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Occupational Wage Survey

JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA
D ECEM BER 1960

Bulletin N o . 1285-30




U N IT E D S T A T E S D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OF IABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clagua, Commbaontr




Occupational Wage Survey




J A C K S O N V I L L E , F L O R ID A
DECEMBER 1960

Bulletin No. 1285-30
March 1961

U N IT E D S T A T E S D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Claguo, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing O ffice, Washington 25, D.C.

Price 25 cents




Pnfac*

Contents
Page

T he C o m m u n ity W a ge S u r v e y P r o g r a m

T h e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s r e g u l a r l y co n d u cts
a r e a w id e w a g e s u r v e y s in a n u m b e r of im p o r ta n t in d u s t r ia l
ce n te rs.
T h e s t u d ie s , m a d e f r o m la te f a l l to e a r ly s p r in g ,
r e la t e to o c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s and r e la t e d s u p p le m e n ta r y
b e n e fit s .
A p r e l im in a r y r e p o r t i s a v a ila b le on c o m p le tio n
o f the stu d y in e a c h a r e a , u s u a lly in the m o n th fo llo w in g
the p a y r o ll p e r io d s tu d ie d . T h is b u lle tin p r o v id e s a d d itio n a l
d a ta n ot in c lu d e d in th e e a r l i e r r e p o r t .
A c o n s o lid a te d
a n a ly t ic a l b u lle tin s u m m a r iz in g the r e s u l t s o f a l l o f the
y e a r ’ s s u r v e y s is is s u e d a f t e r c o m p le tio n o f the f in a l a r e a
b u lle tin fo r the c u r r e n t ro u n d o f s u r v e y s .

T h is r e p o r t w a s p r e p a r e d in the B u r e a u ’ s r e g io n a l
o f fic e in A tla n ta , G a. , b y D o n ald M . C r u s e , u n d e r the
d ir e c t io n o f L o u is B . W o y ty ch , A s s is t a n t R e g io n a l D ir e c t o r
f o r W a g e s and In d u s tr ia l R e la t io n s .




In tro d u ctio n ____________________________________________________
W a ge tr e n d s fo r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n a l g r o u p s ______________________

1
4

T a b le s :

1.
2.

A:

E s t a b lis h m e n t s and w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e of s u r v e y __________
P e r c e n t s o f in c r e a s e in s ta n d a rd w e e k ly s a l a r i e s
and s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s fo r s e le c t e d
o c c u p a tio n a l g r o u p s ______________________________________

3

3

5
7
7
8

E s t a b lis h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and s u p p le m e n ta r y w a g e
p r o v is io n s : *
B -l.
S h ift d if f e r e n t ia ls ___________________________________
B -2 .
M in im u m e n tr a n c e s a l a r i e s f o r w o m e n o f fic e w o r k e r s _
_
B -3 .
S ch e d u le d w e e k ly h o u r s ______________________________

10
11
11

B -4 .

P a id h o lid a y s

_________________________________________________________

12

B -5 .
B -6 .

B:

O c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s : *
A -l.
O ffic e o c c u p a tio n s _______________________
A -2 .
P r o f e s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l o c c u p a tio n s ________________
A - 3.
M a in te n a n ce and p o w e r p la n t o c c u p a tio n s ______________
A -4 .
C u s to d ia l and m a t e r ia l m o v e m e n t o c c u p a tio n s _________

P a id v a c a t io n s _____________________________________
H e a lth , in s u r a n c e , and p e n s io n p la n s _________________

13
15

O c c u p a tio n a l d e s c r ip t io n s ______________________________

17

A p p e n d ix :

N O T E : S im ila r ta b u la tio n s fo r th e s e and o th e r it e m s ,
in c lu d in g d a ta on e s t a b lis h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and s u p p le m e n ta r y
w a g e p r o v is io n s , a r e a v a ila b le in the J a c k s o n v ille a r e a
r e p o r t s fo r M ay 1952 and D e c e m b e r 1959.
A d ir e c to ry
in d ic a tin g d ate o f stu d y and the p r ic e o f thq r e p o r t s , a s w e ll
a s r e p o r t s f o r o th e r m a jo r a r e a s , is a v a ila b le upon r e q u e s t .

U nion s c a l e s , in d ic a tiv e o f p r e v a ilin g p a y l e v e l s in
the J a c k s o n v ille a r e a , a r e a ls o a v a ila b le f o r the fo llo w in g
t r a d e s o r in d u s t r ie s :
B u ild in g
c o n s t r u c t io n , p r in tin g ,
l o c a l - t r a n s i t o p e r a tin g e m p lo y e e s , and m o t o r t r u c k d r i v e r s
and h e lp e r s .




Occupational Wage Survey—Jacksonville, Fla.
Introduction
T h is a r e a is one o f s e v e r a l im p o rta n t in d u s t r ia l c e n t e r s in
w h ich the U . S. D e p a r tm e n t o f L a b o r l s B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s h as
co n d u cted s u r v e y s o f o c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s and r e la t e d w a g e b e n e fits
on an a r e a w id e b a s is . In th is a r e a , d a ta w e r e o b ta in e d b y p e r s o n a l
v i s i t s o f B u r e a u f ie ld e c o n o m is ts to r e p r e s e n t a t iv e e s ta b lis h m e n ts
w ith in s i x b r o a d in d u s tr y d iv is io n s :
M a n u fa c tu r in g ; t r a n s p o r t a t io n ,1
c o m m u n ic a tio n , and o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s ; w h o le s a le t r a d e ; r e t a il
tr a d e ; fin a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a te ; and s e r v i c e s . M a jo r in ­
d u s t r y g r o u p s e x c lu d e d fr o m th e s e s tu d ie s a r e g o v e r n m e n t o p e r a tio n s
and the c o n s t r u c t io n and e x t r a c t iv e in d u s t r ie s . E s t a b lis h m e n t s h a v in g
f e w e r th an a p r e s c r i b e d n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s a r e o m itte d a ls o b e c a u s e
th e y fu r n is h in s u ff ic ie n t e m p lo y m e n t in th e o c c u p a tio n s s tu d ie d to w a r ­
r a n t in c lu s io n . W h e r e v e r p o s s ib le , s e p a r a te ta b u la tio n s a r e p r o v id e d
f o r e a c h o f th e b r o a d in d u s t r y d iv is io n s .
T h e s e s u r v e y s a r e co n d u cted on a s a m p le b a s is b e c a u s e o f the
u n n e c e s s a r y c o s t in v o lv e d in s u r v e y in g a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s . To o b tain
a p p r o p r ia te a c c u r a c y a t m in im u m c o s t , a g r e a t e r p r o p o r tio n o f la r g e
than o f s m a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s is s tu d ie d . In c o m b in in g the d a ta , h o w ­
e v e r , a l l e s t a b lis h m e n t s a r e g iv e n t h e ir a p p r o p r ia t e w e ig h t. E s t im a t e s
b a s e d on th e e s t a b lis h m e n t s s tu d ie d a r e p r e s e n te d , t h e r e f o r e , a s r e ­
la tin g to a l l e s t a b lis h m e n t s in th e in d u s t r y g ro u p in g and a r e a , e x ­
c e p t f o r th o s e b e lo w the m in im u m s i z e s tu d ie d .
O c c u p a tio n s and E a r n in g s
T h e o c c u p a tio n s s e le c t e d f o r s tu d y a r e co m m o n to a v a r ie t y
o f m a n u fa c tu r in g and n o n m a n u fa c tu rin g in d u s t r ie s . O c c u p a tio n a l c l a s ­
s if ic a t io n is b a s e d on a u n ifo r m s e t o f jo b d e s c r ip tio n s d e s ig n e d to
ta k e a c c o u n t o f in te r e s ta b lis h m e n t v a r ia t io n in d u tie s w ith in the s a m e
jo b . (S ee a p p en d ix f o r lis t in g o f th e s e d e s c r ip t io n s .) E a r n in g s d a ta a r e
p r e s e n te d (in the A - s e r i e s ta b le s ) f o r th e fo llo w in g ty p e s o f o c c u p a ­
tio n s : (a) O ffic e c l e r i c a l ; (b) p r o f e s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l; (c) m a in t e ­
n a n ce and p o w e rp la n t; and (d) c u s to d ia l and m a t e r ia l m o v e m e n t.
O c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t and e a r n in g s d a ta a r e sh o w n f o r
f u l l - t im e w o r k e r s , i. e. , th o s e h ir e d to w o r k a r e g u la r w e e k ly s c h e d ­
u le in th e g iv e n o c c u p a tio n a l c l a s s if ic a t io n .
E a r n in g s d a ta e x c lu d e
p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and

1

R a ilr o a d s , f o r m e r l y e x c lu d e d fr o m the s c o p e o f th e s e s t u d ie s ,
w e r e in c lu d e d in a l l o f the a r e a s s tu d ie d s in c e J u ly 19 59, e x c e p t
B a lt im o r e , B u ffa lo , C le v e la n d , and S e a t t le .
R a ilr o a d s a r e n ow in ­
clu d e d in th e s c o p e o f a l l la b o r - m a r k e t w a g e s u r v e y s .




l a t e s h if t s .
N o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u s e s a r e e x c lu d e d a ls o , but c o s t - o f liv in g b o n u se s and in c e n tiv e e a r n in g s a r e in c lu d e d .
W h ere w e e k ly
h o u rs a r e r e p o r te d , a s fo r o ffic e c l e r i c a l o c c u p a tio n s , r e f e r e n c e is
to the w o r k s c h e d u le s (ro u n d ed to the n e a r e s t h a lf hour) f o r w h ich
s t r a ig h t - t im e s a l a r i e s a r e p a id ; a v e r a g e w e e k ly e a r n in g s f o r th e s e
o c c u p a tio n s h a v e b e e n rou n ded to th e n e a r e s t h a lf d o lla r .
A v e r a g e e a r n in g s o f m e n and w o m en a r e p r e s e n te d s e p a r a t e ly
f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s in w h ich both s e x e s a r e c o m m o n ly e m p lo y e d .
D if f e r e n c e s in p a y l e v e l s o f m e n and w om en in th e s e o c c u p a tio n s a r e
l a r g e l y due to (1) d if f e r e n c e s in the d is tr ib u tio n o f the s e x e s am ong
in d u s t r ie s and e s t a b lis h m e n t s ; (2) d if f e r e n c e s in s p e c if ic d u tie s p e r ­
fo r m e d , a lth o u g h the o c c u p a tio n s a r e a p p r o p r ia t e ly c l a s s i f i e d w ith in
the s a m e s u r v e y jo b d e s c r ip tio n ; and (3) d if f e r e n c e s in le n g th o f s e r v ­
ic e o r m e r it r e v ie w w hen in d iv id u a l s a l a r i e s a r e a d ju s te d on th is b a s is .
L o n g e r a v e r a g e s e r v i c e o f m e n w ou ld r e s u lt in h ig h e r a v e r a g e p a y
w hen both s e x e s a r e e m p lo y e d w ith in the s a m e r a te ra n g e .
Job
d e s c r ip tio n s u s e d in c l a s s if y in g e m p lo y e e s in th e s e s u r v e y s a r e u s u ­
a l ly m o r e g e n e r a liz e d than th o s e u s e d in in d iv id u a l e s ta b lis h m e n ts to
a llo w fo r m in o r d if f e r e n c e s a m o n g e s ta b lis h m e n ts in s p e c if ic d u tie s
p e r fo rm e d .
O c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t e s t im a t e s r e p r e s e n t the to ta l in a ll
e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith in the s c o p e o f th e stu d y and not the n u m b e r a c t u ­
a l ly s u r v e y e d . B e c a u s e o f d if f e r e n c e s in o c c u p a tio n a l s t r u c t u r e am o n g
e s t a b lis h m e n t s , the e s t im a t e s o f o c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t o b tain ed
fr o m th e s a m p le of e s ta b lis h m e n ts s tu d ie d s e r v e o n ly to in d ic a te the
r e la t iv e im p o r ta n c e o f the jo b s s tu d ie d .
T h e s e d if f e r e n c e s in o c c u ­
p a tio n a l s t r u c t u r e do not m a t e r i a l l y a ff e c t th e a c c u r a c y o f the e a r n ­
in g s d a ta.
E s t a b lis h m e n t P r a c t i c e s and S u p p le m e n ta r y W age P r o v is io n s
In fo rm a tio n is p r e s e n te d a ls o (in the B - s e r i e s ta b le s ) on s e ­
le c t e d e s t a b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and s u p p le m e n ta r y b e n e fits a s th e y r e ­
la te to o f fic e and p la n t w o r k e r s .
T h e t e r m " o f f ic e w o r k e r s , " a s u s e d
in th is b u lle tin , in c lu d e s w o r k in g s u p e r v is o r s and n o n s u p e r v is o r y
w o r k e r s p e r fo r m in g c l e r i c a l o r r e la t e d fu n c tio n s , and e x c lu d e s a d m in ­
i s t r a t i v e , e x e c u t iv e , and p r o f e s s io n a l p e r s o n n e l. " P la n t w o r k e r s " in ­
clu d e w o r k in g fo r e m e n and a l l n o n s u p e r v is o r y w o r k e r s (in clu d in g le a d m e n and t r a in e e s ) e n g a g e d in n o n o ffic e fu n c tio n s .
A d m in is t r a t iv e ,
e x e c u t iv e , and p r o f e s s io n a l e m p lo y e e s , and f o r c e - a c c o u n t c o n s tr u c tio n
e m p lo y e e s who a r e u t iliz e d a s a s e p a r a te w o r k f o r c e a r e e x c lu d e d .
C a f e t e r ia w o r k e r s and ro u te m e n a r e e x c lu d e d in m a n u fa c tu r in g in d u s ­
t r i e s , but a r e in c lu d e d a s p la n t w o r k e r s in n o n m a n u fa c tu rin g in d u s t r ie s .

2
Shift d iffe r e n tia l data (table B - l ) a r e lim ite d to m a n u factu rin g
in d u s tr ie s .
T h is in fo rm a tio n is p r e s e n te d both in te r m s o f (a) e s t a b ­
lish m en t p o li c y ,* p r e s e n te d in te r m s o f tota l plant w o r k e r e m p lo y ­
m en t, and (b) e ffe c t iv e p r a c t ic e , p r e s e n te d on the b a s is o f w o r k e r s
a ctu a lly e m p lo y e d on the s p e c ifie d sh ift at the tim e o f the su r v e y .
In e sta b lis h m e n ts having v a r ie d d iffe r e n t ia ls , the am ount applying to
a m a jo r ity w as u se d o r , if no am ount a p p lied to a m a jo r ity , the c l a s ­
s ific a tio n " o t h e r " w as u sed .
In esta b lis h m e n ts in w h ich s o m e la t e sh ift h ou rs a r e p a id at n o rm a l r a te s , a d iffe r e n t ia l w as r e c o r d e d on ly
i f it a p p lied to a m a jo r ity o f the sh ift h o u r s.

M in im u m en tra n ce ra tes (ta ble B -2 ) r e la te on ly to the e s t a b ­
lish m en ts v is it e d .
T h ey a r e p r e s e n te d on an esta b lis h m e n t, ra th er
than on an em p lo y m e n t b a s is .
P a id h o lid a y s ; p a id v a c a tio n s ; and
health, in s u r a n ce , and p e n sio n plans a r e tr e a te d s t a t is t ic a lly on the
b a s is that th ese a r e a p p lic a b le to a ll plant o r o ffic e w o r k e r s if a m a ­
jo r it y o f su ch w o r k e r s a r e e lig ib le o r m a y ev en tu a lly q u a lify f o r the
p r a c t ic e s lis te d . S ch edu led h ou rs a re tr e a te d s t a t is t ic a lly on the b a s is
that th e se a r e a p p lic a b le to a ll plant o r o f f ic e w o r k e r s i f a m a jo r it y
a r e c o v e r e d . 3 B e c a u s e o f rounding, su m s o f in d iv id u al ite m s in th ese
tabu lation s m a y not equ al to ta ls .
The fir s t p a rt o f the p a id h olid a y s ta b le p r e s e n ts the n u m ­
b e r o f w hole and h a lf h olid a y s a c tu a lly p r o v id e d .
The s e c o n d p a rt
c o m b in e s w hole and h a lf h olid a y s to sh ow total h olid a y t im e .
The su m m a r y o f v a ca tio n p la n s is lim ite d to fo r m a l a r r a n g e ­
m e n ts , ex clu d in g in fo r m a l plans w h e r e b y tim e o ff w ith p a y is g ra n ted
at the d is c r e t io n o f the e m p lo y e r .
S ep a ra te e s tim a te s a r e p r o v id e d
a c c o r d in g to e m p lo y e r p r a c t ic e in com pu tin g v a ca tio n p a y m e n ts , su ch
as tim e p a y m e n ts, p e r c e n t o f annual e a rn in g s, o r fla t -s u m am ou n ts.
H o w e v e r, in the tabu lation s o f v a c a tio n a llo w a n c e s , p a ym en ts not on
a tim e b a s is w e re c o n v e rte d ; f o r e x a m p le , a pa ym en t o f 2 p e r c e n t o f
annual ea rn in g s w as c o n s id e r e d as the equ iv alen t o f 1 w e e k 's pa y.

1

D ata a r e p r e s e n te d f o r a ll health, in s u r a n ce , and p e n sio n
plans f o r w h ich at le a s t a p a r t o f the c o s t is b o r n e b y the e m p lo y e r ,
ex ce p tin g on ly le g a l r e q u ire m e n ts su ch as w o r k m e n 's co m p e n sa tio n ,
s o c ia l s e c u r it y , and r a ilr o a d r e tir e m e n t.
Such p la n s in clu d e th ose
u n d erw ritten by a c o m m e r c ia l in su r a n ce com p a n y and th o se p r o v id e d
th rough a union fund o r p a id d ir e c t ly b y the e m p lo y e r out o f c u r re n t
o p e ra tin g funds o r fr o m a fund s e t a s id e f o r this p u r p o s e .
D eath
b e n e fits a r e in clu d ed as a fo r m o f life in s u r a n ce .
S ick n e ss and a c c id e n t in su ra n ce is lim ite d to that type o f in ­
su r a n ce u n der w h ich p r e d e te r m in e d c a sh pa ym en ts a r e m a d e d ir e c t ly
to the in su re d on a w eek ly o r m on th ly b a s is d u rin g illn e s s o r a c c id e n t
d is a b ility .
In fo rm a tio n is p r e s e n te d f o r a ll su ch plans to w h ich the
e m p lo y e r co n trib u te s .
H o w e v e r, in N ew Y o rk and N ew J e r s e y , w hich
have en a cted te m p o r a r y d is a b ilit y in su r a n ce la w s w hich r e q u ir e e m ­
p lo y e r c o n t r ib u t io n s ,4 plan s a r e in clu d ed on ly if the e m p lo y e r (1) c o n ­
trib u te s m o r e than is le g a lly r e q u ire d , o r (2) p r o v id e s the e m p lo y e e
w ith b e n e fits w h ich e x c e e d the re q u ire m e n ts o f the law . T ab u lation s
o f p a id s i c k -le a v e plans a r e lim ite d to fo r m a l plans 5 w h ich p r o v id e
fu ll pa y o r a p r o p o r t io n o f the w o r k e r 's pay d u rin g a b s e n ce fr o m w ork
b e c a u s e o f illn e s s .
S ep a ra te tabu lation s a r e p r o v id e d a c c o r d in g to
(1) .plans w h ich p r o v id e fu ll p a y and no w aitin g p e r io d , and (2) plan s
p r o v id in g e ith e r p a r tia l pa y o r a w aitin g p e r io d .
In ad dition to the
p r e s e n ta tio n o f the p r o p o r t io n s o f w o r k e r s who a r e p r o v id e d s ic k n e s s
and a c c id e n t in su ra n ce o r p a id s ic k le a v e , an u n du plicated tota l is
show n o f w o r k e r s who r e c e iv e e ith e r o r both ty p es o f b e n e fits .
C a ta strop h e in s u r a n ce , s o m e tim e s r e fe r r e d to as ex ten d ed
m e d ic a l in s u r a n ce , in clu d e s th o se p la n s w h ich a r e d e s ig n e d to p r o t e c t
e m p lo y e e s in c a s e o f s ic k n e s s and in ju r y in v o lv in g e x p e n s e s bey on d
the n o r m a l c o v e r a g e o f h o sp ita liz a tio n , m e d ic a l, and s u r g ic a l p la n s .
M e d ic a l in su r a n ce r e fe r s to pla n s p r o v id in g f o r c o m p le te o r p a r t ia l
p a ym en t o f d o c t o r s 1 f e e s . Such plans m a y b e u n d erw ritten b y c o m m e r ­
c ia l in su ra n ce c o m p a n ie s o r n o n p ro fit o r g a n iz a tio n s o r th ey m a y be
s e lf-in s u r e d . T ab u lation s o f r e tir e m e n t p e n s io n p la n s a r e lim ite d to
th o se p la n s that p r o v id e m on th ly pa ym en ts f o r the r e m a in d e r o f the
w o r k e r 's life .

4
5

An esta b lis h m e n t w as c o n s id e r e d as having a p o li c y if it m e t
The te m p o r a r y d is a b ilit y la w s in C a lifo r n ia and R h ode Isla n d
e ith e r o f the fo llo w in g c o n d itio n s: (1) O p era ted la te sh ifts at the tim e
do not r e q u ir e e rh p lo y e r c o n trib u tio n s.
o f the s u r v e y , o r (2) had fo r m a l p r o v is io n s c o v e r in g la te sh ifts.
A n e s ta b lis h m e n t w as c o n s id e r e d as having a fo r m a l p la n if
S ch edu led w eek ly h ou rs f o r o ffic e w o r k e r s (fir s t s e c tio n o f e s ta b lis h e d at le a s t the m in im u m n u m b er o f days o f s ic k le a v e that
it
ta b le B -3 ) in su r v e y s m a de p r i o r to Ju ly 1957 w e r e p r e s e n te d in
cou ld b e e x p e cte d by e a c h e m p lo y e e . Such a plan n eed n ot b e w ritten ,
te r m s o f the p r o p o r t io n o f w om en o ffic e w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in o ffic e s
but in fo r m a l s i c k - le a v e a llo w a n c e s , d e te rm in e d on an in d iv id u a l b a s is ,
w ith the in d ica ted w e e k ly h ou rs f o r w om en w o r k e r s .
w e r e e x clu d e d .

3




3

Table 1.

Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied in Jacksonville, Fla. , 1 by m ajor industry division, 2 December I960

Industry division

M ission s

_________________________________________________

Manufacturing ___________ __________
___ ___ ___ __ __
Nonmanufacturing _______________________ ___ __ ______
Transportation, communication, and other
public u tilities5 ___________________ ___________ ______
Wholesale trade __________________________________________
Retail trade _
___ ________ __ ________ ___
__ __
Finance, insurance, and real estate _____ __ __ _____
S e rv ices7 _______ __ ______________________ ___ ___ __

M in im u m
e m p lo y m e n t
in e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t s in
scope of
stu d y

W orkers in establishments

Number of establishments
Within
scope of
study 3

50

298

50
50

Studied
T o ta l4

116

81

50
50
50
50
50

34

54. 700

20
12

10,
4,
12,
8,

19
15
11

12. 900

14, 700
40,000

39
77

217

56
67
33
27

Studied

Within scope of study

000
800
800
500

3, 900

Office

Plant

Total 4

32. 400
1, 100
11, 800
2, 000

( 6)
6)
( 6)
( 6)

34.840
11, 800
20, 600

10, 560
24, 280

4, 800

( 6)
(6
h
(6)

8,
1,
6,
5,
1,

630
530
520
770
830

1 The Jacksonville Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (Duval County).
The "w orkers within scope of study" estim ates shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate description
of the size and composition of the labor force included in the survey.
The estim ates are not intended, however, to serve as a basis of comparison with other area employment indexes to
measure employment trends or levels since (1) planning of wage surveys requires the use of establishment data compiled considerably in advance of the payroll period studied, and (2) sm all
establishments are excluded from the scope of the survey.
2 The 1957 revised edition of the Standard Industrial C lassification Manual was used in classifying establishments by industry division.
Major changes from the earlier edition (used in the
Bureau’ s labor market wage surveys conducted prior to July 1958) are the transfer of m ilk pasteurization plants and ready-m ixed concrete establishments from trade (wholesale or retail) to
manufacturing, and the transfer of radio and television broadcasting from services to the transportation, communication, and other public utilities division.
3 Includes all establishments with total employment at or above the m inim um -size limitation.
A ll outlets (within the area) of companies in such industries as trade, finance, auto repair
service, and m otion-picture theaters are considered as 1 establishment.
4 Includes executive, professional, and other workers excluded from the separate office and plant categories.
5 Taxicabs and services incidental to water transportation were excluded. Jacksonville's electric utility is municipally operated and is excluded by definition from the scope of the studies.
6 This industry division is represented in estim ates for "a ll indu stries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the Series A and B tables.
Separate presentation of data for this division is not made
for one or m ore of the following reasons:
(1) Employment in the division is too sm all to provide enough data to m erit separate study, (2) the sample was not designed initially to permit
separate presentation, (3) response was insufficient or inadequate to permit separate presentation, (4) there is possibility of disclosure of individual establishment data.
7 Hotels; personal services; business services; automobile repair shops; motion pictures; nonprofit mem bership organizations; and engineering and architectural services.




Table 2. Percents of increase in standard weekly salaries and
straight-tim e hourly earnings for selected occupational groups in
Jacksonville, Fla. , December 1959 to December I960

Occupational groups

All industries

Office clerical (women) _____ _______________ Industrial nurses (w om en )_____ ________ ____
Skilled maintenance (men) r--------------------------------Unskilled plant (men) ___________________________

1 Insufficient data to m eet publication criteria.

5. 6
(l )
3. 8
3 .3

4
W Trends for Selected Occupational Groups
age
P r e s e n te d in ta b le 2 a r e p e r c e n ts o f change in s a la r ie s o f
w om en o ffic e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s and in d u str ia l n u r s e s , and in a v e r a g e
ea rn in g s o f s e le c t e d plant w o r k e r g ro u p s.

T h e se w eigh ted e a rn in g s f o r in d iv id u al o c cu p a tio n s w e re then tota led
to ob ta in an a g g re g a te f o r e a c h o c cu p a tio n a l g rou p . F in a lly , the ra tio
o f th ese g rou p a g g re g a te s f o r the one y e a r to the a g g re g a te f o r the
o th e r y e a r w as com p u ted and the d iffe r e n c e betw een the r e s u lt and
is the p e r c e n t o f change fr o m the one p e r io d to the o th e r.

10
0

F o r o ffic e c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s and in d u str ia l n u r s e s , the p e r ­
cen ts o f change r e la te to a v e r a g e w e e k ly s a la r ie s f o r n o r m a l h ou rs
o f w ork , that is , the stan dard w o rk s ch e d u le f o r w h ich s t r a ig h t -tim e
s a la r ie s a r e p a id .
F o r plant w o r k e r g ro u p s , th ey m e a s u r e ch a n ges
in s t r a ig h t -tim e h o u r ly e a rn in g s, ex clu d in g p r e m iu m pa y f o r o v e r ­
tim e and f o r w o rk on w eek en d s, h o lid a y s , and la te s h ifts . The p e r ­
cen ta g es a r e b a s e d on data f o r s e le c t e d k e y o c cu p a tio n s and in clu d e
m o s t o f the n u m e r ic a lly im p orta n t jo b s w ithin e a ch g rou p .
The o f ­
f ic e c l e r i c a l data a r e b a se d on w om en in the fo llo w in g 18 jo b s : B i lle r s ,
m a ch in e (b illin g m a ch in e ); b o o k k e e p in g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s , c la s s A
and B ; C o m p to m e te r o p e r a t o r s ; c le r k s , file , c la s s A and B ; c le r k s ,
o r d e r ; c le r k s , p a y r o ll; keyp u n ch o p e r a t o r s ; o f f ic e g ir l s ; s e c r e t a r ie s ;
ste n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l; sw itch b o a rd o p e r a t o r s ; s w itch b o a rd o p e r a t o r r e c e p t io n is t s ; ta b u la tin g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s ; t r a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e o p ­
e r a t o r s , g e n e r a l; and ty p is ts , c la s s A and B .
The in d u str ia l n u rse
data a r e b a s e d on w om en in d u stria l n u r s e s .
M en in the fo llo w in g
s k ille d m a in ten an ce jo b s and 3 u n sk illed jo b s w e re in clu d ed in the
plant w o r k e r data: S k illed — c a r p e n t e r s ; e le c t r ic ia n s ; m a c h in is ts ; m e ­
c h a n ic s ; m e c h a n ic s , a u tom otiv e; m illw r ig h ts ; p a in te r s ; p ip e fit t e r s ;
s h e e t-m e ta l w o r k e r s ; and t o o l and d ie m a k e r s ; u n s k ille d — ja n it o r s ,
p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s ; la b o r e r s , m a te r ia l han dlin g; and w atch m en .

1
0

A v e r a g e w eek ly s a la r ie s o r a v e r a g e h o u r ly ea rn in g s w e re
com p u ted f o r e a ch o f the s e le c t e d o c cu p a tio n s .
The a v e r a g e s a l ­
a r ie s o r h o u r ly ea rn in g s w e re then m u ltip lie d by the a v e r a g e e m p lo y ­
m en t in the jo b du ring the m onths in d ica te d in the title o f ta ble 2.




The p e r c e n t o f change m e a s u r e s , p r in c ip a lly , the e ffe c t s o f
(1) g e n e r a l s a la r y and w age ch a n g es; (2) m e r it o r o th e r in c r e a s e s
in p a y r e c e iv e d b y in d iv id u al w o r k e r s w h ile in the sa m e jo b ; and
(3) ch a n g es in the la b o r f o r c e su ch as la b o r tu r n o v e r , f o r c e e x p a n ­
s io n s , f o r c e r e d u c tio n s , and ch a n g es in the p r o p o r t io n s o f w o r k e r s
e m p lo y e d b y e sta b lis h m e n ts w ith d iffe r e n t pa y le v e ls . C hanges in the
la b o r f o r c e can c a u se in c r e a s e s o r d e c r e a s e s in the o c cu p a tio n a l
a v e r a g e s w ithout a ctu a l w age ch a n g es. F o r e x a m p le , a f o r c e ex p a n sion
m igh t in c r e a s e the p r o p o r t io n o f lo w e r p a id w o r k e r s in a s p e c ifi c
o c cu p a tio n and r e s u lt in a d ro p in the a v e r a g e , w h erea s a re d u c tio n
in the p r o p o r t io n o f lo w e r p a id w o r k e r s w ould have the o p p o s ite e ffe c t .
The m o v e m e n t o f a h ig h -p a y in g e sta b lis h m e n t out o f an a r e a co u ld
ca u se the a v e r a g e ea rn in g s to d ro p , ev en though no change in ra tes
o c c u r r e d in o th e r a r e a e s ta b lis h m e n ts .
The u se o f con stan t e m p lo y m e n t w eigh ts e lim in a te s the e ffe c t s
o f ch a n ges in the p r o p o r t io n o f w o r k e r s r e p r e s e n t e d in ea ch jo b in ­
clu d ed in the data.
N or a r e the p e r c e n ts o f change in flu e n ce d by
changes in stan dard w o rk sc h e d u le s o r in p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e ,
s in c e they a r e b a s e d on p a y f o r s t r a ig h t -tim e h o u rs.
In dexes f o r the p e r io d 1953 to I960 f o r w o r k e r s in 20 m a jo r
la b o r m a rk e ts w ill a p p e a r in B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 -6 2 , W ages and R ela ted
B e n e fits , 60 L a b o r M a r k e ts, W in ter 1 9 5 9 -6 0 .

5

A* Occupational Earnings

Table A-l. Office Occupations
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Jacksonville, F la ., December I960)
N U M B E R O F W O R K E R S R E C E IV IN G S T R A IG H T -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S O F—

Ay u u q i

N m er
u b
o
f
w rk rs
o e

Sex, occupation, and industry division

W
eekly
W
eekly j Under lo . 00
and
e rn k
a in s
hu
o rs
(S n a ) (S n a ) $
ta d rd
ta d rd 40. 00 under
45. 00

lo . 00

§5. 00

lo . 00

i s . 00

?0. 00

f 5. 00

§0. 00

I 5 .OO

50. 00

55. 00

60. 00

65. 00

70. 00

75. 00

80. 00

85. 00

90. 00

5
— 2—
3

7
2
5

6
2
4

22
2
20

11
7
4

----- 9
j-----

18
8

2
-----2----

1
-

_

_

-

-

-

-

1
1

11
11

11
T5
7—

_

_

■

■

Men
Clerks, accounting, class A
__
_______ __ _
Manufacturing _ _
_
__ _
Nonmanufacturing
_
__ __
__
__ „ __

107
33
74

40. 0
40. 0
4 0.0

$93.00
96. 00
91. 50

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

8
2
6

6
6

12
2
10

Clerks, accounting, class B
Manufacturing _
_____
Nonmanufacturing ____________

114
27
87

4 0.0
40. 0
40. 0

74. 00
71. 56
75. 00

_
-

_
-

1
1

9
4
5

5
2
3

13
2
11

25
6
19

1
1
-

41. 0
41. 5

75. 50
74.06

_

_

_

7

-

-

7
7

-

39. 0
39.0

50. 00
50. 00

_

_ __ _

73
58

-

21
16

13
11

24
22

6
4

6
3

Tabulating-machine operators, class B
__
_ __ _
Nonmanufacturing___________________________________

72
70

40. 0
4 0 .0

86. 00
86. 00

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

4
4

8
8

Tabulating - mac hine operators, class C ______________
Nonmanufacturing _ _ _ _ _
________ ___ ___ __

54
54

38.5
58. 5

64. 50
64. 50

-

-

"

■

2
2

"

20
20

2
2

B illers, machine (billing m ach in e)____________________
Nonmanufacturing___________________________________

50
35

39.5
39.5

58.50
60. 00

_

_

-

-

8
6

10
5

7
5

Bookkeeping-machine operators, class A
Nonmanufacturing _ _
____
__ _

__

74
59

39.5
39.5

65. 00
64. 00

_

_

_

_

"

-

-

-

24
24

Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B ____________
Nonmanufacturing
_
_ __
___
__
_ _

180
170

4 0.5
46. 5

55. 00
54. 00

15
15

6
6

24
24

43
42

127
~To5

39.0
39. 0

76. 00
75. 00

_

_

_

_

"

-

-

62. 00
39. 0
40. 5 “ 51766“
62. 00
39. 0

_
-

_
-

62
1
61

34
30

39.5
39. 5

61. 50
62. 00

_

_

364
563
32

38. 0
38. 0
39.5

50. 50
50. 50
65. 50

_
-

62
“ 52—
-

79
69

40. 0
40 ,0

59.00
57.00

_

_

-

-

120
99

3 9.0
5$. 0

72. 00
71. 56

_
"

1
1

142
129

38. 5
38. 5

62. 06
62.66

_
-

Clerks, order
Nonmanufacturing _

_

_

__

____

__ __
__

Office boys
Nonmanufacturing _

___

_

1

71
_ — 5 —

_
__

__

S
S
$
t
95.00 f o o .00 1*05. 00 110.00 115. 00 120. 00
and
95. 00 100. 00 105. 00 n o . 00 115. 00 120. 00 over

I 5 . 00

-------

T
~

2
------- F~

14
5
-----g---n—
2
2

_
-

1
-

2
2
8
7
— 2— -----2— -----§----- — 6—

8

lo . 00

l
1
8
_
8

-

2
2

_

_

11
11

4
2
2

8
2
6

4
1
3

5
-----1
----4

_

20
10
10

13
7
6

1
_
1

_
-

_
_

-

-

-

_

_

_

^5
~
,

6
7
----- -----5—

6
— 5—
4
_
_

-

-

-

.

_

_

.

.

-

-

-

-

-

2
1
2
13
—
T3— — 2— ----- 2— ------1

_
"

_

_

_

-

■

"

~

"

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

2

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_
-

-

_
-

_

-

_
-

l
l

4
2

1

_
-

1
-

_

1

l
1

_
_
-

1
-

_
_
-

_
-

_
-

_
*

— 2
2-----

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

1
1
1

_
_
-

_
_

_
_

-

-

15
15

8
8

7
7

_
_

_

2
1

4
3

4
4

_

_

_

_

-

-

*

-

28
23

3
1

6
-

5
5

6
4

_

36
35

40
37

4
4

3
-

8
6

_
"

1
-

-

-

5
5

17
15

13
12-----

28
27

24
16

10
5

20
19

3
— 5—

69
19
50

104
7
97

104
18
86

69
7
62

18
4
14

90
4
86

3
1
2

2
1
1

1
-

8
------ 5

5
------ 5

_

145
145
4

85
85
8

41
41
5

13
12
2

2
2

33

12
10

2
1

_

Women

Clerks, accounting, class A _
Nonmanufacturing __
__

__
_

Clerks, accounting, class B _ __
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing _
_

__

Clerks, file, class A _ ___ __ _
_
Nonmanufacturing __
Clerks, file, class B _ —
Nonmanufacturing _
_
Public utilities2

_

_

Comptometer operators _
Nonmanufacturing

See footnotes at end of table,




__
____

___

_
__
_ _
______

__

_

__

__ _ _ _ _ _
_ __
___

Clerks, order
_ _ _ _ _ _
Nonmanufacturing
_
__
Clerks, payroll
Nonmanufacturing _

_

_

_

_

_
_

____

__
___
_

_

523
62
461

3

3

8
------ g—

2

8
8

7
7

13
12

4

'

33

15
— rr~

5
18
------ 5— — rs
27
24

48
.....41....

6
2
1
1
-----j----— 5----- — z— -----1
----6
— 6----2
13
13

“

1
1
-

_
_
-

10
10
10

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

13
9

1
1

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

3
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4
4

l
— j-----

_

_

_

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

12
21
” 175----- ~T2—
20
20

-

2
— —

21
21

2
22
14
5
3
” 21----- ” TI----- “ 2----- — 3----- — r ~ ~
2
-

1
1

_
-

_
-

_
-

6

Table A-1. Office Occupatbns-Continued
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division. Jacksonville, Fla. , December I960)
A
tbbagb
N me
u b r
o
f
w rk r*
o e

Sex, occupation, and industry division

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EABNING8 O
F—

W
eekly W
eekly, Under
h u
o rs
e rn g*
a in
(Stan ard (Stan ard $
d
)
d
)
40.00

$
$
*
$
t
$
40. 00 45. 00 50. 00 55.00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85.00
and
under
45. 00 50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75.00 80. 00 85. 00 90.00

$

$
$
S
S
95. 00 100.00 105. 00 n o .

90. 00

$
$
oo 115. 00 120.00
and

95. 00 100.00 105. 00 110.00 115. 00 120. 00 over

W omen— Continue d
Keypunch operators
_
Nonmanufacturing _ _ _ _ _ _
Public utilities 2 _

361
361
69
70
64

Office girls _
_
Nonmanufacturing
Secretaries _ _ _ _ _
Manufacturing
_
_
_ _
Nonmanufacturing
Public utilities 2 _ _ _
_
_
Stenographers, general
Manufacturing _
Nonmanufacturing _
Public utilities 2

_

_ _
_
_

7 6 8
_

_

_

_

76
692
107

_
133

527
62
465
38. 5

Tabulating-machine operators, class C
Nonmanufacturing _ _
_

Typists, class A
Nonmanufacturing _
Typists, class B
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing

1
2
3
4

77. 50
79. 50
77. 50
91. 50

39. 0
39. 5
38. 5

67. 00
70. 00
66. 50
75. 00

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

59. 50
62. 50
58. 50

38. 0
38.0

75. 00
75. 00

96

38. 5
94

63. 50
38. 5

_

1

-

84
1
83
34

2
2

-

-

1
1

-

10
10
_

-

"

_

17

-

17

7
40
3

13
9
4

"

40. 0
38. 0

46
6

27
7
20

-

52. 00
55. 50
51. 50

73

127
20
66
12

14
1
13

-

_

6
107
11

23
2

-

70
64

6
2

"

59. 00
59. 00

-

7
7

-

39. 0
39. 0

105
140
118
4
15
1
1
101
125
107
38
14
13
10
12

19
19

-

"

102
15
87
10

66

24

21

_

-

-

2

25
24

"

61. 00
60. 50

366

24

8

5

-

63. 50

38. 0

18
18

8

5

-

10
10

6
6

4
62
1

2

-

21
4 21

12
1
1

42
42
7

9

-

37
37
2

1
1

-

-

1

-

38. 5
38. 5

185

-

199

403
37

-

59
59
1
1

66
66

31
31

6
3

-

52
52

-

-

137
126

39
39

"

_
-

49
48

Tabulating-machine operators, class B _
_ _
Nonmanufacturing _ _
_
_
_

Transcribing-machine operators, general
Nonmanufacturing _
_

39.5
39. 5
39. 5
39. 0

107
28
79

Switchboard operator-receptionists _
_
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing

_

53. 00
52. 50

104

4
4

-

52. 50
52. 50

38. 5
38. 5

42. 5
42. 5

110

Switchboard operators
Nonmanufacturing

.

39. 0 $64.00
39. 0 64. 00
40.0 84. 50

-

3
3

3
3

"

45
43

26
23

21
17

60
58

33
30

47
43

122
85
17
8
105
77
16

-

2
1

6

2
2

9
9

9
4
5

8
1
7
17
17

14
14

1

-

-

-

16
16

6

-

-

-

-

22
6
5

19
19
27

11

4
3

8

6

7

23

4

12
1
1

3
3

23
23

7
2

1
1

_

_

-

-

1

_

_

-

-

-

Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Workers were distributed as follows: 13 at $ 120 to $ 125; 2 at $ 125 to $ 130; 1 at $ 135 to $ 140.
Workers were distributed as follows: 15 at $ 30 to $ 35; 6 at $ 35 to $40.




_

_

_

_
-

_
-

-

-

_

_
-

-

_
_

_

_
-

_

-

-

_

-

-

_

_

_

-

_
-

_

-

_
-

.

-

_

-

_

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

2

_
-

_
-

_

-

-

_

1

_

_

_

-

-

16
3 16

8

-

-

_

_

6
!

2

-

16

9

1
1

_

3

-

13
13

9
-

_

3

_

_
-

5
5

-

_

_
-

9
9

-

2
2

2
2

_

_
-

-

-

4
9

-

1

_

-

-

_

1
-

1
1

-

5

9
-

_

-

8
1
7
1

4

-

-

-

16
3
13

22
1
21
21

_

_
-

_

-

29
------6
23
5

3
13
13

9
9

_

_

16

1
1
1

-

42
3
39
7

3

5

19
1
7

"

52
14

-

7
39
18

16
16
16

_

-

12
3
5

47

22
22
22
_

2
2

-

8
6

1

12
12

148
3
145

_

2
2
2

1

4
4

32
32

_

5

3
3
3

18
18
5

_

_

-

-

-

-

_

_
-

-

-

7
Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Jacksonville, F la ., December I960)
AVNtAQB
N u m ber
of
w orkers

Sex, occupation, and industry division

W e e k ly
hou r*
(S ta n da rd )

N U M B E R O F W O R K E R S R E C E IV IN G S T R A IG H T -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S O F —

W e e k ly x
(Sta n da rd)

Under 65. 00
and
$
65. 00 under
70. 00

$

70. 00

S

75. 00

$

S

85. 00

80. 00

75. 00

80. 00

85. 00

90. 00

*

90. 00

$
95. 00 1*00. 00 1
$05. 00

00 ?15. 00 1*20. 00 ? 2 5 .00 1*30. 00 1*35. 00 1*40. 00

flO .

95. 00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115. 00 120. 00 125. 00 130. 00 135. 00 140.00 145.00

Men
Draftsmen, senior -------------------------------------------------------Manufacturing --------- ------- ------------------------------------

71
33

40. 0
40. 0

$112.00
125.00

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

~

-

11
-

11

"

Draftsmen, junior

33

40. 0

82.50

3

1

4

3

9

4

3

_

--------------------------------------------------------

11
1

2
2

3
1

1
1

9
7

12
12

7
5

2
2

2
2

1

-

3

1

1

_

_

_

_

.

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.

Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Jacksonville, F la ., December I960)

Occupation and industry division

N m er
u b
o
f
w rk rs
o e

A g $ 00 $ 10 $ 20 $ 30 $ 40
vera e
1.
1.
1.
1.
h u . 1.
o rly
e rn g
a in s1 and
under
1. 20 1. 30 1.40 1.50
l_L

Carpenters, maintenance ---------------------

30

$ 2 .4 2

Electricians, maintenance ____________
Manufacturing ----------------------------------

60
54

2. 68
2. 7L

Engineers, stationary

3

$

1. 50

NUM
BER O W KERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIM HO
F OR
E
URLY EARNINGS O —
F
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
S
$
$
1. 60 1. 70 1. 80 1. 90 2. 00 2. 10 2. 20 2. 30 2. 40 2. 50 2. 60 2. 70 2. 80 2. 90 3. 00 3. 10 3. 20 3. 30

K

1. 60 1.70

2

1.80

1.90

and
2. 00 2. 10 2. 20 2. 30 2. 40 2. 50 2. 60 2. 70 2. 80 2. 90 3. 00 3. 10 3. 20 3. 30 over
.
_
1
2
1
1
2
4
5
6

1

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

4

2
2

4
4

-

1
-

6
6

2

_

2

-

1
"

_

4

_

4

3

1
1

5
5

-

3
2

3
1

-

5
5

1
-

17
17

6
6

4
4

1
1

1

6

_

2

5

4

_

_

4

_

4

_

43

2. 36

_

-----------------

41
32

1.97
2. 05

8
8

Helpers, trades, maintenance -----------Manufacturing ----------------------------------

159
105

2. 01
2. 04

_

_

16
7

6
1

9
6

17
17

13
11

14
14

1
-

7
7

_

_

_

_

-

36
29

_

-

24
2

_

-

11
11

_

-

5
-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

--------------------------

Firemen, stationary boiler
8

1

8

2
2

10
10
_

8
8

4
4

---------------------

53

2.59

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

1

_

17

_

1

_

1

3

1

7

4

_

15

_

3

_

Machanics, automotive
(maintenance) ------------------------------------Manufacturing -------------- ----------------Nonmanufacturing -------- ----------------Public utilities 2 --------------------------

339
53
286
187

2. 30
2. 05
2. 34
2.46

_
-

_
-

_
-

2
2
-

4
4
4

12
4
8
-

11
1
10
3

14
3
11
9

57
26
31
24

7
3
4
1

16
3
13
-

15
15
-

44
2
42
30

19
1
18
"

8
8
4

5
3
2
2

9
9
7

61
61
59

44
44
44

-

9
7
2
~

-

“

2
2
-

Mechanics, maintenance ---------------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ----------------------------

221
168
53

2. 27
2.25
2. 33

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

6
2
4

5
5
-

12
9
3

7
3
4

25
25
-

49
47
2

8
2
6

22
18
4

28
18
10

_
-

4
4

2
1
1

16
12
4

12
4
8

_
-

25
22
3

_
-

_
-

_
"

Oilers ---------------------------------------------------Manufacturing ______________________

26
26

1.92
1 .9 2

_

3
3

_

_

4
4

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

4
4

_

-

5
5

_

-

2
2

_

-

2
2

_

-

6
6

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Painters, maintenance

31

2. 22

_

6

_

_

4

_

_

5

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

12

4

_

_

_

_

Machinists, maintenance

----------------------

_

Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.




.

8
Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Jacksonville, F la ., December I960)

Occupation 1 and industry division

Guards __
_
Nonmanufacturing —

_ _ _
__ __

_

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly z
earnings

10 1
81

$ 1.43
1.40

733
142
591
61

1.
1.
1.
1.

Janitors, porters, and cleaners
(women) ........
Nonmanufacturing __

NUM
BER O W KERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIM HO
F OR
E
URLY EARNINGS O —
F
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
s
$
$
$
s
$
$
$
$
$
s
$
$
Under 0. 60 0. 70 0. 80 0. 90 1 . 00 1 . 10 1 . 20 1. 30 1.40 1. 50 1 . 60 1. 70 1 . 80 1. 90 2. 00 2. 10 2 . 20 2. 30 2.40 2. 50 2 . 60 2. 70 2. 80
and
$
and
0.60 under
. 80
.9 0 1 . 00 1 . 10 1 . 20 1. 30 1.40 1. 50 1 . 60 1. 70 1 . 80 1. 90 2 . 00 2. 10 2. 20 2. 30 2.40 2. 50 2. 60 2. 70 2 . 80 over
. 70
13
4

3
1

11
8

7
7

4
4

26
18
8
1

42
29
13
8

44
37
7
“

14
2
12
1

3

29
23
6

9
9

6
5

4
-

_
"

4
4

"

156
92
64

148
12 2
26

109
97
12

49
39
10

54
32
22

103
35
68

7
7

119
117

18
14

13
10

15
13

46
46

3
1

11
9

7
3

10
4

12
2

_

10
10

2
2

3
2

6
5

_
-

2
2

10
10

12
2
10

1
-

-

-

23
21

-

67
12
55

29
1
28

152
47
105

55
31
24

23
15
8

47
47

2
■

_

7
“

185
5
180
2

204
9
195
6

42
9
33
6

18
18

8
8

197
196

13
10

_
-

13
13

41
41

12 2
24
98

_

_

_

_

~

~

_

_

"

"

■

“

"

23
50
17
74

12

33

8

15

7

12

33

8
"

15
"

276
267

1 .0 0
1 . 00

4
4

12
12

1
1

Laborers, material handling
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing

985
49?
491

1.42
1. 38
1.46

_
-

_
-

Order fillers
Nonmanufacturing _________________

561
546

1. 58
1.59

_
"

55
31

1.47
1. 58

_

97
79

1. 70
1. 67

~

.

_

.

.

-

-

"

"

2
2

3 .
3

63
30
33

1 . 68
1.79
1. 58

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

135
118

2. 15
2. 20

-

-

-

-

-

931
192
739
254

1. 71
1. 52
1.75
2. 64

_
-

_
-

4
4

18
18

12 0
120

214
167

1. 27
1 . 26

-

-

4
4

_

-

54
54

21
20

48
10

21
21

469
64
405
150

1.70
1.47
1. 73
2. 61

-

-

-

18
18

120
120

13
12
1

8
8

62
62

7
3
4

Janitors, porters, and cleaners
(men) __
_
_

_ _

Nonmanufacturing __ __ __ __
Public utilities 3 ________________

Packers, skipping
Nonmanufacturing __

__ _

Receiving clerks
Nonmanufacturing

___

__

Shipping clerks .....
.
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing __

.. ............ ..

Shipping and receiving clerks
Nonmannfactn ring

_

Truckdrivers 5
Manufactn r i ng
Nonmanufacturing __
Public utilities 1
Truckdrivers, light (under
l 1/* tons)
_

...........

8
Truckdrivers, medium ( l l/z to and
including 4 tons) ....
......
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing

See footnotes at end of table,




“
_

_

_
-

“

31
6
25

4
-

-

4
4

"

26
10
16
8

35

8

-

-

-

-

_

-

_

35
26

8
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

18
1
17

13
9
4

36
33
3

67
67

28
10
18

1
1

.
-

.
-

26
26

1
1

.
-

-

146
146

137
137

18
18

4
"

_

2
2

6
6

12
12

12
12

3
3

3
3

_

_

“

"

“

.

_

3

_

_

3

_

3

3

"

"

3

-

3

3
3

.

"
15
10

23
23

18
13

4
-

2
2

2
1

1
1

1
1

3
3

2

9
7
2

_
-

15
11
4

2
1
1

_
-

5
2
3

_
-

3
3

.
-

4
4
-

_

5

12
10

9
9

4
1

2
1

3

16
15

16
16

27
11
16

35
31
4

12
7
5

4
2
2

9
2
7
1

3
1
2
"

4
2
2
1

3
1
2

54
26
28

3
1

1

23
6
20 ------g“

26
22
4

6
6

-

12
10
2

31
28

10
6
4

.
-

-

-

-

-

.
-

_
-

1
1
-

_
-

11
11

11
11

4
4

2
2

16
4 16

23
23

37
37
32

8
8
-

220
220
220

_
-

10
10

35
35
32

6
6

116
116
116

-

1

-

6
4

6
6
-

1

-

-

4
4

5
5

4
2
2
1

-

9
Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations-Continued
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Jacksonville, F la ., December I960)
NUM
BER O W
F ORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIM HOURLY EARNINGS O —
E
F
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Under 0. 60 0. 70 0. 80 0. 90 1.00 1. 10 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2.00 2. 10 2. 20 $2. 30 *2.40
and
$
under
0. 60
. 70
.80
. 90 1.00 1. 10 1. 20 1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2.00 2. 10 2. 20 2. 30 2.40 2.50

$

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings

T ruckd rivers.'5— Continued
Truckdrivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
trailer type) ---------------------------------Manufacturing ----------------------------Nonmanufacturing -----------------------

118
32
86

$ 1 .8 5
1. 58
1. 95

Truckers, power (forklift) -----------------Manufacturing --------------- .-----------------Nonmanufacturing ----------------------------

212
89
123

1. 68
1.76
1.62

-

Watchmen
Manufacturing ---------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ----------- --------------

111
60
51

1. 32
1.41
1. 20

3
3

Occupation1 and industry division

1
2
3
4
5

6

-

“

~

“

-

.
“

-

.
-

_
"

-

-

-

-

"

42
9
33

2
2
“

3
3
~

2
■

8
8

15
15

16
16

15
10
5

11
11
"

2
2

.
"

41
10
31

10
8
2

9
9

2
2

6
6

3
3

-

Data limited to men workers except where otherwise indicated.
Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Workers were distributed as follows: 10 at $ 2 .8 0 to $ 2 .9 0 ; 6 at $ 2 .9 0 to $ 3 .
Includes all drivers regardless of size and type of truck operated.
'




11
3
8

"

7
7
"

-

5

"

5

11
8
3

64
14
50

18
10
8

4
4

40
30
10

16
6
10

26
20
6

.
-

1
1

8
4
4

.

.

$
S
2 .6 0 2. 70 *2.80
and
2. 60 2. 70 2. 80 over

V 50

13

2

2

23

-

-

13

2

2

23

■

~

_
“

.
-

.
_

_
“

.
"

_
“

_
-

2

.

_

.

.

.

.

-

2




B : Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions

Table B-1. Shift Differentials
(Shift differentials of manufacturing plant w orkers by type and amount of differential,
Jacksonville, F l a ., D ecem ber I960)
Percent of manufacturing plant w orkers—

Shift differential

In establishm ents having form al
p ro v is io n s 1 for—
Second shift
work

Actually woirking on—

Third or other
shift work

Second shift

Third or other
shift

T otal

75. 2

67. 4

18. 0

7. 8

With shift pay differential

54. 0

53. 6

1 2 .6

7. 4

5 4 .0

5 3 .6

12. 6

7. 4

.5
8 .6
1 .3
1 .0

1. 9
.6

U niform cents (per hour)
4 cents
5 cents
& cents
cents
d cents _
— cents
10 cents
id * /3 cents
12 cents —
15 cents -------------------------------------------

1
3

No shaft pay differential

1 .7
35. 1
6. 3
3 .9
-

2 .4
4 .7
-

21. 2

1
Includes establishm ents currently operating late
shifts even though they w ere not currently operating late shifts.

_

19. 5
3. 8
-

13.
4.
3.
4.
2.
2.

1
1
6
7
3
4

1 3 .8

shifts,

and establishm ents

_

-

2. 4
.9
.5
.6
.3
.2

-

.5
.8
-

5. 4

with

.4

form al

provisions

covering

late

11

Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salaries for Women Office Workers
(Distribution of establishments studied in all industries and in industry divisions by minimum entrance salary for selected categories
of inexperienced women office workers, Jacksonville, F la ., Decem ber I960)
Inexperienced typists

Minimum weekly salary 1

All
industries

----------------------------------------------------------------

Establishments having a specified minimum -----------------------$ 35. 00 and under $ 3 7 .5 0 -----------------------------------------------------$ 37 .5 0 and under $ 40. 00 -----------------------------------------------------$ 40. 00 and under $ 42. 50 -----------------------------------------------------$ 42. 50 and under $ 45. 00 -----------------------------------------------------$ 45. 00 and under $ 4 7 . 50 -------------------------------------------------$ 47. 50 and under $ 50. 00 -------------------------------------------------$ 50. 00 and under $ 52. 50 ________________________________
$ 52. 50 and under $ 55. 00 ________________________________
$ 5 5 .0 0 and under $ 5 7 .5 0 -------------------------------------------------$ 57. 50 and under $ 60. 00 -------------------------------------------------$ 60. 00 and under $ 62. 50 -------------------------------------------------$ 62. 50 and under $ 6 5 .0 0 -----------------------------------------------------$ 65. 00 and under $ 67. 50 -----------------------------------------------------$ 6 7 . 50 and under $ 70. 00 -----------------------------------------------------$ 7 0 . 00 and under $ 72. 50 -----------------------------------------------------$ 72. 50 and under $ 75. 00 -------------------------------------------------------------------------Establishments having no specified minimum
Establishments wllich did not employ workers
in this category ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

All
industries

Based on standard weekly hours 3 of—
All
schedules

Establishments studied

Other inexperienced clerical workers 2

40

All
schedules

39

XXX

77

XXX

43

7

6

36

8
_

1
6
2

1
1

_

1
6
3
7
4
13
3
3

_
-

-

1
-

1
-

_

4

8

1

1

3
2

_

-

-

_

1

-

_
_

-

-

1

-

-

1
1
27

14

46

18

-

_

_
-

23
-

4
2
3
2
6
2
1

_
-

39

XXX

77

XXX

7

7

43
2
1
10
1
7
6

8
_

8

_

_
-

3
_

_

1

1
1

_
-

1
1
-

3
1
1

_
_
_
-

_

_

-

3
1
1

_

1

_

-

8

-

_

1
1

6
11
3
3

_

40

37V2

50
2
1
10
2

_

2
1
1
1
1

7

4

5

All
schedules

40

116

XXX

-

Nonmanufacturing

Based on standard weekly hours 3 of—
All
schedules

40

37V2

116
_

Manufacturing

N onm anufacturing

Manufacturing

_
_
_

3
1
1
1
_

_
_
_

_

_
-

_

_

3
_
_

1

_

-

7
1
3
4
7
1
1

_

3
_

29
1

1
1

2
2
_

XXX

_

1

XX X

1
1
13

XXX

XXX

32

19

XXX

13

XXX

XXX

XXX

28

XXX

XXX

34

13

XXX

21

XXX

XXX

-

-

_
-

_
-

_

Lowest salary rate form ally established for hiring inexperienced workers for typing or other clerical jobs.
Rates applicable to m essen gers, office g irls, or sim ilar subclerical jobs are not considered.
Hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-tim e salaries.
Data are presented for all workweeks combined, and for the m ost common workweeks reported.

Table B-3. Scheduled Weekly Hours
(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by scheduled weekly hours
of first-sh ift workers, Jacksonville, F la ., D ecem ber I960)
PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS
Weekly hours
All in
dustries1

All workers ---------------------------------------------------------Under 37x 2 hours ----------------------------------------------/
37V2 hours -_____. . . __________ ___ ___________ _____
Over 37l/ 2 and under 40 hours -----------------------40 hours --------------------------------------------------------------Over 40 and under 44 hours -----------------------------44 hours --------------------------------------------------------------45 hours --------------------------------------------------------------Over 45 and under 48 hours ----------- --------------48 hours --------------------------------------------------------------Over 48 hours ------- — ------------- ----------------------

1

100
6
34
5
51
2
2
1
(4 )

0

(4 )

M
anufacturing

P
ublic utilities2

A in u
ll d stries3

M
anufacturing

P
ublic u
tilities2

100

100

100

100

100

6

1
28

1
2
59
5
9
9
3
9
3

_
5
71
9
7
2

_

-

89
1
2
1
1

-

70
(4 )

0

(4)
“

Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
2 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
3 Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
4 L ess than 0. 5 percent.




-

4
1

-

91
1
1
8
~

12
Table B-4. Ppid Holidays
(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by number of paid holidays
provided annually, Jacksonville, F l a . , Decem ber I960)
PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS
Item
All in
dustries1

A ll workers

_____

— __

_ _ ---

---------

W orkers in establishments providing
paid holidays --------_
_____
W orkers in establishments providing
no paid holidays _
_ _ _ _ _ _

M
anufacturing

P
ublic u
tilities2

All in u
d stries3

M
anufacturing

P
ublic utilities2

100

100

100

100

100

100

99

99

100

82

76

98

18

24

2

5
6
2
36
(4)
13
(4)
20
1
-

6
14
26
(4)
11
15
4

n

1

N um ber o f d a y s

Under 4 holidays _
__ _ __ __
4 holidays
— _
_
__ ----4 holidays plus 1 half day _ --------5 holidays __ ------------ __ __
5 holidays plus 1 half day 5 holidays plus 2 half days
„
_ _
6 holidays _
_ — __ _ _
_ __ __
— _
6 holidays plus 1 half day —
6 holidays plus 2 half days ------ _ __
- —
7 holidays _
—
— ---------7 holidays plus 1 half day — __ —
8 h o lid a y s ------------------------------------------------------------9 holidays __ _ —
__ — _ __
— —
10 holidays
-------------— -------

(4)
4

n

30
2
(4)
19
4
(4)
16
3
1
6
18

3
3
37
1
34
1
13
7
-

_
(4)
7
10
(4)
82
-

,

1
11
11
75
'

Total h o lid a y tim e 5

10 days
__
_
-----9 or m ore days
_
------8 or m ore d a y s --------------------------------------------------or m ore days
_ _
— _
7 or m ore days
_
61/* or m ore days
6 or m ore days _
5 V2 or m ore d a y s ---------------------------------------------5 or m ore days
4 V2 or m ore days _
_
4 or m ore days _
3 or m ore days
_
—
----- _
2 or m ore days
__
----1 or m ore days

7z
l/

1
2
3
4
5
no half

18
23
24
27
44
48
67
69
99
99
99

99
99
99

_
7
7
21
21
56
56
93
93
96
97
98

99

82
83
93
93
99
99
100

100
100
100

_
1
1
21
21
34
34
70
71
77
77
81
82

_
4
4
19
19
30
30
56
56
70
70
73
76

_
75
75
86
86
97
97
98
98
98
98

Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
L e ss than 0. 5 percent.
A ll combinations of full and half days that add to the sam e amount are combined; for example, the proportion of workers receiving a total of 7 days includes those with 7 full days and
days, 6 full days and 2 half days, 5 full days and 4 half days, and so on. Proportions were then cumulated.




13
Table B-5. Paid Vacations
(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, Jacksonville, F la ., Decem ber I960)
OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

Vacation policy
All industries1

A ll workers

--------------------------------------------------------

M
anufacturing

P
ublic u
tilities2

A industries3
ll

M
anufacturing

P
ublic u
tilities2

100

100

100

86
69
16
-

100
100
-

100

100

100

99
99
-

99
99
-

100
100
-

M eth o d o f pa ym en t
W orkers in establishments providing
paid vacations ----------------------------------,--------------Length-of-tim e payment ----------------------------Percentage payment ------------------------------------F lat-su m payment --------------------------------------Othe r ----------- 1-----------------------------------------------W orkers in establishments providing
no paid vacations --------------------------------------------

4

-

-

-

90
80
6
4
-

(5)

1

"

10

14

“

15
42
4
(5)

1
33
6
-

_
30
_
1

2
15
_

2
6
_

_
33
_

-

-

-

(5)
34

(5)
30

_
87

-

-

-

65
(5)

63
6

13

1
75
1
12
-

1
77
2
6
-

8
6
85
(5)

18
5
71
6

14
39
47
-

45
3
42
-

70
4
11
-

5
(5)
94
(5)

7
5
82
6

12
(5)
88
-

23
6
61
-

18
17
50
-

65
-

1
(5)
84
14
1

3
5
85

9
2
78

3
4
78

100

_

-

-

-

-

-

Am ount o f v a c a t io n p a y 6

After 6 months of service
Under 1 week -----------------------------------------------------1 week -----------------------------------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 weeks ------------------------------2 weeks --------------------------------------------------------------After 1 year of service
Under 1 week -------------- -----------------------------------1 week _____________________ —___________________
Over 1 and under 2 weeks ------------------------------2 weeks ---------------------------------------------------------------3 weeks ---------------------------------------------------------------

_

84
-

16
-

After 2 years of service
1 week -----------------------------------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 weeks ------------------------------2 weeks ---------------------------------------------------------------3 weeks ----------------------------------------------------------------

45
9
45

After 3 years of service
1 week -------------------------- ------- -------------------------Over 1 and under 2 weeks ------------------------------2 weeks -----------------------------------------------------------3 weeks ---------------------------------------------------------------

35
-

After 5 years of service
1 week -----------------------------------------------------------------Over 1 and under 2 weeks ------------------------------2 weeks _________ ___ ___ ______________________ __
Over 2 and under 3 weeks -------------------------------

See footnotes at end of table,




-

6

_
-

100
-

-

2

_
-

14
Table B-5. Paid Vacations-Continued
(Percent distribution of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provision s, Jacksonville, F l a . , Decem ber I960)
O F F IC E W O R K E R S

PLAN T W O RK ERS

Vacation policy
A ll industries1

M anufacturing

Public utilities2

All industries 3

M anufacturing

Pu blic utilities2

Amount of vacation p a y 6— Continued
After 10 years of service
1 week
O ver

under

2 weeks _
_
_
_
_
_
Over 2 and under 3 weeks
_
3 weeks ____ _
_ _ _ _

_
_

_ _

3
65
31

1

_ _
2 w eeks

1
55
3
41

3

-

_

1 and

-

_
91
9

9
1
64
16

3
2
66
_
15

1
86
_
14

_

9
1
30
51
-

3
2
29
52
-

_
5
95
_
-

After 15 years of service
1 week _
_
_
Over 1 and under 2 weeks _
2 weeks
__
_ _ _ _ _ _
3 weeks __
__ _
Over 3 and under 4 weeks _
4 weeks
_ _

_
__
_ _
_

_

__ _
_

-

-

29
56
14
(5)

39
55
2

6
94
-

1
29
44
26

3
39
50
7

_
6
86
8

9
1
30
46
5

3
2
29
50
2

_
_
5
84
11

1
25
38
22
14

3
39
37
21

_
6
85
10

9
1
30
38
13

3
2
29
38
15

_
5
78
17

-

After 20 years of service
1 week _
Over 1 and under 2 weeks
2 weeks
__
3 weeks _
_
__
4 weeks
_ _ _

_ _
_
_ _

After 25 years of service
1 week
Over 1 and under 2 w e e k s ____________________
2 weeks
3 weeks
_
_
4 weeks
_ _ _ _ _
Over 4 weeks
_
_

1
2
3
4
5
6
service

Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Includes proportions of workers in establishments which did not provide vacations until after 2 years of service.
L ess than 0. 5 percent.
Periods of service were arbitrarily chosen and do not n ecessarily reflect the individual provisions for progressions.
For exam ple, the changes in proportions indicated at 10 y e a r s '
include changes in provisions occurring between 5 and 10 yea rs.

NOTE: In the tabulations of vacation allowances by years of serv ice , payments other than "length of t i m e ," such as percentage of annual earnings or fla t-su m paym ents, were
to an equivalent time b asis; for example, a payment of 2 percent of annual earnings was considered as 1 w eek's pay.




converted

15
Table B-6. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
(Percent of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions employed in establishments providing
health, insurance, or pension benefits, Jacksonville, F l a ., December I960)
O F F IC E W O R K E R S

PLAN T W O RK ERS

Type of benefit
AIL industries3

M anufacturing

100

All industries3

M anufacturing

Pu blic u tilities2

- —

100

Life in s u r a n c e ----------------------------------------------Accidental death and dismemberment
insurance
—
— _ Sickness and accident insurance or
sick leave or both4

89

94

55

63

75

46

18

28

54

34

5

12

5

7

13

3

29

14

10

33

91
89
70
62
70
3

71
71
68
64
42

81
79
52
35
49
8

87
81
57
34
51
9

67
67
61
46
59

A ll workers

__

_ __

-

----------

100

Pu blic utilities2

100

100

50

78

73

61

43

46

54

43

46

48

39

58

16

33

33

25

100

W orkers in establishments providing:

Sickness and accident insurance
Sick leave (full pay and no
waiting period) —
—
------Sick leave (partial pay or
waiting period) __ __
----_ Hospitalization insurance _
__ _ — __
Surgical insurance ___ __
— __ —
Medical insurance ---------------Catastrophe insurance --------_ — _
Retirement pension
_ ----- __
No health, insurance, or pension p l a n -----

84
84
61
72
78
(5)

1 Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
2 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
3 Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
4 Unduplicated total of workers receiving sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately below.
Sick-leave plans are lim ited to those which definitely establish at least
the minimum number of days' pay that can be expected by each em ployee. Informal sick-leave allowances determined on an individual basis are excluded.
5 L e ss than 0. 5 percent.







1
7
A p p e n d ix :

O ccu p a tio n a l Descriptions

The primary purpose o f preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to a ssist its
field staff in classifyin g into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau's field economists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers,
part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.
O F F IC E

B IL L E R , MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE O P E R A T O R

Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerica l work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
classified by type of machine, as follow s:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.

B iller , machine (billing machine) — U ses a special billing ma­

chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, e tc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon cop ies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.
Biller , machine (bookkeeping machine) — Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, e tc ., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare custom ers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on custom ers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types o f sales and
credit slips.




C lass A — Keeps a set o f records requiring a knowledge o f
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance
sheets, and other records by hand.
C lass B — Keeps a record o f one or more phases or sections of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of b asic book­
keepingPhases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type of billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or a ssist in preparation o f trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.

C L E R K , ACCOUNTING
C la ss A — Under general direction o f a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more section s o f a com ­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase o f an establish­
ment's business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

18

CLERK, ACCOUNTING— Continued

payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper a c­
counting distribution; requires judgment and experience in making
proper assignations and allocation s. May a ssist in preparing, ad­
justing and closin g journal entries; may direct cla ss B accounting
clerks.
C la s s B — Under supervision, performs one or more routine a c­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or a c­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers, or posting simple co st accounting data. This
job does not require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping
principles but is found in o ffices in which the more routine account­
ing work is subdivided on a functional basis among several workers.

CLERK, PAYROLL

Computes wages of company employees and enters the n eces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers*
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker's name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and a ssist paymaster in making up and distribut­
ing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.
COMPTOMETER OPERATOR

Primary duty is to operate a Cbmptometer to perform mathema­
<
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

CLERK, FILE
C la s s A — In an established filing system containing a num­
ber of varied subject matter file s , cla ssifie s and indexes corres­
pondence or other material; may also file this material. May keep
records of various types in conjunction with files or may super­
vise others in filing and locating material in the file s . May per­
form incidental clerical duties.
C la s s B — Performs routine filing, usually of material that has
already been cla ssified or which is easily identifiable, or locates
or a ssists in locating material in file s. May perform incidental
clerica l duties.

CLERK, ORDER

R eceives custom ers'orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any com bination o f the foh low in g:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; distributing order sheets to respective departments to be filled .
May check with credit department to determine credit rating of customer,
acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders to see
that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check ship­
ping invoices with original orders.




DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)

Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, reproduces multiple cop ies of typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file of used sten cils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR

Under general supervision and with no supervisory respon si­
b ilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards by
punching a series of holes in the cards in a sp ecified sequence, using
an alphabetical or a numerical keypunch machine, following written in­
formation on records. May duplicate cards by using the duplicating de­
vice attached to machine. May keep files of punch cards. May verify
own work or work of others.
OFFICE BOY OR GIRL

Performs various routine duties such as running errands, op­
erating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and
distributing mail, and other minor clerica l work.

19

SECRETARY

Performs secretarial and clerica l duties for a superior in an ad­
ministrative or executive position. Duties include making appointments
for superior; receiving people coming into office ; answering and making
phone ca lls; handling personal and important or confidential mail, and
writing routine correspondence on own initiative; taking dictation (where
transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded information
reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare special reports or
memorandums for information of superior.
STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL

Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a nor­
mal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter.
May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep files in or­
der, keep simple records, etc. D o es not include transcribing-machine
work (see transcribing-machine operator).
STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL

Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a varied
technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on
scien tific research and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter. May
also type from written copy. May also set up and keep files in order,
keep simple records, etc. D oes not include transcribing-machine work.
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR

Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or o ffice ca lls .
May record toll ca lls and take m essages. May give information to per­
sons who ca ll in, or occasion ally take telephone orders. For workers
who also act as receptionists see switchboard operator-receptionist.
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST

In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single p o si­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may a lso type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. This typing
or clerical work may take the major part of this worker’ s time while at
switchboard.




TABLLATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
C lass A — Operates a variety of tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignments without clo se supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating sequences of long and complex reports.
D oes not include working supervisors performing tabulating-machine
operations andd ay-to-day supervision of the work and production of
a group of tabulating-machine operators.
C lass B — Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under
sp e cific instructions and may include the performance of some wir­
ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but
small tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are well established. May also include the training
of new employees in the basic operation of the machine.
C lass C — Operates simple tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with sp ecific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs, or re­
petitive operations.

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL

Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May a lso type from written
copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation in­
volving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal briefs
or reports on scien tific research are not included. A worker who takes
dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is cla ssified
as a stenographer, general.

20

TYPIST— Continued

TYPIST

Uses a typewriter to make cop ies of various material or to make
out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May in­
clude typing of ste n cils, mats, or similar materials for use in duplicat­
ing p rocesses. May do clerica l work involving little specia l training,
such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting
and distributing incoming mail.
C lass A — Performs one or more o f the follow in g:

Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punc-

tuation, e tc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; planning layout and typing of com plicated statistical tables
to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine
form letters varying details to suit circum stances.
C la ss B — Performs one or more o f the follow in g: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing o f forms, insurance p o licie s,
e tc.; setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying more com­
plex tables already set up and spaced properly.

P R O F E SSIO N A L AND T E C H N IC A L
DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR

(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to sca le units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.
DRAFTSMAN, LEADER

Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration of working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Duties
involve a combination o f the follow in g: Interpreting blueprints, sketches,
and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures; assigning
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problems. May a ssist subordinates during emergencies or as a
regular assignment, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
ministrative nature.

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued

involved in strength of materials, beams and trusses; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quantities;
writing specification s; making adjustments or changes in drawings or
specification s. May ink in lines and letters on pencil drawings, prepare
detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings. Work is frequently
in a specialized field such as architectural, electrical, mechanical, or
structural drafting.
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combina tion o f the follow ing: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of em ployees' injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants
and employees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
TRACER

Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
p oses. Duties involve a combination o f the follow ing: Preparing work­
ing plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-section s, e tc., to sca le by use
of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as those




Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or p en cil. Uses
T-square, compass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

21

M A IN T E N A N C E

D PO W ERPLANT

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casin gs, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g :
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter*s handtools, portable
power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; selectin g materials n ec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or a ssist in repairing boilerroom equipment.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, d is­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves m o st o f th e fo llo w in g : Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; workingfrom blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specification s; locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c ­
trical s y s t e m or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; using a variety of
electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In gen­
eral, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.
ENGINEER, STATIONARY

Operates and maintains and may a lso supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, motors,
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a record of
operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May a ls o
supervise these operations. H ea d or c h i e f e n g in e e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts
em p loyin g m ore than o n e en g in eer are e x c lu d e d .




HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE

A ssists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing sp e cific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are a lso performed by workers on a full-time basis.
MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM

Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools, gauges,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making necessary adjustments during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils . For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classification .
MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE

Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves m o st o f the fo llo w in g : Interpreting written instructions and
specification s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
chinist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and

2
2
M A CH IN IST, M A IN T E N A N C E — Continued

M IL LW R IG H T — Continued

operating standard machine to o ls ; shaping o f metal parts to c lo s e toler­
a n ce s ; making standard shop com putations relating to dim ensions o f work,
to o lin g , feed s and sp e e d s o f machining; know ledge o f the working prop­
erties o f the common m etals; s e le c tin g standard m aterials, parts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assem blin g parts into me­
ch an ical equipment. In general, the m achinist’ s work normally requires
a rounded training in m achine-shop p ra ctice usually acquired through a
formal app ren ticesh ip or equivalent training and e x p erien ce.

are required. Work in v o lv es most o f the following: Planning and laying
out o f the work; interpreting blueprints or other s p e c ific a tio n s ; using a
variety o f handtools and rigging; making standard shop com putations re­
lating to s tr e s s e s , strength o f m aterials, and cen ters o f gravity; alining
and balan cin g o f equipment; s e le c tin g standard t o o ls , equipment, and parts
to be u sed; in sta llin g and maintaining in good order power transm ission
equipment such as drives and sp eed red u cers. In general, the m ill­
wright’ s work normally requires a rounded training and exp erien ce in the
trade acquired through a formal ap p ren ticesh ip or equivalen t training and
ex p e rie n ce .

M EC H A N IC , A U T O M O T IV E (M A IN T EN A N C E)
R epairs autom obiles, b u se s, motortrucks, and tractors o f an e s ­
tablishm ent. Work in v o lv e s most o f the following: Examining autom otive
equipment to d ia gn ose sou rce o f trouble; d isa ssem b lin g equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use o f such handtools as w ren ch es,
gau ges, d rills, or s p e c ia liz e d equipment in disassem blin g or fitting parts;
rep lacin g broken or d e fe ctiv e parts from sto ck ; grinding and adjusting
v a lv e s; reassem blin g and insta llin g the various a ssem b lies in the v e h icle
and making n e ce ssa ry adjustm ents; alining w h eels, adjusting brakes and
ligh ts, or tightening body b o lts . In general, the work o f the autom otive
m echanic requires rounded training and exp erien ce usually acquired
through a formal appren ticesh ip or equivalent training and ex p e rie n ce .
M EC H A N IC , M A IN T E N A N C E
Repairs machinery or m echa n ical equipment o f an establishm ent.
Work in v olv es most o f the following: Examining m achines and m echan­
ic a l equipment to d ia gn ose sou rce o f trouble; dism antling or partly d is ­
mantling m achines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use o f
handtools in scrap in g ahd fitting parts; rep lacin g broken or d e fe c tiv e
parts with items obtained from s to ck ; ordering the production o f a re p la c e ­
ment part by a m achine shop or sending o f the machine to a machine shop
for major repairs; preparing written s p e c ific a tio n s for major repairs or
for the production o f parts ordered from machine shop; reassem blin g ma­
ch in e s; and making a ll n e ce ssa ry adjustm ents for operation. In general,
the work o f a maintenance m echanic requires rounded training and e x ­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and ex p erien ce. E xclu d ed from this c la s s ific a tio n are workers
w hose primary duties in v olv e settin g up or adjusting m achines.
M IL LW R IG H T
Installs new m achines or heavy equipment and dism antles and
in sta lls m achines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout




O IL E R
L u b rica tes, with o il or grea se, the m oving parts or wearing sur­
fa c e s o f m echanical equipment o f an establish m en t.
P A IN T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E
Paints and red ecorates W alls, w oodw ork, and fixtures o f an e s ­
tablishm ent. Work involves the following: K now ledge of surface p e cu ­
lia ritie s and types o f paint required for different a p p lica tion s; preparing
surface for painting by rem oving old fin ish or by p la cin g putty or fille r in
nail h oles and in te rstic e s; applyin g paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix c o lo r s , o ils , white lead, and other paint ingredients fo obtain proper
co lo r or c o n s iste n c y . In general, the work o f the maintenance painter
requires rounded training and exp erien ce u sually acquired through a for­
mal a pp ren ticesh ip or equivalent training and exp erien ce.
P I P E F I T T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E
In stalls or repairs water, steam , g a s, or other types of pipe and
p ip efittin gs in an establishm ent. Work in v o lv e s most o f the following:
L a yin g out o f work and measuring to loca te p osition o f pipe from drawings
or other written s p e c ific a tio n s ; cutting various s iz e s o f pipe to correct
lengths with c h is e l and hammer or o x y a cety len e torch or pipe-cu tting ma­
ch in e; threading pipe with sto ck s and d ie s ; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven m achines; assem blin g pipe with cou p lin gs and fasten in g
pipe to hangers; making standard shop com putations relating to p ressu res,
flo w , and s iz e o f pipe required; making standard tests to determine
whether fin ish ed p ip es meet s p e c ific a tio n s . In gen eral, the work o f the
m aintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and exp erien ce usually
acquired through a formal appren ticesh ip or equivalen t training and e x ­
p erien ce. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building
sanitation or heating systems are excluded .

23

T O O L AND D IE M A K E R

P L U M B E R , M A IN T E N A N C E
K eep s the plumbing system o f an establishm ent in good order.
Work in v o lv e s: K now ledge o f sanitary c o d e s regarding installation o f
vents and traps in plumbing system ; in sta llin g or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clo g g e d drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake. In
general, the work o f the maintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experien ce usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and ex p erien ce.
S H E E T - M E T A L W O R K ER , M A IN T E N A N C E
F a b rica tes, in s ta lls , and maintains in good repair the sh eetmetal equipment and fixtures (su ch as machine guards, grease pans,
sh e lv e s, lo ck e rs , tanks, ven tila tors, ch u tes, d u cts, metal roofing) o f an
establishm ent. Work in v olv es most o f the following: Planning and la y­
ing out a ll types o f sheet-m etal maintenance work from blueprints, m odels,
or other s p e c ific a tio n s ; setting up and operating all availa b le types o f
sheet-m etal-w orking m ach ines; using a variety o f handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and a ssem blin g; in sta llin g sh eetmetal a rticle s as required. In general, the work o f the maintenance
sheet-m etal worker requires rounded training and exp erien ce usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
ex p erien ce.

(D iem ak er; jig m aker;toolm aker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
C onstructs and repairs m achine-shop to o ls , gau ges, jig s , fix ­
tures or d ies for forgin gs, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
in v olv es most o f the following: Planning and layin g out of work from
m od els, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written s p e c ific a tio n s ;
using a variety o f tool and die maker’ s handtools and p recision m eas­
uring instruments, understanding of the working properties o f common
metals and a llo y s ; setting up and operating o f machine tools and related
equipment; making n e cessary shop com putations relating to dim ensions
o f work, s p e e d s , fe e d s , and toolin g o f m ach ines; heattreating o f metal
parts during fabrication as w ell as o f fin ish ed to o ls and d ies to ach ieve
required q u a litie s; working to c lo s e to le ra n ce s; fitting and assem blin g
o f parts to p rescribed toleran ces and a llo w a n ce s; s e le c tin g appropriate
m aterials, to o ls , and p r o c e s s e s . In gen eral, the tool and die maker’ s
work requires a rounded training in m ach ine-sh op and toolroom p ra ctice
usually acquired through a formal appren ticesh ip or equivalent training
and ex p erien ce.

For cross-in du stry wage study p u rp oses, to o l and die makers
in to o l and die jobbin g shops are ex clu d ed from this c la s s ific a tio n .

C U STO D IA L AND M A T E R IA L MOVEMENT
E L E V A T O R O P ER A TO R , PA SSEN GER

JA N IT O R , P O R T E R , O R C L E A N E R — Continued

Transports passengers betw een floors o f an o ffic e building,
apartment h ou se, department store, h otel or sim ilar establish m en t.
Workers who operate elevators in con jun ction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are ex clu d ed .

or other establishm ent. Duties involve o combination of the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and p olish in g flo o r s ; rem oving ch ip s,
trash, and other refu se; dusting equipment, furniture, or fix tu r e s ;p o lish ­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing su p p lies and minor mainte*
nance s e r v ic e s ; clea n in g lava tories, sh ow ers, and restroom s. Workers
who s p e c ia liz e in window w ashing are ex clu d ed .

GUARD
Performs routine p o lic e d u ties, either at fixed p ost or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where n e ce ssa r y . Includes gate-

men who are stationed at gate and check on identity o f employees and
other persons entering.
JA N IT O R , P O R T E R , O R C L E A N E R

L A B O R E R , M A T E R IA L H A N D LIN G
(L oa der and unloader; handler and stack er; sh elv er; trucker; sto ck man or sto ck helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)

(Sw eeper; charwoman; ja n itress)
C lea n s and keeps in an orderly con d ition factory working areas
and washroom s, or prem ises o f an o ffic e , apartment h ou se, or com m ercial




A worker em ployed in a w arehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishm ent w hose duties in v olv e one or more o f the follow­
ing: L oadin g and unloading various m aterials and m erchandise on or

24

L A B O R E R , M A T E R IA L H A N D LIN G — -Continued
from freight ca rs , trucks, or other transporting d e v ic e s ; unpacking, sh e lv ­
ing, or p la cin g m aterials or m erchandise in proper storage lo ca tio n ; trans­
porting m aterials or m erchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.
Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded .
O RD ER F IL L E R

S H IP P IN G AND R E C E IV IN G C L E R K — Continued
F or w age study p urposes, workers are c la s s ifie d as fo llo w s :

Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
T R U C K D R IV E R

(Order p ick er; s to ck s e le c to r ; warehouse stockm aii)
F ills shipping or transfer orders for fin ish ed g ood s from stored
merchandise in a ccord a n ce with s p e c ific a tio n s on s a le s s lip s , customers*
orders, or other in stru ction s. May, in addition to fillin g orders and in d i­
cating items fille d or omitted, k eep record s o f outgoing orders, re q u isi­
tion additional s to ck , or report short su p p lies to su pervisor, and perform
other related d u ties.

D rives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
teria ls, m erchandise, equipment, or men betw een various types o f e sta b ­
lishm ents su ch a s : Manufacturing plants, freight d ep ots, w areh ou ses,
w h olesa le and reta il establish m en ts, or betw een retail establishm ents
and customers* h ou ses or p la ce s o f b u sin e ss. May a ls o load or unload
truck with or without h elp ers, make minor m ech an ical repairs, and keep
truck in g ood working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers
are excluded .

P A C K E R , S H IP P IN G
P repares fin ish ed products for shipment or storage by p la cin g
them in shipping con tainers, the s p e c ific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, s iz e , and number o f units to be p acked , the
type o f container em ployed, and method o f shipment. Work requires the
p la cin g o f item s in shipping containers and may involve one or more o f
the following: K now ledge o f various items o f sto ck in order to verify
content; s e le c tio n o f appropriate type and s iz e o f con tainer; inserting
en closu res in con tainer; using e x c e ls io r or other material to prevent
breakage or dam age; c lo s in g and se a lin g container; applying la b e ls or
entering iden tifyin g data on container. Packers who also make wooden
boxes or crates are excluded .
S H IP P IN G AND R E C E IV IN G C L E R K
Prepares m erchandise for shipment, or r e c e iv e s and is resp on ­
s ib le for incom ing shipm ents o f m erchandise or other m aterials. Shipping
work involves: A know ledge o f shipping p rocedu res, p ra ctice s , routes,
available means o f transportation and ra tes; and preparing record s o f the
g ood s shipped, making up b ills o f lading, p ostin g w eight and shipping
ch arges, and k eepin g a file o f shipping record s. May d irect or a s s is t in
preparing the m erchandise for shipment. Receiving work involves: V eri­
fying or directing others in verifyin g the co rrectn ess o f shipm ents a gain st
b ills o f lading, in v o ic e s , or other record s; ch eck in g for shortages and
rejectin g damaged g o o d s ; routing m erchandise or m aterials to proper d e­
partments; maintaining n ecessa ry record s and file s .




F or wage study purp oses, truckdrivers are c la s s ifie d by s iz e
and type o f equipment, as fo llo w s : (T ractor-trailer should be rated on
the b a sis o f trailer c a p a c ity .)

Truckdriver (combination o f sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under lV2 tons)
truckdriver, medium (1% to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)
T R U C K E R , P O W ER
Operates a manually con trolled g a s o lin e - or electric-p ow ered
truck or tractor to transport g ood s and m aterials o f a ll kinds about a
w arehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establish m en t.
F or wage study pu rp oses, workers are c la s s ifie d
truck, as fo llo w s :

by type o f

Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)
WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of prem ises p e rio d ica lly in protectin g property
against fire , theft, and ille g a l entry.

* U .S . G O V E R N M E N T P R I N T I N G O F F I C E : 1961 0 — 5 8 6 2 4 0

Occupational Wage Surveys
Occupational wage surveys will be conducted in the 82 major labor markets listed below during late I960 and early 196l. Bulletins, when available, may be
purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D .C., or from any of the BLS regional sales offices shown on the
inside front cover.
A summary bulletin containing data for 80 labor markets, combined with additional analysis, will be issued early in 1962.

Akron, Ohio— Bull. 1285Albany—
Schenectady—Troy, N .Y .— Bull. 1285Albuquerque, N. Mex.— Bull. 1285Allentown—Bethlehem—Easton,
P a .-N .J .— Bull. 1285Atlanta, Ga.— Bull. 1285Baltimore, Md.— Bull. 1285-34
Beaumont—
Port Arthur, Tex.— Bull. 1285Birmingham, Ala.— Bull. 1285Boise, Idaho— Bull. 1285♦ ♦ Boston, Mass.— Bull. 1285-15
Buffalo, N .Y .— Bull. 1285-31
Burlington, V t.— Bull. 1285Canton, Ohio— Bull. 1285-29
Charleston, W. V a.— Bull. 1285Charlotte, N .C .— Bull. 1285♦ ♦ Chattanooga, Tenn.—Ga.— Bull. 1285-14
Chicago, 111.— Bull. 1285Cincinnati, Ohio—Ky.— Bull. 1285♦ * Cleveland, Ohio— Bull. 1285-H
C o lu m b u s, O h io — B u ll. 1285-3 8
♦ * D a lla s , T e x .— B u ll. 1 2 8 5 -2 1

♦ ♦ Davenport—Rock Island—
Moline, Iowa—
111.—
Bull. 1285-16
Dayton, Ohio— Bull. 1285-41
Denver, Colo.— Bull. 1285-27
Des Moines, Iowa— Bull. 1285Detroit, Mich.— Bull. 1285-37
♦ *Fort Worth, Tex.— Bull. 1285-23

♦Green Bay, Wis.— Bull. 1285-2
Greenville, S .C .— Bull. 1285Houston, Tex.— Bull. 1285Indianapolis, Ind.— Bull. 1285-28
Jackson, M iss.— Bull. 1285Jacksonville, F la.— Bull. 1285-30
♦ Kansas City, Mo.—Kans.— Bull. 1285-18
Lawrence—
Haverhill, Mass.—
N.H.— Bull. 1285♦ * Little Rock-North Little Rock, Ark.— Bull. 1285-6
Los Angeles—
Long Beach, Calif.— Bull. 1285Louisville, Ky.—
Ind.— Bull. 1285Lubbock, Tex.— Bull. 1285♦ Manchester, N.H.— Bull. 1285-1
Memphis, Tenn.— Bull. 1285-35
Miami, F la.— Bull. 1285-33
Milwaukee, Wis.— Bull. 1285Minneapolis—
St. Paul, Minn.— Bull. 1285-39
Muskegon—Muskegon Heights, Mich.— Bull. 1285Newark and Jersey City, N .J.— Bull. 1285-40
New Haven, Conn.— Bull. 1285New Orleans, L a.— Bull. 1285New York, N .Y .— Bull. 1285Norfolk—Portsmouth and Newport News—
Hampton, Va.— Bull. 1285* * Oklahoma City, Okla.— Bull. 1285-3
♦ ♦ Omaha, Nebr.—Iowa— Bull. 1285-13
Paterson—
Clifton—Passaic, N .J.— Bull. 1285* * Philadelphia, Pa.— Bull. 1285-24
Phoenix, Ariz.— Bull. 1285-

Pittsburgh, Pa.— Bull. 1285♦ Portland, Maine— Bull. 1285-19
Portland, Oreg.—
Wash.— Bull. 1285Providence—Pawtucket, R. I.—
Mass.— Bull. 1285♦ * Raleigh, N .C .— Bull. 1285-5
Richmond, V a.— Bull. 1285-26
Rockford, 111.— Bull. 1285* * S t. Louis, Mo.—
111.— Bull. 1285-10
Salt Lake City, Utah— Bull. 1285-32
San Antonio, Tex.— Bull. 1285♦ San Bernardino—Riverside—Ontario,
C alif.— Bull. 1285-4
San Francisco—
Oakland, C alif.— Bull. 1285-36
Savannah, Ga.— Bull. 1285♦ ♦Scranton, Pa.— Bull. 1285-8
♦ ♦Seattle, Wash.— Bull. 1285-7
♦ ♦ ♦Sioux Falls, S. Dak.— Bull. 1285-17
South Bend, Ind.— Bull. 1285Spokane, Wash.— Bull. 1285Toledo, Ohio— Bull. 1285Trenton, N .J.— Bull. 1285-25
* * Washington, D .C .-M d .-V a ___ Bull. 1285-22
Waterbury, Conn.— Bull. 1285♦ Waterloo, Iowa— Bull. 1285-20
* * Wichita, Kans.— Bull. 1285-9
* * Wilmington, D e l.-N .J .— Bull. 1285-12
Worcester, Mass.— Bull. 1285York, Pa.— Bull. 1285-

An asterisk preceding a labor market indicates the availability and
price of the bulletin.
Please do not order copies in advance.

*
Price, 20 cents.
* *
Price, 25 cents.
* * * Price, 15 cents.








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