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Occupational Wage Survey

B A L T IM O R E , M A R Y L A N D
D ECEM BER 1 9 6 0

Bulletin N o . 1 2 8 5 -3 4




UNITED ST A T E S D E PA R TM E N T O F L A B O R
Arthur J. G old b erg , Secretary
BUREAU 0 ^ LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




O ccupational Wage S u rv e y
BALTIM O RE, MARYLAND




DECEMBER 1960

B u ll e t in N o . 1 2 8 5 - 3 4
March 1961

UNITED ST A T E S D E P A R T M E N T OF L A B O R
Arthur J. G old b erg , Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.

Price 20 cents




Preface

Contents
Page

The C o m m u n ity W age S u r v e y P r o g r a m
The B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s r e g u la r ly co n d u cts
a r e a w id e w a g e s u r v e y s in a n u m b e r of im p o rta n t in d u s tr ia l
ce n te rs.
T he s tu d ie s , m ad e fr o m la te f a l l to e a r ly s p r in g ,
r e la t e to o c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s and r e la t e d s u p p le m e n ta ry
b e n e fits .
A p r e lim in a r y r e p o r t is a v a ila b le on co m p le tio n
o f the stu d y in e a c h a r e a , u s u a lly in the m on th fo llo w in g
the p a y r o ll p e r io d s tu d ied . T h is b u lle tin p r o v id e s a d d itio n a l
d ata not in clu d e d in the e a r l i e r r e p o r t .
A c o n s o lid a te d
a n a ly tic a l b u lle tin s u m m a r iz in g the r e s u lt s of a ll of the
y e a r * s s u r v e y s is is s u e d a ft e r c o m p le tio n of the fin a l a r e a
b u lle tin f o r the c u r r e n t ro u n d of s u r v e y s .

I n t r o d u c tio n _________________________________ ___________________
W age tre n d s fo r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p s _____________________
T a b le s :
1.
2.

A:

B:

E s ta b lis h m e n ts and w o r k e r s w ith in sco p e of s u r v e y __________
In d exes of s ta n d a rd w e e k ly s a l a r i e s and s t r a ig h t - t im e
h o u r ly e a r n in g s fo r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n a l g r o u p s , and
p e r c e n t s o f in c r e a s e fo r s e le c t e d p e r io d s __________________

3

O cc u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s : *
A - 1. O ffic e o c c u p a tio n s _______________________
A -2 . P r o f e s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l o c c u p a tio n s _____
A - 3. M a in te n a n ce and p o w e rp la n t o c c u p a tio n s ____
A -4 . C u s to d ia l and m a t e r ia l m o v e m e n t o c c u p a tio n s __________

10

E s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and s u p p le m e n ta ry w a g e
p r o v is io n s : *
B - 1. Shift d if f e r e n t ia ls ___________________________________
B -2 . M in im u m e n tra n c e s a l a r i e s fo r w o m en o ffic e w o r k e r s ___
B -3 . S ch ed u le d w e e k ly h o u rs _____
B -4 . P a id h o lid a y s _______________________________________
B - 5 . P a id v a c a tio n s ______________________________________
B -6 . H e alth , in s u r a n c e , and p e n sio n p la n s _________________

12
13
14
15
16
18

A p p en d ix:

O c c u p a tio n a l d e s c r ip tio n s _____________________________

N O T E : S im ila r ta b u la tio n s fo r th e s e and o th e r ite m s
a r e a v a ila b le in the B a ltim o r e a r e a r e p o r t s fo r June 1 9 5 1,
O c to b e r 1952, A p r il 19 5 5, A u g u st 19 5 7, A u g u st 1958, and
S e p te m b e r 1959A d ir e c t o r y in d ic a tin g date o f stu d y and
the p r ic e of the r e p o r t s , a s w e ll a s r e p o r t s fo r o th e r
m a jo r a r e a s , is a v a ila b le upon re q u e s t.
C u r r e n t r e p o r t s on o c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s and s u p ­
p le m e n ta r y w a g e p r a c t ic e s in the B a ltim o r e a r e a a r e a ls o
a v a ila b le fo r the m a c h in e r y in d u s t r ie s (M a rc h I960), h o te ls
(M a rc h I960), and h o s p ita ls (June I960).
Union s c a le s ,
in d ic a tiv e of p r e v a ilin g p a y l e v e l s , a r e a v a ila b le fo r the
fo llo w in g
tra d es
o r in d u s t r ie s :
B u ild in g c o n s tr u c tio n ,
p rin tin g , lo c a l - t r a n s i t o p e r a tin g e m p lo y e e s , and m o t o r t r u c k
d r i v e r s and h e lp e r s .
iii

3

in oo O'

T h is r e p o r t w a s p r e p a r e d in the B u r e a u ’ s r e g io n a l
o ffic e in N ew Y o r k , N. Y . , by E llio tt A . B r o w a r , u n d er
the d ir e c t io n o f F r e d e r i c k W. M u e lle r , A s s is t a n t R e g io n a l
D ir e c t o r fo r W a g e s and In d u s tr ia l R e la tio n s .




1
4

19




Occupational Wage Survey—Baltimore, Md.
Introduction
T h is a r e a is one o f s e v e r a l im p o rta n t in d u s tr ia l c e n te r s in
w h ich the U. S. D e p a rtm e n t o f L a b o r l s B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s has
co n d u cted s u r v e y s o f o c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s and r e la te d w ag e b e n e fits
on an a r e a w id e b a s is . In th is a r e a , data w e r e o b tain ed b y p e r s o n a l
v is it s o f B u r e a u f ie ld e c o n o m is ts to r e p r e s e n ta t iv e e s ta b lis h m e n ts
w ith in s ix b ro a d in d u s try d iv is io n s :
M a n u fa ctu rin g ; t r a n s p o r t a t io n ,1
co m m u n ica tio n , and o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s ; w h o le s a le tr a d e ; r e t a il
tr a d e ; fin a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te ; and s e r v i c e s . M a jo r in ­
d u s t r y g ro u p s e x c lu d e d fr o m th e s e s tu d ie s a r e g o v e rn m e n t o p e r a tio n s
and the c o n s tr u c tio n and e x t r a c t iv e in d u s t r ie s . E s t a b lis h m e n ts h a vin g
fe w e r than a p r e s c r ib e d n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s a r e o m itte d a ls o b e c a u s e
th e y fu r n is h in s u ffic ie n t e m p lo y m e n t in the o ccu p a tio n s s tu d ie d to w a r ­
ra n t in c lu s io n . W h e r e v e r p o s s ib le , s e p a r a te ta b u la tio n s a r e p ro v id e d
fo r e a c h o f the b ro a d in d u s tr y d iv is io n s .
T h e s e s u r v e y s a r e co n d u cted on a s a m p le b a s is b e c a u s e o f the
u n n e c e s s a r y c o s t in v o lv e d in s u r v e y in g a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts . To o btain
a p p r o p r ia te a c c u r a c y at m in im u m c o s t, a g r e a t e r p r o p o r tio n o f la r g e
than o f s m a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts is stu d ied . In co m b in in g the d a ta , h o w ­
e v e r , a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts a r e g iv e n t h e ir a p p r o p r ia te w e ig h t. E s t im a t e s
b a s e d on the e s ta b lis h m e n ts stu d ie d a r e p r e s e n te d , t h e r e fo r e , as r e ­
la tin g to a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts in the in d u s tr y g ro u p in g and a r e a , e x ­
ce p t f o r th o s e b e lo w the m in im u m s iz e stu d ied .
O ccu p ation s and E arn in gs
T he o c cu p a tio n s s e le c t e d fo r stu d y a r e co m m o n to a v a r ie t y
o f m a n u fa c tu r in g and n o n m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s t r ie s . O c c u p a tio n a l c l a s ­
s if ic a t io n is b a s e d on a u n ifo r m s e t o f jo b d e s c r ip tio n s d e sig n e d to
ta k e a c c o u n t o f in te r e s ta b lis h m e n t v a r ia t io n in d u tie s w ith in the s a m e
jo b . (See ap p en d ix f o r lis tin g o f th e s e d e s c r ip t io n s .) E a r n in g s d a ta a r e
p r e s e n te d (in the A - s e r i e s ta b le s ) fo r the fo llo w in g ty p e s o f o c c u p a ­
tio n s: (a) O ffic e c l e r i c a l ; (b) p r o f e s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l; (c) m a in t e ­
n an ce and p o w e rp la n t; and (d) c u s to d ia l and m a t e r ia l m o v e m e n t.

la t e s h ift s .
N o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u ses a r e e x c lu d e d a ls o , but c o s t - o f liv in g b o n u ses and in c e n tiv e e a r n in g s a r e in clu d e d .
W h ere w e e k ly
h o u rs a r e re p o rte d , a s fo r o ffic e c l e r i c a l o c c u p a tio n s , r e f e r e n c e is
to the w o rk s c h e d u le s (rounded to the n e a r e s t h a lf hour) fo r w h ich
s t r a ig h t - t im e s a la r ie s a r e p aid ; a v e r a g e w e e k ly e a r n in g s f o r th e se
o ccu p a tio n s h ave b een rounded to the n e a r e s t h a lf d o lla r .
A v e r a g e e a r n in g s o f m en and w om en a r e p r e s e n te d s e p a r a te ly
fo r s e le c t e d o ccu p a tio n s in w h ich both s e x e s a r e co m m o n ly e m p lo y ed .
D iffe r e n c e s in p a y l e v e ls of m en and w om en in th e se o ccu p a tio n s a r e
l a r g e l y due to (1) d iffe r e n c e s in the d is tr ib u tio n o f the s e x e s am ong
in d u s tr ie s and e s ta b lis h m e n ts ; (2) d iffe r e n c e s in s p e c if ic d u tie s p e r ­
fo rm e d , alth ou gh the o ccu p a tio n s a r e a p p r o p r ia te ly c la s s if ie d w ith in
the s a m e s u r v e y jo b d e s c r ip tio n ; and (3) d iffe r e n c e s in len g th of s e r v ­
ic e o r m e r it r e v ie w w hen in d iv id u a l s a l a r ie s a r e a d ju ste d on th is b a s is .
L o n g e r a v e r a g e s e r v ic e o f m en w ould r e s u lt in h ig h e r a v e r a g e p a y
w hen both s e x e s a r e e m p lo y e d w ith in the s a m e ra te ra n g e .
Job
d e s c r ip tio n s u se d in c la s s if y in g e m p lo y e e s in th e se s u r v e y s a r e u s u ­
a l ly m o re g e n e r a liz e d than th o se u se d in in d iv id u a l e s ta b lis h m e n ts to
a llo w fo r m in o r d iffe r e n c e s am ong e s ta b lis h m e n ts in s p e c if ic d u ties
p e r fo r m e d .
O ccu p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t e s tim a te s r e p r e s e n t the to ta l in a ll
e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith in the s co p e o f the stu d y and not the n u m b e r a c tu ­
a lly s u r v e y e d . B e c a u s e o f d iffe r e n c e s in o c c u p a tio n a l s t r u c t u r e am ong
e s ta b lis h m e n ts , the e s tim a te s of o c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t o b tain ed
fr o m the s a m p le of e s ta b lis h m e n ts s tu d ied s e r v e o n ly to in d ic a te the
r e la t iv e im p o rta n c e o f the jo b s s tu d ied .
T h e s e d iffe r e n c e s in o c c u ­
p a tio n a l s t r u c t u r e do not m a t e r ia lly a ffe c t the a c c u r a c y o f the e a r n ­
in g s data.
E s ta b lis h m e n t P r a c t ic e s and S u p p le m e n ta ry W age P r o v is io n s

In fo rm a tio n is p r e s e n te d a ls o (in the B - s e r i e s ta b le s ) on s e ­
le c te d e s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and s u p p le m e n ta ry b e n e fits a s th e y r e ­
la te to o ffic e and p la n t w o r k e r s .
T he te r m " o ff ic e w o r k e r s , " a s u s e d
O c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t and e a r n in g s d a ta a r e show n fo r
in th is b u lle tin , in clu d e s w o rk in g s u p e r v is o r s and n o n s u p e r v is o r y
f u ll- t im e w o r k e r s , i. e. , th o s e h ir e d to w o rk a r e g u la r w e e k ly s c h e d ­
w o r k e r s p e r fo r m in g c l e r i c a l o r r e la t e d fu n ctio n s , and e x c lu d e s a d m in ­
u le in the g iv e n o c c u p a tio n a l c la s s if ic a t io n .
E a rn in g s d a ta e x clu d e
is t r a t iv e , e x e c u tiv e , and p r o f e s s io n a l p e r s o n n e l. " P la n t w o r k e r s " in ­
p re m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e and fo r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and
clu d e w o rk in g fo r e m e n and a ll n o n s u p e r v is o r y w o r k e r s (in clu d in g le a d m en and t r a in e e s ) en g ag ed in n o n o ffic e fu n c tio n s .
A d m in is t r a t iv e ,
R a ilr o a d s , f o r m e r l y e x c lu d e d fr o m the s co p e o f th e s e s tu d ie se x e c u tiv e , and p r o f e s s io n a l e m p lo y e e s , and fo r c e - a c c o u n t c o n s tr u c tio n
,
w e r e in c lu d e d in a ll o f the a r e a s stu d ie d s in c e J u ly 19 5 9 , e x c e p t B a l t i­
e m p lo y e e s who a r e u t iliz e d a s a s e p a r a te w o r k f o r c e a r e e x clu d e d .
m o r e (S e p te m b e r 1959 and D e c e m b e r I9 6 0 ), B u ffa lo (O c to b e r 19 5 9 ),
C a f e t e r ia w o r k e r s and ro u te m e n a r e e x c lu d e d in m a n u fa c tu rin g in d u s ­
C le v e la n d (S e p te m b e r 19 5 9 ), and S e a ttle (A u g u st 19 5 9 ).
t r i e s , but a r e in clu d e d as p lan t w o r k e r s in n o n m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s t r ie s .

1




2
S h ift d iffe r e n t ia l d ata (tab le B - l ) a r e lim it e d to m a n u fa c tu rin g
in d u s t r ie s .
T h is in fo r m a tio n is p r e s e n te d both in t e r m s o f (a) e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t p o l i c y , 2 p r e s e n te d in t e r m s o f to ta l p la n t w o r k e r e m p lo y ­
m e n t, and (b) e ff e c tiv e p r a c t ic e , p r e s e n te d on the b a s is o f w o r k e r s
a c tu a lly e m p lo y e d on the s p e c ifie d s h ift at th e tim e o f the s u r v e y .
In e s ta b lis h m e n ts h a vin g v a r ie d d if f e r e n t ia ls , the am ount a p p ly in g to
a m a jo r it y w as u s e d o r , if no am ount a p p lied to a m a jo r it y , the c l a s ­
s ific a t io n " o th e r " w as u se d .
In e s ta b lis h m e n ts in w h ich so m e la t e s h ift h o u rs a r e p a id at n o r m a l r a t e s , a d if f e r e n t ia l w as r e c o r d e d o n ly
if it a p p lie d to a m a jo r it y o f the s h ift h o u r s .
M in im u m e n tra n c e r a te s (ta b le B -2 ) r e la t e o n ly to the e s t a b ­
lis h m e n ts v is it e d .
T h e y a r e p r e s e n te d on an e s ta b lis h m e n t, r a th e r
than on an e m p lo y m e n t b a s is .
P a id h o lid a y s ; p a id v a c a tio n s ; and
h e a lth , in s u r a n c e , and p e n sio n p la n s a r e tr e a t e d s t a t i s t ic a l l y on the
b a s is th at th e s e a r e a p p lic a b le to a ll p la n t o r o ffic e w o r k e r s if a m a ­
j o r i t y o f su ch w o r k e r s a r e e lig ib le o r m a y e v e n tu a lly q u a lify f o r the
p r a c t ic e s lis te d . S ch ed u le d h o u rs a r e t r e a t e d s t a t i s t ic a l l y on the b a s is
th a t th e s e a r e a p p lic a b le to a ll p lan t o r o ffic e w o r k e r s i f a m a jo r it y
a r e c o v e r e d . 3 B e c a u s e o f rou n din g, su m s o f in d iv id u a l ite m s in th e se
ta b u la tio n s m a y not e q u a l t o ta ls .
T he f i r s t p a r t o f the p aid h o lid a y s ta b le p r e s e n ts the n u m ­
b e r o f w h o le and h a lf h o lid a y s a c tu a lly p ro v id e d .
T he s e co n d p a r t
co m b in e s w h o le and h a lf h o lid a y s to sh o w to ta l h o lid a y t im e .
T he s u m m a r y o f v a c a tio n p la n s is lim ite d to f o r m a l a r r a n g e ­
m e n ts , e x clu d in g in fo r m a l p la n s w h e r e b y tim e o ff w ith p a y is g ra n te d
a t the d is c r e t io n o f the e m p lo y e r .
S e p a r a te e s t im a t e s a r e p ro v id e d
a c c o r d in g to e m p lo y e r p r a c t ic e in co m p u tin g v a c a tio n p a y m e n ts , su ch
a s tim e p a y m e n ts , p e r c e n t o f ann ual e a r n in g s , o r fla t - s u m a m o u n ts.
H o w e v e r, in the ta b u la tio n s o f v a c a tio n a llo w a n c e s , p a y m e n ts not on
a tim e b a s is w e r e c o n v e rte d ; f o r e x a m p le , a p a y m e n t o f 2 p e r c e n t o f
ann ual e a r n in g s w as c o n s id e r e d a s the e q u iv a le n t o f 1 w e e k 's p a y .

2

A n e s ta b lis h m e n t w as c o n s id e r e d a s h a vin g a p o lic y if it m e t
e ith e r o f the fo llo w in g co n d itio n s: (1) O p e ra te d la te s h ifts at the tim e
o f the s u r v e y , o r (2) had fo r m a l p r o v is io n s c o v e r in g la te s h ifts .
S ch ed u le d w e e k ly h o u rs f o r o ffic e w o r k e r s ( f ir s t s e c tio n o f
ta b le B -3 ) in s u r v e y s m a d e p r io r to J u ly 1957 w e r e p r e s e n te d in
t e r m s o f the p ro p o rtio n o f w om en o ffic e w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in o ffic e s
w ith the in d ic a te d w e e k ly h o u rs f o r w om en w o r k e r s .

3




D a ta a r e p r e s e n te d f o r a ll h e a lth , in s u r a n c e , and p en sio n
p la n s fo r w h ich at le a s t a p a r t o f the c o s t is b o rn e b y the e m p lo y e r ,
e x c e p tin g o n ly le g a l re q u ir e m e n ts s u ch a s w o r k m e n 's co m p e n sa tio n ,
s o c ia l s e c u r it y , and r a ilr o a d r e t ir e m e n t .
Su ch p la n s in clu d e th o se
u n d e rw ritte n b y a c o m m e r c ia l in s u r a n c e co m p an y and th o s e p ro v id e d
th ro u gh a union fund o r p a id d ir e c t l y b y the e m p lo y e r out o f c u r r e n t
o p e r a tin g funds o r fr o m a fund s e t a s id e f o r th is p u r p o s e .
D eath
b e n e fits a r e in clu d e d as a fo r m o f lif e in s u r a n c e .
S ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e is lim ite d to th at typ e o f in ­
s u r a n c e u n d e r w h ich p r e d e te r m in e d c a s h p a y m e n ts a r e m ad e d ir e c t ly
to the in s u r e d on a w e e k ly o r m o n th ly b a s is d u rin g illn e s s o r a c c id e n t
d is a b ilit y .
In fo rm a tio n is p r e s e n te d f o r a ll s u ch p la n s to w h ich the
e m p lo y e r c o n tr ib u te s .
H o w e v e r , in N ew Y o r k and N ew J e r s e y , w h ich
h a ve e n a cte d t e m p o r a r y d is a b ilit y in s u r a n c e la w s w h ich r e q u ir e e m ­
p lo y e r c o n tr ib u t io n s ,4 p la n s a r e in clu d e d o n ly if the e m p lo y e r (1) c o n ­
tr ib u te s m o r e than is l e g a l l y re q u ir e d , o r (2) p r o v id e s the e m p lo y e e
w ith b e n e fits w h ich e x c e e d the r e q u ir e m e n ts o f the la w . T a b u la tio n s
o f p a id s ic k - l e a v e p la n s a r e lim it e d to fo r m a l p la n s 5 w h ich p ro v id e
fu ll p a y o r a p r o p o r tio n o f the w o r k e r 's p a y d u rin g a b s e n c e fr o m w o r k
b e c a u s e o f ill n e s s .
S e p a r a te ta b u la tio n s a r e p ro v id e d a c c o r d in g to
(1) .plans w h ich p r o v id e fu ll p a y and no w a itin g p e r io d , and (2) p la n s
p ro v id in g e it h e r p a r t ia l p a y o r a w a itin g p e r io d .
In a d d itio n to the
p r e s e n ta tio n o f the p ro p o rtio n s o f w o r k e r s who a r e p ro v id e d s ic k n e s s
and a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e o r p a id s ic k le a v e , an u n d u p lica te d to ta l is
show n o f w o r k e r s who r e c e iv e e it h e r o r both ty p e s o f b e n e fits .
C a ta s tro p h e in s u r a n c e , s o m e tim e s r e f e r r e d to a s exte n d e d
m e d ic a l in s u r a n c e , in c lu d e s th o s e p la n s w h ich a r e d e s ig n e d to p r o t e c t
e m p lo y e e s in c a s e o f s ic k n e s s and in ju r y in v o lv in g e x p e n s e s beyon d
the n o r m a l c o v e r a g e o f h o s p ita liz a tio n , m e d ic a l, and s u r g ic a l p la n s .
M e d ic a l in s u r a n c e r e f e r s to p la n s p r o v id in g f o r c o m p le te o r p a r t ia l
p a y m e n t o f d o c t o r s 1 f e e s . Such p la n s m a y be u n d e rw ritte n b y c o m m e r ­
c ia l in s u r a n c e co m p a n ie s o r n o n p ro fit o r g a n iz a tio n s o r th e y m a y be
s e lf - in s u r e d . T a b u la tio n s o f r e t ir e m e n t p e n s io n p la n s a r e lim ite d to
th o s e p la n s th a t p ro v id e m o n th ly p a y m e n ts f o r the r e m a in d e r o f the
w o r k e r 's l if e .

4
5

T h e te m p o r a r y d is a b ilit y la w s in C a lifo r n ia and R hode Is la n d
do not r e q u ir e e m p lo y e r c o n tr ib u tio n s .
A n e s ta b lis h m e n t w as c o n s id e r e d a s h a v in g a f o r m a l p la n i f
it e s ta b lis h e d at le a s t the m in im u m n u m b e r o f d a y s o f s ic k le a v e th a t
co u ld be e x p e c te d b y e a c h e m p lo y e e . S u ch a p la n n ee d n ot be w ritte n ,
but in fo r m a l s i c k - l e a v e a llo w a n c e s , d e te r m in e d on an in d iv id u a l b a s is ,
w e r e e x c lu d e d .

3

T ab le 1.

E sta b lish m e n ts and w o r k e r s within scope of su rv e y and num ber studied in B a lt im o r e ,

M in im u m
em p loym en t
in e s t a b lis h ­
m e n ts in scope
of study

In dustry d iv isio n

M d. , 1 by m a jo r in d u stry d iv isio n , 2 D e c e m b e r I9 6 0

N u m b er o f e sta b lish m e n ts

W o r k e r s in e s ta b lish m e n ts
W ithin scop e o f study

W ithin
sc o p e of
study 3

Studied

Studied
T o ta l 4

O ffice

P lan t

T otal 4

_______________________________________________________

_

622

184

25 9, 600

4 0 ,4 0 0

17 4, 300

1 7 2 ,1 8 0

M an ufactu ring _____________________________________________________
N onm an ufactu ring ________________________________________________
T r a n sp o r ta tio n , co m m u n ic a tio n , and
other public u t i l i t i e s 5 _____________________________ ________
W h o le sa le tra d e -----------------------------------------------------------------------R e ta il tra d e ____________________________________________________
F in a n c e, in su r a n c e , and r e a l esta te _____________________
S e r v i c e s 7 _______________________________________________________

100
-

277
345

74
110

16 3, 700
9 5 , 900

1 7 ,4 0 0
2 3 ,0 0 0

1 2 0 ,0 0 0
54, 300

1 0 8 ,5 1 0
63 , 670

100
50
100
50
50

25
90
69
82
79

13
27
25
25
20

2 0 ,5 0 0
10, 300
36 , 300
18, 100
10, 700

4, 200
2, 40 0
3, 900
1 1 ,2 0 0

1 2 ,2 0 0
4, 500
2 8 ,7 0 0
6800

1 8 ,5 1 0
4 , 580
2 5 ,5 0 0
1 0 ,7 3 0
4 , 350

A ll d iv isio n s

( 8)

( 8)

1 The B a ltim o r e Standard M e tro p o lita n S ta tistic a l A r e a (B a ltim o r e C ity , Anne A ru n d e l, B a ltim o r e , C a r r o ll and How ard C o u n tie s).
The "w o r k e r s w ithin scop e of stu d y " e s t im a t e s shown in
this table p rovid e a rea so n a b ly ac cu ra te d e s c r ip tio n of the siz e and c o m p o sitio n of the la b o r fo r c e included in the su rv e y .
The e s t im a t e s are not in tended, h o w e v e r , to se r v e a s a b a s is o f c o m ­
p a r iso n with other a r e a em p lo y m en t in d exes to m e a s u r e em p loym en t tren d s or le v e ls sin ce (1) planning of w age su rv e y s r e q u ir e s the u se o f e sta b lish m e n t data c o m p ile d c o n s id e r a b ly in advance
o f the p a y r o ll p erio d studied, and (2) s m a ll e s ta b lish m e n ts are exclu d ed fr o m the scope of the su rv e y .
2 The 1957 r e v is e d ed ition o f the Standard In d u strial C la s s ific a tio n M anual w as u se d in c la s s ify in g e sta b lish m e n ts by in d u stry d iv isio n .
M a jo r chan ges fr o m the e a r lie r
ed ition (u se d in
the B u re a u ’ s la b o r m a r k e t w age su rv e y s conducted p r io r to July 1958) are the tr a n s fe r of m ilk p a ste u r iz a tio n plants and r e a d y -m ix e d c o n c r e te e sta b lish m e n ts f r o m tra d e (w h o le sa le or reta il) to
m an u factu rin g, and the tr a n s fe r of radio and t e le v is io n b r o a d ca stin g fr o m s e r v ic e s to the tra n sp o rta tio n , co m m u n ic a tio n , and other public u tilitie s d iv isio n .
3 In clu d es a ll e s ta b lish m e n ts with total em p loym en t at or above the m in im u m -s iz e lim ita tio n .
A ll ou tle ts (w ithin the area) of c o m p a n ie s in su ch in d u str ie s as tra d e , fin a n c e, auto re p a ir
s e r v ic e , and m o tio n -p ic tu r e th e a te rs are c o n sid e r e d as 1 e s ta b lish m e n t.
4 In clud es ex e c u tiv e , p r o fe s s io n a l, and other w o r k e r s ex clu d ed fr o m the sep arate o ffic e and plant c a te g o r ie s .
5 R a ilr o a d s w ere ex clu d ed fr o m the su rv e y , as w ere ta x ic a b s, and s e r v ic e s in cid en tal to w ater tra n sp o rta tio n .
6 E stim a te r e la te s to r e a l estate e sta b lish m e n ts on ly.
7 H o te ls; p e r so n a l s e r v ic e s ; b u sin e ss s e r v ic e s ; au tom obile r e p a ir sh ops; m o tion p ic tu r e s; n onprofit m e m b e r s h ip o r g a n iza tio n s; and en gin eerin g and a r c h ite c tu r a l s e r v i c e s .
8 T h is in d u stry d iv isio n is r e p r e se n te d in e s tim a te s fo r " a l l in d u s t r ie s " and "n o n m a n u fa ctu r in g " in the s e r ie s A and B t a b le s .
S ep arate p r esen ta tio n of data fo r this d iv isio n is not m ad e
fo r one o r m o r e of the follow in g r e a s o n s :
(1) E m p lo y m e n t in the d iv isio n is too s m a ll to provide enough data to m e r it sep arate study, (2) the sa m p le w as not d esig n ed in itia lly to p e r m it sep a ra te
p resen ta tio n , (3) r e sp o n se w as in su fficie n t o r inadequate to p e r m it sep a ra te p resen ta tio n , (4) th e re is p o s s ib ility of d is c lo s u r e o f in divid u al e sta b lish m e n t data.

T ab le 2.

Indexes of standard w eek ly s a la r ie s and s t r a ig h t -t im e h ou rly ea rn in g s fo r se le c te d occu p ation al grou ps in
B a lt im o r e , M d . , D e c e m b e r I9 6 0 and S ep te m b er 1 9 5 9 , and p e r c e n ts of in c r e a s e for se le c te d p erio d s
Indexes
(O c to b e r 1952 * 100)

In dustry and occu p ation al group

D ecem ber
I9 6 0

P e r c e n t in c r e a s e s fr o m —

S ep te m b er
1959

S ep te m b er 1959
to
D e c e m b e r I9 6 0

A ugu st 1958
to
S ep tem b er 1959

A l l in d u str ie s:
O ffic e c le r ic a l (w om en) _______________________________________
In d u strial n u r se s (w om en) ___________________________________
S killed m ain ten an ce (m en) ___________________________________
U n sk ille d plant (m en) ---------------------------------------------------------------

1 4 5. 4
1 5 0. 8
1 5 1 .6
1 5 7 .9

139.
146.
146.
151.

6
1
6
5

4.
3.
3.
4.

2
2
4
2

4.
5.
3.
5.

M an ufactu ring:
O ffice c le r ic a l (w om en) --------------------------------------------------------In d u strial n u r se s (w om en) ___________________________________
S k illed m ain tenan ce (m en) __________________________ ______
U n sk ille d plant (m en) ---------------------------------------------------------------

1 5 0. 6
1 5 3 .9
1 5 3. 1
163. 6

1 4 4 .7
146. 2
148. 3
154. 4

4.
5.
3.
5.

1
3
2
9

3 .9
3. 8
3. 2
5 .9




0
1
5
5

A u gu st 1957
to
A u gu st 1958

3.
4.
5.
2.

5
7
3
5

5 .4
5. 2
5. 4
3. 5

A p r il 1955
to
A u gu st 1957

O c to b e r 1952
to
A p r il 1955

June 1951
to
O c to b e r 1952

14. 9
13. 3
16. 3
2 1 .6

12.
17.
15.
15.

9
2
7
2

9.
7.
7.
6.

1
6
7
5

15.
14.
16.
20 .

14.
16.
16.
17.

2
9
7
1

8.
8.
6.
6.

5
3
9
9

7
5
8
3

4

Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups

P r e s e n te d in ta ble 2 a r e in d ex es o f s a la r ie s o f o ffic e c le r i c a l
w o r k e r s and in d u stria l n u r s e s , and o f a v e r a g e ea rn in g s o f s e le c te d
plant w o r k e r g ro u p s .
In a r e a s w h ich w e r e not s u rv e y e d du rin g the
f i s c a l 1953 b a s e y e a r (Ju ly 1952 to June 1953) th is ta ble is lim ite d
to p e r c e n ts o f change betw een s e le c t e d p e r io d s .
F o r o ffic e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s and in d u stria l n u r s e s , the in d ex es
r e la te to a v e r a g e w eek ly s a la r ie s f o r n o r m a l h ou rs o f w ork , that is ,
the stan dard w o rk sch ed u le fo r w h ich s t r a ig h t-tim e s a la r ie s a r e paid.
F o r plant w o r k e r g ro u p s, th ey m e a s u r e ch a n g es in s tr a ig h t-tim e h o u rly
e a rn in g s, ex clu d in g p r e m iu m pay fo r o v e r tim e and f o r w o rk on w e e k ­
en ds, h o lid a y s , and la te sh ifts.
The in d ex es a r e b a s e d on data fo r
s e le c t e d k ey o ccu p a tio n s and in clu d e m o s t o f the n u m e r ic a lly im p orta n t
jo b s w ith in ea ch g rou p . The o ffic e c l e r i c a l data a r e b a s e d on w om en in
the fo llo w in g 18 jo b s : B ille r s , m a ch in e (b illin g m a ch in e ); b o o k k e e p in g m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s , c la s s A and B ; C om p tom eter o p e r a t o r s ; c le r k s , file ,
c la s s A and B ; c le r k s , o r d e r ; c le r k s , p a y r o ll; keypun ch o p e r a t o r s ;
o ffic e g ir ls ; s e c r e t a r ie s ; ste n o g r a p h e rs , g e n e r a l; sw itch b oa rd o p e r a ­
t o r s ; sw itch b oa rd o p e r a t o r -r e c e p t io n is t s ; ta b u la tin g -m a ch in e o p e r a ­
t o r s ; tr a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , g e n e r a l; and ty p is ts , c la s s A
and B .
The in d u stria l n u rse data a r e b a s e d on w om en in d u stria l
n u r s e s . M en in the fo llo w in g 10 s k ille d m a in ten an ce jo b s and 3 u n sk illed
jo b s w e r e in clu d ed in the pla n t w o r k e r data: Skilled:— c a r p e n te r s ;
e le c t r ic ia n s ; m a ch in is ts ; m e c h a n ic s ; m e c h a n ic s , a u tom otiv e; m i l l ­
w rig h ts ; p a in te rs ; p ip e fitte r s ; s h e e t-m e ta l w o r k e r s ; and to o l and d ie
m a k e r s ; u n sk illed — ja n ito r s , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s ; la b o r e r s , m a ­
t e r ia l handling; and w atch m en .
A v e r a g e w eek ly s a la r ie s o r a v e r a g e h o u rly ea rn in g s w e r e
com p u ted fo r ea ch o f the s e le c t e d o c cu p a tio n s.
The a v e r a g e s a la r ie s
o r h o u rly e a rn in g s w e r e then m u ltip lie d b y the a v e r a g e o f 1953 and
1954 em p loy m en t in the jo b . T h e se w eigh ted ea rn in g s fo r in dividu al
o ccu p a tio n s w e r e then tota led to obtain an a g g re g a te f o r ea ch o c c u p a ­
tion a l grou p . F in a lly , the r a tio o f th e se jgroup a g g re g a te s fo r a given
y e a r to the a g g re g a te fo r the b a s e p e r io d (s u r v e y m onth, w in ter 1952—
53)
w as com p u ted «and the r e s u lt m u ltip lie d b y the b a s e y e a r in d ex (100) to
g et the in d ex f o r the g iv en y e a r .




S im ila r p r o c e d u r e s w e r e fo llo w e d in c o m p ilin g " p e r c e n t s o f
ch a n g e" in a r £ a s n ot su rv e y e d during 1953.
A d ju stm en ts h ave b e e n m a de w h ere n e c e s s a r y to m ain tain
c o m p a ra b ility so that the y e a r - t o - y e a r c o m p a r is o n s a r e b a se d on the
sa m e in d u stry and o ccu p a tio n a l c o v e r a g e .
F o r ex am p le, r a ilr o a d s
have b e e n in clu d ed in the c o v e r a g e o f the s u rv e y s only sin c e July 1959.
In com pu tin g the in d e x e s fo r the f i r s t y e a r in w h ich r a ilr o a d s w e re
in clu ded , data re la tin g to r a ilr o a d s w e r e ex clu d ed . In dexes fo r s u b s e ­
quent y e a r s in clu d e data fo r r a ilr o a d s .

The in d ex es m e a s u r e , p r in c ip a lly , the e ffe c t s o f (1) g en era l
s a la r y and w age ch a n g es; (2) m ierit o r oth er in c r e a s e s in pay r e c e iv e d
by in dividu al w o r k e r s w h ile in the sa m e jo b ; and (3) changes in the
la b o r f o r c e such a s la b o r tu rn o v e r, f o r c e ex p a n sion s, fo r c e r e d u c ­
tion s, and ch a n g es in the p r o p o r t io n o f w o r k e r s e m p loy ed by e sta b ­
lis h m e n ts w ith d iffe r e n t pay le v e ls .
C hanges in the la b o r f o r c e can
c a u se in c r e a s e s o r d e c r e a s e s in the o c cu p a tio n a l a v e r a g e s w ithout
a ctu a l w a g e ch a n g es. F o r e x a m p le, a f o r c e ex p a n sion m igh t in c r e a s e
the p r o p o r t io n o f lo w e r paid w o r k e r s in a s p e c ific occu p a tion and r e ­
sult in a d r o p in the a v e r a g e , w h e re a s a re d u ctio n in the p r o p o rtio n
o f lo w e r paid w o r k e r s w ou ld have the o p p o s ite e ffe c t. The m ov em en t
o f a h igh -p a yin g esta b lish m en t out o f an a r e a cou ld ca u se the a v e ra g e
e a rn in g s to d ro p , even though no change in r a te s o c c u r r e d in other
a r e a esta b lish m en ts.
The u se o f con stan t em p loym en t w eigh ts elim in a tes the e ffe c ts
o f ch a n g es in the p r o p o r t io n o f w o r k e r s r e p r e s e n te d in each jo b in ­
clud ed in the data.
N or a r e the in d ex es in flu en ced by changes in
standard w o rk sch e d u le s o r in p r e m iu m pay fo r o v e rtim e , sin ce they
a r e b a s e d on pay f o r s t r a ig h t-tim e h o u rs.
In dexes fo r the p e r io d 1953 to I960 fo r w o r k e r s in 20 m a jo r
la b o r m a rk e ts w ill ap p ea r in B LS B u ll. 1 2 65 -62, W ages and R elated
B en efits, 60 L a b o r M a rk ets, W inter 1959—
60.

5

A* Occupational Earnings
Table A-l. O ffice Occupations
(A verage stra igh t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, B altim ore, Md. , D ecem ber I960)
N UM BER OF W O RK ERS RECE IVIN G ST R AIG H T-TIM E W EEKLY E A RN ING S OF—

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

Weekly
earnings1
(Standard)

35. 00 40. 00 45. 00 50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00
and
under
40. 00 45. 00 50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 65, 00 70, 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00

95.00

100.00 105.00

115.00

100.00 105,00 110.00

120.00

130.00 135.00 140.00
and

20.00 125,00

Men
C lerk s, accounting, c la ss A -----------------Manufacturing --------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------Finance 2 ------------------------------------------

309
174
135
72

39.
39.
38.
36.

C lerk s, accounting, c la ss B -----------------Manufacturing ------------------------------------ —
Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------

131
71
60

39. 5
39. 5
40. 0

87. 00
91. 00
82. 50

C lerk s, order -------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------W h olesale trade -----------------------------

120
93
72

40. 5
39. 5
40. 0

97. 00
97. 00
98. 00

C lerk s, payroll -----------------------------------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------

137
126

40. 0
40. 0

O ffice boys -------------------------------------------------Manufacturing --------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------

284
103
181
118

38.
39.
38.
37.

161
90
71

Tabulating-m achine operators,
c la ss A ___________________________________
Manufacturing --------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------

0
5
0
5

$106.
113.
97.
92.

50
50
50
50

1
1
-

20
12
8
5

10
2
8
6

15
3
12
9

24
4
20
12

24
11
13
11

20
12
8
4

41
25
16
9

17
11
6

1
1
-

20
6
14

21
19
2

16
9
7

7
6
1

18
11
7

4
4
"

~

6
5
5

6
6
6

3
3
1

6
6
5

22
17
13

12
7
5

-

1
1

4
4

8
6

10
10

6
6

9
8

24
6
18
8

26
8
18
17

2
1
1

3
2
1

1
1
-

3
3
-

2
2

-

2
2

-

5
1
4

11
1
10

3
3
3

8
8
7

16
16
11

24
24
15

31
5
26
16

45
4
41
18

3
3
3

19
19
19

10
10
10

11
11
8

13
13
13

3
1
2

5
3
2

"

~

19
19
-

14

44
38
6

4
3
1

9

_

14

9

-

-

4
4
2

-

3
3

9
4
5

3
3

_
-

7
6
6

3
3

_

_

-

-

"

-

-

_
-

_
"

4
4

2
2

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

"

“

"

112. 00
113. 00

_

_

_

_

"

~

-

-

5
0
0
0

53. 00
55. 00
52. 00
5 1 .0 0

4
4
4

22
5
17
17

79
27
52
51

101
40
61
14

18
9
9
7

38. 5
39. 0
37. 5

102. 50
1 1 1 .00
9 1 .5 0

-

-

-

-

“

“

-

_
-

1
1
1

Tabulating-m achine operators,
c la ss B -----------------------------------------------------Manufacturing --------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------Finance 2 -----------------------------------------

283
107
176
88

38.
39.
38.
38.

5
5
5
0

84.
97.
76.
71.

50
00
50
50

_
-

Tabulating-m achine operators,
c la ss C -----------------------------------------------------Manufacturing --------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------Finance 2 ------------------------------------------

133
62
71
54

39.
39.
38.
38.

0
5
5
0

76.
89.
64.
57.

00
50
50
00

-

125
71
54

39. 0
39. 0
39. 5

64. 00
62. 50
65. 50

_

5

4

"

5

4

-

1
1

-

16
6
10
7

15
11
4

-

21
9
12
7

4
2
2

5
1
4

3
3
-

28
13
7

6
6
6

5
5
5

4
4
4

_
-

15
11

7
7

6
6

6
6

9
9

3

1
1
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

7
5
2

21
6
15

28
8
20

26
14
12

21
21
-

6
2
4

5
5

8
8
-

1
1

26
7
19
16

26
12
14

39
33
6
1

26
20
6
-

7
3
4
-

6
6
-

5
5
-

5
5
-

~

16
7
9
1

17
17
“

8
6
2

26
26
-

7
7
-

6
2
4

4
4

"

"

11
1
10

1
1

-

14
9
5

1
1
1

_

-

-

-

-

-

17
17

1
1

9
9

17
11
6

13
11
2

37
36
1

-

-

-

-

13
9
4
-

9
3
6

2
2
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

"

~

6
6
3

2
2
2

4
4
4

_
-

3
3

45
44

_

-

5
5

-

_
-

_
-

-

_
-

_
-

-

14
14
-

2
2
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

-

-

"

“

“

-

2
2

-

W omen
B ille r s, machine (billing machine)
Nonmanufacturing

------

--------------------------------

B ille r s, machine (bookkeeping
machine) --------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ---------------------- -----Retail trade -------------------------------------

92
62
54

39. 5
40. 0
40. 5

58. 50
5 5 .0 0
55. 00

_
-

Bookkeeping-m achine op erators,
c la ss A -----------------------------------------------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------

149
105

39. 0
39. 5

75. 00
79. 50

15
12
12

19
19
16

9
9
7

14
5
2

7
7
7

19
3
3

2

-

-

-

6
6
6

-

-

-

-

8
1

6

19
15

36
20

10
1

18
17

j ______
_
See footnotes at end of table.




16
15

-

-

-

_
-

-

_
-

-

9
9

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

'

-

“

"

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

J
-----------

-

-

6
Table A-1. O ffice Occupations-Continued
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Baltimore, Md., December I960)

NUMBER OP WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARN]tNGS O P

A verage

Sex, occupation, and industry division

N ber
um
of
w
orkers

S
$
S
S
$
$
S
$
S
$
S
$
S
$
$
95.00 1 0 0 . 0 0 105.00 1 1 0 . 0 0 115.00 1 2 0 . 0 0 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00
W
eeklyj
W
eekly x 5 s. 00 40 . 00 I 5 . 0 0 l o . 00 I 5 . 00 ? 0 . 00 I s . 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 9 0 . 0 0
earnin
gs
hours
and
and
(Standard) (Standard) under
40 . 00 45 . 00 50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 9 0 .0 0 95. 00 1 0 0 - 0 0 1Q5.QQ 11Q.QQ 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .Q 125.00 130.00 1 3 5 .Q0 14Q.0Q over ,
Q

Women— Continued

Bookkeeping-m achine op erators,
c la ss B __________________________________
Manufacturing _________________________

37. 5
39. 0
37. 5
3 9 .5
37. 0

$ 5 4 .5 0
69. 0 0
53. 00
53. 50
5 1 .0 0

38. 0
3 9 .5
37. 5
3 9 .5
37. 0

82. 0 0
93. 00
7 8 .0 0
6 8 . 50
77. 50

790
90
147
231

38. 0
39. 0
37. 5
3 9 .5
39. 5
38. 0

. 00
7 7 .5 0
63. 00
78. 50
57. 50
57. 50

C le r k s, file , c la ss A _________
_______
Nonmanufacturing ____________________
Finance 2 -----------------------------------------

147
99
57

38. 0
38. 5
37. 5

67. 50
65. 00
60. 50

-

C le r k s, file , c la ss B
__________________
Manufacturing _________________________

761
170
591
72
78
364

38. 5
3 9 .5
38. 0
3 9 .5
40. 0
37. 5

52. 00

30

6 0 . 00

-

49.
58.
46.
47.

50
00
00
00

30

326
98
228
143

38.
37.
38.
39.

5
5
5
5

62.
72.
58.
54.

Clerks, payroll ________________________
Manufacturing ______________ ______
Nonmanufacturing __________________
Public utilities 3 _________________
Retail trade _____________________
Finance2 _________________________

494
261
233
42
96

38.
38.
38.
38.
39.
36.

5
5
5
5
5
5

73.
77.
68.
76.
65.
66.

Comptometer operators _______________
Manufacturing ______________________
Nonmanufacturing __________________
Wholesale trade _________________
Retail trade _________ : -----------------

300
118
182
52
125

3 8 .0
40. 0
3 7 .0

75. 00
80. 50
7 1 .5 0
80. 00
67. 50

Duplicating-machine operators
(Mimeograph or Ditto) _______________

72

39. 5

63. 50

Retail trade ---------------------------------------------__________________________________
Finance

2

C le r k s, accounting, c la ss A ---------------------Manufacturing _______________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________
Retail trade ________________________
Finance 2 ___________________________

C lerk s, accounting, c la ss B ----------------Manufacturing ________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________
W holesale trade ___________________
TTir>anrp ^

Nonmanufacturing __________________
Wholesale trade ______________ *__
Retail trade _____________________
Finance2 _________________________
Clerks, order __________________________
Manufacturing ______________________
Nonmanufacturing __________________
R Atail tra^A

647
70
577
86

412
492
137
355
62

132

991
201

62

38. 5
i9

.6

66

34

88
-

130
130

-

88
10

34

73

107

-

34

20

132
26
106
15
73

61

12
-

17

24

-

8

-

12

17

16

39

102
2
100

17
74

4
57
17
31

27
7

10

15

23
4
19

6
6

20

25

5

2

-

-

6

6

-

-

39

56

73

49

-

21

12

52
13
15

37
5
19

78
15
63

117
29

31

53

22

21

11
11

9
-

32
18

-

6

14
7

12

6

3

1
1
1
-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

12

6

6

11

-

-

11

4

24

56
3
28

72

94

157
39
118
4
32
33

119
23
96

78
14
64

11

13

11
6

21

12

88
11
6
7

32
31
23

5
4
3

8

27

7

11

3
3
-

30
30
-

3

28

2

-

156
7
149

-

2

72
24
46

92
3

2
2
2

169
8

161

26

32
16

14
13
131
18
113
9

-

12

11

6

25

28

11

24

112

122

63

50
00
50
00

2
2
2

12
12
12

46

31

00
50
50
00
50
50

-

1

1

1

_

1

-

-

-

1
-

-

-

46
44

31
23

11

-

40
19

11

21

5
4

16

38
29
32
17
8

135
58
77
15
7
35
40
3
37
23

66

27

44

10

22

7

-

-

69

46
32
14

15
7

32

21

48
23

48

26

16

12

18
6
12

32
5
26

14
2
12

3

3

1

6

7

16

66

21

1

19

1

4
4

1

10
8

12

9
9

-

1

1

12
8

8

18
13

-

11
2

1

82
35
47
4

1

23
15

17
5

13

5

7

3

5

10

1

5
4
-

-

45
16
29
7

15
15
3
12

12
12

179
9
170

31
35

3

8
7

40
32

-

20
12
7

14

2
2

-

2
2

1
1

-

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

—

-

-

_

-

_

8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

51
28
23
-

34

18
12
6

16
9
7

8

10

1
1

5

7
7
-

-

3
3
_

_
_
_
_

_
_
_

6

-

-

-

_
_

.
_
_

6
8

2
2

- *

24
3
18

18
18
-

-

8

5
3
-

1

-

_

1

2

6
6

4
4

_

1
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

_
-

_

-

_
-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
.

_
_

_
_

9
-

9

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

10
2
8

2
2

2
2

10

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

1

-

-

_
-

_
-

23
15

3
3
-

-

45
23

43

22

23

9

-

5

11

-

-

46
25

26

22
8

23

25

12

14

11

14

21

15

5
16

11

14
7
7

12
3
9

11
10
1

. 7

26

-

-

-

-

3
3
A

3
3
-

2
2

6
6

1
1

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

16

20
1

5

8
8

4
8
7
1

12

7
5
5
-

10

2




2
2

_

_

-

-

_

_

3

_

_

_

_

-

-

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

"

-

3

-

-

-

-

8
6

4
4

2

-

2
I

See footnotes at end of table,

_

_

11

5

-

6
6

11

4

2

8
2

-

6

-

_

-

4
3

33
18
15

6

~ 5-------

-

8

33
28
5
-

8

-

7
Table A-l. O ffice Occupatbns-Continued
(Average, stra igh t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, B altim ore, Md. , D ecem ber I960)
N UM BER OF W O RK ERS RECE IVIN G ST R AIG H T-TIM E W EEKLY EARN ING S OF—

Sex, occupation, and industry division

N ber
um
of
w
orkers

$
S
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
*
S
s
$
$
s
S
W
eekly
W
eekly
55. 00 $
35. 00 40. 00 45. 00 50. 00 $
60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00
hours 1 earnings1 and
(Standard) (Standard) under
and
40. 00 45. 00 50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 over

W omen— Continued

972
350
622
93
63

38.
39.
38.
39.
40.

5
5
0
0
0

285

Keypunch operators --------------------------------Manufacturing --------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------Public u tilities 3 ----------------------------W holesale trade -----------------------------

37

5

Office g irls -----------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------

81
60

S ecretaries -----------------------------------------------Manufacturing --------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------Public utilities 3 ----------------------------W h olesale trade ----------------------------Retail trade ------------------------------------F in a n c e2 ----------------------------------------Stenographers, general -------------------------Manufacturing --------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ---------------------------- Public utilities 3 ----------------------------Finanrp ^
. . .. .
Stenographers, technical

$ 6 8 .0 0
77. 50
62. 50
65. 50
83. 50
57

4
4
-

16
16
14

45
45
-

-

50

39. 0
39. 0

54. 00
5 3 .5 0

2, 205
987
1, 218
129
205
133
597

38.
39.
38.
39.
39.
39.
37.

5
5
0
0
0
5
5

85. 00
93. 00
7 9 .0 0
92. 50
83. 50
7 5 .5 0
74. 50

_
_

1, 520
677
843
129
585

38.
39.
37.
39.
37.

5
5
5
5
0

7 1 .0 0
80. 00
63. 50
7 1 .5 0
60. 00

_
-

38

104
1
103
14
3
34

118
15
103
7
62

161
37
124
40
52

7
7

17
14

36
25

7
3

5

_
-

6
6
_
_
6

65
8
57
2

10
10
10

65
65
65

27
27

33

------------------------

74

39. 0

86. 00

Switchboard operators ----------------------------Manufacturing --------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------

401
126
275
44
83
68

39.
39.
40.
39.
40.
37.

5
5
0
5
5
5

65.
79.
59.
70.
54.
62.

Switchboard o p erator-recep tion ists ----Manufacturing ----------------------------- — Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------W h olesale trade -----------------------------

331
184
147
56

38.
38.
38.
39.

5
5
5
5

65. 00
65. 50
6 4 .0 0
65. 50

-

-

Tabulating-m achine operators,
class B -----------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------Finance 2 -----------------------------------------

179
159
68

37. 5
37. 0
36. 0

7 7 .0 0
73. 00
68. 50

-

-

-

Tabulating-m achine operators,
c la ss C ------------------------------------------------------

55

38. 0

68. 50

-

39.
39.
39.
39.

69.
76.
66.
59.

-

T ran scrib in g-m achin e operators,
general -------------------------------------------- -----Manufacturing --------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------

289
94
195
129

0
0
5
0

50
50
00
00
50
50

50
00
50
50

1
1
41
1
-

3

1

3

5

-

5
5

1
1

46
8
38
2
5
28

135
23
112
3
19
4
81

173
27
146
10
25
15
89

203
67
136
17
35
13
71

251
88
163
17
34
64

130
11
119
1
110

146
27
119
20
85

246
54
192
10
162

186
70
116
23
68

179
95
84
16
41

191
110
81
35
24
11

14

7

12

3

39
39

35
2
33
4
10

61
16

56
16
40

32
17
15

18
16
2

17
17
-

15
13
2

7
6

45

4
14
22

37
15
22
14

8
15

8

4

31
19
12

7
1
6

19
19
-

5

5

-

3
2
1
1

-

1

27
10

18
2

24
22
2

98
60
38
7
9
6

8
47

33

70
44
26
2
6
12

15

-

145
43
102
11
40

24

8

1
1

1
0

103
67
36
12
20
3

35
30
5
5

42
31
11

1
1

19
17
2

9
2
7

2
2
-

1
1
-

_
_

_
_

_
_

_
_

_
_

_
_

2

7

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

43
17
26
18
_
_
7

51
48
3
3
_

10
4
6
_
6
_

4
4
_
_
_
' _

9
4
5
5
_
_

4
3
1
_
1
_

-

-

-

-

-

4
4
_

1
1
_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_

.
_
_
_

1

2

268
92
176
3
20
35
92

214
113
101
20
11
7
29

177
70
107
7
36
8
43

139
109
30
6
12
_
5

222
147
75
35
18
_
14

113
92
21
2
1
16

72
63
9
1
_
3
5

95
65
30
13
14

59
38
21
11
6

111
109
2
-

47
45
2
-

32
31
1
-

15
14

2
2
_

1
1
- !
_

1
11
1
_

6

3

3

3

3
-

2
2
-

2
_
2

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

2
2

3
3

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

8
-

-

-

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

19
“

66
41
25
16

79
41
38
16

23
8
15
5

50
21
29
8

1
1
1

3
3
3

4
4
2

7
7
6

49
49
21

35
35
27

45
44
8

10
10
-

2
2

-

10
1

-

-

"

-

3
-

6

5

6

-

1

15

6

4

-

1

5

4

2

-

-

-

-

_

-

_

_

-

21
21
18

28
5
23
21

31
2
29
28

37
15
22
17

53
23
30
24

42
13
29
19

10
3
7

21
11
10
1

9
4

8
8

13
9
4

2
2

3
3

11
9
2

-

-

_
-

_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_

.

5

5

5

1
1

See footnotes at end of table.




i

8
Table A-1. O ffice Occupatbns-Continued
(A verage stra igh t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, B altim ore, Md. , D ecem b er I960)
N UM BER OF W O RK ERS R E CE IVIN G STR AIG H T-TIM E W EEKLY EARN ING S OF

A verage
Sex,

o ccu p a tio n ,

a n d in d u s t r y d iv is i o n

of
workers

$
Weekly
35 . 00
earnings1
(Standard) u n d e r
4 0 . 00

Weekly

$
S
8 0 . 00 8 5 . 00

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
s
90. 00
9 5 .0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 1 2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 .0 0 1 4 0 .0 0

$
4 0 . 00

$
4 5 . 00

$
5 0 . 00

$
5 5 . 00

$
6 0 . 00

$
6 5 . 00

$
70. 00

$
7 5 . 00

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4 5 . 00

5 0 . 00

5 5 . 00

6 0 . 00

6 5 . 00

7 0 . 00

75 . 00

8 0 . 00

8 5 . 00

9 0 . 00

9 5 . 00

-

-

(Standard)
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 1 2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 .0 0 1 4 0 .0 0

and
over

1
------------------ !
W o m e n — C o n tin u e d
840

T y p is t s , c la s s A
-----------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g
--------------------------------------P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 3 -----------------------------------

529
311
57

39.
39.
38.
38.

---------------------------------------------------

160

B

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1, 2 1 4
337

38. 5

M a n u fa c t u r in g

T y p is t s ,

c la s s

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

---------------------------------------

877

-----------------------------------

72
111

W h o le s a le tr a d e

R e ta il tr a d e
---------------------------------------------F in a n ce 2
----------------------------------------- __

1
2
3
4

653

39. 0
38. 5

10
43

225

252

16
26
101

53
-

5 2 . 50

-

5 0 . 50

39- 5
38. 0

5

6 5 . 00
5 5 . 00

40. 0

5

78

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

11
1

6
1

7

7

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6

-

-

-

-

42

13

8
8

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3
2
1

-

19
16

10
5
5

_

13

12
12

8

23

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5

5

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

154

5
22

255
5

_

18
21

290

3
22

-

_
-

53
35
18

250

53

-

6
6

163
86
77

232

5

29
18

16
10

44

357
67

13
11

70

-

6
2

-

4
4

9
13

37

-

5 9 . 50
6 0 . 50

11
4

6
34

66
12

-

111
104

69
23

38
-

70

-

47
41

92

76
58

107
41

13

-

173
162

134

50
12

6

5 5 . 50
6 3 .0 0

38. 0

F in a n ce 2

_
-

$ 7 2 . 00
7 7 .0 0
6 2 . 50

5
5
5
5

6
4

23

;

i

3

-

3
5

-

_

Standard hours reflect the workweek for which em ployees receive their regular stra igh t-tim e salarie s and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
Finance, insurance, and real estate.
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public u tilities.
Includes 8 w orkers at $ 30 to $ 35.

Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupatbns
(A verage stra igh t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, B altim ore, Md. , D ecem b er I960)
A verage
Sex,

o ccu p a tio n ,

a n d in d u s t r y d iv is i o n

Number
of
workers

Weekly
hours 1
(Standard)

NUM B ER OF W O RK ERS R E CE IVIN G ST R AIG H T-TIM E W E E KLY E A RN IN G S OF

Weekly
U nder
earnings1 <
t
(Standard)
60.

0
0

$

0 *65.
0

60.
and
under
6 5 . 00

00

$
7 0 . 00

“

7 5 . 00
“

7 0 . 00. 7 5 . 0 0

80.

0
0

80.

0
0

8 5 . 00

$
$
9 0$
00
110 0
.0
12 .0 $
00
10 .0
00
■
0
0
10 .0
00
110 0
.0
12 .0
00

8 5 . 00
~
90.

.

1 0 5 .0 0

9 5 .0 0

9 5 . 00

1 0 5 .0 0

$
$
$
$
s
1 2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 .0 0 1 4 0 .0 0 1 4 5 .0 0 1 5 0 .0 0 1 5 5 .0 0 1 6 0 .0 0

1 1 5 .0 0

"
1 1 5 .0 0

“

“

"

“

~

“

~

"

1 2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 .0 0 1 4 0 .0 0 1 4 5 .0 0 1 5 0 .0 0 1 5 5 .0 0 1 6 0 .0 0

and
over .

M en
D r a fts m e n ,

le a d e r

M a n u fa c t u r in g
D r a fts m e n ,

s e n io r

105
105

40. 0
40. 0

$ 1 4 1 .5 0
1 4 1 .5 0

_

_

_

-

"

"

, 082
875

1 1 8 .5 0
1 2 1 .5 0

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

207

40. 0
40. 0
3 9 .5

420
282
138

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

8 4 .5 0

153

39. 5
40. 0

10 .0
00

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

----------

----------

__

M a n u f a c t u r i n g ----------------------- ---------- -----N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g
--------------------------------------D r a fts m e n , ju n io r
-------------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------------------TSTrYTvrr) ^ rjnT^*
n “ ng
ri

1

1 0 4 .5 0

-

_

"

-

“

19
13

27
25

45

31

_

_

7

"

~

16

6

2

19
26

2
2
9

27
26

1

79
25
54

_

_

_

~

_

“

-

2
2
8 .0 6
80
3
7 7 .0 0

_

"

-

_

32

42

52

7
25

25
17

17
35

51

37
35

28

42

26

2

36
6

8
7

27
23

36
15

2

_

109
55,
54

84
76

8

19
19
103
80
23

18
18

12
12

12
10

16
16

19
19

6
6

2
2

177
163
14

97
92
5

59
15

74

9
9

_

_

-

1
1

4
4
67

1
1

4
4

1
1

12
12

6
6
11
11

2

31
31

2
2
2
2

49
40

62
62

57
57

17
17

9

~

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

9
9

2
2

_

_

_

-

"

-

*

-

-

6
6
1

W om en
N u r s e s , in d u s tr ia l (r e g is t e r e d )
--------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------------------

12
1

9 6 .5 0

1

6

~

4

10
3

29
24

24

2
2

1

Standard hours reflect the workweek for which em ployees receive their regular stra igh t-tim e salarie s and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
W ork ers w ere distributed as follow s: 5 at $ 160 to $ 170; 18 at $ 170 to $ 180; 8 at $ 180 to $ 190.
A ll w orkers w ere at $ 50 to $ 60.




9
Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(A verage stra igh t-tim e hourly earnings for m en in selected occupations studied on an area b asis
by industry division, B altim ore, Md. , D ecem ber I960)
N U M BER OF W O RK ERS R E CE IVIN G S T R A IG H T-TIM E H OURLY E A RN IN G S OF—

Occupation and industry division

of
w
orkers

$
|$
hourly , Under 1. 60
1. 70
earnings
and
$
'
under
1. 60
1. 70
1. 80

$
1. 80

$
1. 90

$
2. 00

$
2. 10

1. 90

2. 00

2. 10

2. 20

$
2. 20

$
2. 30

$
2. 40

2. 30

2 .4 0

2. 50

$
$
2. 50 - 2. 60
2. 60

2. 70

$
2. 70

$
2. 80

$
2. 90

$
3. 00

$
3. 10

$
3. 20

$
3. 30

$
3 .4 0

$
3. 50

2. 80

2. 90

3. 00

3. 10

3. 20

3. 30

3 .4 0

3. 50

3. 60

$2 . 62
2. 66
2. 34

1
1

1
1

3
3

9
4
5

6
6

15
8
7

1
1

74
69
5

24
14
10

43
40
3

31
27
4

12
11
1

26
19
7

56
56
-

14
14
-

41
41
-

39
39
-

699
540“
59

2. 80
2. 83
2 .4 9

-

-

4
4

4
4

1
1

1
1

14
13
1

74
67
7

46
39
7

48
44
4

19
12
7

42
38
4

40
38
2

103
101
2

76
61
15

88 1
88
-

E n gin eers, stationary __________________________
Manufacturing ________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________

490
390
100

2. 62
2. 67
2. 39

9
9

-

2
2

20
7
13

1
1

10
2
8

27
17
10

82
77
5

19
7
12

12
7
5

37
35
2

70
68
2

11
11
-

57
56
1

9
7
2

F ire m en , stationary b oiler ____________________
Manufacturing _________________________________

191
144

2 .4 2
2 .4 5

1
-

2
-

23
23

9

1
-

11
11

9
8

15
-

4
4

20
8

9
9

40
40

22
10

_
-

H elp e rs, tra d e s, maintenance ________________
Manufacturing _________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________
Public u tilities2 __________________________

800
730
70
48

2.
2.
2.
2.

23
24
14
33

53
44
9
-

30
28
2
-

17
17
"

36
35
1
1

114
109
5
2

71
67
4
-

9
8
1
-

44
41
3
-

56
31
25
25

161
141
20
20

48
48
-

127
127
"

2
2
-

M achin e-tool operators , toolroom ____________
Manufacturing ________________________________

140
140

2. 73
2. 73

_

_

-

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

11
11

6
6

10
10

30
30

16
l6

M ach in ists, maintenance _______________________
Manufacturing ________________________________

1 ,0 3 7
1 ,0 1 2

3. 06
3. 07

-

M ech anics, automotive (maintenance) ________
Manufacturing ________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________
Public u tilities2 __________________________

629
179
450
347

2.
2.
2.
2.

58
57
58
62

_
-

M ech anics, maintenance ________________________
Manufacturing _________________________________
Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------------------

1 ,2 61
1, 124
137

2. 87
2. 89
2. 76

M illwrights ________________________________________
Manufacturing _________________________________

170
170

O ilers ______________________________________________
Manufacturing -------------------------------------------------

C arpen ters, maintenance _______________________
Manufacturing ________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________

407
348
59

E le ctricia n s, maintenance ______________________
Manufacturing ________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________

_

_

—

r~

$
3. 60
and
over

-

-

8
4
4

-

3
2
1

17
17

82
82
-

3
3
"

37
37
-

-

•-

59
50
9

30
17
13

29
24
5

1
1
-

-

"

5
4
1

15
15

10
10

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

"

-

-

-

-

29
29
-

_
-

3
3
-

-

_
"

"

-

-

_
"

17
17

17
17

10
10

6
6

3
3

10
10

3
3

1
1

-

-

"

_

_

_

-

-

-

1
-

1
1

10
10

23
20

63
63

24
18

42
41

18
18

90
88

103
93

123
122

103
103

299
299

2
2

10
10

113
113

8
8
-

_
-

2
2
-

5
5
“

18
15
3
-

14
10
4
4

32
22
10
1

58
21
37
*

8
2
6

142
2
140
136

78
6
72
70

147
10
137
128

98
74
24
8

13
6
7

4
4
-

2
2
-

.
-

"

.
-

"

_
-

_
-

_
-

4
4

4
1
3

24
23
1

10
4
6

137
130
7

49
40
9

45
34
11

28
19
9

11
5
6

48
47
1

239

189
167
22

117
112
5

55
16
39

180
179
1

92
92
-

29
29
"

_
"

_
-

13

2. 88
2. 88

_

_

.

_

_

_
-

12
12

8
8

13
13

44
44

9
9

16
16

51
51

5
5

1
1

1
1

_

-

3
3

-

-

5
5

_

-

2
2

-

-

4 20
413

2 .4 9
2. 50

26
26

5
5

_

7
7

4
4

27
27

14
10

22
19

32
32

102
102

16
16

93
93

34
34

5
5

25
25

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

8
8

-

-

-

-

-

-

P ain ters, maintenance _________________________
Manufacturing _________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________

223
154
69

2 .4 3
2. 57
2. 10

16
2
3 14

2
2

8
2
6

6
6

9
3
6

8
-------- T
2

10
5
5

20
17
3

12
8
4

16
14
2

16
6
10

35
32
3

8
8
"

24
24
-

14
14
-

12
12
-

1
1
-

1
1

5
-

-

-

5

"

P ip efitte rs, maintenance _______________________
Manufacturing _________________________________

534
491

2. 78
2. 78

-

-

_

_

1

8

-

-

-

7

22
19

97
96

19
17

37
32

32
31

119
116

100
74

32
32

34
34

S heet-m etal w orkers , maintenance ___________
Manufacturing _________________________ _____

139
131

2. 81
2. 82

_

7

Tool and die m akers _____________ ________ __
Manufacturing ----------------------------------------- -----

3 28
317

3. 18
3. 18

_

-

-

-

6
T ~

16
— nr~

.
-

-

-

-

10
10

1
1

_

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

-

"

-

-

l
l

8
8

1
1

24
24

6
5

7

18
11

19
19

10
10

16
16

12
12

13
13

2
2

2
2

_

"

-

-

_

.

.

_

_

_

_

_

4
4

3
3

5
4

11
11

5
2

18
16

76
71

33
33

59
59

51
51

57
57

1
1

5

1 Excludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on w eekends, h olid ays, and late shifts.
2 Transportation (excluding r a ilr o a d s), com m unication, and other public u tilities.
3 W ork ers w ere distributed as follow s: 4 at $ 1. 20 to $ 1. 30; 6 at $ 1. 30 to $ 1. 40; 3 at $ 1 .4 0 to $ 1. 50; 1 at $ 1. 50 to $ 1. 60.




226"

12
11

5

10
Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(A verage stra igh t-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, B altim ore, Md. , Decem ber I960)
NUM BER OF W ORKERS R E CEIVING ST R AIG H T-TIM E H OURLY EARNINGS OF—

O ccupation 1 and industry division

Num
ber
of
w
orkers

E levator op erators, passenger
(men) ---------------------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------

$
$
Average Under s . 80 $
0
0 .9 0
1 .0 0
1 . 10
h
ourly ,
and
earnin
gs
0 .8 0 under
. 90 1 . 0 0 1 . 1 0 1 . 2 0

$ 1 .0 7
1 .0 7

4
4

18
18

93

1 . 10
1 . 10
1 .0 0

18
18
318

8
8
8

Guards ---------------------------------------------------------Manufacturing --------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------

891
551
340

1 .9 7
2. 30
1 .4 4

-

-

Janitors, p o rte rs, and clean ers
(men) ---------------------------------------- -------------Manufacturing _________________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________
Public u tilit ie s 4 ----------------------------Retail trade _________________________
Financ e 5 ____________________________

2, 978
1, 509
1, 469
164
535
225

1 .5 5

47
47
-

E levator op erators, p assenger
(women) ___________________________ _______
Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------Retail trade _________________________

Janitors, p orte rs, and clean ers
(women) __________________________________
Manufacturing ______________ _________
Nonmanufacturing _ ---------------------------R etail trade _________________________
F in a n c e 5 -----------------------------------------

63
59

136
—

IW ~

595
—

1.9 0

. 18
1. 67
1 . 16
1. 17
1

1. 27

w r~ — r j8 ~
438
73
202

1. 15
.9 7
1. 13

4
4

5

45
45
37

28
28
15

-

-

21

5
------ 5 -

29
29

66

112

-

-

66

112

-

85
27

66

10

1 .4 0

1. 50

1

2

1

-

2
2

-

-

-

1

12
12

-

13
5

4

10

'

11

33
25

86

49

_

_

-

-

Receiving clerk s ___________________ _____
Manufacturing _________________________
Nonmanufacturing -------------------------------Retail trade --------------------------------------

262
119
143
105

2 . 10

_
-

_
-

Shipping clerk s _____________
___________
Manufacturing _________________________
Nonmanufacturing
___________________
Retail trade _______________ _______

218
Tl9
99
77

2. 30
2 .4 1
2. 17
2. 13

11

3

4
82
4
3

2
2

3. 00 over

105
105

161

71
71

77
77
“

5
5
-

-

.
-

.
-

-

-

-

94
70
24

150
84

65
62

66
66

3
-

146
114
32
-

-

2

44
30
14
14

22

10
1

-

-

-

-

1

-

1

7
7

-

4
4

2
2

17
17

11

-

-

20

39
59
-

12

94

232
215
17

7
4

-

160

21
21

11
1
10

-

-

5
5
-

13
13

3
3

-

-

-

-

293
31
262
132
116
14

521
297
224
106

468
458

2
8

81
81
-

8
8

12

457
448
9
9
-

4
4
-

44
44
8

228
3
225
27

2

36
13
5

8

3

7

370
300
70

176
135
41

158
148

73

107
82
25

10

163
134
29

49
31
18

14
54

25

6

1

24

40
30

20
21

5
5

5
24

16

44

27
27

63

77
77

118
65
53

18

207

21

1

16
-

54

52

16

53
16
37
37

50

23

71
16
55
24
27

46

38

24
nr

12

6

7

6

4

1

12

10

6

2

-

3

8

3
3

-

12

5

12
8

8

-

5
4

50
5

14
14

3
3

_

5
5

3
3

9
9

19 (

27
27
27

_
-

6

6

1

5

11

55
54
1

6

137
87
50

270
266
4
-

l6l
-

149

60
.35
25

-

-

-

-

_
-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

'

90

11

111

48~
13
13

-

2.

3
3
“

5
33

61

_

. 80

106

189
53
136

61

1 .3 6
1. 54

2

19
19
“

38
38

8

113
63

2. 70

48
48
“

16
9
7

34

P ac k e rs, shipping (women) --------------------Nonmanufacturing _____________________

2 . 60

17
3
14

13
16
3

8
20

-

2. 50

22
10
12

63
16
47

28

-

20

-

48
37

5
3

-

.

-

87
9
78
72

8

66

2

-

176

36

-

2 . 10

-

8
1
2

64

_
-

00

-

4

26
18

_
-

.

-

228
151
77
63

1

_

2

-

77
31
46
5
13
18

43

1 .5 9
1 .4 5
1.8 1
2 . 12
1. 48

1. 90

-

181
106
75

94
132
51
49

-

397
244
153
76

. 80

-

226

-

P ack e rs, shipping (men) _________________
Manufacturing _________________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________
W holesale trade ------------------------------Retail trade _________________________

1

-

149
41
108
64
36

-

-

2 .4 0

$
3. 00

-

650
16
634
172
63

48

-

2 .3 0

90

-

8

2

"

$
$
$
3
$
s
$
2. 30 2 .4 0 2. 50 2 . 60 2 . 70 2 . 80 2 .

5
5

9

2

_
-

2 . 20

-

11

50

_
-

s

2 . 10

-

20

2

-

$
00

6

12

-

_
-

s
s
1. 90 2 .

6

17

3
7

-

. 80

2

29

-

1 .9 5
1.7 1
2 . 01
2. 03
2 . 00

1

2

180
180

-

1, 240
229
1 , 011
355
643

$

6

61 1

'

1 .7 0

7
7

22

'

60

8
8

154
46
90

-

.

4

-

Order fille r s ____ ________________________
Manufacturing _________________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________
W holesale trade ____________________
Retail trade _________________________

$
1 .7 0

and
1 .3 0

10

2




$
$
1. 50 1 .6 0

20

-

2. 30
2 . 00
1 . 62

See footnotes at end of table,

$
$
1. 30 1 .4 0

-

.

10
6

3, 563
2, 4$3
1, 070
238
267
546

2. 32
1 .9 1
1 .8 2

1

-

“

L a b o r e rs, m aterial handling -----------------Manufacturing ________________________
Nonmanufacturing _____________________
Public u tilit ie s 4 ___________________
W holesale trade ____________________
Retail trade -------------------------------------

—

2 . 07
2 . 16
1 . 86

3
i

21

$

6

15

2

173
100

-

8

16

22

41
7
33

2

22

8
8

27
27
27

_
-

_
-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

_

2

-

-

10

14
7
7
7

17
13
4
4

30
35
9 ~ r n

4
4

18
l5
5
3

5

6

32

11

3
3
3

28
28

32
26
6
6

-

-

1
-

_
-

1

7
4
3
3
-

7
7
-

5

16
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

3
3
-

_
-

_
-

*

-

-

-

19

_
-

8
8

1.

-

-

8

-

68

-

16

16

2

3
3
3

-

6

1
1

_

_

.

5

12

2

-

-

9
3
3

-

2

-

2
2

3
3

2
2

198

-

1

1

-

9
1
1

4

26
24

28
40
18

1

5

------ T*

ll
195
193

-

82
4
78
24
54

-

16
16
7

-

4
3

1

49
49

106

61
TT"
46
30

3
3

-

2

2

10

2

8

5
8

2

“

2

12

21

8

16

14
5
9

3

7

13

-

15

8

2

1

8
6
2
2

13

6

11
6

5

1
5
5

5
3

12

4

31
19

4

2

9

'

20

4

12

6

2
2

T

T7T
3
3

2
2

-

-

“

16
16
-

17
13
4
4

11
Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations-Continued
(A verage stra igh t-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division. B altim ore. Md. , D ecem ber I960)
NUM BER OF W ORKERS RECEIVING STR AIGH T-TIM E HOURLY EARN INGS OF—

Occupation 1 and industry division

N ber
um
of
w
orkers

8
$
8
$
s
3
$
$
$
$
$
$
5 ,
Average
h
ourly 2 Under 0. 80 0. 90 1. 00 ‘ l. 10 1. 20 1. 30 1 .4 0 *1. 50 1. 60 1. 70 1. 80 °1. 90 2. 00 2. 10 *2. 20 2. 30 2 .4 0 *2. 50 2.
and
earnin
gs $
0. 80 under
. 90 1. 00 1. 10 1. 20 1. 30 1 .4 0 1. 50 1. 60 1. 70 1. 80 1. 90 2. 00 2. 10 2. 20 2. 30 2 .4 0 2. 50 2. 60 2.
r
“
$ 2. 14
1
1
17
6
5
28
8
68
19
3 !
9
-----2. 15
12
20
1
1
44
12
20 !
9
2. 13
1
1
2
6
8
7
24
5
5
7
6 !
-

Shipping and receiving clerk s _________
Manufacturing __________________ ____
Nonmanufacturing _ _
_

202
119
83

T ru ck d rivers 7 ____________________________
Manufacturing _________________________
Nonmanufacturing
__
Public u tilitie s4 __________________
W holesale trade __________________
Retail trade
_

2 ,4 2 3
753
1 ,6 7 0
727
573
299

2. 33
2 .4 2
2. 29
2 .4 5
2. 28
2. 12

_
-

T ru ck d riv ers, light (under IV 2
tons)
................. .
Manufacturing _____________________
Nonmanufacturing ________________

227
142
85

2. 12
2. 56
1. 38

-

T ru ck d riv ers, medium ( I V e to
and including 4 tons) ________________
Manufacturing _____________________
Nonmanufacturing _ __ _ _ _
Public u tilitie s4
W h olesale trade
R etail trade ____________________

908
230
678
245
184
196

2. 19
2. 14
2. 20
2 .4 9
2. 24
1. 98

T ru ck d rivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
tra iler type)
Manufacturing _____________________
Nonmanufacturing ________________
Public utilities 4
W h olesale trade

825
132
693
343
258

2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

T ru ck d riv ers, heavy (over 4 tons,
other than tra iler type)
Manufacturing ____________________

193
131

T r u c k e r s, power (forklift)
Manufacturing ________________________
Nonmanufacturing _________ ________
Retail trade ________________________
T r u ck e r s, power (other than
forklift) __________________________________
Manufacturing ________________________
Watchmen _________________________________
Manufacturing ________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________
Public u tilitie s4
F in a p rp ®

1
2

_
-

.
-

12
12

24
24

47
7
40

75
75

40
12
28

51
51

29
29
-

36
13
23

34
29
5

5
5

19

14
22

67
7

9
3

31
3

'

1
1

1
-

-

-

-

"

-

-

-

-

7
7

11
LI

22
22

12
12

12
12

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

14
14

28
7
21

17
17

21
12
9

34
34

22
22
-

36
13
23

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
14

19

10
7

1

14
3

-

-

1
1

-

-

-

-

3

-

18

1

-

-

-

3
-

-

1
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

18
18

-

5
5

2 .4 2
2. 63

-

-

-

-

-

6

18

6

1 ,3 1 0
1, 192
118
64

2 .4 6
2 .4 8
2. 27
2. 31

_
-

_
-

.
-

_
-

-

-

3
3
1

2
2
-

7
7
-

-

_
-

633
631

2 .4 7
2 .4 7

-

-

-

-

"

-

1
-

21
21

471
265
206
34
78

1 .4 2
1. 51
1. 32
1. 76
1. 15

_

32

40

!
—

-

4

9

-

-

-

-

4

9

-

-

-

133
80
53
3

-

32
1

3

D a ta lim ite d to m e n w o r k e r s e x c e p t w h e r e o th e r w is e in d ic a te d .
E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e a n d fo r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , a n d la te
W o r k e r s w e r e d is tr ib u te d a s f o llo w s :
3 a t $ 0. 60 t o $ 0. 70; 15 a t $ 0. 70 t o $ 0. 80.

4
5
6
7

T r a n s p o r ta tio n (e x c lu d in g r a ilr o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a tio n , a n d o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s .
F in a n ce , in s u ra n ce , and r e a l e sta te .
W o r k e r s w e r e d is tr ib u te d a s fo llo w s :
3 a t $ 0. 60 t o $ 0. 70; 8 a t $ 0. 70 t o $ 0. 80.
I n c lu d e s a l l d r i v e r s r e g a r d l e s s o f s iz e a n d ty p e o f t r u c k o p e r a t e d .




-

5

-

50
38
52
50
55

- j

34
29
5

-

87
81
6
2
3 !
1

12
3
9

-

-

12
12

-

-

88
29
59
10
1
48

-

40
4

s h ifts .

7
7
-

130
87
7
9
80
121
34
72
4
33 1
45
12
3 ;
3

226
22
204
6
146
52

42
11
31
21
10
"

717
132
585
582
3
-

-

2
2

3
3

107
107

144
144
92
52

3
3
-

247
8
239
239
-

-

40
IT "
34
34

34
29
5
1
3
1

47
2
45
4
30
10

46
2
44
2
42

43
43
-

5
5
3

5
2
3
-

-

61
13
48
1
1
1
1
46
|

i
-

-

2
2
-

70

$
$
$
$
2. 70 2. 80 2. 90 3. 00
and
2. 80

2. 90

3. 00

3
3

5
5

3
3

-

262
105
157
157

7
7
-

.
-

28
28
-

-

401
232
169
88
81

"

over

-

-

6

-

-

-

~
-

2
2
-

_

_

-

118
88
30
30
-

-

-

-

-

12
2
10
10

346
346
343
3

163
54
109
28

170
13
157
157

5
5
-

-

-

-

-

-

18
18 —

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4
4

-

1
1

7
5

-

-

10
10

85
55

56
56

-

-

-

6
4
2
-

63
63
-

65
65
-

34
34
-

-

-

72
65
7
7

58
40
18
1

28
15
13
2

21
1
20
20

108
77
31
31

295
284
11
1

118
109
9
-

274
274
-

144
144
-

-

2
2
1

10
10
-

~

8
7

22
22

1
1

-

1
6
- 1----- 6~~

57
57

34
34

45
45

-

6
6

31
31

42
42

31
31

34
34

6
------ 6~

118
118

120
120

50
50

43
29
14
1

39
39

26
14
12
1

8
6
2
1

60
45
15
15

16
nr~

24
24

4
4

8

.

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

8
7

-

9
8
1

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

9
-

9
-

-

-

-

-

-

7
-

7
1

-

60

-

-




12

B: Establishment Practices and Supplementary W age Provisions
Table B-l. Shift Differentials
(Shift d iffe r e n tia ls of m an ufacturin g plant w o r k e r s by type and amount o f d iffe r e n tia l,
B a ltim o r e , M d . , D e c e m b e r I960)
P e r c e n t o f m an u factu rin g plant w o r k e r s —
In e s ta b lish m e n ts having fo r m a l
p r o v i s i o n s 1 for—

Shift d iffe r e n tia l

Second shift
w ork

T h ird or other
shift w ork

A ctu a lly wo rking on—

Second shift

T h ird or other
shift

. 3

81.

0

17. 5

8

.4

------------------------------------

82. 5

79 .

8

16.

1

8

. 3

--------------------------------

46. 3

43. 9

.

1

6

.

cen ts -----------------------------------------------------------5 cen ts -----------------------------------------------------------cen ts ------------------ -------------------------------------7 cen ts -----------------------------------------------------------8 cen ts
-----------------------------------------------------------9 cen ts
----------------------------------------------------- —
1 0 c en ts ----------------------------------------------------------1 2 c en ts ----------------------------------------------------------1 2 1 / 2 c en ts
----------------------------------------------------13 c en ts ----------------------------------------------------------1 3 2/ 3 c en ts
---------------------- --------------------------14 c en ts ----------------------------------------------------------15 c en ts ----------------------------------------------------------16 c en ts and o v e r ----------------------------------------

T o ta l

1 . 1
8. 0
4. 5
2. 8
22 . 4
.8
3. 2
2. 2

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

W ith shift pay d iffe r e n tia l

U n ifo rm c en ts (p er hour)

2

6

U n ifo r m p e r c e n ta g e

-----------------------------------------

5 p erc en t ------------------------------------------------ —
p erc en t -------------------------------------------------------7 p erc en t -------------------------------------------------------1 0 p e r c e n t -----------------------------------------------------15 p erc en t ------------------------------------------------------

6

O th er fo r m a l pay d iffe r e n tia l

No sh ift pay d iffe r e n tia l

------------------------

----------------------------------------

86

1

.
-

2

-

27 .

8

3. 9
. 1
5. 6
17. 3
1

"

1

.

0

10

1

.4
. 1

-

. 3
5. 8
. 3
1 . 1
. 1
_

-

1 .0

1 .
4.
7.
23.
2.
.
.
.
.
1.

27 .

1

5
4
3
3
8

-

5

.
-

8

1

2

-

.7
.6
4. 2
. 2
( 2)
. 1
. 1

8

-

-

3

-

. 3

6

4. 2

_
. 1
5. 6
18. 7
2. 2

2

.

0

.

1
2

.4
. 1
. 1
. 6

1 .6

“

1

( 2)

-

.4

.4

8

.4

1 .8

( 2)

3. 7

1

.

1. 4

.

8

2

1

1 In clu d es e sta b lish m e n ts c u rren tly o p eratin g late sh ifts, and e s ta b lish m e n ts w ith f o r m a l p r o v isio n s c o v erin g late
even though they w e r e not c u r r e n tly op eratin g late sh ifts.
2 L e s s than 0. 05 p e r c e n t.

sh ifts

13
Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salaries for W om en O ffice W orkers
(D istrib u tio n of e sta b lish m e n ts studied in a ll in d u str ie s and in in du stry d iv isio n s by m in im u m en tran ce sa la r y fo r se le c te d c a te g o r ie s
of in e x p e r ie n c e d w om en o ffic e w o r k e r s , B a ltim o r e , M d. , D e c e m b e r I960)
I n e x p e r ie n c e d

ty p is ts

M a n u fa c tu r in g
M in im u m

w e e k ly

s a la r y 1

A ll

B ased

on

O th e r in e x p e r ie n c e d

N o n m a n u f a c tu r in g

M a n u fa c t u r in g
A ll

s ta n d a rd w e e k ly h o u r s 3 o f—

in d u s tr ie s
s c h e d u le s

s tu d ie d

E s ta b lis h m e n ts

h a v in g

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

a s p e c ifie d

m in im u m

----------------------------

B ased

on

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g
s ta n d a rd w e e k ly

h ou rs 3 o f—

in d u s tr ie s
A ll

E s ta b lis h m e n ts

c le r ic a l w o rk e rs 2

40

A ll
s c h e d u le s

37V 2

A ll

40

s c h e d u le s

40

A ll
s c h e d u le s

37V 2

40

184

74

XXX

110

XXX

XXX

184

74

XXX

110

XXX

XXX

94

42

32

52

11

29

100

39

31

61

12

35

$ 37. 50 an d u n d er

$ 4 0 . 00

___________________________________ ________

1
5

3

2

2

-

2

18

3

2

15

1

12

$ 4 2 . 50 an d u n d e r

| 45 . 00

-------------------------------------------------------------------

8

1

1

7

1
1

5

6

1

2

$ 47 . 50

-------------------------------------------------------------------

14

5

5

11

11

4

and u n d er

$ 5 0 .0 0

___________________________________________

5

1
-

12

$ 4 7 .5 0

2
-

1
-

5

$ 45 . 00 an d u n d e r

1
-

5

1

2

8

5

4

3

1

$ 5 0 .0 0

and u n d er

$ 5 2 .5 0

-------------------------------------------------------------------

22

10

7

12

3

19

9

7

10

4

$ 5 2 .5 0

-

6
-

7

1

8
4
4

6
2

3

1

1

6

1
-

2

2

2

-

2

1

1

3

-

3

and u n d er

$ 5 5 .0 0

-------------------------------------------------------------------

7

7

4

-

$ 55. 00 an d u n d e r

$ 57 . 50

-------------------------------------------------------------------

6

2

2

$ 57 . 50

and u n d er

$ 60 . 00

-------------------------------------------------------------------

7

3

2

4
4

$ 60. 00 an d u n d e r

$ 6 2 . 50

-------------------------------------------------------------------

1

-

-

1

3

2

-------------------------------------------------------------------

4

$ 65 . 00 an d u n d e r

$ 6 7 . 50

-------------------------------------------------------------------

2

$ 67 . 50 an d u n d e r

$ 70 . 00

-------------------------------------------------------------------

$ 6 2 .5 0

and u n d er

$ 70. 00 an d u n d e r

$ 6 5 .0 0

$ 7 2 .5 0

-------------------------------------------------------------------

$ 72. 50 an d u n d e r

$ 75. 00

-------------------------------------------------------------------

$ 75 . 00

and u n d er

$ 77 . 50

-------------------------------------------------------------------

$ 77. 50 and u n d er

$ 80 . 00

-------------------------------------------------------------------

E s ta b lis h m e n ts

h a v in g

no

E s t a b lis h m e n t s w h ic h d id
in th is

ca teg ory

s p e c ifie d

m in im u m

n o t e m p lo y

-------------------------

2
1
2

4

1
1
2
1

3

1
1
2
1

3

1

1
1
1

-

-

1

1

3

-

1

-

1

-

1

1
1

-

1
2
2
2
2
1

4

3

3

3

2
2

8

XX X

14

XX X

XXX

25

24

XXX

44

XX X

XXX

59

"

1

1

1

-

-

2
2
2
1
1
-

3

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

1
2
1
-

-

-

“

XX X

14

XX X

XXX

XXX

35

XX X

XX X

w ork ers

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

68

24

L ow e st s a la r y rate fo r m a lly e sta b lish e d fo r h irin g in ex p er ien c ed w o r k e r s fo r typing o r oth er c le r ic a l jo b s .
R a tes a p p lica b le to m e s s e n g e r s , o ffic e g ir ls , o r s im ila r s u b c le r ic a l jo b s a re not c o n sid e r e d .
H ours r e fle c t the w ork w eek fo r w hich e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv e t h e ir re g u la r s t r a ig h t -t im e s a la r ie s .
D ata are p r e se n te d fo r a ll w ork w eek s com b ined,




2
2
2

1
2
1

3
1
5
-

and fo r the m o s t c o m m o n w ork w eek s rep orted .

14
Table B-3. Scheduled W e e k ly Hours
(P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n o f o f fic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u s tr ie s and in in d u stry d iv is io n s b y sch ed u led w eek ly h ou rs
o f f ir s t - s h if t w o r k e r s , B a lt im o r e , M d. , D e c e m b e r I960)
OFFICE WORKERS
W e e k ly h o u r s

A ll w o rk e r s

_________________________________________

U n d e r 35 h o u r s ______________________________________
35 h o u r s ______________________________________________
O v e r 35 a n d u n d e r
l z h o u r s ---------------------------3 7 V 2 h o u r s __________________________________________
O v e r 3 7 V 2 a n d u n d e r 4 0 h o u r s __________________
4 0 h o u r s ______________________________________________
O v e r 4 0 a n d u n d e r 4 4 h o u r s ______________________
4 4 h o u r s ______________________________________________
O v e r 4 4 a n d u n d e r 4 8 h o u r s --------------------------------4 8 h o u r s ______________________________________________
O v e r 4 8 h o u r s -----------------------------------------------------------

1
2
3
4
s

All
j
industries

100

2
10
4
15
3
65

PLANT WORKERS

Manufacturing

Public 2
utilities

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

Finance 3

100

100

100

1 00

100

3
4
8
85
-

5

29
12
26

( 5)
3
1
9
5
82

( 5)

-

(5
_)
4
32
63
-

( )
(5)

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

(5)

-

4
87
4

(5)

Includes data for services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
Finance, insurance, and real estate.
Includes data for real estate and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
L ess than 0. 5 percent.




-

34
-

Services

All
4
industries

100

1
(5 )
1
3
1
83
3
2
2
5
1

Manufacturing

100

1
4
1
88
2
1
2
2

Public 2
utilities

100

_
-

100
-

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

100

100

_
-

3
_
64

3
87
10

-

6

8

5
14

Services

15
Table B-4. Paid Holidays
(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by number of paid holidays
provided annually, Baltim ore, M d ., D ecem ber i960)
OFFICE WORKERS

Item

All workers

-------------------------------------------------------------

W orkers in establishments providing
paid holidays -------------------------------------------------------W orkers in establishments providing
no paid holidays --------------------------------------------------

All ,
industries1

PLANT WORKERS

Manufacturing

Public >
utilities

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

Finance 3

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

“

Manufacturing

Public ,
utilities

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

98

100

100

100

95

2

_

“

~

5

2
1

( 5)

5
13
15
4
2
_
_
29
( 5)
24

5
2
_
61
1
_

“

“

(? )
( 5)
12
2
1
1

All
industries*

“

“

9
11
3
17
1
40
2
19
-

1
67
2
30
1
-

3
-

"

“

_

_

19
19
21
61
62
81
91
100
100
100
100

-

( 5)

Services

Services

Number off days
L ess than 5 holidays -------------------------------------------5 holidays ---------------------------------------------------------------5 holidays plus 2 half days -------------------------------6 holidays -------------------------------------- ---------------------6 holidays pluff 1 half day ----------------------------------6 holidays plus 2 half days -------------------------------6 holidays plus 3 half days -------------------------------6 holidays plus 4 half days -------------------------------7 holidays ---------------------------------------------------------------7 holidays plus 1, 2, or 6 half days __________
8 holidays ---------------------------------------------------------------8 holidays plus 2 half days -------------------------------9 holidays --------------------------------- __ ---------------------9 holidays plus 1 half day ----------------------------------10 holidays --------------------------------------------------------------11 holidays --------------------------------------------------------------12 or 13 holidays ---------------------------------------------------

2
-

(5)
26
(5)
23
2
8
4
18
2

8
2
2
48
( 5)
33
(5)
2
1
1
1

( 5)
4
2
6
30
54
-

( 5)

~

( 5)

1

1
13
26
13
38
4
1

( 5)
2

"

( 5)

5
_
1
_
11
46
_
_
36
-

'

"

'

'

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

36
36
36
82
82
95
95
100
100
100
100

8
32
32
63
67
95
95
100
100

9
9
25
26
88
90
90
95

( 5)
20
1
2
48
( 5)
17
1
1
3
1

10
2
3
64
16
_
2
1

_

_
16
_
9

_
_

8
-

-

Total ho lid a y tim e 6
13 days ---------------------------------------------------------------------12 or m ore days ----------------------------------------------------11 or m ore days -----------------------------------------------10 or m ore days -----------------------------------------------9 V 2 or m ore days ---------------------------------------------9 or m ore days -------------------------------------------------8 or m ore days -------------------------------------------------7 V 2 or m ore days ---------------- ------------- ------7 or more days -----------------------------------------------------6 V 2 or more days -------------------------------------------------6 or m ore days -----------------------------------------------------5 or m ore days -----------------------------------------------------4 or more days -----------------------------------------------------1 or m ore days ------------------------------------------------------

(? )
(5)
2
20
24
34
58
59
85
87
100
100
100
100

.
1
2
3
6
39
39
89
92
100
100
100
100

.
(? )
( 5)
55
55
55
87
91
98
98
100
100
100
100

1
1
31
33
99
100
100
100

1
1
5
44
57
83
96
96
97
97
100
100
100
100

1
4
5
6
23
23
73
74
94
96
97
98

2
2
3
5
21
21
87
89
99
99
100
100

1 Includes data for services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
2 Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
3 Finance, insurance, and real estate.
4 Includes data for real estate and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
5 L ess than 0. 5 percent.
6 All combinations of full and half days that add to the same amount are combined; for example, the proportion of workers receiving a total of 7 days includes those with 7 full days
no half days, 6 full days and 2 half days, 5 full days and 4 half days, and so on. Proportions were then cumulated.




and

16
Table B-5. Paid Vacations
(P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n o f o f fic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u s tr ie s and in in d u stry d iv is io n s by v a c a tio n pay
p r o v is io n s , B a lt im o r e , M d. , D e c e m b e r I960)
OFFICE WORKERS
Vacation policy

A ll workers

_______________________________________

PLANT WORKERS

M ufactu g
an
rin

P
ublic 2
u
tilities

W olesale
h
trad
e

R
etail trad
e

F
inance 3

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100
100
-

100
100
-

100
100
-

100
100
-

100
100
-

100
100
-

98
93
5
-

100
93
7
-

100
100
-

100
81
19
-

100
100
-

"

■

-

“

“

“

2

A
il !
in u
d stries

A
ll 4
in u
d stries

S
ervices

M ufactu g
an
rin

P
ublic 2
u
tilities

W olesale
h
trad
e

R
etail trad
e

M e th o d o f p a y m e n t
W orkers in establishments providing
paid vacations ---------------------------------------------------Length-of-tim e payment --------------------------------Percentage payment --------------------------------------F la t-su m payment ____________________________
Othe r __________________________________________
W orkers in establishments providing
no paid vacations _______________________________

Am ount o f v a c a t io n p a y

“

6

After 6 months of service
Under 1 week _____________________________________
1 week _____________________________________________
Over 1 and under 2 weeks ______________________
2 weeks ____________________________________________
Over 2 and under 3 weeks -----------------------------------

10
45
14
3
1

6
48
3
2

(5)
94
1
-

4
28
8
-

42
8
-

_
17
10
73
(5)
1

_
11
20
67
2

_
7
(5)
93
-

_
12
88
-

_
83
9
8
-

_
6
9**
-

4
10
85
(*)

4
22
72
2

3
97
(5)

7
93
-

12
88
“

(5)
100
-

2
10
85
(5)
3

1
22
73

(5)

3

6
(5)
93

(5)
100

1
92
2

(5)
95
-

22
10
1
(5)

9
36
43
12
-

21
5
1
1

_
70
3
-

1
21
2
-

36
9
-

-

-

1
73
9
15
(5)
1

1
76
10
11
1

_
27
70
3

_
54
46
-

85
11
4
-

50
15
32
(5)
1

56
22
21
1

13
84
3

50
50
-

46
54
-

15
35
47
(5)
1

14
48
36
1

1
96

17
26
56

18
5
77

-

-

-

3

-

-

7
86
4
2

5
90
4
2

8
92
-

18
74

After 1 year of service
Under 1 week _____________________________________
1 week ______________________ ,______________________
Over 1 and under 2 weeks _______________________
2 weeks ____________________________________________
Over 2 and under 3 weeks _______________________
3 weeks ____________________________________________

*

_

-

After 2 years of service
1 week _____________________________________________
Over 1 and under 2 weeks ----------------------------------2 weeks ____________________________________________
Over 2 and under 3 weeks _______________________
3 weeks ____________________________________________
After 3 years of service
1 week _____________________________________________
Over 1 and under 2 weeks ----------- ----------------------2 weeks ------------------------------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 weeks _______________________
3 weeks ____________________________________________

-

4

-

100
(5)
-

97

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6
92
(5)
1

89
7

-

After 5 years ol service
1 week _____________________________________________
2 weeks ____________________________________________
Over 2 and under 3 weeks -------------------------------- 3 weeks -------------------------------------------------------------------

See fo o tn o te s at end o f ta b le .




5

5

_

100
(*)
(5)

100
-

-

5

-

97
3

5

3

17
Table B-5. Paid Vacations-Continued
(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, Baltim ore, M d ., Decem ber i960)
O F F IC E W O R K E R S

PLAN T WORKERS

Vacation policy
All
,
industries

M anufacturing

Public 2
utilities

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

Finance 3

Services

All
.
industries

M anufacturing

Public
utilities

2

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

Amount off vocation p a y 6— Continued
After 10 years of service
1 week --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 weeks ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 weeks --------------------------------------------3 weeks ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4 weeks -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

_

_

1
61
10
28
(5)

(5)
55
22
24
-

(5)
16
(5)
82

(5)
7

5

-

-

-

97
-

3
-

35
4
61
-

5
54
(5)
41
-

_

6
44
25
22
(5)

4
12
2
76
1
3

6
13
3
37
19
21

31
-

4
14
2
78
1
(5)

6
13
3
68
1
8

-

4
45
34
16
-

6
14
3
74
1
1

69

4
12
2
39
27
15

_
83
-

14
3

8
41
26
25
-

16
23
5
55
-

8
22

14
11

After 15 years of service
1 week --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 weeks ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 weeks --------------------------------------------3 weeks ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Over 3 and under 4 weeks --------------------------------------------4 weeks -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

_

_
23

3
27
(5)
70

_
26
-

92

95

77

-

_

_

_

_

_

1

(5)

-

"

-

5

(5)
14
(5)
76
1
9

(5)
7

5

-

-

86
1
5

92
(5)
3

(5)
7

5

-

-

-

37
(5)
57

25
1
57

69

_
_
_

-

97

70

_

70

3

-

-

_

8
22

-

-

71

49

14
11
5
52

_

5

_

After 20 years of service
1 week --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 weeks ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 weeks --------------------- -------------------3 weeks ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Over 3 and under 4 weeks --------------------------------------------4 weeks -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

_

_
23
-

25
-

51

3
27
(5)
67
-

3

_
19
-

69
-

12

_
_

_

_

29

21

18

_

8
20

-

-

14
11
5
38

After 25 years of service
1 week --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 weeks ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 weeks --------------------------------------------3 weeks ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Over 3 and under 4 weeks -------------------------------4 weeks ----------------------------------------------------------------

(5)
10
(5)
49
6
35

55
15
23

_

_

17

3
27
(5)
40

_
6
-

49

-

-

31

45

1 Includes data for services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
2 Transportation (excluding railroads), communication, and other public utilities.
3 Finance, insurance, and real estate.
4 Includes data for real estate and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
5 L ess than 0. 5 percent.
6 Periods of service were arbitrarily chosen and do not necessarily reflect the individual provisions
service include changes in provisions occurring between 5 and 10 years.

for progressions.

For example,

_
33
_

67

29
19
23

the changes in proportions

_

32

indicated at 10 years'

NOTE: In the tabulations of vacation allowances by years of service, payments other than "length of tim e " such as percentage of annual earnings or flat-su m payments,
to an equivalent time basis; for example, a payment of 2 percent of annual earnings was considered as 1 week's pay.




were converted

18
Table B-6. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
(Percent of office and plant workers in all industries and industry divisions employed in establishments providing
health, insurance, or pension benefits, B altim ore, Md. , Decem ber I960)
O F F IC E W O R K E R S

Type of benefit

A ll workers

________ _______

___________________

All
.
industries

100

M anufacturing

Public
utilities

100

100

2

PLAN T WORKERS

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

Finance3

100

100

100

Services

All
.
industries

100

M anufacturing

Public 2
utilities

Wholesale
trade

Retail trade

100

100

100

100

Services

m
W orkers in establishments providing:
Life insurance __________________ ___________
Accidental death and dismemberment
insurance __________________________________
Sickness and accident insurance or
sick leave or both 5 _______________________

95

99

100

96

65

99

87

95

97

73

58

45

61

35

43

33

30

41

45

44

33

26

81

94

95

90

75

55

89

92

100

69

80

Sickness and accident insurance ______
Sick leave (full pay and no
waiting period) ______________ ________
Sick leave (partial pay or
waiting period) _________________________

43

75

6

37

37

5

70

87

13

47

36

53

47

93

78

15

51

9

2

70

21

10

14

25

2

4

31

-

16

10

17

12

41

Hospitalization insurance __________________
Surgical insurance _________________________
Medical insurance _____ ________ __________
Catastrophe insurance _____________________
Retirement pension -------------------------------------Other health, insurance, or pension
plan ___________________ ___________ ______
No health, insurance, or pension plan ___

76
78
49
58
87

87
88
41
50
88

65
65
59
85
91

91
89
67
49
86

59
59
46
49
83

66
69
59
66
89

77
78
31
18
74

88
89
30
16
80

66
66
53
68
97

82
74
33
15
45

42
42
28
13
64

-

-

11
9

-

2
4

1
1

(6)

(6)

-

-

18

9
12

1 Includes data for services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
2 Transportation (excluding railroad s), communication, and other public utilities.
3 Finance, insurance, and real estate.
4 Includes data for real estate and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
5 Unduplicated total of workers receiving sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately below.
Sick-leave plans are lim ited to those which definitely establish at least the
minimum number of days ' pay that can be expected by each employee.
Informal sick-leave allowances determined on an individual basis are excluded.
6 L e ss than 0. 5 percent.




19
A ppendix:

Occupational Descriptions

The primary purpose o f preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to a ssist its
field staff in classifyin g into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field economists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers,
part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.
O F F IC E

BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statements, b ills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerica l work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
cla ssified by type of machine, as follow s:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.

B iller , machine (billing machine)— Uses a special billing ma­

chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, e tc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices frQm customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon cop ies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.
B iller , machine (bookkeeping machine) — Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrarid, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, e tc ., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare custom ers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on custom ers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types o f sales and
credit slip s.




C lass A — Keeps a set o f records requiring a knowledge o f
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance
sheets, and other records by hand.
C lass B — Keeps a record o f one or more phases or section s of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping*
Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type of billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or a ssist in preparation o f trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.

CLERK, ACCOUNTING
C la ss A — Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more section s o f a com ­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase of an establish­
ment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

20

CLERK, ACCOUNTING— Continued
payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper a c ­
counting distribution; requires judgment and experience in making
proper assignations and allocation s. May a ssist in preparing, ad­
justing and closin g journal entries; may direct cla ss B accounting
clerks.
C la s s B — Under supervision, performs one or more routine a c ­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or a c ­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data. This
job does not require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping
principles but is found in offices in which the more routine account­
ing work is subdivided on a functional basis among several workers.

CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the n e ce s­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers*
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker's name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and a ssist paymaster in making up and distribut­
ing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

CLERK, FILE
C la s s A — In an established filing system containing a num­
ber of varied subject matter file s , cla ssifie s and indexes corres­
pondence or other material; may also file this material. May keep
records o f various types in conjunction with files or may super­
vise others in filing and locating material in the file s . May per­
form incidental clerical duties.
C la s s B — Performs routine filing, usually of material that has
already been cla ssified or which is easily identifiable, or locates
or a ssists in locating material in file s . May perform incidental
clerica l duties.

CLERK, ORDER
R eceives customers* orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve an y com bination o f the fo llo w in g :
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; distributing order sheets to respective departments to be filled .
May check with credit department to determine credit rating of customer,
acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders to see
that they have been filled , keep file of orders received, and check ship­
ping invoices with original orders.




DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, reproduces multiple cop ies o f typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare sten cil or Ditto master. May keep file of used stencils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory respon si­
b ilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards by
punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence, using
an alphabetical or a numerical keypunch machine, follow ing written in­
formation on records. May duplicate cards by using the duplicating de­
v ice attached to machine. May keep files of punch cards. May verify
own work or work of others.

OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands, op­
erating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and
distributing mail, and other minor clerica l work.

21

SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerica l duties for a superior in an ad­
ministrative or executive position. Duties include making appointments
for superior; receiving people coming into o ffice; answering and making
phone ca lls; handling personal and important or confidential mail, and
writing routine correspondence on own initiative; taking dictation (where
transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded information
reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare special reports or
memorandums for information of superior.

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a nor­
mal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter.
May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep files in or­
der, keep simple records, etc. D o e s not in clu de tran scribing-m ach in e
work (see transcribing-machine operator).

STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a varied
technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on
scien tific research and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter. May
also type from written copy. May also set up and keep files in order,
keep simple records, etc. D o e s not in clu d e tran scribing-m ach in e w ork .

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office ca lls .
May record toll calls and take m essages. May give information to per­
sons who call in, or occasion ally take telephone orders. For workers
who also act as receptionists see switchboard operator-receptionist.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single p o si­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may a lso type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. This typing
or clerical work may take the major part o f this worker's time while at
switchboard.




TABIJLATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
C la s s A — Operates a variety of tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignments without clo se supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating sequences of long and complex reports.
D o e s not in clu de working supervisors performing tabulating-machine
operations and day-to-day supervision of the work and production of
a group of tabulating-machine operators.
C la s s B — Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under
sp e cific instructions and may include the performance of some wir­
ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but
small tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are well established. May also include the training
of new employees in the basic operation of the machine.
C la s s C — Operates simple tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with sp e cific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs, or re­
petitive operations.

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May a lso type from written
copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation in­
volving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal briefs
or reports on scien tific research are not included. A worker who takes
dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is cla ssified
as a stenographer, general.

22

TYPIST

TYPIST— -Continued

Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to make
out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May in­
clude typing of sten cils, mats, or similar materials for use in duplicat­
ing processes. May do clerica l work involving little sp ecia l training,
such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting
and distributing incoming mail.
C la ss A — Performs one or more o f the follow in g: Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punc-

tuation, e tc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; planning layout and typing of complicated statistical tables
to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine
form letters varying details to suit circum stances.
C la ss B — Performs one or more o f the follow in g: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance p o licie s,
etc.; setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying more com­
plex tables already set up and spaced properly.

P R O F E SSIO N A L AND T E C H N IC A L

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(Assistant draftsman)

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued

Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.

involved in strength of materials, beams and trusses; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quantities;
writing specification s; making adjustments or changes in drawings or
specification s. May ink in lines and letters on pencil drawings, prepare
detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings. Work is frequently
in a specialized field such as architectural, electrical, mechanical, or
structural drafting.

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)

Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration of working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Duties
involve a combination o f the follow ing: Interpreting blueprints, sketches,
and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures; assigning
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problems. May a ssist subordinates during emergencies or as a
regular assignment, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
ministrative nature.

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
poses. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Preparing work­
ing plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-section s, e tc ., to sca le by use
of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as those




A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a com bina­
tion o f the fo llo w in g : G ivin g fir st aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of em ployees' injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants
and em ployees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.

TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. Uses
T-square, com pass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

23

M A IN T E N A N C E

D

PO W ERPLAN T

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casin gs, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves m ost o f the follow ing:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’ s handtools, portable
power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; selecting materials n ec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or a ssist in repairing boilerroom equipment.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, d is­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves m ost o f the following : Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specification s; locating and diagnosingtrouble in the e le c ­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; using a variety of
electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In gen­
eral, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may a lso supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, motors
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a record of
operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May also
supervise these operations. Head or c h ie f engineers in establishm ents
employing more than one engineer are excluded .




HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
A ssists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing sp e cific or genera/ duties of lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is nermitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts o f a trade
that are a lso performed by workers on a full-time basis.

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools, gauges,
jigs, fixtures, or d ies. Work involves most o f the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making necessary adjustments during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating oils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classification .

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves m ost o f the following: Interpreting written instructions and
specification s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
chinist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and

24

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued

MILLWRIGHT— Continued

operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to close tolerances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assembling parts into me­
chanical equipment. In general, the machinist’s work normally requires
a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

are required. Work involves m ost o f the fo llo w in g : Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment, and parts
to be used; installing and maintaining in good order power transmission
equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the mill­
wright’s work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)

Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an es­
tablishment. Work involves most o f the fo llo w in g : Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assemblies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; alining wheels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE

Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves m ost o f the fo llo w in g : Examining machines and mechan­
ical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly dis­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replace­
ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop
for major repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling ma­
chines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In general,
the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classification are workers
whose primary d u tie s involve setting up or adjusting machines.
MILLWRIGHT

Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout



OILE R

Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.
PA IN TE R , MAINTENANCE

Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work in v o lv e s the fo llo w in g : Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, oils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper
color or consistency. In general, the work of the maintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
P IP E F IT T E R , MAINTENANCE

Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves m ost o f the fo llo w in g :
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to correct
lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to pressures,
flow, and size of pipe required; making standard tests to determine
whether finished pipes meet specifications. In general, the work of the
maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers prim arily engaged in in sta llin g and repairing building
san itatio n or heating system s are e xclu d e d .

25

TO O L AND DIE MAKER

PLUM BER, MAINTENANCE

Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’s snake. In
general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.
SHEET-M ETAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE

Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishment. Work involves m ost o f the fo llo w in g : Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, models,
or other specifications; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; installing sheetmetal articles as required. In general, the work of the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. W
ork
involves most o f the fo llo w in g : Planning and laying out of work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifications;
using a variety of tool and die maker’s handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding of the working properties of common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to close tolerances; fitting and assembling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allowances; selecting appropriate
materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die maker’s
work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

CU STO D IA L AND M A TERIA L MOVEMENT
E L E V A T O R O P E R A T O R , PASSENGER

JAN ITOR, P O R T E R , OR C LE A N E R — Continued

Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

or other establishment. Duties involve a com bination o f the fo llo w in g :
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte*
nance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Workers
who specialize in window washing are excluded.

GUARD

Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. In clu d e s gatemen who are sta tio n ed at gate and ch eck on id e n tity o f em ployees and
other persons entering.
JANITOR, P O R T E R , OR C LE A N E R

(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial




L A B O R E R, M ATERIAL HANDLING

(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more o f the fo llo w ­
in g: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or

26

LA B O R E R , M ATERIAL HANDLING— Continued

from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; trans­
porting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.
Longshorem en , who load and unload s h ip s are e xclu d e d .
ORDER F IL L E R

(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, customers*
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders^ requisi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING C L E R K — Continued

For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:
Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
TRU CK D RIVER

Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of estab­
lishments such as: .Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers* houses or places of business. May also load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers
are excluded.

PA C K E R , SHIPPING

Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may in vo lve one or more o f
the fo llo w in g : Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify
content; selection of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; applying labels or
entering identifying data on container. P a c k e rs who a lso make wooden
boxes or cra tes are e xclu d e d .
SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK

Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­
sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Shipping
work in v o lv e s : A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes,
available means of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or assist in
preparing the merchandise for shipment. R e c e iv in g work in v o lv e s : Veri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipments against
bills of lading, invoices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing merchandise or materials to proper de­
partments; maintaining necessary records and files.




For wage study purposes, truekdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipment, as follows: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis of trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver (combination o f sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under 1% ton s)

T ru ck d riv e r, medium (IV 2 to and in clu d in g 4 to n s)
T ru ck d riv e r, heavy (o v e r 4 to n s, tra ile r typ e )
T ru ck d riv e r, heavy (o v e r 4 to n s, other than tra ile r typ e)
TRU CK ER, POWER

Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of
truck, as follows:
T ru ck e r, pow er (fo rk lift)
T ru ck e r, pow er (other than fo rk lift)
WATCHMAN

Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.
•fr U.s. GOVERNM
ENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1961

O— 586877







Occupational W
age Surveys
O c c u p a tio n a l w age su r v e y s w ill be co n d u cted in the 82 m ajor lab or m arkets lis t e d below during la te I 960 and e a r ly 1961. B u lle t in s , when a v a ila b le , may be
p u rch a se d from the Su perin tend en t of D o cu m e n ts, U .S . G overnm ent P rin tin g O ff ic e , W ashington 25» D . C . , or from an y of the B L S re g io n a l s a l e s o f f ic e s show n on the
in s id e front c o v e r.
A sum m ary b u lle tin co n ta in in g data for

A k ro n , O h io — B u l l . 1285
A lb a n y - S c h e n e c t a d y - T r o y , N . Y . — B u ll. 1285A lb u q u erq u e, N . M e x .— B u l l . 1285
A lle n to w n —B e th le h e m —E a s t o n ,
P a . - N . J . — B u ll. 1285A t la n ta , G a .— B u ll. 1285B a ltim o re , M d.— B u ll. 1285-34
B e a u m o n t-P o rt A rthu r, T e x . — B u ll. 1285Birm in gham , A l a .— B u l l . 1285B o is e , Id ah o — B u l l . 1285
B o sto n , M a s s .— B u l l . 1285-15
B u ffa lo , N . Y . — B u ll. 1285-31
B u rlin g to n , V t . — B u l l . 1285C a n to n , O h io — B u l l . 1285-29
C h a r le s to n , W. V a .— B u l l . 1285
C h a r lo tte , N . C . — B u l l . 1285
* * C h a ttan o o g a , T e n n .—G a .— B u ll.
C h ic a g o , 1 1 — B u l l . 1285
1.
“
**

1285-14

C in c in n a t i, O h io —K y . — B u l l . 1285
* * C le v e la n d , O h io — B u l l . 1285-11
C o lu m b u s, O h io — B u l l . 1285-38
* * D a l l a s , T e x .— B u l l . 1285-21
* * D a ve n p o rt—R o c k Is la n d —M o lin e, Io w a —1 1 —
1.
B u ll. 1285-16
D a y to n , O h io — B u l l . 1285*41
D e n v e r, C o lo .— B u ll. 1285*27
D e s M o in e s, Io w a — B u ll. 1285D e tro it, M ic h .— B u l l . 1285-37
* * F o rt Worth, T e x . — B u l l . 1285-23

80 lab or

m arke ts, com bined w ith a d d itio n a l a n a ly s i s , w i l l be is s u e d e a r ly in

* G r e e n B a y , W is .— B u ll. 1285-2
G r e e n v ille , S . C . — B u ll. 1285
H ou sto n , T e x . — B u ll. 1285In d ia n a p o lis , In d .— B u ll. 1285 28
J a c k s o n , M i s s . — B u ll. 1285J a c k s o n v ille , F l a . — B u l l . 1285-30
* K a n s a s C it y , M o.—K a n s .— B u ll. 1285-18
L a w r e n c e —H a v e r h ill, M a s s .—N .H .— B u ll. 1285
* * L i t t l e R o c k - N o r th L i t t l e R o c k , A r k . — B u il. 1285-6
L o s A n g e le s —L o n g B e a c h , C a l i f . — B u ll. 1285
L o u i s v i l l e , K y . —In d .— B u ll. 1285
L u b b o c k , T e x . — B u ll. 1285* M a n ch e ste r, N .H .— B u ll. 1285-1
M em phis, T e n n .— B u ll. 1285-35
M iam i, F l a . — B u ll. 1285-33
M ilw a u k e e , W is .— B u ll. 1285M in n e a p o lis—S t. P a u l, M in n .— B u ll. 1285-39
M uskegon—M uskegon H e ig h ts, M ic h .— B u ll. 1285N ew ark and J e r s e y C it y , N . J . — B u ll. 1285-40
N ew H a v e n , C o n n .— B u ll. 1285
N ew O rle a n s , L a . — B u ll. 1285
N ew Y o rk , N . Y . — B u ll. 1285
N o rfo lk —P ortsm outh and New port N e w s —
H am pton, V a .— B u ll. 1285* * O klahom a C i t y , O k la .— B u ll. 1285-3
* * O m aha, N e b r.—Io w a — B u ll. 1285-13
P a te rs o n —C lif t o n —P a s s a i c , N . J . — B u ll. 1285* * P h ila d e lp h ia , P a . — B u ll. 1285-24
P h o e n ix , A r i z . — B u ll. 1285-

P ittsb u rg h , P a . — B u l l . 1285
* P o rtla n d , M ain e— B u ll. 1285-19
P o rtla n d , O re g .—W a sh .— B u l l . 1285
P r o v id e n c e —P a w tu c k e t, R . I . —M a s s .— B u l l .
* * R a le ig h , N . C . — B u ll. 1285- 5
R ichm o n d , V a . — B u ll. 1285-26
R o ck fo rd , 1 1 — B u ll. 1285
1.
* * S t . L o u i s , M o . - I l l . — B u ll. 1285-10
S a lt L a k e C it y , U ta h — B u ll. 1285-32
San A n to n io , T e x .— B u ll. 1285* San B e rn a rd in o —R iv e r s id e —O n tario ,
C a l i f . — B u ll. 1285-4
San F r a n c i s c o —O a k la n d , C a l i f . — B u l l .
S a v a n n ah , G a .— B u ll. 1285
* * S cran to n , P a . — B u ll. 1285-8
* * S e a t tle , W ash .— B u ll. 1285-7
* * * S io u x F a l l s , S . D a k .— B u l l . 1285-17
South B e n d , In d .— B u ll. 1285
“

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P r ic e ,
P r ic e ,
P r ic e ,

20 c e n t s .
25 c e n t s .
15 c e n t s .

1285-

1285*36

S p o k an e , W ash .— B u l l . 1285T o le d o , O h io — B u ll. 1285T re n to n , N . J . — B u ll. 1285-25
W ashington, D . C . —M d.—V a . — B u ll. 1285-22
W aterbury, C o n n .— B u ll. 1285W aterloo, Io w a— B u l l . 1285-20
W ich ita, K a n s .— B u ll. 1285-9
W ilm ington, D e l .—N . J . — B u ll. 1285 12
W o rcester, M a s s .— B u ll. 1285Y o rk , P a . — B u ll. 1285
-

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**

1962.





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