b li s h m e n t s h a v in g n o s p e c i f i e d m in im u m

3
2

2

1
2

1
-

1
1
1
2
10
4

1
1
-

3
4

4

2

2

2
1
_
_

"

5
1
1

XXX

XXX

10

4

XXX

6

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

17

6

XXX

11

XX X

XXX

2

L o w e s t s a la r y r a t e f o r m a l l y e s t a b l is h e d f o r h i r in g i n e x p e r i e n c e d w o r k e r s f o r ty p in g o r o t h e r c l e r i c a l j o b s .
R a t e s a p p l ic a b l e t o m e s s e n g e r s , o f f i c e g i r l s , o r s i m i l a r s u b c l e r i c a l j o b s a r e n ot c o n s i d e r e d .
H o u r s r e f l e c t th e w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e t h e ir r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r i e s .
D a ta a r e p r e s e n t e d f o r a ll w o r k w e e k s c o m b in e d ,




2

6
1
7
1
1

1
1

1
.
-

an d f o r th e m o s t c o m m o n w o r k w e e k s r e p o r t e d .

10

Table B-3. Scheduled Weekly Hours
( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o f f i c e an d p la n t w o r k e r s in a l l in d u s t r ie s and in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y s c h e d u l e d w e e k l y h o u r s
o f f i r s t - s h i f t w o r k e r s , R a le ig h , N . C . , S e p t e m b e r I9 6 0 )
O F FICE W O R K E R S

PLAN T W ORKERS

Weekly hours
All industries*

All workers

--------------------------------------------------------

35 hours ------------------------------------------------------------Over 35 and under 383/4 hours ----------------------383/4 hours --------------------------------------------------------39 hours -------------------------------------------------------- —
40 hours --------------------------------------------------- ------Over 40 and under 44 hours ---------------------------44 hours --------- ------------------------------------------------Over 44 and under 48 hours ---------------------------48 hours ------------------- --------------------------------------Over 48 hours ----------------------------------------------------

1
2
3
4

100
10
11
17
(4)
52
3
1
4
1
(4)

M anufacturing

Public utilities2

100

100

15

1
7

-

-

1
67
12
3
1
2

-

92
-

-

All industries3

Manufacturing

100

100

100

4
-

7

3
71
3
4
8
5
3

-

_
_
98
_
_
2
-

I n c l u d e s d a t a f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; fi n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e ; an d s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n to t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t io n , and o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s .
I n c l u d e s d a ta f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e , r e t a i l t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , and s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n t o t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
L e s s th a n 0. 5 p e r c e n t .




Public utilities2

-

89
-

3
-

1

11
Table B-4. Paid Holidays
( P e r c e n t d i s t r ib u t io n o f o f f i c e a n d p la n t w o r k e r s in a l l in d u s t r ie s a n d in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y n u m b e r o f p a id h o l id a y s
p r o v i d e d a n n u a lly , R a le i g h , N . C . , S e p t e m b e r I9 6 0 )
PLAN T W ORKERS

O F FIC E W O R K E R S

Item
All industries 1

A ll w o rk e r s

_________________________________________

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r o v id i n g
p a id h o l id a y s
_____________________________________
W o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r o v id i n g
n o p a id h o l id a y s ______________ _________________

M anufacturing

Public utilities 2

All industries3

100

100

100

96

98

89

4

2

11

_

_
-

2

100

M anufacturing

Public utilities2

100

100

64

53

83

36

47

17

_

_
4
14
65
'

Number, off days
h o l id a y --------------------- -------- -------------------------------h o l id a y s ________________________ _________________
3 h o l id a y s
___________________________________________
4 h o l id a y s
___________________________________________
5 h o l id a y s
___________________ __ --------------------------5 h o l id a y s p lu s 1 h a lf d a y ________________________
6 h o l id a y s
___________ _____ __ -------------------------7 h o l id a y s
___________ _____ __ --------------------------7 h o l id a y s p lu s 1 h a lf d a y ------------------------------------8 h o l id a y s
___________________________________________
8 h o l id a y s p lu s 1 h a lf d a y -------------------------------1 1 h o l id a y s
---------------------- -------------------------------------1

2

(4 )
1

4
19
1

16
34
3

4
8

27
38

(4 )
11

1

2

6

12

3

3
7
-

12

17

11

5
5

-

17
-

'

8

22

-

77
"

"

'

22

1

Total holiday time5
d a y s ____________ ________________________________
V 2 o r m o r e d a y s __________ __ --------------------------o r m o r e d a y s -------------------------------------------------------7 1/ 2 o r m o r e d a y s --------------------------------------------------7 o r m o r e d a y s _________________________ __________
6 o r m o r e d a y s _____________________________________
5 V2 o r m o r e d a y s
_________________________________
5 o r m o r e d a y s ____________________________________
4 o r m o r e d a y s ___________________________________
3 o r m o r e d a y s ____________________________________
2 o r m o r e d a y s ____________________________________
1 o r m o r e d a y s ____________________________________
11

8
8

1
2
3
4
5
n o h a lf

5

_

_

_

_

10

-

-

21

-

55
71
72
92
95
96
96
96

60
60
87
95
98
98
98

17
28
28
35
38
50
53
53

18

22

77
89
89
89
89
89
89
89

1
1

23
40
40
52
55
61
62
64

65
79
79
83
83
83
83
83

I n c lu d e s d a ta f o r w h o le s a l e t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; f i n a n c e , in s u r a n c e , an d r e a l e s t a t e ; a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n to t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s sh o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t io n , an d o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s .
I n c lu d e s d a ta f o r w h o le s a l e t r a d e , r e t a i l t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , a n d s e r v i c e s in a d d it io n t o t h o s e in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
L e s s th a n 0. 5 p e r c e n t .
A l l c o m b in a t i o n s o f f u l l an d h a lf d a y s th a t a d d to th e s a m e a m o u n t a r e c o m b in e d ; f o r e x a m p l e , th e p r o p o r t i o n o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g a t o t a l o f 7 d a y s in c lu d e s t h o s e w ith 7 f u l l d a y s and
d a y s , 6 fu l l d a y s a n d 2 h a lf d a y s , 5 f u l l d a y s a n d 4 h a lf d a y s , a n d s o o n .
P r o p o r t i o n s w e r e t h e n c u m u la t e d .




12

Table B-5. Paid Vacations
(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, Raleigh, N. C. , September I960)
OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

V acation p olicy
All industries*

A ll w o r k e r s _________________________________________

M
anufacturing

Public utilities2

All industries3

M
anufacturing

Public utilities2

100

100

100

100

100

100

100
100

100
98
2

100
100
-

93
78
13
2
-

88
61
27

100
100

-

_

_

7

12

-

5
15
-

11
9
_

(4)

-

Method of paymont
W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts p rovidin g
paid v a catio n s --------------------------------------------------------L e n g t h -o f-tim e p a y m e n t _______________________
P er c en ta g e paym ent -----------------------------------------F la t -s u m p a y m e n t ----------------------------------------------Othe r ______________________________________________
W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts p roviding
no paid v a catio n s __________________________ _____

(4)
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

■

1
36
14
3

6
38
_

-

Amount of vacation p a y 5
A fte r 6 m onths o f s e r v ic e
Under 1 w eek ________________________________________
1 w eek
O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s _________________________
2 w eek s ________________________________________________

(4)

_
82
_
1

_
45
_
1

A fte r 1 ye ar of s e r v ic e
Under 1 w eek ________________________________________
1 w eek _________________________________________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s _________________________
2 w eeks ________________________________________________

_
19
1
80

_
29
4
65

_
23

2
65

_
76

-

-

•-

77

25

11

2
40
16
35

60
17
11

2
28
12
50

49
17
23

_
_

75

25

A fte r 2 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
Under 1 w eek ________________________________________
1 w eek _________________________________________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s _________________________
2 w eeks ________________________________________________

_
12
3
85

_
26
9
65

_
8
8
84

_

_
10
39
51

A fte r 3 y e a r s of se r v ic e
Under 1 w eek ________________________________________
1 w eek _________________________________________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w eeks _________________________
2 w eeks ________________________________________________

_
8
1
90

_
19
9
72

_
8
-

92

_

_
10
17
73

A fte r 5 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
Under 1 w eek ________________________________________
1 w eek _________________________________________________
O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s _________________________
2 w e e k s _______ ________________________________________
O ver 2 and under 3 w eeks --------------------------------------

See footnotes at end of table.




_
5
1
90
5

_
11
4
85

_
-

100

2
14
5
67
5

_
28
-

54
6

_
_
17
83

13
Table B-5. Paid Vacations-Continued
(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, Raleigh, N. C. , September I960)
O F FICE W O R K E R S

PLAN T W O RK ERS

V a c a tio n p o lic y
All industries

1

M anufacturing

Public utilities 2

All industries3

M anufacturing

Public utilities2

Amount of vacation p a y 5— Continued
A fte r 10 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
Under 1 w eek ________ _________ _____ _____ __
1 w eek
_______________ _________ _________________
O v e r 1 and under 2 w eeks _ __ _________________
2 w eeks __ __________________ _____________________
O v e r 2 and under 3 w eeks _ _________ __________
3 w eeks
______________ __ „ _____________________

_

_

5
62
5
28

11
71
4
14

_
100
-

2
14
2
64
11

_
28
_
52
8

_
_
100
-

A fte r 15 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
Under 1 w eek
______________________________________
1 w eek
________ _____ __ _____ ___________ ______
O v e r 1 and under 2 w eeks ____ __ _______ ____
2 w eeks ___ _____________________ ____ _________
O ve r 2 and under 3 w eeks _______________________
3 w eeks

_

_

5
-

11
48
4
36

33
1
61

_
17
83

2
14
2
41
34

_
28
33
27

_
24
_
76

A fte r 20 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
Under 1 w eek ________________________ _____________
1 w eek
_______________________ _____________________
O ve r 1 and under 2 w eeks ________________________
2 w eeks ______________________________________ ______
O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s _________ _____________
3 w eeks _______________________________________________
4 w eeks ____ ____________________ _________________

_

_

_

5

11
34
4
51

17
83

1
0

-

_

_
11
34

31
1
54

2

_

_

38
34

28
26
34

24
76

-

3

-

-

_
-

2

_

14

28
26
34

_
24
51
25

14

2

A fte r 25 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
Under 1 w eek _______________________________________
1 w eek ____________________________ _____________ __
O ve r 1 and under 2 w eeks ___________________ _
2 w eeks
_____________ __ ____________________ __
O ver 2 and under 3 w eeks ____________
________
3 w eeks __________________ _________________________
4 w eeks ______________ ___ ___ ___ ____ __ ________

1
2
3
4
5
service

5
28

17

1

4

-

48
18

47
4

77
7

2
38
27
10

Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Less than 0. 5 percent.
Periods of service were arbitrarily chosen and do not necessarily reflect the individual provisions for progressions.
For example, the changes in proportions indicated at 10 y ea rs'
include changes in provisions occurring between 5 and 10 years.

NOTE: In the tabulations of vacation allowances by years of service, payments other than "length of tim e " such as percentage of annual earnings or flat-su m payments, were converted
to an equivalent time basis; for example, a payment of 2 percent of annual earnings was considered as 1 week's pay.




14
Table B-6. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
(P e r c e n t o f o ffic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u strie s and in in du stry d iv isio n s em ployed in e sta b lish m e n ts providin g
h ealth, in su ran ce , or p en sion b e n e fits, R a leigh , N . C . , S ep te m b er I960)
O F F IC E W O R K E R S

PLAN T W O RK ERS

Type of b en efit
AH industries1

A ll w o r k e r s

-------------------------------------------------------------

M anufacturing

Public u tilities2

A11 industries3

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

100

100

100

95

96

82

80

86

66

73

59

70

55

60

44

100

100

100

W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts p rovid in g:
L ife in su ran ce -------------------------------------------------A cc id en ta l death and d ism e m b e r m e n t
in su ran ce --------------------------------------------------------S ick n ess and accid en t in su ran ce or
s ic k le a v e or b o th 4 --------------- ---------------------S ick n ess and accid en t in su ra n ce -----------Sick le a v e (fu ll pay and no
waiting period) ----------------------------------------Sick le a v e (p a rtia l pay or
waiting period) --------------------- --------------- H osp ita liza tio n in su ran ce --------------- --------- S u rg ic a l in su ran ce -----------------------------------------M e d ic a l in su ran ce -------------------------------- --------C ata strop h e in su ran ce ----------------------------------R e tire m e n t pen sion ----------------------------------------No health, in su ra n ce , or p en sion plan -----

84

81

92

68

58

70

46

59

66

42

53

33

53

52

34

22

10'

32

13

-

7

11

2

25

95
95
45
30
65

82
82
73
73
69

81
81
51
24
42
8

89
89
52
19
30
9

58
58
55
51
46

95
95
71
61
84
( 5)

2

1 In clud es data fo r w h o le sa le tra d e ; r e ta il t r a d e ; finance, in su ra n ce , and r e a l e sta te ; and s e r v ic e s in addition to those in du stry d iv isio n s shown se p a r a te ly .
2 T ra n sp o rta tio n , com m u n ication , and oth er public u tilitie s .
3 In cludes data fo r w h o le sa le tra d e , r e ta il tra d e , r e a l e sta te , and s e r v ic e s in addition to th ose in du stry d iv isio n s shown s e p a r a te ly .
4 U nduplicated total of w o r k e r s rec e iv in g sic k le a v e or s ic k n e ss and accid en t in su ran ce shown se p a ra tely b elo w .
S ic k -le a v e p lans a re lim ite d to those w hich d efin ite ly e sta b lish at le a st
the m in im u m num b er of d ays' pay that can be ex pected by each e m p lo y e e . In form al s ic k -le a v e allo w a n c es d eterm in ed on an individual b a s is a r e ex clu d ed .
5 L e s s than 0. 5 p e r c e n t.




15

Appendix:

Occupational Descriptions

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to a ssist its
field staff in classifyin g into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau's field economists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers,
part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.
O F F IC E

BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statements, b ills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerica l work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
cla ssified by type of machine, as follow s:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record o f business transactions.

Biller, machine (billing machine) — Uses a special billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, e tc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon cop ies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.

Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine) — Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrarid, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, e tc ., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) tp prepare customers*
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types o f sales and
credit slip s.




Class A — Keeps a set o f records requiring a knowledge o f
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance
sheets, and other records by hand.
Class B— Keeps a record o f one or more phases or sections of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping.
Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type o f billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or a ssist in preparation o f trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.

CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A — Under general direction o f a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more section s o f a com­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase o f an establish­
ment's business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

16

CLERK, ACCOUNTING— Continued
payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper a c ­
counting distribution; requires judgment and experience in making
proper assignations and allocation s. May a ssist in preparing, ad­
justing and closin g journal entries; may direct cla ss B accounting
clerks.
C la s s B — Under supervision, performs one or more routine a c ­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or a c ­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data. This
job does not require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping
principles but is found in offices in which the more routine account­
ing work is subdivided on a functional basis among several workers.

CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the n eces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers'
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker's name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and a ssist paymaster in making up and distribut­
ing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

CLERK, FILE
C la s s A — In an established filing system containing a num­
ber of varied subject matter file s , cla ssifie s and indexes corres­
pondence or other material; may also file this material. May keep
records of various types in conjunction with files or may super­
vise others in filing and locating material in the file s . May per­
form incidental clerical duties.
C la s s B — Performs routine filing, usually of material that has
already been cla ssified or which is easily identifiable, or locates
or a ssists in locating material in file s. May perform incidental
clerica l duties.

CLERK, ORDER
R eceives custom ers'orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any com bination o f the fo llo w in g :
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; distributing order sheets to respective departments to be filled .
May check with credit department to determine credit rating of customer,
acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders to see
that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check ship­
ping invoices with original orders.




DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OK DITTO)
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
b ilities, reproduces multiple cop ies o f typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare sten cil or Ditto master. May keep file of used sten cils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
b ilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards by
punching a series of holes in the cards in a sp ecified sequence, using
an alphabetical or a numerical keypunch machine, following written in­
formation on records. May duplicate cards by using the duplicating de­
vice attached to machine. May keep files of punch cards. May verify
own work or work of others.

OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands, op­
erating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and
distributing mail, and other minor clerica l work.

17

SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerica l duties for a superior in an ad­
ministrative or executive position. Duties include making appointments
for superior; receiving people coming into o ffice ; answering and making
phone ca lls; handling personal and important or confidential mail, and
writing routine correspondence on own initiative; taking dictation (where
transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded information
reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare special reports or
memorandums for information of superior.

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a nor­
mal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter.
May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep file s in or­
der, keep simple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine
work (see transcribing-machine operator).

STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a varied
technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on
scien tific research and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter. May
also type from written copy. May also set up and keep files in order,
keep simple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or o ffice ca lls .
May record toll ca lls and take m essages. May give information to per­
sons who ca ll in, or occasion ally take telephone orders. For workers
who also act as receptionists see switchboard operator-receptionist.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single p o si­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may a lso type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. This typing
or clerica l work may take the major part o f this worker's time while at
switchboard.




TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Class A — Operates a variety of tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignments without clo se supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating sequences of long and complex reports.
Does not include working supervisors performing tabulating-machine
operations and day-to-day supervision of the work and production of
a group of tabulating-machine operators.
Class B— Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter,,reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under
sp e cific instructions and may include the performance of some wir­
ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but
small tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and s tu d ie s are u s u a lly of a recu rrin g nature w here
the procedures are well established. May a lso include the training
of new employees in the basic operation of the machine.
Class C— Operates simple tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with sp e cific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs, or re­
petitive operations.

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May a lso type from written
copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation in­
volving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal briefs
or reports on scien tific research are not included. A worker who takes
dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is classified
as a stenographer, general.

18

TYPIST

TYPIST— Continued

Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to make
out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May in­
clude typing of ste n cils , mats, or similar materials for use in duplicat­
ing p rocesses. May do clerica l work involving little sp ecia l training,
such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting
and distributing incoming mail.

Class A — Performs one or more o f the following: Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punc-

tuation, etc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; planning layout and typing of complicated statistical tables
to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine
form letters varying details to suit circum stances.

Class B— Performs one or more o f the following: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing o f forms, insurance p o licie s,
e tc.; setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying more com­
plex tables already set up and spaced properly.

P R O F E SSIO N A L AND T E C H N IC A L

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued

Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.

involved in strength of materials, beams and trusses; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quantities;
writing specification s; making adjustments or changes in drawings or
specification s. May ink in lines and letters on pencil drawings, prepare
detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings. Work is frequently
in a specialized field such as architectural, electrical, mechanical, or
structural drafting.

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)

Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration of working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Duties
involve a combination o f the following: Interpreting blueprints, sketches,
and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures; assigning
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problems. May a ssist subordinates during emergencies or as a
regular assignment, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
ministrative nature.

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
p oses. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Preparing work­
ing plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-section s, e tc., to sca le by use
of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as those




A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of em ployees' injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants
and employees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.

TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or p en cil. Uses
T-square, com pass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

19

MAINTENANCE

D P O W E R PL A N T

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’ s handtools, portable
power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; selecting materials n ec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or a ssist in repairing boilerroom equipment.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, d is­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specification s; locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c ­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; using a variety of
electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In gen­
eral, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may a lso supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, motors
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a record of
operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May also
supervise these operations. Head or ch ief engineers in establishments

employing more than one engineer are excluded.




HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
A ssists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing sp ecific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are a lso performed by workers on a full-time basis.

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools, gauges,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most o f the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making necessary adjustments during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils . For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool ^operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this cla ssifica tion .

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following: Interpreting written instructions and
specification s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
chinist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and

20

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued

MILLWRIGHT— Continued

operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to clo se toler­
ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assembling parts into me­
chanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally requires
a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

are required. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specification s; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment, and parts
to be used; installing and maintaining in good order power transmission
equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the mill­
wright’ s work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an e s ­
tablishment. Work involves most o f the following: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assem blies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; alining wheels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves most o f the following: Examining machines and mechan­
ica l equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly d is­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replace­
ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop
for major repairs; preparing written specification s for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling ma­
chines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In general,
the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classification are workers
whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.

MILLWRIGHT
Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout




OILER
Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, o ils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper
color or con sistency. In general, the work of the maintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipe fittings in an establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other written specification s; cutting various size s of pipe to correct
lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with stocks and d ies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to pressures,
flow , and size of pipe required; making standard tests to determine
whether finished pipes meet specification s. In general, the work of the
maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training aud experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building

sanitation or heating systems are excluded.

21

TOOL AND DIE MAKER

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake. In
general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience'usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishment. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, models,
or other specification s; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; installing sheetmetal articles as required. In general, the work of the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most o f the following: Planning and laying out of work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specification s;
using a variety of tool and die maker’ s handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding of the working properties of common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
o f work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to clo se tolerances; fitting and assembling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selecting appropriate
materials, tools, and p rocesses. In general, the tool and die maker’ s
work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this cla ssifica tion .

C U S T O D IA L A N D M A T E R IA L M O V E M E N T

ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued

Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Workers
who specialize in window washing are excluded.

GUARD
Performs routine p olice duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gate-

men who are stationed at gate and check on identity o f employees and
other persons entering.

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial




LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more o f the follow­
ing: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or

22

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING— Continued

from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting d evices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; trans­
porting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.

Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded .
ORDER FILLER

(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slip s, customers’
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating items filled or omitted, keep records o f outgoing orders, requisi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued

For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified as follow s:

Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
TRUCKDRIVER

Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of estab­
lishments such a s : Manufacturing plants, freight d ep ots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers’ houses or places of business. May a lso load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. D river-salesm en and over-the-road drivers

are excluded .

PACKER, SHIPPING

Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the sp ecific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, siz e, and number o f units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or more o f
the following: Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify
content; selection of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closin g and sealing container; applying labels or
entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make wooden

boxes or crates are excluded .
SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK

Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­
sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or’ other materials. Shipping
work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes,
available means of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or a ssist in
preparing the merchandise for shipment. Receiving work involves: Veri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipments against
bills of lading, in v oices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing merchandise or materials to proper de­
partments; maintaining necessary records and file s .




For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are cla ssified by size
and type o f equipment, as follow s: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis o f trailer capacity.)

Truckdriver (combination o f sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under l l2 tons)
/
Truckdriver, medium ( l l2 to and including 4 tons)
/
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)
TRUCKER, POWER

Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified by type of
truck, as follow s:

Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)
WATCHMAN

Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.
* U .S . G O V E R N M E N T P R I N T I N G O F F I C E : 1 9 6 0 0 — 5 6 9 9 9 0

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Occupational Wage Surveys
Occupational wage surveys will be conducted in the 82 major labor markets listed below during late I960 and early 1961. Bulletins, when available, may be
purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C., or from any of the BLS regional sales offices shown on the
inside front cover.

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A summary bulletin containing data for 80 labor markets, combined with additional analysis, will be issued early in 1962.
Akron, Ohio— Bull. 1285Albany—
Schenectady-Troy, N.Y.— Bull. 1285Albuquerque, N. Mex.— Bull. 1285Allentown-Bethlehem—
Easton,
P a .-N .J .— Bull. 1285Atlanta, Ga.— Bull. 1285Baltimore, Md.— Bull. 1285Beaumont—
Port Arthur, Tex.-—Bull. 1285Birmingham, Ala.-—Bull. 1285-

Green Bay, Wis.— Bull. 1285-2
Greenville, S.C.— Bull. 1285Houston, T e x . — Bull. 1285Indianapolis, Ind.— Bull. 1285Jackson, Miss.— Bull. 1285J a c k s o n v il le , F l a . — B u ll. 1285Kansas City, M o.-Kans.— Bull. 1285Lawrence—
Haverhill, Mass.—
N.H.— Bull. 1285Little Rock—
North Little Rock, Ark.— Bull. 1285-6

Pittsburgh, Pa.-—Bull. 1285Portland, Maine— Bull. 1285Portland, Oreg. —
Wash.— Bull. 1285Providence—
Pawtucket, R .I.—
Mass.— Bull. 1285Raleigh, N .C.-^Bull. 1285-5
Richmond, Va.— Bull. 1285Rockford, 111.— Bull. 1285St. Louis, M o.-Ill.— Bull. 1285Salt Lake City, Utah— Buli. 1285-

Boise, Idaho— Bull. 1285Boston, Mass.— Bull. 1285Buffalo, N .Y .— Bull. 1285Burlington, V t.— Bull. 1285Canton, Ohio— Bull. 1285Charleston, W. Va.— Bull. 1285Charlotte, N .C .— Bull. 1285Chattanooga, Tenn.—
Ga.— Bull. 1285Chicago, 111.— Bull. 1285-

Los Angeles—
Long Beach, Calif.— Bull. 1285Louisville, Ky.—
Ind.— Bull. 1285Lubbock, Tex.— Bull. 1285Manchester, N.H.— B u il. 1285-1
Memphis, Tenn.— B u ll. 1285M iam i, F l a . — Bull. 1285Milwaukee, Wis.— Bull. 1285Minneapolis— Paul, Minn.— Bull. 1285St.
Muskegon—
Muskegon Heights, Mich.— Bull. 1285-

San Antonio, Tex.-—Bull. 1285San Bernardino—
Riverside—
Ontario,
C alif.— Bull. 1285-4
San Francisco—
Oakland, C alif.— Bull. 1285Savannah, Ga.— Bull. 1285Scranton, Pa.— Bull. 1285Seattle, Wash.— Bull. 1285-7
Sioux Falls, S. Dak.— Bull. 1285South Bend, Ind.— Bull. 1285-

Cincinnati, Ohio—
Ky.— Bull. 1285Cleveland, Ohio— Bull. 1285Columbus, Ohio-— Bull, i 285Dallas, Tex.— Bull. 1285Davenport—
Rock Island—
Moline, Iowa—
111.—
Bull. 1285Dayton, Ohio— Bull. 1285Denver, Colo.-—Bull. 1285“
Des Moines, Iowa— Bull. 1285Detroit, Mich.-—Bull. 1285Fort Worth, Tex.— Buil. 1285-

Newarkand Jersey City, N.J.— B u ll. 1285New Haven, Conn.— B u ll. 1285New Orleans, La.— Bull. 1285-

Spokane, Wash.— Bull. 1285Toledo, Ohio— Bull. 1285Trenton, N.J.— Bull. 1285Washington, D.C.—
Md.—
Va.-—Bull. 1285Waterbury, Conn.— Bull. 1285Waterloo, Iowa— Bull. 1285Wichita, Kans.— Bull. 1285Wilmington, D ei.—
N.J.— Bull. 1285Worcester, Mass.— Bull. 1285York, Pa ___Bull. 1285-




N ew Y ork , N .Y .— B u ll. 1285N o r fo lk —P ortsm outh and N ew p ort N ew s —

Hampton, Va.— Bull. 1285Oklahoma City, Okla.— Bull. 1285-3
Omaha, Nebr.—
Iowa— Bull. 1285Paterson—
Clifton—
Passaic, N.J.— Bull. 1285Philadelphia, Pa.— Bull. 1285Phoenix, Ariz.— Bull. 1285-

An asterisk preceding a labor market indicates the availability and
price of the bulletin.
Please do not order copies in advance.

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102