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Occupational Wage Survey
BUFFALO, NEW YORK
DECEM BER 1960

Bulletin N o . 1285-31




U N IT ED S T A T E S D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
Arthur J . Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan C lag u o, Commissioner




Occupational Wage Survey




B U F F A LO , N EW Y O R K

DECEMBER 1960

Bulletin No. 1285-31
February 1961

U N IT ED S T A T E S D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
Arthur J . Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OF IABOR STATISTICS
Ewan C lag u e, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.

Price 25 cents




Preface

Contents
Page

T h e C o m m u n ity W age S u r v e y P r o g r a m
T h e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s r e g u l a r l y co n d u cts
a r e a w id e w a g e s u r v e y s in a n u m b e r o f im p o r ta n t in d u s t r ia l
c e n t e r s . T h e s tu d ie s , m a d e f r o m la te f a l l to e a r l y s p r in g ,
r e la t e to o c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s and r e la t e d s u p p le m e n ta r y
b e n e fit s . A p r e lim in a r y r e p o r t i s a v a ila b le on c o m p le tio n
o f the stu d y in e a c h a r e a , u s u a lly in the m o n th fo llo w in g
the p a y r o ll p e r io d s tu d ie d . T h is b u lle tin p r o v id e s a d d itio n a l
d a ta not in c lu d e d in the e a r l i e r r e p o r t .
A c o n s o lid a te d
a n a ly t ic a l b u lle tin s u m m a r iz in g the r e s u l t s o f a l l o f the
y e a r * s s u r v e y s i s is s u e d a f t e r c o m p le tio n o f the fin a l a r e a
b u lle tin fo r the c u r r e n t ro u n d o f s u r v e y s .

In tro d u c tio n —___________________________________________________
W age t r e n d s fo r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n a l g r o u p s _____________________

1
4

T a b le s :
1.
2.

E s t a b lis h m e n t s and w o r k e r s w ith in sc o p e of s u r v e y ----------------In d e x e s o f s ta n d a rd w e e k ly s a l a r i e s and s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly
e a r n in g s fo r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n a l g r o u p s , and p e r c e n t s o f
in c r e a s e fo r s e le c t e d p e r io d s _____________________________

A:

O c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s : *
A - 1. O ffic e o c c u p a t i o n s __________________________________
A - 2. P r o f e s s i o n a l and t e c h n ic a l o c c u p a tio n s _______________
A - 3. M a in te n a n c e and p o w e rp la n t o c c u p a tio n s ______________
A - 4 . C u s t o d ia l and m a t e r ia l m o v e m e n t o c c u p a t i o n s _________

1

B:

E s t a b lis h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and s u p p le m e n ta r y w a g e p r o v is io n s :*
B - l . S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l s ____________________________ —--------B - 2 . M in im u m e n tr a n c e s a l a r i e s fo r w o m e n o f fic e w o r k e r s —
B -3 .
S ch e d u le d w e e k ly h o u r s ______________________________
B -4 .
P a id h o lid a y s ------------------------------------------------------B -5 .
P a id v a c a t i o n s _____________________________________
B - 6 . H e a lth , in s u r a n c e , and p e n s io n p la n s _________________

13
14
15
16
17
19

O c c u p a tio n a l d e s c r ip t io n s _____________________________

* N O T E : S im ila r ta b u la tio n s a r e a v a ila b le in th e B u ffa lo
a r e a r e p o r t s fo r J a n u a ry 1950, J a n u a ry 19 5 2, A p r i l 19 5 3,
S e p te m b e r 19 5 4, S e p te m b e r 19 5 6, S e p te m b e r 19 5 7 , S e p ­
t e m b e r 1958, and O c to b e r 19 5 9 . T h e O c to b e r 1959 r e p o r t
w a s lim it e d to o c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g ^ , and th e S e p te m b e r
1957 r e p o r t to o c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s o f p la n t w o r k e r s in
m a n u fa c tu r in g and p u b lic u t i l i t i e s . A d i r e c t o r y in d ic a tin g
d a te o f stu d y and the p r ic e o f the r e p o r t s , a s w e l l a s r e ­
p o r t s fo r o th e r m a jo r a r e a s , is a v a ila b le upon r e q u e s t .
C u r r e n t r e p o r t s on o c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s and s u p ­
p le m e n t a r y w a g e p r a c t i c e s in the B u ffa lo a r e a a r e a ls o
a v a ila b le fo r m a c h in e r y in d u s t r ie s (J a n u a ry I960), flu id
m ilk (M ay I960), h o te ls (M a r c h I960), p o w e r la u n d r ie s and
d r y c le a n e r s (June I960), and h o s p it a ls (June I960). U n ion
s c a l e s , in d ic a t iv e o f p r e v a ilin g p ay l e v e l s , a r e a v a ila b le
fo r the fo llo w in g t r a d e s o r in d u s t r ie s : B u ild in g c o n s t r u c ­
tio n , p r in tin g , l o c a l - t r a n s i t o p e r a tin g e m p lo y e e s , and m o ­
t o r t r u c k d r i v e r s and h e lp e r s .

iii

h




A p p e n d ix :

3
in oo

T h is r e p o r t w a s p r e p a r e d in the B u r e a u * s r e g io n a l
o f fic e in N ew Y o r k , N . Y . , b y E l l io t t A . B r o w a r , u n d e r the
d ir e c t io n o f F r e d e r i c k W. M u e lle r , A s s i s t a n t R e g io n a l D i­
r e c t o r f o r W a g e s and I n d u s t r ia l R e la t io n s .

3

21




Occupational W age Survey—Buffalo (Erie and Niagara Counties) , N.Y.

Introduction

T h is a r e a is one o f s e v e r a l im p orta n t in d u str ia l c e n te r s in
w h ich the U. S. D ep a rtm en t o f L ab or*s B u reau o f L a b o r S ta tistic s has
co n d u cted s u r v e y s o f o c cu p a tio n a l ea rn in g s and r e la te d w age b en efits
on an a re a w id e b a s is . In this a r e a , data w e re obtain ed by p e r s o n a l
v is it s o f B u reau fie ld e c o n o m is t s to r e p r e s e n ta tiv e e sta b lis h m e n ts
w ithin s ix b r o a d in d u stry d iv is io n s :
M an u fa ctu rin g; t r a n s p o r t a t io n ,1
co m m u n ica tio n , and o th e r p u b lic u tilitie s ; w h o le s a le tr a d e ; r e ta il
tr a d e ; fin a n ce , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te ; and s e r v i c e s . M a jo r in ­
d u stry g rou p s e x clu d e d fr o m th e se stu d ies a r e g o v e rn m e n t o p e r a tio n s
and the c o n s tr u c tio n and e x tr a c tiv e in d u s tr ie s . E s ta b lis h m e n ts having
fe w e r than a p r e s c r i b e d n u m b er o f w o r k e r s a r e o m itte d a ls o b e c a u s e
th ey fu rn ish in s u ffic ie n t e m p lo y m e n t in the o c cu p a tio n s stu d ied to w a r ­
ran t in clu s io n . W h e re v e r p o s s ib le , s e p a r a te ta bu la tion s a r e p r o v id e d
f o r e a ch o f the b r o a d in d u stry d iv is io n s .
T h e se s u r v e y s a r e con d u cted on a sa m p le b a s is b e c a u s e o f the
u n n e c e s s a r y c o s t in v o lv e d in su r v e y in g a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts . To obtain
a p p ro p r ia te a c c u r a c y at m in im u m c o s t , a g r e a te r p r o p o r t io n o f la r g e
than o f s m a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts is stu d ied . In com b in in g the data, h o w ­
e v e r , a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts a r e g iv en th e ir a p p ro p r ia te w eigh t. E s tim a te s
b a s e d on the e s ta b lis h m e n ts stu d ied a r e p r e s e n te d , t h e r e fo r e , as r e ­
la tin g to a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts in the in d u stry g rou p in g and a r e a , e x ­
ce p t f o r th o se b e lo w the m in im u m s iz e stu d ied.
O ccu p a tion s and E a rn in gs
The o c cu p a tio n s s e le c t e d f o r study a r e c o m m o n to a v a r ie ty
o f m a n u fa ctu rin g and n on m an u fa ctu rin g in d u s tr ie s . O ccu p a tion a l c l a s ­
s ific a tio n is b a s e d on a u n ifo r m s e t o f jo b d e s c r ip tio n s d e s ig n e d to
take a cco u n t o f in te r e s ta b lis h m e n t v a r ia tio n in d u ties w ithin the sa m e
jo b . (See ap pendix f o r lis tin g o f th e se d e s c r i p t i o n s .) E a rn in g s data a r e
p r e s e n te d (in the A - s e r i e s ta b le s ) f o r the fo llo w in g ty p es o f o c c u p a ­
tio n s : (a) O ffic e c l e r i c a l ; (b) p r o fe s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l; (c) m a in te ­
n an ce and p ow erp la n t; and (d) cu s to d ia l and m a te r ia l m o v e m e n t.

la te s h ifts.
N on p rod u ction b on u ses a r e e x clu d e d a ls o , but c o s t - o f liv in g b on u ses and in cen tiv e ea rn in g s a r e in clu d ed .
W h ere w eek ly
h ou rs a r e r e p o r te d , as fo r o ffic e c le r i c a l o c cu p a tio n s , r e fe r e n c e is
to the w o rk sc h e d u le s (rou n ded to the n e a r e s t h a lf hour) f o r w hich
s tr a ig h t -tim e s a la r ie s a r e pa id ; a v e ra g e w eek ly ea rn in g s f o r th ese
o c cu p a tio n s have b een roun ded to the n e a r e s t h a lf d o lla r .
A v e r a g e e a rn in g s o f m en and w om en a re p r e s e n te d s e p a r a te ly
f o r s e le c t e d o ccu p a tio n s in w hich both s e x e s a r e c o m m o n ly e m p loy ed .
D iffe r e n c e s in p a y le v e ls o f m en and w om en in th ese o ccu p a tio n s a r e
la r g e ly due to (1) d iffe r e n c e s in the d is tr ib u tio n o f the s e x e s am ong
in d u str ie s and e s ta b lis h m e n ts; (2) d iffe r e n c e s in s p e c ific du ties p e r ­
fo r m e d , although the o ccu p a tio n s a r e a p p ro p r ia te ly c la s s ifie d w ithin
the sa m e s u r v e y jo b d e s c r ip tio n ; and (3) d iffe r e n c e s in len gth o f s e r v ­
ic e o r m e r it r e v ie w when in div idu al s a la r ie s a r e ad ju sted on this b a s is .
L o n g e r a v e r a g e s e r v ic e o f m en w ould r e s u lt in h ig h er a v e r a g e pay
when both s e x e s a r e e m p lo y e d w ithin the sa m e rate ran ge.
Job
d e s c r ip tio n s u sed in c la s s ify in g e m p lo y e e s in th ese su r v e y s a re u su ­
a lly m o r e g e n e r a liz e d than th ose u sed in in div id u al e sta b lis h m e n ts to
a llo w fo r m in o r d iffe r e n c e s am ong e sta b lis h m e n ts in s p e c ific du ties
p e r fo r m e d .
O ccu p a tion a l em p loy m en t e s tim a te s r e p r e s e n t the tota l in a ll
e sta b lis h m e n ts w ithin the s c o p e o f the study and not the n u m b er a c tu ­
a lly su r v e y e d . B e c a u s e o f d iffe r e n c e s in o c cu p a tio n a l str u c tu r e am ong
e s ta b lis h m e n ts, the e stim a te s o f o c cu p a tio n a l e m p loy m en t obtain ed
fr o m the sa m p le o f e sta b lis h m e n ts stu d ied s e r v e on ly to in d ica te the
r e la tiv e im p o rta n ce o f the jo b s stu d ied .
T h ese d iffe r e n c e s in o c c u ­
p a tion a l s tru c tu re do not m a te r ia lly a ffe c t the a c c u r a c y o f the e a r n ­
in gs data.
E sta b lish m en t P r a c t ic e s and S u p p lem en tary W age P r o v is io n s

In form a tion is p r e s e n te d a ls o (in the B - s e r i e s ta b le s ) on s e ­
le c te d e sta b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and su p p lem en ta ry b e n e fits as th ey r e ­
la te to o ffic e and plan t w o r k e r s .
The te r m " o f f i c e w o r k e r s , " as u sed
O ccu p a tion a l em p lo y m e n t and ea rn in g s data a r e show n f o r
in this b u lletin , in clu d e s w ork in g s u p e r v is o r s and n o n s u p e r v is o r y
f u ll-t im e w o r k e r s , i. e. , th o se h ir e d to w o rk a r e g u la r w e e k ly s c h e d ­
w o r k e r s p e r fo r m in g c le r i c a l o r r e la te d fu n ction s, and e x clu d e s a d m in ­
u le in the g iv en o c cu p a tio n a l c la s s ific a t io n .
E a rn in gs data e x clu d e
is tr a tiv e , e x e c u tiv e , and p r o fe s s io n a l p e r s o n n e l. "P la n t w o r k e r s " in ­
p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e and f o r w o rk on w eek en d s, h o lid a y s , and
clu d e w ork in g fo r e m e n and a ll n o n s u p e r v is o r y w o r k e r s (in clu d in g le a d ­
m en and tr a in e e s ) en ga ged in n o n o ffic e fu n ctio n s.
A d m in is tra tiv e ,
e
1
R a ilr o a d s , fo r m e r l y ex clu d ed fr o m the s c o p e o f th e se s tu d ie s,x e cu tiv e , and p r o fe s s io n a l e m p lo y e e s , and fo r c e -a c c o u n t c o n s tr u c tio n
e m p lo y e e s who a r e u tiliz e d as a s e p a r a te w o rk f o r c e a r e ex clu d ed .
w e r e in clu d ed in a ll o f the a r e a s stu d ied s in c e Ju ly 1959, e x ce p t
C a fe te r ia w o r k e r s and rou tem en a r e e x clu d e d in m a n u factu rin g in d u s­
B a ltim o r e , B u ffa lo , C lev ela n d , and S ea ttle.
R a ilr o a d s a r e now in ­
t r ie s , but a r e in clu d ed as plant w o r k e r s in n on m an u fa ctu rin g in d u s tr ie s .
clu d ed in the s c o p e o f a ll la b o r -m a r k e t w age s u r v e y s .




2
Shift d iffe r e n t ia l data (table B - l ) a r e lim ite d to m a n u factu rin g
in d u s tr ie s .
This in fo rm a tio n is p r e s e n te d both in te r m s o f (a) e s t a b ­
lish m en t p o l i c y , 2 p r e s e n te d in te r m s o f total plant w o r k e r e m p lo y ­
m en t, and (b) e ffe c t iv e p r a c t ic e , p r e s e n te d on the b a s is o f w o rk e r s
a ctu a lly e m p lo y e d on the s p e c ifie d sh ift at the tim e o f the su r v e y .
In e sta b lis h m e n ts having v a r ie d d iffe r e n t ia ls , the am ount ap plyin g to
a m a jo r ity w as u se d o r , if no am ount ap p lied to a m a jo r ity , the c l a s ­
s ific a tio n " o t h e r " w as u sed .
In esta b lis h m e n ts in w h ich s o m e la t e sh ift h ou rs a r e p a id at n o rm a l r a te s , a d iffe r e n t ia l w as r e c o r d e d on ly
i f it a p p lied to a m a jo r it y o f the sh ift h o u r s.

M in im u m en tra n ce ra tes (table B -2 ) re la te on ly to the e s t a b ­
lish m en ts v is it e d .
T h ey a r e p r e s e n te d on an e sta b lis h m e n t, ra th er
than on an em p lo y m e n t b a s is .
P a id h o lid a y s ; pa id v a c a tio n s ; and
health, in s u r a n ce , and p e n sio n plans a r e tr e a te d s t a t is t ic a lly on the
b a s is that th ese a r e a p p lic a b le to a ll plant o r o ffic e w o r k e r s if a m a ­
jo r it y o f su ch w o r k e r s a r e e lig ib le o r m a y ev en tu a lly q u a lify f o r the
p r a c t ic e s lis te d . S ch edu led h ou rs a re tr e a te d s t a t is t ic a lly on the b a s is
that th ese a r e a p p lic a b le to a ll plant o r o ffic e w o r k e r s if a m a jo r ity
a r e c o v e r e d . 3 B e c a u s e o f rounding, su m s o f in div id u al ite m s in th ese
tabu lation s m a y not equ al to ta ls .
The f ir s t p a rt o f the pa id h olid a y s ta ble p r e s e n ts the n u m ­
b e r o f w hole and h a lf h olid a y s a ctu a lly p r o v id e d .
The s e c o n d p a rt
co m b in e s w hole and h a lf h olid a y s to sh ow total h olid a y t im e .

D ata a r e p r e s e n te d f o r a ll h ealth, in s u r a n ce , and p e n sio n
plans f o r w hich at le a s t a p a r t o f the c o s t is b o r n e b y the e m p lo y e r ,
e x ce p tin g on ly le g a l r e q u ire m e n ts su ch as w o r k m e n 's co m p e n sa tio n ,
s o c ia l s e c u r it y , and r a ilr o a d r e tir e m e n t.
Such p la n s in clu d e th ose
u n d erw ritten by a c o m m e r c i a l in su r a n ce com p a n y and th ose p r o v id e d
th rough a union fund o r p a id d ir e c t ly b y the e m p lo y e r out o f c u r re n t
o p e ra tin g funds o r fr o m a fund se t a s id e f o r this p u r p o s e .
D eath
b en e fits a r e in clu d ed as a fo r m o f life in s u r a n ce .
S ick n e ss and a c c id e n t in su ra n ce is lim ite d to that type o f in ­
s u r a n ce u n der w h ich p r e d e te r m in e d c a sh p a ym en ts a r e m a de d ir e c t ly
to the in su r e d on a w eek ly o r m on th ly b a s is d u rin g illn e s s o r a c c id e n t
d is a b ility .
In fo rm a tio n is p r e s e n te d f o r a ll su ch pla^ s to w h ich the
e m p lo y e r c o n trib u te s .
H o w e v e r, in N ew Y o rk and N ew J e r s e y , w h ich
have en a cted te m p o r a r y d is a b ilit y in s u r a n ce la w s w hich r e q u ir e e m ­
p lo y e r c o n t r ib u t io n s ,4 plans a r e in clu d ed on ly if the e m p lo y e r (1) c o n ­
trib u te s m o r e than is le g a lly r e q u ir e d , o r (2) p r o v id e s the e m p lo y e e
w ith b en e fits w h ich e x c e e d the r e q u ire m e n ts o f the law . T ab u lation s
o f p a id s i c k -le a v e plan s a r e lim ite d to fo r m a l p la n s 5 w h ich p r o v id e
fu ll pay o r a p r o p o r t io n o f the w o r k e r 's p a y d u rin g a b s e n ce fr o m w ork
b e c a u s e o f illn e s s .
S ep a ra te ta bu la tion s a r e p r o v id e d a c c o r d in g to
(1) .plans w h ich p r o v id e fu ll p a y and no w aitin g p e r io d , and (2) plans
p r o v id in g e ith e r p a r tia l pay o r a w aitin g p e r io d .
In a d dition to the
p r e s e n ta tio n o f the p r o p o r t io n s o f w o r k e r s who a r e p r o v id e d s ic k n e s s
and a c c id e n t in su r a n ce o r p a id s ic k le a v e , an u n du plica ted total is
show n o f w o r k e r s who r e c e iv e e ith e r o r both ty p es o f b e n e fits .

The s u m m a r y o f v a ca tion plans is lim ite d to fo r m a l a r r a n g e ­
m e n ts , ex clu d in g in fo r m a l plans w h e re b y tim e o ff w ith p a y is granted
at the d is c r e t io n o f the e m p lo y e r .
S ep a ra te e s tim a te s a r e p r o v id e d
a c c o r d in g to e m p lo y e r p r a c t ic e in com pu tin g v a ca tio n p a y m e n ts , su ch
as tim e p a y m e n ts, p e r c e n t o f annual e a rn in g s, o r fla t -s u m a m ou n ts.
H ow e v e r, in the tabu lation s o f v a ca tio n a llo w a n c e s , p a ym en ts not on
a tim e b a s is w e r e c o n v e r te d ; fo r e x a m p le , a pa ym en t o f 2 p e r c e n t o f
annual ea rn in g s w as c o n s id e r e d as the equ iv alen t o f 1 w e e k ls pay.

C a ta strop h e in s u r a n ce , s o m e tim e s r e fe r r e d to as ex ten ded
m e d ic a l in s u r a n ce , in clu d e s th o se plans w h ich a r e d e s ig n e d to p r o t e c t
e m p lo y e e s in c a s e o f s ic k n e s s and in ju ry in v olv in g e x p e n s e s bey on d
the n o r m a l c o v e r a g e o f h o s p ita liz a tio n , m e d ic a l, and s u r g ic a l p la n s .
M e d ic a l in su r a n ce r e fe r s to pla n s p r o v id in g f o r c o m p le te o r p a r t ia l
p a ym en t o f d o c t o r s ' fe e s . Such plans m a y be u n d erw ritten b y c o m m e r ­
c ia l in su r a n ce c o m p a n ie s o r n o n p r o fit o r g a n iz a tio n s o r th ey m a y be
s e lf-in s u r e d . T ab u lation s o f r e tir e m e n t p e n s io n p la n s a r e lim ite d to
th ose p la n s that p r o v id e m on th ly p a ym en ts f o r the r e m a in d e r o f the
w o r k e r 's life .

2 An e sta b lis h m e n t w as c o n s id e r e d as having a p o lic y if it m et
e ith e r o f the fo llo w in g co n d itio n s: (1) O p era ted la te sh ifts at the tim e
o f the s u r v e y , o r (2) had fo r m a l p r o v is io n s c o v e r in g la te sh ifts.
3 S ch edu led w eek ly h ou rs f o r o ffic e w o r k e r s (fir s t s e c tio n o f
ta b le B -3 ) in su r v e y s m a de p r io r to Ju ly 1957 w e re p r e s e n te d in
te r m s o f the p r o p o r t io n o f w om en o ffic e w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in o ffic e s
w ith the in d ica te d w eek ly h ou rs f o r w om en w o r k e r s .

4 The te m p o r a r y d is a b ilit y la w s in C a lifo r n ia and R h ode Islan d
do not r e q u ir e e m p lo y e r c o n trib u tio n s .
5 A n e sta b lis h m e n t w as c o n s id e r e d as h aving a fo r m a l p la n if
it e s ta b lis h e d at le a s t the m in im u m n u m b er o f days o f s ic k le a v e that
co u ld be e x p e cte d by e a c h e m p lo y e e . Such a p la n n e e d n ot b e w ritten ,
but in fo r m a l s i c k - le a v e a llo w a n c e s , d e te rm in e d on an in d iv id u a l b a s is ,
w e re e x clu d e d .




3

T a b le 1.

E sta b lish m e n ts and w o r k e r s w ithin sc o p e of su rv e y and n um ber studied in B uffalo (E r ie and N ia g a r a C o u n tie s), N . Y . >

Minimum
employment
in establish­
ments in scope
of study

Industry division

A ll divisions

_______

_____________ ___

______

______

_

Manufacturing _____________ _____________________ _______
Nonmanufacturing ----------- --------------- -------------------------- __
Transportation, communication, and other
public utilities 5
-------------- ------ ------------------------------Wholesale trade ________________________________________
Retail trade __ * __
_ — __ __________ ___________
Finance, insurance, and real estate --------------------------Services 7 --------------------------------------------------------------------------

Number of establishments

by m a jo r in d u stry d iv is io n , 2 D e c e m b e r I9 6 0

W orkers in establishments
Studied

Within scope of study

Within
scope of
study 3

Studied
T o ta l4

Office

Plant

T o ta l4

50

695

197

227,700

31 ,7 0 0

159.300

156,110

. 50
50

377
318

108
89

157,100
70 ,6 0 0

17,800
13,900

116,100
4 3 , 200

114,880
4 1 ,2 3 0

50
50
50
50
50

62
68
104
36
48

26
15
23
11
14

2 1,600
6 ,4 0 0
27,700
8, 200
6 ,7 0 0

3 ,2 0 0

13,100

17,060
2, 120
14,880
3,7 9 0
3 ,3 8 0

( !)
(!)

(!)

(6)

(!)
(!)

(6)
(6)

1 The B u ffalo Standard M e tr o p o lita n S ta tis tic a l A r e a (E r ie and N ia g a ra C o u n tie s).
Th e "w o r k e r s within sc o p e of stu d y " e s tim a te s shown in this table p rovid e a r e a so n a b ly a c cu ra te d e sc r ip tio n
of the s iz e and c o m p o sitio n of the la b o r f o r c e in clu d ed in the s u r v e y .
The e s tim a te s a re not in tend ed , h o w e v e r , to s e r v e as a b a s is o f c o m p a r iso n w ith other a r e a em p lo y m en t in dexes to m e a s u r e
em p loym en t tre n d s o r le v e ls sin ce (1) planning o f w age su rv e y s r e q u ir e s the u se of e sta b lish m e n t data co m p iled c o n sid e r a b ly in advance of the p a y r o ll p e r io d stu d ied , and (2) s m a ll e sta b lish m e n ts
a r e exclu d ed fr o m the scop e of the su r v e y .
2 The 1957 r e v is e d ed ition of the Standard In d u stria l C la s s ific a tio n M an ual w as u sed in c la s s ify in g e s ta b lish m e n ts by in d u stry d iv isio n .
M a jo r chan ges fr o m the e a r lie r ed ition (u sed in
the B u r e a u 's la b o r m a r k e t w age su r v e y s conducted p r io r to July 1958) a re the t r a n s fe r of m ilk p a ste u r iz a tio n plants and r e a d y -m ix e d co n c rete e sta b lish m e n ts fr o m tra d e (w h o le sa le or r e ta il) to
m a n u fa c tu rin g , and the t r a n s fe r of rad io and te le v is io n b r o a d ca stin g fr o m s e r v ic e s to the tr a n sp o r ta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and other public u tilitie s d iv isio n .
3 In cludes a ll e sta b lish m e n ts with to ta l em p lo y m en t at o r above the m in im u m -s iz e lim ita tio n .
A l l ou tlets (w ithin the a rea ) of com p a n ie s in such in d u str ie s as t r a d e , fin a n c e , auto r ep a ir
s e r v i c e , and m o t io n -p ic t u r e th e a te rs a re c o n sid e r e d as 1 e sta b lish m e n t.
4 In cludes e x e c u tiv e , p r o fe s s io n a l and other w o r k e r s ex clu d ed fr o m the sep a r a te o ffic e and plant c a te g o r ie s .
5 R a ilr o a d s w e r e in clu d ed ; ta x ica b s and s e r v ic e s in cid en tal to w a ter tra n sp o rta tio n w ere ex clu d ed .
6 T h is in d u stry d iv isio n is r e p r e se n te d in e s t im a t e s fo r " a l l in d u s tr ie s " and "n o n m a n u fa c tu r in g " in the s e r ie s A and B t a b le s .
S ep arate p r e se n ta tio n o f data fo r this d iv isio n is not m ad e
fo r one or m o r e o f the fo llo w in g r e a s o n s : (1) E m p lo y m e n t in the d iv isio n is too s m a ll to p rovid e enough data to m e r it sep a r a te stu d y, (2) the s a m p le w as not d esig n ed in itia lly to p e r m it sep a ra te
p r e se n ta tio n , (3) r e sp o n se w as in su fficie n t or inadequate to p e r m it sep a ra te p r e se n ta tio n , (4) th e re is p o s s ib ility of d is c lo s u r e of in dividu al e sta b lish m e n t d ata.
7 H o t e ls ; p e r s o n a l s e r v ic e s ; b u sin e ss s e r v ic e s ; a u tom ob ile r e p a ir sh op s; m o tio n p ic t u r e s ; nonp rofit m e m b e r s h ip o r g a n iz a tio n s; and en g in eerin g and a r c h ite c tu r a l s e r v i c e s .

T a b le 2.

In dexes o f stand ard w ee k ly s a la r ie s and s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u rly ea rn in g s fo r s e le c te d o ccu p ation al groups in B u ffalo (E r ie and N ia g a ra C o u n tie s), N. Y . ,
D e c e m b e r I 9 6 0 and O c to b e r 1 9 5 9 , and p e r c e n ts of in c r e a s e fo r se le c te d p er io d s
Indexes
( A p r il 1953 = 100)

In d ustry and o ccu p ation al group

P e r c e n t in c r e a s e s fr o m

D ecem b er
I9 6 0

O c to b e r
1959

O c to b e r 1959
to
D e c e m b e r I9 6 0

A ll in d u str ie s:
O ffic e c le r ic a l (w om en) --------- --------------------------------In d u stria l n u r se s (w om en) ____ ________ ___________________
S k illed m ain ten an ce (m en) ____________________________________
U n sk ille d plant (m en) ______ _________________ _ ------------------

136.
143.
14 2.
14 3.

132. 3
1 3 6 .4
13 6. 2
136. 8

3.
5.
4.
4.

2
2
3
5

M an u factu rin g:
O ffic e c le r ic a l (w om en)
— --------------------__ ___
In d u stria l n u r se s (w om en) ____________________________________
S k illed m ain ten an ce (m en)
__
„ > __ ------U n sk ille d plant (m en) __ _ ___
__
___

139. 3
14 4. 7
141. 8
1 4 4 .4

13 5.
136.
13 6.
13 8.

3.
5.
4.
4.

0
7
3
1




5
5
1
0

3
9
0
7

A p r il 1953
to
S ep te m b er 1954

S ep te m b er 1956
to
S ep te m b er 1958

S ep te m b er 1954
to
S ep te m b er 1956

2. 8
3. 8
3 .8
3 .4

11. 6
12. 2
9 .8
12. 0

9 .4
8. 6
12. 0
9. 9

5.
7.
6.
7.

3
9
7
6

2.
3.
3.
4.

1 3 .4
12. 0
9 .6
11. 6

9 .8
9. 2
1 1 .9
1 0 .4

6.
7.
6.
7.

3
8
7
8

S ep te m b er 1958
to
O c to b e r 1959

2
8
8
5

Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups
P r e s e n te d in ta b le 2 a r e in d e x e s o f s a la r ie s o f o ffic e c l e r i c a l
w o r k e r s and in d u s tr ia l n u r s e s , and o f a v e r a g e ea rn in g s o f s e le c t e d
p la n t w o r k e r g r o u p s .
In a r e a s w h ich w e r e n ot s u r v e y e d d u rin g the
f i s c a l 1953 b a s e y e a r (J u ly 1952 to June 1953) th is ta b le is lim ite d
to p e r c e n t s o f ch a n ge b e tw e e n s e le c t e d p e r io d s .

F o r o f f ic e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s and in d u s tr ia l n u r s e s , the in d e x e s
r e la t e to a v e r a g e w e e k ly s a la r ie s f o r n o r m a l h o u r s o f w o rk , that is ,
the stan d ard w o r k s ch e d u le f o r w h ich s t r a ig h t -t im e s a la r ie s a r e pa id .
F o r p la n t w o r k e r g ro u p s , th ey m e a s u r e ch a n g e s in s t r a ig h t -tim e h o u r ly
e a r n in g s , ex clu d in g p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e and f o r w o r k on w e e k ­
en d s, h o lid a y s , and la te sh ifts.
The in d e x e s a r e baBed on data fo r
s e le c t e d k e y o c cu p a tio n s and in clu d e m o s t o f the n u m e r ic a lly im p o rta n t
jo b s w ith in e a c h g ro u p . The o ffic e c l e r i c a l data a r e b a s e d on w o m e n in
the fo llo w in g 18 jo b s : B i lle r s , m a ch in e (b illin g m a c h in e ); b o o k k e e p in g m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s , c la s s A and B ; C o m p to m e te r o p e r a t o r s ; c le r k s , f ile ,
c la s s A and B ; c le r k s , o r d e r ; c le r k s , p a y r o ll; k eyp u n ch o p e r a t o r s ;
o f f ic e g ir l s ; s e c r e t a r ie s ; s t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l; s w itch b o a rd o p e r a ­
t o r s ; s w itch b o a rd o p e r a t o r -r e c e p t io n is t s ; tabu latin g -m a c h in e o p e r a ­
t o r s ; tr a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , g e n e r a l; and ty p is ts , c la s s A
and B .
The in d u s tr ia l n u r s e data a r e b a s e d on w o m e n in d u s tr ia l
n u r s e s . M en in the fo llo w in g 10 s k ille d m a in ten a n ce jo b s and 3 u n s k ille d
jo b s w e r e in clu d ed in the p la n t w o r k e r da ta: S k ille d — c a r p e n t e r s ;
e le c t r ic ia n s ; m a c h in is ts ; m e c h a n ic s ; m e c h a n ic s , a u to m o tiv e ; m i l l ­
w r ig h ts ; p a in t e r s ; p ip e fit t e r s ; s h e e t -m e t a l w o r k e r s ; and t o o l and d ie
m a k e r s ; u n s k ille d — ja n it o r s , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s ; la b o r e r s , m a ­
t e r ia l h an dlin g; and w a tch m en .
A v e r a g e w e e k ly s a la r ie s o r a v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s w e r e
c o m p u te d f o r e a c h o f the s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s .
The a v e r a g e s a la r ie s
o r h o u r ly e a r n in g s w e r e then m u ltip lie d b y the a v e r a g e o f 1953 and
1954 e m p lo y m e n t in the jo b . T h e s e w e ig h te d e a rn in g s f o r in d iv id u a l
o c c u p a tio n s w e r e then to ta le d to ob ta in an a g g r e g a te f o r e a c h o c c u p a ­
tio n a l g rou p . F in a lly , the r a t io o f th e s e c r o u p a g g r e g a te s f o r a giv^ n
y e a r to the a g g r e g a te f o r the b a s e p e r io d (s u r v e y m on th , w in te r 1952—53)
w a s com p u te d a n d the r e s u lt m u ltip lie d b y the b a s e y e a r in d e x (10 0) to
g e t the in d e x f o r the g iv e n y e a r .




S im ila r p r o c e d u r e s w e r e fo llo w e d in c o m p ilin g “ p e r c e n t s o f
ch a n g e " in a r d a s n ot su r v e y e d du rin g 1953.

A d ju s tm e n ts h av e b e e n m a d e w h e r e n e c e s s a r y to m a in ta in
c o m p a r a b ility s o that the y e a r - t o - y e a r c o m p a r is o n s a r e b a s e d on the
sa m e in d u stry and o c cu p a tio n a l c o v e r a g e .
F o r e x a m p le , r a ilr o a d s
h ave b e e n in clu d ed in the c o v e r a g e o f the su r v e y s on ly s in c e J u ly 1959.
In com p u tin g the in d e x e s fo r the f i r s t y e a r in w h ich r a ilr o a d s w e r e
in clu d ed , data re la tin g to r a ilr o a d s w e r e e x clu d e d . In d exes f o r s u b s e ­
quent y e a r s in clu d e data f o r r a ilr o a d s .

The in d e x e s m e a s u r e , p r in c ip a lly , the e ffe c t s o f (1) g e n e r a l
s a la r y and w a g e ch a n g e s; (2) m e r it o r oth er in c r e a s e s in p a y r e c e iv e d
b y in d iv id u a l w o r k e r s w h ile in the sa m e jo b ; and (3) ch a n g es in the
la b o r f o r c e su ch a s la b o r tu r n o v e r, f o r c e ex p a n sion s, f o r c e r e d u c ­
tio n s , and ch a n g es in the p r o p o r t io n o f w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d b y e s ta b ­
lis h m e n ts w ith d iffe r e n t pay le v e ls .
C h an ges in the la b o r f o r c e can
c a u s e in c r e a s e s o r d e c r e a s e s in the o c cu p a tio n a l a v e r a g e s w ithout
a c tu a l w a g e ch a n g e s. F o r e x a m p le , a f o r c e ex p a n sion m ig h t in c r e a s e
the p r o p o r t io n o f lo w e r p a id w o r k e r s in a s p e c ific o c cu p a tio n and r e ­
su lt in a d r o p in the a v e r a g e , w h e r e a s a r e d u c tio n in the p r o p o r t io n
o f lo w e r p a id w o r k e r s w ou ld h ave the o p p o s ite e ffe c t . The m o v e m e n t
o f a h ig h -p a y in g e s ta b lis h m e n t out o f an a r e a c o u ld c a u se the a v e r a g e
e a r n in g s to d r o p , ev en though n o change in r a te s o c c u r r e d in oth er
a r e a e sta b lis h m e n ts .
The u se o f con sta n t em p lo y m e n t w e ig h ts e lim in a te s the e ffe c t s
o f ch a n g es in the p r o p o r t io n o f w o r k e r s r e p r e s e n t e d in e a ch jo b in ­
clu d e d in the data.
N or a r e the in d e x e s in flu e n ce d b y ch a n g es in
stan dard w o r k s c h e d u le s o r in p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e , s in c e th ey
a r e b a s e d on p a y f o r s t r a ig h t -tim e h o u r s .

In d ex es fo r the p e r io d 1953 to I9 6 0 f o r w o r k e r s in 20 m a jo r
la b o r m a r k e t s w ill a p p e a r in B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 -6 2 , W a ges and R ela ted
B e n e fits , 60 JLabor M a r k e ts, W in ter 1959—
60.




A* Occupational Earnings

Table A-l. Office Occupations
(A verage stra igh t-tim e weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Buffalo (E rie and Niagara Counties), N. Y. , D ecem ber I960)

NO TE:

E stim ates for all in du stries, nonmanufacturing, and public u tilities include data for railroad s (SIC 40), omitted fro m the scope
of all labor m arket wage surveys made before July 1959, and also omitted from the Buffalo survey of October
1959.
Where
significant, the effect of the inclusion of railroad s is greatest on the data shown separately for the public u tilities division.
The
trend of earnings in selected occupational groups in all in du stries, excluding railroad s, appears in table 2.

5

6

Table A-l. Office Occupatbns-Continued
(A verage stra igh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Buffalo (E rie and N iagara Counties), N. Y . , D ecem b er I960)

See footnotes at end of table.




7

Table A-1. Office Occupations-Continued
(A verage stra igh t-tim e w eekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry d ivision, Buffalo (E rie and Niagara C ounties), N. Y . , D ecem ber I960)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME! WEEKLY EARNINGS OF-

Average
S e x , o c c u p a tio n , and in d u s tr y d iv is io n

Number
ot
workers

s
$
Weekly , 4 0 . 00 4 5 . 00
earnings1 and
(Standard) (Standard) u n d er
4 5 . 0 0 5 0 . 00
Weeklyj

5 0 . 00

5 5 . 00 l o . 00

$ 5 . 00
6

5 5 . 00

6 0 r 00

7 0 . 00

6 5 . 00

$
$
1
$
$
$
$
|
$
s
i$
$
$
$
1
13
1
7 0 . 00 7 5 . 00 8 0 . 00 8 5 . 00 9 0 . 00
9 5 .0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 1 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 1 2 5 .0 0 $ 0 .0 o | l3 5 .0 o | $ 4 0 .0 o f & 4 5 .0 0
and
7 5 . 00 8 0 . 00

9 5 . 00 1 0 0 .0 0 105.001 llO .O o ll 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 1 2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 .0 0 1 4 0 .0 0 1 4 5 .0 0

8 5 . OOl 9 0 . 00

W o m en— C on tin ue d

i
i

1
$76.
81.
80.
83.
66.
85.

00
00
00
00
50
50

11
_

S te n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l -----------------------------M a n u fa c tu r in g ___________________ ______
E r i e C o u n ty ________ ___ __________
N ia g a r a C o u n ty ______________ ______
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g _______________________
P u b lic u tilit ie s 2 _____________________

1 ,3 6 9
91 1
665
24 6
458
71

39. 0
39. 5
3 9 .5
39. 5
38. 0
38. 5

S te n o g r a p h e r s , t e c h n ic a l __________________

62

40. 0

8 9 . 50

.
1
i
-

27 3
109
79
30
164
44

39.
39.
39.
40.
39.
39.

0
5
5
0
0
0

72.
84.
87.
76.
64.
82.

50
00
00
50
50
50

S w itc h b o a r d o p e r a t o r -r e c e p t i o n i s t s
___
________ _ __________
M a n u fa c tu r in g
E r i e C o u n ty _
_ _
_
_ ________
N ia g a r a C o u n ty _____ _
_ __________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g _
_ __________________
P u b lic u tilit ie s 2 __ __________________

374
225
187
38
149
27

39.
39.
39.
39.
39.
39.

5
5
5
0
0
5

69.
71.
70.
74.
66.
70.

50
13
50 ^
3- i
50
13
!
50
00
!
50

T a b u la tin g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c la s s B _
_
_ _ _________ _________ —
M a n u fa c tu r in g __
_ _
_ ______________
E r i e C o u n ty — _ — —
---------------

75
56
44

T r a n s c r i b i n g -m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s ,
g e n e r a l ------------ ------------- —
----------------M a n u fa c tu r in g _
_
_ __ --------- — —
E r ie C o u n ty ------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ---------- __ __ _

8 4 . 50
8 7 . 50
8 5 . 00

-

204
104
87
100

39.
39.
40.
39.

5
5
0
0

67.
73.
74.
60.

00
00
50
50

-

T y p i s t s , c l a s s A -------------------------------------------M a n u fa c tu r in g _
_ ___ __________________
E r i e C o u n ty _
_
_ _ __ ______
--------------- —
N ia g a r a C o u n ty __ —
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g _______________________

350
22 0
147
73
130

39.
39.
39.
39.
37.

0
5
5
5
5

7 4 . 00
7 9 . 50
8 1 . 00
7 6 . 50
6 5 .0 0

_
-

T y p is t s , c la s s B _
_ _
_ __ _____ — —
M a n u fa c tu r in g
__ __ __ __ ---------------E r i e C o u n ty
— __ __ __ ---------N ia g a r a C o u n t y _______________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g --------------------P u b lic u tilit ie s 2 ________________ _

1 , 167
550
429
121
617
91

38.
39.
39.
39.
38.
39.

5
5
5
5
0
5

!
!

!

i

59.
64.
64.
65.
55.
69.

50
50
00
50
50
00

32
32

9
4

100
62
53
9
38
4

i 180
1 131
j 108
1 23
49
j
10

3

10

1

-

2

47
8
-

15
10
8
2
5
-

17
4
3
1
13
1

29
4
4
25
2

26
11
6
5
15

81
43
41
2
38
4

69
40
33
7
29
19

59
40
37
3
19

22
2
2
20 1
1

25

12

174
118
94
24
56
1

-

_

S w itc h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s ------------------- __ —
M a n u fa c tu r in g
--------------------------------- -----E r ie C ou n ty ------------------------------------------N ia g a r a C o u n ty ---------- ----------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g __________ __ __ _
_
P u b lic u tilit ie s 2 _____________________

178
68
53
15
no
l

91
37
33
4
54
3

_

4
4
49
-

11

39. 5
39. 5
39. 5

22
8
4
4
14

57
8

7
1
!
1

6
6
1

8
39
4

■

9
19
2 -------5
4
1
2
1
13
7
1
8

i
1

-

-

12

20

3

3

-

38
19
8
11
19
19

29
21
21
8
8

10
6
5
1
4
1

7
6
6
1
1

7
7
6
1
-

1 i
1
1
-

-

-

9
9
2
7
-

23
23
19
4
-

1
1
1
-

"

"

8
6
-------- 5 " -------6
6
6

9
9
8

12
11
1

5
5
5

2
2
2

2
2
1

1
"

-

"

9
9
9
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

!

3

18 i
16
13 !
3 1
2
"
29
22
16
6
7
2

100
100
1

-

-

1
-

"

"

'

13
6
6

7
-

~

~

9
9
9

8
4
4

35
35

29
15
13
14

25
10
8
15

23
11
11
12

23
8
6
15

38
35
29
3

6
4
3
2

17
1
1
16

48
5
5
43

28
14
7
7
14

24
23
12
11
1

32
23
13
10
9

47
46
33
13
1

66
43
20
23
23

28
28
24
4

“

183
59
54
5
124
21

242
11 2
74
38
130
14

175
136
117
19
39

116
62
41
21
54

67
47
36
11
20

88
77
55
22
11

30
22
19
3
8

13
11
10
1
2

3

3

4

4

8

i
12
128
22
22
106
8

;

5 i
2 1
2

j
,
j

8
8
8

12
-

;

198
171
93
78
27
27

-

2

-

27
27
21
6
-

!

3
3

'

3 ;
3
3
- !
- ■

7
7
5
2
-

-

-

-

'

-

-

-

-

1
1
1
-

-

-

-

_

_

"

I
_ i
-

-

-

-

'

-

”

-

_

_

-

-

"

-

"

-

_

1

-

"

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

|
1
'

l
|

-

j

“

_

-

-

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

j

|
1

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

-

-

5
4
4
1

1
1
1
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

_
"

"

22
12
12
10

“

“

"

“

"

15
2
1
1
13
13

10
10
10

_

.

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

20
20 i
15
5

1
________
1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which em ployees receive their regular stra igh t-tim e salarie s and the earnings correspond to these w eekly hours.
2 Transportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities.




6
6
6
-

-

-

-

5

,

i

4
4
4
-

-

26 ;
24 ,
19 !

! 114
96
l 70
1 26
1 18
| 10

-

-

j

44
35
28
7
9
6

127
106
67
39
21
7

over

-

-

-

-

-

8

Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Buffalo (Erie and Niagara Counties), N. Y. , December I960)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF

Average

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

. Weekly
hours 1
(Standard)

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
s
i
%
$
$
s
s
90. 00 9 5 .00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00 150.00 155.00 160.00 165.00 170.00
”
“
”
~
and
“
■
75. 00 80. 00 85 . 00 90. 00 95. 00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 145.00 150.00 155.00 160.00 1165.00:170.00 over

$

$

$

$

Weekly
Under 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 8 5 .0 0
earningsl
(Standard) $
“
“

70. 00

$

$

Men

40. 0 $ 167.50
4 0 .0 ! 169.00
40. 0 ( 170.50

D raftsm en , leader ------- -----------------------Manufacturing _________________________
E rie County ------------------------------------

50
44
37

D raftsm en , senior _______________________
Manufacturing ___________________
E rie County _________ ____________
Niagara County ________ __ _____
Nonmanufacturing ____________________

654
569
489
80
85

39. 5
40 . 0
40 . 0
4 0 .0
38. 0

130.50
132.00
133.50
123.00
120.50

-

D raftsm en , junior ___________________
Manufacturing _____
__ __________
E rie County ________________________
N iagara County ___________________

322
288
260
28

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
39. 5
40. 0

98.00
98.50
98.50
94 .50

6
6
6

178
163
126
37

3 9 .5
39. 5
3 9 .5
39. 5

J

“

"

■
-

-

j
-

-

-

-

"

-

-

1
1
1

2
1
1

6
2
2

_____I_J
1
!

6
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2
2

14
14
8

16
13
13

2 11
11
11

-

-

-

-

-

54
49
37
12
5

48
39
32
7
9

68
37
27
10
31

47
44
30
14
3

74
66
56
10
8

136
119
106
13
17

47
47
40
7
-

38
36
36
_
2

25
23
23
_
2

17
17
16
1
-

5
5

5

6
----- 5
6
_

30
30
30

4
4
4

4

3
3

;
l

36
36
32
4
_
_
_

_

_

_

_
_

_
_

_
_

3
3
3

I
1

“
_

-

-

-

i

-

-

1
1
-

-

1
1

"

-

“

-

1

4

14
11
9
2
3

5
47
4
44
1 ! 43
3 1
1

18
14
14
-

24
21
18
3

41
41
37
4

29
23
17
6

48
32
24
8

18
18
17
1

26
26
25
1

32
31
30
1

17
17
17

7
6

18
16
14

29
29
21

18
18

36
31
23

14
14
13

18
18
15

3

_

!

5

.

3
3

-

I

1

5
5

_

2

8

8

1

19
18
10

8

3

-------

4

_
-

-

_
_
_

_

.
_

N ia g a T a (— in ty
.m

.

100.50

5

_

5

102.00

“
-

“
-

4
4

101.50
102.00

6

11
7

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
2 Workers were distributed as follows: 2 at $175 to $180; 1 at $180 to $185; 1 at $190 to $195; 7 at $195 to $200.
NOTE:

See note on p. 5,




relative to the inclusion of railroads.

_
_

-

Women

N u rses, industrial (registered) ------ __
Manufacturing _________________ _____
E rie County _ ---------------------------- _

_

-

_

_

_
_

9
Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(A verage stra igh t-tim e hourly earnings for m en in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Buffalo (E rie and N iagara Counties), N . Y . , D ecem b er I960)

NUM
BER O W
F ORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIM HOURLY EARNINGS O —
E
F
Occupation and industry division

N m er
u b
o
f
w rk rs
o e

$
$
A g
vera e
$
$
h u . Under 1. 80 1.90 2. 00 2. 10
o rly
ea in s 1
rn g
$
~
"
under
1.80
1.90 2. 00 2. 10 ' 2. 20

$
2. 20

$
2. 30

$
2. 40

"
2. 30

_
2. 40

“
2. 50

$
$
2. 50 2. 60
“
2. 60 2. 70

$
2. 70

$
2. 80

$
2. 90
"
2. 9O 3. 00
’

$
3. 00

$
$
$
$
3. 10 3. 20 3. 30 3. 40
"
"
“
3. 20 3. 30 3. 40 3. 50

8
8
8
-

4
4
4
-

17
17
17
-

20
10
9
1
10

9
8
8
1

39
35
33
2
4

20
20
12
8
"

73
69
57
12
4

37
34
19
15
3

88
80
59
21
8

42
42
42
-

4
1
1
3

42
42
42
-

-

~

2. 80

3. 10

$
3. 50

$
3. 60
“
3. 70

$
3. 70
"
3. 80

-

“

1
1

14
2 14

3. 60

$
3. 80
and
over

8
8

3
3

_
-

_
-

_
"

_
-

5
5
5
-

_
-

13
13
8
5

10
7
2
5

26
26
'24
2

47
43
42
1

135
134
15
119

70
70
57
13

165
165
103
62

162
159
104
55

83
83
40
43

192
177
177
-

72
69
69
-

50
50
41
9

1
1
1
-

5
5
5

12
12
12

19
19
19
-

74
82
83
77
37

3
3

3
3

_
-

51
51

1
1

57
56
41
15
1

64
39
39
25

31
29
23
6
2

15
9
9
6

52
51
39
12
1

90
90
62
28
-

79
54
46
8
25

91
87
41
46
4

45
45
45
-

72
65
59
6
7

31
31
31
-

7
7
7
-

1
1
1
-

1
1
1
-

3
1
1
2

4
4
4
-

10
10
10
-

9
-

_
-

1
-

42
42
2
40

52
50
35
15

27
21
3
18

40
40
35
5

45
44
32
12

27
24
17
7

58
57
37
20

12
12
4
8

42
42
4
38

12
12
4
8

_
-

171

2. 46
2.48
2. 51
2.45

9
9
9
-

10
10
10
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

1, 184
1, 075
930
145
109
81

2.66
2. 69
2. 74
2. 39
2. 31
2. 30

1
1
-

5

_
-

17
15
7
8
2
2

50
48
29
19
2
2

38
14
14
24
24

98
54
10
44
44
37

140
117
79
38
23
16

69
66
40
26
3
-

78
73
63
10
5
-

85
85
85
-

603
603
603
"

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

Machine-tool operators, toolroom ----------------Manufacturing ______________________________
Erie County --------------------------------------------

561
561
538

3. 10
3. 10
3. 10

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
"

22
22
22

19
19
19

56
56
54

9
9
8

31
31
31

1
1
1

77
77
72

40
40
25

232
232
232

64
64
64

10
10
10

_
-

_
-

Machinists, maintenance -------------------------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------Erie County -------------------------------------------Niagara County --------------------------------------

1, 027
1, 015
813
202

3.
3.
3.
2.

04
04
06
98

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
-

_
_
-

_
-

-

32
32
32
"

7
7
7
-

21
19
19
-

84
82
82
-

97
97
16
81

45
45
44
1

143
143
93
50

125
125
103
22

75
75
59
16

214
206
206
-

_
"

179
179
147
32

_
-

5
5
5
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

Mechanics, automotive (maintenance) -----------Manufacturing --------------------------------------------Erie County -------------------------------------------Niagara County -------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------------Public utilities 3 -------------------------------------

544
189
162
27
355
330

2. 72
2. 86
2.86
2.86
2. 64
2. 62

_
"

_
-

1
1
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

10
10
10

138
15
15
123
123

62
30
30
32
28

47
8
2
6
39
39

117
12
12
105
105

43
41
35
6
2
1

48
39
27
12
9
7

14
10
7
3
4
"

56
27
27
29
17

1
1
-

_
-

7
7
7
~

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

Mechanics, maintenance --------------------------------Manufacturing --------------------------- ---------------Erie County -------------------------------------------Niagara County --------------------------------------

1, 483
1, 351
1, 106
245

3.
3.
3.
2.

_

_

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

22
22
22

38
38
24
14

28
27
12

141
80
80
"

71
60
60
"

173
120
70
50

112
112
108

88
86
51
35

283
279
174
105

44
44
44

23
23
23
"

120
120
120
-

_
-

4
4

_
-

_
-

Millwrights ___________________________________
Manufacturing _____________________________
Erie County -------------------------------------------Niagara County --------------------------------------

1, 170
1, 170
774
396

3. 04
3. 04
3.14
2. 86

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

18
18
18

13
13
12
1

6
6
5
1

18

218
218
38
180

20
20
18
2

308
308
153
155

84

301
301
276
25

47
47
47

_
-

116
116
116

Carpenters, maintenance -------------------------------Manufacturing --------------------------- ---------------Erie County _____________________________
Niagara County -------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ---------------------------------------

429
370
311
59
59

Electricians, maintenance ----------------------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------Erie County -------------------------------------------Niagara County ---------------------------------------

$ 2 .9 1
2. 90
2. 90
2. 92
2. 95

"

1, 067
1, 038
724
314

3.
3.
3.
2.

04
04
10
91

Engineers, stationary ----- -------------------------------Manufacturing ______________________________
Erie County -------------------------------------------Niagara County _________________________
Nonmanufacturing ---------------------------------------

711
580
459
121
131

2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

Firemen, stationary boiler ---------------------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------Erie County ---------------------------------------- —Niagara County --------------------------------------

386
363

Helpers, trades, maintenance ----------------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------Erie County -------------------------------------------Niagara County -------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------------Public utilities 3 -------------------------------------

See footnotes at end of table.




192

00
04
08
83

5

-

_
_
-

_
-

_
-

15

18
8
10

4

84
62
22

’

_
-

336
336
336

21
21
21

-

4

_
-

_
-

-

-

10
Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations-Continued
(A verage stra igh t-tim e hourly earnings for m en in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Buffalo (E rie and N iagara Counties), N. Y. , D ecem ber I960)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

Occupation and industry division

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly i
earnings

$
$
Under 1 .8 0
1 .9 0
and
$
under
1 .8 0
2. 00
1 .9 0

$
2. 00

$
2. 10

$
2. 20

$
2. 30

$
2 .4 0

$

2. 10

2. 20

2. 30

2 .4 0

2. 50

2. 60

2. 50

,
2. 60

$

2. 70

$

2. 90

$
3. 00

$3. 10

$3. 20

2. 90

3. 00

3. 10

3. 20

3. 30

-

171
171
171

-

2. 70

$ 80
2.

2. 80

O ilers --------------------------------------------------------------------Manufacturing -----------------------------------------------E rie County ----------------------------------------------n g
^
y

596
581
464
117

$ 2 . 64
2. 65
2 .7 2
2. 38

13
8
8

-

1
1
1

1
1
1

20
20
10
10

34
26
13
13

19
17
9
8

120
120
85
35

54
54
29
25

P ain ters, maintenance ________________ —
Manufacturing -------------------------------------------- E rie County ----------------------- ----------------- Niagara County --------------------------- ------------

336

2 .7 2
2. 76
2. 70
2 .8 5

5
-

7
-

-

2
-

-

8
8
8

11

183
120

25
19
19

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

61
61
60
1

26
26
2
24

44
36
17
19

42
39
15
24

P ip efitters, maintenance _______ __________________
Manufacturing ------ -------------------------------------------- __
E rie County _____________ ___________ __ -------Niagara County ____________________ _____

756
749
488
261

2 .9 3
2 .9 3
2. 96
2. 88

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4
4
4

8
8
8

11
9
9

-

"

13
13
8
5

-

~

-

90
88
80
8

88
88
13
75

18
18
15
3

S heet-m etal w ork ers, maintenance ---------------Manufacturing ---------- --------------------- ---------E rie County ---------------------------__ _
Niagara County ------------------------------------------

272
267
206
61

2 .9 9
2 .9 9
3. 04
2. 86

-

-

_

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

9
6
6

19
18
17
1

31
31
31

15
15
10
5

39
39
39

Tool and die m ak ers _______________________ ___
Manufacturing _____________ __ ___ _ ____
E rie County ___ _____ _______ _________
Niagara County ______________________ ___

979
979
925
54

3.
3.
3.
2.

42
42
34
8

46
46
43
3

62
62
61
1

53
53
34
19

303

23
23
25
98

_

-

-

-




11

-

-

-

-

3
2
1
1

_

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2
2

3
3
3

-

-

1 E xcludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on w eekends,
2 A ll w orkers w ere at $ 4 . 1 0 to $ 4 . 2 0 .
3 Transportation, communication, and other public u tilities.
NO TE: See note on p. 5 ,

11

relative to the inclusion of railroad s.

-

holidays,

and late shifts.

25
120
120 ----- I T 103
24
1
17

$

-

16

65

16

64

16
-

12
52

229
229
119
110

120
120
60
60

-

3. 30

$
3 .4 0

$
3. 50

8 ,
3. 60

$
3. 70

$
3. 80
and

3 .4 0

3. 50

3. 60

3. 70

3. 80

over

$

18
18
18

_

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

23
23
23

1
-

_
-

_
-

_

-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

133

22
22
22
-

_

_

_

_

_

130
-

20
20
20
-

_

_

_
_

_
_

_

-

-

-

-

-

55
55
32
23

86
86
86

13
13
13

_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_

.

_
_

_
_

2
2
2

-

-

-

-

96
96
96

98
98
75
23

3
3
3

_

16
1'6
16

130

-

-

6

--------5"
6

_

-

176
176
176

376
376
376

_
_

_

.

_
_

11
Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(A verage stra igh t-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division. Buffalo (E rie and N iagara C ounties), N. Y . , D ecem ber I960)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Occupation 1 and industry division

of
w
orkers

$
$
h
ourly 2 Under 1. 20
1. 30
earnin
gs
and
$
under
1. 20
1 .4 0
1. 30

$
1 .4 0

$
1. 50

1. 50

"
1. 60

$
1. 60
-

$
1. 70
-

$
1. 80
-

$
1. 90
-

1. 70

1. 80

1. 90

2. 00

$
2. 00
2. 10

Elevator op erators, p assenger
(women) _________________________________________137
Nonmanufacturing _____________ ____________
129

$ 1. 24
1. 22

3 36
36

82
82

2
2

11
6

2
2

3
-

-

1
1

-

-

~

760
722
543
179

2 .4 9
2. 51
2. 52
2 .4 7

-

_
-

2
-

1
1
1
-

2
-

12
8
8
'

_
-

-

2
-

"

3
3
3
~

21
21
3
18

Janitors, p o r te r s, and clean ers (men) _______
Manufacturing _________________________ _ __
E rie County _ ______________ __ _____ __
Niagara County _____________________ ____
Nonmanufacturing
__________________________
Public utilities 5 __________________________

2, 110
1 ,5 3 3
1, 195
338
577
123

2. 00
2. 20
2. 19
2. 21
1 .4 6
1. 95

195
13
13
*182
"

48
48
6

75
1
1
74
-

57
4
4
53
-

51
13
6
7
38
3

41
13
11
2
28
2

109
82
76
6
27
18

101
65
65
36
25

73
63
43
20
10
10

Janitors, p o r te r s, and clean ers (women) ___
Manufacturing __________________________ ____
E rie County _________________________ _ __
Niagara County ______ __ _____ ____ __
Nonmanufacturing _________ _________ ____
Public utilities 5 _________________________

976
314
269
45
662
92

1 .4 4
1 .9 1
1. 88
2. 06
1. 22
1. 58

6361
1
1
360
4

139
6
6
133
-

62
9
9
53

52
24
19
5
28
20

74
46
46
28
24

63
19
17
2
44
42

37
32
32
5
-

9
1
1
8
-

L a b o r e r s , m aterial handling --------------------- __
Manufacturing __________ __ _____ ________
E rie County __ _ __ __ ________________
N iagara County ________________ ________
Nonmanufacturing ______ __ ________ __ __
Public utilities 5 _____________________ __

4 ,2 5 3
2 ,7 2 7
2, 242
485
1 ,5 2 6
749

29
33
33
30
21
34

106
106
*

36
36
-

38
13
13
25
-

16
16
-

35
13
13
22
-

36
16
12
4
20
“

80
55
55
25

Order fille r s
_____________ _____ _ __
____
Manufacturing ________________________________
E rie County __________ __________________
Nonmanufacturing _________ _____ ________

743
228
225
515

2 .4 1
2. 29
2. 29
2 .4 6

2
2

1
1

_
-

_
-

_
"

9
8
8
1

P a c k e rs, shipping (men) _____
____ _
_
__
Manufacturing _______________________________
E rie County _______________
________ __
N iagara County _____ __ _____ ________

696
676
620
56

2. 37
2 .4 0
2. 39
2 .4 8

13
13
13
-

3
-

6
-

2
-

9
8
8
-

P a c k e r s, shipping (women) __ __ _______
Manufacturing _____________ _____ __
E rie County _____ __ __ -------- -------

180
111
94

2. 00
2. 17
2. 11

2
-

2
-

1
-

_
-

__

Receiving clerk s ___________ ________ ________
Manufacturing ________________________________
E rie County ______ __ -------- __ -------- —
N iagara County __
_ _
__ __ — __
Nonmanufacturing _____________ __ __ __ __

313
185
150
35
128

2. 38
2 .4 5
2 .4 8
2. 36
2. 28

6
6

_
-

_
-

Shipping clerks ______ ________
__ ___
Manufacturing ______ __ ____ ____ ___ _
E rie County -----------------------------------------------

311
287
268

2. 59
2. 63
2 .6 4

_

_

_

-

-

-

~

Shipping and receiving c l e r k s _________________
Manufacturing ___ __ __ __ __ ______
E rie County _ _ ______ __
_____ __
Nonmanufacturing __ __ _ __ _

273
194
187
79

2 .4 6
2 .4 8
2 .4 8
2 .4 3

-

2

$
2. 20
-

$
2. 30
-

$
2 .4 0
-

$
2. 50
-

$
2. 60
-

$
2. 70
-

$
2. 80

$
2. 90

2. 20

2. 30

2 .4 0

2. 50

2. 60

2. 70

2. 80

2, 90

3. 00

-

Guards _____________________________________ _____
Manufacturing _____________ _____
_______
E rie County ------------- ----------------------- ----N iagara County ___________________________

See footnotes at end of table,




2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

$
3. 00
-

$
3. 10

$
3. 20
and

3. 10

3. 20

over

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

27
27
26
1

54
49
41
8

94
94
63
31

143
120
49
71

25
25
21
4

312
312
296
16

27
27
21
6

16
l6
16

7
7
1
6

6
5~
6
-

3
3
1
2

3
3
3
-

169
153
94
59
16
14

308
281
251
30
27
26

229
213
150
63
16
13

354
335
254
81
19
3

232
232
168
64
-

66
63
63
3
3

_
-

1
1
1
-

1
1
1
-

_
-

_
-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

22
22
16
6
-

11
11
11
-

46
44
35
9
2
2

56
56
34
22
-

44
43
43
1
“

_
"

_
-

_
-

_
-

.
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

135
115
115
20
~

98
86
79
7
12
-

107
103
31
72
4
~

337
228
198
30
109
107

679
195
126
69
484
482

812
7 59
602
157
53
15

770
517
375
142
253

667
435
435
232
94

181
139
135
4
42
1

66
53
53
13
12

_
-

54
54
38

_
-

_
-

_
-

24
12
12
12

23
4
4
19

13
13
13
-

15
15
15
-

14
11
11
3

19
7
6
12

140
84
84
56

252
38
38
214

94
19
19
75

114
15
15
99

9
9

2
2
-

12
12

_
-

_
-

.
-

2
1
1
-

9
8
8
-

1
1
1
~

54
53
53
"

15
14
4
10

16
13
8
5

19
18
11
7

62
62
62
-

204
204
198
6

77
77
68
9

185
185
185
-

1
1
1

12
12
12

6
6
6

.
-

_
-

-

_
-

14
-

17
-

53
20
17

21
21
21

11
11
11

_
"

14
14
14

31
31
31

_
-

_
-

14
14
-

_
“

_
-

_
“

-

_
-

_
-

1
1

9
9

5
5

9
5
5
4

7
4
4
3

10
7
2
5
3

11
7
2
5
4

17
11
10
1
6

20
17
15
2
3

34
14
10
4
20

38
22
17
5
16

36
31
21
10
5

69
48
46
2
21

24
8
7
1
16

7
1
1
6

3
3
3
-

1
1
1
-

6
6
6
-

_
-

”

-

-

-

1
-

2
-

3
-

8
6

1
1

-

"

-

-

5
5
5

-

-

8
8
5

13
13
13

18
6
6

29
29
29

17
13
13

16
16
12

121
121
121

14
14
14

12
12
12

3
3
3

18
18
18

7
7
7

15
15
10

4

-

2

-

10
10

16
16
16

-

13
6
3

3
3
3

19
19
18

13
1
12

-

~

1
1

-

"

32
10
10
22

10
3

"

40
38
38
2

86
86
84

7

22
12
12
10

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

•
-

4

"

"

-

#

$
2. 10
-

2

_

-

-

-

3
7

“

-

“

12
Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations-Continued
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Buffalo (Erie and Niagara Counties), N. Y. , December I960)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
O ccupation1 and industry division

N ber
um
of
w
orkers

T r u c k d r iv e r s7 ____________________________________
Manufacturing _________________________________
E rie County -----------------------------------------------N iagara County ------------ ---------------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------------Public u tilities 5 ----------------------------------------

3, 162
932
818
114
2, 230
1 ,3 1 4

T ru ck d rivers, light (under lV j tons) __T
___
Manufacturing _____________________________
E rie County ____________________________
Nonmanufacturing _________________________

326
158
141
168

Average
hourly 2 Under 1. 20
earnings
and
$
under
1 .2 0
1 .3 0
$2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

60
53
55
43
62
64

2. 35
2 .3 8
2. 39
2. 33

$ 30
1.

$
1 .4 0

$ 50
1.

$ ,
1. 60

1. 70

$
1 .8 0

$
1 .9 0

$
2. 00

2. 10

1 . 20

$
2. 30

$
2 .4 0

$
2. 50

$
2 .6 0

2 .7 0

$
2 .8 0

$
2. 90

$
3. 00

$
3 .10

3. 20

1 .4 0

1. 50

1. 60

1. 70

1 .8 0

1 .9 0

2. 00

2. 10

2. 20

2. 30

2 .4 0

2. 50

2 .6 0

2. 70

2 .8 0

2 .9 0

3. 00

3. 10

3 .20

over

22
17 "
17
5

91
41
36
5
50
29

207
87
67
20
120
101

221
92
89
3
129
-

562
178
147
31
384
5

1490
.... 3 5 5 '
318
37
1135
1135

35
33
28
5
2

131
38
38
93
-

45
8
8
37

3

29
3
26

6
3
2
3

169
78
78
91

35

20
2
1
18

16
14
14
2

_
-

and

-

_
-

.
-

2
2

11
11
8
3
-

10
10

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

11
11
8

-

-

-

10
10

-

-

-

-

T ru ck d rivers, m edium ( 1V 2 to and
including 4 tons) ------------------------------------------Manufacturing -------------------------------------------E rie County _______________________ ___
Nonmanufacturing _________________________
Public u tilities 5 -----------------------------------

601
189
168
412
283

2 .4 5
2. 42
2 .4 0
2. 47
2. 56

T ru ck d rivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
tra iler type) __________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------Public u tilities 5 -----------------------------------

1, 383
1, 108
910

573
226
215
1, 589
1 ,3 7 8
1, 132
246
211

2. 49
2 .4 7
2. 50
2. 33
2. 58

_
"

_
-

T ru ck ers, power (other than forklift) ________
Manufacturing ________________________ ___
E rie County ________________________________
N iagara County -------------------------------------------

503
449
365
84

2.
2.
2.
2.

52
54
58
36

_
-

Watchmen ________
__________________________
Manufacturing -------------------------------------------------E rie County ___ __________________________
Niagara County
------------------------------- -----Nonmanufacturing __ ------------------------ ----------

377
296
188
1()8
81

1 .8 3
1 .9 4
1 .8 1
2. 15
1 .4 3

14

-

22
T5
13
2
7

24
8
a
16

2
2

1
1
1
-

2
2

-

3
-

2. 59
2. 64
2. 64

T ru ck ers, power (forklift) _______ _____________
Manufacturing -------------------------------------------------E rie County -----------------------------------------------Niagara County ____________________________
Nonmanufacturing ____________________________

_
-

2
2

~

2. 72
2. 75
2. 68

T ru ck d rivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
other than tra iler type) ------------------------------Manufacturing _____________________________
E rie County
__________________________

36
34
- — TT
8
8
36
18

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

-

2
2

36
36




26
-

_
-

-

.
'

_
-

_
-

.
-

"

8 14

_
-

33
12
12
21

63
41
41
22

30
30
18
12

6

“

6

-

relative to the inclusion of railroads.

19
14
14
5

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

18
18

-

7
7
2
-

7
7

-

-

-

“

-

-

-

-

13
5
5

1100
856
856

1
-

19
16

45
37

-

-

“

-

55
44
44

138
138

-

-

-

38
37
37

8
8
8

321
51
46

104
44
38

11
51
11 -------3 d
35
11

-

-

30
30
30

-

_

12
12
12
-

37
6
3
31

69
65
59
4

7
7

26
3
2

-

215
29
24
186
186

139
28
28
111
95

10
10
10

19
12
12
7

186
30
30
156

-

5
5
5

-

-

_
-

_
-

4
4
4
-

31
28
11
17
3

93
93
42
51
"

46
46
30
16
-

185
164
149
15
21

74
71
43
28
3

172
137
92
45
35

541
527
479
48
14

264
167
162
5
97

62
44
42
2
18

87
67
66
1
20

14
14
14

4
4
4
-

*

-

_
-

_
-

2
2
1
1

36
36
36

21
21
1
20

86
85
64
21

64
11
3
8

44
44
36
8

105
105
94
11

19
19
5
14

15
15
14
1

11
11
11

48
48
48

6
-------- r
6

_
-

-

7
7
7
-

-

-

-

39
39
39
-

3
1
1
2

2
1
1
1

35
33 ‘
23
10
2

16
11
11
-

9
9

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

_
-

_
.
-

_

-

-

_
_
-

-

6

40
39
39
1

6
3

5

61
60
31
29
1

9
9

5

56
50
40
10

_

_

“

_

-

■

~

Data limited to men workers except where otherwise indicated.
Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Workers were distributed as follows: 5 at $ 1 to $ 1 .1 0 ; 31 at $ 1 .1 0 to $ 1 .2 0 .
Workers were distributed as follows: 59 at $1 to $ 1 .1 0 ; 123 at $ 1 .1 0 to $ 1 .2 0 .
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Workers were distributed as follows: 4 at $ 0 .9 0 to $1; 268 at $ 1 to $ 1 .1 0 ; 89 at $ 1 .1 0 to $ 1 .2 0 .
Includes all drivers regardless of size and type of truck operated.
Workers were distributed as follows: 8 at $1 to $1. 10; 6 at $1. 10 to $1. 20.

NOTE: See note on p. 5,

31

-----

-

55
11
11
44
44

-

4

~

_

-

-

-




B: Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Table B-1. Shift Differentials
(Shift d iffe r e n tia ls o f m an u factu rin g plant w o r k e r s by type and am ount o f d iffe r e n tia l,
B uffalo (E r ie and N ia g a ra C o u n tie s), N . Y . , D e c e m b e r I9 60 )

P e r c e n t o f m an ufacturin g plant w o r k e r s—
In esta b lish m e n ts having fo r m a l
p r o v isio n s 1 for—

Shift d iffe r e n tia l

Second sh ift
w ork

T o ta l

----------------------------------------------------------------------

W ith sh ift pay d iffe r e n tia l

---------------------------------

U n ifo rm cen ts (p er hour)

-------------------------

-

4 c en ts ----------------------------------------------------------5 c en ts
-------------------------------------------------------cen ts ----------------------------------------------------------7 c en ts ----------------------------------------------------------l llz c en ts ----------------------------------------------------cen ts ____________ _____ .__________________ _
c en ts ----------------------------------------------------------9ljz c en ts ----------------------------------------------------cen ts
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------cen ts
cen ts
-------------------------------------- -------1 2 7 a c en ts
-------------------------------------------------1373 cen ts
---------------------------------------------- 15 c en ts -------------------------------------------------------16 cen ts
-------------------------------------------------------17 cen ts ----------------------------------------- — —
18 cen ts ------------------------------------- --------------cen ts
-------- ----------------------------------------------24 c en ts --------------------------------------------------------

6
8
9
1
0
1
1
1
2
2
0

U n ifo rm p erc en ta g e

T h ird or other
sh ift w ork

8 9 .1

2 1 .3

9
2

8.0
9

2 1 .3

5 8 .4

5 3 .6

.1

1
.0
2
.8
2
.2
2
.0
3 .2

.4

2 3 .8
.9

9 .9
2 .3
3 .1

1
.2
.8
.2

3 .3
-

1 .3
-

-

_
.3
-

.4
.6

1
.2
2
.6
2
.2
1.6
0
1
.8
1
.2
.6

2 5 .3

.3
3 .8
-

1 .3
.9
.3

--------------------------------------

2 7 .0

26. 1

.4
1 6 .0
1 .3
9 .2

2 .4
.5
2 3 .2

.7

9 .3

O th er3

-----------------------------------------------------------------

No sh ift pay d iffe r e n tia l -

1
2
3

----------------------------------

Second sh ift

9 2 .2

3 p ercen t
----------------------------------------------------5 percen t
----------------------------------------------------7 p ercen t
----------------------------------------------------772 p e r c e n t -------------------- --------------------------percen t
---------------------------------------- —---------p e r c e n t -----------------------------------------------------

9
1
0

A ctu a lly w orking on—

6

.1

. 1

1.0
2
.4
.4
.5
. 1
.4
6 .4

.2

.3
1 .4
.3
. 7
. 1

.2

.5
-

(2)
.1
-

T h ird or other
sh ift

8 .3

8
6

. 3
. 1

_
(2 )
-

(*)
(2 )
. 3

.2

(2 )
.4
.3
4. 3
(2 )
. 1

.2

. 1
-

. 1
-

(2)

8

. 1

1

. 1
5 .6
.3
-

. 1
(2 )

. 1

2
.1
1

1
.0
1
.0

(2)

(2 )

. 1

In clud es e s ta b lish m e n ts c u r r e n tly op erating late sh ifts , and e sta b lish m e n ts with fo r m a l p r o v isio n s c o v e r in g late sh ifts
even though they w ere not cu r r e n tly op erating late s h ift s .
L e s s than 0 . 0 5 p e r c e n t.
In clud es d iffe r e n tia ls v aryin g accord in g to occu p ation or accord in g to d e g r e e of sh ift rotation , c o m b in ation o f a c en ts
d iffe r e n tia l p lus a paid lunch p e r io d , and other p r o v is io n s .

14
Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salaries for Women Office Workers
(Distribution of establishments studied in all industries and in industry divisions by minimum entrance salary for selected categories
of inexperienced women office w orkers, Buffalo (Erie and Niagara Counties), N. Y. , Decem ber I960)
O ther in e x p e r ie n c e d c le r ic a l w o r k e r s 2

In ex p e rie n c ed ty p ists
M an ufactu ring
M in im u m w eekly s a la r y 1

A ll
in d u str ie s

---------------------------------------------------------------- - --------

E sta b lish m e n ts having a sp e c ifie d m in im u m

$ 35. 00
$ 3 7 .5 0
$ 4 0 .0 0
$ 42. 50
$ 4 5 . 00
$ 47. 50
$ 50. 00
$ 52. 50
$ 55. 00
$ 57. 50
$ 60. 00
$ 62. 50
$ 65. 00
$ 67. 50
$ 70. 00
$ 7 2 .5 0
$ 75. 00
$ 7 7 .5 0
$ 80. 00
$ 82. 50

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
under
under
under
u nder
under
u nd er
u nder
u nder
under
under
under
under
u nd er
under
under
under
under
under
under

37. 50
40. 00
4 2 .5 0
45. 00
47. 50
50. 00
52. 50
5 5 .0 0
5 7 .5 0
60. 00
62. 50
$ 6 5 .0 0
$ 67. 50
$ 70. 00
$ 72. 50
$ 7 5 .0 0
$ 77. 50
$ 8 0 . 00
$ 82. 50
$ 8 5 .0 0
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$

_____

— --------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

_________________________________ _____
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------- ----------------------- —
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- — —
---------------------- ^ ----------------------------------- —
-----------------, ------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------- -------------------- —
--------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------____________________________________________
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------- —
-------------------------------------------------------------------

E s ta b lis h m e n ts having no s p e c ifie d m in im u m

_______________________________________

37V2

40

XXX

197

108

XXX

XXX

89

XXX

XXX

118

69

_

_

49

_

_

_
-

_
-

_
_

1
2
5
1

1
4
8
4
4
3
5
3
5
1
3
2
1
2
1

_

2
4
7
14
3
8
3
8
3
4
6
3
1
1
1

_
-

108

XXX

XXX

89

XXX

105

69

-

_

36

_

_

1
4
5
9
5
19
7
10
4
12
5
5
6
6

_

_

_

1

_

2
4
3
14
4
8
3
10
3
4
5
5
1
1
1

-

-

-

-

-

1
1
4
1
1

2
3
2
9
3
6
3
8
3
4
5
4
1
1
1

4
3
5
2
5
3
2
1
2
2
1
1
1
1

2
1
1
2
1
1

_
-

2

1
1
1
2

-

1

-

1

1
-

-

-

1

1
1

XXX

XXX

7
46

-

24

17

— —

67

21

XXX

XXX

_________________

1

1

XXX

XXX

--------------

37Vz

197

-

N on m an ufactu ring

B a se d on standard w eek ly hour s 3 o f r -

A ll
sc h e d u les

40

—

----------------------------

E sta b lish m e n ts w hich did not e m p loy w o r k e r s
in this c a te g o ry — -------------- — ------------------------------D ata not a v a ila b le

_____

M an ufactu ring
A ll
in d u str ie s

B a sed on standard w ee k ly h ours 3 o f—
AH
sc h e d u les

E sta b lish m e n ts studied

N on m an ufactu ring

A ll
sch e d u les

"

1
1

1
4
8
6
8
10
19
6
13
4
11
5
5
8
4
1
1
1
1
2

XXX

XXX

XXX
XXX

-

1
-

2
3
3
2
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
-

37V2

-

1
_
_

1

A ll
sch e d u les

40

2
3
5
8
3
6
3
6
3
4
6
2
1
1
1

-

-

1

-

1

1
1

24

16

XXX

XXX

8

XXX

54

22

XXX

XXX

32

XXX

1

1

XXX

XXX

_

_
_

37V2

4
3
_

1
1
1
_
3
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

-

40

2
4
2
_
3
2
1
1
3
2
1
2
1
_
_
_

1
1

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

'

1 Lowest salary rate form ally established for hiring inexperienced workers for typing or other clerical jobs.
2 Rates applicable to m essen gers, office girls, or sim ilar subclerical jobs are not considered.
3 Hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-tim e salaries.
Data are presented for all workweeks combined, and for the m ost common workweeks reported.
N OTE:

See note on p. 15, relative to the inclusion of railroads.




15
Table B-3. Scheduled W eekly Hours
(P e r c e n t d istrib u tio n of o ffic e and plant w o r k e r s in a ll in d u str ie s and in in d u stry d iv isio n s by sch edu led w ee k ly h ou rs
o f f i r s t - s h i f t w o r k e r s , B u ffalo (E r ie and N ia g a ra C o u n tie s), N . Y . , D e c e m b e r I9 60 )
PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS
»

W eekly hours
All industries 1

100

Under 35 hours ---------------------- -------------- — -----35 hours _____ _ ----- _ —
------------------Over 35 and under 37 V 2 hours ----- — ----- _
37 V 2 hours ______ _____ - ------ — ---------------Over 37 V 2 and under 40 hours ___ _ ----------40 hours _______________
_ __ ---------------- -------Over 40 and under 45 hours ----- -------- ------------45 hours and over _____________________________

(4 )
3
3
26
5
62
(4 )
(4 )

Manufacturing

100

(4 )
1
12
4
83
-

(4 )

Public utilities2

100

1
2
43
-

54
-

All industries3

Manufacturing

100

1
8
1
84
1
5

100

100

1
-

-

-

3
1
89
(4 )
5

1
2
3
4

In cludes data fo r w h o le sa le tra d e ; r e t a il tra d e ; fin a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e sta te ; and s e r v ic e s in addition to th ose in d u stry d iv isio n s shown s e p a r a te ly .
T r a n sp o r ta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and other p ub lic u tilit ie s .
Includes data fo r w h o le sa le t r a d e , r e t a il t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , and s e r v ic e s in addition to th ose in d u stry d iv isio n s sh ow n ^sep arately.
L e s s than 0. 5 p e r c e n t.




NOTE:

Public utilities2

E s tim a te s fo r a ll in d u str ie s and public u tilitie s include data fo r r a ilr o a d s (SIC 4 0 ) , o m itted fr o m the sc o p e of a ll la b o r m a r k e t
w age su rv e y s m ad e b e fo r e J uly 1 9 5 9 , and a ls o om itted fr o m the B u ffalo su rv e y o f O c to b e r 19 59 .
W h e r e sig n ific a n t, the e ffe c t
o f the in clu sio n of r a ilr o a d s is g r e a te st on the data show n se p a r a te ly fo r the public u tilitie s d iv isio n .

-

99
-

(4 )

16
Table B-4. Paid Holidays
(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by number of paid holidays
provided annually, Buffalo (Erie and Niagara Counties), N .Y ., December I960)
OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

Item
All industries1

A ll workers ------------- ----------

-----------

Manufacturing

Public utilities 2

All industries3

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

--------------

100

100

100

100

100

100

W orkers in establishments providing
paid holidays ---------------------------------- ------- ----W orkers in establishments providing
no paid holidays -----------------------------------------------

99

100

99

97

98

99

3

2

(4)

(4)

'

_
18
1
9
(4)
24
1
10
14
2
2
(4)
3
2
(4)
13
H
(4)

_

_

9
1
15
32
1
14
23
3
1
(4)
(4)
-

8
2
32
1
28
1
27
-

(4)

Number of d ays
5 holidays -----------------------------------------------------------6 holidays
---------— ------------------- -------------6 holidays plus 1 half day ---------------------------------6 holidays plus 2 half days ------------------------------6 holidays plus 4 half days ------------------------------7 holidays
------- - — - -------------- — ---------7 holidays plus 1 half day ---------------------------------7 holidays plus 2 half days
--------------- ------7 holidays plus 3 half days ------------------------------8 holidays
- - -------------------------- ----------------- 8 holidays plus 1 half day ---------------------------------8 holidays plus 2 half days — ------ — ----8 holidays plus 4 half days — ----------------9 holidays -----------------------------------------------------------9 holidays plus 1 half day ---------- --------------------10 holidays
---------- -----------------------------------------11 holidays
---------------------------------- - - ------11 holidays plus 1 half day ------------------------12 holidays -----------------------------------------------------------

(4)
18
1
11
(4)
35
2
8
(4)
16
(4)
1
2
1
2
-

_

.

7
1
15
(4)
38
3
10

(4)
3
-

21
1
(4)
1
-

*

(4)
50
_
20
_
1
26
"

Total ho lid a y tim e5
12 days
--------------- --------------- ----- — -----1
or m ore days ------- --------- --------------11 or m ore days -------------------------------------------------10 or m ore days -------------------------------------------------9Va or m ore days ----------------------------------------------9 or m ore days
-------------------------------------------------8 7 2 or m ore days ----------------------------------------------8 or m ore days
-------------------------------------------------7 V2 or m ore days
------------- -----------------7 or more days
---------- ---------- — ------------or m ore days
------ --------------- ------6 or more days
------- ------------------ — —
5 or m ore days
--------------------------------------------------

ll!
z

6/
1
z

1
2
3
4
5
no half

(4 )
1
14
15
16
22
24
48
48
81
82
99
99

.

.

-

-

-

27
28
28
56
56
57
57
92
92
99
99

2
3
3
6
6
29
31
78
79
96
97

1
1
4
4
42
42
90
91
100
100

1
1
2
2
34
37
90
91
98
98

_
26
27
27
47
47
47
47
97
99
99
99

Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
L ess than 0 .5 percent.
A ll combinations of full and half days that add to the same amount are combined; for example, the proportion of workers receiving a total of 7 days includes those with 7 full days and
days, 6 full days and 2 half days, 5 full days and 4 half days, and so on. Proportions were then cumulated.

NOTE:

See note on p. 15, relative to the inclusion of railroads.




17
Table B-5. Paid Vacations
(P e r c e n t d istrib u tion o f o ffic e and plant w o r k e r s in all in d u strie s and in in du stry d iv isio n s by v acatio n pay
p r o v is io n s , B u ffalo (E r ie and N ia g a ra C o u n tie s), N. Y . , D e c e m b e r I9 6 0 )
PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS
V a c a tio n p olicy

A ll w o rk ers

All industries1

------------------------------------------------------------

M
anufacturing

Public utilities2

All industries3

M
anufacturing

Public utilities2

100

100

100

100

100

100

100
99
(4 )
-

100
99
1

100
100
-

100
90
9
1

100
87
11
2

100
99
(4 )
-

M e t h o d off p a y m e n t

W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts p rovidin g
paid v a catio n s
---------------------------------------------------L e n g t h -o f-tim e p aym en t
---------------------------P e r c e n ta g e p aym en t ------------------------------------F la t-s u m p aym ent
---------------------------------------Other -----------------------------------------------------------------W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts p rovidin g
no paid va c a tio n s
----------------------------------------------

A m o u n t off v a c a t i o n

-

(4 )

(4 )

-

■

~

■

_

6
65
6
(4 )

3
71
5

_
35
15

16
11
2
-

"

pay5

A fte r 6 m on th s of s e r v ic e
Under 1 w eek --------------------------------------------------------1 w eek --------------------------------------------------------------------O ver 1 and under 2 w eek s
------------------------------2 w ee k s
------------------------------------------------------------------

(4 )

-

16
4
1

-

28
13

-

-

_
88
3
9

_
59
5
36

_
64
10
26
-

36
14
50
-

A fte r 1 y e a r of s e r v ic e
Under 1 w eek --------------------------------------------------------1 w eek — — -------- — ---------------------------------- —
O ver 1 and under 2 w ee k s
------------------------------2 w eek s
------------------------------------------------------------------

_

_

_

18
1
80

14

50
4
46

-

' 86

(4 )
80
5
15

A fte r 2 y e a r s o f se r v ic e
Under 1 w eek --------------------------------------------------------1 w eek --------------------------------------------------------------------O ver 1 and under 2 w eek s
------------------------------2 w eeks
-----------------------------------------------------------------O ver 2 and under 3 w eeks
------------------------------3 w eeks
------------------------------------------------------------------

_

_

_

7

7
30
63

7
3
86
2
1

93

-

-

-

-

_
1
-

(4 )
56
10
30
2
2

-

-

A fte r 3 y e a r s of se r v ic e
_

_

2

3

1

93
2

1
95
1

99
-

2

-

-

1 week

(4 )

2 w eeks

91
2

(4 )
94

Under 1 w eek --------------------------------------------------------1 w eek __ — ____ _______ _ ____ ____ _ ___ _
_
_
O ver 1 and under 2 w eeks
------------------------------2 w eek s
-----------------------------------------------------------------O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s
------------------------------3 w eeks
------------------------------------------------------------------

(4 )
12
31
51

3
3

-

13
43
43
1

13

3
83
-

A fte r 5 y e a r s of s e r v ic e

-----------------------------------------------------------------O ver 2 and under 3 w eek s
------------------------------3 w eeks
------------------------------------------------------------------

See footnotes at end o f ta b le.




7

2
5

_

100

88

-

4

(4 )
93
4

8

3

(4 )

-

100
-

18
Table B-5. Paid Vacations-Continued
(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, Buffalo (Erie and Niagara Counties), N. Y . , Decem ber I960)
PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS

Vacation policy
All industries1

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

All industries ^

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

Amount o! vacatio n p a y 5— Continued
After 10 years of service
1 week --------------------------------------------------------------2 weeks
------------------------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 weeks
----------------------------3 weeks
-------------------------------------------------------------

(4 )
44
11
44

(4 )
41
18
41

(4 )
6

(4 )
3

_

64
2
34

(4 )
29
33
38

(4 )
26
44
30

(4 )
7
1
87
2
1

(4 )
3
2
90
3
2

(4 )
7
1
67
2
22

(4 )
3
2
72
3
20

(4 )
7
1
35
16
40

(4 )
3
2
34
21
39

_

48
3
48

After 15 years of service
1 week --------------------------------------------------------------2 weeks ------------------------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 weeks —--------------------------3 weeks
----------—----------------------------------------------Over 3 and under 4 weeks -------------- --------------4 weeks
-------------------------------------------------------------

-

-

92
1
(4 )

94
2
1

(4 )
5

(4 )
3

-

-

_
3
-

97
-

-

_
(4 )
99
-

-

After 20 years of service
1 week --------------------------------------------------------------2 weeks
----------------------------------------------- —---------Over 2 and under 3 weeks
— - ---------------- ----3 weeks
------------------------------------------------------------Over 3 and under 4 weeks
----------------------------4 weeks
—
—
- —

_
3
-

93

77
1
17

75
2
21

(4 )
5

(4 )
3

3

-

-

-

46
8
41

43
13
41

62
2
33

_

3

_
(4 )
77
-

23

After 25 years of service
1 week
--------- _
2 weeks ------------------------------------------------------------Over 2 and under 3 w e e k s --------------- —---------3 weeks
Over 3 and under 4 weeks
----------------------------4 weeks
—
----— -

1
2
3
4
5
service

_

_

(4 )
50
3
46

Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes data for wholesale trade, retail .trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
L ess than 0 .5 percent.
Periods of service were arbitrarily chosen and do not necessarily reflect the individual provisions for p rogressions.
For example, the changes in proportions indicated at 10
include changes in provisions occurring between 5 and 10 yea rs.

y e a r s'

NOTE: See note on p. 15, relative to the inclusion of railroad s.
In the tabulations of vacation allowances by years of service, payments other than "length of tim e " such as percentage
of annual earnings or flat-su m payments, were converted to an equivalent time basis; for example, a payment of 2 percent of annual earnings was considered as 1 week* s pay.




19
Table B-6. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
(Percent of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions employed in establishments providing
health, insurance, or pension benefits, Buffalo (Erie and Niagara Counties), N .Y ., Decem ber I960)
O F F IC E W O R K E R S

PLAN T W O RK ERS

Type of benefit
All industries 1

A ll workers --------------------------------------------------------

M anufacturing

Public utilities^

All industries

3

Manufacturing

P
ublic utilities2

100

100

100

100

100

Life insurance ---------------------------------------------Accidental death and dism em berm ent
insurance --------------------------------------------------Sickness and accident insurance or
sick leave or both4 -----------------------------------

93

97

73

93

97

88

48

60

35

48

50

55

87

93

75

81

86

85

Sickness and accident insurance --------Sick leave (full pay and no
waiting period) -------------------------------------Sick leave (partial pay or
waiting period) ------- ---------------------------

59

84

10

70

84

32

73

75

71

12

6

31

4

3

-

6

4

23

Hospitalization in s u r a n c e --------------------------Surgical insurance
----- ------------Medical insurance
-------------------------------------Catastrophe insurance — ------------- — — ---------- ---------- _ _ _
Retirement pension
No health, insurance, or pension plan —

89
86
66
30
85
1

96
96
74
27
88
1

72
72
60
46
63

90
88
60
11
78

96
95
65
10
83
1

74
74
47
32
78

100

W orkers in establishments providing:,

2

Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
4
Unduplicated total of workers receiving sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately below.
Sick-leave plans are limited to those which definitely establish at least
the minimum number of days' pay that can be expected by each employee. Informal sick-leave allowances determined on an individual basis are excluded.
NOTE:

See note on p. 15, relative to the inclusion of railroads.







21

Appendix:

Occupational Descriptions

The primary purpose o f preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to a ssist its
field staff in classifyin g into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s field economists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers,
part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.
O F F IC E
B I L L E R , M A CH IN E

B O O K K E E P IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R

Prepares statements, b ills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other cle rica l work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
cla ssified by type of machine, as follow s:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.

Biller, machine (billing machine)— Uses a special billing ma­

chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, e tc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.
Biller , machine (bookkeeping machine)— U ses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, e tc ., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare custom ers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on custom ers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types o f sales and
credit slip s.




C lass A — Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge o f
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance
sheets, and other records by hand.
C lass B — Keeps a record of one or more phases or section s of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of b asic book­
keeping*
Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type o f billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or a ssist in preparation o f trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.

C L E R K , A C C O U N T IN G
C la ss A — Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more section s o f a com ­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase o f an establish­
ment’ s business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

22

C L E R K , A C C O U N T IN G — Continued
—

payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper a c ­
counting distribution; requires judgment and experience in making
proper assignations and allocation s. May a ssist in preparing, ad­
justing and closin g journal entries; may direct cla ss B accounting
clerks.
C la ss B — Under supervision, performs one or more routine a c ­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or a c ­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data. This
job does not require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping
principles but is found in o ffices in which the more routine account­
ing work is subdivided on a functional basis among several workers.

C LER K , PA YR O LL

Computes wages of company employees and enters the n eces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers9
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker's name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and a ssist paymaster in making up and distribut­
ing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.
CO M PTO M ETER O P ER A TO R

Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

C LER K , F IL E
C lass A — In an established filing system containing a num­
ber of varied subject matter file s , cla ssifie s and indexes corres­
pondence or other material; may also file this material. May keep
records of various types in conjunction with files or may super­
vise others in filing and locating material in the file s . May per­
form incidental clerical duties.
C la ss B — Performs routine filing, usually of material that has
already been cla ssified or which is easily identifiable, or locates
or a ssists in locating material in file s. May perform incidental
clerica l duties.

C L E R K , O RD ER

R eceives customers9orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination o f the follow in g:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; distributing order sheets to respective departments to be filled.
May check with credit department to determine credit rating of customer,
acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders to see
that they have been filled , keep file of orders received, and check ship­
ping invoices with original orders.




D U P L IC A T IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R (M IM EO GRAPH O R D IT T O )

Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
b ilities, reproduces multiple cop ies of typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare sten cil or Ditto master. May keep file of used sten cils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

KEYPU N CH O P ERA TO R

Under general supervision and with no supervisory respon si­
b ilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards by
punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence, using
an alphabetical or a numerical keypunch machine, following written in­
formation on records. May duplicate cards by using the duplicating de­
vice attached to machine. May keep files of punch cards. May verify
own work or work of others.
O F F I C E B O Y O R G IR L

Performs various routine duties such as running errands, op­
erating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and
distributing mail, and other minor clerica l work.

23

SECRETA RY

Performs secretarial and clerica l duties for a superior in an ad­
ministrative or executive position. Duties include making appointments
for superior; receiving people coming into o ffice; answering and making
phone ca lls; handling personal and important or confidential mail, and
writing routine correspondence on own initiative; taking dictation1(where
transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded information
reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare special reports or
memorandums for information of superior.
STEN O G RA PH ER, G E N E R A L

Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a nor­
mal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter.
May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep files in or­
der, keep simple records, etc. D oes not include transcribing-machine
work (see transcribing-machine operator).
S T E N O G R A P H E R , T E C H N IC A L

Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a varied
technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on
scien tific research and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter. May
also type from written copy. May also set up and keep files in order,
keep simple records, etc. D o es not include transcribing-machine work.
SW ITC H B O A R D O P E R A T O R

Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or o ffice ca lls .
May record toll calls and take m essages. May give information to per­
sons who ca ll in, or occasion ally take telephone orders. For workers
who also act as receptionists see switchboard operator-receptionist.
SW ITC H B O A R D O P E R A T O R - R E C E P T IO N IS T

In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single p o si­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. This typing
or clerica l work may take the major part of this worker*s time while at
switchboard.




T A B U LA T IN 'G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R
C lass A — Operates a variety of tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignments without clo se supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating sequences of long and complex reports.
D o es not include working supervisors performing tabulating-machine
operations and day-to-day supervision of the work and production of
a group of tabulating-machine operators.
C lass B — Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under
sp e cific instructions and may include the performance of some wir­
ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but
small tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d . May a l s o include the training
of new employees in the basic operation of the machine.
C lass C — Operates simple tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with sp ecific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs, or re­
petitive operations.

T R A N S C R IB IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R , G E N E R A L

Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May also type from written
copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation in­
volving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal briefs
or reports on scien tific research are not included. A worker who takes
dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is cla ssified
as a stenographer, general.

24

T Y P IS T

T Y P I S T - —Continued

Uses a typewriter to make cop ies of various material or to make
out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May in­
clude typing of s te n cils , mats, or similar materials for use in duplicat­
ing p rocesses. May do clerical work involving little sp ecia l training,
such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting
and distributing incoming mail.
C lass A — Performs one or more o f the follow in g: Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punc-

tuation, e tc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; planning layout and typing of complicated statistical tables
to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine
form letters varying details to suit circum stances.
C la ss B — Performs one or more o f the follow in g: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing o f forms, insurance p o licie s,
e tc.; setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying more com­
plex tables already set up and spaced properly.

P R O F E S S IO N A L AND T E C H N I C A L
D R A FT S M A N , JU N IO R

(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.
D R A FT SM A N , L E A D E R

Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration of working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Duties
involve a combination o f the follow ing: Interpreting blueprints, sketches,
and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures; assigning
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problems. May a ssist subordinates during emergencies or as a
regular assignment, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
ministrative nature.

D R A FT S M A N , S E N IO R — Continued

involved in strength o f materials, beams and trusses; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quantities;
writing specification s; making adjustments or changes in drawings or
specification s. May ink in lines and letters on pencil drawings, prepare
detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings. Work is frequently
in a specialized field such as architectural, electrical, mechanical, or
structural drafting.
N U R S E , IN D U S T R IA L ( R E G I S T E R E D )

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combina tion o f the follow ing: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of em ployees' injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants
and employees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.

D R A FT SM A N , S E N IO R
TRA CER

Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
poses. Duties involve a combination o f the following: Preparing work­
ing plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-section s, e tc., to sca le by use
of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as those




Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or p encil. Uses
T-square, compass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

25
MAINTENANCE

D PO W E R PL A N T

C A R P E N T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E

F IR E M A N , S T A T IO N A R Y B O I L E R

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves m ost o f the follow ing:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’ s handtools, portable
power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; selecting materials n ec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or a ssist in repairing boilerroom equipment.

E L E C T R I C I A N , M A IN T E N A N C E

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, d is­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves m ost o f the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specifications;.locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c ­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; using a variety of
electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In gen­
eral, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.
E N G IN E E R , S T A T IO N A R Y

Operates and maintains and may a lso supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, motors
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a record of
operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May also
supervise these operations. Head or c h ie f engineers in establishm ents
employing more than one engineer are excluded .




H E L P E R , T R A D E S , M A IN T E N A N C E

A ssists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing sp e cific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts o f a trade
that are a lso performed by workers on a full-time basis.
M A C H IN E-T O O L O P E R A T O R , T O O LR O O M

Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools, gauges,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most o f the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making necessary adjustments during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classification .
M A CH IN IST, M A IN T E N A N C E

Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves m ost o f the following: Interpreting written instructions and
specification s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
ch in ist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and

26

M A CH IN IST, M A IN T E N A N C E — Continued

M ILLW R IG H T — Continued

operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to clo s e tolerances; making standard shop computations re la ting to dimensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assembling parts into me­
chanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally requires
a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

are required. Work involves m ost o f the follow ing: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specification s; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment, and parts
to be used; installing and maintaining in good order power transmission
equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the mill­
wright’ s work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

M EC H A N IC , A U T O M O T IV E (M A IN T EN A N C E)

Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an e s ­
tablishment. Work involves m ost o f the follow ing: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assem blies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; alining wheels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
M EC H A N IC , M A IN T E N A N C E

Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves m ost o f the follow in g: Examining machines and mechan­
ica l equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly d is ­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replace­
ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop
for major repairs; preparing written specification s for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling ma­
chines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In general,
the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classification are workers
whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.
M IL LW R IG H T

Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout




O IL E R

Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.
P A IN T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E

Paints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work in volves the follow ing: Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types o f paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, o ils , white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper
color or con sistency. In general, the work of the maintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
P I P E F I T T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E

Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most o f the follow ing:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other written specification s; cutting various sizes of pipe to correct
lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with stocks and d ies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to pressures,
flow , and size of pipe required; making standard tests to determine
whether finished pipes meet specifications* In general, the work of the
maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building
sanitation or heating sy ste m s are excluded .

27
T O O L AND D IE M A K ER

P L U M B E R , M A IN T E N A N C E

Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake. In
general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.
S H E E T - M E T A L W O R K ER , M A IN T E N A N C E

Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishment. Work involves m ost o f the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, models,
or other specification s; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; installing sheetmetal articles as required. In general, the work of the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

(Die maker; jig maker; tool

m ak er;

fixture maker; gauge maker)

Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most o f the following: Planning and laying out of work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specification s;
using a variety of tool and die maker’ s handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding of the working properties of common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to clo se tolerances; fitting and assembling
o f parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selecting appropriate
materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die maker’ s
work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this cla ssifica tion .

C U STO D IA L AND M A T E R IA L MOVEMENT
E L E V A T O R O P ER A TO R , PA SSEN GER

JA N IT O R , P O R T E R , O R C L E A N E R — Continued

Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

or other establishment. Duties involve a combination o f the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte-*
nance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Workers
who specialize in window washing are excluded.

GUARD

Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity o f em ployees and
other persons entering.

JA N IT O R , P O R T E R , O R C L E A N E R

(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial




L A B O R E R , M A T E R IA L H A N D LIN G

(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more o f the follow ­
ing: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or

28

L A B O R E R , M A T E R IA L H A N D LIN G — Continued

from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting d evices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; trans­
porting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.
Longshoremen , who load and unload sh ips are excluded .

O RD ER F IL L E R

(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, customers’
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders, requisi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and pertorm
other related duties.

S H IP P IN G AND R E C E IV IN G C L E R K — Continued

For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssified as follow s:
R eceiv in g clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk

T R U C K D R IV E R

Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of estab­
lishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers’ houses or places of business. May also load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. D river-salesm en and over-the-road drivers
are excluded .

P A C K E R , S H IP P IN G

Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the sp ecific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, siz e, and number o f units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may in volve one or more o f
the following: Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify
content; selection of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closin g and sealing container; applying labels or
entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make wooden
boxes or crates are excluded .

S H IP P IN G AND R E C E IV IN G C L E R K

Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­
sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Shipping
work in vo lves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes,
available means of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or assist in
preparing the merchandise for shipment. R eceivin g work in v o lv e s: Veri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipments against
bills of lading, in v oices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing merchandise or materials to proper de­
partments; maintaining necessary records and file s.




For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are cla ssified by size
and type o f equipment, as follow s: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis o f trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver (combination o f s i z e s liste d separately)
Truckdriver, light ( under lV2 ton s)
Truckdriver , medium ( l l to and including 4 tons)
A
Truckdriver , heavy (over 4 ton s , trailer typ e)
Truckdriver , heavy (over 4 tons , other than trailer typ e)

T R U C K E R , P O W ER

Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssifie d by type of
truck, as follow s:
Trucker , power (forklift)
Trucker , power (other than forklift)

WATCHMAN

Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.
* U . S . G O V E R N M E N T P R I N T I N G O F F I C E : 1961 0 — 585221

Occupational Wage Surveys
Occupational wage surveys will be conducted in the 82 major labor markets listed below during late I960 and early 1961. Bulletins, when available, may be
purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U .S . Government Printing O ffice, Washington 25, D .C ., or from any of the BLS regional sa le s offices shown on the
inside front cover.
A summary bulletin containing data for 80 labor markets, combined with additional an a lysis, w ill be issued early in 1962.

A k ro n , O h io — B u ll.

1285-

A l b a n y —S c h e n e c t a d y —T r o y , N . Y . — B u l l .
A lb u q u e r q u e , N . M e x .— B u l l .

1285-

1285-

A l l e n t o w n —B e t h l e h e m —E a s t o n ,

12851285B u l l . 1285-

P a . —N . J . — B u l l .
A tla n ta , G a .— B u ll.
B a l t i m o r e , M d .—

B e a u m o n t —P o r t A r t h u r , T e x . — B u l l .
B irm in g h a m , A l a .— B u l l .

1285-

1285-

12851285-15
B u f f a l o , N . Y . — B u l l . 1285- 31
B u r l i n g t o n , V t . — B u l l . 1285C a n t o n , O h i o — B u l l . 1285-29
C h a r l e s t o n , W . V a . — B u l l . 1285C h a r l o t t e , N . C . — B u l l . 1285B o i s e , Id a h o — B u ll.

^ ♦ B o s t o n , M a s s .— B u l l .

* * C h a t t a n o o g a , T e n n . —G a . — B u l l .
C h ic a g o ,

111.—

B u ll.

1285-14

1285-

12851285-11
C o l u m b u s , O h i o — B u l l . 1285* * D a l l a s , T e x . — B u l l . 1285-21
C i n c i n n a t i , O h i o —K y . — B u l l .

* * C l e v e l a n d , O h io — B u ll.

* * D a v e n p o r t —R o c k I s l a n d —M o l i n e , I o w a —111.—
B u ll.

1285-16

1285D e n v e r , C o l o . — B u l l . 1285-27
D e s M o i n e s , I o w a — B u l l . 1285D e t r o i t , M i c h . — B u l l . 1285* * F o r t W o r t h , T e x . — B u l l . 1285-23
D a y to n , O h io — B u ll.

* Green Bay, W is.— Bull. 1285-2
Greenville, S .C .— Bull. 1285Houston, T e x .— Bull. 1285Indianapolis, Ind.— Bull. 1285- 28
Jackson, M i s s .— Bull. 1285Jacksonville, F la .— Bull. 1 2 8 5 -3 0
* Kansas City, M o.—K a n s.— Bull. 1 285-18
Lawrence—Haverhill, M a ss.—N .H .— Bull. 1285* * Little R ock-N orth Little Rock, A rk .— Bull. 1 2 8 5 -6
L os A n geles—Long Beach, C a lif.— Bull. 1285L o u isv ille, K y .—Ind.— Bull. 1285Lubbock, T e x .— Bull. 1285* Manchester, N .H .— Bull. 1285-1
Memphis, T enn.— Bull. 1285Miami, F la .— Bull. 1285Milwaukee, W is.— Bull. 1285Minneapolis—St. Paul, Minn.— Bull. 1285Muskegon—Muskegon H eights, Mich.— Bull. 1285Newark and Jersey City, N .J .— Bull. 1285New Haven, Conn.— Bull. 1285New Orleans, L a .— Bull. 1285New York, N .Y .— Bull. 1285Norfolk—Portsmouth and Newport N ew s—
Hampton, V a .— Bull. 1285* * Oklahoma C ity, O k la.— Bull. 1285-3
* * Omaha, Nebr.—Iowa— Bull. 1 285-13
Paterson—Clifton—P a ssa ic , N .J .— Bull. 1285* * Philadelphia, P a .— Bull. 1 285-24
Phoenix, A riz .— Bull. 1285-

Pittsburgh, P a .— Bull. 1285* Portland, Maine— Bull. 1 285-19
Portland, O reg.—W ash.— B ull. 1285Providence—Pawtucket, R .I .—M a ss.— B ull. 1285* * Raleigh, N .C .— Bull. 1285-5
Richmond, V a .— Bull. 1 2 8 5 -2 6
Rockford, 111.— Bull. 1285* * S t . L ouis, M o.—111.— Bull. 1285- 10
Salt Lake City, Utah— Bull. 1285-32
San Antonio, T e x .— Bull. 1285* San Bernardino—R iverside—Ontario,
C a lif.— Bull. 1 2 8 5 -4
San F rancisco—Oakland, C a lif.— B ull. 1285Savannah, G a .— Bull. 1285* * Scranton, P a .— Bull. 1 2 8 5 -8
* * Seattle, W ash.— Bull. 1 2 8 5 -7
* * * Sioux F a lls, S. D ak.— B ull. 1 2 8 5 -1 7
South Bend, Ind.— Bull. 1285-

**
*
**
**

Spokane, Wash.— Bull. 1285T oledo, Ohio— Bull. 1285Trenton, N .J .— Bull. 1 28 5 -2 5
Washington, D .C .- M d .- V a .— Bull. 1285-22
Waterbury, Conn.— Bull. 1285Waterloo, Iowa— Bull. 1 28 5 -2 0
Wichita, K an s.— Bull. 1 2 8 5 -9
Wilmington, D e l .- N .J .— Bull. 1 2 8 5 -1 2
Worcester, M a ss.— Bull. 1285York, P a .— Bull. 1285-

An asterisk preceding a labor market indicates the availability and
price of the bulletin.
Please do not order copies in advance.

*
**
***




Price, 20 cents.
Price, 25 cents.
Price, 15 cents.





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102