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Occupational Wage Survey

DETROIT, MICHIGAN
JANUARY 1 9 6 1

Bulletin No. 1285-37




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan C la g u e, Com m issioner




Occupational Wage Survey




DETROIT, MICHIGAN
JA N U A R Y

1961

Bulletin No. 1285-37
M arch

1961

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan C la g u e, Com m issioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, W ashington 25, D.C.

Price 25 cents




Contents

Preface

Page
T h e C o m m u n ity W age S u r v e y P r o g r a m
W age t r e n d s f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n a l g r o u p s ------------------------------------T h e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s r e g u l a r l y c o n d u cts
a r e a w id e w a g e s u r v e y s in a n u m b e r o f im p o r ta n t in d u s t r ia l
c e n t e r s . T h e s t u d ie s , m a d e fr o m la te f a l l to e a r l y s p r in g ,
r e la t e to o c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s and r e la t e d s u p p le m e n ta r y
b e n e fit s . A p r e lim in a r y r e p o r t i s a v a ila b le on co m p le tio n
o f the stu d y in e a c h a r e a , u s u a lly in the m o n th fo llo w in g
the p a y r o ll p e r io d stu d ie d . T h is b u lle tin p r o v id e s a d d itio n a l
d a ta not in c lu d e d in the e a r l i e r r e p o r t .
A c o n s o lid a te d
a n a ly t ic a l b u lle tin s u m m a r iz in g the r e s u l t s o f a l l o f the
y e a r 's s u r v e y s i s is s u e d a f t e r c o m p le tio n o f the fin a l a r e a
b u lle tin fo r the c u r r e n t rou n d o f s u r v e y s .
T h is r e p o r t w a s p r e p a r e d in the B u r e a u 's r e g io n a l
o ffic e in C h ic a g o , 111., b y W o o d ro w C . L in n , u n d e r the d i­
r e c t io n o f G e o r g e E . V o t a v a , A s s is t a n t R e g io n a l D ir e c t o r
f o r W a g e s and I n d u s t r ia l R e la t io n s .




4

T a b le s:

1

.
2.

A:

B:

E s t a b lis h m e n t s and w o r k e r s w ith in s co p e o f s u r v e y __________
P e r c e n t s o f i n c r e a s e in s ta n d a rd w e e k ly s a l a r i e s and
s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n a l
g r o u p s f o r s e le c t e d p e r io d s -----------------------------------------------------

3r

O c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s : *
A - 1.
O ffic e o c c u p a t i o n s ___________________________________
A - 2.
P r o f e s s io n a l and t e c h n ic a l o c c u p a tio n s ________________
A - 3.
M a in te n a n ce and p o w e rp la n t o c c u p a tio n s ______________
A -4 .
C u s t o d ia l and m a t e r ia l m o v e m e n t o c c u p a t i o n s _________

5
10
11
12

E s t a b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and s u p p le m e n ta r y w a g e p r o v is io n s : *
B - l.
S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l s ___ ___
B -2 .
M in im u m e n tr a n c e s a l a r i e s fo r w o m e n o ffic e w o r k e r s _
_
B -3 .
S ch e d u le d w e e k ly h o u r s ______________________________
B -4 .
P a id h o lid a y s _______________________________________
B -5 .
P a id v a c a t i o n s _____
B - 6.
H e a lth , in s u r a n c e , and p e n s io n p l a n s _________________

15
16
17
18
19
21

A p p e n d ix :

O c c u p a tio n a l d e s c r i p t i o n s ----------------------------------------------------

* N O T E : S im ila r ta b u la tio n s a r e a v a ila b le in the D e t r o it
a r e a r e p o r t s fo r D e c e m b e r 19 5 1 , O c to b e r 19 53, O c to b e r
19 5 5, J a n u a ry 1959, and J a n u a ry I960.
M o s t o f the r e ­
p o r t s a ls o in clu d e d a ta on th e s e o r r e la t e d e s t a b lis h m e n t
p r a c t i c e s and s u p p le m e n ta r y w ag e p r o v is io n s .
A d ir e c ­
t o r y in d ic a tin g d a te s of stu d y and the p r ic e o f the r e p o r t s ,
a s w e ll a s r e p o r t s fo r o th e r m a jo r a r e a s , is a v a ila b le
upon r e q u e s t.
C u r r e n t r e p o r t s on o c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s and su p ­
p le m e n t a r y w a g e p r a c t i c e s in the D e t r o it a r e a a r e a ls o
a v a ila b le fo r m is c e lla n e o u s p l a s t ic s p ro d u c ts ( F e b r u a r y
I960), m a c h in e r y ( A p r il I960), flu id m ilk (June I960),
h o t e ls (M a rc h I960), p o w e r la u n d r ie s and d r y c le a n e r s
( A p r il I960), b a n k in g (June I960), and n o n fe r r o u s fo u n d r ie s
(M ay I960).
U nion s c a le s , in d ic a tiv e o f p r e v a ilin g p ay
l e v e l s , a r e a v a ila b le fo r the fo llo w in g t r a d e s o r in d u s t r ie s :
B u ild in g c o n s tr u c tio n , p r in tin g , l o c a l - t r a n s i t o p e r a tin g e m ­
p lo y e e s , and m o t o r t r u c k d r i v e r s and h e lp e r s .
iii

3

23




Occupational Wage Survey—Detroit, Mich.
Introduction
T h is a r e a is one o f s e v e r a l im p o rta n t in d u s t r ia l c e n t e r s in
w h ich the U. S. D e p a r tm e n t o f L a b o r s B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s has
co n d u cted s u r v e y s o f o c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s and r e la t e d w a g e b e n e fits
on an a r e a w id e b a s is . In th is a r e a , d a ta w e r e o b ta in e d b y p e r s o n a l
v i s i t s o f B u r e a u f ie ld e c o n o m is ts to r e p r e s e n t a t iv e e s ta b lis h m e n ts
w ith in s ix t^ o a d in d u s tr y d iv is io n s :
M a n u fa c tu rin g ; t r a n s p o r t a t io n ,1
c o m m u n ic a tio n , and o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s ; w h o le s a le tr a d e ; r e t a il
t r a d e ; fin a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a te ; and s e r v i c e s . M a jo r in ­
d u s t r y g r o u p s e x c lu d e d fr o m th e s e s tu d ie s a r e g o v e r n m e n t o p e r a tio n s
and the c o n s tr u c tio n and e x t r a c t iv e in d u s t r ie s . E s t a b lis h m e n t s h a v in g
f e w e r than a p r e s c r i b e d n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s a r e o m itte d a ls o b e c a u s e
th e y fu r n is h in s u ff ic ie n t e m p lo y m e n t in th e o c c u p a tio n s s tu d ie d to w a r ­
ra n t in c lu s io n . W h e r e v e r p o s s ib le , s e p a r a te ta b u la tio n s a r e p r o v id e d
f o r e a c h o f the b r o a d in d u s tr y d iv is io n s .
T h e s e s u r v e y s a r e c o n d u cted on a s a m p le b a s is b e c a u s e o f the
u n n e c e s s a r y c o s t in v o lv e d in s u r v e y in g a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s . T o o b tain
a p p r o p r ia te a c c u r a c y a t m in im u m c o s t , a g r e a t e r p r o p o r tio n o f la r g e
than o f s m a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts is stu d ie d . In co m b in in g the d a ta , h o w ­
e v e r , a l l e s t a b lis h m e n t s a r e g iv e n t h e ir a p p r o p r ia te w e ig h t. E s t im a t e s
b a s e d on the e s t a b lis h m e n t s s tu d ie d a r e p r e s e n te d , t h e r e f o r e , a s r e ­
la tin g to a l l e s t a b lis h m e n t s in th e in d u s t r y g ro u p in g and a r e a , e x ­
c e p t f o r th o s e b e lo w the m in im u m s iz e s tu d ie d .
O cc u p a tio n s and E a r n in g s
T h e o c c u p a tio n s s e le c t e d f o r stu d y a r e co m m o n to a v a r ie t y
o f m a n u fa c tu r in g and n o n m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s t r ie s . O c c u p a tio n a l c l a s ­
s if ic a t io n is b a s e d on a u n ifo r m s e t o f jo b d e s c r ip tio n s d e s ig n e d to
ta k e a c c o u n t o f in te r e s ta b lis h m e n t v a r ia t io n in d u tie s w ith in the s a m e
jo b . (See a p p en d ix f o r lis t in g o f t h e s e d e s c r i p t i o n s .) E a r n in g s d a ta a r e
p r e s e n te d (in th e A - s e r i e s ta b le s ) f o r th e fo llo w in g ty p e s o f o c c u p a ­
tio n s : (a) O ffic e c l e r i c a l ; (b) p r o f e s s io n a l and t e c h n ic a l; (c) m a in t e ­
n an ce and p o w e rp la n t; and (d) c u s to d ia l and m a t e r ia l m o v e m e n t.

l a t e s h if t s .
N o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u s e s a r e e x c lu d e d a ls o , but c o s t - o f liv in g b o n u se s and in c e n tiv e e a r n in g s a r e in clu d e d .
W h ere w e e k ly
h o u rs a r e r e p o r te d , a s f o r o ffic e c l e r i c a l o c c u p a tio n s , r e f e r e n c e is
to the w o r k s c h e d u le s (ro u n d ed to th e n e a r e s t h a lf hour) f o r w h ich
s t r a ig h t - t im e s a l a r i e s a r e p aid ; a v e r a g e w e e k ly e a r n in g s f o r th e s e
o c c u p a tio n s h a v e b een ro u n ded to th e n e a r e s t h a lf d o lla r .
A v e r a g e e a r n in g s o f m e n and w o m en a r e p r e s e n te d s e p a r a t e ly
f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s in w h ich b oth s e x e s a r e c o m jn o n ly e m p lo y e d .
D if f e r e n c e s in p a y l e v e l s o f m en and w om en in th e s e o c c u p a tio n s a r e
l a r g e l y due to (1) d if f e r e n c e s in the d is tr ib u tio n o f the s e x e s am o n g
in d u s t r ie s and e s t a b lis h m e n t s ; (2) d if f e r e n c e s in s p e c if ic d u tie s p e r ­
fo r m e d , a lth o u g h the o c c u p a tio n s a r e a p p r o p r ia t e ly c l a s s if ie d w ith in
the s a m e s u r v e y jo b d e s c r ip tio n ; and (3) d if f e r e n c e s in le n g th o f s e r v ­
ic e o r m e r it r e v ie w w hen in d iv id u a l s a l a r i e s a r e a d ju s te d on th is b a s is .
L o n g e r a v e r a g e s e r v i c e o f m e n w ou ld r e s u lt in h ig h e r a v e r a g e p a y
w hen both s e x e s a r e e m p lo y e d w ith in the s a m e r a te ra n g e .
Job
d e s c r ip tio n s u s e d in c l a s s if y in g e m p lo y e e s in th e s e s u r v e y s a r e u s u ­
a l ly m o r e g e n e r a liz e d than th o s e u s e d in in d iv id u a l e s ta b lis h m e n ts to
a llo w f o r m in o r d if f e r e n c e s a m o n g e s ta b lis h m e n ts in s p e c if ic d u tie s
p e r fo rm e d .
O c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t e s t im a t e s r e p r e s e n t the to ta l in a ll
e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith in the s c o p e o f the stu d y and n ot the n u m b e r a c t u ­
a l ly s u r v e y e d . B e c a u s e o f d if f e r e n c e s in o c c u p a tio n a l s t r u c t u r e am o n g
e s t a b lis h m e n t s , the e s t im a t e s o f o c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t o b tain ed
fr o m th e s a m p le o f e s ta b lis h m e n ts s tu d ie d s e r v e o n ly to in d ic a te the
r e la t iv e im p o r ta n c e o f th e jo b s s tu d ie d .
T h e s e d if f e r e n c e s in o c c u ­
p a tio n a l s t r u c t u r e do not m a t e r ia l l y a ff e c t th e a c c u r a c y o f the e a r n ­
in g s d a ta.
E s ta b lis h m e n t P r a c t i c e s and S u p p le m e n ta ry W age P r o v is io n s

In fo rm a tio n is p r e s e n te d a ls o (in the B - s e r i e s ta b le s ) on s e ­
le c t e d e s t a b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and s u p p le m e n ta r y b e n e fits a s th e y r e ­
la te to o f fic e and p la n t w o r k e r s .
T h e t e r m " o ff ic e w o r k e r s , " a s u s e d
O c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t and e a r n in g s d a ta a r e sh o w n f o r
in th is b u lle tin , in c lu d e s w o r k in g s u p e r v is o r s and n o n s u p e r v is o r y
f u l l - t im e w o r k e r s , i. e. , th o s e h ir e d to w o r k a r e g u la r w e e k ly s c h e d ­
w o r k e r s p e r fo r m in g c l e r i c a l o r r e la t e d fu n c tio n s , and e x c lu d e s a d m in ­
u le in th e g iv e n o c c u p a tio n a l c l a s s if ic a t io n .
E a r n in g s d a ta e x c lu d e
i s t r a t i v e , e x e c u t iv e , and p r o f e s s io n a l p e r s o n n e l. " P la n t w o r k e r s " in ­
p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s ,* and
clu d e w o r k in g fo r e m e n and a l l n o n s u p e r v is o r y w o r k e r s (in clu d in g le a d m e n and t r a in e e s ) e n g a g e d in n o n o ffic e fu n c tio n s .
A d m in is t r a t iv e ,
R a ilr o a d s , f o r m e r l y e x c lu d e d fr o m the s c o p e of th e s e s tu d iee x e c u t iv e , and p r o f e s s io n a l e m p lo y e e s , and f o r c e - a c c o u n t c o n s tr u c tio n
s,
e m p lo y e e s who a r e u t iliz e d a s a s e p a r a te w o r k f o r c e a r e e x c lu d e d .
w e r e in c lu d e d in a l l o f the a r e a s s tu d ie d s in c e J u ly 19 5 9 , e x c e p t B a l t i ­
C a f e t e r ia w o r k e r s and ro u te m e n a r e e x c lu d e d in m a n u fa c tu r in g in d u s ­
m o r e (S e p te m b e r 1959 and D e c e m b e r I960), B u ffa lo (O c to b e r 19 59),
t r i e s , but a r e in clu d e d a s p la n t w o r k e r s in n o n m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s t r ie s .
C le v e la n d (S e p te m b e r 19 59), and S e a ttle (A u g u st 19 59).

1




2
S h ift d if f e r e n t ia l d a ta (ta b le B - l ) a r e lim it e d to m a n u fa c tu r in g
in d u s t r ie s .
T h is in fo r m a tio n is p r e s e n te d both in t e r m s o f (a) e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t p o l i c y , 2 p r e s e n te d in t e r m s o f to ta l p la n t w o r k e r e m p lo y ­
m e n t, and (b) e ff e c t iv e p r a c t ic e , p r e s e n te d on th e b a s is o f w o r k e r s
a c t u a lly e m p lo y e d on the s p e c if ie d s h ift a t the tim e o f the s u r v e y .
In e s ta b lis h m e n ts h a v in g v a r ie d d if f e r e n t ia ls , the am o u n t a p p ly in g to
a m a jo r it y w a s u s e d o r , if no am oun t a p p lie d to a m a jo r it y , the c l a s ­
s if ic a t io n " o th e r " w a s u s e d .
In e s ta b lis h m e n ts in w h ich s o m e l a t e s h ift h o u rs a r e p a id a t n o r m a l r a t e s , a d if f e r e n t ia l w a s r e c o r d e d o n ly
if it a p p lie d to a m a jo r it y o f the s h ift h o u r s .
M in im u m e n tr a n c e r a t e s (ta b le B -2 ) r e la t e o n ly to the e s t a b ­
lis h m e n ts v is it e d .
T h e y a r e p r e s e n te d on an e s t a b lis h m e n t , r a t h e r
than on an e m p lo y m e n t b a s is .
P a id h o lid a y s ; p a id v a c a t io n s ; and
h e a lth , in s u r a n c e , and p e n s io n p la n s a r e t r e a t e d s t a t i s t ic a l l y on the
b a s is th a t t h e s e a r e a p p lic a b le to a ll p la n t o r o f fic e w o r k e r s if a m a ­
j o r i t y o f s u c h w o r k e r s a r e e lig ib le o r m a y e v e n tu a lly q u a lify f o r the
p r a c t ic e s lis t e d . S ch e d u le d h o u rs a r e t r e a t e d s t a t i s t ic a l l y on the b a s is
th a t t h e s e a r e a p p lic a b le to a ll p la n t o r o f fic e w o r k e r s i f a m a jo r it y
a r e c o v e r e d . 3 B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g, su m s o f in d iv id u a l ite m s in t h e s e
ta b u la tio n s m a y not e q u a l t o ta ls .
T he f i r s t p a r t o f the p a id h o lid a y s ta b le p r e s e n ts the n u m ­
b e r o f w h o le and h a lf h o lid a y s a c t u a lly p r o v id e d .
T he s e c o n d p a r t
c o m b in e s w h o le and h a lf h o lid a y s to sh o w to ta l h o lid a y t i m e .
T h e s u m m a r y o f v a c a tio n p la n s is lim it e d to f o r m a l a r r a n g e ­
m e n ts , e x c lu d in g in fo r m a l p la n s w h e r e b y tim e o ff w ith p a y is g r a n te d
a t the d is c r e t io n o f the e m p lo y e r .
S e p a r a te e s t im a t e s a r e p r o v id e d
a c c o r d in g to e m p lo y e r p r a c t ic e in co m p u tin g v a c a tio n p a y m e n ts , s u ch
a s tim e p a y m e n ts , p e r c e n t o f ann ual e a r n in g s , o r f la t - s u m a m o u n ts .
H o w e v e r , in the ta b u la tio n s o f v a c a tio n a llo w a n c e s , p a y m e n ts not on
a tim e b a s is w e r e c o n v e r te d ; f o r e x a m p le , a p a y m e n t o f 2 p e r c e n t o f
an n u al e a r n in g s w a s c o n s id e r e d a s th e e q u iv a le n t o f 1 w eek*s p a y .

2

A n e s ta b lis h m e n t w a s c o n s id e r e d a s h a v in g a p o lic y if it m e t
e it h e r o f th e fo llo w in g co n d itio n s: (1) O p e ra te d la te s h ifts a t the tim e
o f the s u r v e y , o r (2) had f o r m a l p r o v is io n s c o v e r in g la te s h if t s .
S c h e d u le d w e e k ly h o u rs f o r o ffic e w o r k e r s ( f ir s t s e c t io n of
ta b le B -3 ) in s u r v e y s m a d e p r i o r to J u ly 19 57 w e r e p r e s e n te d in
t e r m s o f the p r o p o r tio n o f w o m en o f fic e w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in o f fic e s
w ith th e in d ic a te d w e e k ly h o u rs f o r w o m en w o r k e r s .

3




D a ta a r e p r e s e n te d f o r a ll h e a lth , in s u r a n c e , and p e n s io n
p la n s f o r w h ic h a t l e a s t a p a r t o f the c o s t i s b o rn e ~by the e m p lo y e r ,
e x c e p tin g o n ly le g a l r e q u ir e m e n ts s u c h a s w o r k m e n ^ c o m p e n s a tio n ,
s o c ia l s e c u r it y , and r a ilr o a d r e t ir e m e n t .
S u ch p la n s in c lu d e th o s e
u n d e r w r itte n b y a c o m m e r c ia l in s u r a n c e co m p a n y and th o s e p r o v id e d
th ro u g h a union fund o r p a id d i r e c t l y b y th e e m p lo y e r out o f c u r r e n t
o p e r a tin g funds o r fr o m a fund s e t a s id e f o r th is p u r p o s e .
D e ath
b e n e fits a r e in c lu d e d as a fo r m o f lif e in s u r a n c e .
S ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e is lim it e d to th a t ty p e o f in ­
s u r a n c e u n d e r w h ich p r e d e t e r m in e d c a s h p a y m e n ts a r e m a d e d ir e c t l y
to the in s u r e d on a w e e k ly o r m o n th ly b a s is d u r in g il l n e s s o r a c c id e n t
d is a b ilit y .
In fo rm a tio n is p r e s e n te d f o r a ll s u c h p la n s to w h ich th e
e m p lo y e r c o n tr ib u te s .
H o w e v e r , in N e w Y o r k and N e w J e r s e y , w h ich
h a v e e n a c te d t e m p o r a r y d is a b ilit y in s u r a n c e la w s w h ich r e q u ir e e m ­
p l o y e r c o n t r ib u t io n s ,4 p la n s a r e in c lu d e d o n ly if th e e m p lo y e r (1) c o n ­
t r ib u t e s m o r e than is l e g a l l y r e q u ir e d , o r (2) p r o v id e s the e m p lo y e e
w ith b e n e fits w h ic h e x c e e d the r e q u ir e m e n t s o f th e la w . T a b u la tio n s
o f p a id s i c k - l e a v e p la n s a r e lim it e d to f o r m a l p la n s 5 w h ich p r o v id e
f u ll p a y o r a p r o p o r tio n o f the w o r k e r 's p a y d u r in g a b s e n c e fr o m w o r k
b e ca u se of illn e s s .
S e p a r a te ta b u la tio n s a r e p r o v id e d a c c o r d in g to
(1) .p lans w h ich p r o v id e fu ll p a y and no w a itin g p e r io d , and (2) p la n s
p r o v id in g e it h e r p a r t ia l p a y o r a w a itin g p e r io d .
In a d d itio n to the
p r e s e n ta t io n o f th e p r o p o r tio n s o f w o r k e r s who a r e p r o v id e d s ic k n e s s
and a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e o r p a id s ic k le a v e , an u n d u p lica te d to ta l is
show n o f w o r k e r s who r e c e iv e e it h e r o r b oth ty p e s o f b e n e fit s .
C a ta s tr o p h e in s u r a n c e , s o m e t im e s r e f e r r e d to a s e x te n d e d
m e d ic a l in s u r a n c e , in c lu d e s th o s e p la n s w h ic h a r e d e s ig n e d to p r o t e c t
e m p lo y e e s in c a s e o f s ic k n e s s and in ju r y in v o lv in g e x p e n s e s b eyo n d
th e n o r m a l c o v e r a g e o f h o s p ita liz a t io n , m e d ic a l, and s u r g i c a l p la n s .
M e d ic a l in s u r a n c e r e f e r s to p la n s p r o v id in g f o r c o m p le te o r p a r t ia l
p a y m e n t o f d o c to rs * f e e s . S u ch p la n s m a y b e u n d e r w r itte n b y c o m m e r ­
c ia l in s u r a n c e c o m p a n ie s o r n o n p ro fit o r g a n iz a t io n s o r th e y m a y be
s e l f - in s u r e d . T a b u la tio n s o f r e t ir e m e n t p e n s io n p la n s a r e lim it e d to
th o s e p la n s th a t p r o v id e m o n th ly p a y m e n ts f o r the r e m a in d e r o f the
w o rk er*s life .

4
5

T h e t e m p o r a r y d is a b ilit y la w s in C a lif o r n ia and R hode Is la n d
do n ot r e q u ir e e m p lo y e r c o n tr ib u tio n s .
A n e s t a b lis h m e n t w a s c o n s id e r e d a s h a v in g a f o r m a l p la n if
it e s t a b lis h e d at le a s t the m in im u m n u m b e r o f d a y s o f s ic k le a v e th a t
co u ld b e e x p e c te d b y e a c h e m p lo y e e . S u c h a p la n n e e d n o t b e w r itte n ,
but in fo r m a l s i c k - l e a v e a llo w a n c e s , d e te r m in e d on an in d iv id u a l b a s is ,
w e r e e x c lu d e d .

3

Table 1.

Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied in Detroit, M ich.,1 by major industry division ,2 January 1961

Minimum
employment
in establish­
ments in scope
of study

Industry division

Workers in establishments

Number of establishments
Within
scope of
study3

Within scope of study

Studied

Studied
T otal4

Plant

Office

T otal4

________________________________________________

_

1, 129

275

625 ,6 0 0

112,500

394,800

4 7 2 ,3 4 0

Manufacturing ______________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing __________________________________________
Transportation, communication, and
otlifer public utilities 5 ______________ ________________
Wholesale trade _________________________________________
Retail trade _______________ — _______________________
Finance, insurance, and real estate __________________
Services 7 ________________________________________________

100
“

444
685

96
179

4 2 4 ,0 0 0
201,600

6 4,200
4 8 ,3 0 0

286,500
108,300

339,130
133,210

100
50
100
50
50

67
173
108
149
188

29
31
32
38
49

4 8 ,3 0 0
22,400
7 2 ,3 0 0
31,800
26,800

10,700
6,2 0 0
6 ,0 0 0
19,900
5 ,500

22,100
10,100
59,600
6 2 ,000
14,500

39,980
8 ,7 2 0
55,680
18,910
9 ,9 2 0

All divisions

1 The Detroit Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (Macomb, Oakland, and Wayne Counties).
The "workers within scope of study" estim ates shown in this table provide a reasonably
accurate description of the size and composition of the labor force included in the survey.
The estimates are not intended, however, to serve as a basis of comparison with other area em ploy­
ment indexes to m easure employment trends or levels since (1) planning of wage surveys requires the use of establishment data compiled considerably in advance of the payroll period studied,
and (2) sm all establishments are excluded from the scope of the survey.
The 1957 revised edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual was used in classifying establishments by industry division.
Major changes from the earlier edition (used in the
Bureau’s labor market wage surveys conducted prior to July 1958) are the transfer of m ilk pasteurization plants and ready-m ixed concrete establishments from trade (wholesale or retail) to
manufacturing, and the transfer of radio and television broadcasting from services to the transportation, communication, and other public utilities division.
3 Includes all establishments with total employment at or above the m inim um -size limitation.
A ll outlets (within the area) of companies in such industries as trade, finance, auto repair
service, and m otion-picture theaters are considered as 1 establishment.
4 Includes executive, professional, and other workers excluded from the separate office and plant categories.
5 Taxicabs and services incidental to water transportation were excluded.
D etroitfs transit system is municipally operated and is excluded by definition from the scope of the studies.
6 Estimate relates to real estate establishments only.
7 H otels; personal services; business services; automobile repair shops; motion pictures; nonprofit membership organizations; and engineering and architectural services.

‘




Table 2.

Percents of increase in standard weekly salaries and straight-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupational groups
in Detroit, Mich. , for selected periods
Percent increases from—
January I960
to
January 1961

January 1959
to
January I960

October 1955
to
January 1959

October 1953
to
October 1955

December 1951
to
October 1953

A ll industries:
Office clerical (women) ________________________________
Industrial nurses (women) _____________________________
Skilled maintenance (men) ______________________________
Unskilled plant (men) -----------------------------------------------------

2. 9
4 .4
4. 3
4 .4

3. 1
4. 1
3. 0
3 .4

19.
20.
17.
15.

8
2
0
8

7.
7.
8.
6.

5
9
3
2

11.
10.
11.
1.0.

8
2
0
0

Manufacturing:
Office clerical (women) ________________________________
Industrial nurses (women) _____________________________
Skilled maintenance (men) ______________________________
Unskilled plant (men) -------- ---------------------------------------------

3.‘ 8
4. 9
4. 3
4. 7

3 .9
4. 0
3. 1
3. 2

23.
20.
17.
17.

3
7
2
6

7. 1
7, 9
8. 1
6 .4

] 2.
10,
11.
8.

0
1
1
0

Industry and occupational group

4

Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups

P r e s e n te d in ta ble 2 a r e p e r c e n ts o f change in s a la r ie s o f
w om en o ffic e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s and in d u str ia l n u r s e s , and in a v e r a g e
e a rn in g s o f s e le c t e d pla n t w o r k e r g ro u p s.

T h e s e w eig h ted e a rn in g s f o r in d iv id u al o c cu p a tio n s w e re then tota led
to obtain an a g g re g a te f o r e a c h o ccu p a tio n a l g rou p . F in a lly , the ra tio
o f th ese g rou p a g g re g a te s f o r the one y e a r to the a g g re g a te f o r the
o th e r y e a r w as com p u ted and the d iffe r e n c e betw een the r e s u lt and
is the p e r c e n t o f change fr o m the one p e r io d to the oth e r.

10
0

F o r o ffic e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s and in d u stria l n u r s e s , the p e r ­
cen ts o f change r e la te to a v e r a g e w e e k ly s a la r ie s f o r n o r m a l h ou rs
o f w o rk , that is , the stan dard w ork s ch e d u le f o r w h ich s t r a ig h t -tim e
s a la r ie s a r e p a id .
F o r plant w o r k e r g ro u p s , th ey m e a s u r e ch a n ges
in s t r a ig h t -tim e h o u r ly e a rn in g s, e x clu d in g p r e m iu m pa y f o r o v e r ­
tim e and f o r w ork on w eek en d s, h o lid a y s , and la te sh ifts . The p e r ­
cen ta g es a r e b a s e d on data f o r s e le c t e d k e y o c cu p a tio n s and in clu d e
m o s t o f the n u m e r ic a lly im p orta n t jo b s w ithin e a ch g rou p .
The o f ­
f ic e c l e r i c a l data a r e b a se d on w om en in the fo llo w in g 18 jo b s : B i lle r s ,
m a ch in e (b illin g m a ch in e ); b o o k k e e p in g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s , c la s s A
and B ; C o m p to m e te r o p e r a t o r s ; c le r k s , file , c la s s A and B ; c le r k s ,
o r d e r ; c le r k s , p a y r o ll; keyp u n ch o p e r a t o r s ; o ffic e g i r l s ; s e c r e t a r ie s ;
ste n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l; s w itch b o a rd o p e r a t o r s ; s w itch b o a rd o p e r a t o r r e c e p t io n is t s ; ta b u la tin g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s ; t r a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e o p ­
e r a t o r s , g e n e r a l; and ty p is ts , c la s s A and B.
The in d u str ia l n u rse
data a r e b a s e d on w om en in d u stria l n u r s e s .
M en in the fo llo w in g
s k ille d m a in ten a n ce jo b s and 3 u n s k ille d jo b s w e re in clu d ed in the
plant w o r k e r data: S k illed — c a r p e n t e r s ; e le c t r ic ia n s ; m a c h in is ts ; m e ­
c h a n ic s ; m e c h a n ic s , a u tom otiv e; m illw r ig h ts ; p a in te r s ; p ip e fit t e r s ;
s h e e t-m e ta l w o r k e r s ; and t o o l and d ie m a k e r s ; u n s k ille d — ja n it o r s ,
p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s ; la b o r e r s , m a te r ia l han dlin g; and w atch m en .

1
0

A v e r a g e w eek ly s a la r ie s o r a v e r a g e h o u r ly e a rn in g s w e re
com p u ted f o r e a ch o f the s e le c t e d o c cu p a tio n s .
The a v e r a g e s a l ­
a r ie s o r h o u r ly e a rn in g s w e re then m u ltip lie d by the a v e r a g e e m p lo y ­
m en t in the jo b du ring the m onths in d ica te d in the title o f ta ble 2.




The p e r c e n t o f change m e a s u r e s , p r in c ip a lly , the e ffe c t s o f
(1) g e n e r a l s a la r y and w age ch a n g es; (2) m e r it o r o th e r in c r e a s e s
in p a y r e c e iv e d b y in d iv id u al w o r k e r s w h ile in the sa m e jo b ; and
(3) ch a n g es in the la b o r f o r c e su ch as la b o r tu r n o v e r , f o r c e ex p a n ­
s io n s , f o r c e r e d u c tio n s , and ch a n ges in the p r o p o r t io n s o f w o r k e r s
e m p lo y e d b y esta b lis h m e n ts w ith d iffe r e n t pa y le v e ls . Changes in the
la b o r f o r c e can c a u se in c r e a s e s o r d e c r e a s e s in the o c cu p a tio n a l
a v e r a g e s w ithout a ctu a l w age ch a n g es. F o r e x a m p le , a f o r c e ex p a n sion
m igh t in c r e a s e the p r o p o r t io n o f lo w e r p a id w o r k e r s in a s p e c ific
o c cu p a tio n and r e s u lt in a d ro p in the a v e r a g e , w h erea s a re d u ctio n
in the p r o p o r t io n o f lo w e r p a id w o r k e r s w ould have the o p p o s ite e ffe c t .
The m o v e m e n t o f a h ig h -p a y in g e s ta b lis h m e n t out o f an a r e a cou ld
ca u se the a v e r a g e ea rn in g s to d r o p , ev en though no change in ra tes
o c c u r r e d in o th e r a r e a e s ta b lis h m e n ts .
The u se o f con stan t em p lo y m e n t w eigh ts e lim in a te s the e ffe c ts
o f changes in the p r o p o r t io n o f w o r k e r s r e p r e s e n te d in ea ch jo b in ­
clu d ed in the data.
N o r a r e the p e r c e n ts o f change in flu en ced by
changes in stan dard w o rk sc h e d u le s o r in p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e ,
s in c e they a re b a s e d on pay f o r s t r a ig h t -tim e h o u rs.
In dexes f o r the p e r io d 1953 to I960 f o r w o r k e r s in 20 m a jo r
la b o r m a rk e ts w ill a p p ea r in B LS B u ll. 12 6 5 -6 2 , W ages and R ela ted
B e n e fits , 60 L a b o r M a r k e ts, W in ter 1 9 5 9 -6 0 .

A* Occupational Earnings

5

Table A-l. Office Occupations
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Detroit, Mich. , January 1961)

C| 1 I t
# $ s

N UM BER OF W O RK ERS RE CE IVIN G ST R AIG H T-TIM E W E E KLY E A RN ING S OF— ____________________________

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

Weekly,
hours
(Standard)

W eek ly,
earnings
(Standard)

l

Under 45. 00 50. 00 j 55. 00 60. 00 65. 00
and
45. 00 under

85. 00 90. 00 $ 95.00180. 00 105.00 110. O i 115.00| 120.00j 125.00 130.00.135.00 140.001145.00
75. 00 100.00
O
- | and

.m
5 -Q ■5 3 - 6 -.Q . .65-00. ■?Q
Q Q 5 -1 0 Q Q

£0-00155—
00.

OL O Q
Q12Q Q
Q 35.00 HQ.00 H 5. Q i.0-YS.T.P
00-00 95..Q Q .O 105.00. 110J30110iQ| .0 }12.5.00;! 30.Q!3
J

M en

j

C l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g , c l a s s A _____________
___________________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 2 _____________________
W h o le s a le tr a d e
---------------------------------

1 ,3 3 0
999
331
82
156

40.
40.
39.
40.
39.

0
0
5
0
5

C l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g , c l a s s B _____________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e ______________________

353
1 79
174
92

39. 5
40. 0
3 9.0
39. 5

C l e r k s , o r d e r ________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e ______________________

676
258
418
392

40.
40.
40.
40.

C l e r k s , p a y r o l l ______________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________________

$ 1 2 5 . 00
1 2 7 .5 0
1 1 7 .0 0
1 1 2 . 50
1 2 7 .5 0

-

1
1
-

3
3
3

1

i
i
i
;

-

-

-

-

15
3

18
18
7

19
19
13

21
1
20
7

66
17
49
29

61
51
10
7

38
13
25
19

18
13
5
2

25
22
3
-

"

-

65
65
65

4
4
4

1
1
1

1
1
-

24
1
23
23

10
3
7
7

20
4
16
15

49
27
22
18

1 16
13
1 03
1 03

67
45
22
16

13
3
10
8

35
8
27

1

14

!

14

8
8

15
7

10
3

14
12

10

-

5
3

16
15

27
23

!
i
1

39
35

12
11

46
25
21
19
_

60
50
10
1
-

4
3
1
1
_

3
3
_

2
2
_

.

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

2

-

-

-

-

'

-

-

2
2

7
3
4

10
4
6

7
2
5

38
25
13

108
93
15

50
39
11

59
44
15

45
39
6

24
22
2

27
21
6

31
11
20

35
7
28

45
30
15
4
3

61
48
13
3
3

88
71
17
12

46
41
5
3

27
20
7
4

7
7
-

-

-

-

-

23
19
4
3
1

-

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5
5
-

-

-

"

-

2 19
184

40. 0
40. 0

1 15. 00
1 1 7 .5 0

-

_

-

_

-

-

"

-

8
8

-

-

4
2

O f f i c e b o y s ____________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------P u b lic u t i l i t i e s 2 _ _ _
F i n a n c e 4 _______________________________
S e r v ic e s
_______________________________

562
300
262
60
87
68

39.
39.
38.
39.
38.
37.

0
5
5
5
5
0

6 8 . 00
7 2 .0 0
6 3 . 50
7 1 . 50
5 8 . 50
6 2 . 00

12
3
9
3
-

31
11
20
-

100
54
46
1
24
15

1 15
51
64
18
14
26

50
17
33
1
12
7

31
17
14
7
2
4

47
36
11
2
5
3

23
19
4
3
_

-

38
9
29
4
12
11

T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c la s s A
______________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________

400
314
86

40. 0
40. 0
39. 5

120. 00
1 2 1 . 50
1 1 3 . 50

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

-

-

T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c l a s s B ________________________________ ____
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 2 _____________________
F i n a n c e 4 _______________________________

461
26?
195
30
86

40.
40.
39.
40.
39.

9 9 . 00
1 0 6 .5 0
8 9 . 50
1 0 8 .0 0
8 2 . 50

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2
2

16
16
10

41
2
39
1
30

-

-

20
16
4

15

-

50
00
00
50

17
16
1

-

18

-

-

8
8
8

-

24
24
21

2
2
2

13
13
8

25
4
21
12

-

37
10
27
10

19
6
13

14
4
10

9

3

j

154
127
27
14
3
!

123
108
|
15
5
9

1 06
91
15
3
10

10
8
2
2

17
15
2
2

5
5
-

31
17
14

44
34
10
10

-

-

-

15

10

34
27
7

21
14
7
1

28
17
11

20
10
10

15
8
7

4
4
-

1

i _______
_




1 I
1
-

148
131
17
7
10
1
1
-

246
201
45
-

58
43
15
1
9

i

45
1

_
-

1

1

.
-

-

;
!

-

-

70
48
22
22

13
1
12
12

29
9
20
20

-

6
6

12
10

28
28

5
5

_
_

.

_
-

-

79
3 39
40

;

40

.
-

1

See footnotes at end of table.

NOTE:

134
95
39
11
28

-

-

84.
93.
78.
67.

11

| 104
'
86
18
,
1
11
7

-

-

0
0
5
0

80
33
47
4

-

1
-

1 1 2 . 00
1 2 0 . 50
1 0 7 .0 0
1 0 6 . 50

40.
40.
39.
40.

79
62
17
3
13

-

0
0
0
0

225
94
131
62

22
6
16
3
5

-

1
1
1

T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c l a s s C _______________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________
F i n a n c e 4 ________________________________ *

48
8
40
16
4

-

-

0
0
5
0
5

1
i

11
3
8
-

50
50
00
50

90.
99.
81.
82.

1
1
1

|
11
5
6
1
2

-

1
1
-

|

Estimates for all industries, nonmanufacturing, and public utilities include data for railroads (SIC 40), omitted from the scope
of all labor market wage surveys made before July 1959.
Where significant, the effect of the inclusion of railroads is greatest
on the data shown separately for the public utilities division.

8
|
7 !
1

15
15
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

________

6

Table A-l. Office Occupations-Continued
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Detroit, M ich ., January 1961)
Average

NUMBER OP WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF
1
o
o

Weekly,
6
Weekly , U n d e r 4 5 . 00 5 0 . 00 %5. 0 0 S 0 . 0 0 *65. 0 0
hours 1 earnings 1
and
(Standard) (Standard)
under
S v 00
6 0 . 00 6 5 . 0 0 7 0 . 0 0
5P»-PQ.

in
r~
-

an d in d u s t r y d iv is io n

o
o

o c c u p a t io n ,

o"
e*r-

Sex,

Number
of
workers

1
$

s
js
|
$
9 5 .0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 jl 2 0 . 0 0 j l 2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 .0 0 ! 4 0 . 0

$
1$
7 5 . 0 0 ; 8 0 . 0 0 1 8 5 .0 0

9 0 . 00

8 0 . 001 8 5 . 0 0 9 0 . 00
1

9 5 . 00 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 . O o | l2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 .0 0 1 4 0 .0 0 1 4 5 .0 0

and

B ille r s ,

over

1

|
W om en

B i l l e r s , m a c h i n e ( b i l l i n g m a c h i n e ) ----M a n u f a c t u r i n g __________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ____ ______________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 2 ------------------------------

o| 4 5 . 0 0
^

1
285
------- TTT
1 58
50

39.
40.
39.
39.

5 $
O —
'
0
0

7 4 .0 0

_

_

ZV75U

-

-

36
3
33

30
12
18

27
8
19

-

-

-

"

6 6 .0 0
6 2 .0 0
5 6 .5 0

4
4
4

12
12
6

18
18
15

29
29
21

8 7 .5 0
9 4 .0 0
8 2 .5 0
9 7 .0 0
7 5 .0 0

_
-

_
-

-

“

-

"

6 9 .0 0
7 9 .0 0

-

23
6
18
7

35
11
24
18

27
20
7
5

18
18
11

21
9
6

22
7
“

25
24
5

61
1
60
38

63
15
48
4
32

31
17
14
10

30
l8
12

17
15
j

22
.11
11
10

f

-

5
5
-

2
2
-

-

I

_
-

I

!

_

_

-

- !

-

-

-

-

-

-

i ...
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

m a c h in e (b o o k k e e p in g

N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------------------- ---------R e t a i l t r a d e ---------------------------------------

171
127
68

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c l a s s A ---------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g __________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e ____________________
F i n a n c e 4 _____________________________

524
2 37
2 87
54
144

39. 5
4 0 .0
39. 5
39. 0
3 9 .5

5
5
2

10
10
9

37
6
31
27

2 _
~

74
41
33
2
23

9
3
"

66
27
39
16
8

7
“

28
15
13
5
1

...

3
3
'

62
55
7
7
"

-

41
32
9
5
4

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

”

■

-

-

1

”

-

“

■

“

~

■

“

28
18
10
2

24
19
5
-

7
7
-

14
1
13
13

4
4
-

_
-

_ i

-

- 1

_
-

■

-

-

-1

-

3
3
3

_
-

_
.
-

_
-

_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

59
47
12
3
1
8

25
21
4
1
3

20
173
3
-

9
8
1
1
-

-

-

-

!

■ j

1
B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c l a s s B ____ ______________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g __________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 2 -----------------------------W h o l e s a l e t r a d e -------------------------------R e t a i l t r a d e ------------- ----------------------F i n a n c e 4 ---------------------------------------------S e r v i c e s ______________________________

1. 6 21
374
1, 2 47
40
120
1 12
895
80

39. 5
40. 0
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
40. 0
40. 5
39. 5
37. 5

6 8 .5 0
8 1 .5 0
6 4 .5 0
8 5 .0 0
7 5 .0 0
5 8 .5 0
6 1 .5 0
8 2 .5 0

_
-

40
40
36
4

1 77
8
1 69
7
4
1 58

-

-

-

C l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g , c l a s s A -----------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g __________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 2 ___________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e ____________________
R e t a i l t r a d e _________________________
F i n a n c e 4 ____________________________
S e r v i c e s ______________________________

910
352
558
117
/71
1 56
137
77

3 9 .5
40. 0
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
39. 5
40. 5
39. 0
39. 0

9 8 .0 0
1 1 1 .0 0
9 0 .0 0
9 6 .5 0
9 8 .0 0
8 1 .5 0
8 7 .5 0
9 5 .5 0

_
_

_
-

1
1
1
-

-

“

-

-

C l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g , c l a s s B -----------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 2 ___________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e ____________________
R e t a i l t r a d e ____________________ —
F i n a n c e 4 ---------------------------------------------S e r v i c e s ------------------------------------------------

1, 8 6 8
439
1, 4 2 9
264
1 80
497
354
134

7 2 .5 0
39. 5
3 9 . 5 ------8 5 ^ 0
6 8 .5 0
39. 5
8 0 .0 0
3 9 .5
7 6 .5 0
39. 5
6 0 .5 0
40. 5
6 6 .0 0
38. 5
3 9 .5
7 1 .0 0

24
24
_
24
-

65
65
-

1 18
—
r
113
-

204
16
1 88
-

-

58
7

70
43

-

-

C l e r k s , f i l e , c l a s s A ---------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________________
F i n a n c e 4 _____________________________

465
211
120

8 5 .5 0

.

.

W M

-

-

3 9 .5
3971T —
39. 0

6 7 .5 0

-

286
26
260
33
11
208
8

300
13
2 87
24
263

206
8
1 98
3
25
170

170
73
97
6
20
6
39
26

117
50
67
10
11
3
34
9

48
30
18
3
11
1
2
1

97
58
39
11
13
15

44
25
19
12
2
4
1

49
28
21
7
12
2

64
38
26
2
12
12

16
13
3
3

4
4
-

-

-

7
7
7
-

9
-

18
18
2
10
4
2

38
38
22
10
6

98
1
97
7
39
44
7

92
8
84
16
25
21
17
5

50
14
36
3
7
14
12

71
32
39
21
7
5
6

94
43
51
24
1
6
6
14

94
20
74
24
14
20
2
14

90
42
48
10
17
1
20

68
38
30
6
8
7
9

61
58
3
1
1
1
-

-

-

2 43
$6
207
41
29
46
65
26

228
65
168
38
36
56
19
19

171
35
136
25
42
25
15
29

211
66
145
65
9
28
40
3

115
50
65
26
7
4
18
10

67
21
46
18
17
1
3
7

75
44
31
25
1
5

37
27
10
5
5
-

53
48
5
5
-

13
11
2
2
-

3
1
2
2
-

3
2
1
1
-

-

9
93
81
5

238
—
r r
221
20
16
92
58
35

■

"

"

“

13
------- I T
13

24
16
16

27
27
24

35

34
21
16

43
21
11

27
21
9

22
9

19
14
6

200
23

19
19

_

9
6
3
-

15
25

------------- i _______
1
_

See footnotes at end of table,




-

2
2

-

-

■

"

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

"

-

3

_

_

-

-

-

~

■

"

-

-

6
3
3

_

.
-

i

_

-

-

_ ,i
-

i ___ ________ i
_

7
Table A-l. Office Occupations-Continued
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division. Detroit, Mich. , January 1961)
NUM BER OF W O RK ERS RE CE IVIN G ST R AIG H T-TIM E W EEKLY EARN ING S OF—

Average

Sex, occupation, and industry division

N m er
u b
o
f
w rk rs
o e

%

$
$
:
s
!$
*
$
s
s
$
>
s
$
$
|
$
$
$
W
eekly,
W
eekly , Under 45. 00 50. 00 55. 00 $ 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95.00 10 0 .0 0 105.00jll0.00 115.00jl20.00 125.00 *130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00
60.
hu
o rs
e rn g
a in s
and
and
(S n a ) (S n a ) $
ta d rd
ta d rd
under
45. 00 50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100.00 105.00 110.Oolll5.00 120.001125.00! 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00, over
j

W omen— Continued

1

l

Clerks, file, class B ---------------------------Manufacturing _______________________
Nonmanufacturing ___________________
Public utilitie s 2 _________________
Wholesale trade _________________
Retail trade ______________________
Finance4 __________________________
Services __________________________

1,557
410
1,147
95
186
258
478
130

39.
40.
39.
39.
39.
40.
39.
39.

5
0
5
0
5
0
0
5

$ 59.
66.
56.
67.
59.
53.
55.
52.

00
00
50
00
00
50
50
00

65
"
65
_
13
*43
9
-

180
180
9
41
51
79

384
100
284
41
40
183
20

262
55
207
7
45
33
113
9

366
111
255
50
22
84
82
17

103
32
71
12
26
13
20
-

84
31
53
11
24
3
12
3

32
15
17
8
3
4 1
2

10
4
6
1
1
4
-

10
9
1
1
-

27
24
3
2
1

Clerks, order __________________________
Manufacturing _______________________
Nonmanufacturing ___________________
Wholesale trade __________________
Retail trade ______________________

464
158
306
198
65

40.
39.
40.
40.
40.

0
5
0
0
0

77.
84.
7 2.
77.
57.

00
50
50
50
50

3
3
3

22
22
13

20
20
17

26
16
10
7

55
5
50
34
8

34
8
26
17
9

27
7
20
17
3

88 1
19
69
65
3

60
32
28
25
1

Clerks, payroll -------------------------------------Manufacturing _______________________
Nonmanufacturing ___________________
Public utilities 2 _________________
Wholesale trade _________________
Retail trade _____________________
Services __________________________

918
556
362
83
53
98
80

39.
40.
39.
39.
39.
40.
38.

5
0
0
5
5
0
5

89.
97.
78.
81.
86.
67.
80.

50
00
00
50
00
50
50

3
3
3
-

8
8
8

9
9
6
3

15
7
8
1
5
2

36
2
34
9
11
5

55
13
42
1
9
16
12

86
18
68
14
14
18
15

73
29
44
17
19
2

Comptometer operators ________________
Manufacturing _______________________
Nonmanufacturing ___________________
Public utilities 2 _________________
Wholesale trade _________________
Retail trade ______________________
F inanee 4 __________________________
Services __________________________

1,394
877
517
49
168
129
70
101

40.
40.
39.
38.
40.
39.
40.
40.

0
0
5
0
0
5
0
0

84.
91.
72.
82.
80.
65.
65.
68.

00
50
00
00
00
00
00
50

4
4
4
-

17
17
17
“

31
31
1
13
11
6

34
3
31
16
15
~

84
12
72
4
26
13
18
11

94
31
63
5
16
20
9
13

201
97
104
7
7
19
4
67

Duplicating-machine operators
(Mimeograph or Ditto) _________________
Manufacturing __ __________________ _

81
52

39. 5
40. 0

72. 00
79. 50

-

4
-

15
8

7
-

6
-

8
6

Keypunch operators _____________________
Manufacturing ______________________
Nonmanufacturing ___________________
Public utilities 2 _________________
Wholesale trade -________________
Retail trade ______________________
Financed __________________________
Services __________________________

1,908
1,017
891
233
144
125
304
85

39.
40.
39.
39.
39.
40.
39.
39.

5
0
5
0
5
0
5
0

83.
93.
73.
79.
83.
64.
68.
69.

50
00
00
00
50
50
50
00

5
5
5
-

2
2
2
-

27
27
5
19
3

115
34
81
1
32
39
9

132
10
122
33
5
26
53
5

Office girls ______________________________
Manufacturing _______________________
Nonmanufacturing ----------------------------Retail trade ______________________
Finance4 __________________________

304
87
217
65
74

39.
40.
39.
40.
39.

5
0
5
0
5

62.
79.
56.
52.
52.

50
00
00
50
50

8
8
68
-

15
15
9
6

81
5
76
21
49

62
10
52
20
18

60
9
51
7
1
'

See footnotes at end of table,




i

i

1

1
1
3|
2 i
1
1
- 1
-

i
j

.
-

_

- i
- !
-

.
-

.
-

.
- 1
' i

- ,
-

.
-

4
4
4
-

.
-

3
2
1
1
-

2
2
-

-

j

- j
-

2
2
-

21
21
-

4
4
-

-

-

4
4
- j
- '
1

-

26
23
3
1
2
-

5
4
1
1
-

35
13
22
17
-

11
8
3
2
-

51
33
18
7
“

14
8
6
5
1

4
3
1
1
-

113
75
38
11
7
6
8

79
59
20
4
6
4
1

88
61
27
13
1
12

88
71
17
2
2
12

75
55
20
4
2
1
8

66
51
15
6
6
-

40
36
4
3
-

17
14
3
1
2
-

34
34
-

4
2
2
2
-

117
62
55
4
33
7
7
4

125
74
51
8
35
8
-

121
91
30
5
21
4
-

113
87
26
7
7
8
4
"

156
144
12
9
3
-

129
122
7
5
2
“

136
122
14
14
-

25
25
~

6
6
"

.
-

1
1
"

-

.
-

5
4

6
5

8
8

8
7

5
5

7
7

2
2

-

-

'

-

-

-

“

-

-

209
33
176
28
8
17
72
51

182
53
129
40
30
22
37
-

190
71
119
39
26
10
39
5

152
68
84
27
31
2
20
4

no
79
31
8
2
4
17
“

131
102
29
7
8
2
6
6

186
134
52
44
6
2

273
260
13
7
6
-

184
163
21
21
-

6
6
'

4
4
-

_
-

-

_
-

“

-

-

10
3
7
-

6
2
4
-

20
20
-

1
1
-

5
3
2
-

33
32
1
-

2
1
1
-

1
1
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

1
3
3
3

"

"

,
i

_
“

8
Table A-1. Office Occupations-Continued
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Detroit, Mich. , January 1961)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF*-

Average
Sex,

o c c u p a t io n ,

a n d in d u s t r y d i v is i o n

Number
of
workers

$
$
is
|s
Is
Is
$ ’
|
$
s
*
$
Weekly
Weekly U n d e r *45. 00 5 0 . 0 0 * 5 5 .0 0 *60. 00 *65. 0 0 7 0 . 00: *75. 0 0 !*80. 00 *85. 0 0 *9 0 . 0 0 $9 5 .0 0 1 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 5 . 0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 . 0 0 ; l 2 0 . 0 0 ;1 2 5 .0 0 il 3 0 .0 0 | 1 3 5 .0 0 1 4 0 .0 0 1 1 4 5 .0 0
hours 1 earnings 1
and
$
and
(Standard) (Standard)
I
under
4 5 . 00
5 0 . 0 0 5 5 . 00 6 0 . 00 6 5 . 0 0 7 0 . 0 0 7 5 . 0 0 8 0 . 00! 8 5 . 0 0 9 0 . 0 0 9 5 . 0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 . 00 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 . 0 o l l 2 5 . 0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 .0 0 1 4 0 .0 0 1 4 5 .0 0
over
j
!

W o m e n — C o n tin u e d

|
1

S e c r e t a r i e s ____________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 2 _____________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e --------- ----------------------R e t a i l t r a d e ___________________________
F i n a n c e 4 _______________________________
S e r v i c e s ________________________________

5, 2 9 6
3 , 0 23
2, 2 73
308
338
254
734
639

3 9 .5
40. 0
38. 5
39. 0
3 9 .5
40. 0
38. 5
37. 0

$ 1 0 2 .0 0
111.r o
90.00
9 6 .0 0
9 7 .0 0
8 4 .5 0
8 6 .0 0
9 1 .5 0

S t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l ____________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 2 _____________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e ______________________
R e t a i l t r a d e ___________________________
F i n a n c e 4 _______________________________
S e r v i c e s ________________________________

5 , 123
3, 419
1, 7 0 4
417
334
1 22
466
365

3 9 .5
40. 0
39. 0
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
4 0 .0
39. 0
37. 5

8 9 .5 0
9 5 .5 0
7 8 .0 0
9 0 .5 0
8 2 .5 0
6 7 .5 0
6 7 .0 0
7 6 .5 0

_

-

■ -

_ ■
-

4
4
1
3
-

.
-

-

10
10
-

61
61
3
58

9
1
-

~

31
31
3
4
4
20

59
1
58
9
10
39

1 32
2
130
10
6
12
73
29

1 40
22
118
3
35
57
23

-

137
35
102
11
80
11

200
52
1 48
13
18
26
79
12

365
92
273
26
46
27
68
1 06

265
124
141
15
18
16
42
50

435
125
310
36
63
22
68
121

478
252
226
54
47
18
57
50

5 31

164
31
2
28
79
24

322
44 9
43
1T
376
279
15
26
34 !
83
47
29
101
119
82
119

342
117
225
12
81
17
57
58

461
2 89
172
29
40
6
52
45

679
397
282
192
23
4
6
57

491
400
91
75
15
1

717
667
50
25
25
-

412
387
25
7
18
-

1

124
115
9
4
5
-

-

-

:

-

192

ZE

590
477
113
17
45
3
23
25

j

188
33
9
29
62

i 707
! 562
i 145
| 32
25
!
6
:
I 30
52

:

624
459
515
401
58 ■
109
21
15 !
27 1 2 0 .
5
2 ;
27 |
9 '
12
29 j

-1 0 7
105
j
i
1
,

2
2
-

.

322
145
2 9 6 1 131
26
14
_
3
9
9
3
_
2 !
12

92
92
.

;
1
!
'

|

2

j
'
|

1

68
68

1
j

n o
86
24 !
13
. 2 i
_ :
6 '
3 S

_

|

I

_
_

“ j

1
|

j

3

1 93

40. 0

1 0 4 .0 0

S w i t c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s _____________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g ----------------------------- —
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 2 _____________________
W h o le s a le tr a d e
____________________

1, 0 4 0
390
650
91
101
164
145
149

39. 5
40. 0
3 9 ..5
40. 0
40. 0
40. 0
38. 5
39. 0

7 9 .5 0
9 4 .0 0
7 1 .5 0
9 2 .5 0
7 6 .5 0
6 2 .0 0
7 2 .5 0
6 4 .0 0

6
6
6
-

"

39.
40.
39.
39.
39.
39.
39!

5
0
5
0
5
0
5

7 4 .5 0
7 6 .5 0
7 2 .5 0
7 6 .0 0
7 5 .5 0
6 6 .5 0
7 3 .0 0

5
5
-

-

5

-

F i n a n c e 4 ______________ ______________
S e r v i c e s ________________________________

S w i t c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r - r e c e p t i o n i s t s ____
M a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 2 _____________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e ______________________

6
6
6

7

1

65
39
26
8
1
2
8
7

11

26

24

61

141
77
64
50
-

1 60
124
36
20
11

42
37
5
5
-

33
33
-

1
1 i
-

5
9

1
4

_

_

95
3
92
1
14
44
30
3

54
1
53
9
21
19
4

97
11
86
1
18
25
37
5

97
36
61
2
28
6
18
7

83
24
59
4
20
4

19
19
-

1 08
60
48
1
9
29
4

115
65
50
7
9
22
3

107
71
36
3
24
7

115
63
52
11
16
12
3

108
56
52
3
31
9

65
42
23
4
2

41
19
22
3
18

27
19
8
2
1

10
10
1
-

7
7
-

6

33
33
5
17
10

9

16

1

-

8

-

-

-

. 1

1

"

■

2
1

1

"

1
1

1

■

"

8

2
2

9
9

10

10

10

t
8

10
10

19
16
3

T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c l a s s A _______________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________________

72
56

40. 0
40. 0

1 1 4 .5 0
1 1 6 .0 0

-

-

-

-

"

“

■

"

1 49

40. 0

40. 0

9 9 .5 0
1 0 8 .0 0

-

-

-

86

-

63

39. 5

88.00

9
4

-

-

-

8

23
8

19

4

48
43
5
_
_

1

-

;

1
_

-

4

_ ,
_
_
_
_ 1

_
_
_
_

_

.
_

9

!

4
3
1
-

|
I

23

1

1
1
_
-

-

- 1
_
_

_

_

-

_

_

_
_

;

_
;
_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

3
3
-

-

_
_

_
_

_
-

_
_

_
.

_
_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

12
11

24
21

8
5

9
7

8

3
3

-

1
1

-

6

21
18
3

35
29
6

5
6

3
3

2
2

- 1
- 1

~

-

|

j

!
1

!
i

!________

See footnotes at end of table,




-

1

-

15
11

1

58
57
1
_
_
_

i

_ j

72
72
29
2
41

--------------------------------------------------

T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c l a s s B _______________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------------------------

4

83
83
21
2
60

763
405
358
40
119
100
65

S e r v ic e s

4

.

2

2
2
_
_
- ’

i
S t e n o g r a p h e r s , t e c h n i c a l __________________

50
43
7
3
2
_
_

1
________ 1

9

Table A-l. Office Occupatbns-Continued
(A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t im e w e e k ly h o u r s a n d e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d o n a n a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n , D e t r o it, M ic h . , J a n u a ry 1961)
Average
S ex,

o c c u p a t io n ,

a n d in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n

Number
of
workers

Weekly
hours 1
(Standard)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF-

$
$
Weekly
U n d e r 4 5 . 0 0 5 0 . 00
earnings 1
and
(Standard) $
under
4 5 . 00
5 0 .0 0 5 5 .0 0

1
$
$
I*
6
5 5 . 00 l o . 0 0 $ 5 . 00 7 0 . OOj 7 5 . 0 0 ; 8 0 . 0 0

S
1
$
1
$
:$
|
s
is
is
$
S
s
Is
8 5 . 0 0 9 0 . o o ; 9 5 .0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 ( 1 1 0 .0 0 J ll 5 .0 0 ( 1 2 0 .0 0 | 1 2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 .0 0 1 4 0 .0 0 1 1 4 5 .0 0
and

6 0 .0 0

6 5 .0 0

7 0 .0 0

7 5 . 00 8 0 . 0 0

8 5 . 00

9 0 . 00

9 5 . 0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 lO .Q o il 1 5 J )o !l2 C L Q Q il2 5 .0 Q il3 0 .Q O 1 3 5 .0 0 1 4 0 .0 0 1 4 5 .0 0

over

i
W o m e n — C o n tin u e d

1
1

T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c l a s s C - ---------------- ---------------------------------------------

63

39. 0

$ 8 2 . 00

-

s
!

T r a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
g e n e r a l ________________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------------------------F i n a n c e 4 --------------------------------------------------

493
143
350
1 79

T y p i s t s , c l a s s A ----------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ---------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------------------------P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 2 ______________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e -----------------------------------R e t a i l t r a d e ____________________________
F i n a n c e 4 ________________________________
S e r v i c e s _________________________________

T y p i s t s , c l a s s B ----------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ________________________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 2 ______________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e -----------------------------------R e t a i l t r a d e -------------------------------------------F i n a n c e 4 -------------------------------------------------S e r v i c e s ----------------------------------------------------

0
0
0
5

73.
89.
66.
65.

00
50
50
00

2, 3 3 4
1, 6 6 5
669
1 44
86
55
256
128

3 9 .5
40. 0
39. 0
39. 5
40. 0
40. 0
39. 0
3 7 .0

89.
94.
77.
86.
91.
71.
68.
78.

50
50
00
00
50
50
50
00

3. 815
1, 7 1 6
2, 0 9 9
1 78
271
274
996
380

39. 5
40. 0
39. 0
39. 5
3 9 .5
40. 5
38. 5
39. 0

71.
81.
63.
73.
73.
57.
59.
64.

00
00
00
50
00
50
00
00

39.
40.
39.
38.

5

4

-

3

4

18

4

3

6

55
55
43

83
1
82
57

74
1
73
41

21
5
16
1

61
29
32
13

24
9
15
5

39
26
13
4

27

|

19
8
8

1

1 02
16
86

71
5
66
13
6
8
34
5

164
58
106
23
3
14
47
19

1 15
50
65
5
13
39
8

134
62
72
23
2
4
24

265
2 08
57
18
1
11
6
21

355
173
1 82
5
72
11
49
45

375
245
1 30
43
37
5
14
31

2

8

5

1

31
25
6

28
27
1

1
1
-

1 i
- j

"

~

295
254
41
16
1
2
22

935
8 31
104
44
60
-

103
100
3
2
1

-

-

68
64
4
4

205
177
28
11
10

339
312
27
8
12

133
1 29
4
4

44
41
3
1
2

7

|
j

-

i

"

-

1
1

-

-

47
47
7

-

-

14
14

52
1
51

-

-

-

-

-

-

4
10

-

-

46
5

17
-

107

17
17
-

107
56
51

-

!

-

i

-

-

'

307
13
294
3
18
2 36
37

5 47
24
5 23
2
21
68
274
1 58

-

13
48
25

5 49
133
416
48
23
40
253
52

476
200
276
30
52
52
115
27

19
340
2 48
92
30
35
7
4
16

I

16

,

-

i

“

i
1
!
1

-

-

_

-

_

-

~

“

j

-

!
I

!
!

-

i

;

i

17
17

“

"

-

i

-

-

|
-

-

-

-

|

16

-

1

-

4
4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

S t a n d a r d h o u r s r e f l e c t th e w o r k w e e k f o r w h i c h e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e t h e i r r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r i e s a n d th e e a r n i n g s c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e s e w e e k l y h o u r s .
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , a n d o t h e r p u b lic u t i l i t i e s .
W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d a s f o l l o w s : 3 5 a t $ 1 4 5 t o $ 1 5 0 ; 3 a t $ 1 50 t o $ 1 5 5 ; 1 a t $ 1 55 t o $ 1 6 0 .
F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e .
W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d a s f o l l o w s : 2 a t $ 2 5 t o $ 3 0 ; 12 a t $ 3 0 t o $ 3 5 ; 7 a t $ 3 5 t o $ 4 0 ; 2 2 a t $ 4 0 t o $ 4 5 .
A ll w o r k e r s w e r e at $ 4 0 to $ 4 5 .




-

|

________ ,
1
2
3
4
5
6

_

7

-

-

_

-

-

-

1

10

Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Detroit, Mich. , January 1961)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF-

Avebagb
S e x , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s t r y d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

i$
$
*
i
$
$
Is
Is
is
|
$
$
$
s
1$
s
js
Is
js
$
8 0 . 00 8 5 . 0 0 9 0 . 00
9 5 .0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 10 5 . 00| 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 1 125.0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 .0 0 ! 14 0 .0 0 1 4 5 .0 0 ! 1 5 0 . OOj 1 5 5 .0 0 1 60 .0 0 | 1 6 5 .0 0 | 1 7 0 .0 0 ! 1 7 5 .0 0

Weeklyj
Weekly j U n d e r 7 5 . 00
earnings
hours
and
(Standard) (Standard) $
under
7 5 . 00
8 0 . 00

8 5 . 0 0 9 0 . 00

j
|
i
9 5 . 00 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 . 0 0 l l l 5 . 0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 1 2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 .0 0 1 4 0 .0 0 1 1 4 5 .00i 1 5 0 . Ool 1 5 5 .0 0 ! 1 6 0 .0 0 1 6 5 . 0 0 '1 7 0 . 0 0 1 1 7 5 .0 0
1

,

M en

^ 1 7 2 . 50
173. 00

0
0
0
0
0

1 4 8 .0 0
1 4 9 . 00
1 4 4 .5 0
1 3 4 . 00
1 5 4 .0 0

-

0
0
5
0
0

1 1 3 . 50
1 1 5 . 50
1 0 3 . 50
1 0 7 .5 0
102. 00

40. 0
40. 0

8 6 . 50
92. 00

426
389

D r a f t s m e n , s e n i o r __________________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g
___________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 3 _____________________
S e r v i c e s ________________________________

2 , 179
1 ,8 8 3
2 96
130
159

40.
40.
40.
40.
40.

D r a f t s m e n , j u n i o r ___________________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g
___________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________
P u b lic u t il it i e s 3 _
_ ________________
S e r v ic e s
_______________________________

1 , 104
917
187
42
145

40.
40.
39.
39.
40.

T r a c e r s _________________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _________ _________________

152
111

_

_

40. 0
40. 0

D r a f t s m e n , l e a d e r __________________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g
___________________________

_
_

_

.

_

_

-

4
4
-

-

-

9
9
-

-

-

-

-

-

18
5
13
13

16
8
8
8

51
37
14
2
12

11
9
2
2

88
59
29
2
27

52
36
16
5
11

1 40
n o
30
9
21

5 34
5

12
11

12
11

22
20

19
19

19
19

’

i

22
17

_

-

-

.

.

-

6
6

19
17
2
2

47
31
16
8
7

73
39
34
31
3

61
42
19
6
12

110
91
19
9
10

84

84
84
-

5
5

4
4

“

15
10
5

.

' "

-

6
6

1 58
140
18
9
6

183
142
41
25
14

1 91
1 70
21
11
10

96
95
1
1

94
92
2
2

-

124
1 12
12
12

-

-

1

_

2

_

"

■

12
12

14
14
213
197
16
6
10

!
i
1

253
246
7
5
2

52
50
2
2

67
55

1
!

12

1
1

12

-

12

-

_

_

^

i

!

1

j
1

42
42

56
46

| 1 7 6 ! 117
170 1 102
1
6 1 15
4 1
!
3
2
■
; 12

!
1
|

j
28

• 1 84 | 191
163
136
21 ! 55
20
1 ; 55
_

_

-

-

182
2 174

| 139
! 134
5
5

161
141
20

-

-

_

.

-

-

-

|

418
365
53

40. 0
40. 0
39. 5

1 0 6 .5 0
1 0 8 .0 0
9 4 . 50

3
3

11
3
8

14
5
9

6
4
2

29
24
5

50
41
9

44
39
5

77
76
1

94
91
3

48
45
3

28
27
1

4
3
1

8
5
3

2
2

_
-

-

"

1 S t a n d a r d h o u r s r e f l e c t th e w o r k w e e k f o r w h i c h e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e t h e i r r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r i e s a n d t h e e a r n i n g s c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e s e w e e k l y h o u r s .
2 W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d a s f o l l o w s : 2 8 a t $ 1 7 5 t o $ 1 8 0 ; 4 7 a t $ 1 8 0 t o $ 1 9 0 ; 4 3 a t $ 1 9 0 t o $ 2 0 0 ; 4 5 a t $ 2 0 0 t o $ 2 1 0 ; 11 a t $ 2 1 0 t o $ 2 2 0 .
3 T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , a n d o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .
4 W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d as f o l lo w s : 2 at $ 17 5 to $ 1 8 0 ; 3 at $ 1 8 0 to $ 1 9 0 ; 4 at $ 1 9 0 to $ 2 0 0 ; 5 at $ 2 0 0 t o $ 2 1 0 ; 6 at $ 2 1 0 an d o v e r .
5 W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d a s f o l l o w s : 1 6 a t $ 5 0 t o $ 6 0 ; 11 at $ 6 0 t o $ 7 0 ; 7 a t $ 7 0 t o $ 8 0 .

NOTE: See note on p. 5, relative to the inclusion of railroads.

_
-

_

-

-

_
-

i

i

i_______ _

1
|

!
i
!
I

4 20

_

_

_
!
1

|

38
26

-

-

_

1

21

|

_

4
4
-

|




42
42

12

-------1— 1
!
—

|
i

13
1

W om en
N u r s e s , i n d u s t r i a l ( r e g i s t e r e d ) _________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________

i
1

.

1

1

and
over

-

11

Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Detroit, M ich., January 1961)
NUM B ER OF W O RK ERS R E CE IVIN G ST R A IG H T-TIM E H OURLY EA RN IN G S OF—

Number
of
workers

O c c u p a t io n a n d in d u s t r y d i v is i o n

$
Average
hourly . U n d e r 2 . 00
earnings1
and
$
under
2. 00
2. 10

C a r p e n t e r s , m a in t e n a n c e
_ _
M a n u fa c tu r in g
_
. _
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g
............... ..
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 2 _____________________________
R e t a i l t r a d e ___________________________________

875
697
178
64
56

$ 3. 10
3 . 16
2 . 89
2 .9 5
3. 00

E l e c t r i c i a n s , m a in t e n a n c e
________ ______________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________________

3, 5 1 8
5, 2 57
261

3. 29
3. 30
3 . 19

_
-

$
2. 10

$
2. 20

$
2. 30

2. 20

2 . 30

2 . 40

%

$
2 . 40
2. 50

2. 5 0

$
2 . 60

$
2 . 70

$
2. 80

2. 60

2. 70

2. 80

2. 90

2. 90

$
3 . 00

$
3 . 10

$
3 . 20

$
3. 30

$
3. 40

$
3 . 50

3. 00

3 . 10

3 . 20

3. 30

3. 4 0

3. 50

3. 60

9
4
5
3
1

37
27
10
10

202
" " "15~7I
45
43
1

46
46
-

178
168
10

366
360
6

961
951
10

1545
1532
13

8
3
5
-

1
1
-

4
4
1

23
I
22
4

20
1
19
6
6

14
6
8
2
5

27
1
26
-

-

15
15

1
1

5
5

10
10

12
12

10
10

24

-

-

-

-

16

48
44
4

1
1
-

14
14
-

82
66
16
8
3

6
6
5

19
6
13
10
3

34
26
8
8

100
8l
19
-

112
112
-

52
46
6
_

-

10
10
4

9
5
4
-

-

60
60
38

"

-

-

-

56
55
1

47
43
4

58
33
25
17

51
51 "
-

41
40
1

84
84
-

363
353
10

47
47
_

13
13

42
42

_

_
-

-

-

19

778
5S0~
198
33
72

3.
3.
2.
3.
2.

17
31
76
04
69

4
4
-

3
3
-

-

-

6
6
6

F ir e m e n , s ta t io n a r y b o il e r
______________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g
_ _
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 2 _____________________________

958
519”
109
39

2 .9 3
2 .9 9
2. 42
2. 51

10
10

26
26

8
8
-

53
53
-

-

-

79
54
25
17

-

-

7
1
6
5

-

-

H e l p e r s , t r a d e s , m a in t e n a n c e
_
_
M a m if a r t n ri n g
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g _ _
________

680
605
75

2 . 53
2 . 57
2 . 28

22
5
3 17

_

_

19

314
307
7

85
76
9

1 36
125
n

26
22
4

11
11

3, 4 4 5
3, 4 4 4

3 . 30
5 . 30

_

_

2
2

36
35

105
1 05

_

_

_

__

M a c h in e -to o l o p e r a to r s , t o o lr o o m
_ _
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________________________

-

-

19

12
4
8

_

_

_

_

_

■

*

"

"

"

_

_

_

_

_

_

'

______________
____

1, 0 5 9
1, 0 4 7

3. 30
3 . 31

.
"

_

"

■

"

"

■

M e c h a n ic s , a u to m o tiv e
(m a in t e n a n c e )
______________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g _______________________ __________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 2
_
W h o le s a le t r a d e
_
_
R e t a i l t r a d e ___________________________________

1, 3 9 0
733
657
453
112
63

2. 9 9
3 . 07
2 .8 9
2 .9 6
2 .7 9
2 . 69

-

1
1
1
_

-

-

47
47
1
19
24

31
16
15
15

-

3
3
2
1

“

22
22
8
1

58
17
41
33

_

2
2
2
-

3, 0 3 3
2, 8 0 7 "
226

3. 27
3 . 26
3 . 17

_

_

-

17
17

"

4
4

_

-

1
1

21
20
1

21
2
19

.

.

.

M a c h in is t s , m a in t e n a n c e
M a n u fa c tu r in g
_
_
_

________

M e c h a n i c s , m a i n t e n a n c e __________________________
M a n u fa c tu r in g
_
___
___
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ______________ ______________

M illw r ig h t s
..
M a n u fa c tu r in g

3, 9 1 4
____________________________________

O ile r s
M a n u fa c tu r in g

See footnotes at end of table.




“

3 .2 1

_

3, 9 0 9

3 . 21

2 .6 4
2 .6 4

2

-

-

1, 016
1, 0 l 3

.

.

3 .6 0

$
3. 70

$
3 . 80

$
3. 90

$
4 .0 0

3. 7 0

•3. 80

3 . 90

4 . 00

over

_

_

17
16

23
2 2 ....
1

75
75

26
26

-

227
227

421
21
418 - ~ n s ~ —
1
3
1
-

5

16
14

_
_

4
4
_

_
_
_

_
_
_

4

-

-

_

_
_

-

4
4

-

73
70
3

7
7
_

1
1
_

15

32

-

-

-

-

-

_
_

4
4
_

_
-

_
_

_
_
_

_
_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

805 1499
8175" 1 4 9 9

425
" “4 2 5

37
37

_
"

4
-------5

-

-

1
1~

-

12
12

q
4

48
48

257
250

47
9
38
31
2
3

51
6
45
19
25
1

413
1 86
227
188
26
11

3 16
147
169
134
18
17

181
157
24
22
2

15
9

90
38
52

79
68
11

241
237
4

285
285

n o
H o

-

-

6

21
------ 5—

-

■

_

1
1
_

16
r
8
-

-

205
64
141

29
28
1

32
32
-

170
"1 5 6 “
14
7
7

35
27
8
_

6
6
_

6

1
1
_

_

204
204 "

138
138

413
413

101
161

l
l

39
39

191

26
26
6
_

-

-

_

_
_

_
_

_

1658
1654
4

455
3 31
124

5

114
17
12
5

5

-

_

rsr ~ T r~
_

—

_

-

l
1
-

-

-

_

_
_

_
_

_
_

_

5

.

-

5

_

21
21

40
40

—

-

-

5
-------5“
-

.

.

54

„

28

465

477

2804

41

45

-

-

54

-

28

465

477

2799

41

45

-

-

“

-

-

-

267
489
----- TV .. 2 6 7 "1 4 8 9

92
92

24
24

26
26

12
12

_

2

4

_

_

_

.

• .

"
_

$

and

E n g in e e r s , s t a t io n a r y
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _ _______________ _ _ _
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 2 _
------------------------------------------------------------S e r v ic e s

__

$

77

4
4

_

------ T —

.

r~

12

Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations-Continued
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Detroit, Mich. , January 1961)
NUM B ER OF W O RK ERS R E CE IVIN G S T R A IG H T-TIM E HOURLY EA RN IN G S OF—

Occupation and industry division

Painters, maintenance ______________________
Manufacturing _____________________________
Nonmanufacturing -------- --------------------------P in a n re 4

.

___

.

.

Number
of
workers

734
554
180
85

Average
hourly ,
earnings

$ 3.
3.
2.
3.

$

Under 2. 00
and
$
2. 00 under
2. 10

06
12
88
04

1
1
1

$

$

2. 10

2. 20
"
2. 30

2. 20

$

$

2. 30

2.40
2. 50

2.40

2. 60

$
2. 70

“
2. 70

$

2. 80

8
3
5

14
4
10
1

72
22
50
1

79
77
2

$

2. 50
2.60

$

$

2. 80

2. 90

2. 90

3. 00

$

3. 00

$

$

$

$

$

$
3. 80
3. 90

$
3. 90
4 .0 0

$
4. 00
and
over

40
38

227
226

5
5

52
52
52

9
9
-

1
1

-

-

1

170
169
1

-

2

-

-

-

13
13

-

3. 20
3. 30

3. 30
3.40

3.40
3. 50

3. 50
3. 60

3. 60
3. 70

3. 70
3. 80

20
3
17
1

10
10
10

19
3
16
13

7
7
5

-

-

-

"

-

10
9

8
8

9
3

307
307

224
224

1508
1503

13
8

88
20

2
2

-

-

-

1

-

_

-

6

2

7

-

2

10

5

7

11

_

10

_

_

_

1

6

_

18
18

1
1

"

-

-

-

-

-

285
285

3502
3501

497
497

19
19

22
22

7
7

.

.

-

7

1

3. 21
3. 20

-

-

Plumbers, maintenance _____________________

68

3. 10

_

-

Sheet-metal workers ,
maintenance ________________________________
Manufacturing _____________________________

453
439

3. 22
3. 23

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

3

"

9
6

13
5

41
41

368
361T

Tool and die makers __________________________
Manufacturing _____________________________

4,955
4,954

3.42
3.42

-

-

-

-

-

.

_

-

-

90
90

_

.

233
233

300
300

1
2
3
4

$

3. 10
3. 20

2, 189
2,097

Pipefitters, maintenance _____________________
Manufacturing ____________________________

$

3. 10

-

-

Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Workers were distributed as follows: 12 at $ 1. 60 to $ 1. 70; 4 at $ 1. 70 to $ 1. 80; 1 at $ 1. 90 to $ 2.
Finance, insurance, and real estate.

NOTE:

See note on p. 5, relative to the inclusion of railroads.

Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Detroit, Mich. , January 1961)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
O c c u p a t io n 1 an d in d u s t r y d i v is i o n

Number
of
workers

$
Average
hourly , U n d e r 1. 0 0
earnings
and
$
under
1. 00
1. 10

$
1. 30

$
1 .4 0

$
1. 50

$
1. 6 0

1. 20

1. 30

1 .4 0

1. 50

1. 60

1. 70

1 .8 0

-

-

-

-

10
10

3
3

1
1
-

-

1
1
-

8
8
-

$
1 .7 0

$
1. 90

1 .9 0

$
2. 00

$
2 . 10

$
2. 20

$
2 . 30

$
2 .4 0

$
2 . 50

-

$
1. 8 0

-

2 . 20

-2 ,.3 0 ,

2 .4 0

2. 50

2. 60

2. 00

—2* 1 0 _

8
8

4
4

12
12

11
11

21
21

17
17

26
5

29
29
14
34
29

43
43
3 43

85
85
67

275
27 5
39
1 26
110

184
184
16
1 68

21
21
5

1
1
1
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

21
21
20

21

40

19

21
18

6

3
16

29
16
13
13

39
14
25
25

212
99

$ 1. 87
1 .4 4

E l e v a t o r o p e r a t o r s , p a s s e n g e r ( w o m e n ) _____
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------------------R e t a il t r a d e
_________________________________
F i n a n c e 4 ______________________________________
S e r v ic e s
______________________________________

750
750
199
355
1 70

1.
1.
1.
1.
1.

G u ards
________________________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------ __ --------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ______________________________
F i n a n c e 4 ------------------------------------------------------------

3 ,2 0 4
2 ,9 2 9
275
191




$
1. 20

8
8

E l e v a t o r o p e r a t o r s , p a s s e n g e r ( m e n ) --------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ______________________________

See footnotes at end of table,

1. 10

$

-

-

13
13
7
-

-

18

6

1 18
1 18
26
56
36

2. 66

_

_

_

.

2

_

2

5

2. 70
2. 25
2. 12

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

5
5

2
2

34
27

14

$
2 . 60
-

S
2 . 70
-

$
2 . 80

$
2. 90

-

2 .7 0

2 .8 0

2 . 90

$
3. 00
and

3. 00

over

91

-

1

-

-

-

-

"

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

1045
1020
25

794
794
-

788
7 54
34

5
5

59
29
30

26

98
96

2

2 37
192
45
39

-

_
-

13
Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations-Continued
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Detroit, Mich. , January 1961)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
O c c u p a t i o n 1 a n d in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly 2 U n d e r ! . 0 0
earnings
and
$
u nder
1. 00
1. 10

J a n i t o r s , p o r t e r s , a n d c l e a n e r s (m e n ) -----------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------------------P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 5 -------------------------------------------W h o l e s a l e t r a d e ---------------------------------------------R e t a i l t r a d e __________________________________
F i n a n c e 4 -----------------------------------------------------------S e r v i c e s --------------------------------------------------------------

9, 832
7 , 111
2, 7 21
376
136
982
596
6 31

$ 2 . 17
2. 38
1. 61
2 . 12
2 . 01
1 .3 7
1. 63
1. 59

50
50
50
-

87
87
-

-

J a n i t o r s , p o r t e r s , a n d c l e a n e r s ( w o m e n ) ----M a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------------------P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 5 -------------------------------------------R e t a i l t r a d e -----------------------------------------------------F i n a n c e 4 -----------------------------------------------------------S e r v i c e s -------------------------------------------------------------

1, 7 81
365
1, 4 1 6
79
208
936
1 66

1. 5 4
2. 04
1 .4 2
2. 03
1. 28
1 .3 8
1 .4 4

_
-

! . io

$ 20
1.

\ . 30

* 1 .4 0

! . 50

! . 60

! . 70

f . 80

90

%. 00

1 . 10

1 . 20

1 . 30

1 .4 0

1 . 50

$
2 .6 0

1 .7 0

1 . 80

1 .9 0

1 . 00

1. 20

1. 30

1 .4 0

1. 50

1. 6 0

1 .7 0

1 .8 0

1 .9 0

2. 00

2 . 10

2 . 20

2. 30

2. 40

2 . 50

2 .6 0

2. 70

2. 80

2. 90

3. 00

over

and

180
6
174
9
142
8
15

248
54
194
6
1 39
22
27

435
435
10
315
103
7

477
73
404
11
7
88
117
181

361
36
325
66
225
34

190
15
1 75
3
15
20
47
90

135
51
84
20
9
7
35
13

249
30
2 19
154
12
6
16
31

190
75
115
31
10
19
55

1 20
92
28
16
_

9

182
1 82
47
1
134

80
80
12
12
50

54
54
43
5
6

90
90
77
12
1

484
484
8
7
449
20

5 83
72
511
55
394
62

43

73
9
64
1
63

5
5
-

34

53
4
49
31
-

-

-

5
5
2
3

-

-

-

-

53
53
47

48
48
42

43
43
43

44
44
44

82
82
82

50
50
5
45

21
21
20

46
25
21
10
11

167
68
99
97

546
185
3 61
340
21

259
1 89
70
3
67

396
34
362
1
320
41

252
114
138
112
26

390
330
60
18
42

8
8
8

3
3
-

34
34
27
1

1
1
1

11
11
11

9
-

2
2
2

35
35
25
10

223
3
220
2 06
14

127
127
83
44

78
78
20
58

133
7
126
71
55

42
24
18
5
13

_
-

4
4

4
4

19
19
7

75
72
3

8
8
7

35
35
32

1
1

4
4
1

63
63
62

24
24
4

9
9
3

_

16
16

7
7

_

_

-

-

37
37

-

-

-

-

19
16
3

-

-

-

-

78
-

tt
21
4
13
1
3

t9
5
5
-

3
9

644
626
18
2
6
6
4

1756
1655
101
99
2
_
-

2974
2887
87
26
56
5
-

1287
1263
24
10
4
1
_

151
132
19
4
2
-

74
74
_
-

42
42
_
_

_

_
_

-

-

9

13

-

-

-

-

19
19
-

123
99
24
21
-

49
41
8
8
-

41
41
-

8
8
-

_
-

_
_

_

_
_
-

-

37
16
21
21

-

-

-

-

-

3838
3243
595
92
247
186

1665
1669
56
31
25

1339
1278
61
18
38

542
i S3
390
381
9

658
658
538
120

160
143
17
3
14

8
8
-

-

-

-

“

-

255
154
101
83
18

155
1 39
16
15

974
963
11
11

95
66
9
9

24
24
24

2
2
-

14
• 14
-

-

982
2 23
759
462
230

-

-

-

-

"

257
256"
1

708
630
78
78

71
71
-

24
24
24

-

“

55
'54
1
1

45
' 45
-

~

3 41
236
105
105

-

-

40
40

265
265

16
12
-------T6~ ... 12"

1
l

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

•

-

47
4?
-

23
3
20
19
1

7
6
1
-

28
20
8
8

-

“

24
20
4

-

-

-

L a b o r e r s , m a t e r i a l h a n d l in g -------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------------------P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 5 ____________________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e _____________________________
R e t a i l t r a d e ------------------------------------------------------

10,
7,
3,
1,
1,

607
378
229
1 63
137
839

2 .4 3
2 .4 8
2. 32
2 . 69
2. 26
1 .8 8

.
-

O r d e r f i l l e r s _________________________________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ______________________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e _____________________________
R e t a i l t r a d e ------------------------------------------------------

3,
1,
1,
1,

2 07
615
592
046
469

2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

_
-

P a c k e r s , s h i p p in g (m e n ) _________________________
M a n u f a c t u r in g ------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ______________________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e _____________________________

1, 7 7 2
1, 3 8 2
390
331

2 . 38
2 .4 3
2 . 21
2. 28

_

-

-

-

"

25
18
7
7

P a c k e r s , s h i p p in g ( w o m e n ) ______________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g -----------------------------------------------

506
410
96

2 . 17
2 . 38
1. 25

27
6 27

4
4

2
2

11
11

36
36

4
4

9
9

-

R e c e i v i n g c l e r k s --------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------------------W h o l e s a l e t r a d e _____________________________
R e t a i l t r a d e ------------------------------------------------------

644
462
182
90
71

2 . 50
2. 64
2 . 16
2 .4 4
1. 9 4

.

_

_
-

1
1
1

18
18
8

9
9
-

6
6
6

11
11
5
4

3
3
3

2
2
2

20
20
10
2

17
10
7
1
6

38
6
32
31
1

50
38
12
9
3

29
23
6
6

36
36
-

9

7
7
7

-

292
273
19
7
12

S h ip p in g c l e r k s -------------------------------------------- -----------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------------------------------W h o l e s a l e t r a d e ---------------------------------------------R e t a i l t r a d e -----------------------------------------------------

770
609
161
67
90

2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

2
2

2
2

5
5

4
4

2
2

8
8

" 8
8
-

13
8
5

51
10
41
12
29

16
16
10
6

23
10
13
13

1
1

12
7
5

389
370
19

124
124
-

-

-

-

-

29
3
26
26

-

1

5

19

-

-

-

56
49
7
6
1

S h ip p in g a n d r e c e i v i n g c l e r k s -------------------------------M a n u fa c tu r in g
------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------------------P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 5 ---------------------------------------------W h o l e s a l e t r a d e ----------------------------------------------

1, 5 3 2
" 1 ,3 2 2
210
58
98

20
8
12
8
4

11
8
3
-

61
31
29
4
8

53
37
16
2

676
618
58
9
49

569
547
22
14
7

24
4
20
13
4

35
17
18
8
1

35
35

25
16

-

9
7

See footnotes at end of table.




42
58
26
25
26

62
69
34
55
15

2. 56
2 . 56
2. 50
2. 57
2 .4 8

-

-

9
5
4

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

2

2

5

4

2

8

-

5

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2
-

_

-

1
1

18
18
18

2
2
-

-

-

-

_

14
Table A-4. Custodial and M aterial Movement Occupations-Continued
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Detroit, M ich., January 1961)
NUMBER OP WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
O c c u p a t io n 1 and in d u s tr y d i v is i o n

T r u c k d r iv e r s 7 ____________________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g _________________________________
N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g ____________________________
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 5 __________________________
W h o le s a le t r a d e __________________________
R e t a il t r a d e ________________________________
S e r v i c e s ___________________________________

Number
of
workers

6,
2,
4,
1,
1,

716
646
070
725
402
775
148

$
Average
hourly
U n der 1 .0 0
earnings*
and
$
u n d er
1. 00
1 .1 0
$ 2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

73
73
73
86
65
63
54

$
1. 10

$
1. 20

$
1. 30

$
1 .4 0

V 50

$
1 .6 0

$1 . 70

$1 . 80

$
1 .9 0

$
2. 00

$
2. 10

$
2. 20

$
2. 30

S
2. 40

$
2. 50

$
2. 60

$
2. 70

$
2. 80

1. 20

1. 30

1 .4 0

1. 50

1 .8 0

1 .9 0

2. 50

2. 60

2. 70

2. 80

2. 90

1023
514
509
97
311
11
90

1596
1161
415
9
172
234
-

893
272
621
10
307
304

-

-

-

“

"

_
-

_
-

_
-

2. 00

2. 10

2. 20

2. 30

2. 40

23
23
7
7
6

42
42
9
32

-

35
35
13
17
-

-

no
no
2
99
8
-

124
20
104
3
95
6

62
28
34
8
18
6

166
57
109
20
2
86
1

219
76
143
4
111
28

437
219
218
175
19
21
3

6
6

27
27

16
16

1
1

3
3

29
20
9

19
19

21
21

6
6
-

24
15
9

35
29
6

9
9
-

-

-

7
7
7
-

39
39
9
30

99
99
99
-

30
30
30
-

31
16
15
4
11

103
17
86
86

168
28
140
4
108
-

300
136
164
153
1
10

225
215
10
9
1

8
8
8

-

2
2
2

8
8
8

65
65
65

-

42
40
2
2

21
19
2
2

-

-

-

40
40
20
14
6

12

1
1

1 .6 0

1 .7 0

2
2
2

.
-

10
10
9
-

10
10
9
-

6
6
-

.
-

3
3

T r u c k d r iv e r s , lig h t (u n d e r 11/2 to n s) _____
M a n u fa ctu r in g _____________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _________________________

261
93
168

2. 32
2 .5 3
2. 20

-

-

-

2
2

-

10
10

T r u c k d r iv e r s , m e d iu m (1 1/ 2 to and
in clu d in g 4 to n s) ____________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g _____________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _________________________
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 5 _______________________
W h o le s a le t ra d e
R e t a il tr a d e

1, 565
848
717
249
282
152

2 .6 3
2. 80
2 .4 3
2 .6 8
2. 28
2. 26

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

7
7
7

T r u c k d r iv e r s , h ea v y (o v e r 4 t o n s ,
t r a i l e r ty p e)
. _
_ _
M a n u fa ctu r in g _____________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _________________________
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 5 _______________________
W h o le s a le t r a d e __ _____ _ _
_____
R e t a il tr a d e
_______

3, 303
732
2, 571
1, 352
863
350

2. 80
2. 73
2 .8 2
2. 90
2. 71
2. 80

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

~

-

-

-

-

142
97

2. 76
2 .6 8

-

-

-

-

T r u c k d r iv e r s , h ea v y (o v e r 4 to n s ,
o t h e r than t r a i l e r type)
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g
__
T r u c k e r s , p o w e r (f o r k lif t )
M a n u fa ctu rin g
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ____________________________
P u b lic u t i l i t i e s 5
_
_
W h o le s a le t r a d e __________________________
R e t a il t r a d e ________________________________
T r u c k e r s , p o w e r (o t h e r than fo r k lift )
M a n u fa ctu r in g
_i
_ _

________

W a tch m e n _________________________________________
M a n u fa ctu r in g _________________________________
N on m a n u fa ctu rin g
P u b lic u t ilit ie s 5 __________________________
R e t a il tr a d e ________________________________
F in a n c e 4 _
_
_
_ _
S e r v i c e s ___________________________________

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
7

-

-

-

-

56
56
54
55
56
49

_
-

_
-

-

_
-

-

-

-

~

465
450

2 .6 7
2 .6 8

_

_

_

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

986
173
813
33
64
59
619

1 .6 0
2. 10
1 .5 0
2 .4 5
1 .4 0
1 .5 0
1 .4 4

_
-

36
36
6
30

4
4
4
-

48
48
4

107
107
15

52
33
19
4
4
9

20
9
11
-

32
8
24
-

48
48
-

91

151
15
136
11
15
110

12
12
1

9

365
365
18
347

5, 381
4, 995
386
91
189
106

2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

-

2
2

_

1

“

-

.
-

-

“

1
1
1

_

_

Data limited to men workers except where otherwise indicated.
Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Workers were distributed as follows: 2 at $ 0. 80 to $ 0. 90; 41 at $ 0. 90 to $ 1
.
Finance, insurance, and real estate.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
All workers were at $ 0. 90 to $ 1
.
Includes all drivers regardless of size and type of truck operated.
All workers were at $ 3. 20 to $ 3. 30.
Worke rs were distributed as follows;
8 at $3 to $3.10; 14at$3.30to$3. 40; 48 at $ 3. 40 to $3.50.

NOTE: See note on p. 5, relative to the inclusion of railroads.




$
3. 00
and

3. 00

over

1751
72
1679
1397
257
19
6

207
207
_

50
14
36

_
-

_
-

81
64
17
17
-

161
153
8
1
7

107
12
95
88
1
-

207
»2 0 7
-

421
11
410
95
299
10

631
512
119
119
-

667
90
577
10
270
297

1398
60
1338
1227
92
19

-

16
■

16
-

49
48

-

48
48

-

"

125 3466
123 3375
2
91
2
15
41
35
-

1345
1193
152
104
48

84
82
2
2

1
1
-

131
89
42
24
18
-

10
10
-

_

70
*70
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

-

1
1
1

.1
1
1

-

-

-

84
40
44
24
20

59
59
"

73
23
50
50
-

_

2

_

_

5

_

_

8
8

8
8

324
324

42
34

-

-

6
6

3
3
3

6
2
4
-

37
16
21
6
1
13

21
20
1
1
-

20
20
20
-

11
ll
-

1
1
1
-

1
1
1
-

11
11
-

“

“

-

"

1
10

2

“

11
~

“

“

-

$
2. 90

-

-

4

-

_

-

-

-

-

-




15

B: Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
T a b le B-l. Shift D ifferen tials
(Shift differentials of manufacturing plant w orkers by type and amount of differential,
D etroit, M ic h ., January 1961)
Percent of manufacturing plant w orkers—
In establishm ents having form al
provisions 1 for—

Shift differential

Second shift
work

Total

_

.

With shift pay differential

_

Second shift

Third or other
shift

9 9 .7

5 cents
_ _____ _ _ __ __ _
6 cents
6
cents
7 cents _____________________________________
(2 cents ___________________________________
8 cents
81/ 2 cents ___________________________________
9 cents
_
_
9 V 2 cents ___________________________________
10 cents
_ ___ _ __ __ ________
I 0V 2 cents ____________ ___________________
11 cents
12 cents ____________________________________
14 cents ____________________________________
15 cents _ _ _ _
_ _ _ _ _ _ _______
16 cents and over __ _ ___
________

1
fz
l1

9 7 .9

24. 3

7 .5

9 9 .7

9 7 .9

24. 3

7. 5

30. 0

______________________

Uniform cents (per hour)

2 9 .5

5 .8

2. 6

.1
. 1
( 2)
1. 1
.1
1. 5
. 3
.2
.3
1. 0
.1
.3
.2
.5
-

( 2)
. 1
.3
.5
.1
.9
.1
.2
.4

.9
.7
.2
5. 8
.7
7 .4
1 .4
.8
.8
6. 5
.7
1 .7
.5
1 .8
-

.5
1. 1
1 .5
1 .4
.4
.2
8. 3
.8
.3
6. 2
.5
3 .9
4. 3

67. 2

Uniform percentage
percent __________________________________
7 1/ 2 percent ________________________________
10 percent
_ __ _
5

Other shift pay differential
No shift pay differential

Third or other
shift work

Actually working on—

_

__________________
_

6 5 .5

17. 8

4. 8

62. 9
.3
4. 0

.3
2. 2
63. 0

17. 0
( 2)
.7

_
.1
4. 7

2. 4

2 .9

.7

.1

______
'

'

1 Includes establishm ents currently operating late shifts, and establishm ents with form al provisions covering late
even though they w ere not currently operating late shifts.
2 Dess than 0. 05 percent.

shifts

16
T a b le B-2. Minimum En tran ce S a la rie s for W o m en O ffic e W o rk e rs
(D i s t r i b u t i o n o f e s t a b l is h m e n t s s t u d ie d in a l l in d u s t r i e s an d in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y m in i m u m e n t r a n c e s a l a r y f o r s e l e c t e d c a t e g o r i e s
o f i n e x p e r i e n c e d w o m e n o f f i c e w o r k e r s , D e t r o i t , M i c h . , J a n u a r y 196 1)
I n e x p e r ie n c e d ty p is ts
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g

M a n u fa c tu r i n g
M in im u m w e e k l y s a la r y 1

A ll
s c h e d u le s

A ll
.s c h e d u l e s

3 7 x/ 2

3 8 3/ 4

A ll
s c h e d u le s

40

37V 2

38 3/ 4

40

XXX

179

XXX

XXX

XXX

.275

96

XXX

179

XXX

XXX

XXX

____________________

142

63

58

79

10

10

50

165

66

60

99

14

11

64

00 ______________________________________________________
u n d e r $ 4 2 . 50
_
_ _ __
____________ ___
u n d e r $ 4 5 . 00
u n d e r $ 4 7 . 50 ________________________________________
u n d e r $ 5 0 . 00
_
u n d e r $ 5 2. 50 ________________________________________
u n d e r $ 5 5. 00
_ _
_ _ _ _________
u n d e r $ 5 7 . 50
u n d e r $ 6 0 . 00
__
____
u n d e r $ 6 2 . 50
_ _ _ _ _
u n d e r $ 6 5 . 00 ________________________________________
u n d e r $ 6 7 . 50
_
_
_
_
u n d e r $ 7 0 . 00
_
... .
u n d e r $ 7 2. 50
_
__
u n d e r $ 7 5 .0 0 ________________________________________
u n d e r $ 7 7 . 50
_
_ _ _ _ _
u n d e r $ 8 0 . 0 0 __________________________________________________
u n d e r $ 8 2 . 50 __________________________________________________
u n d e r $ 8 5 . 00
_ _
_
_ _ _________
u n d e r $ 8 7 . 50 __________________________________________________

2
5
2
9
4
18
12
12
15
15
10
6
6
4
7
3
1
2
5
3
1

-

-

3
9
7
12
10
20
15
12
12
21
11
7
3
3
4
3
1
2
4
4
2

-

-

-

2
5
1
7
2
6
7
3
4
2
6
2
1

1
1
7
5
3
7
8
6
6
3
3
4
3
1
1
3
3
1

1
1
7
5
3
5
6
6
6
3
3
4
2
1
1
3
3

3
9
7
11
9
13
10
9
5
13
5
1

1

6
1
6
8
7
4
4
5
4
6
3
1
1
4
2
1

2
5
2
9
4
12
11
6
7
8
6
2
1

__________________

45

14

_____________

88

19

o v e r

_

. _

E s t a b li s h m e n t s h a v in g no s p e c i f i e d m in i m u m
E s t a b li s h m e n t s w h ic h d id n ot e m p l o y w o r k e r s
in t h is c a t e g o r y _ _
___
__

..................

. .

-

6
1
6
6
5
4
4
5
4
6
3
1
1
4
2

-

-

1
1
1
1
6

1
1
2
3
1
1
-

-

-

-

-

-

1

_

1

-

S ee n ote on p .




17,

r e l a t i v e t o th e i n c l u s i o n o f r a i l r o a d s .

2
3
2
1
5

1
1
2
3
2
1
-

2
8
6
9
2
8
5
6
2
8
4
1

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1
1
1

-

-

-

-

-

1
1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1
1

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

_

XXX

31

XXX

XXX

XXX

53

19

XXX

34

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

69

XXX

XXX

XXX

57

11

XXX

46

XXX

XXX

XXX

_

_

_

_

L o w e s t s a la r y r a t e f o r m a l l y e s t a b l is h e d f o r h i r in g i n e x p e r i e n c e d w o r k e r s f o r t y p in g o r o t h e r c l e r i c a l j o b s .
R a t e s a p p l ic a b l e t o m e s s e n g e r s , o f f i c e g i r l s , o r s i m i l a r s u b c l e r i c a l j o b s a r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d .
H o u r s r e f l e c t th e w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e t h e i r r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r i e s .
D a t a a r e p r e s e n t e d f o r a l l w o r k w e e k s c o m b in e d ,

NOTE:

A ll
s c h e d u le s

40

96

_______________________________________________

E s t a b li s h m e n t s h a v in g a s p e c i f i e d m in im u m

1
2
3

40

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

B a s e d o n s t a n d a r d w e e k l y h o u r s 3 o f ----

275

E s t a b li s h m e n t s s t u d ie d

U n der $ 40.
$ 4 0 . 00 an d
$ 4 2 . 50 a n d
$ 4 5 . 00 a n d
$ 4 7 . 50 an d
$ 5 0 . 00 a n d
$ 5 2 . 50 an d
$ 5 5 . 00 a n d
$ 5 7 . 50 a n d
$ 6 0 . 00 and
$ 6 2 . 50 a n d
$ 6 5 . 00 an d
$ 6 7 . 50 an d
$ 7 0 . 00 a n d
$ 7 2 . 5 0 an d
$ 7 5 . 00 an d
$ 7 7 . 50 a n d
$ 8 0 . 00 an d
$ 8 2 . 50 a n d
$ 8 5 . 00 a n d
$ 8 7 . 50 an d

M a n u fa c t u r in g
A ll
in d u s t r i e s

B a s e d on sta n d a rd w e e k ly h o u r s 3 o f—
'

A ll
i n d u s t r ie s

2

O th er in e x p e r ie n c e d c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s

_

a n d f o r th e m o s t

_

_

co m m o n w ork w eek s rep orted .

17

Table B-3. Scheduled Weekly Hours
(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by scheduled weekly hours
of first-sh ift w orkers, Detroit, Mich. , January 1961)
O F F IC E W O R K E R S

Weekly hours

A ll workers

-------------------------------------------------------

Under 35 hours _______________________________
35 hours ________________________________________
Over 35 and under 37 V2 hours ---------------------37
hours _________________ _________________
Over 37 V2 and under 40 hours ---------------------40 hours ________________________________________
Over 40 and under 42 hours _________________
42 hours ____________________ — ______________
Over 42 and under 48 hours _________________
48 hours ________________________________________
Over 48 hours _________________________________

1
/
z

1
2
3
4

PLAN T WO RK ERS

Manufacturing

Public .
utilities1

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

Finance2

100

100

100

100

100

100

1
2

-

1

6
4
86

1
2

3
3
86

All
industries

c>
(*)
(4 )

97
-

1

25
(4 )
74

4
8
88

-

-

-

-

6
1

2
-

(4 )
14
10
12

64

Services

All
3
Industries

Manufacturing

Public ,
utilities1

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

Services

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

(4 )
(4 )

_

1
1

1
1

_
98

_
-

_
_

2

1
2

91

84

2
_

_
3
4

20

23
54

-

-

-

3
-

(4 )
94
(4 )
2
1

1
(4 )

96
(4 )
1

Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Finance, insurance, and real estate.
Includes data for real estate in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Less than 0. 5 percent.




NOTE:

Estim ates for all industries and public utilities include data for railroads (SIC 40), omitted from the scope of all labor market
wage surveys made before July 1959.
Where significant, the effect of the inclusion of railroads is greatest on the data shown
separately for the public utilities division.

1
10

2
_

5
_
_
4
_
82
2
3
4

18

Table B-4. Paid Holidays
(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by number of paid holidays
provided annually, Detroit, Mich. , January 1961)
OFFICE WORKERS

Item

M ufactu g
an
rin

P blic ,
u
u
tilities

W olesale
h
trad
e

100

100

100

99

100

100

All
in u
d stries

W orkers in establishments providing
paid holidays _____ _________________________
Workers in establishments providing
no paid holidays ______________________________

(4 )

.

S ices
erv

100

100

100

100

99

“

“

(4 )

.

.

_

.

48
3
19
6
22
3
-

76
15
8
2
“

14
5
2
2
4
5
1
4
57
1
3
1

92
2
(4 )

_

_

-

1
4
5
62
66
70
77
81
86
10 0
100
100

_

3
3
3
3
25
25
49
52
10 0
100
100

R
etail trad
e

100

100

100

"

.
20
2
46
(4 )
(4 )
14
2
1
2
1
11
(4 )
1
(4 )

PLANT WORKERS

All 3
in u
d stries

Finance2

M ufactu g
an
rin

P
ublic 1
u
tilities

W olesale
h
trad
e

R
etail trad
e

S ices
erv

100

100

100

100

100

100

98

99

100

100

97

72

2

1

"

“

3

28

23
77
-

58
14
15
10
2

3
82
1
8
3

5
62
2
2
(4 )

N um ber o f d a y s

5 holidays _____ ___________ _______
6 holidays ---------------------------------------------------------6 holidays plus 1 half day _____________________
6 holidays plus 2 half days ____________________
6 holidays plus 3 half days ____________________
6 holidays plus 4 half days ____________________
7 holidays _______________ ______________ ________
7 holidays plus 1 half day _____________________
7 holidays plus 2 half days _____ ______________
8 holidays _______________________ _____________ _
8 holidays plus 1 half day ____ __ ___________
9 holidays ______________________________________
9 holidays plus 1 half day -------------------------------9 holidays plus 2 half days
---------------------------10 holidays _____________________________________
JZ holiday. ---------------------------------------------------------

8
(4 )
78
9
1
2
1
1
“

_
15
Cl
(4 )
84
(4 )
“

2
3
“

c>
(4 )
24
(4 )
54
15
1
1
2
(4 )
(4 )

.
8
74
13
1
2
2
-

-

“

-

-

-

-

-

"

~

-

-

Total h o lid a y tim e3
12days

__________________ _______________________

10 or m ore days _______________________________
9 V2 or m ore days ______________________________
9 or m ore days __________ ____________________
8 V2 or more days ______________________________
8 or m ore days ________________________________
7 V2 or m ore days ______________________________
7 or m ore days ------------------------------------------------6 V2 or m ore days --------------------------------------------6 or m ore days
________ _____ ________________
5 or m ore days
_____ _. __ __ _______________
1 or m ore days ------------ ------- ------------------ —

1
2
3
4
5
no half

(4 )
1
1
12
12
16
18
78
80
99
99
99

_

_

-

-

1
1
4
5
91
.92
10 0
100
100

c>
(4)

84
85
10 0
100
100

-

2
2

10
24
10 0
100
100

-

3
3
6
8
99
99
99

_
c>
0
0
(4 )
4
4
74
74
97
98
98

_

_

-

-

4
5
92
92
99
99
99

77
77
10 0
100
100

.
2
2
2
2
13
13
42
42
10 0
100
100

3
3
11
12
94
94
97

(4)
(4)

5
5
67
72
72

Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Finance, insurance, and real estate.
Includes data for real estate in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
L ess than 0. 5 percent.
A ll combinations of full and half days that add to the same amount are combined; for example, the proportion of workers receiving a total of 7 days includes those with 7 full days and
days, 6 full days and 2 half days, 5 full days and 4 half days, and so on.
Proportions were then cumulated.

NOTE:

See note on p.




17, relative to the inclusion of railroads.

19
Table B-5. Paid Vacations
(Percent distribution o f office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, Detroit, Mich. , January 1961)
O F FIC E W O RK ER S

Vacation policy

A ll workers

____________________________________

All
industries

Manufacturing

100

100

99
99

Publio ,
u tilities1

Wholesale
trade

PL A N T W O RK ERS

Retail trade

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

-

Finance 2

Services

100

100

100

100

100

100

99
90

All
,
industries

100

Manufacturing

Public i
utilities

100

100

100

89

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

Services

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

98
98
-

Method of payment
W orkers in establishments providing
paid vacations -------------------------------------------------------------------Length-of-tim e payment ___________________
Percentage payment -------------------------------------------------F lat-su m payment -------------------------------------------------------Other ________________________________________________________
Workers in establishments providing
no paid vacations ________________________________________

-

-

-

(4)
-

-

-

-

10

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

(4 )

“

-

-

2
53
22
1
(4)

1
56
34
(4)

_
33
12
3
-

3
35
3

1

-

99
92
8
-

11
-

(4)
_

-

"

-

9
4
1
-

_

14
-

-

1
84
8
7
-

1
88
6
3
-

1

1

69
5
24

83
6
9

(4)

(4)

(4 )

(4 )

3
79
6
2
-

11
23
13
14
2

7
9
1
(4)

_

98
2
>

_

-

-

2

5
34
_
.

2
5
4
-

-

4
9
_
1
-

-

-

_
68
32
-

_

_

_

72
_
28
-

67
21
12
-

87
2
6
3

38
62
_

26
_
74
_

65
_
29
2
3

Amount of vacation p a y 5
After 6 months of service
Under 1 week ----------------------------------------------------1 week _________________________________________
Over 1 and under 2 weeks _____________________
2 weeks ___________________ __________________
Over 2 and under 3 weeks _____________________

1
19
(4)
-

After 1 year of service
Under 1 week _________________________
____
1 week ----------- --------------------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 weeks --------- -------------------2 weeks -------------- ----------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 weeks -------------------------------3 weeks ----------------------------------------------------------------

_

_

_

_

_

14

4

57
43
“

21
79
“

60
15
22
3
"

100

-

_
29
68
2
“

3
20
77
-

6
94
-

12
85
3

_
100
-

5
87
7

"

-

"

1

85
(4)
-

(4)
95
-

(4)
(4)

After 2 years of service
1 week ____ ____________________________________
Over 1 and under 2 weeks _____________________
2 weeks __________________________________________
Over 2 and under 3 weeks --------------- -------------3 weeks _____ _______________________________ ___

2
2
95

1

1

99
-

-

-

-

-

1

1\

21
15
64
_

1

1

(4 )

-

-

6
55
37

6
75
17

5
2
93

7
8
85

_
99

(4)

After 3 years of service
1 week
Over 1 and under 2 weeks _____________________
2 weeks -------------- ----------------------- -------------------Over 2 and under 3 weeks ------------------------ '------3 weeks _______________________ _________________

0

0

98

98

(4 )
1
(4)

(4 )
(4 )
1

100

_
100

_

_

_
100
-

-

-

4
88
7

-

-

60
3
37

90
2
8

73
7
19

1

96
3

1

1

1

_

_

_

1

1

(4 )

-

-

86
7
8

89
9
2

40
2
51
2
3

After 5 years of service
2 weeks __________________________________________
Over 2 and under 3 weeks _____________________

See footnotes at end of table,




87
8
6

87
12

98

1

2

_

91
4
5

86

65

_

_

_

92
2

1

14

35

4

99

20
T a b le B-5. Paid V acatio n s-C o n tin u e d
(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, Detroit, M ich ., January 1961)
OFFICE WORKERS

Vacation policy

All
industries

22
5
72
_
2

PLANT WORKERS

Manufacturing

Public .
utilities1

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

Finance2

Services

All
industries 3

14
8
78
_

54
46
-

34
65
_

16
2
82
_

(4)

-

1

29
3
44
_
24

-

49
2
46
_
2

1

3
97
-

19
79
-

43

1

2

89
3
3

52
-

1

20
56
24

5

98
-

1

3
80

19
55

19
45

5
80

43

1

-

-

-

-

-

6
3
76
4

3

17

26

36

15

18

1

3
48
49

19

19

5

46

36
2
43
18

Manufacturing

Public i
utilities

Wholesale
trade

18
58
19
(4)
5

9
79

61
2
37
_

6
4
82
4
5

2
5
88
5

Retail trade

Services

47
8
41
_
4

24
_
50

82
2
14
_

26

(4)

15
_
59
_
26

57

12

_
43
_
45

57

Amount of vocation p a y 5 — Continued
After 10 years of service
2 weeks _________________________________________
Over 2 and under 3 weeks _____________________
3 weeks
Over 3 and under 4 weeks
4 weeks
_

11

(4)
1

-

_

After 15 years of service
2 weeks
.
Over 2 and under 3 weeks _____________________
3 weeks
__
_ _
Over 3 and under 4 weeks
4 weeks _____________ ____________________________

6
(4)
91
1
2

-

2

2

_

1

-

20
_
74
6

2

11

4
86
6
3

_
75
_
25

20
_
41
39

5
3
67
5
20

2
4
81
6
7

_
_
48
_
52

20
_
37
_
43

100

-

2

39
(4)

After 20 years of service
2 weeks
Over 2 and under 3 weeks
3 weeks
Over 3 and under 4 weeks
4 weeks

. .
__

_ _

6
(4)
83
1
10

95

2

36

2

39
(4)

After 25 years of service
2 weeks
Over 2 and under 3 weeks _____________________
3 weeks
Over 3 and under 4 weeks _____________________
4 weeks __________________________________________
Over 4 weeks
_

1
2
3
4
5
service

6
(4)
68
1

25
(4)

_
88
2
8

-

35

-

16

-

44
-

-

64

50

Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Finance, insurance, and real estate.
Includes data for real estate in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
L ess than 0. 5 percent.
Periods of service were arbitrarily chosen and do not necessarily reflect the individual provisions
include changes in provisions occurring between 5 and 10 years.

1

for progressions.

For example,

12

_

21

_
68

50
2
46
_
(4)

the changes in proportions indicated at 10 years'

NOTE: See note on p. 17, relative to the inclusion of railroads.
In the tabulations of vacation allowances by years of service, payments other than "length of tim e " such as percentage
of annual earnings or flat-su m payments, were converted to an equivalent time basis; for example, a payment of 2 percent of annual earnings was considered as 1 w eek's pay.




21
T a b le B-6. H ealth, Insurance, an d Pension Plans
(Percent of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions employed in establishments providing
health, insurance, or pension benefits, Detroit, M ich ., January 1961)
OFFICE WORKERS

Type of benefit

PLANT WORKERS
All
3
industries

Manufacturing

Public j
utilities

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

98

87

96

99

82

94

97

72

56

49

61

65

48

76

54

34

74

56

93

96

81

94

85

72

13

34

83

96

19

79

49

72

67

41

12

4

35

37

36

10

All
industries

Manufacturing

Public .
utilities1

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

Finance 2

100

100

100

100

100

100

Life insurance -----------------------------------------------Accidental death and dismemberment
insurance ___________________________________
Sickness and accident insurance or
sick leave or both4 _______________________

95

99

80

85

96

59

65

32

49

62

86

96

77

81

68

Sickness and accident insurance ----------Sick leave (full pay and no
waiting period) _________________________
Sick leave (partial pay or
waiting period) _________________________

61

91

10

54

30

62

64

74

58

24

1

2

36

2

-

7

-

32

4

32

-

Hospitalization insurance __________________
Surgical insurance ---------------------------------------Medical insurance ----------------------------------------Catastrophe insurance ______________________
Retirement pension _____________________ __
No health, insurance, or pension plan ____

91
91
80
39
84
1

76
76
65
53
73

76
74
57
32
54
12

69
69
59
27
52
4

90
90
68
71
96
(5)

77
77
53
31
40
6

93
93
81
7
80
1

99
99
89
3
92

68
68
60
49
79

85
85
38
8
53
4

79
79
57
13
46
3

79
79
67
1
13
16

A ll workers

_____________________________________

Services

Services

W orkers in establishments providing:

3

1
98
98
93
30
91
(S)

1 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
2 Finance, insurance, and real estate.
3 Includes data for real estate in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
4 Unduplicated total of workers receiving sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately below.
Sick-leave plans are limited to those which definitely establish at least
the minimum number of days’ pay that can be expected by each employee. Informal sick-leave allowances determined on an individual basis are excluded.
5 L e ss than 0. 5 percent.
NOTE:




See note on p.

17, relative to the inclusion of railroads.




23

A ppendix:

Occupational Descriptions

The primary purpose o f preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to a ssist its
field staff in classifyin g into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field econom ists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers,
part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.
O FF IC E

B I L L E R , M A CH IN E

B O O K K E E P IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R

Prepares statements, b ills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other cle rica l work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
cla ssified by type of machine, as follow s:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record o f business transactions.

Biller, machine (billing machine) — Uses a special billing ma­

chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, e tc ., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.
Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine) — Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, e tc ., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare custom ers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on custom ers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types o f sales and
credit slip s.




Class A — Keeps a set o f records requiring a knowledge o f
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance
sheets, and other records by hand.
Class B — Keeps a record o f one or more phases or section s o f
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of b asic book­
keeping*
Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type o f billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or a ssist in preparation o f trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.
C L E R K , A C C O U N T IN G
Class A — Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more section s o f a com ­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase o f an establish­
ment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

24

CLERK, ACCOUNTING— Continued
payable; exam ining and cod in g in v o ic e s or vouchers with proper a c ­
counting distribution; requires judgment and exp erien ce in making
proper assig n a tion s and a llo c a tio n s . May a s s is t in preparing, ad­
justing and c lo s in g journal en tries; may d irect c la s s B a ccou n tin g
clerk s.

Class B— Under su p erv ision , performs one or more routine a c ­
counting operations such as p ostin g sim ple journal vou chers or a c ­
counts payable v ou ch ers, entering vouchers in vou cher r e g iste r s;
recon cilin g bank a cco u n ts ; p ostin g subsidiary ledgers co n tro lle d
by general led g ers, or p ostin g sim ple c o s t a ccou n tin g data. T h is
jo b does not require a know ledge o f a ccou n tin g and b ookk eep in g
p rincip les but is found in o ffic e s in which the more routine a cco u n tingw ork is subdivided on a fun ction a l b a sis among sev era l w orkers.

CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes w ages o f com pany em p loyees and enters the n e c e s ­
sary data on the payroll s h e e ts. D uties in v o lv e : C alcu latin g w orkers'
earnings based on time or production record s; p ostin g ca lcu la ted data
on payroll sh eet, show ing inform ation such as w orker's name, working
d ays, time, rate, deductions for insu ran ce, and total w ages due. May
make out p a ych eck s and a s s is t paym aster in making up and distribut­
ing pay e n v e lo p e s. May use a ca lcu la tin g m achine.
COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tica l com putations. This job is not to be con fu sed with that o f sta tis ­
tica l or other type o f clerk , w hich may in v olv e frequent u se of a Com p­
tometer but, in w hich, use of this machine is incid en tal to perform ance
o f other d uties.

CLERK, FILE

Class A — In an e s ta b lis h e d filin g system con tainin g a num­
ber o f varied s u b je c t matter f ile s , c la s s ifie s and in d e x e s c o r r e s ­
pondence or other m aterial; may a ls o file this m aterial. May keep
records o f various types in con ju n ction with file s or may super­
v is e others in filin g and lo ca tin g material in the f il e s . May per­
form incid en ta l c le r ic a l d u ties.
Class B— Perform s routine filin g , usually of m aterial that has
already been c la s s ifie d or w hich is e a sily id e n tifia b le , or lo c a te s
or a s s is ts in lo ca tin g m aterial in f ile s .
May perform in cid en ta l
c le r ic a l d u ties.

CLERK, ORDER
R e c e iv e s cu s to m e rs'o rd e rs for material or m erchandise by m ail,
phone, or p erson a lly . D uties in v o lv e any combination o f the following:
Quoting p rices to custom ers; making out an order sh eet listin g the item s
to make up the order; ch e ck in g p rice s and quantities o f item s on order
sh eet; distributing order sh eets to re sp e ctiv e departments to be fille d .
May ch eck with cred it department to determine cred it rating o f custom er,
acknow ledge receip t o f orders from custom ers, fo llo w up orders to s e e
that they have been fille d , keep file o f orders re c e iv e d , and ch e ck sh ip ­
ping in v o ic e s with original orders.




DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Under general su pervision and with no supervisory re sp o n si­
b ilitie s , reproduces multiple c o p ie s o f typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or D itto m achine. Makes n ecessa ry adjustm ent such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylin der sp eed . Is not required to
prepare s te n c il or D itto master. May keep file of used s te n cils or Ditto
m asters. May sort, c o lla te , and staple com pleted m aterial.

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Under general su pervision and wit;h no su pervisory r e s p o n si­
b ilitie s , record s accou n tin g and s ta tis tica l data on tabulating cards by
punching a se rie s o f h oles in the cards in a s p e c ifie d se q u e n ce , u sin g
an a lp h ab etical or a numerical keypunch m achine, follow in g written in­
formation on record s. May du p licate cards by using the du p licatin g d e­
v ic e attached to machine. May keep file s of punch ca rd s. May verify
own work or work o f oth ers.
OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Perform s various routine duties such as running errands, op ­
erating minor o ffic e m achines such as se a le rs or m ailers, opening and
distributing mail, and other minor c le r ic a l work.

25

SECRETARY
Performs secretaria l and c le r ic a l duties for a superior in an ad­
ministrative or execu tiv e p o sitio n . D uties include making appointments
for superior; receiv in g p eople com ing into o ffic e ; answering and making
phone c a lls ; handling personal and important or con fid en tia l mail, and
writing routine correspon den ce on own in itia tiv e; taking d ictation (where
transcribing machine is not u sed) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
sim ilar m achine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded information
reproduced on a transcribing m achine. May prepare s p e c ia l reports or
memorandums for information o f superior.
STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take d ictation from one or more p e rso n s,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine, in volvin g a nor­
mal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this d ictation on a typewriter.
May a ls o type from written co p y . May a ls o se t up and keep file s in or­
der, keep sim ple record s, e tc . Does not include transcribing-machine
work (s e e transcribing-m achine operator).
STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL
Primary duty is to take d ictation from one or more person s
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine, involvin g a varied
tech n ica l or s p e c ia liz e d vocabulary such as in leg a l b riefs or reports on
s cie n tific research and to transcribe this d ictation on a typewriter. May
a lso type from written co p y . May a ls o s e t up and keep file s in order,
keep sim ple record s, e tc . Does not include transcribing-machine work.
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a s in g le - or m u ltiple-position telephone sw itchboard.
D uties in volve handling incom ing, outgoing, and intraplant or o ffic e c a lls .
May record to ll c a lls and take m e s s a g e s . May g iv e information to per­
son s who c a ll in, or o c c a s io n a lly take telephone orders. For workers
who a lso act as re cep tion ists s e e sw itchboard op erator-reception ist.
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator, on a sin g le p o s i­
tion or monitor-type sw itchboard, a cts as recep tion ist and may a ls o type
or perform routine c le rica l work as part o f regular d u ties. T h is typing
or cle r ic a l work may take the major part o f this w orker's time w hile at
sw itchboard.




TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Class A — Operates a variety o f tabulating or e le ctr ic a l a c ­
counting m achines, typ ica lly including such m achines as the tabu­
lator, ca lcu la tor, interpreter, colla tor and others. Performs com ­
plete reporting assignm ents without c lo s e su pervision , and performs
d ifficu lt wiring as required. The com plete reporting and tabulating
assignm ents ty p ica lly involve a variety o f long and com plex re­
ports which often are o f irregular or nonrecurring tvpe requiring
som e planning and sequ en cin g o f step s to be taken. A s a more
exp erien ced operator, is typ ica lly in volved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating seq u en ces o f long and com plex reports.
Does not include working supervisors performing tabulating-m achine
operations and day-to-day su pervision o f the work and production of
a group o f tabulating-machine operators.
Class B— Operates more d ifficu lt tabulating or e le ctr ic a l a c ­
counting m achines such as the tabulator and ca lcu la tor, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and colla tor. T h is work is performed under
s p e c ific instructions and may include the performance o f some wir­
ing from diagram s. The work ty p ica lly in v o lv e s , for exam ple, tabu­
lation s in volvin g a repetitive accou n tin g e x e r c is e , a com plete but
sm all tabulating study, or parts o f a longer and more com plex report.
Such reports and studies are usually o f a recurring nature where
the procedures are w ell esta b lish ed . May a ls o include the training
o f new em ployees in the b a sic operation o f the m achine.
Class C-—Operates simple tabulating or e le c tr ic a l a ccou n t­
ing m achines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, colla tor, etc.,
with s p e c ific instru ction s. May include sim ple wiring from diagrams
and some filin g work. The work typ ica lly in v olv es portions of a
work unit, for exam ple, individual sorting or co lla tin g runs, or re­
petitive op eration s.
TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe d ictation in volvin g a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-m achine record s. May a ls o type from written
cop y and do sim ple c le r ic a l work. Workers transcribing d ictation in­
volvin g a varied te ch n ica l or s p e c ia liz e d vocabulary such as leg a l briefs
or reports on s c ie n tific research are not inclu d ed. A worker who takes
dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar machine is c la s s ifie d
as a stenographer, general.

26

TYPIST— Continued

TYPIST
U ses a typewriter to make c o p ie s o f various m aterial or to make
out b ills after ca lcu la tio n s have been made by another p erson . May in­
clu de typing o f s te n c ils , mats, or sim ilar m aterials for u se in d u p lica t­
ing p r o c e s s e s . May do c le r ic a l work inv olv in g little s p e c ia l training,
sucli as keeping sim ple record s, filin g record s and reports, or sorting
and distributing incom ing m ail.

Class A— Performs one or more o f the following: T ypin g ma­
terial in final form when it in v olv es com bining material from sev era l
sou rces or re sp o n sib ility for correct sp e llin g , s y lla b ica tio n , punc-

tuation, e t c ., o f tech n ica l or unusual words or foreign language ma­
teria l; planning layout and typing o f com plicated s ta tis tic a l tables
to maintain uniformity and balan ce in sp a cin g. May type routine
form letters varying d etails to suit circu m stan ces.

Class B— Perform s one or more o f the following: C opy typing
from rough or cle a r drafts; routine typing o f form s, insurance p o lic ie s ,
e t c .; setting up sim ple standard tabu lation s, or cop y in g more com ­
p lex ta bles already set up and sp a ced properly.

P R O F E S S IO N A L AND T E C H N I C A L
DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(A ssista n t draftsman)
Draws to s c a le units or parts o f drawings prepared by d rafts­
man or others for engineering, con stru ction , or manufacturing p u rp oses.
U ses various types o f drafting to o ls as required. May prepare drawings
from sim ple plans or s k e tch e s , or perform other duties under d irection
o f a draftsman.
DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
P lans and d irects a ctiv itie s of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration o f working plans and d eta il drawings from rough or preliminary
sk etch es for engineering, con stru ction , or manufacturing p u rp oses. D uties
involve a combination o f the following: Interpreting blueprints, s k e tch e s,
and written or verbal orders; determining work p roced u res; a ssig n in g
duties to subordinates and in sp ectin g their work; performing more d if­
ficu lt problem s. May a s s is t subordinates during em ergen cies or a s a
regular assignm ent, or perform related duties o f a su pervisory or ad­
ministrative nature.

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued
in v olv ed in strength o f m aterials, beams and tru sses; verifyin g com ­
p leted work, ch eck in g d im en sion s, m aterials to be u sed, and quan tities;
writing s p e c ific a tio n s ; making adjustm ents or changes in drawings or
s p e c ific a tio n s . May ink in lin es and letters on p en cil draw ings, prepare
d etail units o f com plete draw ings, or trace drawings. Work is frequently
in a s p e c ia liz e d fie ld such as architectural, e le c tr ic a l, m echan ical, or
structural drafting.
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
A registered nurse who g iv e s nursing s e rv ice to ill or injured
em ployees or other persons who becom e ill or suffer an a ccid e n t on the
prem ises o f a factory or other establishm ent. D uties in volv e a combination o f the following: G iving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent d ressin g o f e m p loy ees' in ju ries; keeping record s o f patients
treated; preparing a ccid en t reports for com pensation or other p u rp oses;
conducting p h y sica l exam inations and health evalu ation s o f applican ts
and em p loy ees; and planning and carrying out programs in v olv in g health
ed ucation , a ccid e n t prevention, evaluation o f plant environm ent, or other
a ctiv itie s a ffectin g the health, w elfare, and safety o f a ll p erson nel.

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
TRACER
Prepares working plans and d etail drawings from n o te s, rough
or detailed sketchcjm for engineering, con stru ction , or manufacturing pur­
p o s e s . D uties in v olv e a combination o f the following: Preparing work­
ing plans, detail draw ings, maps, c r o s s -s e c tio n s , e t c ., to s c a le by use
of drafting instruments; making engineering com putations su ch as those




C op ies plans and drawings prepared by oth ers, by p la cin g trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or p e n c il. U ses
T -squ are, com p a ss, and other drafting t o o ls . May prepare sim ple draw­
ings and do sim ple lettering.

27
M A IN T E N A N C E

D PO W ER PLA N T

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER

Perform s the carpentry duties n ece ssa ry to con struct and main­
tain in g ood repair building woodwork and equipment such as bin s, crib s,
cou n ters, b e n ch e s, partitions, d oors, flo o r s, stairs, c a s in g s , and trim
made o f w ood in an establishm ent. Work in v o lv e s most o f the following:
Planning and laying out o f work from blueprints, drawings, m odels, or
verbal in stru ction s; using a variety o f carpenter’ s h an dtools, portable
power to o ls , and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
com putations relating to dim ensions o f work; se le c tin g m aterials n e c ­
essa ry for the work. In general, the work o f the m aintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and exp erien ce usually acquired through a for­
mal appren ticesh ip or equivalent training and ex p erien ce.

F ire s stationary boilers to furnish the establishm ent in which
em ployed with heat, power, or steam . F eed s fu els to fire by hand or
operates a m echanical stoker, g a s, or o il burner; ch eck s water and safety
v a lv e s. May cle a n , o il, or a s s is t in repairing boilerroom equipment.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
Perform s a variety o f e le c tr ic a l trade functions such as the
in sta llation , maintenance, or repair o f equipment for the generating, d is ­
tribution, or u tiliza tion o f e le ctr ic energy in an establishm ent. Work
in v olv es most o f the following: Installing or repairing any o f a variety
o f e le ctr ic a l equipment such as generators, transform ers, sw itch boards,
con trollers, circu it breakers, motors, heating units, conduit system s,
or other transm ission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, la y­
out, or other s p e c ific a tio n s ;.loca tin g and diagn osin g trouble in the e l e c ­
trical system or equipment; working standard com putations relating to
load requirements o f wiring or e le ctr ic a l equipment; using a variety o f
ele ctricia n ’ s handtools and measuring and testin g instruments. In gen ­
eral, the work o f the maintenance e lectricia n requires rounded training
and exp erien ce usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and ex p erien ce.
ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may a ls o su pervise the operation
o f stationary en gin es and equipment (m ech anical or e le c tr ic a l) to sup­
ply the establishm ent in which em ployed with pow er, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-cond ition in g. Work in v o lv e s: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam en gin es, air com pressors, generators, motors
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a record o f
operation o f machinery, temperature, and fu e l consum ption. May also
su pervise th ese operations. Head or ch ief engineers in establishments
employing more than one engineer are excluded .




HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
A s s is t s one or more workers in the s k illed maintenance trades,
by performing s p e c ific or general duties o f le s s e r s k ill, such as keeping
a worker su pplied with materials and to o ls ; clean in g working area, ma­
ch in e, and equipment; a ssistin g worker by holding materials or to o ls ;
performing other unskilled tasks as d irected by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is con fin ed to su pplyin g, liftin g, and holding ma­
terials and to o ls and cleanin g working a rea s; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform s p e c ia liz e d machine operation s, or parts of a trade
that are a ls o performed by workers on a full-tim e b a s is .
MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
S p e cia liz e s in the operation of one or more types o f machine
to o ls, such as jig borers, cy lin d rica l or su rface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling m achines in the con struction o f m achine-shop to o ls , gauges,
jig s , fixtures, or d ie s . Work in v olv es most o f the following: Planning
and performing d ifficu lt machining op eration s; p ro ce ssin g items requiring
com plicated setups or a high degree of a ccu ra cy ; using a variety of pre­
cis io n measuring instruments; se le ctin g fe e d s , sp e e d s , toolin g and op­
eration se q u e n ce ; making n ecessa ry adjustm ents during operation to
a ch ieve requ isite tolera n ces or dim en sion s. May be required to re co g ­
nize when to o ls need dressin g, to dress to o ls , and to s e le c t proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils . For cross-in d u stry wage study
purposes, m achine-tool operators, toolroom , in to o l and die jobbin g shops
are exclu d ed from this c la s s ific a tio n .
MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
P roduces replacem ent parts and new parts in making repairs o f
metal parts o f m echanical equipment operated in an establishm ent. Work
in v olv es most o f the following: Interpreting written instructions and
s p e c ific a t io n s ; planning and laying out o f work; using a variety of ma­
ch in is t’ s handtools and p recision measuring instruments; setting up and

28

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued

MILLWRIGHT— Continued

operating standard machine to o ls ; shaping o f metal parts to c lo s e toler­
a n ces; making standard shop com putations relating to dim ensions of work,
toolin g , feed s and sp eed s o f machining; know ledge o f the working prop­
erties of the common m etals; se le c tin g standard m aterials, parts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assem blin g parts into me­
ch an ical equipment. In general, the m achinist’ s work normally requires
a rounded training in m achine-shop p ra ctice usually acquired through a
formal ap p ren ticesh ip or equivalent training and ex p erien ce.

are required. Work in v olv es most o f the following: Planning and laying
out o f the work; interpreting blueprints or other s p e c ific a tio n s ; using a
variety o f handtools and rigging; making standard shop com putations re­
lating to s tr e s s e s , strength o f m aterials, and centers o f gravity; alining
and balan cin g o f equipment; se le c tin g standard to o ls , equipment, and parts
to be u sed; in sta llin g and maintaining in good order power transm ission
equipment such as drives and speed red u cers. In general, the m ill­
wright’ s work normally requires a rounded training and exp erien ce in the
trade acquired through a formal ap p ren ticesh ip or equivalent training and
ex p e rie n ce .

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
R epairs autom obiles, b u se s, motortrucks, and tractors o f an e s ­
tablishm ent. Work in v o lv e s most o f the following: Examining autom otive
equipment to d ia gn ose sou rce o f trouble; d isassem blin g equipment and
performing repairs that in volve the use o f such handtools as w ren ch es,
gau ges, d rills, or s p e c ia liz e d equipment in d isassem blin g or fitting parts;
replacin g broken or d e fe ctiv e parts from sto ck ; grinding and adjusting
v a lv e s; reassem blin g and installin g the various a ssem b lies in the v e h icle
and making n e ce ssa ry adjustm ents; alining w h eels, adjusting brakes and
ligh ts, or tightening body b o lts . In general, the work o f the autom otive
m echanic requires rounded training and exp erien ce usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and e x p erien ce.
MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or m echanical equipment o f an establishm ent.
Work in v olv es most o f the following: Examining m achines and mechan­
ic a l equipment to d iagn ose sou rce o f trouble; dism antling or partly d is ­
mantling m achines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use o f
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; rep lacin g broken or d e fe ctiv e
parts with items obtained from s to ck ; ordering the production o f a re p la ce ­
ment part by a machine shop or sending o f the machine to a machine shop
for major repairs; preparing written s p e c ific a tio n s for major repairs or
for the production o f parts ordered from machine shop; reassem blin g ma­
ch in e s; and making a ll n e ce s s a ry adjustments for operation. In general,
the work o f a maintenance m echanic requires rounded training and e x ­
p erience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and ex p erien ce. E xclu d ed from this cla s s ific a tio n are workers
w hose primary duties in volve settin g up or adjusting m achines.
MILLWRIGHT
Installs new m achines or heavy equipment and dism antles and
in sta lls m achines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout




OILER
L u b rica tes, with o il or grea se, the moving parts or wearing sur­
fa c e s o f m echanical equipment o f an establishm ent.
PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and red ecorates w a lls, w oodwork, and fixtures of an e s ­
tablishm ent. Work involves the following: K now ledge o f surface p ecu ­
lia rities and types o f paint required for different a p p lica tion s; preparing
surface for painting by rem oving old fin ish or by p la cin g putty or filler in
nail h oles and in te rstice s; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix c o lo r s , o ils , white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper
c o lo r or c o n s iste n c y . In general, the work o f the m aintenance painter
requires rounded training and exp erien ce u sually acquired through a for­
mal appren ticesh ip or equivalent training and exp erien ce.
PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
In stalls or repairs water, steam , g a s, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishm ent. Work in v olv es most o f the following:
Laying out o f work and measuring to loca te p osition o f pipe from drawings
or other written s p e c ific a tio n s ; cutting various s iz e s o f pipe to correct
lengths with c h is e l and hammer or o x y a cety len e torch or pipe-cutting ma­
ch in e; threading pipe with sto ck s and d ie s ; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven m achines; assem blin g pipe with cou p lin gs and fasten in g
pipe to hangers; making standard shop com putations relating to p ressu res,
flo w , and s iz e o f pipe required; making standard tests to determine
whether finished p ip es meet sp ecifica tion s* Io general, the work o f the
maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and exp erien ce usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and e x ­
perience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building
sanitation or heating systems are excluded .

29

TOOL AND DIE MAKER

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
K eeps the plumbing system o f an establishm ent in good order.
Work in v olv e s: Know ledge of sanitary co d e s regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system ; in sta llin g or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clo g g e d drains with a plunger or plum ber's snake. In
general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experien ce usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and exp erien ce.
SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
F a b rica tes, in s ta lls , and maintains in good repair the sh eetmetal equipment and fixtures (su ch as machine guards, grease pans,
sh e lv e s, lo ck e rs , tanks, ven tilators, ch u tes, d u cts, metal roofing) o f an
establishm ent. Work in v olv es most o f the following: Planning and la y ­
ing out a ll types o f sheet-m etal maintenance work from blueprints, m odels,
or other s p e c ific a tio n s ; setting up and operating all a vailable types o f
sheet-m etal-w orking m achines; using a variety o f handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and a ssem blin g; insta llin g sh eetmetal a rticle s as required. In general, the work o f the maintenance
sheet-m etal worker requires rounded training and experien ce usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
exp erien ce.

(D iem ak er; jig maker; toolm aker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
Constructs and repairs m achine-shop to o ls , gau ges, jig s , fix ­
tures or d ies for forgin gs, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
in v olv es most o f the following: Planning and laying out of work from
m odels, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written s p e c ific a tio n s ;
using a variety o f tool and die m aker's handtools and p recision m eas­
uring instruments, understanding of the working properties o f common
metals and a llo y s ; setting up and operating o f machine tools and related
equipment; making n ecessary shop com putations relating to dim ensions
o f work, s p e e d s, fe e d s, and toolin g o f m achines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as w ell as o f fin ish ed tools and d ies to ach ieve
required q u a litie s; working to c lo s e to le ra n ce s; fitting and assem bling
o f parts to p rescribed toleran ces and a llo w a n ce s; se le ctin g appropriate
m aterials, to o ls , and p ro c e s s e s . In gen eral, the tool and die maker's
work requires a rounded training in m achine-shop and toolroom p ractice
usually acquired through a formal app ren ticesh ip or equivalent training
and ex p erien ce.

For cross-industry wage study p u rp oses, tool and die makers
in to o l and die jobbin g shops are exclu d ed from this c la s s ific a tio n .

C U S T O D IA L AND M A T E R IA L M O V EM EN T
ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

JANITOR, PORTER, OR C LE A N E R — Continued

Transports passengers between floors o f an o ffic e building,
apartment h ou se, department store, hotel or sim ilar establish m en t.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are exclu d ed .

or other establishm ent. Duties involve a combination of the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and p olish in g flo o r s; rem oving ch ip s,
trash, and other refu se; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; p o lish ­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing su pp lies and minor mainte­
nance s e r v ic e s ; cleanin g lavatories, sh ow ers, and restroom s. Workers
who s p e c ia liz e in window washing are exclu d ed .

GUARD
Performs routine p o lic e d u ties, either at fixed p ost or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where n e ce ssa ry . Includes gate-

men who are stationed at gate and check on identity o f employees and
other persons entering.
JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
(Sweeper; charwoman; ja n itress)
C lean s and keeps in an orderly con dition factory working areas
and washroom s, or prem ises o f an o ffic e , apartment h ou se, or com m ercial




LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(L oader and unloader; handler and stack er; sh elver; trucker; stock man or sto ck helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker em ployed in a w arehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishm ent w hose duties in volve one or more o f the follow­
ing: L oading and unloading various materials and m erchandise on or

30

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING— Continued
from freight ca rs , trucks, or other transporting d e v ic e s ; unpacking, sh e lv ­
ing, or p la cin g m aterials or merchandise in proper storage lo ca tio n ; trans­
porting m aterials or m erchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.
Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded .
ORDER FILLER
(Order p ick er; s to ck s e le c to r ; warehouse stockm an)
F ills shipping or transfer orders for fin ish ed g ood s from stored
merchandise in accord a n ce with s p e c ific a tio n s on s a le s s lip s , customers*
orders, or other instru ction s. May, in addition to fillin g orders and indi­
cating items fille d or omitted, keep records o f outgoing orders, req u isi­
tion additional s to ck , or report short su p p lies to su pervisor, ana perform
other related d uties.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued
F or w age study p urposes, workers are c la s s ifie d as fo llo w s :

Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
TRUCKDRIVER
D rives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
teria ls, m erchandise, equipment, or men betw een various types o f esta b ­
lishm ents such a s : Manufacturing plants, freight d epots, w arehouses,
w h olesa le and retail establish m en ts, or betw een retail establishm ents
and cu stom ers’ h ou ses or p la ce s o f b u sin e ss. May a ls o load or unload
truck with or without h elp ers, make minor m ech an ical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers
are excluded .

PACKER, SHIPPING
Prepares fin ish ed products for shipment or storage by p la cin g
them in shipping con tainers, the s p e c ific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, s iz e , and number o f units to be packed, the
type o f container em ployed, and method o f shipment. Work requires the
p la cin g o f item s in shipping containers and may involve one or more o f
the following: K now ledge o f various items o f sto ck in order to verify
content; s e le c tio n o f appropriate type and s iz e o f container; inserting
en closu res in con tainer; using e x c e ls io r or other material to prevent
breakage or dam age; clo s in g and sea lin g container; applying la b e ls or
entering iden tifyin g data on container. Packers who also make wooden
boxes or crates are excluded .
SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares m erchandise for shipment, or r e c e iv e s and is respon­
sib le for incom ing shipments o f merchandise or other m aterials. Shipping
work involves: A know ledge o f shipping p rocedu res, p ra ctice s, routes,
available means o f transportation and ra tes; and preparing records o f the
g ood s shipped, making up b ills o f lading, p ostin g w eight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file o f shipping record s. May d irect or a s s is t in
preparing the m erchandise for shipment. Receiving work involves: V eri­
fying or directin g others in verifying the correctn ess o f shipm ents against
b ills of lading, in v o ic e s , or other record s; ch eck in g for shortages and
rejectin g damaged g o o d s ; routing m erchandise or materials to proper d e­
partments; maintaining n ecessa ry records and file s .




For wage study p urposes, truckdrivers are c la s s ifie d by siz e
and type o f equipment, as fo llo w s : (T ractor-trailer should be rated on
the b a sis o f trailer ca p a city .)

Truckdriver (combination o f sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under l l2 tons)
/
Truckdriver, medium ( l l2 to and including 4 tons)
/
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons9 trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)
TRUCKER, POWER
Operates a manually con trolled g a s o lin e - or electric-p ow ered
truck or tractor to transport good s and m aterials o f a ll kinds about a
w arehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishm ent.
For wage study p urposes, workers are c la s s ifie d
truck, as fo llo w s :

by type of

Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)
WATCHMAN
Makes rounds o f prem ises p e riod ica lly in protecting property
against fire , theft, and ille g a l entry.
'fcu.s. G V R M N P IN IN O F E:1961
O E N E T R T G F IC

O— 588981







Occupational Wage Surveys
O c c u p a tio n a l w ag e su rv e y s w ill be c o n d u c te d in the 82 m ajor la b or m arkets lis t e d b e lo w during late I 9 6 0 and e a rly 1961. B u lle t in s , when a v a ila b le , may be
p u r ch a se d from the S u p erin ten d en t o f D o c u m e n ts, U .S . G overnm ent P rin tin g O ff ic e , W ashington 25, D .C ., or from any o f the B LS r e g io n a l s a le s o f f i c e s sh ow n on the
in s id e front c o v e r .
A summary b u lle tin co n ta in in g data for 80 la b or m arkets, co m b in e d w ith a d d itio n a l a n a ly s is , w ill be is s u e d ea r ly in 1962.

A kron, O h io — B u ll. 1285A lb a n y —S c h e n e c t a d y —T r o y , N .Y .— B u ll. 1285
A lb u q u e rq u e , N . M e x .— B u ll. 1285A lle n to w n —B e th le h e m —E a s to n ,
P a . - N . J . — B u ll. 12 85A tla n ta , G a .— B u ll. 12 85* B a lt im o r e , M d.— B u ll. 12 85-3 4
B eau m on t—P o rt Arthur, T e x . — B u ll. 12 85B irm ingham , A l a .— B u ll. 1 2 8 5 B o i s e , Id a h o — B u ll. 1285* * B o s t o n , M a s s .— B u ll. 1285-15
* * B u f f a l o , N .Y .— B u ll. 1285-31
B u rlin g ton , V t .— B u ll. 12 85* C a n to n , O h io — B u ll. 1285-29
C h a rle s to n , W. V a .— B u ll. 12 85C h a rlo tte , N .C .— B u ll. 1 2 85# ^ C h a tta n o o g a , T e n n .—G a .—-B u l l. 1285-14
C h ic a g o , 111.— B u ll. 1285C in c in n a ti, O h io —K y .-— B u ll. 1285*3S<Cleveland, O h io — B u ll. 1285-11
C o lu m b u s, O h io — B u ll. 1285-38
* * D a l l a s , T e x .— B u ll. 1285-21
* * D a v e n p o r t —R o c k Is la n d —M o lin e , Io w a —111.—
B u ll. 1285-16
D ay ton , O h io — B u ll. 1285-4 1
* D en ver, C o l o .— B u ll. 1285-27
D e s M o in e s, Io w a — B u ll. 1285*
D e tro it, M ich .— B u ll. 1285-37
♦ ♦ F ort Worth, T e x .— B u ll. 1 2 8 5 -2 3

* G reen B a y , W is .— B u ll. 1285-2
G r e e n v ille , S .C .— B u ll. 1285H o u ston , T e x .— B u ll. 12 85* In d ia n a p o lis , In d .— B u ll. 1285-2 8
J a c k s o n , M i s s .— B u ll. 1 2 8 5 -4 2
* * J a c k s o n v ille , F l a .— B u ll. 1 2 8 5 -3 0
* K a n sa s C ity , M o.—K a n s .— B u ll. 12 85-1 8
L a w r e n c e —H a v e r h ill, M a s s .—N .H .— B u ll. 1285❖ ❖ L it t le R o c k —North L itt le R o c k , A r k .— B u ll. 1 2 8 5 -6
L o s A n g e le s —L o n g B e a c h , C a l i f .— B u ll. 12 85L o u i s v i l l e , K y .—In d .— B u ll. 12 85L u b b o c k , T e x .— B u ll. 12 85* M a n ch ester, N .H .— B u ll. 1285-1
M em phis, T e n n .— B u ll. 1285-35
* M iam i, F l a .— B u ll. 1285-33
M ilw a u k ee, W is .— B u ll. 12 85M in n e a p o lis —St. P a u l, M inn.— B u ll. 12 85-3 9
M u sk eg on —M uskegon H e ig h ts, M ich .— B u ll. 1 2 85N ew ark and J e r s e y C ity , N .J .— B u ll. 1 2 8 5 -4 0
N ew H a ven , C o n n .— B u ll. 1285N ew O r le a n s , L a .— B u ll. 1285N ew Y ork , N .Y .— B u ll. 1285N o r fo lk —P ortsm ou th and N ew port N e w s —
H am pton, V a .— B u ll. 12 85# # O klahom a C ity , O k la .— B u ll. 1 2 8 5 -3
Om aha, N e b r .—I o w a — B u ll. 1 2 8 5 -1 3
P a t e r s o n —C lift o n —P a s s a i c , N .J .— B u ll. 1 2 85* * P h i l a d e l p h i a , P a .— B u ll. 1 2 85-2 4
P h o e n ix , A r iz .— B u ll. 12 85-

P ittsb u rg h , P a .— B u ll. 1285sfcPortland, M aine— B u ll. 1285-19
P o rtla n d , O r e g .—W a sh .— B u ll. 12 85P r o v id e n c e —P a w tu c k e t, R .I .—M a s s .— B u ll. 1285* * R a le ig h , N .C .— B u ll. 12 8 5 -5
^ R ich m o n d , V a .— B u ll. 1285-26
R o c k fo r d , 111.— B u ll. 12 85* * S t . L o u is , M o . - I l l . — B u ll. 1 2 85-1 0
* * S a l t L a k e C ity , U tah— -B u ll. 1285*32
San A n to n io , T e x .— B u ll. 1 2 85ajeSan B ern a rd in o—R iv e r s id e —O n ta rio,
C a l i f .— B u ll. 1 2 8 5 -4
San F r a n c is c o —O ak la n d , C a l i f .— B u ll. 1285-3 6
S avan nah , G a .— B u ll. 1285* * S cra n ton , P a .— B u ll. 1 2 8 5 -8
* * S e a ttle , W ash.— B u ll. 1 2 8 5 -7
* * * S iou x F a lls , S. D a k .— B u ll. 1285-17
South B end , In d .— B u ll. 12 85-

* *
**
*
**
**

S p ok a n e, W ash.— B u ll. 1 2 85T o le d o , O h io — B u ll. 12 85T ren ton , N .J .— B u ll. 1285-25
W ashin gton , D .C .—M d.—V a .-— B u ll. 1 2 8 5 -2 2
W aterbury, C o n n .— B u ll. 1 2 8 5 W aterloo, Io w a — B u ll. 1 2 85-2 0
W ich ita, K a n s .— B u ll. 1 2 8 5 -9
W ilm ington, D e l .—N .J .— B u ll. 12 85-1 2
W orcester, M a s s .— B u ll. 1 2 85Y ork , P a .— B u ll. 12 85-

An asterisk preceding a labor market indicates the availability and
price of the bulletin.
Please do not order copies in advance.

*
sfcjje
***




Price, 20 cents,
Price, 25 cents.
Price, 15 cents.





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102