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Occupational Wage Survey

DENVER, C O LO R AD O
DECEMBER 1960

Bulletin No. 1285-27




U N IT E D S T A T E S D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




O c c u p a tio n a l W ag e S u rv e y




DENVER, COLORADO
DECEMBER 1960

Bulletin No. 1285-27
February l$)6l

U N IT E D S T A T E S D E P A R T M E N T O F L A B O R
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan C lague, Comm issioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing O ffice, Washington 2 5, D.C.

Price 20 cents




Contents

Preface
The C om m u nity W age S u rvey P r o g r a m
The B u reau o f L a b o r S ta tistic s r e g u la r ly con d u cts
a rea w id e w age s u r v e y s in a n u m ber o f im p o rta n t in d u stria l
c e n t e r s . The stu d ie s, m a d e fr o m la te fa ll to e a r ly sp rin g ,
r e la te to o ccu p a tio n a l ea rn in g s and r e la te d su p p lem en ta ry
b e n e fits . A p r e lim in a r y r e p o r t is a v a ila b le on c o m p le tio n
o f the study in e a ch a r e a , u su a lly in the m on th fo llo w in g
the p a y r o ll p e r io d stu d ied. T h is b u lle tin p r o v id e s ad d ition a l
data not in clu d ed in the e a r lie r r e p o r t .
A c o n s o lid a te d
a n a ly tica l b u lletin s u m m a r iz in g the r e s u lts o f a ll o f the
y ear*s s u r v e y s is is s u e d a ft e r c o m p le tio n o f the fin a l a r e a
b u lletin f o r the c u r re n t round o f s u r v e y s .

Page
I n t r o d u c t io n ________________ ______„___ ___ ________
W age T ren d s f o r s e le c t e d o ccu p a tio n a l g rou p s

T a b le s :
1.
2.

A:

E s ta b lish m en ts and w o r k e r s w ithin s c o p e o f s u r v e y ___________
In dexes o f stan dard w eek ly s a la r ie s and s t r a ig h t -tim e
h o u r ly ea rn in g s fo r s e le c t e d o c cu p a tio n a l g ro u p s ,
and p e r c e n ts o f in c r e a s e fo r s e le c t e d p e r i o d s __ ______________

O ccu p a tion a l e a rn in g s: *
A - l . O ffic e o c c u p a t i o n s ------ ------- -------------------------------A - 2. P r o fe s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l o c c u p a t io n s ----------A - 3. M ain ten an ce and p ow erp la n t o c c u p a t io n s _____
A -4 . C u stod ia l and m a te r ia l m o v e m e n t o c cu p a tio n s

A p p en d ix:

O ccu p a tion a l d e s c r ip tio n s

* N O TE : S im ila r tabu lation s f o r th ese and o th e r it e m s , in ­
clud ing data on e sta b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and su p p le m e n ta ry w age
p r o v is io n s , a r e a v a ila b le in the D e n v e r a r e a r e p o r t s f o r Ja n u a ry
1951, N o v e m b e r 1951, N o v e m b e r 1952, and D e c e m b e r o f ea ch
y e a r s in c e 1953 e x ce p t f o r 1957 when it w as n ot c o v e r e d .
A
d ir e c t o r y in d ica tin g date o f study and the p r ic e o f the r e p o r t s ,
as w e ll as r e p o r t s f o r o th e r m a jo r a r e a s , is a v a ila b le upon
re q u e st.
C u rren t r e p o r t s on o c cu p a tio n a l ea rn in g s and s u p p le ­
m e n ta ry w age p r a c t ic e s in the D e n v e r a r e a a r e a ls o a v a ila ­
b le f o r the m a c h in e r y in d u str ie s (D e c e m b e r 1959), flu id m ilk
(M ay I9 60), h o te ls (June I960), p o w e r la u n d r ie s and d r y c le a n e r s
(June I9 60), and banking (M ay I9 60). Union s c a l e s , in d ic a tiv e
o f p r e v a ilin g pay le v e ls , a r e a v a ila b le fo r the fo llo w in g tr a d e s
o r in d u s tr ie s :
B u ild in g c o n s tr u c tio n , p rin tin g , lo c a l-t r a n s it
op era tin g e m p lo y e e s , and m o t o r t r u c k d r iv e r s and h e lp e r s .

iii

2

2

h- 00

T h is r e p o r t w as p r e p a r e d in the B ureau*s r e g io n a l
o ffic e in San F r a n s ic s o , C a lif. , b y W illia m P . O *C onnor,
u n der the d ir e c t io n o f John L . D ana, A s s is ta n t R eg ion a l
D ir e c t o r f o r W ages and In d u stria l R e la tio n s .




1

3

11




Occupational Wage Survey—Denver, Colo.
Introduction

T h is a r e a is one o f s e v e r a l im p orta n t in d u stria l c e n t e r s in
w h ich the U. S. D ep artm en t o f l a b o r 's B u rea u o f L a b o r S ta tistics
con d u cts su r v e y s o f o ccu p a tio n a l ea rn in g s and r e la te d w age b e n e fits
on an a r e a b a s is .
The b u lletin p r e s e n ts c u r r e n t o c cu p a tio n a l em p lo y m e n t and
ea rn in g s in fo rm a tio n obtain ed la r g e ly b y m a il fr o m the e sta b lis h m e n ts
v is it e d by B u reau fie ld e c o n o m is t s in the la s t p r e v io u s su r v e y f o r o c c u ­
p a tion s r e p o r te d in that e a r lie r study.
P e r s o n a l v is it s w e r e m ade
to n on resp on d en ts and to th ose r e sp o n d e n ts r e p o rtin g unusual ch a n g es
sin c e the p r e v io u s su rv e y .

In e a ch a r e a , data a r e obtain ed fr o m r e p r e s e n ta tiv e e s t a b lis h ­
m en ts w ithin s ix b r o a d in d u stry d iv is io n s : M an u factu rin g; tr a n s p o r ­
tation, 1 co m m u n ica tio n , and oth er p u b lic u tilitie s ; w h o le s a le tra d e ; r e ­
ta il tra d e ; fin a n ce , in su r a n ce , and r e a l e sta te; and s e r v ic e s .
M a jo r
in d u stry g rou p s ex clu d ed fr o m th ese stu d ies a r e g o v e rn m e n t o p e r a tio n s
and the c o n s tr u c tio n and e x tr a c tiv e in d u s tr ie s .
E s ta b lis h m e n ts having
fe w e r than a p r e s c r ib e d n u m ber o f w o r k e r s a r e o m itted a ls o b e c a u s e
th ey fu rn ish in s u ffic ie n t em p loy m en t in the o c cu p a tio n s studied to w a r ­
ran t in clu s io n . W h e re v e r p o s s ib le , s e p a r a te ta bu la tion s a r e p r o v id e d
fo r e a ch o f the b r o a d in d u stry d iv is io n s .
T h ese s u r v e y s a r e con d u cted on a sa m p le b a s is b e c a u s e o f the
u n n e ce s s a ry c o s t in v o lv e d in su rv ey in g a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts. T o obtain
a p p ro p r ia te a c c u r a c y at m in im u m c o s t , a g r e a te r p r o p o r t io n o f la r g e
than o f s m a ll esta b lis h m e n ts is studied. In com b in in g the data, h ow ­
e v e r , a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts a r e g iv en th e ir a p p ro p r ia te w eigh t. E s tim a te s
b a s e d on the e sta b lis h m e n ts stu d ied a r e p r e s e n te d , t h e r e fo r e , a s r e ­
latin g to a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts in the in d u stry g rou p in g and a r e a , e x ­
ce p t fo r th o se b e lo w the m in im u m s iz e studied.
O ccu p a tion s and E a rn in gs
The o c cu p a tio n s s e le c t e d f o r study a r e c o m m o n to a v a r ie ty
o f m a n u factu rin g and n on m an u fa ctu rin g in d u s tr ie s . O ccu p a tion a l c l a s ­
s ific a tio n is b a s e d on a u n ifo r m s e t o f jo b d e s c r ip t io n s d e s ig n e d to

1 R a ilr o a d s , fo r m e r l y e x clu d e d fr o m the s c o p e o f th e se stu d ies,
w e r e in clu d ed in a ll o f the a r e a s stud ied s in c e J u ly 1959, e x c e p t
B a ltim o r e , B u ffa lo, C levela n d , and S ea ttle.
R a ilr o a d s a r e now in ­
clu d ed in the s c o p e o f a l l la b o r -m a r k e t w a g e s u r v e y s .




take a c c o u n t o f in ter e sta b lis h m e n t v a r ia tio n in d u ties w ith in the sa m e
jo b . (S ee ap p en d ix f o r lis tin g o f th e se d e s c r i p t i o n s .) E a rn in g s data a r e
p r e s e n te d (in the A - s e r i e s ta b le s ) f o r the fo llo w in g ty p e s o f o c c u p a ­
tio n s : (a) O ffice c l e r i c a l ; (b) p r o fe s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l; (c ) m a in te ­
n an ce and p o w erp la n t; and (d) c u s to d ia l and m a t e r ia l m o v e m e n t.

O ccu p a tion a l em p lo y m e n t and e a rn in g s data a r e show n f o r
fu ll-t im e w o r k e r s , i. e . , th o se h ir e d to w o r k a r e g u la r w e e k ly s c h e d ­
u le in the g iv en o c cu p a tio n a l c la s s ific a t io n .
E a rn in g s data ex clu d e
p r e m iu m pa y f o r o v e r t im e and f o r w o r k on w eek en d s, h o lid a y s , and
la te sh ifts.
N on p rod u ction b o n u se s a r e e x clu d e d a ls o , but c o s t - o f liv in g b o n u s e s and in ce n tiv e e a rn in g s a r e in clu d e d .
W h ere w e e k ly
h o u r s a r e r e p o r te d , a s fo r o ffic e c l e r i c a l o c cu p a tio n s , r e f e r e n c e is
to the w o rk s c h e d u le s (rou n d ed to the n e a r e s t h a lf h ou r) fo r w h ich
s t r a ig h t-tim e s a la r ie s a r e p a id ; a v e r a g e w e e k ly e a rn in g s f o r th ese
o c cu p a tio n s h ave b e e n roun ded to the n e a r e s t h a lf d o lla r .

A v e r a g e e a rn in g s o f m e n and w o m e n a r e p r e s e n te d se p a r a te ly
f o r s e le c t e d o c cu p a tio n s in w h ich b oth s e x e s a r e c o m m o n ly e m p lo y e d .
D iffe r e n c e s in pa y le v e ls o f m en and w om en in th e se o c cu p a tio n s a r e
la r g e ly due to (1) d iffe r e n c e s in the d is tr ib u tio n o f the s e x e s am ong
in d u s tr ie s and e s ta b lis h m e n ts ; (2) d iffe r e n c e s in s p e c ific d u tie s p e r ­
fo r m e d , although the o c cu p a tio n s a r e a p p r o p r ia te ly c la s s if i e d w ithin
the sa m e s u r v e y jo b d e s c r ip tio n ; and (3) d iffe r e n c e s in len gth o f s e r v ­
ic e o r m e r it r e v ie w w hen in d iv id u al s a la r ie s a r e a d ju sted on th is b a s is .
L o n g e r a v e r a g e s e r v ic e o f m e n w ou ld r e s u lt in h ig h e r a v e r a g e pay
w hen b oth s e x e s a r e e m p lo y e d w ith in the sa m e r a te ra n g e .
Job
d e s c r ip tio n s u sed in c la s s ify in g e m p lo y e e s in th e se s u r v e y s a r e u s u ­
a lly m o r e g e n e r a liz e d than th o se u se d in in d iv id u a l e sta b lis h m e n ts to
a llo w f o r m in o r d iffe r e n c e s am on g e sta b lis h m e n ts in s p e c ific d u ties
p e r fo r m e d .

O ccu p a tion a l e m p lo y m e n t e s tim a te s r e p r e s e n t the to ta l in a ll
e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith in the s c o p e o f the study and n ot the n u m b er a c tu ­
a lly su r v e y e d . B e c a u s e o f d iffe r e n c e s in o c cu p a tio n a l s tr u c tu r e a m on g
e s ta b lis h m e n ts , the e s tim a te s o f o c cu p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t obtain ed
fr o m the sa m p le o f e sta b lis h m e n ts stu d ied s e r v e on ly to in d ic a te the
r e la t iv e im p o r ta n c e o f the jo b s stu d ied.
T h e s e d iffe r e n c e s in o c c u ­
p a tion a l s tru c tu re d o n ot m a t e r ia lly a ffe c t the a c c u r a c y o f the e a r n ­
in g s data.

2

Table 1.

Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied in Denver, Colo. , l by m ajor industry division,2 Decem ber I960
Number of establishments
Industry division

Within scope
of study 3

W orkers in establishments
Within scope
of study

Studied

Studied

-------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------

562

154

132, 500

84, 070

Manufacturing _______________________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing ------------------------------------------------------ — — ---------Transportation, communication, and other
public utilities4 ----------------- ------- —--------------------------------------W holesale tra d e5 - ~ ------- ------------------------------------ ---------- —
Retail trade __ _______ ___ _______ _________________ ____ __ __ ____
Finance, insurance, and real esta te 5 ------------------------------- -—
S e rv ice s5’ 6
------------- ------------------------------------ ----------- ------------

179
383

48
106

53, 700
78, 800

37, 050
47, 020

56
82
126
61
58

25
16
36
14
15

25,
10,
26,
9,
7,

21,
2,
16,
3,
2,

All divisions

700
100
200
400
400

240
880
270
850
780

1 The Denver Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (Adam s, Arapahoe, Boulder, Denver, and Jefferson Counties).
The "w orkers within scope
of study" estim ates shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate description of the size and composition of the labor force included in the survey.
The estim ates are not intended, however, to serve as a basis of comparison with other area employment indexes to m easure employment trends
or levels since (1) planning of wage surveys requires the use of establishment data compiled considerably in advance of the payroll period studied,
and (2) sm all establishments are excluded from the scope of the survey.
2 The 1957 revised edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual was used in classifying establishments by industry division.
Major
changes from the earlier edition (used in the Bureau's labor market wage surveys conducted prior to July 1958) are the transfer of m ilk pasteuri­
zation plants and ready-m ixed concrete establishments from trade (wholesale or retail) to manufacturing, and the transfer of radio and television
broadcasting from services to the transportation, communication, and other public utilities division.
3 Includes all establishments with total employment at or above the m inim um -size limitation (50 em ployees).
A ll outlets (within the area) of
companies in such industries as trade, finance, auto repair services, and m otion-picture theaters are considered as 1 establishment.
4 Taxicabs and services incidental to water transportation were excluded.
5 This industry division is represented in estim ates for "a ll indu stries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the series A tables.
Separate presentation
of data for this division is not made for one or m ore of the following reasons: (1) Employment in the division is too sm all to provide enough
data to m erit separate study, (2) the sample was not designed initially to permit separate presentation, (3) response was insufficient or inadequate
to perm it separate presentation, (4) there is possibility of disclosure of individual establishment data.
6 H otels; personal serv ice s; business service s; automobile repair shops; motion pictures; nonprofit m em bership organizations; and engineering
and architectural serv ice s.

Table 2.

Indexes of standard weekly salaries and strelight-time hourly earnings for selected occupational groups in Denver, C o lo .,
D ecem ber I960 and Decem ber 1959>and percents of increase for selected periods
Indexes
(November 1952 = 100)

Industry and occupational group

A ll industries:
Office clerical (women) --------------------Industrial nurses (women) ----------------Skilled maintenance (men) ----------------Unskilled plant (men) _— — —
Manufacturing:
Office clerical (women) -------------------Industrial nurses (women) ----------------Skilled maintenance (men) ----------------Unskilled plant (men) ----- ----------------N O TE:

Percent increases from —
D ecem ber 1955
to
D ecem ber 1957

Decem ber 1954
to
D ecem ber 1955

D ecem ber 1953
to
D ecem ber 1954

November 1952
to
Decem ber 1953

Decem ber
1959

Decem ber 1958
to
D ecem ber 1959

8
2
4
5

1 35.5
13 6 .0
1 4 6 .6
153. 0

3 .9
5. 3
5 .3
2 .9

3. 9
3. 0
4. 3
5 .4

3. 6
1 .9
4. 0
5. 7

1 1 .0
12. 5
11. 8
10. 9

4. 2
6 .7
7. 0
8 .4

2 .9
0. 0
4. 5
5. 7

5 .7
8 .0
8. 1
8 .0

144. 5

140. 2
146. 9
1 56.5

3. 1
4 .6
2. 2

2. 8
2 .9
4 .8

5. 1
4. 0
5. 5

11. 3
14. 5
14. 0

6 .1
6 .6
4. 3

3 .8
3. 1
5. 8

5 .8
9 .2
1 2 .4

D ecem ber
I960

140.
143.
154.
157.

-

153. 7
15 9 .9

Dashes indicate no data reported or data that do not m eet publication criteria.




D ecem ber 1957
to
Decem ber 1958

Decem ber 1959
to
D ecem ber I960

3

Wagt Trends for Selected Occupational Groups

Presented in table 2 are indexes of salaries of office clerical
workers and industrial nurses, and of average earnings of selected
plant worker groups.
In areas which were not surveyed during the
fisca l 1953 base year (July 1952 to June 1953) this table is limited
to percents of change between selected periods.

For office clerica l workers and industrial nurses, the indexes
relate to average weekly salaries for normal hours of work, that is,
the standard work schedule for which straight-tim e salaries are paid.
For plant worker groups, they m easure changes in straight-tim e hourly
earnings, excluding premium pay for overtime and for work on week­
ends, holidays, and late shifts.
The indexes are based on, data for
selected key occupations and include m ost of the numerically important
jobs within each group. The office clerica l data are based on women in
the following 18 jobs: B illers, machine (billing machine); bookkeepingmachine operators, class A and B; Comptometer operators; clerks, file,
class A and B; clerks, order; clerks, payroll; keypunch operators;
office g irls; secretaries; stenographers, general; switchboard opera­
tors; switchboard operator-receptionists; tabulating-machine opera­
tors; transcribing-m achine operators, general; and typists, class A
and B.
The industrial nurse data are based on women industrial
nurses. Men in the following 10 skilled maintenance jobs and 3 unskilled
jobs were included in the plant worker data: Skilled:— carpenters;
electricians; m achinists; m echanics; mechanics, automotive; m ill­
wrights; painters; pipefitters; sheet-m etal w orkers; and tool and die
m akers; unskilled— janitors, porters, and cleaners; laborers, m a ­
terial handling; and watchmen.
Average weekly salaries or average hourly earnings were
computed for each of the selected occupations.
The average salaries
or hourly earnings were then multiplied by the average of 1953 and
1954 employment in the job. These weighted earnings for individual
occupations were then totaled to obtain an aggregate for each occupa­
tional group. Finally, the ratio of these group aggregates for a giv^n
year to the aggregate for the base period (survey month, winter 1952—
53)
was computed-and the result multiplied by the base year index (100) to
get the index for the given year.




Similar procedures were followed in compiling "percents of
change" in ar4as not surveyed during 1953.

Adjustments have been made where necessary to maintain
comparability so that the y e a r-to -y e a r comparisons are based on the
same industry and occupational coverage.
For example, railroads
have been included in the coverage of the surveys only since July 1959.
In computing the indexes for the first year in which railroads were
included, data relating to railroads were excluded. Indexes for subse­
quent years include data for railroads.

The indexes m easure, principally, the effects of (1) general
salary and wage changes; (2) m erit or other increases in pay received
by individual workers while in the same job; and (3) changes in the
labor force such as labor turnover, force expansions, force reduc­
tions, and changes in the proportion of workers employed by estab­
lishments with different pay levels.
Changes in the labor force can
cause increases or decreases in the occupational averages without
actual wage changes. For example, a force expansion might increase
the proportion of lower paid workers in a specific occupation and r e ­
sult in. a drop in the average, whereas a reduction in the proportion
of lower paid workers would have the opposite effect. The movement
of a high-paying establishment out of an area could cause the average
earnings to drop, even though no change in rates occurred in other
area establishments.
The use of constant employment weights eliminates the effects
of changes in the proportion of workers represented in each job in­
cluded in the data.
Nor are the indexes influenced by changes in
standard work schedules or in premium pay for overtime, since they
are based on pay for straight-tim e hours.
Indexes for the period 1953 to I960 for workers in 20 major
labor markets w ill appear in BLS Bull. 1265-62, Wages and Related
Benefits, 60 Labor Markets, Winter 1959—
60.

A* Occupational Earnings

4

Table A-1. Office Occupations
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Denver, C olo ., December I960)
Avbkaos
00

50.00

*45.

trt*
o
o
o

NUMBER O W
B ORKBR8 RBCXIV1NO STRAIGHT-TUCK WEEKLY EARNINGS O —
F

W
eekly
W
eekly V 00
and
houni
(S n a ) (S n a ) under
ta d rd
ta d rd
45.00

W oo

W oo

W oo

W oo

W oo

1 0 .0 0

I s . 00 1 0 .0 0

(J
i
U
l
o
o

N m er
u b
of
w rk
o er*

Sex, occupation, and industry division

60.00

65. 00

70.00

75. 00

80.00

85.00

90.00

*95.00 foo.oo ft)5.00 ft 0.00 ft 5.00 fto.oo ?25.00
and
95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 over

Men
-

_
-

_
-

9
9
9

_
-

2
2
2

_
-

_
-

12
12
12

5
-------5“
5

7
7
7

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_

_
“

_
-

6

10

22

22

-

_
-

8

14

46
— IT "
35
4

24
3

45
4
41
24

31
4
27

24
4

101.50

_
-

-

— — —
-------— --------

35
55
35

4 0.0
4 0 .0
4 0.0

$ 82.50
82.50
82.50

*
-

____ __
_
—
___
__
__
__ __
--- --_

257

4 0 .0
40. 0
40. 0
4 0.0

97.50
9T 50

Billers, machine (billing machine) ---- —
Nonmanufacturing __
—
—
Public utilitie s 2
-----— — —
Clerks, accounting, class A
Manufacturing — — ___
..
Nonmanufacturing „
____
Public utilities 2
„ ----

§1
206
64

98.00

Clerks, accounting, class B __________________________
Manufacturing ______________________________________
Nonmanufacturing
----__ —
Public utilities 2
__
__
_ „ __

138
40
98
38

40. 0
4070“
40. 0
40. 0

83.00
83.50
83.00
86.50

"

Clerks, order ____ _
_________ ___ ____
M anufacturing_____ _______________ _________ ___
Nonmanufacturing
„
__ „ __ __

365
61
304

40. 5
40 .0
40. 5

81.50
80.50

_
-

Clerks, payroll ___ _____ _________ ._________________ _
Manufacturing ----------------------------------------------------------

45
24

40. 0
40. 0

91.50
69.00

-

-

Office boys _
__
____
___ _
_
Manufacturing
_
— — -----Nonmanufacturing —------------------------------------------------Public utilities *
—

176
— 50
126

40. 0
4 'O T
4 0 .0
40. 0

56.50
§4.50
57.50
72.00

8

40 .0
40. 0

101.00

26

86.00

-

.
-

-

-

-

8

6

-

-

10
2

8
1

5
5
-

17
17
"

12
10
2

8

-

1

2

34
34

30
30

38
16

-

-

"

“

7
7

2

4
4
-

1
13
1 ------- 2“
11
11
-

-

2

4
4

20

16
1

15
4

15
15
75
-------T~
72

11

6

12

4

4

5

60
9
51

"

-

66
30
36

29
4
25

-

28
9
19
-

1

6

18
18
4

-■
-

-

“

-

-

2
2

-

5

103.50

~

4 0 .0
86.00
40. 0 ....90700
40 .0
84.00

-

-

-

4
4

8

5
5

21

24

8

-

3
18

12
12

-

-

-

12

7

7

6

3

_

2

_

134
56
96

_____________

42

40. 0

74.00

27

44 .5

97.00

_

.

.

1

138
117
77

4 0 .0
40. 0
4 0 .0

69.00

_
-

4
4
-

19
19

13
13
4

26
17
17

22

69.00
71.50

14
4

11
10
10

6
6
6

18
IS
5

52
46
38

4 0 .0
40. 0
4 0 .0

62.00
61.00
58.50

24

2
2
2

_
-

9
9

3
3
3

3
-

Typists, class A ___,

-

--------

-

-

1

21
6

10

20
10

20

10

6

2

7
13
3

5
5
3

-

-

62
34
9
— I T " -------5“ ------- T "
21
57
6

_

-

8

15
13

Tabulating-machine operators, class B ___
Manufacturing — __ _
—
- Nonmanufacturing-------------------------------- —----------------Tabulating-machine operators, class C

11

16
4

6ft
46

v~

16
5
5

---------------------

Tabulating-machine operators, class A
Nonmanufacturing

—

-

10
4

6

6

2

3

-

4
4
-------1“ -------T ~
-

7
5

13
-

2
2

1
-

5
3

1

1

-

-

1
1

1
1

_
-

_
-

7
4

8

8

4

12
6

22
6

20

10

9

4

16

11

6

11
1
10

2

4

_

1

5

3

!
------- 1

_
_
-

9 -------4
j—
-------T ~
7
3

_
_ ■
-

6
2
4
-

1

1

_
_
-

_
_
_
-

_
.
_
-

3
_
3

_
_

_
_

-

-

1

_

_

1
1

-

_
_
-

_
-

_
_
-

_
_
_
-

13
13

2
2

3

2

3
3

5
4

6

2
------- 2-

6

_
_
-

1
1

_
_
"

_

_

-

_
_
-

16

_

_
_
-

5

-

_

Women
Billers, machine (billing machine)
Nonmanufacturing
---Public utilities 1

_
_

B illers, machine (bookkeeping machine)
Nonmanufacturing
_
Retail trade
_

_

—

.
-

2
2
2

12
7
7
7

21
18

6

18
— n r18
_
-

-

1
_

_

-

-

-

-

_
-

2
2

_

_

-

-

See footnotes at end of table.




NOTE: Estimates for all industries, nonmanufacturing, and public utilities include data for railroads (SIC 40), omitted from the scope
of all labor market wage surveys made before July 1959.
Where significant, the effect of the inclusion of railroads is greatest
on the data shown separately for the public utilities division.

_

_ •
-

_
-

_

.

_
_

5

Table A-l. Office Occupations-Continued
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
bv industry division, Denver, C olo ., December I960)
A hui
t
Nm
u ber
o
t
w rk rs
o e

Sex, occupation, and industry division

NUMBER OF W
ORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS O —
F

1 0 .0 0 l s .00 l o . 00 I s . 00 l o . 00 ^ 5. 00 l o . 00 ^ 5. 00 l o . 00 I s . 00 |o. 00 *95.00 100.00 1*05.00 110.00 1*15.00 120.00 1*25.00
*
*
*
W
eekly
2 S&
h
ours!
and
and
(S n a ) (S n a ) under
ta d rd
ta d rd
45.00 50.00 55.00 60.00 65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85. 00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 over

Women— Continued
Bookkeeping-machine operators, class A
Nonmanufacturing

_

95
64

Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing
Retail trade

459
61
398

Clerks, accounting, class A
-__
Manufacturing
— —
Nonmanufacturing--------------------------------------------------Public utilities 2
Retail trade

339
103
236
58

Clerks, accounting, class B
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing . .
Public utilities 2
Retail trade —

723

Clerks, file, class A
Nonmanufacturing .

Clerks, payroll
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing
Public utilities2
Retail trade

1

80.50
91.50
72. 50

_
-

_
31
31
-

86.00

85
5
80
3

83
5
78

_
-

_
-

68.00

8

71.00
67.00
79.50
63.00

-

39.5
39. 5

67.00
66. 50

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0
4 0.0
40. 5

54.50
38
'59. 00 ------- 2 ~
54. 50
36
60. 00
51.50
6

68

244
230
139

.
__ . .
— —
------______________
__
_
_

__

Keypunch operators
_ —
Manufacturing
_ _
Nonmanufacturing
Public utilities2
__

------_

See footnotes at end of table,




"

82.00

-

451
28
423
106
70

_
_

Comptometer operators
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing
Public utilities2
Retail trade

Office girls
Nonmanufacturing
Retail trade

4 0 .0
40. 0
4 0 .0
3 9.5
40. 5

67. 50
61.00
63.00

15
15

_

-

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

64. 50
3
64. 50 -------3“
57.00
3

20
20
20

33
32
32

239
94
145
31
38

40. 5
40. 0
40. 5
4 0.0
40. 5

77.00
77.50
76.50
91.00
70.00

_
-

_
"

2
2
2

361
46
312
46
108

_

__
_

_
-

_

3 9.5
40. 0
39.5
40 .0
4 0 .0

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0
4 0.0
40. 0

69.00
72.00
68. 50
88.00
60.50

_
-

2
2

14
14

-

-

~ ~w t

.

62.00

4 0 .0
40. 0
4 0 .0
40. 5

_

-

77
75

_ __

.

88

_

526
94
115

___

Clerks, file, class B
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing —
Public utilities 2
Retail trade
Clerks, order __ _
Nonmanufacturing
Retail trade

61

4 0 .0 $77. 50
40. 0
76. 00

-----

496
~ m —
364
143
147
135
59

40 .0
69. 50
40. 0 "7 4 7 0 0 "
4 0.0
68.00
40 .0
75.00
4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

52.00
51.00
48.00

8
_
-

-

2
2
2
68
13

-

2

_

16

.

24
3 24

20

-

8

80
— n r
65
26

74
18
56

2
7

_

29
29

-

10
10

20
22
7
6
16
9
20 ------- T ~ ----- T T ------- 5- ------- 5“ — n r

11
54
-------—

—

v r

47

47
-

16
-

53
25

47
8

20
19
13

78
76
24

13
11
1

-

-

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
- 1
_
-

10

1

_
_
_

-

26

25

95
137
94
91
-----ZT~ ----- I T - — n r — 42
72
106
61
52
16
16
5
8
8
24
33
13

12

6

14
14

36
33
23

16
29
----- 3 - ------- T ~
13
27
4
9
73
— n r
63
46

-

_
-

51
26
25
7

31

36

20
16
9

10

5
5

9

54
155
20
97 ------- j—
------- 1- —
-------5“ — T “
7
84
16
150
53
22
10
43
15
20
31
“
49

-

42
26
33
43
33
49
------- T ~ ------- T ~ ----- T2 — r r ~ — IT ~ ----- I T "
T
24
40
31
38
14
19
12
2
1
9
28
18
16
12
4
-

10
120

75
15
60

42

6
36
-

14
81
— 27
54
6
1
1

7
r

23
4
19
3

7
7

10
------- T ~

10
1
9
-

58
24
34
19

1

3
------- 1“

2
-

6
6

8
8

2
2

-

“

-

15
38
39
------- 93
— n r
— w ~ ----- 35”
12
-

35
20

35
14
21
2

15
1
12
88
-------T 85
3
19

5
1

2
1
1

4
4

2
2

_
"

_
-

_
-

_
-

2
2
2

10
10

1
1

_
_ '
_

-

-

-

_
_
>
-

1

2

_
_
_
_
-

_
_
-

-

1

-

-

_

-

_

-

1
1

-

_
-

_

_

_

_

_

-

2

-

"

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

_
-

_
-

8
4
4
4
-

7
1
6
6

_
_
_
_
-

1
.
1
_
-

1
_
1
1
-

1
_
1
_
-

_
_
_
-

11
_
11
9
-

17
_
17
17
-

_
.
_
_

_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
-

_
_
.
.
-

_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_

32
i
31
31

3

_
_

_
_

_
_

_
_

_
_

2
2

2
_
2
2

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

«.

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

21
41
16 -------7 r
26
— IT~ -----2T~ ----- IT 7
20
5
22
_
10
9
1
8
-

4
2

14
4

10
10

20
12
1

67
43
24
56
z r ~ -----15- " — IT - — r ~
41
21
26
15
14
13
15
14
1
-

1

6 — rr~
20
14
7
9
3
6

5
7
5
-

14
52
29
19
— rz“ -------§— ------- 2 ~ — rf—
40
24
17
3
6
4
4
3
8
7
1
-

71
— TT" —
56
13
1
1
1

24
4

2
1
1

_
-

2
_
-

130

_
-

3
-

1

-

6

Table A-1. Office Occupations-Continued
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Denver, C o lo ., December I960)
Am ui
Sex, occupation, and industry division

Nm
u ber
at
w an
ork

NUMBER OF W
ORKERS KSCKIV1NO STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EABNIN08 O —
F

W kly
m
Wmkl71 40.00
h U 1 eum
OM
tesi1 and
(SU u ) (B n ) under
ad rd
U daid
45.00

$
70.00 *75. 00

45. 00

* 5 0 .0 0

^ 5 .0 0

^ 0. 00 *65.00

50. 00

55.00

60. 00

65.00

70.00

75.00

80.00

«
%
$
$
00 %5. 00 *90. 00 *95.00 foo. 00 1*05.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00
and
85.00 90.00 95. 00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 over

*8 0 .

Women— Continued
__
Secretaries ________ _____ — ____ „ __ __ __
Manufacturing _________ — . . __
„
_______
Nonmanufacturing — — . . — __ ____
Public utilities 2 --------------------------------------------------Retail trade ----------------------------------------------------------

1. 341
449
892
317
91

Stenographers, general -----------------------------------------------Manufacturing
— ---- ------- ------- ------- — _ —
Nonmanufacturing -------- ------- ------------ —
Public utilities2 --------------------- ------- ----------------Retail trade ________ ____ _____________________

1. 226
464
762
189
106

Switchboard operators --------------------------------- —--------------Manufacturing ________________ __ ________ ________
Nonmanufacturing -------- __ ---- ---- ------------ — ___
Public utilities 2 -------------------------------------------------Retail trade -------- — ------- --------------------------- —

275
58
217
35
51

Switchboard ope rator - receptionists __________________
Manufacturing ____________ — ___________ ________
Nonmanufacturing — — ------- — ------------ ------- —
Public utilities 2 . ____ ____ ________ ________
Retail trade ----------------------- -------------------------------Tabulating-machine operators, class B ---------------------Nonmanufacturing -----------------------------------------------------

321
117
204
42
49

$88.50
88. 50
88. 50
95. 00
80. 50

_
-

_
-

3
3
3
'

5
5
"

19
19
19
-

85
19
66
2
17

90
11
79
15
18

139
40
99
24
17

214
67
147
27
10

196
101
95
23
3

255
138
117
36
9

93
21
72
37
9

95
22
73
39
6

61
13
48
36
2

19
4
15
13

75. 50
76. 50
74. 50
82.50
65. 00

.
-

.
~

13
13
3
6

27
1
26
7
17

137
16
121
10
28

212
74
138
4
27

238
126
112
23
14

241
118
123
36
9

162
56
106
24

91
50
41
24
2

40
6
34
23
3

40
14
26
20
-

17
1
16
13

6
1
5
1

a.

41.5
64. 50
4 0 .0 . 77. 00
4 2.0
61.50
40. 0
86. 50
4 1.0
58. 50

24
4 24
-

20
20
-

32
32
15

23
1
22
14

55
1
54
17

24
7
17
4

32
19
13
5
1

15
9
6
2
-

17
9
8
7
-

11
2
9
9
-

18
10
8
8
-

1
1
1

3
3
3
“

3
3
3

35
14
21
6

35
12
23
16

75
20
55
4
9

67
28
39
22
7

12
6
6
1
1

32
18
14
2
-

49
19
30
10
7

9
9
-

4
4
3
*

2
2

.

1
1

1
1

9
9

7
7

5
5

9
7

8
8

2
“

2
1

8

12

5

22

7

7

2

.
"

.
"

77
1
76

78
29
49

44
3
41

n
6
5

5
3
2

13
7
6

3
2
1

6
6

_
-

14
14
4
2

70
4
66
7
6

110
12
98
6
6

142
60
82
7
18

94
74
20
6

40
28
12
2

22
17
5
2
"

4
2
2
-

6
6
6
-

54
54
6

163
18
145
39

131
20
111
17

224
39
185
29

132
91
41
4

34
8
26
1

16
1
15

16
4
12
2

2
2
2

39.5
4 0.0
39.5
39.5
40. 5
39.5
4 0 .0
39.5
4 0.0
4 0.0

40.0
4 0.0
40.0
39.5
41.0

67. 00
67. 00
67.00
72. 50
63. 00

49
41

40. 0
40. 0

78. 50
75. 00

Tabulating-machine operators, clas s C ------- ------------

64

4 0.0

241
53
188

40. 0
4 0.0
40. 0

65, 00
70. 50
63. 50

Typists, class A _______________________________________
Manufacturing -_______________ ____________________
Nonmanufacturing -------- ------- ------- ----------------- —
Public utilities2 -------------------------- ---------------------Retail trade ----------------------------------------------------------

506
197
309
44
32

39.5
4 0 .0
39.0
40,0
40. 0

67. 50
72. 00
65. 00
72. 00
63.50

Typists, class B ______________
Manufacturing ---- ----------------------------------------------- __
Nonmanufacturing ____________ ______________ ____
Retail trade ----------------------------------------------------------

797
190
607
100

40. 0
4 0.0
40.0
40.5

61.00
64. 50
60. 00
58. 00

-

.

61. 00

Transcribing-machine operators, general ----------------Manufacturing
------------------ — __ ------- „ __ ------Nonmanufactu ri ng -------- ------- „ ----------------- — —

.
-

1
2
3
4

-

.
-

2
2

-

23
9
14

-

16
2
14 ■
11

27
. *5
22
11

-

_
_
_

-

_
_
_
-

_

_

_
_

_
_

_
_
_

-

-

-

-

"

-

_
-

_
_
-

_
_

_
_

_

-

-

1
-

2
-

-

-

-

-

2
2

2
2
~

-

-

-

-

_

4
4
4
-

_

_

_
_
_

_
_
_

_
-

_
_
_

-

-

-

. -

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

-

i
i
i

_
_
•-

1

Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straightrtime salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes 4 workers at $ 35 to $ 40.
All workers were at $ 35 to $40.




24
------- T "
23
21
“

-

'

-

_

7
Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Denver, C olo ., December I960)
Atuuoi

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number

of

workers

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF

s
S
S
s
S
s
*
$
1
s
S
S
S
s
S
*
$
$
S
s
s
$
Weekly
Weekly . 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95 .0 0 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 14 0.00 145.00 150.00 155.00 160.00 16 5.00
Mrninnal,
hours 1
(Standard) (Standard),
and
6 5 .0 0 7 0 .0 0 7 5 .0 0 8 0 .0 0 8 5 .0 0 90. 00 95 . 00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00 120.00 125.00 130.00 135.00 140.00 14 5.00 150.00 155.00 160.00 165.00 over

Draftsmen, leader

76

4 0 .0

$162 .0 0

Draftsmen, senior
Manufacturing

477
19$ ~

4 0 .0
4 6 .0

131.00
l l S .6 0

_

Draftsmen, junior
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing _
Public utilities3

218
130
88
44

4 0 .0
46 . 0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

88 .0 0
63 .5 6
94 .5 0
99 .50

5

_

_

-

-

-

17
9
8

27
21

13
9
4

4
4

_

5
1

-

Draftsmen, junior

25

4 0 .0

77 .5 0

4

9

Nurses, industrial (registered)
M anufacturing----------------------

46
28

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

8 9 .50
9 1 .66

42

_

_

-

4
-

8
7

9
7

38
26

9
6
3
2

27
22
5
5

49
29
20
6

24
11
13
11

32
10
22
11

4

4

1

2

13
11

12
8

4
4

2

1
-

1

4
52
51

33
23

10
1
9
9

4
1
3

2

13
2

31
11

11
_

-

1
1

.

_

_

1

_

5

1

33
t l

See note on p. 4




relative to the inclusion of railroads.

3

4

5
30
3 ------- T ~

2

1
1

3

4

2 46

43
-

31
-

49
-

_

.
_

_

.

.

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
1 Workers were distributed as follows: 5 at $165 to $170; 15 at $170 to $175; 16 at $175 to $180; 9 at $18*0 to $185; 1 at $190 to $195.
3 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
4 Includes 1 worker at $ 55 to $ 60.
NOTE:

20
10

_

_

_

_

_

_
_

_

_
_

_
_

_
_

_
_

_

.

1

4
2

,,

67

8

Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(A verage straigh t-tim e hourly earnings fo r m en in se le cte d occupations studied on an a rea basis
by industry div isio n . D enver, C olo. , D ecem ber I960)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

C arp en ters, maintenance
__ ___ _____ _ _____
Manufacturing _
_ _
_ _ ----Nonmanufacturing _______________- ____________

109
69
40

$ 2. 83
2 .8 8
2 .7 3

E lectrician s , maintenance
____________________
Manufacturing
__ _ _____ __
__ _

221
174

2 .9 2
2. 89

-

E n gin eers, stationary _ _____
____ __
Manufacturing - —
-------Nonmanufacturing _________ _____ ___

276
173
103

2. 69
2. 88
2. 37

F ir e m e n , stationary boiler
_ __ __ __ . __
M a n u fa c tu r in g --------------------------------------------------

68
50

2. 13
2 .4 1

H e lp e r s, tra d e s, maintenance — __ __
Manufacturing _________ - __ __________________
Nonmanufacturing _____ __ — __ __ _ __
Public utilities 3 __________________________

177
83
94
93

2.
2.
2.
2.

M a c h in ists, maintenance __ __ __ __
_____
Manufacturing ________________________________
Nonmanufacturing _______________- ____________
Public u tilitie s 3 ___________ ___ _______ __

249
219
30
30

2. 84
2. 83
2 .8 6
2. 86

M ech anics, automotive (maintenance) ------------Manufacturing ______ _____ ____________ ______
Nonmanufacturing __ _____ ___ __
_
__
Public utilities 3 _ „ „ __ __ __ _____

7 28
35
693
562

2.
2.
2.
2.

M e ch an ics, maintenance __ __ _ __
Manufacturing ______ _____ _______

_ __

260
254

2. 77
2 .7 7

_________ __
________ _

64
61

2. 29
2. 32

$

1. 70
and
under
1. 80

_

O ilers ____
_____________________
Manufacturing __
_ _________

__

20
11
28
27

82
78
82
86

-

o
O'

Under
$
1 .7 0

o
00

Avenge
hourly ,
earnings

M

N ber
um
of
w
orkers

Occupation and industry division

-

-

$

$ 2. 20

* 2 . 30

$ 2 .4 0

$2. 50

$ 2. 60

$ 2. 70

2. 00

2. 10

2. 20

2. 30

2 .4 0

2. 50

2 .6 0

2. 70

2. 80

2. 90

-

-

-

-

1
1
-

5
5
-

12
4
8

28
28

14
14
-

19
19
"

7
7
-

-

-

-

3
“

17
14

’ 9‘
9

51
51

12
12

55
54

_

"

“

70
30

?7

23
14

14
5
9

37
36
1

7
6
1

33
31
2

49
49
-

4
4

_

_

_

_

■

"

~

4
4

3
3

10
10

_

8
8

14
8
6

2
2

5
5

18
4
14

35
11
24

2 16
■

-

-

-

■

■

3
3

8
8

-

“

8
8

■

10
8

9
9

10
10

5
5
"

4
,4
-

32
32
-

24
24
"

83
10
73
73

23
3
20
20

4
3
1
-

2
2
-

_

_

_

_

-

-

“

-

-

_
“

_
■

_
“

_
-

_
“

6
4
2
2

22
22
_

21
21
"

_
"

89
89
"

31
4
27
27

18
18
-

10
10
-

30
2
28
23

8
2
6
-

70
2
68
"

38
1
37
37

37
12
25
20

25
7
18
18

3
-------- T

2
2

50
50

1
1

131
131

23
23

2
2

2
2

_

_

_

_

-

-

_

_
-

"

“

.

.

.

_

_

_

-

-

"

"

"

-

_

_

_

.

_

.

_

-

-

"

-

-

-

-

_

■

3
"

"

14
14

14
14

4
4

.

.

.

.

.

.

-

-

-

2. 93
2 .9 3

_

-

-

-

-

-

~

“

■

"

"

S h e et-m e tal w o r k e r s , m a in te n a n c e ___________

46

3. 00

_

_

.

_

T ool and die m akers ___
Manufacturing __ _

84
83

3 .0 5
3. 05

_

_

_

_

1 Excludes prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on weekends, h olid ays, and late sh ifts.

See note on p. 4




rela tive to the in clu sion o f railroads,

3. 10

*3. 20

* 3 . 30
and

3. 20

3. 30

over

-

7
3
4

16
T5—
-

_
•

4
4

-

-

-

-

•

164
164

NOTE:

-

-

P ip e fitte rs, maintenance _______________________
Manufacturing ___ „ __
_ ______,
__

a t $ 1. 2 0 t o $ 1. 3 0 .

-

_

-

w e re

3. 10

-

-

A ll w o rk e rs

3. 00

-

-

2

$ 3. 00

~

2. 75
2. 89

3 T ran sp ortation, com m u nication, and other public u tilities.

2. 90

-

92
48

_ __

2. 80

"

%

$

$ 2. 10

P a in te r s, maintenance ___ __ — __ _____
Manufacturing --------------------------------------------------

______
_____ __

$

* 2 . 00

.

_____
_____

$

1. 90

_

■

~

_

"

"

■

_

.

.

-

-

-

_
-

8
7
1
1

53
53
-

_

498
7
491
454

10
10
10

2
2
-

15
9

58
58

_

-

1
1

_

_

-

-

-

.

.

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

_

_

“

1
1

-

-

-

13
13

4
-

-

41
41

-

'

1
"

-

34
2

8
3

9
8

16
16

7
6

-

-

-

1

■

1
1

"

l

60
60

4
4

55
55

_

_

.

_

_

_

2

12

2

_

_

30

_

_

_

_

_

1

_

8
8

14
14

15
15

5
4

16
16

1

"

1
1

"

_

"

"

'

2
2
.

17
17

8
8

9
Table A-4. Custodial and M aterial Movement Occupations
(A verage straigh t-tim e hourly earnings fo r s elected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, D enver, C olo. , D e cem ber I960)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—

O ccup ation 1 and industry d ivision

E levator operators, passenger (women) ------Nonmanufacturing ---------------------------------------

Num
ber
of

$
$
Average
hourly , Under 0 . 80 0 . 90
earnings 2
and
$
under
0 . 80
...,-S0- 1 . 0 0

$

$

1.20

$
1. 30

$
1.40

$
1.50

1 . 10 - 1 , go_ 1. 30

1.40

1. 50

1.60

1. 70

14
14

-

-

-

-

2
2

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

9
9

32
4
28

3

4
4

1

2

-

34
32

36
34

66

-

65

75
73

2

2

2

1

2

40
40
“

6
6

1

47
29
18

63
48
15

38
15
23

120

2
2

139
69
70
63
4

30
30
-

4
4
4
-

15
15
-

7
4
3
“

2

4
4
“

_
-

_
“

_

53

99
36
63
14
19

215
14

120

1 . 00

17
17

' 93
85
42

$ 1.20
1. 19

Guards -------------------------------------------------------------Manufacturing
------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ------------------ ------------------

322
255
67

2 . 22

2. 36
1.70

“

"

-

Janitors, p orters, and cle a n e rs (men) --------Manufacturing --------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------------Public utilities 3 ------------------------------------Retail trade --------------------------------------------

1, 270
497
773
173
273

1.6 8

20

1.96
1.50

20

.
-

Janitors, p orters, and clea n ers (women) ----M anufacturing --------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------------Retail trade --------------------------------------------

346
29
317
34

1.53

_
"

20

L a b orers, m aterial handling
-----------------------Manufacturing --------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------------Public utilities 3 ------------------------------------Retail trade --------------------------------------------

1,799
316
1, 483
815
330

2 . 19
2 . 10
2 . 21

-

-

-

O rder fille r s -------------------- ---------------------------Manufacturing ------------------------ -----------------Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------------Retail trade --------------------------------------------

1, 056

2 . 10
2 . 21
2 . 06

_
-

2. 07

_
-

.
-

P a ck ers, shipping (men) --------------------------------M anufacturing ---------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------------Retail trade ------------- ----------------------------

275
129
146
30

1.95
2. 05

-

-

-

1.8 6

-

-

-

2
2

1 . 10

P a ck ers, shipping (women)

290

766
288

-

12
12

1.8 6

1.31
1.6 8

1.52
1.29

2. 43
1.96

-

----------------------------

37
238
50
188
90

2. 04
2. 23
1.99
2 . 00

Shipping clerk s ------- -------------------------------------Manufacturing ---------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ---------------------------------------

126
37
89

2 . 18
2 . 29

Shipping and receivin g c le rk s -----------------------Manufacturing --------------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing -------- ----------------------------

90
47
43

2. 42
2. 44
2. 40

See footnotes at end o f table.




2. 13

1.80

1. 90

2 . 00

$

2 . 00
2 . 10

$

2 . 10
2 . 20

$

2 . 20

$
2. 30

2. 30

2.40

4
4

4
4

6

"

5
5
5

79
7
72
48

72
3
69
54

113
29
84

85
28
57
13

102

57
41

50

12

35

144
4
140
4
4

_
'

7

2

11
1
10
10

20

12

13
13
3

237
237
"

4
4

4

-

3
'

3
3
"

6

73
38
35
13

109

113
61
52

162
23
139

51

8

8

12

6
10

29

31

18

48
31
17
15

138
41
97

108
4
104
13

130

11

93
9
84
9

61
38
23

57
13
44

21
2

23
15
8

2
11

1

2

19
"

“

40
4
36

$
$
$
$
$
2. 40 2. 50 2 . 60 2. 70 2 . 80
2. 50

_

59
2

2

-

5
5

2
2

12
6
6

6

6

-

-

6

6

6

_
“

4
4
-

_
-

4

-

2
2
2

2
2

1.63

Receiving c lerk s --------------------------------------------Manufacturing -------------- ------------------------------Nonmanufacturing --------------------------------------Retail trade --------------------------------------------

$
$
$
1. 70 1 . 80 1 .9 0

"

2

1.53

4
4

1 . 60

11
10

u

6

20

16

$

21
21
1

-

1

-

$

-

-

2

3
3
3

14
14
4
_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
~

_
"

_
“

_
“

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

11

6

3
3
6

9

14
88
20

1
2

2

4

132
86

46
33
9

7
13

3
9

12

2

25
25
25

16
16
16

20

4
4
4

18
18
18

14
14
14

7
4
3
3

8
2
6
6

6
6

17

13

-

~

17
13

2
11
1

8

8

5

2

3

12
2
10
10

6

5
5
5

36
36
-

12

_
-

-

2. 70

"

2 . 80

and
over

-

-

-

-

3
3
"

-

_
-

_
-

-

31
31
-

-

_
-

18
18

_
-

-

-

_
-

-

9

6
2

21

115
5
5

2 . 60

"

-

_
"

_
-

-

-

20

14

4
4

1

17

"

20

89
3

-

6
6

_
“

~

_
'

-

.
-

-

1

-

21

12

2

-

“

22

108
23

738
70

1

663
5

-

309
56
253
137

42
42

109
104
5

22

1

3
3
"

13

3
3
-

18
18
-

23
23

25
19

137

34
23
13

6

21

16
16

25
5

44
21

20
2

20

23

18

-

33
18
15

-

9
3

-

668

29
7

11

-

15
105
105

201
8

12
-

-

"

22
12

6
6

2

6
6

1

1

12
12

_

3
3
-

-

-

1
1

-

8
8

-

-

1
1

-

-

-

4
4
"

5
5
-

_
"

_
■

_
“

6
2

2
2

6
2

19
14
5

46

4

4

6
-

1
0
Table A-4. Custodial and M aterial Movement Occupations-Continued
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Denver, Colo. , December I960)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Number
of
workers

O ccupation 1 and industry d ivision

T ru ck d riv ers 5
_
M anufacturing
__ _
N onm anufacturing __ _
Pu blic u tilities 3 _
R etail trade _ „
_

.

Avenge
hourly 2 Under 0 .8 0
earnings $
and
0. 80 under
.9 0

0 .9 0

*1.00

*1. 10

1.00

1. 10

V

*1. 50 *1.60

20

*1.30

*1.40

1. 20

1. 30

1.40

1. 50

1.60

-

29
7
22
7

*2. 60

*2.70

*2. 80
and

1.80

1. 90

2.00

2. 10

2. 20

2. 30

2.40

2. 50

2. 60

2 .70

2. 80

ov er

-

29
6
23
23

189
18
171
1
25

131
75
56
-

132
36
96
2
21

238
79
159
6
99

335
73
262
143
85

648
44
604
586
18

485
78
407
404
3

200
47
153
67
86

12
12
-

5
5
-

5
2
3
3

-

20
20
-

353
84
269
44
34

2 .02
2.01
2. 02
2.44
1. 98

_
-

_
"

.
-

_
-

5
2
3
3

_
-

20
20
-

_
-

19
7
12
7

8
8
-

_
-

12
6
6
6

97
97
1
-

40
30
10
-

56
17
39
9

38
3
35
5
-

12
8
4
1
3

31
31
31
-

6
6
3
3

7
1
6
3
3

_
“

2
2
-

2.34
2. 35
2. 34
2.44
2. 10

'

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

10
10
-

-

-

17
17
17

92
18
74
25

74
31
43
-

62
10
52
2
12

48
41
7
1
-

267
50
217
141
42

495
495
495

86
52
34
34
-

17
17
-

12
12
-

1
1
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3
3

5
5

3
3

-

100
22
78
60

373
17
356
356

166
29
137
54

-

-

-

2
2
-

-

-

-

-

-

13

-

1

-

-

-

.

11
11
-

-

_

_

-

.
-

-

-

T r u c k d riv e r s , heavy (o v e r 4 tons,
other than tr a ile r type) __

138

2. 24

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

504
— 10T
200
59

2. 25
2. 24
2. 26
2.48

_

.
-

.

_

-

.
-

.

-

.
-

.

-

.
-

-

51

. 16
16
8

123

2. 33

_

_

.

-

_

-

.

_

_

155
75
80
30

1. 72
1. 77
1.67
1. 50

_

.

.

-

-

19
5
14
11

.

-

2
2

21
7
14
9

_
__

________
___
_
_

_

-

13
15
11 --------T
2
12
4

1 Data limited to men workers except where otherwise indicated.
2 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
3 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
*
Workers were distributed as follows: 4 at $ 2. 80 to $ 2. 90; 2 at $ 2. 90 to $ 3.
5
Includes all drivers regardless of size and type of truck operated.




*2. 50

-

-

NOTE: See note on p. 4

*2.40

-

-

_

30

-

53
56
53
53

__

%. 20

-

2.
2.
2.
2.

____

*2. 10

$ 2 .3 4
2. 30
2. 35
2.48
2. 28

652
70
582
470

— _

*2.00

8
8
-

1.70

T r u c k d riv e r s , heavy (over 4 ton s,
tr a ile r type) _
_
M anufacturing
Nonmanufacturing __ „
P ublic utilities 3
_

W atchm en _ ___
M anufacturing
N onm anufacturing _
R etail trade _

*1.90

1,181
232
949
673
96

T r u c k d riv e r s , m edium ( l 1/* to and
including 4 tons) _
M anufacturing _
__
Nonmanufacturing __
P ublic u t ilitie s 3 _ __
R etail trade

T r u c k e r s , pow er (other than fork lift)

*1.80

2,466
490
1,976
1,209
370

___

T r u c k d riv e r s , light (under l J/2 t o n s ) _____
M anufacturing
.. .
N onm anufacturing _
Pu blic utilities 3 _____________________
R etail trade _
__ _

T r u c k e r s , pow er (fork lift)
M anufacturing _
N onm anufacturing _
Pu blic utilities 3

*1.70

relative to the inclusion of railroads,

-

-

2

-

122

-

6
6

53
iO
23

52
42
10

74
4$
26

67
7
60

31
15
16

185
134
51

8
8

.
-

_

_

1

.

10

4

24

14

70

_

_

6
3
3

2
2

16
5
11
3

31
27
4
3

.
-

2
2

1
1

4
4

23
14
9

.
-

•

_

‘

-

1
i

-

11

Appendix:

Occupational Descriptions

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’s wage surveys is to assist its
field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes in applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’s field economists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers,
part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.
O F F IC E
B IL L E R , MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPER A TO R

Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work inciden­
tal to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine,
are classified by type of machine, as follows:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or with­
out a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.

B ille r , machine (b illin g m achine) — Uses a special billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, etc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carc>on copies
of the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.
B ille r , machine (bookkeepin g m achine)— Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, etc., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers’ ledger
record. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a num­
ber of vertical columns and computes and usually prints auto­
matically the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowl­
edge of bookkeeping. Works from uniform and standard types of
sales and credit slips.




C la s s A — Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Deter­
mines proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to
be used in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated re­
ports, balance sheets, and other records by hand.
C la s s B — Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections
of a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic
bookkeeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, pay­
roll, customers’ accounts (not including a simple type of billing
described under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense dis­
tribution, inventory control, etc. May check or assist in prep­
aration of trial balances and prepare control sheets for the ac­
counting department.

C LERK ,

ACCOUNTING

C la s s i4—
-Under general direction of a bookkeeper or ac­
countant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a
complete set of books or records relating to one phase of an es­
tablishment’s business transactions. Work involves posting and

12

CLKKK, ACCOUNTING— Continued
balancing subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receiv­
able or accounts payable; examining and coding invoices or vouch­
ers with proper accounting distribution; requires judgment and ex­
perience in making proper assignations and allocation s.
May
a ssist in preparing, adjusting, and closing journal entries; may
direct c la ss B accounting clerks.
C la s s B — Under supervision, performs one or more routine
accounting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers,
accounts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers.
This job does not require a knowledge of
accounting and bookkeeping principles but is found in offices in
which the more routine accounting work is subdivided on a func­
tional basis among several workers.

CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the n eces­
sary data on the payroll sh eets. Duties involve: Calculating workers’
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker’ s name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and a ssist paymaster in making up and distrib­
uting pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathe­
matical computations.
This job is not to be confused with that of
statistical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of
a Comptometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to
performance of other duties.

DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
CLERK, FILE
C la s s A — R esponsible for maintaining an established filing

system . C la ssifie s and indexes correspondence or other material;
may also file this material. May keep records of various types
in conjunction with files or supervise others in filing and locating
material in the file s . May perform incidental clerical duties.
C la s s B — Performs routine filing, usually of material that
has already been cla ssified , or locates or a s s is t s in locating ma­
terial in the file s. May perform incidental clerical duties.

CLERK, ORDER
R eceives customers' orders for material or merchandise by
phone, or personally.
Duties involve any com bination o f the
fo llo w in g :
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet
listing the items to make up the order; checking prices and quantities
of items on order sheet; distributing order sheets to respective de­
partments to be filled.
May check with credit department to deter­
mine credit rating of customer, acknowledge receipt of orders from
customers, follow up orders to see that they have been filled , keep
file of orders received, and check shipping invoices with original
orders.
mail,




Under general supervision and with no supervisory respon­
sib ilitie s, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten
matter, using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjust­
ments such as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is
not required to prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file of used
sten cils or Ditto masters.
May sort, co llate, and staple completed
material.

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
b ilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards
by punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence,
using an alphabetical or a numerical keypunch machine, following
written information on records.
May duplicate cards by using the
duplicating device attached to machine. May keep file s of punch
cards. May verify own work or work of others.

OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands,
operating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening
and distributing mail, and other minor clerical work.

13

SECRETARY

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST

Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an
administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receiving people coming into o ffice; answering and
making phone c a lls ; handling personal and important or confidental
mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative; taking
dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand
or by Stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dictation or th erecorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine.
May pre­
pare special reports or memorandums for information of superior.

In addition to performing duties of operator, on
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist
type or perform routine clerical work as part of regular
typing or clerical work may take the major part of this
while at switchboard.

TABULATING-MACHINE

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a
normal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a type­
writer.
May a lso type from written copy. May a lso set up and keep
files in order, keep simple records, etc. Does not include transcribingmachine work (se e transcribing-machine operator).

a single
and may
du ties.
worker's

posi­
also
This
time

OPERATOR

Operates machine that automatically analyzes and translates
information punched in groups of tabulating cards and prints trans­
lated data on forms or accounting records; sets or adjusts machine;
does simple wiring of plugboards according to established practice
or diagrams; places cards to be tabulated in feed magazine and starts
machine.
May file cards after they are tabulated. May, in addition,
operate auxiliary machines.

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype Or similar machine, involving a
varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or
reports on scientific research and to transcribe this dictation on a
typewriter. May also type from written copy. May a lso set up and keep
files in order, keep simple records, e tc . Does not include transcribing-

Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal
routine vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May a lso type
from written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing
dictation involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such
as legal briefs or reports on scientific research are not included. A
worker who takes dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar
machine is cla ssified as a stenographer, general.

machine work.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
TYPIST

Duties

Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office

c a lls. May record toll ca lls and take m e ssag es.

May give information to

persons who ca ll in, or occasionally take telephone orders. For workers
who also act as receptionists see switchboard operator-receptionist.




U ses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May do Clerical work involving little special training, such a s keeping
simple records, filing records and reports or sorting and distributing
incoming mail.

14
TYPIST— Continued

TYPIST— Continued

C lass A — Performs- one or more o f the follow ing: Typing ma­
terial in final form from very rough and involved draft; copying
from plain or corrected copy in which there is a frequent and varied
use of technical and unusual words or from foreign-language copy;
combining material from several sources, or planning layout of
complicated statistical tables to maintain uniformity and balance

in spacing;* typing tables from rough draft in final form. May type
routine form letters, varying details to suit circumstances.
C la ss B — Performs one or more o f the follow ing: Typing from
relatively clear or typed drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance
p o lic ie s, e tc ., setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying
more complex tables already se t up and spaced properly.

P R O F E S S IO N A L A N D T E C H N IC A L

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(A ssistan t draftsman)
Draws to sca le units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
U ses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sk etch es, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued
writing sp ecification s; making adjustments or changes in drawings or
specifications* May ink in lines and letters on pencil drawings, prepare
detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings. Work is frequently
in a specialized field such as architectural, electrical, mechanical, or
structural drafting.

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)

Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration of working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Duties
involve a combination o f the follow ing: Interpreting blueprints, sketch es,
and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures; assigning

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combina­
tion o f the following: Giving first aid to the ill of injured; attending to

ficult problems. May a s s is t subordinates during emergencies or as a

subsequent dressing of em ployees 9 injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;

regular assignment, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­

conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants

ministrative nature.

and em ployees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR

education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of a ll personnel.

Prepares working plans and detail drawings from n otes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­

TRACER

duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­

p o se s.

Duties involve a combination o f the follow ing: Preparing work­

ing plans, detail drawings, maps, c r o ss-se c tio n s, e t c ., to sca le by use
of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as those
involved in strength of materials, beams and tru sses; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dim ensions, materials to be used, and quantities;




Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. U ses
T-square, com pass, and other drafting to o ls. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

15
M A IN T E N A N C E

D POW ERPLANT

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, ca sin g s, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves m ost o f the following:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter9s handtools, portable
power to o ls, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; selectin g materials nec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, g as, or oil burner; checks water and safety
v a lv es. May clean, oil, or a s s is t in repairing boilerrpom equipment.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, dis­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves m ost o f the following: installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit system s,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specifications;.locating and diagnosing trouble in the e le c ­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; using a variety of
electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In gen­
eral, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a. formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may a lso supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a record of
operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May also
supervise these operations. Head or c h ie f engineers in establishm ents
employing more than one engineer are excluded




.

HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
A s s i e s one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties of lesser sk ill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and to o ls; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; a ssisting worker by holding materials or too ls;
performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are a lso performed by workers on a full-time b a sis.

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools, gauges,
jig s, fixtures, or d ies. Work involves m ost o f the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items reauiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting fe ed s, speed s, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making necessary adjustments during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress too ls, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils . For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this cla ssification .

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves m ost o f the following: Interpreting written instructions and
specification s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
chinist’ s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and

16
MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued

MILLWRIGHT— Continued

operating standard machine too ls; shaping of metal parts to clo se toler­
ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common m etals; selecting standard m aterials, parts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assem bling parts into me­
chanical equipment. In general, the machinist’ s work normally requires
a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

are required. Work involves m ost o f the follow ing: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specification s; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to str e sse s, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selectin g standard too ls, equipment, and parts
to be used; installing and maintaining in good order power transmission
equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the mill­
wright’ s work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
Repairs automobiles, bu ses, motortrucks, and tractors of an e s ­
tablishment. Work involves m ost o f the follow ing: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassem bling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in disassem bling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
v alv es; reassembling and installing the various assem blies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; alining w heels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves m ost o f the follow ing: Examining machines and mechan­
ica l equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly d is­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replace­
ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machiue shop
for major repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling ma­
chines; and making a ll necessary adjustments for operation. In general,
the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classification are workers
whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.

MILLWRIGHT
Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
in stalls machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout

O '




OILER
Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
fa ces of mechanical equipment of an establishm ent.

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates w a lls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work in volves the follow ing: Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, o ils , white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper
color or con sisten cy. In general, the work of the maintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam , g a s, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves m ost o f the follow ing:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other written specification s; cutting various s iz e s of pipe to correct
lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with stocks and d ie s; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven machines; assem bling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to pressures,
flow, and size of pipe required; making standard tests to determine
whether finished pipes meet sp ecifica tio n s• In general, the work of the
maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building
sanitation or heating sy ste m s are excluded

.

17
TOOL AND DIE MAKER

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system ; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’ s snake. In
general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
Fabricates, in sta lls, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
sh elves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishment. Work involves m ost o f the follow ing: Planning and lay­
ing out a ll types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, models,
or other sp ecification s; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assem bling; installing sheetmetal articles as required. In general, the work of the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

(Diem aker; jig maker; toolmaker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jig s, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most o f the following: Planning and laying out of work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written sp ecification s;
using a variety of tool and die maker’ s handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding of the working properties of common
metals and a llo ys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speed s, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as w ell as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required qu alities; working to clo se tolerances; fitting and assembling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selecting appropriate
materials, too ls, and p rocesses. In general, the tool and die maker’ s
work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.

For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this cla ssification .

C U S T O D IA L A N D M A T E R IA L M O V E M E N T
ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER— -Continued

Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or similar establishm ent.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

or other establishment. Duties involve a combination o f the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtu res;p olish ­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance serv ices; cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Workers
who specialize in window washing are excluded.

GUARD
Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity o f em ployees and
other persons entering

.

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an o ffice, apartment house, or commercial




LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more o f the follow ­
ing: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or

18

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING^-Continued

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued

from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting d ev ices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in propef storage location; trans­
porting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.
Longshoremen who load and unload sh ips are excluded

,

.

ORDER FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
F ills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sa le s slip s, customers’
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating items filled or omitted, keep records o f outgoing orders, requisi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.

For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssifie d as follow s:
R ec eivin g clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk

TRUCKDRIVER
Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of estab­
lishments such a s : Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishm ents, or between retail establishments
and customers’ houses or places of bu sin ess. May a lso load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. D river-salesm en and over-the-road drivers
are excluded.

PACKER, SHIPPING
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, s iz e , and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or more o f
the following: Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify
content; selection of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closin g and sealing container; applying lab els or
entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make wooden
boxes or crates are excluded.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­
sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Shipping
work in v o lves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes,
available means of transportation and fa te s; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or a s s is t in
preparing the merchandise for shipment. R eceivin g work in v o lv e s: Veri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipments against
b ills of lading, in voices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing merchandise or materials to proper de­
partments; maintaining necessary records and file s .




For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are cla ssifie d by size
and type of equipment, as follow s: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the b asis o f trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver (combination o f s i z e s lis te d separately)
Truckdriver, light (under IV2 ton s)
Truckdriver, medium (1% to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer typ e)
Truckdriver, h eavy (o v er 4 tons, other than trailer typ e)

TRUCKER, POWER
Operates a manually controlled g aso lin e- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of a ll kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishm ent.
For wage study purposes, workers are cla ssifie d
truck, as follow s:

by type of

Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)

WATCHMAN
Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illeg a l entry.
* U .S . G O V E R N M E N T P R I N T I N G O F F I C E : 1981 0 — 5 8 5 4 1 2







Occupational Wage Surveys
Occupational wage surveys will be conducted in the 82 major labor markets listed below during late I96 0 and early 1961. Bulletins, when available, may be
purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U .S . Government Printing O ffice, Washington 25, D .C ., or from any of the BLS regional sa le s offices shown on the
inside front cover.
A summary bulletin containing data for 80 labor markets, combined with additional an a lysis, w ill be issued early in 1962.

Akron, Ohio— Bull. 1285Albany—Schenectady—Troy, N .Y .— Bull. 1285Albuquerque, N . M ex.— Bull. 1285Allentown—Bethlehem—E asto n ,
P a .- N .J .— Bull. 1285Atlanta, G a .— Bull. 1285Baltimore, Md.— B ull. 1 285-34
Beaumont—Port Arthur, T e x .— Bull. 1285Birmingham, A la .— B ull. 1 28 5 B o ise, Idaho— Bull. 1285Boston, M a ss.— Bull. 1 2 8 5 -1 5
Buffalo, N .Y .— Bull. 1285-31
Burlington, V t .— Bull. 1285Canton, Ohio— Bu ll. 1285-29
Charleston, W. V a .— Bull. 1285Charlotte, N .C .— Bull. 1285* * Chattanooga, T enn.—G a .— Bull. 1 2 8 5 -1 4
Chicago, 111.— Bull. 1285^

Cincinnati, Ohio—K y .— B ull. 1285* * C le v e la n d , Ohio— -Bull. 128 5 -1 1
Columbus, Ohio— B u ll. 128 5 -3 8
* * D a ll a s , T e x .— B ull. 1285-21
>!<>!«Davenport—Rock Island—Moline, Iowa—111.—
Bull. 1285- 16
Dayton, Ohio— Bull. 1285*41
Denver, C o lo .— Bull. 1285*27
D es Moines, Iowa— Bull. 1285*
Detroit, Mich.— Bull. 1285-37
* * F o r t Worth, T e x .— B u ll. 1285-23

*Green Bay, W is.-— Bull. 1285-2
Greenville, S .C .— Bull. 1285Houston, T e x .— Bull. 1285Indianapolis, Ind.— Bull. 1285-28
Jackson, M i s s .— Bull. 1285Jacksonville, F ia .— Bull. 1285-30
^K ansas City, M o.—K a n s.— Bull. 1285-18
Lawrence—Haverhill, M a ss.—N .H .— Bull. 1285^ '^ L ittle Rock—North Little Rock, A rk .— Bull. 1 2 8 5 -6
L os A n ge les—Long Beach, C a lif.— Bull. 1285L o u isv ille, K y .—Ind.— Bull. 1285Lubbock, T e x .— Bull. 1285* Manchester, N .H .— Bull. 1285-1
Memphis, T enn.— Bull. 1285-35
Miami, F la .— Bull. 1285*33
Milwaukee, W is.— Bull. 1285M inneapolis—St. Paul, Minn.-— Bull. 1 2 8 5 -3 9
Muskegon—Muskegon H eights, Mich.— Bull. 1285Newark and Jersey City, N .J .— Bull. 128 5 -4 0
New Haven, C onn.-— Bull. 1285New Orleans, L a .— Bull. 1285New York, N .Y .— Bull. 1285Norfolk—Portsmouth and Newport N ew s—
Hampton, V a .— Bull. 1285Oklahoma City, O k la.— Bull. 1 2 8 5 -3
Omaha, Nebr.—Iowa— Bull. 128 5 -1 3
Paterson—Clifton—P a ssa ic , N .J .— Bull. 1285* ^Philadelphia, P a .— Bull. 1285-24
Phoenix, A riz .— Bull. 1285-

Pittsburgh, P a .— Bull. 1285* Portland, Maine— Bull. 1285-19
Portland, Oreg.—W ash.— Bull. 1285Providence—Pawtucket, R .I .—M a ss.— B ull. 1285
* * Raleigh, N .C .— Bull. 1285- 5
Richmond, V a .— Bull. 1285-26
Rockford, 111.— Bull. 1285♦ ♦ S t . L ou is, M o.—111.— Bull. 1285-10
Salt Lake City, Utah— Bull. 1 2 8 5 -3 2
San Antonio, T e x .— Bull. 1285> San Bernardino—R iverside—Ontario,
!<
C a lif.— Bull. 1 28 5 -4
San Francisco—Oakland, C a lif .— Bull. 1 2 8 5 -3 6
Savannah, Ga. — Bull. 1285* * Scranton, P a .— Bull. 1 2 8 5 -8
sjc | Seattle, Wash.— Bull. 1 2 8 5 -7
5«
* * * Sioux F a lls, S. D ak.— Bull. 1 28 5 -1 7
South Bend, Ind.— Bull. 1285-

* *
❖
**
**

S p ok a n e, W ash.— B u ll. 1285T o le d o , O h io — B u ll. 1285T ren ton , N .J .— B u ll. 1285-25
W ashin gton , D .C .—M d.—V a .-— B u ll. 128 5 -2 2
W aterbury, C o n n .— B u ll. 1 285Waterloo, Iowa— B ull. 1 28 5 -2 0
Wichita, K an s.— Bull. 1 2 8 5 -9
Wilmington, D e l.—N .J .— Bull. 128 5 -1 2
Worcester, M a ss.— Bull. 1285York, P a .— Bull. 1285-

An asterisk preceding a labor market indicates the availability and
price of the bulletin.
Please do not order copies in advance.

*




Price 20 cen ts.
Price 25 cen ts.
Price 15 cen ts.





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102