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Hanover CoiaC£o

MARao 196
1

Occupational Wage Survey

TRENTON, NEW JERSEY
DECEMBER 1960

Bulletin No. 1285-25




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




Occupational Wage Survey
TRENTON, NEW JERSEY




DECEMBER 1960

Bulletin No. 1285-25
February 1961

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.

Price 25 cents




Preface

Contents
Page

The Bureau of Labor Statistics regularly conducts
areawide wage surveys in a number of important industrial
centers. The studies, made from late fall to early spring,
relate to occupational earnings and related supplementary
benefits. A prelim inary report is available on completion
of the study in each area, usually in the month following
the payroll period studied. This bulletin provides additional
data not included in the earlier report.
A consolidated
analytical bulletin summarizing the results of all of the
y e a r's surveys is issued after completion of the final area
bulletin for the current round of surveys.

Tables:
1.

Establishments and workers within scope of survey_________

A:

Occupational earnings: *
A-l.
Office occupations ______________________________
A-2.
P rofessional and technical occupations_______
A-3.
Maintenance and powerplant occupations ____
A-4.
Custodial and material movement occupations_______

B:
This report was prepared in the Bureau's regional
office in New York, N . Y . , by Elliott A . Browar, under
the direction of Frederick W. M ueller, A ssistant Regional
Director for Wages and Industrial Relations.




Establishment practices and supplementary wage
provisions: *
B -l.
Shift differen tials________________________________________
B-2.
Minimum entrance salaries for womenoffice
w o rk e rs__________________________________________________
B-3.
Scheduled weekly h o u rs_________________________________
B-4.
Paid holidays ___________________________________________
B-5.
Paid vacation s___________________________________________
B-6.
Health, insurance, and pension plans_________________

Appendix:

Occupational description s_________________________________

* NOTE: Sim ilar tabulations for these
are available in the Trenton area report
A directory indicating date of study and
report, as well as of reports for other
available upon request.

and other items
for March 1952.
the price of this
major areas, is

Union sca les, indicative of prevailing pay levels
in the Trenton area, are also available for seven selected
building trades.

1

2

sO

Introduction _____________________________________________________________

^

The Community Wage Survey Program

8

9
10
11
12
13
15

17




•>

/

Occupational Wage Survey—Trenton, N. J.
In trod u ction

This area is one of several important industrial centers in
which the U. S. Department of L a b o r s Bureau of Labor Statistics has
conducted surveys of occupational earnings and related wage benefits
on an areawide basis. In this area, data were obtained by personal
visits of Bureau field economists to representative establishments
within six broad industry divisions:
Manufacturing; transportation,1
communication, and other public utilities; wholesale trade; retail
trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. M ajor in­
dustry groups excluded from these studies are government operations
and the construction and extractive industries. Establishments having
fewer than a prescribed number of workers are omitted also because
they furnish insufficient employment in the occupations studied to w ar­
rant inclusion. Wherever possible, separate tabulations are provided
for each of the broad industry divisions.
These surveys are conducted on a sample basis because of the
unnecessary cost involved in surveying all establishments. To obtain
appropriate accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of large
than of sm all establishments is studied. In combining the data, how­
ever, all establishments are given their appropriate weight. Estim ates
based on the establishments studied are presented, therefore, as r e ­
lating to all establishments in the industry grouping and area, ex­
cept for those below the minimum size studied.
Occupations and Earnings
The occupations selected for study are common to a variety
of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries. Occupational c la s ­
sification is based on a uniform set of job descriptions designed to
take account of interestablishment variation in duties within the same
job. (See appendix for listing of these descriptions.) Earnings data are
presented (in the A -s e r ie s tables) for the following types of occupa­
tions: (a) Office clerical; (b) professional and technical; (c) mainte­
nance and powerplant; and (d) custodial and material movement.

late shifts.
Nonproduction bonuses are excluded also, but c o st-o fliving bonuses and incentive earnings are included.
Where weekly
hours are reported, as for office clerical occupations, reference is
to the work schedules (rounded to the nearest half hour) for which
straight-tim e salaries are paid; average weekly earnings for these
occupations have been rounded to the nearest half dollar.
Average earnings of men and women are presented separately
for selected occupations in which both sexes are commonly employed.
Differences in pay levels of men and women in these occupations are
largely due to (1) differences in the distribution of the sexes among
industries and establishments; (2) differences in specific duties p e r­
formed, although the occupations are appropriately classified within
the same survey job description; and (3) differences in length of se r v ­
ice or m erit review when individual salaries are adjusted on this basis.
Longer average service of men would result in higher average pay
when both sexes are employed within the same rate range.
Job
descriptions used in classifying employees in these surveys are usu­
ally more generalized than those used in individual establishments to
allow for minor differences among establishments in specific duties
performed.
Occupational employment estimates represent the total in all
establishments within the scope of the study and not the number actu­
ally surveyed. Because of differences in occupational structure among
establishments, the estimates of occupational employment obtained
from the sample of establishments studied serve only to indicate the
relative importance of the jobs studied.
These differences in occu­
pational structure do not m aterially affect the accuracy of the earn­
ings data.
Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions

Information is presented also (in the B -se r ie s tables) on s e ­
lected establishment practices and supplementary benefits as they r e ­
late to office and plant workers.
The term "o ffice workers, " as used
Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for
in this bulletin, includes working supervisors and nonsupervisory
fu ll-tim e workers, i. e. , those hired to work a regular weekly sched­
workers performing clerical or related functions, and excludes admin­
ule in the given occupational classification.
Earnings data exclude
istrative, executive, and professional personnel. "Plant w orkers" in­
premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and
clude working foremen and all nonsupervisory workers (including leadmen and trainees) engaged in nonoffice functions.
Administrative,
executive, and professional employees, and force-account construction
1
Railroads, form erly excluded from the scope of these studies,
employees who are utilized as a separate work force are excluded.
were included in all of the areas studied since July 1959, except
Cafeteria workers and routemen are excluded in manufacturing indus­
Baltim ore, Buffalo, Cleveland, and Seattle. Railroads are now in­
tries, but are included as plant workers in nonmanufacturing industries.
cluded in the scope of all labor-m arket wage surveys.




2

Table 1. Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied in Trenton, N. J. , by major industry division,2 December I960

Industry division

Minimum
employment
in establishments in scope
of study

Number of establishments
Within
scope of
study 3

Workers in establishments
Within scope of study

Studied

Total4

Office

Studied
Plant

Total4

All divisions _____________________________________

50

170

76

42, 500

5,900

30, 200

29

Manufacturing ---- --------- ----------------------------------------Nonmanufacturing ----------------------------- -------------------Transportation, communication, and other
public utilities 5 ______________________________
Wholesale trade -----------------------------------------------Retail trade -----------------------------------------------------Finance, insurance, and real estate ---------------------Services7 --------------------------------------------------------

50
50

111
59

48
28

32, 200
10, 300

3,900
2,000

23, 800
6, 400

22, 590
7, 230

50
50
50
50
50

9
7
18
8
17

8
2
7
4
7

4, 000
400
2, 800
1, 200
1, 900

700
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

2, 700
(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

, 820

3, 930
100
1, 370
870
960

1 The Trenton Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (Mercer County). The "workers within scope of study" estimates shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate description of the
size and composition of the labor force included in the survey. The estimates are not intended, however, to serve as a basis of comparison with other area employment indexes to measure
employment trends or levels since (1) planning of wage surveys requires the use of establishment data compiled considerably in advance of the payroll period studied, and (2) small establishments
are excluded from the scope of the survey.
2 The 1957 revised edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual was used in classifying establishments by industry division. Major changes from the earlier edition (used in
the Bureau's labor market wage surveys conducted prior to July 1958) are the transfer of milk pasteurization plants and ready-mixed concrete establishments from trade (wholesale or retail) to
manufacturing, and the transfer of radio and television broadcasting from services to the transportation, communication, and other public utilities division.
3 Includes all establishments with total employment at or above the minimum-size limitation. All outlets (within the area) of companies in such industries as trade, finance, auto repair
service, and motion-picture theaters are considered as 1 establishment.
4 Includes executive, professional, and other workers excluded from the separate office and plant categories.
5 Taxicabs and services incidental to water transportation were excluded.
6 This industry division is represented in estimates for "all industries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the series A and B tables. Separate presentation of data for this division is not made
for one or more of the following reasons: (1) Employment in the division is too small to provide enough data to merit separate study, (2) the sample was not designed initially to permit
separate presentation, (3) response was insufficient or inadequate to permit separate presentation, (4) there is possibility of disclosure of individual establishment data.
7 Hotels; personal services; business services; automobile repair shops; motion pictures; nonprofit membership organizations; and engineering and architectural services.




3
Shift differential data (table B - l ) are limited to manufacturing
industries.
This information is presented both in terms of (a) estab­
lishment p o licy ,2 presented in terms of total plant worker em ploy­
ment, and (b) effective practice, presented on the basis of workers
actually employed on the specified shift at the time of the survey.
In establishments having varied differentials, the amount applying to
a majority was used or, if no amount applied to a majority, the c la s ­
sification "o th er" was used.
In establishments in which some lateshift hours are paid at normal rates, a differential was recorded only
if it applied to a majority of the shift hours.

Minimum entrance rates (table B-2) relate only to the estab­
lishments visited.
They are presented on an establishment, rather
than on an employment basis.
Paid holidays; paid vacations; and
health, insurance, and pension plans are treated statistically on the
basis that these are applicable to all plant or office workers if a m a ­
jority of such workers are eligible or may eventually qualify for the
practices listed. Scheduled hours are treated statistically on the basis
that these are applicable to all plant or office workers if a majority
are covered. 3 Because of rounding, sums of individual items in these
tabulations may not equal totals.
The first part of the paid holidays table presents the num­
ber of whole and half holidays actually provided.
The second part
combines whole and half holidays to show total holiday tim e.

Data are presented for all health, insurance, and pension
plans for which at least a part of the cost is borne by the employer,
excepting only legal requirements such as workmen's compensation,
social security, and railroad retirement.
Such plans include those
underwritten by a com m ercial insurance company and those provided
through a union fund or paid directly by the employer out of current
operating funds or from a fund set aside for this purpose.
Death
benefits are included as a form of life insurance.
Sickness and accident insurance is limited to that type of in­
surance under which predetermined cash payments are made directly
to the insured on a weekly or monthly basis during illness or accident
disability.
Information is presented for all such plans to which the
employer contributes.
However, in New York and New Jersey, which
have enacted temporary disability insurance laws which require e m ­
ployer contributions,4 plans are included only if the employer (1) con­
tributes more than is legally required, or (2) provides the employee
with benefits which exceed the requirements of the law. Tabulations
of paid sick leave plans are limited to formal plans 5 which provide
full pay or a proportion of the worker's pay during absence from work
because of illn ess.
Separate tabulations are provided according to
(1) .plans which provide full pay and no waiting period, and (2) plans
providing either partial pay or a waiting period.
In addition to the
presentation of the proportions of workers who are provided sickness
and accident insurance or paid sick leave, an unduplicated total is
shown of workers who receive either or both types of benefits.

The summary of vacation plans is limited to form al arrange­
ments, excluding informal plans whereby time off with pay is granted
at the discretion of the employer.
Separate estimates are provided
according to employer practice in computing vacation payments, such
as time payments, percent of annual earnings, or flat-su m amounts.
However, in the tabulations of vacation allowances, payments not on
a time basis were converted; for example, a payment of 2 percent of
annual earnings was considered as the equivalent of 1 week's pay.

Catastrophe insurance, sometimes referred to as extended
medical insurance, includes those plans which are designed to protect
employees in case of sickness and injury involving expenses beyond
the normal coverage of hospitalization, m edical, and surgical plans.
Medical insurance refers to plans providing for complete or partial
payment of doctors' fees. Such plans may be underwritten by com m er­
cial insurance companies or nonprofit organizations or they may be
self-in sured. Tabulations of retirement pension plans are limited to
those plans that provide monthly payments for the remainder of the
worker's life.

2 An establishment was considered as having a policy if it met
either of the following conditions: (1) Operated late shifts at the time
of the survey, or (2) had form al provisions covering late shifts.
3 Scheduled weekly hours for office workers (first section of
table B- 3) in surveys made prior to July 1957 were presented in
terms of the proportion of women office workers employed in offices
with the indicated weekly hours for women workers.

4 The temporary disability laws in California and Rhode Island
do not require employer contributions.
5 An establishment was considered as having a form al plan if
it established at least the minimum number of days of sick leave that
could be expected by each employee. Such a plan need not be written,
but informal sick leave allowances, determined on an individual basis,
were excluded.




A* Occupational Earnings

4

Table A-l. Office Occupations
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Trenton, N. J., December I960)
AviRA E
G

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

Weekly j *40. 00
earnings
and
(Standard) u n d e r
4 5 . 00

* 4 5 .0 0

^ 0 . 00

*55. 00

*60. 0 0

*65. 00

^ 0 . 00

^ 5 . 00

*80. 00

*85. 00

*90. 00

f o o . 00

O
ui
o
o

Weekly,
hours
(Standard)

S
s
$
i
1 1 0 . 00 1 1 5 . 00 1 2 0 . 00 1 2 5 . 00

50. 00

5 5 .0 0

6 0 . 00

6 5 . 00

7 0 . 00

7 5 . 00

8 0 . 00

8 5 . 00

9 0 . 00

9 5 . 00 1 0 0 . 00 1 0 5 . 00

•o
o
o

Number
of

S ex , o c c u p a tio n , a n d in d u s tr y d iv is io n

1 1 5 . 00 1 2 0 . 00 1 2 5 . 00

* 9 5 .0 0

and

M en
C l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g , c l a s s A _____________________________
____ __ ___
__
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ___________________

55
S3

40. 0
40. 0

$ 1 0 3 .5 0
1 0 4 .5 0

_

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

*

-

3
1

1
1

4
4

10
10

2
2

7
7

9
9

1
1

2
2

C l e r k s , a c c o u n t i n g , c l a s s B __________ ___ ___________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------------------------------------

30
24

39. 5
39. 5

9 9 .0 0
9 5 .0 0

.

2
2

-

-

-

2
2

2
2

-

1
1

3
3

2
2

1
1

_

-

-

1
1

C l e r k s , o r d e r __________________________________________ __
M a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------------------------------------

37
37

40. 5
40. 5

1 0 7 .0 0
1 0 7 .0 0

.

-

4
4

_
-

7
7

O f f i c e b o y s _____________ _____ ____ __ __ __
_____
M a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------------------------------------

30
24

39. 0
39. 5

6 3 .0 0
6 4 .0 0

2
2

_______ _______
-------- ------ _

26
22

40. 0
40. 0

1 1 4 .5 0
1 1 6 .0 0

-

T a b u l a t i n g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B ________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------------------------------------

19
19

40. 0
40. 0

9 4 .0 0
9 4 ,0 0

T a b u la tin g - m a c h in e o p e r a to r s , c la s s A
M a n u f a c t u r i n g --- ---------- --------------

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

*

"

6
4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

“

”

2
2
3
--------3“

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

5
5

211
11

-

8
8

2
2

-

6
6

4
4

3
------3

10
10

1
1

.

6

_

2
2

_

1
1

1
1

5
5

_

_

.

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

'

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

2
2

1
1

10
7

2
2

3

-

3
2

3

35
5

l
1

-

2
2

-

_

1

2

_

_

_

“

2
2

10
--------6 ~

1
1

6
6

-------- r

------ 2 —

4
— r ~

“

W om en
B i l l e r s , m a c h i n e ( b i l l i n g m a c h i n e ) , ----------------------------------

27

38. 0

6 0 .0 0

Billers, machine (bookkeeping machine)

—_

22

37. 0

6 2 .5 0

Bookkeeping-machine operators, class A --------------

18

2

_

_
_
.

_
_

39. 5

7 9 .0 0

Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B -------------48
Manufacturing _ — ---------------- — — — — --- 12 —
26
Nonmanufacturing ---- ---- — — — — — — —

39. 0
3 8 . 5"
39. 5

6 3 .5 0
7 2 .0 0
5 6 .5 0

Clerks, accounting, class A -------------- — --------Manufacturing ____ __ ___ __

50
37

39. 0
39. 0

8 5 .0 0
8 7 .5 0

Clerks, accounting, class B -------- --- — — — —
Manufacturing ____
— --- ----- ---------- -

229
96

37. 5
39. 5

6 5 .0 0
7 5 .5 0

T ~

Clerks, file, class A ------- ---------------- ----- ---

15

38. 0

5 9 .5 0

-

5

Clerks, file, class B ------ --- --- ----- ----- --Manufacturing ____________________________
Nonmanufacturing _ — __ _ — _
_
_
— _ --_

61
----- 2 ? —
37

5 1 .0 0
38. 5
19
3 9 . 0 — S’T T O -------14
38. 5
4 7 .0 0

Clerks, order _______________________________
Manufacturing . _ ___
.. —

40
----- 24—

40. 0
3 9 .5

6 7 .0 0
7 0 .5 0

Clerks, payroll
— ___ __
Manufacturing ____ —
. _ —- —- —
Nonmanufacturing _

111
85
26

39. 5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5

7 9 .0 0
8 2 .0 0
6 9 .5 0

28
28

39. 5
3 9 .5

8 9 .5 0
8 9 .5 0

Comptometer operators .. —
Manufacturing . . .

See footnotes at end of table.




—- —
...

7
----- 3 ~
4

-

8

-

9

1

_

_

2

12

l

_

5

2

_

_

7

5

2

2

_

_

_

_

9
1
8

9

2

8
2

_

4

2

6

“

-

-

-

5

1

-

4
1

l

2

5
4
1

_
"

13
8

7

7

3
3

_

_

_
_

_

8

2

.

8
8

4
3

3
3

2
2

-

-

_

-

-

_
-

-

_

_
-

-

-

*
_

4

-

ll

7

3

2

-

.

1

-

.

-

_

.
-

.
-

_

4
4

1
1

24

1

_

_

_

-

-

-

_
-

“

"

-

.
-

-

-

-

.
-

17
16
1

2
2

2
1
1

-

-

_
-

7
4
3

15
5
10

7
5
2

16
16

~

18
10
8

1
1

-

3
3

2
2

1
1

-

2
2

-

1
1

2

5
5

l
l

11

-

----- S ------T"
“

-

-

5
1

3
r~

3
3

4

6
-------- 5“ —

2
2

6

-

.
.

_

2
2

12
11

-

_

.

_
.
.

2
2

12
11

*

_

i

16
8

3
3
3
-------- 2 ~ -------- 3“ -------- T ~
1
“
~

_

i

80
4

12
16
-------- z ~ -------- T
10
12

_
_

"

47
12

6

_
_
_
.

4

~
12

_
_
i
i
’

4

13
9

-

_

5
2

7
7

1

----- r~
_
- .
"
i
i

-

-

3
3

2
------ 2

-

16
15
1

2
2

_
-

1
1

4
4

_

-

-

_
*

_
-

~

_

-

9
9

1
1

-

-

Table A-l. Office Occupations-Continued
(A v e ra g e s tr a i g h t - t i m e w e e k ly h o u r s a n d e a r n in g s f o r s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s s tu d ie d o n a n a r e a b a s is
b y i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n . T r e n t o n . N . J . » D e c e m b e r I9 6 0 )
Average

Sex, occupation, and industry division

of
workers

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—
I
*
$
i
$
$
*
$
s
$
$
$
S
40. 00 45. 00 50. 00 55.00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95. 00 100. 00 105. 00 n o . oo 115. 00 120. 00 125. 00
and
and
under
45. 00 50. 00 55. 00 60. 00 65. 00 70. 00 75. 00 80. 00 85. 00 90. 00 95.00 100. 00 105. 00 110.00 115. 00 120.00 125. 00 over

*
Weekly.
hours
(Standard)

Weekly j
earnings
(Standard)

*

$

t

S

W
omen—Continued
Keypunch operators _________________________
Manufacturing _ ___ _ _ _ _ _
_ _
__

86
54

39. 0 $67.00
40. 0 76. 00

Office girls _ ____ _ __ __ _ _
_
_

18

38. 0

54. 50

435
337
98

39. 0
39. 0
39. 0

88. 50
90. 50
82. 00

268
222
46

39.0
39. 5
38. 0

76. 00
79. 50
61. 00

-

28

39. 0

74. 00

-

57
16
41

39. 5
39. 5
39. 0

61. 00
80. 50
53. 50

10
10

69
54
15

39. 5
39. 5
40.0

67. 50
69. 00
61. 50

Secretaries __ ____
Manufacturing . _
Nonmanufacturing_

..

_

__ _ _

__
. _ _

.

_ _
_ _

Stenographers, general
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing________________________
Stenographers, technical
Switchboard operators
Manufacturing
Nonmanufacturing .

__ _
.
_ _
_

.

. . .
.

.

.

.

3

9
1

15
2

7

-

i

8
6

*4

4

3

3

5
5
-

2
2
11
11
-

7

8

.

~
~

6

6

4
3
1

3
1
2

11
6
5

11
7
4

52
42
10

65
41
24

34
27
7

30
24
6

26
25
1

8
7
1

47
44
3

30
26
4

2

3

9
9
1

19
19
_

_
_

9
9
_

1
1
_

10
10
1
1
-

8
8
8
8
-

4
2
2

1
1
"
14
11
3

8
.
2
2

10
10
2

15
15
_
_

5
2
3

1
1

5
5

-

-

_

_

-

-■
-

4

_

_

_

_

_
_
-

-

2
2
-

_
_
-

4

3

3

7

5

_

1

9

11

1

1

_

_

2
2
_

1
1

7
1

5
2

5
5

4
4

.

11
44
25
19

17
8

13
8

16
“T6—

3
3

9
5

7

1

1
1

38
37
1

24
12
12

10
6
4

6
— 5—

1
1

17
17

2
2

.
-

.

Transcribing-machine operators, general_______
Manufacturing _ _ _ _
_ _____

24
15

39. 0
39. 0

67. 00
68. 50

_

_

Typists, clas s A ______
Manufacturing _

82
47

39. 0
39. 5

72. 00
74. 50

-

-

254
179
75

38. 5
39. 0
37. 5

60. 00
61. 50
56. 00




31
27
4

58
47
11

4

_

h o u r s r e f l e c t th e
w e re d is tr ib u te d
w e re d is tr ib u te d
2 w o r k e r s a t $ 35

37
31
6

_

25

_

S ta n d a r d
W o rk e rs
W o rk e rs
In c lu d e s

34
25
9

-

_

16

78. 50

1
2
3
4

16
12
4
-

-

_

5
5
-

65. 00

__

46
38
8

-

_

12
12
-

39. 5

—

44
28
16

-

_

8

37. 0

_

24
18
6

-

_

4
4
-

27

_

10
4
6

*

_

3

68

Typists, class B
Manufacturing _
_ _ ___
Nonmanufacturing ________________________

3
1
2

-

2

~

7

Tabulating-machine operators, class C

______

_

2
2

13
13
_

V

5
5
*
2
2
1

-

Tabulating-machine operators, class B _________

__

-

6
—

9
1
8

-

Switchboard operator-receptionists ____________
Manufacturing ___________________________
Nonmanufacturing ___ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _
_

8
8
_

6
— 5

2

9
9
_

3

-

-

7
4
3

32
14
18

73
55
18

3
3
-

w o r k w e e k f o r w h i c h e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e t h e i r r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r i e s a n d th e e a r n i n g s c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e s e w e e k l y h o u r s .
a s fo llo w s :
3 at $
125
to
$ 13 0 ; 4 a t $ 130 t o
$ 13 5 ;
4 at $
140
ando v e r.
a s fo llo w s :
2
at $
125
to
$ 13 0 ; 2 a t $ 135 t o
$ 14 0 ;
1 at $
140
ando v e r.
to $ 4 0 .

.

.

.

-

_
_

-

-

-

•-

.

_

-

-

-

_
-

-

_
-

6
T a b l e A - 2 . P ro fe s s io n a l a n d T e c h n ic a l O c c u p a t io n s

(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Trenton, N. J. , December I960)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Weeklyj
Weekly j Under
hours
earnings
(Standard) (Standard) $
6 5 . 00

o
o

Average
Number
of

and
under

7 0 . 00 7 5 . 0 0 l o . 00

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

8 5 . 00 9 0 . 00 * 9 5 .0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 *110.00 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 *140.00 1 5 0 .0 0 *160.00 1 7 0 .0 0 1 8 0 .0 0 1 9 0 .0 0 *200.00 *210.00
and

7 0 . 00 7 5 . 00 8 0 . 00 8 5 . 00

0 0 . 00 9 5 . 0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 1 4 0 .0 0 1 5 0 .0 0 1 6 0 .0 0 1 7 0 .0 0 1 8 0 .0 0 1 9 0 .0 0 2 0 0 .0 0 2 1 0 .0 0

Men
32
32

40. 0
40. 0

$ 1 7 0 . 50
1 7 0 . 50

Draftsmen, senior ________________
Manufacturing
..
....

193
157

40. 0
39. 5

1 2 4 . 50
1 2 4 . 00

Draftsmen, junior ... ............ .............
Manufacturing________________

71
59

40. 0
40. 0

9 7 . 50
9 8 . 00

Manufacturing

-

1

_

_

_

_

_

1

"

_

_

2
2

"

8
8

1
1

2
2

3
3

3
3

12
12

7
7

12
8

24
16

3
3

1

15
11

21
17

_

_

"

“

3
3

15
15

49
41

49
33

1
1

10
10

4
4

2
2

17
13

_
“

15
15

6
6

2
2

_

_

2
2

1
1

1
1

1
1

_

_

_

_

_

"

~

■

_

_

"

_

_
_

Women
Nurses, industrial (registered)
Manufacturing

_
“

*
41
39

90. 00
9 0 . 50

39. 5
39. 5

—

2
2

4
3

5
5

5
4

3
3

8
8

5
5

2
2

1
1

3
3

2
2

1
1

—

1 S ta n d a r d h o u r s r e f l e c t th e w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv e th e i r r e g u la r s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r i e s a n d th e e a r n in g s c o r r e s p o n d to th e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .
2 W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d a s f o l l o w s : 2 a t $ 2 1 0 t o $ 2 1 5 ; 2 a t $ 2 1 5 to $ 2 2 0 .




4
u

--------- ----------1
--------- 1---------—
-

7
T a b le A - 3 . M a in t e n a n c e a n d P o w e r p la n t O c c u p a t io n s

(Average straight-time hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Trenton, N. J. , December I960)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
Number
of
workers

O c c u p a tio n a n d in d u s tr y d iv is io n

hourly . U n d e r
earnings1
$
1. 90

$
1. 90
and
under
2. 00

$

2. 00
2. 10

$
2 . 10
2. 20

$

2 . 20

$
2 . 30

2 . 30

2 .4 0

$

2 .4 0
2. 50

3 . 30

3. 4 0

3. 50

over

3
1

11
11

6
6

1
1

1
1

5
5

7
7

24
22

42
39

-

1
1

-

15
15

8
8

9
9

1
1

5
5

13
12

13
12

4

2
1

-

-

4

-

"

"

5
5

12
12

2
2

43
43

50
50

13
13

5
5

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

7
7

-

“

4
4

-

-

“

6
— 5-------

17
1

31
31

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6
6

11
11

27
27

22
22

-

10
10

-

16
16

45
42

3
"

44
44

2

-

-

4
3
1
"

22
4
18
18

7
7
-

3
3
_

7
1
6
6

8
8
"

12
2
10
10

15
15
-

6
6
3

9
6
3
3

56
56

33
33

49
41

3
3

9
5

72
72

32
32

14
14

1
1

' 3

-

-

4
4

4
4

5
5

3
3

3
3

32
32

2
2

-

-

20
20

10
10

11
11

5
5

5
5

-

13
13

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

4
4

8
7

2
2

-

2
2

-

-

-

2
2

_

-

21
21

15
15

-

-

15
15

-

-

4
4

12
12

-

20
23

150
144

2. 29
2. 33

14
8

-

--------_ -

79
63

2. 29
2. 27

4
4

5
5

5
5

n
ii

M a c h i n i s t s , m a i n t e n a n c e _ _____ _ ------- M a n u fa c tu rin g
________
_
_ __ — -----

194
186

2. 92
2. 90

-

-

-

-

-

-

8
8

M e c h a n i c s , a u t o m o t i v e ( m a i n t e n a n c e ) ---------M a n u fa c tu rin g
_
_____ _
- -----------__
____ _ _
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g __
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 23 .
__ „ __ - .

95
51
44
40

2 .7 8
2. 81
2 .7 6
2. 74

"
-

-

-

2
2
-

-

.. — — — — __ — - ------- -

316
301

2. 59
2. 59

_
-

2
2

10
10

25
25

7
7

___ __ __ ------------- _
______ — -------- —

117
117

3. 02
3 . 02

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

57
57

2. 25
2. 25

5
5

-

8
8

P a i n t e r s , m a i n t e n a n c e ______ __ _ -------- M a n u fa c tu rin g
__ __ __ __ ___
__ __ _

46
39

2 . 70
2. 8 2

4

-

-

-

-

-

__
__ -----— ----------

118
115

2. 83
2. 8 2

_

-

-

-

-

-

S h e e t - m e t a l w o r k e r s , m a i n t e n a n c e ----- __ _
M a n u fa c tu rin g
______________________________

39
39

2. 90
2. 90

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

T o o l a n d d ie m a k e r s
_________ __ __ -------- M a n u fa c tu rin g
____________ _______ _______

322
322

3. 16
3 . 16

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
2 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
3 All workers were at $ 3. 50 to $ 3. 60.




3. 20

3. 00

i
i

________ _________
—
------- _

P i p e f i t t e r s , m a i n t e n a n c e ____
M a n u fa c tu rin g
____ __
_

3 . 10

2 . 90

2. 80

34
34

-

_____
______

$
• 3 . 50
and

4
4

-

- .

$
3. 4 0

8
8

“

_____
. . --

$
3 . 30

48
44

2. 69
2. 63

O i l e r s _________ ______
M a n u fa c tu rin g
__ _

$
3 . 20

21
20

80
69

M i l l w r i g h t s _________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g __

3. 10

$

1
1

---- -----

M e c h a n ic s , m a in te n a n c e . .
M a n u fa c tu rin g
_ _ _

3 . 00

$

5
5

-

------_____

2. 90

-

-

-

H e lp e rs , t r a d e s , m a in te n a n c e
M a n u fa c tu rin g
__
. ___

$

2
2

_

F ir e m e n , s ta tio n a ry b o ile r
M a n u fa c tu rin g
_ —

2. 80

1
1

2. 84
2. 84

_

$

2. 7 0

16
8

200
188

E n g i n e e r s , s t a t i o n a r y _ __ __ «
M a n u fa c tu rin g
_ ______ . . ~

2. 7 0

$

13
12

-

-

,
2. 60

4
4

2
-

E l e c t r i c i a n s , m a i n t e n a n c e _____
- ----M a n u fa c tu rin g
________________________

2. 60

$

3
3

$ 2. 6 2
2. 68

_ _
-----

2. 50

1
1

64
53

C a r p e n t e r s , m a i n t e n a n c e ______________
M a n u fa c tu rin g
__ .
..
__ __ - -

$

-

'

-

20

-

8
------- 6—

-

-

.
-

-

-

-

-

-

_

"
"

_

-

-

-

-

-

44
44

-

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

16
16

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

45
42

-

-

-

-

2
2

13
13

_

-

4
4

-

3
3

-

-

-

-

-

-

3
3

17
17

-

-

-

2
2

-

-

1
1

-

-

23
31

31
30

30
42

5

-

5

-

141
141

-

\

42
5

5

-

3 25
25

8
T a b l e A - 4 . C u s t o d ia l a n d M a t e r i a l M o v e m e n t O c c u p a t i o n s

(Average straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division. Trenton. N. J. . December I960)
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS 0 F -

* Occupation 1 and industry division

N b
um er
of
w ers
ork

Elevator operators, passenger (women)____
Nonmanufacturing ____________________
Guards ..
_ .
. . . . .
___ .
Manufacturing ..
. . . .
.. _

32
32
153
153

Janitors, porters, and cleaners (men) _
Manufacturing
____ . . .
____
Nonmanufacturing ____________________
Janitors, porters, and cleaners (women) ___
Manufacturing . . . . .
.
...
Nonmanufacturing____________________

385
302
83
136
34
102

Laborers, material handling x__
Manufacturing
. . .
Nonmanufacturing
...
Public utilities3
Order fillers
Manufacturing
.

526
462
64
23
82
82

Pickers, shipping (men)
Manufacturing
Receiving clerks
.....
Manufacturing

_ _

____

53
51
91
74
17

Shipping clerks
. . . .
Manufacturing
Shipping and receiving clerks
Manufacturing_
Nonmanufacturing
Truckdrivers 4
Manufacturing_______________________
Nonmanufacturing _ . .
___
Public utilities3 ..
.. .
Truckdrivers, medium (1*/* to and
including 4 tons)
. _
Manufacturing
.

.

Truckdrivers, heavy (over 4 tons,
trailer type)
Manufacturing
. . .
Nonmanufacturing .. .. ..
Public utilities 3 ________________
Truckers, power (forklift)
Manufacturing
Truckers, power (other than forklift)
Manufacturing
Watchmen . . . .
Manufacturing
*
1
5
4

115
102
45
43

329
129
200
124

A
verage $
$
$
$
$
$
S
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
h rly 2 1. 00 1. 10 1. 20 1. 30 1.40 1. 50 1. 60 1. 70 1. 80 1. 90 2. 00 2. 10 2. 20 2. 30 2.40
ou
earn gs and
in
under
1. 10 1. 20 1. 30 1.40 1. 50 1. 60 1. 70 1. 80 1. 90 2. 00 2. 10 2. 20 2. 30 2.40 2. 50
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
.
$ 1. 08
20
2
10
1. 08
20
2
10
2. 29
40
15
12
10
2
9
2. 29
40
15
12
10
2
9
14
14
16
7
37
13
41
22
75
44
1. 88
15
47
1
29
1.96
3
1
24
10
21
72
11
25
14
41
40
1
29
1. 58
16
4
13
13
4
2
1
1
3
1
6
19
43
41
4
3
8
2
8
3
4
1. 37
6
3
11
4
1.97
1
3
1
2
5
4
3
11
41
43
2
5
1
8
1
1
1. 17
~
20
3
12
6
7
18
24
55
54
21
40
23
1. 91
9
169
49
2
24
20
2 ri55
12
18
55
50
21
28
22
37
1.91
1
4
6
5
4
12
1
12
9
1.91
2.46
1
12
“
"
"
_
3
3
5
10
2
1. 97
6
14
39
1.97
3
3
5
10
2 —
14
39
_
4
1.93
2
3
4
8
10
20
14
8
16
19
4
3
4
4
3
4
8
10
14
1. 94
20
16
19
2
3
3
10
2. 16
3
4
2
2
9
3
3
10
3
4
2
2. 19
2
9
*
_
2
2
2. 16
12
2
2
16
5
_
2. 18
2
12
2
2
16
5
■
"
2
2
11
12
4
2. 20
8
10
19
9
10
4
2. 26
6
5
10
7
19
2
4
2
1
1. 95
5
■
2
_
_
2.42
1
12
34
11
4
14
24
6
6
9
9
8
1
10
22
4
14 — 6—
3
3
4 •
2. 29
8
2
12
8
20
3
2.49
9
9
2. 84
-

3
-

9
-

-

-

"

“
-

-

"
_
-

96
33

1. 96
2. 02

-

162
32
130
117

2.71
2.40
2. 79
2. 85

336
319
94
86

2. 22
2. 22
2. 39
2.41

74
57

1.66
1.78

_

_
6
'

6

9
-

6
-

-

"
-

-

“

11
6
—

Data limited to men workers except where otherwise indicated.
Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes all drivers regardless of size and type of truck operated.




-

.
-

3
-

8
8
-

6
----6

22
22

“

7
5

26
18

2
2

3
3

1
1

"
"

-

5
1
4

5
1
4

-

13
13

■

-

5
5
-

62
59
3
3

7
7
10
10

44
42
12
12

38
38
6
6

66
61
9
1

20
20
2
2

4
1
-

4
4

-

-

_

"

8
8

_

T

6
-----5

_

_

_____

5
5

-

-

_____

$
S
$
$
$
2. 50 2. 60 2. 70 2. 80 2. 90
and
2. 60 2. 70 2. 80 2. 90 over
_
_
-

65
65

14
4
10
10
_
_
4
4

_
_
1
1

1
1
1
1
-

10
10
6
5
1

_
_
_
"
_
'
_
2
2
_
i
i
-

51
51
-

11
11
-

12
12
7

117
117
117

10
10
-

_
_
_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
2
2
_
_
1
1
6
6
-

_
-

22
2

1
1

1
1

6
-

-

-

-

-

-

16
16

1
1
"

5
5
-

117
117
117

-

60
59
-

—

6
r~

3
3

13
13
1
1

_

44
44

4
4

-

-

_

_

_

“

“

“

“

“




B : Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
Table B-1. Shift Differentials
(Shift differentials of manufacturing plant workers by type and amount of differential,
Trenton, N. J. , December I960)
Percent of manufacturing plant workers—
In establishments having formal
provisions 1 for—

Shift differential

Actually working on—

Second shift
work

Third or other
shift work

Second shift

Third or other
shift

85. 8

78. 8

12. 1

5. 4

With shift pay differential _______________

83. 0

78. 8

11. 5

5.4

Uniform cents (per hour) _____________

48. 3

42. 5

8. 0

3. 6

5 c e n t s ________ ____ ___________
6 cents _ _ _____ — --------- _
7 cents __ „ _ __ __ ___ ~
l l h cents _______________________
8 cents ___ .. ___ __
____
9 cents .
______ . ______
10 cents _
__
____ 12 cents ___ ___ — — ----- 14 cents _ __ ___
_ - ______
15 cents
_ _ ___ __ __ __
___

15. 3
7.8
6.9
2. 5
9.2
3. 3
1.9
1.3
-

_

7.7
6. 2
17. 5
8. 3
.9
1.9

2. 8
1. 5
.8
1.7
.4
.5
.3
-

.8
.7
1.0
.9
(2)
.2

34. 8

28.3

3. 6

1.4

.6
.1
2. 7
.2

.6
.8
-

Uniform percentage

__

— __

5 percent _
„
„ — --6 percent —
~ „ ----71/* percent
__
__
——
10 percent ~
.. ..
..
_
15 percent----------------------------------Other formal pay differential

________

No shift pay differential --- — — — ~ -

15.9
2. 2
"
15. 6
1. 1
2.8

-

-

2. 2
2. 5
23. 6
8. 0

.6

_
-

-

.4

1 Includes establishments currently operating late shifts, and establishments with formal provisions covering late shifts
even though they were not currently operating late shifts.
2 Less than 0. 05 percent.

10
Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salaries fo r Women O ffice W o rk e rs
( D is t r ib u t io n o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s tu d ie d in a l l i n d u s t r i e s a n d in in d u s t r y d i v is i o n s b y m in im u m e n t r a n c e s a la r y f o r s e l e c t e d c a t e g o r i e s
o f in e x p e r ie n c e d w o m e n o f f i c e w o r k e r s , T r e n to n , N . J . , D e c e m b e r I9 6 0 )

Inexperienced typists

Other inexperienced clerical workers 4
Manufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

Manufacturing
Minimum weekly salary1
A ll
s c h e d u le s

35

A ll
sc h e d u le s

40

3 7 * /*

3 8 3/4

XXX

XXX

XXX

28

35

A ll
s c h e d u le s

40

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

76

48

XXX

2

19

12

1

1

1

9

1
1
2
4
1
3
3
-

2
1
3
3
1
“

4

2
“

4

“
1
”
1

1
"
"
“

1
"
"
-

1
“
“
“
“
“

2
3
2
1
1

10

7

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

3

XXX

31

18

XXX

XXX

XXX

13

XXX

20

6

1

1

1

3

35

23

-

1
5

-

1
1
6
2
2
2
1
1
-

1
1
1
1
1

4

-

-

-

4

1

1
-

1
-

1
"

1
1
1

4
1
5
2
9
2
3
3
1
5

2
2
2
6
1
3
3

-

1
-

_
2
-

9

6

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

3

XXX

XXX

XXX

17

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

19

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

1

2

-

36

XXX

1
“

1

1
-

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s w h ic h d id n o t
e m p lo y w o r k e r s in th is
c a te g o r y
-----------------------------------------

XXX

1
-

1

2
1
1
7
4
2
2
1
1

XXX

40

1

25

2
2
1
8
5
3
2
1
1

“

XXX

-

XXX

3 8 3/4

28

31

E s ta b l i s h m e n t s h a v in g n o
s p e c if ie d m in im u m
---------------------

3 7 * /2

XXX

E s t a b lis h m e n t s h a v in g a s p e c if ie d
m in im u m
---------------------------------------$ 4 2 . 5 0 -----$ 4 5 . 0 0 ------$ 4 7 . 5 0 ___ "
$ 5 0 . 0 0 ------$ 5 2 . 5 0 ____
$ 5 5 . 0 0 ____
$ 5 7 . 5 0 ____
$ 6 0 . 0 0 -----$ 6 2 . 5 0 -----$ 6 5 . 0 0 -----$ 6 7 . 5 0 -----$ 7 0 . 0 0 ------$ 7 2 . 5 0 ------______ _________

35

XXX

XXX

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
und er
u n d er
u n d er
und er
u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
und er
u n d er
u n d er
over

A ll
s c h e d u le s

40

XXX

48

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

3 7 l / 2 3 8 3/4

3 8 3/*

76

$ 4 0 .0 0
$ 4 2 . 50
$ 4 5 . 00
$ 4 7 . 50
$ 5 0 . 00
$ 5 2 . 50
$ 5 5 .0 0
$ 5 7 . 50
$ 6 0 . 00
$ 6 2 . 50
$ 65. 00
$ 6 7 . 50
$ 70.00
$ 7 2. 50

35

3 7 * /2

___________

E s t a b lis h m e n t s s tu d ie d

Nonmanufacturing

Based on standard weekly hours3 of—

Based on standard weekly hours3 of—

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

XXX

1 Lowest salary rate formally established for hiring inexperienced workers for typing or other clerical jobs.
2 Rates applicable to messengers, office girls, or similar subclerical jobs are not considered.
3 Hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries. Data are presented for all workweeks combined, and for the most common workweeks reported.




11

Table B-3. Scheduled W eekly Hours
( P e r c e n t d is t r i b u t io n o f o f f ic e a n d p la n t w o r k e r s in a l l i n d u s t r i e s and in in d u s t r y d i v is i o n s b y s c h e d u le d w e e k ly h o u r s
o f f i r s t - s h i f t w o r k e r s , T r e n to n * N . J . , D e c e m b e r I9 6 0 )
OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

W e e k ly h o u r s
All industries *

A ll w o r k e r s

_ __

__

_
_

U n d e r 35 h o u r s
_____
___
_ _
35 h o u rs
__
__
__
___
_
_
O v e r 3 5 a n d u n d e r 3 7 V2 h o u r s
_
_______
3 7 V 2 h o u r s _______________________________________
3 8 s /< h o u r s
_
- — .
O v e r 3 8 3 /* a n d u n d e r 4 0 h o u r s
___
40 h o u rs
. . .
. .
O v e r 4 0 a n d u n d e r 4 4 h o u r s __________________
44 h o u rs
.
- - - - - O v e r 4 4 a n d u n d e r 4 8 h o u r s ________ ____
48 h o u rs
____
O v e r 48 h o u rs

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

All industries^

Manufacturing

100

100

100

13
2
10
10
1
65

5
1

69

8
9
1
76
-

-

-

-

-

-

2

2

-

-

-

-

-

82
8
1

84
10
-

97

2
1

3

100

(4 )

(4 )
(
(4 )
-

-

31
-

(4 )

-

-

-

1
2

Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Less than 0. 5 percent.




Public utilities2

100

(4 )
(4 )

100

-

-

3

12
Table B~4. Paid Holidays
( P e r c e n t d is t r ib u t io n o f o f f i c e and p la n t w o r k e r s in a l l i n d u s t r i e s a n d in i n d u s t r y d i v is i o n s b y n u m b e r o f p a id h o lid a y s
p r o v id e d a n n u a lly , T r e n t o n , N . J . , D e c e m b e r I9 6 0 )
OFFICE WORKERS

Item

All workers

___

All industries 1

_______

__

Workers in establishments providing
paid holidays
_
. . . .
Workers in establishments providing
no paid holidays
..................

Manufacturing

PLANT WORKERS
Public utilities1*
2

All industries^

Manufacturing

Public utilities2

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

“

-

-

N um ber o f days

Less than 6 holidays ___________________
6 holidays
6 holidays plus 1 half d a y _______________
6 holidays plus 2 half days _
6 holidays plus 3 half days ______________
7 holidays .
.
7 holidays plus 1 half day _______________
7 holidays plus 2 half days
8 holidays
8 holidays plus 1 half day
8 holidays plus 2 half days
9 holidays
9 H o l i d a y s p l u s 1 H a l f d a y _ ____
10 holidays
11 holid ays_
12 H o l i d a y s _
_

_
11

(4)
7
1

27
6
1
22
2
1
8
4
(4)
4
7

_
7

-

10
1
33
5
1
34
3

6
(4)

_
11

69
20

1

18
10
31
3
4
22
0

(4)
5
2
(4)
3

_
13
13
33
4
5
26
(4)

40
29
31

3
3
(4)

To ta l h o lid a y tim e 5

12 or more days
11 or more days
10 or more days
9 V or more days
2
9 or more days
8 V or more days
2
8 or more days
7 */2 or more days
7 or more days
6 V or more days
2
6 or more days
5 or more days
4 or more days
3 or more days
2 or more days .

_
_.
.

.

..
. . . . . .

.

7
11
11
15
24
25
48
55
89
89
,1 00

.

.

.

100
100
100
100

_
(4)
6
6
9
44
50
93
93
100
100
100
100
100

20
20
20
20
89
89
89
89
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

3
3
3
5
11
11
36
39
81
81
99
99
99
99
100

_
(4)
3
6
6
37
41
87
87
100
100
100
100
100

31
31
31
31
60
60
60
60
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

1 Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
2 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
1 Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
* Less than 0. 5 percent.
5 All combinations of full and half days that add to the same amount are combined; for example, the proportion of workers receiving a total of 7 days includes those with 7 full days and
no half days, 6 full days and 2 half days, 5 full days and 4 half days, and so on. Proportions were then cumulated.




v

13
T a b l e B -5 . P a id V a c a t io n s
( P e r c e n t d is t r ib u t io n o f o f f i c e and p la n t w o r k e r s in a l l i n d u s t r i e s a n d in in d u s t r y d i v is i o n s b y v a c a t io n p ay
p r o v i s i o n s , T r e n to n , N . J . , D e c e m b e r I9 6 0 )
OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

V a c a tio n p o lic y
All industries 1

A ll w o r k e r s

-

— —

M e th o d

-----------------------------------------

Manufacturing

100

100

100
99
-

100
99
-

Public utilities 2

All industries 2

Manufacturing

100

100

100

100

100
100
-

100
85
15
-

100
81
19
-

100
100
-

Public utilities 2

of paym ent

W o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p ro v id in g
p a i d v a c a t i o n s ___________________________________
L e n g th -o f-tim e p a y m e n t
__
— ______
P e r c e n t a g e p a y m e n t _________ — — . .
F l a t - s u m p a y m e n t __
_
____ _
_
O t h e r _ ______ ____
__ _____ ___
W o r k e rs in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p ro v id in g
n o p a i d v a c a t i o n s ____________ __ __

(4 )

(4 )

'

A m o u n t o f v a c a tio n

'

69
18

20
14
2

21
13
-

35
25

-

-

-

*

13

81
4
13
1

87
5
8

40
54
6

53
20
26
1

58
25
17
-

40
54
6

10
38
51
1

9 47
44

32
61

2
1
94
1
2

2
1
95
1
1

p ay 5

A f te r 6 m o n th s o f s e r v ic e
U n d e r 1 w e e k _____________________________________
1 w e e k ______________________ _________ __ ______
O ver 1 and u n d er 2 w eeks
_____________________
2 w e e k s . . — . . _________ _____ . .

_

10
65
10
4

7
74
- 8

14
3
83

9
5
86

87

-

-

-

4
4
92

3
5
93

4
9
87

-

-

-

(4 )
3
97

_
5
95

.
100

-

-

97
-

98
-

(4 )

_

A f te r 1 y e a r o f s e r v ic e
1
O
2
3

w e e k _______ _________
—
__ ___
_
_
v er 1 and u n d er 2 w eeks
______ __
w e e k s _____ _____ __ _____________ __________
w e e k s __
_
__
__ __ _____ __ __ _

-

A f te r 2 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1
O
2
3

w e e k _____________________
v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s _____________________
w eeks
__ . . ____________
_________________
w eeks
------------------------------------------------------------------A f te r 3 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e

1 w eek
.. —
_
— . . _ ___
O ver 1 and u n d er 2 w eeks
_____________________
2 w e e k s ___________________________________________
3 w e e k s ____
_____ ____
____
_______

-

-

6

A f te r 5 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1
O
2
O
3

w e e k _____
___
___ . . . . . .
v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ________________ ,____
w eeks
___
_______ . .
_____ . .
____
v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s _____________________
w e e k s _________
_
_ _ ________ _________

See footnotes at end of table.




(4)
89
5

6

2

2

94
-

6

14
Table B-5. Paid Vacations-Continued
( P e r c e n t d i s t r ib u t io n o f o f f ic e a n d p la n t w o r k e r s in a l l in d u s t r i e s a n d in in d u s t r y d i v is i o n s b y v a c a t i o n p a y
p r o v i s i o n s , T r e n t o n , N . J . , D e c e m b e r I9 6 0 )
PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS
V a c a tio n p o lic y
All industries *

A m o u n t o f v a c a tio n

p a y 5—

Public utilities^

Manufacturing

All industries *

Manufacturing

Public utilities^

2
56
27
16

2
53
35
11

61
_
39

C o n tin u e d
/

A f te r 10 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1
2
O
3

w e e k _________________________ ____________________
w p .fik a
ver 2 and u nder 3 w eeks
___ ___________ _____
w eeks
---------------------------------------------------------------------

.

(4 )
54
14
31

_

_

52
16
32

78
22

(4 )
10
88
1

10
90

100

2
15
83

2
14
84

100

-

-

-

-

-

(4 )
10
85
4

-

-

10
86
4

98
2

2
15
77

2
14
79
5

A f te r 15 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e

2 w e e k s ________________________ ___ _________ —
3 w eeks
____________________ _______________ —
O v e r 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s _______________________

-

_

A f te r 20 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1
2
3
4

w
w
w
w

e e k ______ _________ — _____________ ______
eeks
_______________
___
— ----------------------eeks
_____________
_________ — —
---------eeks
______________________________________________

-

6

_
_
92

8

A f te r 25 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w e e k ________________________________________________
2 w eeks
_____________________________________________
3 w e e k s ______________________________________________
O v e r 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s — ----------------------_____________ ___ ___________ _____ —
4 w eeks

(4)

10
49
10
29

-

10
40

-

82

16

-

34

18

2
15
44
15
25

2
14
39
19
26

_
-

68
-

32

1 Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
2 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
3 Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
* Less than 0. 5 percent.
5
Periods of service were arbitrarily chosen and do not necessarily reflect the individual provisions for progressions. For example, the changes in proportions indicated at 10 years'
service include changes in provisions occurring between 5 and 10 years.
NOTE: In the tabulations of vacation allowances by years of service, payments other than "length of time" such as percentage of annual earnings or flat-sum payments were converted
to'an equivalent time basis; for example, a payment of 2 percent of annual earnings was considered as 1 week's pay.




15
Table B-6. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
(Percent of office and plant workers in all industries and in industry divisions employed in establishments providing
health, insurance, or pension benefits, Trenton. N. J. . December I960)
O F F IC E

W ORKERS

PLA N T W ORKERS

Type of benefit
A ll i n d u s t r i e s 1

All workers

10
0

M a n u fa c tu rin g

10
0

P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s 2*

A ll i n d u s t r i e s ^

M a n u fa c tu rin g

P u b lic u tilitie s 2

10
0

10
0

10
0

10
0

Workers in establishments providing:
Life insurance
. _ Accidental death and dismemberment
insurance
__
Sickness and accident insurance or
sick leave or both45 .
Sickness and accident insurance____
Sick leave (full pay and no
waiting period) .
Sick leave (partial pay or
waiting period) _
Hospitalization insurance____________
Surgical insurance ~
Medical insurance
Catastrophe insurance
Retirement pension .
- _ .. __
No health, insurance, or pension plan _

94

97

91

92

98

6
8

58

58

73

51

56

35

87

8
8

92

53

55

58

45

57

18

47

54

29

76

85

2
1

1
0

9

(’ )

69

4

8
6

96
96
93
33
79

31
13
13
82
87

91
85
81

81
78
42
70

2

2

2
1
6
8
3

8
1
97
95
91
18
75

2

25
29
71
39
39

6
6
6
8

Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and services in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
Unduplicated total of workers receiving sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately below. Sick ’eave plans are limited to those which definitely establish at least
the minimum number of days 1pay that can be expected by each employee. Informal sick leave allowances determined on an individual basis are excluded.
5 Less than 0. 5 percent.
1
2
1
4







17

Ap p endix:

Occupational Descriptions

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to assist its
field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This is
essential in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’s field economists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers,
part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.
O F F IC E

B IL L E R , MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electromatic typewriter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are
classified by type of machine, as follows:

Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without
a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.

B ille r, machine (h illin g machine) — Uses a special billing ma­

chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, e tc., which are
combination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from customers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.
B ille r, machine (bookkeeping machine) — Uses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrahd, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, e tc., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping.
Works from uniform and standard types of sales and
credit slips.




Class A — Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in basic bookkeeping principles and familiarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance
sheets, and other records by hand.
Class B — Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
customers’ accounts (not including a simple type of billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation of trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.

C LER K , ACCOUNTING
Class A — Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a com­
plete set of books or records relating to one phase of an establish­
ment’s business transactions. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

18

CLER K , ACCOUNTING— Continued

payable; examining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper a c ­
counting distribution; requires judgment and experience in making
proper assignations and allocations. May assist in preparing, ad­
justing and closing journal entries; may direct class B accounting
clerks.
Class B — Under supervision, performs one or more routine a c ­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or a c ­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data. This
job does not require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping
principles but is found in offices in which the more routine account­
ing work is subdivided on a functional basis among several workers.

CLER K , PAYRO LL

Computes wages of company employees and enters the neces­
sary data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers'
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker’ s name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and distribut­
ing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.
COMPTOMETER OPERATOR

Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to performance
of other duties.

CLER K , F IL E
Class A — In an established filing system containing a num­
ber of varied subject matter files, classifies and indexes corres­
pondence or other material; may also file this material. May keep
records of various types in conjunction with files or may super­
vise others in filing and locating material in the files. May per­
form incidental clerical duties.
Class B — Performs routine filing, usually of material that has
already been classified or which is easily identifiable, or locates
or assists in locating material in files. May perform incidental
clerical duties.

CLERK, ORDER

Receives customers’ orders for material or merchandise by mail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination o f the follow in g :
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; distributing order sheets to respective departments to be filled.
May check with credit department to determine credit rating of customer,
acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders to see
that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check ship­
ping invoices with original orders.




DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)

Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjustment such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare stencil or Ditto master. May keep file of used stencils or Ditto
masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed material.

KEYPUNCH

OPERATOR

Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
bilities, records accounting and statistical data on tabulating cards by
punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence, using
an alphabetical or a numerical keypunch machine, following written in­
formation on records. May duplicate cards by using the duplicating de­
vice attached to machine. May keep files of punch cards. May verify
own work or work of others.
O FFIC E BOY OR GIRL

Performs various routine duties such as running errands, op­
erating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and
distributing mail, and other minor clerical work.

19
SECRETARY

Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an ad­
ministrative or executive position. Duties include making appointments
for superior; receiving people coming into office; answering and making
phone calls; handling personal and important or confidential mail, and
writing routine correspondence on own initiative; taking dictation (where
transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
similar machine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded information
reproduced on a transcribing machine. May prepare special reports or
memorandums for information of superior.
STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL

Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a nor­
mal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter.
May also type from written copy. May also set up and keep files in or­
der, keep simple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine
work (see transcribing-machine operator).
STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL

Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a varied
technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on
scientific research and to transcribe this dictation on a typewriter. May
also type from written copy. May also set up and keep files in order,
keep simple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work.
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR

Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office calls.
May record toll calls and take messages. May give information to per­
sons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders. For workers
who also act as receptionists see switchboard operator-receptionist.
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST

In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single posi­
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. This typing
or clerical work may take the major part of this worker’s time while at
switchboard.




TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Class A — Operates a variety of tabulating or electrical a c­
counting machines, typically including such machines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignments without close supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignments typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating sequences of long and complex reports.
Does not include working supervisors performing tabulating-machine
operations and day-to-day supervision of the work and production of
a group of tabulating-machine operators.
Class B — Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical ac­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under
specific instructions and may include the performance of some wir­
ing from diagrams. The work typically involves, for example, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but
small tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are well established. May also include the training
of new employees in the basic operation of the machine.
Class C — Operates simple tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with specific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for example, individual sorting or collating runs, or re­
petitive operations.

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL

Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May also type from written
copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation in­
volving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal briefs
or reports on scientific research are not included. A worker who takes
dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine is classified
as a stenographer, general.

20

TYPIST—-Continued

TYPIST

Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to make
out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May in­
clude typing of stencils, mats, or similar materials for use in duplicat­
ing processes. May do clerical work involving little special training,
such as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting
and distributing incoming mail.
Class A — Performs one or more o f the follow in g: Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining material from several
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punc-

tuation, e tc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; planning layout and typing of complicated statistical tables
to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine
form letters varying details to suit circumstances.
Class B — Performs one or more o f the follow in g : Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance policies,
e tc.; setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying more com­
plex tables already set up and spaced properly.

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR

(Assistant draftsman)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.
DRAFTSMAN, LEAD ER

Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration of working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Duties
involve a combination o f the follow in g : Interpreting blueprints, sketches,
and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures; assigning
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problems. May a ssist subordinates during emergencies or as a
regular assignment, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
ministrative nature.
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR

Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
poses. Duties involve a com bination o f the follow in g: Preparing work­
ing plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-sections, etc., to scale by use
of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as those




DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued

involved in strength of materials, beams and trusses; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quantities;
writing specifications; making adjustments or changes in drawings or
specifications. May ink in lines and letters on pencil drawings, prepare
detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings. Work is frequently
in a specialized field such as architectural, electrical, mechanical, or
structural drafting.
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combina­
tion o f the follow in g: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of employees' injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants
and employees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.
TRACER

Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. Uses
T-square, compass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

21

M A IN T E N A N C E

D

P O W E R P L A N T

CARPEN TER, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most o f the follow ing:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’s handtools, portable
power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; selecting materials nec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom equipment.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, dis­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the follow ing: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the elec­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; using a variety of
electrician’ s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In gen­
eral, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.
ENGINEER, STATIONARY

Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a record of
operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May also
supervise these operations. Head or c h ie f engineers in establishments
employing more than one engineer are excluded.




H EL P E R , TRADES, MAINTENANCE

Assists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-time basis.
MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM

Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools, gauges,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most o f the follow in g: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making necessary adjustments during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating oils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classification.
MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE

Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the follow ing: Interpreting written instructions and
specifications; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
chinist’s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and

22

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE—-Continued

MILLWRIGHT— Continued

operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to close toler­
ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assembling parts into me­
chanical equipment. In general, the machinist’s work normally requires
a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

are required. Work involves most o f the follow in g: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment, and parts
to be used; installing and maintaining in good order power transmission
equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the mill­
wright’s work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)

Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an es­
tablishment. Work involves most o f the follow in g : Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assemblies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; alining wheels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE

Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves most o f the follow in g : Examining machines and mechan­
ical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly dis­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replace­
ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop
for major repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling ma­
chines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In general,
the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classification are workers
whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.
MILLWRIGHT

Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout



OILER

Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.
PAINTER, MAINTENANCE

Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work in volves the follow in g : Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, oils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper
color or consistency. In general, the work of the maintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
P IP E F IT T E R , MAINTENANCE

Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most o f the follow ing:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to correct
lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to pressures,
flow, and size of pipe required; making standard tests to determine
whether finished pipes meet specifications. In general, the work of the
maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily engaged in in sta llin g and repairing building
sanitation or heating systems are excluded.

23
TOOL AND DIE MAKER

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE

Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber’s snake. In
general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.
SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE

Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishment. Work involves most o f the follow ing: Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, models,
or other specifications; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; installing sheetmetal articles as required. In general, the work of the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.
C U S T O D IA L

A N D

(Die maker; jig maker; toolmaker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most o f the follow ing: Planning and laying out of work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifications;
using a variety of tool and die maker’s handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding of the working properties of common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to close tolerances; fitting and assembling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allowances; selecting appropriate
materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die maker’s
work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

M A T E R IA L

M O V E M E N T

ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER

JANITOR, PO RTER, OR CLEANER— Continued

Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

or other establishment. Duties involve a combination o f the follow ing:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte­
nance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Workers
who specialize in window washing are excluded.

GUARD

Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity o f employees and
other persons entering.

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER

(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial




LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING

(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more o f the follow ­
ing: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or

24

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING— Continned

from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; trans­
porting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.
Longshoremen , who load and unload ships are excluded.

ORDER F IL L E R

(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
Fills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, customers *
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders, requisi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING C LER K — Continued

For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:
R e c e iv in g clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and re ce iv in g clerk

TRLCKDRIVER

Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of estab­
lishments such a s: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers’ houses or places of business. May also load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. D river-salesm en and over-the-road drivers
are excluded.

PACKER, SHIPPING

Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or more o f
the follow in g: Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify
content; selection of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; applying labels or
entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make wooden
boxes or crates are excluded.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK

Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­
sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Shipping
work in v o lv e s : A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes,
available means of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or assist in
preparing the merchandise for shipment. R e c e iv in g work in volves: Veri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipments against
bills of lading, invoices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing merchandise or materials to proper de­
partments; maintaining necessary records and files.




For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipment, as follows: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis of trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver (com bination o f sizes lis te d separately)
Truckdriver, lig h t (under lV2 ton s)
Truckdriver, medium ( l l 2 to and including 4 ton s)
/
Truckdriver, heavy ( over 4 tons, tra iler type)
•
Truckdriver, heavy (o v e r 4 tons, other than tra iler type)

TRUCKER, POWER

Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of
truck, as follows:
Trucker, power ( fo rk lift)
Trucker, power (o th e r than fo rk lift)

WATCHMAN

Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.
* U . S. GOVERNM ENT PRINTING O F F I C E : 1961 O - 583435

Occupational Wage Surveys

Occupational wage surveys will be conducted in the 82 major labor markets listed below during late I960 and early 1961. Bulletins, when available, may be
purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C., or from any of the BLS regional sales offices shown on the
inside front cover.
A summary bulletin containing data for 80 labor markets, combined with additional analysis, will be issued early in 1962.
Akron, Ohio— Bull. 1285Albany—
Schenectady—
Troy, N .Y .— Bull. 1285Albuquerque, N. Mex.— Bull. 1285Allentown—Bethlehem—
Easton,
P a .- N .J .— Bull. 1285Atlanta, Ga.— Bull. 1285Baltimore, Md.— Bull. 1285Beaumont—Port Arthur, T e x .— Bull. 1285Birmingham, Ala.— Bull. 1285Boise, Idaho— Bull. 1285* * Boston, Mass.— Bull. 1285* 15
Buffalo, N .Y.— Bull. 1285-31
Burlington, V t.— Bull. 1285Canton, Ohio— Bull. 1285-'29
Charleston, W. Va.— Bull. 1285Charlotte, N.C.— Bull. 1285* * Chattanooga, Tenn.—
Ga.— Bull. 1285-14
Chicago, 111.— Bull. 1285Cincinnati, Ohio—
Ky.— Bull. 1285* * Cleveland, Ohio— Bull. 1285-11
Columbus, Ohio— Bull. 1285Dallas, T ex.— Bull. 1285-21
* * Davenport—
Rock Island—
Moline, Iowa—
111.—
Bull. 1285-16
Dayton, Ohio— Bull. 1285Denver, Colo.— Bull. 1285*27
Des Moines, Iowa— Bull. 1285*
Detroit, Mich.— Bull. 1285Fort Worth, T ex.— Bull. 1285-23

* Green Bay, Wis.— Bull. 1285-2
Greenville, S.C.— Bull. 1285Houston, Tex.— Bull. 1285Indianapolis, Ind. — Bull. 1285*28
Jackson, M iss.— Bull. 1285Jacksonville, Fla.— Bull. 1285-30
^Kansas City, Mo.—
Kans.— Bull. 1285* 18
Lawrence—
Haverhill, Mass.—
N.H.— Bull. 1285** Little Rock—
North Little Rock, Ark.— Bull. 1285-6
Los Angeles—
Long Beach, Calif.— Bull. 1285Louisville, Ky.—
Ind.— Bull. 1285Lubbock, Tex.— Bull. 1285*
* Manchester, N.H.— Bull. 1285-1
Memphis, Tenn.— Bull. 1285*
Miami, Fla.— Bull. 1285Milwaukee, Wis.— Bull. 1285Minneapolis— Paul, Minn.— Bull. 1285*
St.
Muskegon—
Muskegon Heights, Mich.— Bull. 1285Newark and Jersey City, N.J.— Bull. 1285New Haven, Conn.— Bull. 1285New Orleans, La.— Bull. 1285New York, N.Y.— Bull. 1285Norfolk—
Portsmouth and Newport News —
Hampton, Va.— Bull. 1285* * Oklahoma City, Okla.— Bull. 1285-3
Omaha, Nebr.—
Iowa— Bull. 1285-13
Paterson—
Clifton—
Passaic, N.J.— Bull. 1285Philadelphia, Pa.— Bull. 1285- 24
Phoenix, Ariz.— Bull. 1285-

Pittsburgh, Pa.— Bull. 1285*Portland, Maine— Bull. 1285-19
Portland, Oreg.—
Wash.— Bull. 1285Providence—
Pawtucket, R.I.—
Mass.— Bull. 1285**Raleigh, N.C.— Bull. 1285*5
Richmond, Va.— Bull. 1285-26
Rockford, 111.— Bull. 1285**St. Louis, Mo.-Ill.— Bull. 1285-10
Salt Lake City, Utah— Bull. 1285*32
San Antonio, Tex.— Bull. 1285*San Bernardino—
Riverside—
Ontario,
Calif.— Bull. 1285-4
San Francisco—
Oakland, Calif.— Bull. 1285Savannah, Ga. — Bull. 1285**Scranton, Pa.— Bull. 1285*8
^ S e a ttle , Wash.— Bull. 1285*7
***Sioux Falls, S. Dak.— Bull. 1285- 17
South Bend, Ind.— Bull. 1285Spokane, Wash.— Bull. 1285Toledo, Ohio— Bull. 1285Trenton, N.J.— Bull. 1285*25
Washington, D.C.—
Md.—
Va.-—Bull. 1285-22
Waterbury, Conn.— Bull. 1285* Waterloo, Iowa— Bull. 1285*20
* * Wichita, Kans.— Bull. 1285*9
* * Wilmington, D el.-N .J.— Bull. 1285-12
Worcester, Mass.— Bull. 1285York, Pa.— Bull. 1285-

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