View PDF

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

Occupational Wage Survey

BALTIMORE, MARYLAND
SEPTEMBER 1959

Bulletin No. 1265-7




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




Occupational Wage Survey




BALTIMORE, MARYLAND
SEPTEM B ER 1959

Bulletin No. 1265-7
F e b r u a r y 1960

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.

Price 15 cents




Preface

Contents
Page

The C om m u n ity Wage Su rvey P r o g r a m
The B u rea u o f L a b o r S ta tistic s r e g u la r ly con d u cts
a rea w id e w age s u r v e y s in a num ber o f im p orta n t in d u s­
t r ia l c e n t e r s .
The stu d ies, m ade fr o m late fa ll to e a r ly
sp rin g , re la te to o c cu p a tio n a l ea rn in g s and re la te d su p p le ­
m e n ta ry b e n e fit s .
A p r e lim in a r y r e p o r t is a v a ila b le on
c o m p le tio n o f the study in e a ch a r e a , u su ally in the m onth
fo llo w in g the p a y r o ll p e r io d stu d ied. T h is b u lletin p r o v id e s
a d dition a l data not in clu d ed in the e a r lie r r e p o r t .
A con ­
so lid a te d a n a ly tica l b u lletin su m m a rizin g the r e s u lts o f a ll
o f the y e a r l s s u r v e y s is is s u e d a fte r c o m p le tio n o f the
fin a l a r e a b u lle tin fo r the cu r re n t round o f s u r v e y s .

T a b le s :

1.
2.

A:

E s ta b lis h m e n ts and w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e o f su rv e y ____________
In d exes o f stan dard w e e k ly s a la r ie s and s t r a ig h t-tim e
h o u rly ea rn in g s fo r s e le c t e d o c cu p a tio n a l g ro u p s,
and p e r c e n ts o f in c r e a s e fo r s e le c t e d p e r io d s __________________

O ccu p a tion a l e a r n in g s :*
A - 1. O ffic e o c cu p a tio n s ____________________________________________
A - 2. P r o fe s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l o c cu p a tio n s ____________________
A - 3. M ain ten an ce and p ow erp la n t o c cu p a tio n s __________________
A - 4 . C u sto d ia l and m a te r ia l m o v e m e n t o c cu p a tio n s ____________

A pp en dix:

O ccu p a tion a l d e s c r ip tio n s

* N O TE: S im ila r ta bu la tion s a r e a v a ila b le in the B a ltim o r e
a r e a r e p o r t s fo r June 1951, O cto b e r 1952, A p r il 1955,
A u gust 1957, and A u gust 1958. The r e p o r t s a ls o in clu d e
data on e sta b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and su p p lem en ta ry w age
p r o v is io n s .
A d ir e c t o r y in d ica tin g date o f study and the
p r ic e o f the r e p o r t s , a s w e ll a s r e p o r t s fo r oth er m a jo r
a r e a s , is a v a ila b le upon re q u e s t.
U nion s c a le s , in d ica tiv e o f p re v a ilin g pay le v e ls , a r e
a v a ila b le fo r the fo llo w in g tr a d e s o r in d u str ie s : B u ild in g
c o n s tr u c tio n , prin tin g, lo c a l-t r a n s it op era tin g e m p lo y e e s ,
and m o to r tr u c k d r iv e r s and h e lp e r s .

in

2

2

oo O '




1
3

^

T h is r e p o r t w as p r e p a r e d in the B u r e a u s r e g io n a l
o ffic e in New Y o rk , N. Y . , b y E llio tt A . B r o w a r , under
the d ir e c tio n o f F r e d e r ic k W. M u e lle r , R e g io n a l W age and
In d u stria l R e la tio n s A n a ly s t.

In trod u ction ______________________________________________ __________________ _
Wage tr e n d s fo r s e le c t e d o c cu p a tio n a l g ro u p s __________________________

11




Occupational W a g e Survey— Baltimore, M d
Introduction

T h is a re a is one o f s e v e r a l im p orta n t in d u stria l c e n te rs in
w h ich the U .S . D ep artm en t o f L a b o r s B u reau of L a b o r S ta tistics
con d u cts su r v e y s o f o ccu p a tio n a l ea rn in g s and r e la te d w age b e n e fits
on an a r e a b a s is .

The b u lle tin p r e s e n ts c u r re n t o ccu p a tio n a l e m p loy m en t and
ea rn in g s in fo rm a tio n obtain ed la r g e ly b y m a il fr o m the e sta b lis h m e n ts
v is ite d b y B u rea u fie ld e c o n o m is ts in the la s t p r e v io u s s u r v e y fo r o c c u ­
pation s r e p o rte d in that e a r lie r study.
P e r s o n a l v is it s W ere m ade
to n o n resp on d en ts and to th ose resp on d en ts r e p o rtin g unusual changes
s in c e the p r e v io u s s u r v e y .

In ea ch a r e a , data a re obtain ed fr o m r e p r e s e n ta tiv e e s t a b lis h ­
m en ts w ithin s ix b r o a d in d u stry d iv is io n s : M a n u fa ctu rin g; tr a n s p o r ­
ta tion , 1 c o m m u n ica tio n , and oth er p u b lic u tilitie s ; w h o le s a le tra d e; r e ­
ta il tra d e; fin a n ce , in s u r a n ce , and r e a l esta te; and s e r v i c e s .
M a jo r
in d u stry g rou p s ex clu d ed fr o m th ese stu d ies a r e g ov e rn m e n t o p era tion s
and the c o n s tr u c tio n and e x tr a c tiv e in d u s tr ie s .
E sta b lish m en ts having
fe w e r than a p r e s c r i b e d n u m ber o f w o r k e r s a re om itted a ls o b e c a u s e
they fu rn ish in s u ffic ie n t em p loy m en t in the o ccu p a tio n s studied to w a r ­
rant in clu s io n .
W h e re v e r p o s s ib le , sep a ra te tabu lation s a r e p r o v id e d
f o r ea ch of the b r o a d in d u stry d iv is io n s .
T h ese su r v e y s a r e con d u cted on a sa m p le b a s is b e c a u s e o f the
u n n e c e s s a r y c o s t in v olv ed in su rv e y in g a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts .
To obtain
a p p ro p r ia te a c c u r a c y at m in im u m c o s t , a g r e a te r p r o p o r t io n of la rg e
than of s m a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts is stu d ied .
In com b in in g the data, h o w ­
e v e r , a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts a re g iven th eir a p p ro p r ia te w eigh t. E stim a tes
b a se d on the e sta b lis h m e n ts studied a r e p r e s e n te d , th e r e fo r e , as r e ­
latin g to a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts in the in d u stry grou p in g and a r e a , e x ­
cep t fo r th ose b e lo w the m in im u m s iz e stu d ied.
O ccu p ation s and E arn in gs

s ific a t io n is b a s e d on a u n ifo r m s e t of jo b d e s c r ip tio n s d esig n ed to
take a cco u n t o f in te r e sta b lish m e n t v a r ia tio n in duties w ithin the sa m e
jo b . (See ap pen dix fo r lis tin g o f th ese d e s c r ip t io n s .) E arn in gs data a re
p re se n te d (in the A - s e r i e s ta b le s ) fo r the fo llo w in g types o f o c c u p a ­
tion s: (a) O ffice c le r i c a l; (b) p r o fe s s io n a l and te ch n ica l; (c ) m a in te ­
n an ce and p ow erp la n t; and (d) c u s to d ia l and m a te r ia l m o v e m e n t.

O ccu p a tion a l e m p loy m en t and ea rn in g s data a r e show n fo r
fu ll-t im e w o r k e r s , i. e. , th ose h ir e d to w o r k a r e g u la r w e e k ly s c h e d ­
ule in the g iven o ccu p a tio n a l c la s s ific a t io n .
E a rn in gs data e x clu d e
p re m iu m pay f o r o v e r tim e and f o r w o r k on w ee k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and
late s h ifts.
N on p rod u ction b on u ses a re e x clu d e d a ls o , but c o s t - o f liv in g b on u ses and in cen tiv e ea rn in g s a r e in clu d ed .
W h ere w eek ly
h ou rs a re r e p o r t e d , as f o r o ffic e c le r i c a l o c cu p a tio n s , r e fe r e n c e is
to the w o r k sch e d u le s (roun ded to the n e a r e s t h a lf h ou r) fo r w h ich
S tra ig h t-tim e s a la r ie s a r e pa id ; a v e r a g e w e e k ly ea rn in g s fo r th ese
o ccu p a tio n s have b e e n rounded to the n e a r e s t h a lf d o lla r .

A v e r a g e ea rn in g s of m e n and w om en a r e p r e se n te d s e p a r a te ly
fo r s e le c t e d o ccu p a tio n s in w h ich both s e x e s a r e c o m m o n ly e m p lo y e d .
D iffe r e n c e s in pay le v e ls o f m en and w om en in th ese occu p a tio n s a r e
la r g e ly due to ( l ) d iffe r e n c e s in the d is trib u tio n of the s e x e s am ong
in d u strie s and e s ta b lis h m e n ts ; (2) d iffe r e n c e s in s p e c ifi c du ties p e r ­
fo r m e d , although the o ccu p a tio n s a re a p p r o p r ia te ly c la s s ifie d w ithin
the sam e su r v e y jo b d e s c r ip tio n ; and (3) d iffe r e n c e s in length o f s e r v ­
ic e or m e r it r e v ie w w hen in dividu al s a la r ie s a re ad ju sted on this b a sis.
L o n g e r a v e r a g e s e r v ic e o f m e n w ould r e s u lt in h ig h er a v e r a g e pay
w hen both s e x e s a re em p loy ed w ith in the sa m e rate ra n g e.
Job
d e s c r ip tio n s u sed in c la s s ify in g e m p lo y e e s in th ese su r v e y s a r e u s u ­
a lly m o r e g e n e r a liz e d than th ose u sed in in dividu al e sta b lis h m e n ts to
a llow f o r m in o r d iffe r e n c e s am ong e sta b lis h m e n ts in s p e c ifi c duties
p e r fo r m e d .

The occu p a tion s s e le c te d fo r study a re c o m m o n to a v a r ie ty
o f m a n u factu rin g and n on m an u fa ctu rin g in d u s tr ie s . O ccu p a tion a l c la s -

1 R a ilr o a d s , f o r m e r l y e x clu d ed fr o m the s c o p e of th ese stu d ie s,
have been added in n e a r ly a ll o f the a r e a s to be stud ied during the
w in ter o f 19 5 9 -6 0 ; r a ilr o a d s w ill be added in the rem a in in g a r e a s next
y e a r . F o r s c o p e o f s u r v e y in this a r e a , se e fo o tn o te to " t r a n s p o r ta ­
tion , c o m m u n ica tio n , and oth er p u b lic u t ilit ie s " in table 1.




O ccu p a tion a l e m p loy m en t e stim a te s r e p r e s e n t the total in a il
e sta b lis h m e n ts w ithin the s c o p e o f the study and n o t-th e n u m ber a c tu ­
a lly s u r v e y e d . B e c a u se of d iffe r e n c e s in o ccu p a tio n a l stru c tu re am ong
e s ta b lis h m e n ts , the e s tim a te s o f o ccu p a tio n a l em p loy m en t obtained
fr o m the sa m p le of e sta b lis h m e n ts studied s e r v e on ly to in d icate the
r e la tiv e im p o rta n ce o f the jo b s stu d ied.
T h ese d iffe r e n c e s in o c c u ­
p a tion al s tru c tu re do n ot m a te r ia lly a ffe c t the a c c u r a c y o f the e a r n ­
ings data.

T a b l e 1.

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s a n d w o r k e r s w i t h in s c o p e o f s u r v e y a n d n u m b e r s t u d i e d in B a l t i m o r e , M d . ,
by m a jo r in d u s tr y d iv is io n , 2 S e p te m b e r 195 9
N u m b e r of e s ta b lis h m e n ts

A ll d iv is io n s

..

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s

W ith in
sc o p e of
s tu d y 3

I n d u s tr y d iv is io n

..

S tu d ie d

W ith in
sc o p e of
s tu d y

S tu d ie d

625

1 81

2 6 5 , 100

177, 7 80

271
354

71
110

169, 6 0 0
95, 5 00

116, 9 6 0
60, 820

25
94
72
84
79

M a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _________________________________
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , a n d
o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s 4 __________________ ___
W h o le s a le t r a d e ................
R e t a i l t r a d e ___________ _______________________
F i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e ________
S e r v i c e s 5’ 6 ____________________________________

13
29
23
25
20

20, 900
1 0 ,4 0 0
3 4 ,8 0 0
18, 0 0 0
1 1 ,4 0 0

18, 3 5 0
4, 640
22, 760
1 0 ,2 6 0
4, 810

1 T h e B a l t i m o r e M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a ( B a l t i m o r e C i t y , B a l t i m o r e a n d A n n e A r u n d e l C o u n t i e s ) . T h e " w o r k e r s w i t h i n s c o p e o f s tu d y "
e s ti m a t e s sh o w n in t h is ta b le p ro v id e a r e a s o n a b ly a c c u r a te d e s c r i p ti o n o f th e s iz e a n d c o m p o s itio n o f th e la b o r f o r c e in c lu d e d in th e s u r ­
v e y . T h e e s t i m a t e s a r e n o t i n t e n d e d , h o w e v e r , to s e r v e a s a b a s i s o f c o m p a r i s o n w i t h o t h e r a r e a e m p l o y m e n t i n d e x e s to m e a s u r e e m p l o y ­
m e n t t r e n d s o r l e v e l s , s in c e ( l ) p la n n in g o f w a g e s u r v e y s r e q u i r e s th e u s e o f e s ta b lis h m e n t d a ta c o m p ile d c o n s id e r a b ly in a d v a n c e o f th e
p a y r o l l p e r i o d s tu d i e d , a n d ( 2 ) s m a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a r e e x c lu d e d f r o m t h e s c o p e o f t h e s u r v e y .
2 T h e 1 95 7 r e v is e d e d itio n o f th e S ta n d a rd I n d u s tr ia l C la s s if ic a tio n M a n u a l w a s u s e d in c la s s if y in g e s ta b lis h m e n ts by in d u s tr y d iv is io n .
M a j o r c h a n g e s f r o m t h e e a r l i e r e d i t i o n (u s e d in t h e B u r e a u ' s l a b o r m a r k e t w a g e s u r v e y p r o g r a m p r i o r t o t h e w i n t e r o f 1 9 5 8 - 1 9 5 9 ) a r e t h e
t r a n s f e r o f m i l k p a s t e u r i z a t i o n p l a n t s a n d r e a d y - m i x e d c o n c r e t e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s f r o m t r a d e ( w h o l e s a l e o r r e t a i l ) t o m a n u f a c t u r i n g , a n d th e
t r a n s f e r o f r a d i o a n d t e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t i n g f r o m s e r v i c e s t o t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s d i v i s i o n .
3 I n c lu d e s a ll e s ta b l is h m e n t s w ith to ta l e m p lo y m e n t a t o r a b o v e th e m in im u m - s iz e lim ita tio n :
1 0 1 e m p l o y e e s in m a n u f a c t u r i n g , p u b lic
u t i l i t i e s , a n d r e t a i l t r a d e ; 51 i n w h o l e s a l e t r a d e , f i n a n c e , a n d s e r v i c e s . A l l o u t l e t s (w i t h i n t h e a r e a ) o f c o m p a n i e s i n s u c h i n d u s t r i e s a s t r a d e ,
f in a n c e , a u to r e p a i r s e r v i c e , a n d m o tio n - p ic tu r e t h e a t e r s a r e c o n s id e r e d a s 1 e s ta b lis h m e n t.
4 R a i l r o a d s w e r e e x c lu d e d f r o m t h e s u r v e y , a s w e r e t a x i c a b s , a n d s e r v i c e s i n c i d e n t a l t o w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .
5 T h i s i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n e s t i m a t e s f o r " a l l i n d u s t r i e s " a n d " n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g " in t h e S e r i e s A t a b l e s , a l t h o u g h
c o v e ra g e w a s in s u f f ic ie n t to ju s tif y s e p a r a te p r e s e n ta tio n of d a ta .
6 H o t e ls ; p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s ; b u s i n e s s s e r v i c e s ; a u t o m o b i l e r e p a i r s h o p s ; m o ti o n p i c t u r e s ; n o n p r o f i t m e m b e r s h i p o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; a n d
e n g in e e r in g a n d a r c h i te c t u r a l s e r v i c e s .

T a b le 2 . I n d e x e s of s ta n d a r d w e e k ly s a l a r i e s a n d s tr a ig h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n a l g r o u p s
in B a l t i m o r e , M d . , S e p t e m b e r 1 9 5 9 a n d A u g u s t 1 ^ 5 8 a n d p e r c e n t s o f i n c r e a s e f o r s e l e c t e d p e r i o d s
In d ex es
(O c to b e r 1 952*- 1 0 0 )
In d u stry an d o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p

S e p te m b e r
1959

A ugust
1958

P e rc e n t in c r e a s e s fro m —
A u g u st 1958
to
S e p te m b e r 1959

A u g u st 1957
to
A u g u st 1958

A p ril 1955
to
A u g u st 1957

O c to b e r 195 2
to
A p ril 1955

Ju n e 1951
to
O c to b e r 1952

A ll in d u s tr ie s :
O f f ic e c l e r i c a l (w o m e n ) —
I n d u s t r i a l n u r s e s (w o m e n )
S k i ll e d m a i n t e n a n c e ( m e n )
U n s k i l l e d p l a n t ( m e n ) -------

1 3 9 .6
146. 1
1 4 6 .6
151. 5

1 3 4 .2
139. 1
141. 6
1 4 3 .6

4. 0
5. 1
3 .5
5. 5

5
7
3
5

14. 9
1 3 .3
16. 3

2 1 .6

12.9
1 7 .2
1 5 .7
1 5 .2

9. 1
7. 6
7 .7
6. 5

M a n u f a c tu r i n g :
O f f ic e c l e r i c a l (w o m e n ) —
I n d u s t r i a l n u r s e s (w o m e n )
S k i ll e d m a i n t e n a n c e (m e n )
U n s k i l l e d p l a n t ( m e n ) -------

1 4 4 .7
1 4 6 .2
1 4 8 .3
1 5 4 .4

139. 2
140. 8
1 4 3 .7
145. 8

9
8
2
9

4
2
4
5

1 5 .7
14. 5
1 6 .8
2 0 .3

1 4 .2
16. 9
1 6 .7
17. 1

8. 5
8. 3
6 .9
6. 9




3
Wage Trends for S elected O ccupational Groups

P r e s e n te d in table 2 a r e in d ex es o f s a la r ie s o f o ffic e c le r i c a l
w o r k e r s and in d u stria l n u r s e s , and o f a v e r a g e ea rn in g s of s e le c t e d
plant w o r k e r g ro u p s.
F o r o ffic e c le r i c a l w o r k e r s and in d u stria l n u r s e s , the in dexes
r e la te to a v e r a g e w e e k ly s a la r ie s f o r n o r m a l h ou rs of w o rk , that is ,
the stan dard w o rk sch ed u le fo r w h ich s t r a ig h t -tim e s a la r ie s a r e p a id.
F o r plant w o r k e r g ro u p s , they m e a s u r e changes in s t r a ig h t -tim e h o u rly
e a r n in g s , ex clu d in g p re m iu m pay fo r o v e rtim e and fo r w o rk on w e e k ­
en d s, h o lid a y s , and late s h ifts.
The' in dex es a re b a sed on data fo r
s e le c t e d k ey o ccu p a tio n s and in clu de m o s t o f the n u m e r ic a lly im p ortan t
jo b s w ithin each g rou p . The o ffic e c le r i c a l data a r e b a se d on w om en in
the fo llo w in g 18 jo b s : B i lle r s , m a ch in e (b illin g m a ch in e ); b o o k k e e p in g m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s , c la s s A and B; C o m p to m e te r o p e r a t o r s ; c le r k s , f ile ,
c la s s A and B; c le r k s , o r d e r ; c le r k s , p a y r o ll;
keypun ch o p e r a t o r s ;
o ffic e g ir ls ; s e c r e t a r ie s ; ste n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l; sw itch b oa rd o p e r a ­
to r s ; sw itch b oa rd o p e r a t o r -r e c e p t io n is t s ; ta b u la tin g -m a ch in e o p e r a t o r s ;
tr a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , g e n e r a l; and ty p is ts , c la s s A and B.
The in d u stria l n u rse data a re b a sed on w om en in d u stria l n u r s e s .
M en
in the fo llo w in g 10 sk ille d m a in ten an ce jo b s and 3 u n sk illed jo b s w e re
in clu ded in the plant w o r k e r data: S k illed— c a r p e n te r s ; e le c t r ic ia n s ;
m a ch in is ts; m e c h a n ic s ; m e c h a n ic s , a u to m otiv e; m illw r ig h ts ; p a in te rs ;
p ip e fitte r s ; s h e e t-m e ta l w o r k e r s ; and tool and die m a k e r s ; u n sk illed —
ja n ito r s , p o r t e r s ,
and c le a n e r s ; la b o r e r s , m a te r ia l handling; and
w atch m en .
A v e ra g e w eek ly s a la r ie s o r a v e r a g e h o u r ly earn in g s w e re
com pu ted fo r each of the s e le c te d o c cu p a tio n s. The a v e ra g e s a la r ie s
o r h o u rly earn in g s w e re then m u ltip lied b y the a v e r a g e of 1953 and
1954 em p loy m en t in the jo b . T h ese w eigh ted ea rn in g s fo r in dividu al
occu p a tion s w e r e then totaled to obtain an a g g re g a te fo r ea ch o c c u p a ­
tional g rou p .
F in a lly , the ra tio o f th ese g rou p a g g re g a te s fo r a g iven
y ea r to the a g g r e g a t e fo r the b a s e p e r io d (s u r v e y m on th , w in ter 19 52 -53)




w as com p u ted and the r e s u lt m u ltip lie d b y the b a s e y e a r in dex (10 0) to
g et the in dex f o r the g iv e n y e a r .
A d ju stm en ts have b e e n m a d e w h e re n e c e s s a r y to
c o m p a ra b ility . F o r e x a m p le , in m o s t o f the a r e a s s u r v e y e d ,
w e r e in clu d ed in the c o v e r a g e o f the su r v e y s f o r the f i r s t
y e a r . In com pu tin g the in d e x e s , data re la tin g to the r a ilr o a d
w e r e e x clu d e d .

m a in ta in
r a ilr o a d s
tim e this
in d u stry

The in d ex es m e a s u r e , p r in c ip a lly , the e ffe c t s of ( l ) g e n e r a l
s a la r y and w age ch a n g es; (2) m e r it o r oth er in c r e a s e s in pay r e c e iv e d
b y in div id u al w o r k e r s w h ile in the sa m e jo b ; and (3) ch a n ges in the
la b o r f o r c e su ch as la b o r tu r n o v e r, f o r c e e x p a n sio n s, f o r c e r e d u c ­
tio n s , and changes in the p r o p o r t io n of w o r k e r s em p lo y e d b y e s t a b ­
lish m en ts w ith d iffe r e n t p a y le v e ls .
C hanges in the la b o r f o r c e can
ca u se in c r e a s e s o r d e c r e a s e s in the o c cu p a tio n a l a v e r a g e s w ith ou t
actu a l w age ch a n g e s.
F o r e x a m p le , a f o r c e ex p a n sion m igh t in c r e a s e
the p r o p o r t io n o f lo w e r paid w o r k e r s in a s p e c if i c o c cu p a tio n and r e ­
su lt in a d ro p in the a v e r a g e , w h e r e a s a r e d u c tio n in the p r o p o r t io n
o f lo w e r paid w o r k e r s w ould have the o p p o s ite e ffe c t .
The m o v e m e n t
of a h ig h -p a y in g e sta b lis h m e n t out of an a r e a cou ld ca u se the a v e r a g e
ea rn in g s to d r o p , ev en though no change in ra te s o c c u r r e d in oth er
a r e a e s ta b lis h m e n ts .

The u se o f con stan t e m p loy m en t w eigh ts elim in a te s the e ffe c t s
o f changes in the p r o p o r t io n of w o r k e r s r e p r e s e n te d in e a ch jo b in ­
clud ed in the data.
N or a r e the in d ex es in flu en ced b y changes in
standard w o rk sch e d u le s o r in p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e , s in c e they
a r e b a se d on pay f o r s t r a ig h t-tim e h o u r s .
In dexes f o r the p e r io d 1953 to 1959 f o r w o r k e r s in 17 m a jo r
la b o r m a rk e ts a p p ea red in BLS B u ll. 1 2 4 0 -2 2 , W ages and R ela ted
B e n e fits , 20 L a b o r M a r k e ts, W in ter 1 9 5 8 -5 9 .

A *

4

O c c u p a tio n a l

E a r n in g s

Table A-l. Office Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e w e e k ly h o u r s a n d e a r n in g s f o r s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s s tu d ie d o n a n a r e a b a s is
by in d u s t r y d i v is io n , B a l ti m o r e , M d. , S e p te m b e r 1 9 5 9 )
Average
S ex , o c c u p a tio n , a n d in d u s t r y d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—
$
4 0 . 00

$
4 5 . 00

4 5 . 00

$
Weekly.
Weekly . 3 5 . 00
hours
earnings
and
(Standard) (Standard) u n d e r
4 0 .0 0

50._00_ _55, 00

$
5 0 . 00

$
5 5 . 00

$
6 0 . 00

6 5. 00

$
7 0 . 00

$
$
7 5 . 0 0 8 0 . 00

6 0 . 0 0 _65,_00_ 1 0 , 0 1 . 7 5 , 0 1 _ 8 0 . 00

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
8 5 . 00 9 0 . 00 9 5 . 00 1 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 5 . 0 0 n o . oo 1 1 5 . 0 0 1 2 0 . 00
a nd
8 5 . 00 9 0 , 0 0 0 5 . 00 1 0 0 . 00 1Q5,_00 1 1 0 . 0 0 ii.5_._oo 1 2 0 . 00 o v e r

M en
C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s A ____ _ ---------------------------M a n u fa c tu r in g _________ ___________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g _______________________________ __
F in a n c e 3 -------------------------------------------------------_

3 93
2 47
1 46
79

39.
39.
38.
37.

0
0
0
0

$ 1 0 0 . 00
1 0 2 .5 0
9 5 . 00
8 7. 50

C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s B
_ _____________________
M a n u fa c tu r in g
____________ _________________ ____
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ___________________________________

138
85
53

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5

C l e r k s , o r d e r _________________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g __ ______________________________
W h o le s a le t r a d e ______________________________

1 49
113
73

C l e r k s , p a y r o l l ______________________________________ __
M a n u f a c tu r i n g ______________________________________

2
2
2

2
2
~

21
17
4
2

18
16
2
1

11
11
10

19
12
7
5

37
19
18
17

35
16
19
12

25
18
7
1

44
26
18
11

26
19
7
4

26
11
15
7

24
9
15
7

14
8
6
-

89
276
13
-

_
-

_
-

4
4
"

8
4
4

12
4
8

23
17
6

7
4
3

29
21
8

6
6
-

12
4
8

4
4
-

3
1
2

4
2
2

7
5
2

11
9
2

8
8

_
-

8
7
-

5
4
-

14
7
-

22
20
20

_
-

2
"

16
16
14

6
6
5

12
8
3

25
10
6

13
9
9

11
11
4

3
3
3

_
-

12
12
9

_

13
9

9
9

13
13

7
6

4 65
64

-

-

-

8 6 . 00
8 4 .5 0
8 8 . 00

_
-

_
-

40. 5
40. 0
40. 0

8 6. 50
8 7 . 00
90. 50

_
"

_
-

1 77
1 59

40. 0
40. 0

1 0 8 .0 0
1 1 0 .0 0

_

O ffic e b o y s _______________________________________ ____
M a n u fa c tu r in g _____________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ___________________________________
F in a n c e 3 ---------------------------------------------------------- __

2 37
114
123
65

38.
39.
38.
37.

5
0
0
0

52.
55.
49.
47.

00
00
00
50

T a b u la tin g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s _________________________
M a n u f a c tu r i n g ------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ________________________________ _
F in a n c e 3 --------------------------------..------------------------------

307
141
166
70

39. 0
3 9 .5
38. 5
39. 0

87.
96.
80.
70.

00
00
00
50

100
66

39. 0
39. 0

6 3. 00
63. 50

-

B i l l e r s , m a c h in e (b o o k k e e p in g m a c h in e ) _____________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________ _________________
R e ta il t r a d e ______________________________________

81
65
50

3 9 .5
39. 0
40. 0

5 5. 00
5 2. 00
5 2. 00

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s A ------------------M a n u f a c tu r i n g ------------------------------ -------------------------------

124
75

3 9 .5
39. 5

7 2 .5 0
7 4 . 50

_

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B ____________
M a n u fa c tu r in g ----------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ___________________________________
R e ta il t r a d e __________________________________ __
F in a n c e 3___________________________________________

643
73
570
101
364

38. 5
3 9 .5
3 8. 5
40. 0
38. 5

5 5 . 00
6 7 . 00
5 3 .5 0
5 3. 00
5 2 . 00

6
6
6

C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s A ---------------- ---------------------M a n u fa c tu r in g _______________________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g ___________________________________
R e ta il t r a d e ______________________________________
F in a n c e 3 __________________
___________________

384
114
270
66
96

3 8.
3 9.
3 8.
40.
37.

77.
89.
72.
65.
69.

_

_

"

-

2
2

-

6
3

2
2

6
4

3
3

10
9

15
14

10
5

16
16

8
1
7
7

44
9
35
26

45
12
33
15

84
56
28
5

24
20
4
1

14
4
10
7

_

7
2
5
4

1
1
"

5
5
-

1
1
-

4
4
-

_

_

.

_

.

_

-

-

-

"

-

-

-

_

_

"

-

_
-

2
2
2

4
4
4

12
1
11
9

31
1
30
20

28
9
19
10

42
11
31
19

34
18
16
3

24
18
6
3

35
20
15
-

15
12
3

40
16
24
~

14
9
5
-

4
4
-

6
6
-

16
16
-

‘

9
-

12
----- 6—

34
34

14
10

3
1

8
-

10
5

7
7

-

-

-

11
11
11

20
20
17

18
15
6

8
8
5

12
1
1

4
4
4

_

_

_

-

6
6
6

-

-

2
-

_

1
-

_

-

8
1

28
18

13
4

16
12

43
29

4
1

3
2

69
1
68
10
53

134
1
1 33
34
98

165
8
157
14
115

133
4
129
24
59

54
26
28
10
17

18
5
13
3
6

33
15
18
1
2

22
4
18
5
8

3
3
"

3
3
-

_

_

_

2

12

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

12
12

34
1
33

34
14
20
6
14

65
7
58
11
39

22
3
19
1
17

31
5
26
7
8

77
7
70
1

39
28
11
5

W o m en
Ri 11 f»r s , m a c h in e (h illin g m a c h in e )
__ —
M a n u fa c tu r in g
--------------------------------------------

S ee f o o tn o te s a t end o f ta b l e .




5
0
5
0
5

50
00
50
50
00

_
-

i

-

16
10

3
3

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

7
7

_

_

-

1
1

_

"

-

-

-

2
2
-

.

_

_

.

-

1
1
"

-

-

-

-

21
10
11

9
6
3
-

12
11
1
1

6
6

-

13
9
4
4

8

-

.

-

7
7
-

5
Table A-l. Office Occupations-Continued
(A v e ra g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e w e e k ly h o u r s a n d e a r n i n g s f o r s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s s tu d ie d o n a n a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n , B a l ti m o r e , M d ., S e p te m b e r 1 9 5 9 )
Average

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—
$
4 0 . 00

$
4 5 . 00

$
5 5 . 00

$
6 0 . 00

$
6 5. 00

$
7 0 . 00

$
7 5. 00

$
8 0 . 00

$
8 5 . 00

$
9 0 . 00

“
6 5. 00

“

“
7 5 ,0 0 _

“

4 5. 00

"
"
50.0C L 5jj. 0 0_ 6 0 . 00

“
8 5 .0 0

9 0 . 00

“
9 5 .0 0

6
-------5“
-

21
17
4
4

8
8
“

_
-

_
-

$
50. 00

o
o
o’
00|

$
Weekly,
Weekly. 3 5 . 00
hours 1 earnings1
(Standard) (Standard) u n d e r
4 0 . 00

!-J
O
o
o

S ex, o c c u p a tio n , a n d i n d u s t r y d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

$
$
$
$
$
$
9 5 . 00 1 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 5 . 0 0 1 1 0 . 0 0 1 1 5 . 0 0 1 2 0 . 0 0
and
“
~
“
1 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 5 . 0 0 n o . oo 1 1 5 . 0 0 1 2 0 . 0 0 o v e r

W o m en — C o n tin u e d
C l e r k s , a c c o u n tin g , c l a s s B ___________________________
M a n u fa c tu r in g ----------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ------- -------------------------------------------W h o le s a le t r a d e __________________________________
R e ta il t r a d e _____________________________ ____ __
F i n a n c e 3 ---------------------------------------------------------------

1, 0 0 8
240
768
63
114
300

3 8 .0
39. 0
38. 0
3 9 .5
40. 0
38. 0

$ 6 4 .0 0
74. 00
6 1 . 00
6 7 . 50
5 6 . 50
5 5 . 50

3
3
3.

69
69
3
5
61

74
3
71
3
14
51

C l e r k s , f il e , c l a s s A ___________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ___________________________________

107
76

38. 5
38. 5

6 6 . 00
6 1 .5 0

_

_

_

-

-

C l e r k s , f il e , c l a s s B __________________________________
M a n u f a c tu r i n g ------------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------------------------W h o le s a le t r a d e __________________________________
R e ta il t r a d e _______________________________________
F in a n c e 3 _________________________________________

765
159
606
84
60
377

38.
39.
38.
39.
40.
37.

5
5
0
0
0
5

50.
57.
48.
53.
46.
45.

00
50
00
00
00
50

42
42
42

C l e r k s , o r d e r ___________________________________________
M a n u f a c tu r i n g -----------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ___________________________________
R e ta il t r a d e _______________________________________

3 78
114
264
1 40

38.
38.
38.
40.

0
5
0
0

58.
60.
57.
52.

50
50
50
00

C l e r k s , p a y r o l l _________________________________________
M a n u f a c tu r i n g -----------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ___________________________________
P u b lic u t i l i t i e s 5 __________________________________
R e ta il t r a d e _______________________________________
F in a n c e 3 ___________________________ ____________

492
250
242
43
102
60

39. 0
39. 0
38. 5
38. 0
40. 0
3 7 .0

C o m p to m e te r o p e r a t o r s ________________________________
M a n u f a c tu r i n g -----------------------------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ___________________________________
W h o le s a le t r a d e __ -----------------------------------------------

445
1 46
299
81

38.
39.
37.
40.

D u p lic a tin g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s
(M im e o g r a p h o r D itto ) -------------------------------------------------

76

K e y p u n c h o p e r a t o r s ____________________________________
M a n u f a c tu r i n g _____________________ ________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ___________________________________
P u b lic u t i l i t i e s 5 __________________________________
F in a n c e 3 _________________________________________

861
301
560
83
271

O ffic e g i r l s _____________________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ___________________________________

78
61

S e c r e t a r i e s _____________________________________________
M a n u f a c tu r i n g ___ ___ ______ _____________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ___________________________________
P u b lic u t i l i t i e s 5 __________________________________
W h o le s a le t r a d e __________________________________
R e ta il t r a d e _______________________________________
F in a n c e 3 _________________________________________

2, 0 2 6
808
1, 2 1 8
1 06
187
101
602

See fo o tn o te s a t e n d o f t a b le .
540520 0 - 6 0 - 2




0
0
5
0

96
15
25
54

109
20
89
9
24
30

1 63
27
1 36
9
37
40

1 59
21
1 38
4
2
20

1 10
-----4 ^
64
3
9

141
62
79
7
7
19

30
19
11
2
9

27
26

7
7

6
5

18
1

12
11

2
1

9
-

1
1

1
-

_

-

23
23

197
7
190
26
34
1 29

1 86
27
159
17
11
130

177
46
131
21
8
54

72
22
50
6
16

37
23
14
4
6

16
13
3
1
1
-

19
7
12
10
-

13
9
4
4
-

_
-

_
-

4
4
_

-

2
1
1
1
-

2
2
2

47
14
33
30

39
39
36

43
17
26
23

98
25
73
33

74
35
39
7

5
4
1
-

46
7
39
7

3
1
2
2

11
2
9
-

-

6 9 . 00
7 1 .0 0
6 7 . 50
7 2 . 50
65. 00
6 6 . 00

_
-

8
7
1
1
-

16
2
14
1
7

58
34
24
3
17
3

50
21
29
6
11
9

76
20
56
4
36
11

88
59
29
7
8
8

35
14
21
5
8
5

45
26
19
3
10
4

45
21
24
2
8
12

14
7
7
6
1
-

24
19
5
1
_
-

8
3
5
5
_

69.
73.
66.
72.

_
-

7
7
-

26
26

35
9
26
3

47
21
26
18

81
17
64
18

57
16
41
10

66
21
45
-

31
14
17
3

20
10
10
4

19
5
14
9

28
24
4
3

00
50
50
50

1 02
—

r~

2
2
2
-

5
5
-

_

.

.

-

l
l

-

“

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

4
4
-

6
6
6
-

-

6
5
1
-

-

-

-

-

-

4
1
3
-

14
11
3
2
1

3
1
2
-

4
4
_
-

_
-

13
9
4
3

10
10
10

2
2
“

_
-

_
-

3
3
-

-

-

-

-

_

1
1

-

-

-

39. 5

6 2 . 50

3

5

10

10

6

6

2

7

26

-

1

-

-

-

38.
39.
38.
39.
38.

65.
74.
60.
66.
5 6.

3
3

18
_
18
-

3

17

83
10
73
4
44

88
14
74
10
47

1 72
37
135
29
58

1 13
50
63
12
20

70
40
30
8
14

101
6o
41
19
7

58
41
17

-

87
_
87
1
61

35
26
9
_
-

13
9
4
-

1
1
_
-

18
12
6
-

_

10
10

33
29

19
16

7
4

3
1

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

_

-

4
-

.

-

2
1

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

_
-

10
10
_
5
5

29
12
17
4
_
1
12

70
13
57
8
6
1
41

1 19
21
98
4
26
4
56

242
39
203
5
34
39
1 12

265
69
1 96
1
36
10
1 10

2 79
90
189
6
12
24
86

246
1 00
1 46
8
17
5
62

1 68
84
84
8
12
5
47

147
59
88
10
24
2
30

180
120
60
31
_
2
16

68
49
19
1
10
_
7

93
80
13
3
2
2
6

59
42
17
12
_
1
4

29
19
10
_
2
_
8

22
11
11
5
6
_

5
5
0
0
0

50
00
50
00
00

39. 0
39. 0

5 2 . 00
4 9 . 00

38.
39.
38.
38.
39.
39.
37.

82.
88.
77.
90.
77.
72.
74.

5
5
0
5
0
5
5

00
50
00
00
50
50
50

_
-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6

Table A-l. Office Occupations-Continued
(A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e w e e k ly h o u r s a n d e a r n in g s f o r s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s s tu d ie d on a n a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d iv is io n , B a l ti m o r e , M d. , S e p te m b e r 1 9 5 9 )
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF—

Avbbaqb
S e x , o c c u p a tio n , a n d i n d u s t r y d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

$
Weekly,
Weekly . 3 5 . 00
hours 1 earnings 1 a n d
(Standard) (Standard) u n d e r
4 0 . 00

$
4 0 . 00

4 5 . 00

50. 00

$
55. 00

60. 00

$
6 5 . 00

$
7 0. 00

$
75. 00

$
8 0 . 00

4 5 . 00

5 0 . 00

55. 00

60. 00

8JL 00

2<L_00_

75_«_00_ 8 0 . 00

8 5 , 00

20
20
20

81
81
1
80

1 16
1 16
6
110

166
8
158
3
17
1 35

232
53
179
3
20
131

310
74
236
5
15
191

1 95
111
84
5
7
47

152
90
62
8
1
32

1 19
90
29
7
1
8

$
8 5 . 00

$
9 0. 00

1 20
86
34
9
10

50
46
4
3
1

96
91
5
5
-

18
14
4
4
-

89
84
5
4
1
-

2
1
1
1
"

3
3
-

2
2
-

_
-

$
$
$
$
$
$
9 5 . 00 1 0 0 . 0 0 1 0 5 . 0 0 n o . oo 1 15 . 00 1 2 0 . 0 0
and
9 0 ,.0 0 _ 3 5 , 0 0_ 1 0 0 , 0 0 1 0 5 , 0 0 1 1 0 . 0 0 1 1 5 . 00 1 2 0 r 00 o v e r

W o m en — C o n tin u e d
S te n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l ------- ------------------ ------ ----------M a n u fa c tu r in g — ----------- — ----------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------------------------W h o le s a le t r a d e
----- ----------------------- -------------R e ta il t r a d e ____ ____ — — ---------------- ------ —
F i n a n c e 3 ---- — - — ------- --------- — — ------

1 ,7 7 1
753
1 ,0 1 8
53
73
765

S w itc h b o a rd o p e r a t o r s __________________________________
M a n u f a c tu r i n g ____
— — „ — __ ------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g — _ ------------ __ ------------------- —
P u b lic u t i l i t i e s 5 ---- ---------------- ------ — -----R e ta il t r a d e __________ __ ______ ________ _________
F i n a n c e 3 --------------------- — _ --------- ----------------

381
107
274
46
57
82

40.
39.
40.
39.
40.
3 8.

0
5
5
5
5
0

62.
78.
56.
69.
52.
56.

50
50
00
50
50
50

23
23
-

30
30
6
2

34
34
12
14

48
2
46
24
15

62
6
56
8
7
29

43
10
33
6
4
16

22
11
11
3
4
2

40
19
21
17
4

16
8
8
8
-

18
14
4
4
-

15
12
3
-

18
15
3
-

5
5
-

3
3
"

2
2
-

2
2
-

.
-

.
-

S w itc h b o a rd o p e r a t o r - r e c e p t i o n i s t s _____ _ ---------------M a n u f a c tu r i n g --------- _ — ----------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -------—
---------------------------- —
W h o le s a le t r a d e __________________________________

343
203
1 40
52

3 9. 0
3 9 .5
3 8. 5
3 9. 5

61.
62.
61.
61.

50
00
50
50

_
-

_
-

13
5
8
-

71
49
22
10

90
61
29
18

56
33
23
9

42
14
28
3

37
15
22
8

15
10
5
2

8
6
2
1

2
1
1
1

1
1
~

1
1
-

7
7
-

.
~

_
-

.
-

.
-

T a b u la tin g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ----------- _ — ---------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ________ _______________________ —
F in a n c e 3 -----------------------------------------------------------------

1 50
115
50

3 8. 0
3 7. 5
3 6. 5

7 1 . 50
6 8 . 50
6 2. 00

.

2
2
2

4
4
4

2
2
1

6
6
6

21
21
14

46
35
17

9
9
3

27
23
3

5
2
-

16
9
-

6
-

1
-

3
2
-

2
-

.

.

.

-

-

-

-

T r a n s c r ib i n g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , g e n e r a l ---------------- M a n u f a c tu r i n g _______________ ___________ _______ _____
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g --------------------------- -------------------------F i n a n c e 3 --------- --------- ------------------------------------- _

252
51
201
158

38.
38.
38.
37.

0
5
0
5

62.
71.
60.
57.

00
00
00
50

_
■

1
1
1

16
16
16

55
6
49
45

65
6
59
57

41
17
24
11

23
1
22
14

13
3
10
6

15
7
8
3

6
1
5
1

7
3
4
4

_
"

2
2
"

_
“

8
7
1
"

.
“

_
-

_
“

T y p i s ts , c l a s s A ----------------------- -------------------------------- M a n u f a c tu r i n g ________________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -------------------------------------------------------P u b lic u t i l i t i e s 5 -------------- — __ ----------------- -----R e ta il t r a d e ---------------------- -----------------------------------F i n a n c e 3 ---- ------------------------ -------------------------- -

832
526
3 06
51
54
159

3 9 .5
3 9. 5
38. 5
39. 0
40. 0
3 7. 5

71.
76.
62.
62.
55.
60.

00
00
00
50
00
50

52
8
44
3
7
34

86
15
71
20
17
32

127
42
85
6
15
52

116
80
36
14
17

71
55
16
6
5

141
1 34
7
1
1
4

71
57
14
4

91
85
6
1
4

14
14
“

18
18
"

20
14
6
“

-

.
-

_
•

.

-

25
4
21
14
7

.

-

T y p i s ts , c l a s s B ________________________________________
M a n u f a c tu r i n g _____________________ _____________
N o n m a n u fa c tu rin g __ — ----------------- ---------------------- P u b lic u t i l i t i e s 5 ------------------- ---------------------- —
W h o le s a le t r a d e _______________________________
R e t a il t r a d e „ ____________________________________
F in a n c e 3 --------------------------- -----------------------------------

1 ,2 6 6
3 22
944
35
74
1 00
724

38.
3 9.
38.
39.
40.
3 9.
3 8.

54.
64.
51.
58.
61.
51.
49.

50
50
00
00
50
50
50

5
5
5

114
114
6
16
92

346
5
341
2
17
319

3 04
35
269
6
21
34
203

1 86
76
110
6
23
79

1 56
98
58
16
14
5
22

68
41
27
4
15
4
4

26
13
13
1
12
-

16
12
4
4
-

14
12
2
2
-

5
5
-

9
9
-

14
14
-

3
2
1
1

.
-

.
-

.
-

38. 5
3 9 .5
38. 0
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 7. 5

5
5
5
5
0
5
0

$ 6 7 .0 0
7 8. 00
5 9. 00
7 7. 00
5 9 . 50
56. 00

1 S ta n d a r d h o u r s r e f l e c t th e w o rk w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e i v e t h e i r r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r i e s a n d th e e a r n i n g s c o r r e s p o n d to t h e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .
2 W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r ib u t e d a s fo llo w s: 2 6 a t $ 1 20 to $ 130; 4 5 a t $ 1 30 to $ 140; 5 a t $ 1 40 a n d o v e r .
3 F in a n c e , in s u ra n c e , an d r e a l e s ta te .
4 W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r ib u t e d a s fo llo w s: 8 a t $ 1 20 to $ 130; 56 a t $ 1 30 to $ 140; 1 a t $ 1 4 0 a n d o v e r .
5 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a tio n , a n d o t h e r p u b lic u t i l i t i e s .




~

-

.

-

Ta b le A -2. Pro fessiona l and Technical Occupations
(A v e ra g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e w e e k ly h o u r s a n d e a r n i n g s f o r s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s s tu d ie d o n a n a r e a b a s is
b y i n d u s t r y d iv is io n , B a l ti m o r e , M d. , S e p te m b e r 1 9 5 9 )
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME WEEKLY EARNINGS OF

Avekaob
S ex , o c c u p a tio n , a n d in d u s t r y d i v is io n

Number
of
workers

$
$
S
*
1
$
$
S
$
S
S
$
$
$
$
1
t
*
S
s
s
W
eekly
W
eekly U n d e r 6 0 . 0 0 6 5 . 00 7 0 . 00 7 5 . Q0 8 0 . 0 0 8 5 . 0 0 9 0 . 00 9 5 .0 0 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 1 2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 .0 0 1 4 0 .0 0 1 4 5 .0 0 1 5 0 .0 0 1 5 5 .0 0 1 6 0 .0 0
hours1 earnings1
and
and
(Standard) (Standard) $
under
6 0. 00
6 5 . 0 0 7 0 . 00 7 5 . 0 0 8 0 . 0 0 8 5 . 0 0 9 0 . 00 9 5 . 00 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 1 1 0 .0 0 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 1 2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 1 3 5 .0 0 1 4 0 .0 0 1 4 5 .0 0 1 5 0 .0 0 1 5 5 .0 0 1 6 0 .0 0 o v e r

M en
_

D r a f ts m e n , l e a d e r --------------------------------M a n u f a c tu r i n g ------------- ------------ ----

137
136

4 0 . 0 $148. 00
4 0 . 0 1 4 8 .0 0

-

D r a f ts m e n , s e n i o r --------------------------------M a n u f a c tu r i n g _______________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------

923
621
302

3 9 .5
40. 0
39. 5

113. 00
1 1 8 . 50
1 0 2 . 50

-

1
1
-

.
-

.
-

D r a f ts m e n , j u n io r _____________________
M a n u f a c tu r i n g _______________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ___________________

426
254
172

4 0 .0
8 1 . 00
8 6 .0 0
40. 0
39. 5 ; 7 3 .0 0

30
9
3 21

34
26
8

18
1
17

54
20
34

■

1
j

“

"

■

19
19

8
8

■

3
3

10
10

!

~

6
6

.

•

13
13

9
9

11
11

2 57
57

2
2

32
— IT
26

42
9
33

75
25
50

53
21
32

63
27
36

123
92
31

197
1 56
41

71

7

47
29
18

43
43
-

51
29
22

45
44
1

17
17
-

18
15
3

18
18
-

19
19
-

6
6
•

60
12
48

61
36
25

49
36
13

55
49
6

18
18

25
25

10
10

8
8

4
4

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

'

"

'

'

'

'

'

19
13

15
14

6
5

5
5

6
6

12
12

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

1

t>4

W om en
151
124

39. 5 ! 9 3 .5 0
4 0 .0

o
o

N u r s e s , i n d u s t r ia l ( r e g i s t e r e d ) -----------M a n u f a c tu r i n g ---------- ------------------ _

1

4
2

3
2

18
15

21
16

21
18

20
16

1 S ta n d a r d h o u r s r e f l e c t th e w o rk w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e i v e t h e i r r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r i e s a n d th e e a r n i n g s c o r r e s p o n d to t h e s e w e e k ly h o u r s .
2 W o rk e r s w e r e d i s t r ib u t e d a s fo llo w s: 4 7 a t $ 1 60 to $ 170; 5 a t $ 1 7 0 to $ 180; 5 a t $ 1 8 0 to $ 1 9 0 .
3 A ll w o r k e r s w e r e a t $ 50 to $ 6 0 .




8
Ta b le A -3 . M aintenance and Pow erp la nt O ccupations
(A v e r a g e s tr a i g h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r m e n in s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s s tu d ie d on a n a r e a b a s is
b y i n d u s t r y d iv is io n , B a l ti m o r e , M d. , S e p te m b e r 1 9 5 9 )
NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
O c c u p a tio n a n d i n d u s t r y d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

$
$
Average
hourly , U n d e r 1. 30
1 .4 0
earnings
and
$
under
1. 30
1 .4 0
1. 5 0

$

1. 5 0

$
1. 6 0

$
1. 7 0

$
1 .8 0

1. 6 0

1. 7 0

1. 8 0

1. 9 0

1. 90

$
2. 00

$
2 . 10

$
2. 20

$
2 . 30

$
2 .4 0

$
2 . 50

$
2. 6 0

$
2. 7 0

$
2. 8 0

$
2 . 90

$
3. 0 0

$
3. 10

2. 00

2 . 10

2 .4 0

2 . 50

2 . 60

$

$

3. 20

$
3. 30
and
over

2 . 20

2 . 30

2. 7 0

2 .8 0

2 . 90

3 .0 0

3. 10

3. 20

C a r p e n t e r s , m a i n t e n a n c e _________________
M a n u f a c tu r i n g ________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________________

3 65
307
58

$ 2 . 62
2. 70
2. 18

.
-

1
1

.
-

2
2

3
3

22
14
8

2
2

8
2
6

11
10
1

49
40
9

21
16
5

24
15
9

5
5
-

16
16
-

29
21
8

29
29
-

24
24
-

12
12
-

25
25
-

9
5
4

E l e c t r i c i a n s , m a in te n a n c e ____________________
M a n u f a c tu r i n g ----------- --------------------------- —
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------- ------ ---------

707
634
73

2. 7 3
2 . 77
2 . 38

_
-

-

1
1

_
-

3
3
-

10
6
4

5
2
3

6
3
3

7
5
2

51
43
8

20
13
7

63
51
12

22
14
8

16
11
5

31
28
3

82
81
1

no

1 26

61
61
-

1 09
1 09
-

82
82

16

E n g i n e e r s , s t a t i o n a r y --------------------------------M a n u f a c tu r i n g ----------------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------------

465
364
101

2 .4 7
2 . 52
2 . 28

-

-

10
10

1
1

11
8
3

16
14
2

23
11
12

8
3
5

22
12
10

89
79
10

11
3
8

10
7
3

30
24
6

42
40
2

2
1
1

22
22
"

71
69
2

57
40
17

15
12
3

7
2
5

8
8

10
9
1

F i r e m e n , s ta t io n a r y b o i l e r _ ____________
M a n u f a c tu r i n g ______________ ,_______ _
_
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g __________ _________

3 56
3 00
56

2 . 22
2. 25
2. 10

25
5

-

1
1

_
~

24
24
-

8
8
-

22
18
4

91
91
-

3
3
-

9
9

47
25
22

36
25
11

_
-

11
11
-

27
27
-

36
32
4

8
8

28
28

.
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

H e l p e r s , t r a d e s , m a in te n a n c e ____ ______
M a n u f a c tu r i n g ---------- ----- ------------ -----N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _____________________

881
749
132
115

2.
2.
2.
2.

26
6

22
20
2

20
20
-

38
38
-

18
18
-

103
95
8
g

15
9
6
g

40
40
-

15
6
9
4

63
16
47
46

61
55
6
3

288
240
48
48

_
-

70
70

95
95

23
23

4
4

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

M a c h in e -to o l o p e r a t o r s , t o o l r o o m _________
M a n u f a c tu r i n g ________________________

3 42
3 42

2. 73
2. 73

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

6
6

5
5

7
7

22
22

41
41

219
219

22
22

5
5

14
14

M a c h i n i s t s , m a in te n a n c e ----------------------------M a n u f a c tu r i n g -----------------------------------------------

1, 311
1 ,2 8 5

2 .9 5
2 .9 5

.

_

_

-

-

.
-

_

-

_
-

-

_
-

3
3

1
1

5
5

73
73

16
6

17
17

33
33

41
41

1 40
137

202
1 90

1 25
124

181
181

M e c h a n ic s , a u to m o tiv e (m a in t e n a n c e ) ________
M a n u f a c tu r i n g --------------------- ------------- ------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g _____ ______________
P u b lic u t i l i t i e s 3 ___________________

622
205
417
3 34

2 .4 5
2 . 36
2. 50
2 . 51

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

6
6
-

8
8
-

42
41
1
1

35
16
19
3

25
25
-

19

3
3

147
1
1 46
1 33

8
6
2
2

32
8
24
2

222
27
1 95
1 90

39
37
2
"

27
13
14
-

12
7
5
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

M e c h a n ic s , m a i n t e n a n c e ----------- ---------------M a n u f a c tu r i n g ----------- --------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ---- ---------------------------------

1, 3 8 3
1 ,2 3 3
150

2. 7 6
2. 7 8
2. 68

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

1
1

16
12
4

39
38
1

25
24
1

35
25
10

54
47
7

54
53
1

26
14
12

37
31
6

39
31
8

52
51
1

262
247
15

1 90
163
27

67
50
17

277
239
38

80
80
-

65
64
1

64
64
-

M illw r ig h ts -------------------------------------------------------M a n u f a c tu r i n g ------ --------------------------------------

190
190

2. 75
2. 75

_
-

_

_

-

.

_

_

5
5

28
28

_
-

13
13

60
60

9
9

70
70

1
1

4
4

-

-

-

_

-

-

_

-

O i l e r s _________________________ _______
M a n u f a c tu r i n g -----------------------------------------

509
495

2. 26
2. 2 6

21
-

64
64

12
12

4
4

6
6

2
2

16
16

22
19

30
30

13
5

18
16

84
84

17
17

98
98

79
79

7
7

36
36

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

P a i n t e r s , m a in te n a n c e -------------- ------- ---M a n u f a c tu r i n g ----------- --------------------------------N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------------

264
171
93

2 . 31
2 . 51
1 .9 4

4 13
13

6
6

_
-

9
6
3

7
6
1

12
12

13
1
12

12
5
7

10
4
6

5
5

19
17
2

35
26
9

40
29
11

1
1

10
10
"

36
36
"

10
10
■

7
7
“

5
5

_
■

14
14
“

_
"

P i p e f i t t e r s , m a in te n a n c e --------------------------------M a n u fa c tu r in g —--------------------------------------------

442
393

2 . 74
2. 7 3

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

8
7

27
27

26
22

9
7

29
26

23
22

1 30
1 24

117
85

29
29

32
32

5
5

7
7

-

S h e e t- m e t a l w o r k e r s , m a i n t e n a n c e --------------M a n u f a c tu r i n g -----------------------------------------

92
85

2. 7 9
2. 80

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

.

-

1
1

5
5

6
6

2
1

4
4

13
7

10
10

19
19

9
9

5
5

11
11

7
7

-

-

T o o l a n d d ie m a k e r s -----------------------------------M a n u f a c tu r i n g ________________________

302
2 87

3. 04
3. 05

1
1

5
5

3
3

12
10

8
3

11
8

56
52

84
83

30
30

86
86

6
6

1
2
3
4

19
20
11
18

-

E x c lu d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e a n d f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , a n d l a t e s h if t s .
A ll w o r k e r s w e r e a t u n d e r $ 1. 2 0 .
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (e x c lu d in g r a i l r o a d s ) , c o m m u n ic a tio n , a n d o t h e r p u b lic u t i l i t i e s .
In c lu d e s 4 w o r k e r s a t u n d e r $ 1. 2 0 .




.

-

16

3. 30
41
41
_
_
-

32
32
12
12
-

421
421

-

5
5

48
48

_
-

-

9
T a b le A -4 . C u sto d ia l a n d

M a te r ia l M o v e m e n t O c c u p a tio n s

(A verage straigh t-tim e hourly earn in gs for selected occupations studied on an a r e a b a sis
by industry division , B altim o re, Md, , Septem ber 1959)

Occupation 1 and industry division

E levator o p e ra to rs, p asse n g e r (m en)--N on m an ufactu rin g------------------------

Number
of
workers

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
S
$
$
$
$
$
S
*
S
Average
hourly , Under 0. 70 0 .8 0 0 . 90 1 . 0 0 1 . 10 1 . 20 1. 30 1.40 1.50 1.60 1. 70 1.80 1 .9 0 2 . 0 0 2 . 10 2 . 20 2. 30 2. 40 2. 50 2 . 60 2. 70 2 . 80 2. 90 $3. 00 3. 10
and
earnings $
and
under
D. 70
. 80 . 90 1 . 0 0 1 . 10 1 . 20 1. 30 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.70 1 . 80 1 .9 0 2 . 00 2 . 10 2 . 2 Q 2. 30 2. 40 2. 50 2 . 60 2. 70 2.80 2 . 90 3. 00 3 . 10 over

67
65

$1 . 06
1.06

185
185

1.08
1.08

E levator o p e ra to rs, p a sse n g e r

M anufacturing ----------------------------

Ja n ito r s, p o rte rs, and c le an e rs (men) —
M anufacturing ---------------------------Nonmanufacturing -----------------------

966

1. 97

565
401
Z8

2 . 28

3, 146
1,624
1,522

1.52

32
32

-

-

-

1.54

-

6
6

3
3

2

42
42

6
6
6

8
8

68
68

21
21

5

-

9
9

“

5
2
3

13
13
8
7

28

4

12

1

16

3

165
94
71

157
89

150
87
63
14

65
65

153
153

688

1. 15

32
32

19
669

214
44
170

62
480
345

1.55
1 . 12
1. 13

_
-

_
2

_
118
27

3
135
150

18
80
67

24
38

20

-

_
43
-

677
219
458
72
294

1 . 16

19

42

22

39

42
13
15

81
18
63

99
75
24

40

19

207
36
171

L a b o r e r s, m a te ria l handling ------------M anufacturing
........
Nonmanufacturing ----------------------Public u t ilit ie s 4 _________________
W holesale trad e ---------------------R etail trade ---------------------------

4,839
3, 784
1,055
193
272
582

1.96
2 . 00

O rder fille r s ---------------------------------M anufacturing ---------------------------Nonmanufacturing ----------------------W holesale trad e ---------------------R etail trad e _____________________

1,229
173
1,056
486
565

1.78
1.62
1 . 81
1. 70
1 .9 0

P a c k e rs, shipping (men) ------------------M anufacturing ---------------------------N on m an ufactu rin g-----------------------Rptail traHp .... .

372
230
142
78

1 .76
1.83
1.64
1. 39

P a c k e rs, shipping (women) ___________
Nonmanufacturing -----------------------

497

1. 30
1.47

W holesale trad e ---------------------R etail trade _____________________
F in a n c e 3 ------------------------------Ja n ito r s, p o rte rs, and cle an e rs
(women) _____________________________
M aniifartnring
_
N on m an ufactu rin g__________________
Rpfail traHp
nanrp ^ .. ...................

Receiving c le rk s ______________________
M anufacturing _____________________
N on m an ufactu rin g-----------------------R etail trade _____________________

88

1.86

1.
1.
.
1.

38
05
90
07

1.84

2 . 18

1.87
1. 72

255

1.92

110

2 . 19

145
103

1. 71
1.60

5 11

22
2
5

39
30
6

-

-

-

-

_
_
_
-

_

_
"
_
_

_
_
_
-

_
_
_
-

_
-

_
-

4
4
41

_
-

24
24
24

_
-




l

2

15
25

!
10
8
2

158
97
61 i
48 1
3
8
1

24
13
11
11

212
8

11
10
1

204

1
12 1

91
71

2 22

20
3
11

68

_

69
59

154
67

10

j

15
11 !

4!
4
*

104 I
77
27 1
8

11
6,
51

57
53
4

95
95

241
241

10

io!

40
40

45
45

12
12

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"
623
621

138
127

48
47

8

31

17
q
7

2

1

1

8

2

_

11
1
1

1

9

1

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

48

_

7

5!
i
|

19

_

4
4

18
18

5
5

17
17

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

l

-

-

403
248
155
96

585
298
287
97
91
99

476
459
17

257
256

236
213
23

135
135
-

18
18
-

42
42
-

10
10

-

4
4
-

34
34
-

1

16

1

-

23
-

_
-

_
-

155

101

45
45
45

2

3
3
3
-

2
2

2
2

4
4
_
-

59
59
-

_
_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
_
_
-

_
_
-

5

17

5

3
2
2

16
1
1

4

2
1
1
1

4
4

_
-

_
-

1

6

56
7
49

20 L
.

18

10

4

5

151
85

234
195
39

329
294
35

190

352
208
144

549
480
69

388
353
35

184
164
20

130
107
23

30
36

17

7
136

6

_
35

18

20

22

3
32

16

27

5
39

1

3

47

109
3
106

54
54

24
4

210
1

20
20

-

209
209
-

28
28

44

87
18
69
19
50

45

1 00
6

47
14
33
16
16

60
43
17
17

15
15

24
16

2

18
18

33
24
9

29

4

7
3
3

7

8

10

51
32
19
14

126

125
4

1 00
12

31
9

12
12

28
28

-

4
4

5
4

4

-

5
5

15
5

1

4

21

26

1
1

4
4

21

20
6

14
14
14

7
7
-

12

10
10

37
29

9
161

2

54

65
15
50

67
20

47

22

10

26
18
8
8

_i
-

!

11
8

8

1
See footnotes at end of table,

5
31

1

6
6

20
20

54
4

-

8

68

6
6

-

4

17
17

13
13

1

14
14

134
134

-

1
1

5
16

66

4

6

39
19
16

-

16
4

146
44
27
86

43
43
16
27
10

-

J j ____ 1
2

5

62

20

24

118
28
90
_
90

3
3

3
3

6
1

51
18
33
13

-

8

60

28
32
8

16

-

12
8

12

8
20
21
8

8

154
45
109

5
96
96

26
26

_
-

1

1

-

-

2

_

2

-

8
2
1
1
1

31
18
13
7

15
5
10
9

1

1

-

10
T a b le A -4 . C u sto d ia l a n d

M a t e r ia l M o v e m e n t O c c u p a tio n s- C o n tin u e d

(A verage straigh t-tim e hourly earn in gs fo r sele cted occupations studied on an a r e a b a sis
by in dustry division, B altim o re, Md. , Septem ber 1959)

Occupation 1 and in du stry division

Number
of
workers

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF—
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
Average
2.
2.
2.
hourly , Under 0. 70 0. 80 0 .9 0 1.00 1. 10 1. 20 1. 30 1 .40 1. 50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2. 00 2 .1 0 2 .2 0 $ 30 2 .4 0 $2. 50 $ 60 $ 70 *2. 80 *2. 90 3. 00 $3. 10
earnings ‘ $
and
and
0. 70 under
.9 0 1.00 1. 10 1.20 1. 30 1 .40 1. 50 1.60 1 .70 1.80 1 .90 2. 00 2. 10 2 .2 0 2. 30 2. 40 2. 50 2. 60 2. 70 2. 80 2. 90 3. 00 3. 10 over
.8 0

Shipping cle rk s ---------- ----- --- _ _
M an u factu rin g---------- --------------N onm anufacturing____ _
_ _
_ __
R etail t r a d e ------------- ----- ---

226
121
105
74

$2. 12
2. 30
1.91
1.85

-

■

-

-

-

1
1
1

-

12
12
12

9
8
1
1

5
5
5

11
11
6

6
2
4
4

45
17
28
25

10
10
-

11
1
10
1

35
20

15
4

-

10
6
4
4

29
23
6
6

2
2
2

Shipping and receivin g c le rk s ----------M an u factu rin g_____________________
N onm anufacturing-----------------------

227
148
79

1.97
1.95
2. 00

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

17
15
2

9
9

_
-

11
11

35
34
1

22
19
3

26
12
14

3
3
-

14
11
3

_
-

15
10
5

_
-

59
44
15

9
9

12
9
3
_
-

2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

21
28
18
29
16
12

-

_
-

-

-

-

49
15
34

43
43

60
60

39
3
36

55
26

29

23
18
5

-

-

*

-

-

12
11

25
9

54
6

15
1

19
4

4

58
40
18
2
6
5

160
34
126
62
6
57

141
112
29
13
6
9

105
39
66
33
30
3

255
8
247
17
16
213

248
15
233
80
152
1

429
26
403
353
45
5

305
65
240
238
2
-

529
414
115
34
81

16
12
4
_
4
-

-

-

-

-

14

10

20

■

-

14

10

20

24
3
21

9
6
3

7
7
-

"

3
3
-

8
7
1

1
1

-

9
8
1

5
5
-

7
7
"

58
40
18
2
6
5

151
125
62
6
56

27
2
25
12
6
7

31
31
4
27

37
7
30
16
14

140
140
12
128

92
1
91
66
25

46
11
35
35

113
113
-

-

30
6
24
24

264
264
-

153
23
130
2

-

-

T ru ck d riv ers 6 _______________________
M an u factu rin g---------------------Nonmanufacturing „ --------------- __
Public u t ilit ie s 4 ___________ _
_
W holesale trade ______________
R etail t r a d e ____________________

2, 666
847
1, 819
798
557
409

T ru c k d riv ers, light (under l 1^
tons) _ ________ _____
________
M an u factu rin g__________________
N onm anufacturing------- ---------

248
177
71

2. 12
2.43
1. 35

-

-

T ru c k d riv ers, m edium
h to
and including 4 tons) ____ __ _
_
M an u factu rin g_____ _
------N onm anufacturing------------------Public u t ilit ie s 4 _____________
W holesale trade ----- ------R etail t r a d e ---------- __ __

821
246
575
209
236
97

2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
1.

04
10
01
14
08
73

-

-

-

-

-

23
15
8

21
21

10
10

15
15

41
20
21

16
11
5

-

-

-

-

-

8

5
7

5
5

3
1

11
4

4

T ru c k d riv ers, heavy (over 4
tons, tr a ile r type) -------------------M an u factu rin g__________________
Nonmanufacturing
--- --- --W holesale trade _
_ _____ __

837
162
675
197

2.
2.
2.
2.

39
21
43
50

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

18

-

5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

18
18

-

5
5

-

“

5
4
1
-

67
65
2
-

19
14
5
3

T ru c k d riv ers, h eavy(over 4 tons,
other than tr a ile r type) ___________
M an u factu rin g------ ----------- __
N onm anufacturing-------------------

497
202
295

2. 20
2. 36
2. 10

-

-

-

-

-

12

12

12

-

"

■

■

12

12

12

1, 617
1,480
137
48
54

2. 39
2.4 0
2. 22
2. 39
2. 25

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

12
10
2

T ru c k e rs, power (other than forklift) __

535

2. 48

Watchmen ----------- --------- ----------M an u factu rin g-------- ----------------N on m an ufacturin g __________________________
Public u t ilit ie s 4 ________________________

530
328
202
38
70

1.45
1. 56
1.28

T ru c k e rs, power (forklift) ___________
M an u factu rin g---------------------------N on m an ufacturin g----- ------------Public u t ilit ie s 4 ________________
R etail t r a d e ---------------------------

1
2
3
4
5
6

1 66
1 16
.
.

-

1
1
1

_
-

5
5

137
6
131
131
-

14
14
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
_
-

6
6
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

139
44
95
14

10
6
4
4

127
127
127

-

“

-

"

32
12
20

146
126
20

1
1
-

4
4

-

-

232
174
58
30
28

235
215
20
18
2

538
537
1

38
38

223
223

_
-

-

-

_
-

10
10
-

-

31

46

25

17
10
7
7

17
16
1

1
1

-

-

-

-

38
"

25
•

215

-

-

38
"

25

~

‘

215

-

139
139
-

27
25
2

45
26
19

32
2
30

24
24
-

2

_

2

19

16

33

22

45
29
16
16

.

1
1

4

.

.

-

-

44
36
8
-

23

54

-

-

23

54
2

-

16

8

33
13
20

38
7
31

11

25

4

6

D ata lim ited to men w ork ers except where otherw ise indicated.
E xclu d es prem ium pay for overtim e and for work on w eekends, holidays, and late sh ifts.
Fin an ce, in su ran ce, and re al estate.
T ran sp ortation (excluding ra ilro a d s), com m unication, and other public u tilitie s.
A ll w ork ers w ere at $ 0. 60 to $ 0. 70.
Includes all d riv e rs re g a r d le ss of size and type of truck operated.




-

26

6
9
8 ---- 5“
1
1
1
1

•71
63
8

2
6

_

8
5
3

66
56
10

-

-

3

1

11
9
2

6

45
45
-

28

27
65
10 ~ z r ]
17
-

-

-

-

.

13
8
~~nr — r
1
1

2
-

120
5
120 ---- 5"
-

2
---- T~
_
_
_
_
_
_
-

10
10
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
-

3
3

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

60

26

185

37

_

16

_

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

11

Appendix : Occupationql Descriptions
The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to a s s i s t its
field sta ff in classify in g into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establishm ent to establishm ent and from area to area. This is
e sse n tia l in order to permit the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
B ecau se of this em phasis on interestablishm ent and interarea comparability of occupational content, the
Bureau’ s job descriptions may differ significan tly from those in use in individual establishm ents or those
prepared for other purposes ln applying th ese job description s, the Bureau’ s field econom ists are
instructed to exclude working su perv isors, apprentices, learners, beginners, train ees, handicapped workers,
part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.
O FFIC E

BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statem ents, b ills, and in v oices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electrom atic typewriter. May a lso keep records a s
to billin gs or shipping charges or perform other cle rica l work inciden­
tal to billing operations. For wage study purposes, b illers, machine,
are c la ssifie d by type of machine, a s follow s:

O perates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, E llio tt
Fisher, Sundstrand, Burroughs, National C ash R eg ister, with or with­
out a typewriter keyboard) to keep a record of b u sin e ss tran sactio n s.

B i l l e r , m a c h i n e ( b i l l i n g m a c h i n e ) — U se s a sp e c ia l billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, E lliott F ish er, Burroughs, e tc ., which are
combination typing and adding m achines) to prepare b ills and in­
vo ices from custom ers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandum, etc. U sually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping ch arges and entry of n ecessary
exten sion s, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and to tals which are autom atically accumulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon co p ies
of the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.

Biller , machine (bookkeeping machine> U ses a bookkeeping
J—
machine (Sundstrand, E llio tt Fish er, Remington Rand, e tc ., which
may or may not have typewriter keyboard) to prepare cu stom ers’
b ills a s part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally in­
volves the sim ultaneous entry of figures on custom ers’ ledger
record. The machine autom atically accum ulates figures on a num­
ber of vertical columns and computes and usually prints auto­
m atically the debit or credit b alan ces. D oes not involve a knowl­
edge of bookkeeping. Works from uniform and standard types of
s a le s and credit s lip s .




Class A — K eeps a se t of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in b asic bookkeeping principles and fam iliarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. Deter­
mines proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to
be used in each phase of the work. May prepare con solidated re­
ports, balance sh e e ts, and other records by hand.
Class B — K eeps a record of one or more p h ases or sectio n s
of a se t of records usually requiring little knowledge of b a sic
bookkeeping. P h a se s or sectio n s include accounts payable, pay­
roll, cu stom ers’ accounts (not including a simple type of billing
described under biller, machine), co st distribution, expense d is ­
tribution, inventory control, etc. May check or a s s i s t in prep­
aration of trial balan ces and prepare control sh eets for the a c ­
counting department.

CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A — Under general direction of a bookkeeper or a c ­
countant, has respon sibility for keeping one or more se ctio n s of a
complete s e t of books or records relating to one ph ase of an e s ­
tablishm ent’s b u sin ess transactions. Work involves posting and

12

CLERK, ACCOUNTING— Continued

balancing subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receiv­
able or accounts payable; examining and coding invoices or vouch­
ers with proper accounting distribution; requires judgment and ex­
perience in making proper assign ations and allocations. May
a s s is t in preparing, adjusting, and closing journal entries; may
direct c la s s B accounting clerks.

C lass B — Under supervision, performs one or more routine
accounting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers,
accounts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers. This job does not require a knowledge of
accounting and bookkeeping principles but is found in offices in
which the more routine accounting work is subdivided on a func­
tional basis among several workers.

CLERK, PAYROLL

Computes wages of company em ployees and enters the n eces­
sary data on the payroll sh eets. Duties involve: Calculating workers*
earnings based on time or production records; posting calculated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as worker’s name, working
days, time, rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May
make out paychecks and a s s is t paymaster in making up and distrib­
uting pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.
COMPTOMETER OPERATOR

Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathe­
matical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of
sta tistica l or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of
a Comptometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to
performance of other duties.
DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)

CLERK, FILE

C lass A— R esponsible for maintaining an established filing
system . C la ssifie s and indexes correspondence or other material;
may also file this material. May keep records of various types
in conjunction with file s or supervise others in filing and locating
material in the file s. May perform incidental clerical duties.

C lass B — Performs routine filing, usually of material that
has already been cla ssified , or locates or a s s is ts in locating ma­
terial in the file s. May perform incidental clerical duties.

CLERK, ORDER

R eceives customers* orders for material or merchandise by
mail, phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination of the
following: Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sh eet
listing the items to make up the order; checking prices and quantities
of items on order sheet; distributing order sheets to respective de­
partments to be filled. May check with credit department to deter­
mine credit rating of customer, acknowledge receipt of orders from
customers, follow up orders to se e that they have been filled, keep
file of orders received, and check shipping invoices with original
orders.




Under general supervision and with no supervisory respon­
sib ilitie s, reproduces multiple copies of typewritten or handwritten
matter, using a Mimeograph or Ditto machine. Makes necessary adjust­
ments such as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is
not required to prepare sten cil or Ditto master. May keep file of used
sten cils or Ditto masters. May sort, collate, and staple completed
material.

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR

Under general supervision and with no supervisory responsi­
b ilities, records accounting and sta tistica l data on tabulating cards
by punching a series of holes in the cards in a sp ecified sequence,
using an alphabetical or a numerical keypunch machine, following
written information on records.
May duplicate cards by using the
duplicating device attached to machine. May keep file s of punch
cards. May verify own work or work of others.
OFFICE BOY OR GIRL

Performs various routine duties such as running errands,
operating minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening
and distributing mail, and other minor clerical work.

13

SECRETARY

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST

Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an
administrative or executive position. Duties include making appoint­
ments for superior; receiving people coming into office; answering a n d
making phone calls; handling personal and important or confidental
mail, and writing routine correspondence on own initiative; taking
dictation (where transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand
or by Stenotype or similar machine, and transcribing dictation or therecorded information reproduced on a transcribing machine. May pre­
pare sp ecial reports or memorandums for information of superior.

In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single
tion or monitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may
type or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties.
typing or clerical work may take the major part of this worker's
while at switchboard.

TABULATING-MACHINE

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL

Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a
normal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a type­
writer. May also type from written copy. May a lso se t up and keep
files in order, keep simple records, etc. Does not include transcribingmachine work (se e transcribing-machine operator).

p o si­
also
This
time

OPERATOR

Operates machine that automatically analyzes and translates
information punched in groups of tabulating cards and prints trans­
lated data on forms or accounting records; se ts or adjusts machine;
does simple wiring of plugboards according to established practice
or diagrams; places cards to be tabulated in feed magazine and starts
machine. May file cards after they are tabulated. May, in addition,
operate auxiliary machines.

TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL

Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar machine, involving a
varied technical or sp ecialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or
reports on scien tific research and to transcribe this dictation on a
typewriter. May also type from written copy. May also se t up and keep
files in order, keep simple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-

Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal
routine vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May a lso type
from written copy and do simple clerical work. Workers transcribing
dictation involving a varied technical or sp ecialized vocabulary such
as legal briefs or reports on scien tific research are not included. A
worker who takes dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or similar
machine is c la ssified as a stenographer, general.

machine work.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
TYPIST

Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard.
Duties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office
ca lls. May record toll c a lls and take m essages. May give information to
persons who ca ll in, or occasionally take telephone orders. For workers
who also act as receptionists see switchboard operator-receptionist.




U ses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to
make out bills after calculations have been made by another person.
May do clerical work involving little sp ecial training, such as keeping
simple records, filing records and reports or sorting and distributing
incoming mail.

14

T Y P IST — Continued

T Y P IST — Continued

Class A — Performs one or more of the following: Typing ma­
terial in final form from very rough and involved draft; copying
from plain or corrected copy in which there is a frequent and varied
use of technical and unusual words or from foreign-language copy;
combining material from several sources, or planning layout of
complicated statistical tables to maintain uniformity and balance

PROFESSIONAL
DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR
(A ssista n t draftsman)

Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by drafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes.
Uses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare drawings
from simple plans or sketches, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsman.
DRAFTSMAN, LEA D ER

Plans and directs activities of one or more draftsmen in prep­
aration of working plans and detail drawings from rough or preliminary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. Duties
involve a combination of the following: Interpreting blueprints, sketches,
and written or verbal orders; determining work procedures; assigning
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problems. May assist subordinates during emergencies or as a
regular assignment, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
ministrative nature.
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR

Prepares working plans and detail drawings from notes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
poses. Duties involve a combination of the following: Preparing work­
ing plans, detail drawings, maps, cross-sections, etc., to scale by use
of drafting instruments; making engineering computations such as those
involved in strength of materials, beams and trusses; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dimensions, materials to be used, and quantities;




in spacing; typing tables from rough draft in final form. May type
routine form letters, varying details to suit circumstances.
Class B — Performs one or more of the following: Typing from
relatively clear or typed drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance
policies, etc., setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying
more complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

ND TE C H N IC A L
DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued

writing specifications; making adjustments or changes in drawings or
specifications. May ink in lines and letters on pencil drawings, prepare
detail units of complete drawings, or trace drawings. Work is frequently
in a specialized field such as architectural, electrical, mechanical, or
structural drafting.
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED )

A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combina­
tion of the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of employees* injuries; keeping records of patients
treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes;
conducting physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants
and employees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other
activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.

TRACER

Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. Uses
T-square, compass, and other drafting tools. May prepare simple draw­
ings and do simple lettering.

15
M A IN TEN A N C E

D P O W E R P LA N T

C A R PEN TER , MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BO ILER

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim
made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most of the following:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’s handtools, portable
power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop
computations relating to dimensions of work; selecting materials nec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom equipment.

ELECTRICIA N , MAINTENANCE

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generating, dis­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves most of the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipment such as generators, transformers, switchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems,
or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the elec­
trical system or equipment; working standard computations relating to
load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; using a variety of
electrician’s handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In gen­
eral, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.
ENGINEER, STATIONARY

Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, generators, motors
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and
boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a record of
operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May also
supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establishments
employing more than one engineer are excluded.




H E L P E R , TRA D ES, MAINTENANCE

Assists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding materials or tools;
performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-time basis.
MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM

Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling machines in the construction of machine-shop tools, gauges,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most of the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making necessary adjustments during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating oils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, machine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classification.
MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE

Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most of the following: Interpreting written instructions and
specifications; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
chinist’s handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and

16

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued

MILLWRIGHT— Continued

operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to close toler­
ances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common metals; selecting standard materials, parts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assembling parts into me­
chanical equipment. In general, the machinist's work normally requires
a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

are required. Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of materials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment, and parts
to be used; installing and maintaining in good order power transmission
equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the mill­
wright's work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)

Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an es­
tablishment. Work involves most of the following: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assemblies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; alining wheels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE

Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves most of the following: Examining machines and mechan­
ical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly dis­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replace­
ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop
for major repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling ma­
chines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In general,
the work of a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classification are workers
whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.
MILLWRIGHT

Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout




O ILER

Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.
PA IN TER, MAINTENANCE

Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and interstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, oils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper
color or consistency. In general, the work of the maintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
P IP E F IT T E R , MAINTENANCE

Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most of the following:
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to correct
lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to pressures,
flow, and size of pipe required; making standard tests to determine
whether finished pipes meet specifications. In general, the work of the
maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building
sanitation or heating systems are excluded.

17
TOOL AND DIE MAKER

PLUM BER, MAINTENANCE

Keeps the plumbing system of an establishment in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber's snake. In
general, the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alent training and experience.
SHEET-M ETAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE

Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheetmetal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an
establishment. Work involves most of the following: Planning and lay­
ing out all types of sheet-metal maintenance work from blueprints, models,
or other specifications; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-metal-working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; installing sheetmetal articles as required. In general, the work of the maintenance
sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

(Die maker; jig maker; tool m a k e r ; fixture maker; gauge maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most of the following: Planning and laying out of work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifications;
using a variety of tool and die maker's handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments, understanding of the working properties of common
metals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required qualities; working to close tolerances; fitting and assembling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allowances; selecting appropriate
materials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die maker's
work requires a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

C U ST O D IA L AND M A T E R IA L M OVEM ENT
ELEVATO R OPERATOR, PASSEN GER

JANITOR, PO R TER , OR C LEA N ER — Continued

Transports passengers between floors of an office building,
apartment house, department store, hotel or similar establishment.
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,
trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor mainte-»
nance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Workers
who specialize in window washing are excluded.

GUARD

Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour,
maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check on identity of employees and
other persons entering.
JANITOR, PO R TER , OR C LEA N ER

(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or commercial




LA BO RER, MATERIAL HANDLING

(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more of the follow­
ing: Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or

18

LA BO RER, MATERIAL HANDLING— Continued

from freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelv­
ing, or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; trans­
porting materials or merchandise by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow.
Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded.
ORDER F IL L E R

(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
Fills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, customers*
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi­
cating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders, requisi­
tion additional stock, or report short supplies to supervisor, and pertorm
other related duties.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING C L E R K — Continued

For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:
Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
TRUCKDRIVER

Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport ma­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of estab­
lishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments
and customers' houses or places of business. May also load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep
truck in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers
are excluded.

PACKER, SHIPPING

Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing
them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being
dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the
type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may involve one or more of
the following: Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify
content; selection of appropriate type and size of container; inserting
enclosures in container; using excelsior or other material to prevent
breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; applying labels or
entering identifying data on container. Packers who also make wooden
boxes or crates are excluded.
SHIPPING AND RECEIVING C LER K

Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is respon­
sible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Shipping
work involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes,
available means of transportation and rates; and preparing records of the
goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or assist in
preparing the merchandise for shipment. Receiving work involves: Veri­
fying or directing others in verifying the correctness of shipments against
bills of lading, invoices, or other records; checking for shortages and
rejecting damaged goods; routing merchandise or materials to proper de­
partments; maintaining necessary records and files.




For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size
and type of equipment, as follows: (Tractor-trailer should be rated on
the basis of trailer capacity.)
Truckdriver (combination of sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under lV2 tons)
Truckdriver, medium (1% to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)
TRU CKER, POWER

Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-powered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of
truck, as follows:
Trucker, power ( o k i t
frlf)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)
WATCHMAN

Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting property
against fire, theft, and illegal entry.
U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: I960 O -540520

Occupational Wage Surveys

Occupational wage surveys are being conducted in 60 major labor markets during late 1959 and early I960. These bulletins, when available,
may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing O ffice, Washington 25, D.C., or from any of the BLS regional
sales offices shown below.
A summary bulletin containing data for all labor markets, combined with additional analysis will be issued early in 1961.
Bulletins for the areas listed below are now available.




Cleveland, Ohio, September 1959—BLS Bull. 1265-1, price 20 cents
Seattle, Wash., August 1959—
BLS Bull. 1265-2, price 25 cents





Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102