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Occupational Wage Survey
LAWRENCE-HAVERHILL,
MASSACHUSETTS -NEW HAMPSHIRE
JUNE 1960

Bu

letin No. 1265-57




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU O F LABO R STATISTICS
Ew an C lagu e, Commit»on«r




Bureau of Labor Statistics Regional Offices

New Englmad Region
18 Oliver Street
Boston 10, Mass.
Liberty 2-2115_______
• fO t *

Occupational Wage Survey
LAWRENCE-HAVERHILL,
MASSACHUSETTS -NEW HAMPSHIRE




JUNE 1960

Bulletin No. 1265-57
August I960
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU O F LA BO R STATISTICS
Ew an C lagu e, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C.

Price 25 cents




Contents

Preface

Page
T h e C o m m u n ity W a g e S u r v e y P r o g r a m

I n t r o d u c t io n _______________________________________________________________

T h e B u re a u o f L a b o r S t a t is t ic s r e g u l a r l y c o n d u cts
a r e a w id e w a g e s u r v e y s in a n u m b e r o f im p o r t a n t in d u s ­
tr ia l c e n te rs .
T h e s tu d ie s , m a d e f r o m la t e f a l l to e a r l y
s p r in g , r e la t e to o c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s and r e la t e d s u p p le ­
m e n t a r y b e n e fit s .
A p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t is a v a ila b le on
c o m p le t io n o f th e stu d y in e a c h a r e a , u s u a lly in th e m o n th
f o llo w in g th e p a y r o ll p e r io d s tu d ie d .
T h is b u lle tin p r o v id e s
a d d itio n a l d a ta n ot in c lu d e d in th e e a r l i e r r e p o r t .
A con­
s o lid a t e d a n a ly t ic a l b u lle t in s u m m a r iz in g th e r e s u lt s o f a ll
o f th e y e a r * s s u r v e y s is is s u e d a f t e r c o m p le t io n o f th e
fin a l a r e a b u lle t in f o r th e c u r r e n t rou n d o f s u r v e y s .

T a b le s :

1.

E s ta b lis h m e n ts and w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e o f s u r v e y ____

2

A:

T h is r e p o r t w a s p r e p a r e d in th e B u re a u *s r e g io n a l
o f f i c e in B o s to n , M a s s . , b y L e o E p s t e in , u n d e r th e d i r e c ­
tio n o f P a u l V . M u lk e rn , R e g io n a l W a g e and In d u s tr ia l
R e la t io n s A n a ly s t .




1

O c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s : *
A - 1.
O f f ic e o c c u p a tio n s -----------------------------------------------A - 2.
P r o f e s s i o n a l and te c h n ic a l o c c u p a tio n s ___________
A - 3.
M a in te n a n c e and p o w e r p la n t o c c u p a tio n s _________
A - 4.
C u s to d ia l and m a t e r i a l m o v e m e n t o c c u p a t i o n s _
_

4
5
6
7

B:

E s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and s u p p le m e n ta r y w a g e
p ro v is io n s :*
B - l.
S h ift d if f e r e n t i a l s _______________________________________
B - 2 . M in im u m e n tr a n c e s a l a r i e s f o r w o m e n
o f f i c e w o r k e r s __________________________________________
B -3 .
S c h e d u le d w e e k ly h o u r s _______________________________
B -4 .
P a id h o lid a y s ____________________________________________
B -5 .
P a id v a c a tio n s ___________________________________________
B -6 .
H e a lth , in s u r a n c e , and p e n s io n p la n s _____________

A p p e n d ix :

O c c u p a tio n a l d e s c r ip t io n s _______________________________

* N O T E : S im ila r ta b u la tio n s f o r m o s t o f th e s e it e m s a r e
a v a ila b le in th e L a w r e n c e a r e a r e p o r t s f o r F e b r u a r y 1956
and M a y 1959, as w e l l as in s i m i l a r r e p o r t s f o r o t h e r
m a jo r a r e a s .
A d i r e c t o r y , in d ic a tin g d a te o f stu d y and
th e p r i c e o f th e r e p o r t s , is a v a ila b le u p on r e q u e s t .

iii

8
8
9
10
11
13

15




Occupational Wage Survey—Lawrence-Haverhill, Mass.-N.H.
Introduction
T h is a r e a is one o f s e v e r a l im p o r ta n t in d u s tr ia l c e n te r s in
w h ich the U . S . D e p a rtm e n t o f L a b o r s B u re a u o f L a b o r S t a tis tic s has
c on d u cted s u r v e y s o f o c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s and r e la t e d w a g e b e n e fits
on an a r e a w id e b a s is . In th is a r e a , d ata w e r e o b ta in e d b y p e r s o n a l
v i s i t s o f B u re a u f i e l d e c o n o m is ts to r e p r e s e n t a t iv e e s ta b lis h m e n ts
w ith in s ix b r o a d in d u s tr y d iv is io n s :
M a n u fa c tu rin g ; t r a n s p o r t a t io n ,1
c o m m u n ic a tio n , and o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s ; w h o le s a le tr a d e ; r e t a il
tr a d e ; fin a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te ; and s e r v i c e s . M a jo r in ­
d u s tr y g ro u p s e x c lu d e d f r o m th e s e s tu d ie s a r e g o v e r n m e n t o p e r a tio n s
and the c o n s tr u c tio n and e x t r a c t iv e in d u s tr ie s . E s ta b lis h m e n ts h a vin g
f e w e r than a p r e s c r ib e d n u m b er o f w o r k e r s a r e o m itte d a ls o b e c a u s e
th e y fu r n is h in s u ffic ie n t e m p lo y m e n t in the o c c u p a tio n s stu d ie d to w a r ­
ra n t in c lu s io n . W h e r e v e r p o s s ib le , s e p a r a te ta b u la tio n s a r e p r o v id e d
f o r e a c h o f the b ro a d in d u s tr y d iv is io n s .
T h e s e s u r v e y s a r e c on d u cted on a s a m p le b a s is b e c a u s e o f the
u n n e c e s s a r y c o s t in v o lv e d in s u r v e y in g a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts .
T o o b ta in
a p p r o p r ia te a c c u r a c y a t m in im u m c o s t , a g r e a t e r p r o p o r tio n o f la r g e
than o f s m a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts is s tu d ie d .
In c o m b in in g the d ata, h o w ­
e v e r , a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts a r e g iv e n th e ir a p p r o p r ia te w e ig h t. E s tim a te s
b a s e d on the e s ta b lis h m e n ts stu d ie d a r e p r e s e n te d , t h e r e f o r e , as r e ­
la tin g to a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts in the in d u s tr y g ro u p in g and a r e a , e x ­
c e p t f o r th o s e b e lo w the m in im u m s iz e s tu d ie d .

O c c u p a tio n s and E a r n in g s
T h e o c c u p a tio n s s e le c t e d f o r stu d y a r e c o m m o n to a v a r ie t y
o f m a n u fa c tu rin g and n o n m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s tr ie s . O c c u p a tio n a l c l a s ­
s ific a t io n is b a s e d on a u n ifo r m s e t o f jo b d e s c r ip tio n s d e s ig n e d to
take accou n t o f in t e r e s ta b lis h m e n t v a r ia t io n in d u tie s w ith in the s a m e
jo b . (S ee a p p e n d ix f o r lis t in g o f th e s e d e s c r ip t io n s .) E a r n in g s d ata a r e
p r e s e n te d (in the A - s e r i e s ta b le s ) f o r the fo llo w in g ty p e s o f o c c u p a ­
tio n s : (a ) O ff ic e c l e r i c a l ; (b ) p r o fe s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l; ( c ) m a in te ­
nance and p o w e r p la n t; and (d ) c u s to d ia l and m a t e r ia l m o v e m e n t.
O c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t and e a r n in g s d ata a r e show n f o r
f u l l - t i m e w o r k e r s , i. e . , th o s e h ir e d to w o r k a r e g u la r w e e k ly s c h e d ­
u le in the g iv e n o c c u p a tio n a l c la s s ific a t io n .
E a r n in g s d ata e x c lu d e
p r e m iu m p ay f o r o v e r t im e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and

1 R a ilr o a d s , f o r m e r l y e x c lu d e d f r o m the s c o p e o f th e s e s tu d ie s ,
h a ve b e e n ad d ed in n e a r ly a ll o f the a r e a s to b e s tu d ie d d u rin g the
w in te r o f 1959-60; r a ilr o a d s w i l l b e ad d ed in the r e m a in in g a r e a s n e x t
y e a r . F o r s c o p e o f s u r v e y in th is a r e a , s e e fo o tn o te to " t r a n s p o r t a ­
tio n , c o m m u n ic a tip n , and o th e r p u b lic u t i l i t ie s " in ta b le 1.




la te s h ifts .
N o n p ro d u c tio n b on u ses a r e e x c lu d e d a ls o , but c o s t - o f liv in g b on u ses and in c e n tiv e e a r n in g s a r e in c lu d e d .
W h e re w e e k ly
h o u rs a r e r e p o r te d , as f o r o f f i c e c l e r i c a l o c c u p a tio n s , r e f e r e n c e is
to the w o r k s c h e d u le s (ro u n d e d to the n e a r e s t h a lf h o u r) f o r w h ich
s t r a ig h t - t im e s a la r ie s a r e paid ; a v e r a g e w e e k ly e a r n in g s f o r th es e
o c c u p a tio n s h a ve b e e n rou n ded to the n e a r e s t h a lf d o lla r .

A v e r a g e e a r n in g s o f m en and w o m e n a r e p r e s e n te d s e p a r a t e ly
f o r s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s in w h ich both s e x e s a r e c o m m o n ly e m p lo y e d .
D iffe r e n c e s in pay l e v e l s o f m en and w o m e n in th es e o c c u p a tio n s a r e
l a r g e l y due to ( l ) d if fe r e n c e s in the d is tr ib u tio n o f the s e x e s am on g
in d u s tr ie s and e s ta b lis h m e n ts ; (2 ) d iffe r e n c e s in s p e c ific d u tie s p e r ­
fo r m e d , alth ou gh the o c c u p a tio n s a r e a p p r o p r ia t e ly c l a s s i f i e d w ith in
the sam e s u r v e y jo b d e s c r ip tio n ; and (3 ) d iffe r e n c e s in le n g th o f s e r v ­
ic e o r m e r it r e v ie w w h en in d iv id u a l s a la r ie s a r e a d ju s te d on th is b a s is .
L o n g e r a v e r a g e s e r v ic e o f m en w o u ld r e s u lt in h ig h e r a v e r a g e pay
w h en b oth s e x e s a r e
e m p lo y e d w ith in the s a m e r a te r a n g e .
Job
d e s c r ip tio n s u sed in c la s s ify in g e m p lo y e e s in th es e s u r v e y s a re u su ­
a lly m o r e g e n e r a liz e d than th ose u s e d in in d iv id u a l e s ta b lis h m e n ts to
a llo w f o r m in o r d if fe r e n c e s am on g e s ta b lis h m e n ts in s p e c ific d u ties
p e r fo r m e d .

O c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t e s t im a t e s r e p r e s e n t the to ta l in a ll
e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith in the s c o p e o f the stu d y and n ot the n u m b er a c tu ­
a lly s u r v e y e d . B e c a u s e o f d iffe r e n c e s in o c c u p a tio n a l s tr u c tu r e am on g
e s ta b lis h m e n ts , the e s tim a te s o f o c c u p a tio n a l e m p lo y m e n t o b ta in e d
f r o m the s a m p le o f e s ta b lis h m e n ts stu d ie d s e r v e o n ly to in d ic a te the
r e la t iv e im p o r ta n c e o f the jo b s s tu d ie d .
T h e s e d iffe r e n c e s in o c c u ­
p a tio n a l s tr u c tu r e do n o t m a t e r i a l l y a f f e c t the a c c u r a c y o f the e a r n ­
in g s d ata.

E s ta b lis h m e n t P r a c t ic e s

and S u p p le m e n ta r y W a g e P r o v is io n s

In fo r m a tio n is p r e s e n te d a ls o (in the B - s e r i e s ta b le s ) on s e ­
le c t e d e s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and s u p p le m e n ta ry b e n e fits as th ey r e ­
la te to o f f ic e and p lan t w o r k e r s . T h e t e r m " o f f i c e w o r k e r s , " as u s e d
in th is b u lle tin , in c lu d e s w o r k in g s u p e r v is o r s and n o n s u p e r v is o r y
w o r k e r s p e r fo r m in g c l e r i c a l o r r e la t e d fu n c tio n s , and e x c lu d e s a d m in ­
i s t r a t iv e , e x e c u t iv e , and p r o fe s s io n a l p e r s o n n e l. " P la n t w o r k e r s " in ­
c lu d e w o r k in g fo r e m e n and a ll n o n s u p e r v is o r y w o r k e r s (in c lu d in g le a d m en and t r a in e e s ) e n g a g e d in n o n o ffic e fu n c tio n s .
A d m in is t r a t iv e ,
e x e c u tiv e , and p r o fe s s io n a l e m p lo y e e s , and f o r c e - a c c o u n t c o n s tru c tio n
e m p lo y e e s w ho a r e u t iliz e d as a s e p a r a te w o r k f o r c e a r e e x c lu d e d .
C a f e t e r ia w o r k e r s and r o u te m e n a r e e x c lu d e d in m a n u fa c tu rin g in d u s ­
tr ie s , but a r e in c lu d e d as p lan t w o r k e r s in n o n m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s trie s .

2

T a b le

E s t a b li s h m e n t s an d w o r k e r s w it h in s c o p e o f s u r v e y a n d n u m b e r s t u d ie d in L a w r e n c e — a v e r h i ll , M a s s . —N . H . ,
H
M in im u m
e m p lo y m e n t
in e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t s in s c o p e
o f stu d y

I n d u s t r y d i v is i o n

A l l d i v is i o n s

---------

— -----

— —

-----

-----

-----

—

M a n u fa c t u r in g -------- -------- — ---------------— ----------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t io n , an d o t h e r
p u b lic u t il it i e s 5
— -------- — ------------------ --------- ------ —
W h o l e s a le t r a d e __ -------- — ---------------------- --------- - ----- —
R e t a il t r a d e ---- ----------- --------------- ----- --------------------- ------------F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e -------------------------------------S e r v i c e s 7 --------— -------- — ---------------------------------------- -----

N u m b e r o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s
W ith in
scope of
s tu d y 3

b y m a j o r in d u s t r y d i v is i o n , 2 J u n e I9 6 0
W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s
W ith in s c o p e o f stu d y

S tu d ied

S tu d ied
T o ta l4

O ffice

P la n t

T o t a l4

51

168

74

4 1 , 500

4 , 500

3 2, 100

3 0, 620

51
51

121
47

46
28

3 7 ,2 0 0
4 , 300

3, 500
1 ,0 0 0

2 9 ,6 0 0
2, 500

2 7 ,7 0 0
2, 920

51
51
51
51
51

7
5
22
8
5

6
2
11
5
4

1, 000
300
1 ,7 0 0
900
400

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( 6)

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( 6)

8 90
110
990
600
330

1 T h e L a w r e n c e —H a v e r h i ll M e t r o p o l it a n A r e a ( L a w r e n c e an d H a v e r h i ll c i t i e s ; A n d o v e r , G r o v e la n d , M e th u e n , an d N o r th A n d o v e r t o w n s in E s s e x C o u n ty , M a s s . ; P la is t o w an d S a le m to w n s
in R o c k in g h a m C o u n ty , N . H . ) .
T h e " w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e o f s t u d y " e s t i m a t e s s h o w n in t h is t a b le p r o v id e a r e a s o n a b ly a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f th e s i z e an d c o m p o s i t i o n o f th e la b o r f o r c e i n ­
c l u d e d in th e s u r v e y .
T h e e s t i m a t e s a r e n ot in te n d e d , h o w e v e r , to s e r v e a s a b a s i s o f c o m p a r i s o n w ith o t h e r a r e a e m p lo y m e n t in d e x e s to m e a s u r e e m p lo y m e n t t r e n d s o r l e v e l s s i n c e (1) p l a n ­
n in g o f w a g e s u r v e y s r e q u i r e s th e u s e o f e s t a b lis h m e n t d a ta c o m p il e d c o n s i d e r a b l y in a d v a n c e o f th e p a y r o l l p e r i o d s t u d ie d , an d (2 ) s m a ll e s t a b l is h m e n t s a r e e x c lu d e d f r o m th e s c o p e o f th e s u r v e y .
2 T h e 1957 r e v i s e d e d it io n o f th e S ta n d a rd I n d u s t r ia l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a n u a l w a s u s e d in c l a s s i f y i n g e s t a b l is h m e n t s b y in d u s t r y d i v is i o n .
M a j o r c h a n g e s f r o m th e e a r l i e r e d it io n (u s e d in th e
B u r e a u 's l a b o r m a r k e t w a g e s u r v e y p r o g r a m p r i o r to th e w in t e r o f 1 9 5 8 -5 9 ) a r e th e t r a n s f e r o f m il k p a s t e u r iz a t io n p la n t s and r e a d y - m i x e d c o n c r e t e e s t a b l is h m e n t s f r o m t r a d e (w h o l e s a le o r r e ­
t a il) t o m a n u fa c t u r in g , and th e t r a n s f e r o f r a d i o an d t e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t i n g f r o m s e r v i c e s t o th e t r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n i c a t io n , an d o t h e r p u b lic u t i l i t i e s d i v is i o n .
3 I n c lu d e s a ll e s t a b l is h m e n t s w ith t o t a l e m p lo y m e n t at o r a b o v e th e m i n i m u m - s i z e li m it a t io n .
A l l o u t le t s (w ith in th e a r e a ) o f c o m p a n i e s in s u c h in d u s t r ie s a s t r a d e , f in a n c e , a u to r e p a i r
s e r v i c e , and m o t i o n - p i c t u r e t h e a t e r s a r e c o n s i d e r e d a s 1 e s t a b lis h m e n t .
4 I n c lu d e s e x e c u t i v e , p r o f e s s i o n a l , an d o t h e r w o r k e r s e x c l u d e d f r o m th e s e p a r a t e o f f i c e a n d p la n t c a t e g o r i e s .
5 R a il r o a d s w e r e in c lu d e d ; t a x i c a b s a n d s e r v i c e s in c id e n t a l to w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t io n w e r e e x c lu d e d .
6 T h is in d u s t r y d i v is i o n is r e p r e s e n t e d in e s t i m a t e s f o r " a l l in d u s t r i e s " a n d " n o n m a n u fa c t u r in g " in th e S e r i e s A an d B t a b l e s , a lth o u g h c o v e r a g e w a s in s u ff ic i e n t t o j u s t i f y s e p a r a t e p r e s ­
e n t a t io n o f d a ta .
7 H o t e ls ; p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s ; b u s in e s s s e r v i c e s ; a u t o m o b ile r e p a i r s h o p s ; m o t io n p i c t u r e s ; n o n p r o fi t m e m b e r s h i p o r g a n iz a t io n s ; a n d e n g in e e r in g an d a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s .




3
S h ift d if fe r e n t ia l d ata (ta b le B - l ) a r e lim it e d to m a n u fa c tu rin g
in d u s tr ie s . T h is in fo r m a tio n is p r e s e n te d b oth in te r m s o f (a ) e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t p o l i c y , 2 p r e s e n te d in t e r m s o f to ta l p lan t w o r k e r e m p lo y ­
m e n t, and (b ) e f fe c t iv e p r a c t ic e , p r e s e n te d on the b a s is o f w o r k e r s
a c tu a lly e m p lo y e d on the s p e c ifie d s h ift at the tim e o f the s u r v e y .
In e s ta b lis h m e n ts h a vin g v a r ie d d if fe r e n t ia ls , the am oun t a p p ly in g to
a m a jo r it y w as u sed o r , i f no am ou n t a p p lie d to a m a jo r it y , the c l a s ­
s if ic a t io n " o t h e r 1 w as u s e d .
1
In e s ta b lis h m e n ts in w h ich som e la t e s h ift h o u rs a r e p aid at n o r m a l r a t e s , a d if fe r e n t ia l w as r e c o r d e d o n ly
i f it a p p lie d to a m a jo r it y o f the s h ift h o u rs .

M in im u m e n tr a n c e r a te s (ta b le B - 2 ) r e la t e o n ly to the e s ta b ­
lis h m e n ts v is it e d .
T h e y a r e p r e s e n te d on an e s ta b lis h m e n t, r a th e r
than on an e m p lo y m e n t b a s is .
P a id h o lid a y s ; p aid v a c a tio n s ; and
h e a lth , in s u r a n c e , and p e n s io n p lans a r e t r e a te d s t a t is t ic a lly on the
b a s is th at th e s e a r e a p p lic a b le to a ll p lan t o r o f f ic e w o r k e r s i f a m a ­
j o r i t y o f such w o r k e r s a r e e lig ib le o r m a y e v e n tu a lly q u a lify f o r the
p r a c t ic e s lis t e d . S c h ed u le d h o u rs a r e tr e a t e d s t a t is t ic a lly on the b a s is
th at th e s e a r e a p p lic a b le to a ll plan t o r o f f ic e w o r k e r s i f a m a jo r it y
a r e c o v e r e d . 3 B e c a u s e o f rou n d in g, sum s o f in d iv id u a l ite m s in th ese
ta b u la tio n s m a y not e q u a l to ta ls .

T h e f i r s t p a r t o f the p aid h o lid a y s ta b le p r e s e n ts the n u m ­
b e r o f w h o le and h a lf h o lid a y s a c tu a lly p r o v id e d .
The secon d p a rt
c o m b in e s w h o le and h a lf h o lid a y s to sh ow to ta l h o lid a y t i m e .

D ata a r e p r e s e n te d f o r a ll h e a lth , in s u r a n c e , and p e n s io n
plans f o r w h ich at le a s t a p a r t o f the c o s t is b o rn e b y the e m p lo y e r ,
e x c e p tin g o n ly le g a l r e q u ir e m e n ts such as w o r k m e n 's c o m p e n s a tio n
and s o c ia l s e c u r it y . Such p lans in clu d e th ose u n d e r w r itte n b y a c o m ­
m e r c ia l in s u r a n c e c o m p a n y and th ose p r o v id e d th rou gh a union fund o r
paid d ir e c t ly b y the e m p lo y e r out o f c u r r e n t o p e r a tin g funds o r f r o m
a fund s e t a s id e f o r th is p u r p o s e .
D eath b e n e fits a r e in c lu d e d as a
f o r m o f l i f e in s u r a n c e .
S ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u ra n c e is lim it e d to th at typ e o f in ­
s u ra n c e u n der w h ich p r e d e te r m in e d c a s h p a y m e n ts a r e m ad e d i r e c t l y
to the in s u r e d on a w e e k ly o r m o n th ly b a s is d u rin g illn e s s o r a c c id e n t
d is a b ilit y .
In fo r m a tio n is p r e s e n te d f o r a ll such p lans to w h ich the
e m p lo y e r c o n tr ib u te s .
H o w e v e r , in N e w Y o r k and N e w J e r s e y , w h ich
h a ve e n a c te d t e m p o r a r y d is a b ilit y in s u ra n c e la w s w h ich r e q u ir e e m ­
p lo y e r c o n t r ib u t io n s ,4 p lans a r e in c lu d e d o n ly i f the e m p lo y e r (1 ) c o n ­
tr ib u te s m o r e than is le g a l l y r e q u ir e d , o r (2 ) p r o v id e s the e m p lo y e e
w ith b e n e fits w h ich e x c e e d the r e q u ir e m e n ts o f the la w . T a b u la tio n s
o f p a id s ic k - le a v e plans a r e lim it e d to f o r m a l p la n s 5 w h ich p r o v id e
fu ll p ay o r a p r o p o r tio n o f the w o r k e r 's p ay d u rin g a b s e n c e f r o m w o r k
b e c a u s e o f illn e s s .
S e p a r a te ta b u la tio n s a r e p r o v id e d a c c o r d in g to
(1 ) plans w h ich p r o v id e fu ll p ay and no w a itin g p e r io d , and (2 ) p lan s
p r o v id in g e it h e r p a r t ia l pay o r a w a itin g p e r io d .
In a d d itio n to the
p r e s e n ta tio n o f the p r o p o r tio n s o f w o r k e r s who a r e p r o v id e d s ic k n e s s
and a c c id e n t in s u ra n c e o r p aid s ic k le a v e , an u n d u p lic a ted to ta l is
show n o f w o r k e r s w ho r e c e i v e e it h e r o r both ty p e s o f b e n e fit s .

T h e s u m m a r y o f v a c a tio n plans is lim it e d to f o r m a l a r r a n g e ­
m e n ts , e x c lu d in g in fo r m a l plans w h e r e b y tim e o f f w ith pay is g ra n te d
a t the d is c r e t io n o f the e m p lo y e r .
S e p a r a te e s tim a te s a r e p r o v id e d
a c c o r d in g to e m p lo y e r p r a c t ic e in c o m p u tin g v a c a tio n p a y m e n ts , such
as tim e p a y m e n ts , p e r c e n t o f annual e a r n in g s , o r f la t - s u m a m ou n ts.
H o w e v e r , in the ta b u la tio n s o f v a c a tio n a llo w a n c e s , p a y m e n ts n ot on
a tim e b a s is w e r e c o n v e r te d ; f o r e x a m p le , a p a y m e n t o f 2 p e r c e n t o f
annual e a r n in g s w a s c o n s id e r e d as the e q u iv a le n t o f 1 w e e k 's p a y .

C a ta s tr o p h e in s u r a n c e , s o m e tim e s r e f e r r e d to as .e x te n d e d
m e d ic a l in s u r a n c e , in c lu d e s th ose p lan s w h ich a r e d e s ig n e d to p r o t e c t
e m p lo y e e s in c a s e o f s ic k n e s s and in ju r y in v o lv in g e x p e n s e s b eyo n d
the n o r m a l c o v e r a g e o f h o s p it a liz a tio n , m e d ic a l, and s u r g ic a l p la n s .
M e d ic a l in s u r a n c e r e f e r s to plans p r o v id in g f o r c o m p le t e o r p a r tia l
p a y m e n t o f d o c t o r s ' f e e s . Such plan s m a y b e u n d e r w r itte n b y c o m m e r ­
c ia l in s u ra n c e c o m p a n ie s o r n o n p r o fit o r g a n iz a tio n s o r th ey m a y be
s e lf- in s u r e d .
T a b u la tio n s o f r e t ir e m e n t p e n s io n p lan s a r e lim it e d to
th ose p lan s th at p r o v id e m o n th ly p a y m e n ts f o r the r e m a in d e r o f the
wo rk e r ' s l i f e .

2 A n e s ta b lis h m e n t w as c o n s id e r e d as h a v in g a p o lic y i f it m e t
e it h e r o f the fo llo w in g c o n d itio n s : (1 ) O p e r a te d la te s h ifts at the tim e
o f the s u r v e y , o r (2 ) had f o r m a l p r o v is io n s c o v e r in g la te s h ifts .
3 S ch ed u le d w e e k ly h o u rs f o r o f f ic e w o r k e r s ( f i r s t s e c t io n o f
ta b le B - 3 ) in s u r v e y s m a d e p r io r to la te 1957 and e a r ly 1958 w e r e
p r e s e n te d in t e r m s o f the p r o p o r tio n o f w o m e n o f f ic e w o r k e r s e m ­
p lo y e d in o f f ic e s w ith the in d ic a te d w e e k ly h o u rs f o r w o m e n w o r k e r s .

4 T h e te m p o r a r y d is a b ilit y la w s in C a lifo r n ia and R h o d e Is la n d
do n ot r e q u ir e e m p lo y e r c o n tr ib u tio n s .
5 A n e s ta b lis h m e n t w a s c o n s id e r e d as h a v in g a f o r m a l p la n i f
i t e s ta b lis h e d at le a s t the m in im u m n u m b e r o f d ays o f s ic k le a v e th at
c o u ld be e x p e c te d b y e a c h e m p lo y e e . Such a p lan n e e d n o t b e w r it t e n ,
but in fo r m a l s ic k - le a v e a llo w a n c e s , d e te r m in e d on an in d iv id u a l b a s is ,
w e r e e x c lu d e d .




A* Occupational Earnings

4

Table A -l. O ffice Occupations
( A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e w e e k ly h o u r s and e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s t u d ie d o n a n a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d i v is i o n , L a w r e n c e — a v e r h i ll , M a s s . — .H . , J u n e I96 0 )
H
N
A verage
Number
of
workers

S e x , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s t r y d i v is i o n

Weekly j
hours
(Standard)

Weekly j
earnings
(Standard)

N U M B E R OF W O R K E R S R E C E IV IN G ST R A IG H T -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S OF—

4 0 . 00
and
under
4 5 .0 0

$
4 5 . 00

50. 00

55. 00

$
6 0. 00

6 5 . 00

7 0 . 00

$
7 5 . 00

$
8 0 . 00

$
8 5 . 00

9 0 . 00

$
$
$
9 5 . 00 10 0 .0 0 1 05. 00 n o . o o 1 1 5 .0 0
$

50. 00

5 5 .0 0

6 0 .0 0

.6 5 .0 0

7 0 . 00

7 5 . 00

8 0 . 00

£

5. 00

9 0. 00

9 5 . 00

1 0 0 .0 0 105. 00 n o . oo 115. 00

$

$

and
over

M en

15

39. 0

$ 8 1 . 00

_

.

.

_

.

_

4

4

4

B i l l e r s , m a c h in e (b il li n g m a c h in e ) ----------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g
-------- ------------------------------------ — —

23
15

40. 5
40. 5

6 1. 50
6 0 .0 0

-

4
4

2
2

1
1

8
3

1

_

~

7
5

_

-

-

-

B o o k k e e p i n g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , c l a s s B ---------------------____________________________________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g -------------------------------------------------------------

92
25
67

40. 0
40. 0
40. 0

54. 50
6 4. 50
5 1. 00

10
10

18
18

20
20

22
9
13

10
4
6

3
3
-

4
4
-

5
5

C l e r k s , a c c o u n t in g , c l a s s A ----------------------------------------------M a n u fa c t u r in g
--------------------- ------------------------------------ —
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g --------- — ----------------------- ---------

78
59
19

39. 5
40. 0
3 9. 0

7 3 . 00
7 2. 00
7 6 . 00

-

_
-

-

2
1

15
15
-

18
12
6

C l e r k s , a c c o u n t in g , c l a s s B ----------------------- --------------------M a n u fa c t u r in g
______ ___________________________ ______
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ________________________________________

112
45
67

3 9. 5
39. 5
40. 0

6 3. 00
6 3. 50
6 3. 00

5
5

4
4

16
8
8

21
6-----15

17
11
6

39

39. 5

53. 50

4

6

11

13

5

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

24
24

40. 0
40. 0

7 4 . 00
7 4 . 00

1
-

-

1

2
2

_______ __ __ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ —

187
174

40. 0
40. 0

6 3. 50
6 2. 00

10
10

5
5

23
23

K e y p u n c h o p e r a t o r s ___________ __________________ *
--------------__ — -------- -------------- ----------------------M a n u fa c t u r in g

79
70

40. 0
40. 0

6 5. 50
6 6. 50

_

_

-

S e c r e t a r i e s --------- — __ ------------------------------------------------------M a n u fa c t u r in g ______________ ____________________________
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g — __ __ — ----- — ---------

165
136
29

39. 5
3 9. 5
39. 5

8 1 . 00
8 2 . 00
7 6 . 00

S t e n o g r a p h e r s , g e n e r a l ----------------------- ----------------------------M a n u fa c t u r in g ----------- __ --------- -----------------------------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g --------------- -------------------------------------------

78
21

39. 0
39. 5
3 8. 5

S w it c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s

—

30

S w it c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r - r e c e p t i o n i s t s ______________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g
______ „ -------------- --------------------------------

----------------------------------------------

C l e r k s , a c c o u n t in g , c l a s s A

1

1

1

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

*

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

11
8
3

12
11
1

11
7
4

4
3
1

3
1
2

2
1
1

_
-

_
-

_
-

.
-

-

-

-

-

7
6
1

18
10
8

24
4
20

_

_

_

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

_

_

_

_

.

_

_

_

2
2

-

3
3

10
10

5
5

-

-

1
1

-

-

-

39
38

35
35

13
13

22
21

20
20

17
6

1
1

1

!

_

_

_

-

1

1

-

-

-

15
9

23
22

17
17

8
8

13
13

1
1

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

2
-

-

~

~

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

_
"

6
1
5

9
3
6

13
10
3

16
15
1

33
30
3

33
32
1

26
22
4

8
8
"

14
9
5

1

i

i

1

l
-

l

6 4. 50
6 4. 00
6 6 . 50

_
-

_
-

-

7
2

17
13
4

34
28
6

14
14

10
5
5

1
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

1

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

-

14
11
3

-

-

“

40. 0

6 4. 00

1

2

1

9

5

1

5

5

1

-

.

_

-

_

_

-

34
26

39. 5
3 9. 5

57. 50
58. 50

5
5

7
3

2
1

6
4

4
4

3
3

4
4

2

_

.

.

.

.

.

-

1
1

.

1

-

-

-

-

-

"

116
42

3 9. 5
38. 5

53. 50
51. 00

7
7

13
6

39
16

46
13

11

_

_

_

_

.

_

_

_

_

_

_

W om en

C le rk s , file ,

c la s s B

_________

C l e r k s , o r d e r ---------------------M a n u fa c t u r in g ---------------C le r k s , p a y ro ll
M a n u fa c t u r in g

________________________

_______________________

T y p is t s , c la s s B
--------------N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ---------

_________

—

------------------------------------------------------------------ ------- ------------------

99

9

1

_

S ta n d a rd h o u r s r e f l e c t th e w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e t h e ir r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r i e s an d th e e a r n in g s c o r r e s p o n d to t h e s e w e e k l y h o u r s .




NOTE:

E s t i m a t e s f o r a ll i n d u s t r ie s an d n o n m a n u fa c t u r in g in c lu d e d a ta f o r r a i l r o a d s (S IC 4 0 ) , o m i t ­
t e d f r o m th e s c o p e o f a ll la b o r m a r k e t w a g e s u r v e y s m a d e b e f o r e th e w in t e r o f 1 9 5 9 - 6 0 .

-

4
4

_
-

s

Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations
(A v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t im e w e e k l y h o u r s and e a r n in g s f o r s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s s tu d ie d on a n a r e a b a s is
b y in d u s t r y d i v is i o n , L a w r e n c e — a v e r h ill, M a s s . — . H . , J u n e I 9 6 0 )
H
N
Average
S e x , o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n

Number
of
workers

Weekly
hours 1
(Standard)

Weekly
earnings1
(Standard)

N U M B E R OF W O R K E R S R E C E IV IN G S T R A IG H T -T IM E W E E K L Y E A R N IN G S OF

$
$
6 5 . 00 7 0 . 00
and
“
under
7 0 . 00 7 5 .0 0

$
7 5 .0 0

$
8 0 . 00

$
8 5 . 00

$
9 0 . 00

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
9 5 . 00 1 0 0 .0 0 1 0 5 .0 0 n o . o o 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 1 2 5 .0 0 1 30 . 00

“
8 0 .0 0

“
8 5 . 00

9 0 . 00

“
~
~
~
9 5 . 00 1 00 . 00 1 0 5 .0 0 1 10. 00 1 1 5 .0 0 1 2 0 .0 0 1 2 5 .0 0 1 3 0 .0 0 1 35 . 00

M en

D r a ft s m e n , s e n i o r __ ____ _____________ ______________ _
M a n u fa c t u r in g -----------------------------------------------------------------

D r a ft s m e n , j u n io r
M a n u fa c t u r in g

__________________________________________
__ -------------------------- ----------------------------

198
198

40. 0
4 0 .0

$ 9 6 . 00
9 6 . 00

81
81

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

7 4 . 00
7 4 . 00

24
24

40. 0
40. 0

8 2 . 00
8 2 . 00

"

2
2

18
18

35
35

57
57

34
34

17
17

14
14

49
49

9
9

1
1

4
4

3
3

_

.

"

-

1
1

7
7

1
1

7
7

2
2

3
3

3
3

15
15

5
5

3
3

9
9

-

-

1
1

"

-

“

W om en

N u r s e s , i n d u s t r ia l ( r e g i s t e r e d )
M a n u fa c t u r in g
_____
___

1

------ --------------------- --------_____ _____ __ ____

S ta n d a rd h o u r s r e f l e c t th e w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e t h e ir r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t im e s a l a r i e s and th e e a r n in g s c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e s e w e e k l y h o u r s .

NOTE:




S e e n o te o n p . 4 , r e l a t i v e t o th e i n c lu s io n o f r a i l r o a d s .

3
3

6

Table A-3. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Lawrence—
Haverhill, M a s s .— .H . , June I960)
N

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OFN umber
of
workers

O c c u p a t io n and in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n

$
Average
hourly
1. 30
earnings1
and
under
1. 40

$

$

1 .4 0

1. 50

1. 60

$
1 .7 0

1 .5 0

1. 60

1. 70

1. 80

$

H e l p e r s , t r a d e s , m a in t e n a n c e ________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g ----- -------------- — _____________

148
143

1. 85
1 .8 4

5
5

_

2. 38
2. 38

_

“

■

■

and
over

2
2

7
7

3
3

4
4

12
12

4
4

*

-

1

3
3

13
13

8
8

3
3

33
33

2
2

10
10

_

5
3

4
4

2

8
4

1
1

.

"

4
4

3
3

11
8

5

.

_

_

-

-

-

8
7

11
10

1
"

_

.

1

.

.

-

_

.

"

“

2
2

11
11

28
28

22
22

.

.

3
3

2
2

5
5

1

-

■

"

"

2
2

_
"

25
25

2
2

"

1
1

21
21

4
4

"

_

3
3

4
4

_
"

3
3

2
2

.
~

1
1

.

"

■

.

_

.

.

"

“

1
1

1
1

_

_

■

2
2

_

1
1

-

"

-

-

-

-

-

.

.

_

_

“

-

-

"

-

-

-

14
14

_
-

3
3

9
9

1
-

-

-

-

“

~

1
1

-

-

"

-

-

3
3

1
-

2
2

5
5

4
4

3
3

-

-

"

"

-

-

-

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

-

5
4

"

26
24

7
7

13
13

3
3

2
2

10
10

"

_

.

.

1
1

“

_

!

“

1

1
1

6
6

3
3

4
4

23

■

-

.

-

"

2
2

"

3
3

5
5

_

"

-

15
15

"

"

5
1

7
2

2
2

■

_

"

-

6
6

-

*
_

9
9

-

"

~

4
4

1 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.




3. 30

-

-

2 .7 3
2 .7 3

NOTE: See note on p. 4, relative to the inclusion of railroads,

3. 20

_

_

"

126
126

3. 10

_

_

~

T o o l and d ie m a k e r s --------------- ------------------ —
M a n u fa c t u r in g ,___ __
— _ — __ __ __,___

3 .0 0

_

1

"

-

2 .9 0

4
4

.

2 .4 5
2 .4 5

2. 80

35
33

2. 10
2. 05

45
45

2 .7 0

47
47

46
37

— __
__ __ __ __

2 .6 0

13
13

F ir e m e n , s t a t io n a r y b o i l e r __ -------- __ — —
M a n u fa c t u r in g
— __ __ __ __ -------------------

P i p e f i t t e r s , m a in t e n a n c e ——
M a n u fa c t u r in g
__ _ --------

2 .5 0

3
3

“

2 . 23
2 .2 3

2 .4 0

21
21

_

■

21
21

2 . 30

3
3

_

P a i n t e r s , m a in t e n a n c e
_— _____ _________ ___
M a n u fa c t u r in g ----- — __ _____ -------— _ —

2 .2 0

10
10

_
"

1. 89
1 .8 2

$
3. 30

3
3

_
“

21
18

$
3. 20

6
6

2. 33
2. 28

M a n u f a c t u r i n g --------------------------------------------------

$
3. 10

■

38
29

O U e r s ______________________________________________

$
3. 00

10
10

E n g i n e e r s , s t a t io n a r y ---------------------------------------M a n u f a c t u r i n g --------------------------------------------------

2. 18
2. 18

$
2 .9 0

1
1

.
"

61
61

$
2 .8 0

6
5

.
■

M i ll w r i g h t s
____ ___ _______ ___ ___________ _»
M a n u fa c t u r in g _________ _ — _______________

$
2. 70

_

.
"

2 .4 3
2 .4 2

$
2 .6 0

"

.
"

96
92

$
2 .5 0

"

.
"

M e c h a n ic s , m a in t e n a n c e ________________________
M a n u fa c t u r in g --------------------------------------------------

$
2 .4 0

_

2 .4 8
2 .4 8

.

*
2. 30

6
6

84
84

2 . 31
2 . 20

2. 10

$
2. 20

3
3

E l e c t r i c i a n s , m a in t e n a n c e
------ — —
M a n u fa c t u r in g _______ _____ __ _____

26
16

2. 00

2. 10

2
2

"

M e c h a n ic s , a u t o m o t iv e (m a in t e n a n c e ) --------- N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g
_ __ — - -------------- __

1 .9 0

$

2
2

$ 2 .2 7
2. 27

111
110

$
2. 00

7
7

47
47

M a c h i n i s t s , m a in t e n a n c e --------------------------------- M a n u fa c t u r in g ----- -------- -------- __ --------------

$
1. 90

6
6

C a r p e n t e r s , m a in t e n a n c e ____ — ____________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g --------------------------------------------------

-----

$
1 .8 0

3
"
!

.
"

9

1

9

4
4

8
8

9
9

15
15

23

6

14
14

23
23

6

.
“

4
4

5
5

27
27

24
24

7
Table A-4. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(A v er a g e s tr a ig h t-tim e h ourly earnings for selec te d occupations studied on an area b a sis
by in du stry d iv isio n , Law ren ce— a v e rh ill, M a s s .—N . H . , June I960)
H

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS OF$

$

1. 20

and
under

$ 1. 54
1. 56
1 .4 0

2
2
"

36
19
17

$

$

$

$

$

1. 60

1. 70

$
1. 90

1. 50

1 .6 0

1 .7 0

1. 80

2. 00

29
23
6

45
38
7

71
69
2

53
51
2

11
11
■

-

_

_

278

1. 30

1 .4 0

1 .3 0

1 .4 0

13
11
2

11
10

1

$

$
1. 50

1. 20

o

277
234
43

1. 10

1. 10

Janitors, porters, and cleaners (men) -----------Manufacturing
. . . .
Nonm anufacturing-------------------------------------------

1. 00

O

Average
hourly ,
earnings

o

of

00

Number

Occupation 1 and industry division

“

$

$
2. 10

2. 20

2. 30

$
2 .4 0

2. 10

2. 20

2. 30

2 .4 0

2. 50

6
6

_

-

_

1. 55

1

1

1

_

_

11

10

_

596
487

1 .8 3
1 .7 4

6
6

5
5

1
1

33
33

28
28

45
45

46
44

10
10

111

12
12

■

87
87

1 .9 3
1 .9 3

_

_

.

4
4

6
6

■

2
2

12
12

10
10

31
31

x

“

5
5

.

"

Packers, shipping (women)
-----------------------------Manufacturing __ __ _ __
__ —

168
1^8

1. 31
1. 31

_

39
39

36
36

50
50

38
38

1
1

_

_

.

_

4
4

Receiving clerks _ _ _ _ _
Manufacturing -----------------------------------------------------

42
36

1 .9 3
1 .9 3

.

.

.

.

!

■

■

1

4
3

9
7

Shipping clerks
— —
M anufacturing ------------------------------------------------------

38 .
36

1 .9 1
1 .9 2

_

_

4
4

3
3

Shipping and receiving clerks _ _
Manufacturing _
_______

-

43
41

1 .9 0
1. 90

3
3

5
5

8
8

Truckdrivers3 - —
M anufacturing-------------------------------------------------Nonm anufacturing-------------------------------------------

271
134
137

2. 17
2. 02
2. 31

1

6
5
1

!
~

“

-

Truckers, power (fo r k lift)---------------------------------M a n u fa ctu rin g ----------_____--------------------------------

106
54

2. 10
1 .8 4

8
8

14
14

!
1

15
15

Laborers, m aterial handling
Manufacturing
_
_
Packers, shipping (men)
Manufacturing — __

— —

—

— __ _ _ _ _ _
_____
_ _ __

_

W a t c h m e n ________________________________________
M anufacturing--------------------------------------------------

1
2
3

57
46

1. 64
1. 69

_

_

_

■

"

"

_

_

~

~

_

~

_
“

_

_

-

8

_
"

6
6

10
5
5

_

_

_

■

■

1

■

'

“

-

8
8

D ata lim ite d to m en w ork ers except w here oth erw ise in dicated.
E xclu d es p rem iu m pay for o v e rtim e and for w ork on w eekend s, h olid avs, and late sh ifts.
Includes a ll d r iv e r s r e g a r d le ss of s iz e and type of tru ck op erated .

NOTE:

See note on p. 4 , rela tiv e to the in clu sion of r a ilr o a d s.




1

2
2

.

_

■

"

3
3

4
4

2
2

10
9

_

13
11

4
4

7
7

7
7

■

1

8
8

_

10
10

12
12

8
8

2 .7 0

1

-

-

■

_

~

_

_

_

_

_

31
13

"

"

12
12

.

2
2

.
"

2
2

.

.

.

_

.

2
2

!

1

_

_

-

"

_

3
3

_

4
4

_
“

_

_

"

8
8

.

1

-

1

4
4

4
4

_

6
6

1
1

5
4

8
8

2
2

86
86

6

.
“

124

52

_

_

“

j

_

2

2 . 60

-

2

8
8

2. 60

"

3
3

1

$
2. 50

-

~

"

6
6

$

101
13

24

_

Janitors, porters, and cleaners (w o m e n ) ---------

$

2. 00

*

------ g----9
9

1

■

-

1

124

1
1
1

"
_

_

_

B: Establishment Practices and Supplementary Wage Provisions
8

Table B-l. Shift Differentials
( P e r c e n t o f m a n u fa c t u r in g p la n t w o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s h a v in g f o r m a l p r o v i s i o n s f o r s h ift w o r k , a n d in e s t a b l is h m e n t s
a c t u a lly o p e r a t in g la t e s h ift s b y ty p e an d a m o u n t o f d i f f e r e n t ia l , L a w r e n c e — a v e r h i ll , M a s s . —N . H . , J u n e I9 6 0 )
H
In e s t a b l is h m e n t s h a v in g f o r m a l
p r o v is io n s 1 fo r —

In e s t a b l is h m e n t s a c t u a lly
o p e r a tin g —

S h ift d i f f e r e n t i a l
T h ir d o r o t h e r
s h ift w o r k

S e c o n d s h ift
w ork
T o ta l

-------------------------

— — -------------

--------

T h ir d o r o t h e r
s h ift

S e c o n d s h ift

6 5 .4

W ith s h ift p a y d i f f e r e n t i a l — — ----------------------U n ifo r m c e n t s ( p e r h o u r ) -----------------------------4 c e n t s _______________________________________
5 c e n t s ----------------------------------------------------------6 c e n t s ---------------------------------------------------------6
c e n t s --------- ------------- ------------- — 7 c e n t s ------------------------------------------------- — 8 c e n t s --------------- ------------- — -------- — 9 c e n t s --------- — -------- — ------------- — _
— __ ------------------- — -----10 c e n t s __
12 c e n t s — „ — ---------------------------------------15 c e n t s --------------------------------------------------------— — -----U n ifo r m p e r c e n t a g e -------- —
10 p e r c e n t _____ _______________ ___ _________ _
15 p e r c e n t -------------------------------------------------N o s h ift p a y d i f f e r e n t i a l --------------------------------------

l /z

5 9 .9

1 1 .4

2. 7

60. 0
22. 6
5. 1
7. 9
2. 0
2. 1
1 .8
1 .4
2. 3
37. 3
37. 3
5. 5

— -

56. 3
1 8. 9
1. 1
5. 1
2. 1
4. 5
5. 2
.9
37. 3
21. 2
16. 1
3. 7

1 0 .5
4. 3
1. 1
1 .0
.6
.6
.5
. 3
. 1
6. 1
6. 1
.9

2. 3
1 .9
. 2
.6
.2
. 1
.4
. 3
.4
. 3
. 1
.4

1
I n c lu d e s e s t a b l is h m e n t s c u r r e n t l y o p e r a t i n g la t e
e v e n t h o u g h t h e y w e r e n o t c u r r e n t l y o p e r a t in g la t e s h i ft s .

s h i ft s ,

an d e s t a b l is h m e n t s w ith f o r m a l p r o v i s i o n s

c o v e r in g

la t e

s h ift s

Table B-2. Minimum Entrance Salaries for W omen O ffice W orkers
(D i s t r i b u t i o n o f e s t a b l is h m e n t s s t u d ie d in a l l in d u s t r ie s and in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y m in im u m e n t r a n c e s a la r y f o r s e l e c t e d c a t e g o r i e s
o f in e x p e r i e n c e d w o m e n o f f i c e w o r k e r s , L a w r e n c e —H a v e r h i ll , M a s s . —N . H . , J u n e I 9 6 0 )
I n e x p e rie n ce d ty p is ts
M a n u fa c t u r in g
M in im u m w e e k l y s a l a r y 1

-----

--------

--------

— — — — — —

E s t a b li s h m e n t s h a v in g a s p e c i f i e d m in im u m ------------------------U n der $ 4 0 .0 0
................................................................. ....................
$ 4 0 . 00 an d u n d e r $ 4 2 . 50 _________ __ _______ _________
$ 4 2 . 50 an d u n d e r $ 4 5 . 00 ____________ — ------------- -------$ 4 5 . 0 0 an d u n d e r $ 4 7 . 50 ------ -------- __ -------------- — —
$ 4 7 . 50 an d u n d e r $ 5 0 . 0 0 -----------------------------------------------------$ 5 0 . 0 0 an d u n d e r $ 5 2 . 5 0
______ __ __ __________________
$ 5 2 . 5 0 and o v e r
— __ __ __ ------------------- -------- ---------E s t a b li s h m e n t s h a v in g n o s p e c i f i e d m in im u m ------------------E s t a b li s h m e n t s w h ic h d id n o t e m p l o y w o r k e r s
in t h is c a t e g o r y ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

74

M a n u fa c t u rin g
A ll
in d u s t r ie s

B a s e d o n st a n d a r d w e e k l y h o u r s 3 o f —

A ll
in d u s t r ie s

A ll
sch e d u le s
E s t a b li s h m e n t s s t u d ie d

O t h e r in e x p e r i e n c e d c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s 2

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

40

A ll
s c h e d u le s

46

XXX

28

3 8 3/*

A ll
s c h e d u le s

40

40

46

XXX

28

XXX

XXX

24
8
2
4
1
9

21

14
1
7
3

3
1
1

7
5
1

-

-

-

-

-

11

XXX

1
1
1
8

1
XXX

XXX

11

XXX

6

XXX

XXX

16

15

9

3

-

-

-

-

-

8
3
4
1
6
3
8

3
1
4

3
1
3

5
2

1
1

6
2
6

6
2
XXX

-

-

-

1
2

1
XXX

XXX

24

XXX

17

XXX

XXX

17

1

3 8 3/ 4

74

25

-

A ll
s c h e d u le s

XXX

38
1
15
5
4
2
10
1
19

-

40

XXX

4
3
1

-

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g

B a se d o n sta n d a rd w e e k ly h o u r s 3 o f —

-

-

-

-

8
2
3
1
7
-

1
-

41
1
2
3

L o w e s t s a la r y r a t e f o r m a l l y e s t a b l is h e d f o r h i r in g i n e x p e r i e n c e d w o r k e r s f o r t y p in g o r o t h e r c l e r i c a l j o b s .
R a t e s a p p l ic a b l e t o m e s s e n g e r s , o f f i c e g i r l s , o r s i m i l a r s u b c l e r i c a l j o b s a r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d .
H o u r s r e f l e c t th e w o r k w e e k f o r w h ic h e m p l o y e e s r e c e i v e t h e ir r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t im e s a l a r i e s .
D a ta a r e p r e s e n t e d f o r a l l w o r k w e e k s c o m b in e d ,* a n d f o r th e m o s t c o m m o n w o r k w e e k s r e p o r t e d .

NOTE:




S ee n o t e o n p .

9, r e l a t i v e t o th e i n c lu s io n o f r a i l r o a d s .

9
Table B-3. Scheduled W e e k ly Hours
( P e r c e n t d i s t r ib u t io n o f o f f i c e a n d p la n t w o r k e r s in a ll in d u s t r ie s a n d in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y s c h e d u le d w e e k l y h o u r s
o f f i r s t - s h i f t w o r k e r s , L a w r e n c e —H a v e r h i ll , M a s s . —N . H . , Ju n e I9 6 0 )
OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

W e e k ly h o u r s
All industries

A l l w o r k e r s -----

---------------------------------

------------------

U n d e r 3 7 V 2 h o u r s ---------------------------------------------------37V 2 h o u r s ------------------ -------------------------- ------------O ver
a n d u n d e r 3 8 3/* h o u r s _______________
38 V 4 h o u r s __________ __ ____ ____________________
40 h o u r s _____________________________________________
O v e r 40 a n d u n d e r 4 5 h o u r s --------- --------------------45 h ou rs
__ _______
___________ _____ ______
4 8 h o u r s ____ _____ _______________________________
O v e r 48 h o u r s _______________ _________ __________

371/z

1

100

Manufacturing

10 0

5

2
_

1
-

89
1

1
94
-

(')

All industries

10 0

4
(M

4

Public utilities

(M

(M
86
2

5

4
2

L e s s th a n 0 . 5 p e r c e n t .




NOTE:

E s t i m a t e s f o r a ll in d u s t r ie s in c lu d e d a ta f o r r a i l r o a d s (S IC 4 0 ), o m it t e d f r o m
th e s c o p e o f a ll la b o r m a r k e t w a g e s u r v e y s m a d e b e f o r e th e w in t e r o f 1 9 5 9 - 6 0 .

Manufacturing

10 0

_
_
_
90
2
4
3
1

Public utilities

10

Table B-4. Ppid Holidays
( P e r c e n t d i s t r ib u t io n o f o f f i c e an d p la n t w o r k e r s in a l l in d u s t r ie s and in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s b y n u m b e r o f p a id h o l id a y s
p r o v id e d a n n u a lly , L a w r e n c e —H a v e r h i ll , M a s s . —N . H. , J u n e I9 6 0 )
PLAN T W O RK ERS

O FFICE W O R K E R S

Item
All industries

A ll w o rk e r s

---------

-----------------------------------------------

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r o v id i n g
p a id h o l id a y s -----------------------------------------------------W o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r o v id i n g
n o p a id h o lid a y s -------------------------------------------------

Manufacturing

Public utilities

All industries

Manufacturing

100

100

100

99

99

98

99

1

1

2

1

-

3
(M
3

Public utilities

100

Number of days

L e s s th a n 3 h o l id a y s ------------------------------------------3 h o l id a y s ____ ~ — -------- — ------------------- —
4 h o l id a y s - ----------------------------------------------------------- 5 h o l id a y s
—--------- — -------- — ------------------- ~
6 h o lid a y s
---------------- ----------------- ------------------------6 h o l id a y s p lu s 2 h a lf d a y s
-------------------- — —
7 h o l id a y s __ ______ _________________ ______________
7 h o l id a y s p lu s 1 h a lf d a y ----------------------------------7 h o l id a y s p lu s 2 h a lf d a y s -------------------------------8 h o l id a y s --------------------------------------------------------------8 h o l id a y s p lu s 1 h a lf d a y ------ ----------------- -------8 h o l id a y s p lu s 2 h a lf d a y s -------------------------------9 h o lid a y s ------------ ------------- ------------------- -------9 h o l id a y s p lu s 1 h a lf d a y - ------------------------------1 0 h o lid a y s ------------------------------------------------------------11 h o l id a y s p lu s 1 h a lf d a y --------------------------------

1

n
i

i 1)
~
7

6

16

-

15

1

1

3
24

4
32

(l )
1
1
18
2

(* )
1
1
2

44
2
6
18
1
3

2
3
4
36
41
43
93
99
99
99
99
99

3
3
4
22
28
31
74
90
94
94
97
98

(* )
39
1

50

2

3
4
47
2
7
19
1
2

2
2
2
22
28
31
78
93
96
96
99
99

Total holiday time2

11 o r m o r e d a y s ------------ ---------------- ---------------------10 o r m o r e d a y s ---------------------------------------------------9
o r m o r e d a y s — ------------ ------ ------------- —
9 o r m o r e d a y s ------------------------- ------------------------o r m o r e d a y s ------------------------------------— ------8 o r m o r e d a y s ------------- — ----------------------------—
7 x/z o r m o r e d a y s __ — -------- ------------------------7 o r m o r e d a y s -------------------------------------------------- —
6 o r m o r e d a y s — — — — — ---------------------- —
5 o r m o r e d a y s --------------------------------- ------------------4 o r m o r e d a y s -----------------------------------------------_ —
3 o r m o r e d a y s — — -------- -------------- — -------1 o r m ore days
----------------------------------------------------

l /z

8 xlz

2
21
22
23
47
51
53
92
99
99
99
99
99

1 L e s s th a n 0. 5 p e r c e n t .
2 A l l c o m b in a t io n s o f fu l l a n d h a lf d a y s th a t a dd t o th e s a m e a m o u n t a r e c o m b in e d ; f o r e x a m p le , th e p r o p o r t i o n o f w o r k e r s
n o h a lf d a y s , 6 f u l l d a y s an d 2 h a lf d a y s , 5 f u l l d a y s and 4 h a lf d a y s , and s o o n .
P r o p o r t i o n s w e r e th e n c u m u la te d .
NOTE:




S ee n o t e o n p .

9,

r e l a t i v e t o th e i n c lu s io n o f r a i l r o a d s .

r e c e i v i n g a t o t a l o f 7 d a y s in c lu d e s t h o s e w ith 7 f u l l d a y s and

11

Table B-5. Paid Vacations
( P e r c e n t d i s t r ib u t io n o f o f f i c e a n d p la n t w o r k e r s in a ll in d u s t r ie s an d in in d u s t r y d i v is i o n s b y v a c a t i o n p a y
p r o v i s i o n s . L a w r e n c e — a v e r h i ll , M a s s . —N . H . , J u n e I96 0 )
H
PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS

V a c a t io n p o l i c y
All industries

A ll w o r k e r s

------------------------------------------------------------

Manufacturing

Public utilities

All industries

Manufacturing

100

100

100

100

100
100
-

100
100
-

100
84
14
2

100
83
16
2

4
78
3
3

5
86
2
2

65
11
-

70
10
-

_
12
1
87
( 2)'

_
12
1
87
_

2
88
1
9
( 2)

2
91
1
6
-

9
1
90
( 2)

10
1
89
-

2
47
22
30
( 2)

2
46
24
28
"

_
7
1
92

_
8
1
91

2
30
14
54

2
29
15
55

Method off payment

W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n t s p r o v id i n g
p a id v a c a t i o n s -----------------------------------------------------L e n g t h - o f - t i m e p a y m e n t — ----- — -----------P e rce n ta g e paym ent
— --------- ----------- ----F la t -s u m pa y m en t
_ _ _ _ _ _
---------- __ __ — — — __ -----------------O th er
W o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r o v id i n g
n o p a id v a c a t i o n s
------- __ __ _
------ ------

Amount of vocation p a y 1

A fte r 6 m on th s o f s e r v i c e
U nder 1 w eek
---------------------- -------- —
1 w eek
__________ _____ — —
_ _ _
O v e r 1 an d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ----------------------------------2 w e e k s ----------- — — __ __ -_ — ------------ -

( 2)

A fte r 1 y e a r o f s e r v ic e
U n d e r 1 w e e k ____ _ _ _ _ _
1 w eek
....... .. .
..
__ ____
O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ----------------------------------2 w eeks
— -------— — —
3 w e e k s _____________________________________________

A fte r 2 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
U n der 1 w eek
_ _ __
- —
- - —
1 w eek
__
_ __ —
—
O v e r 1 and u n d er 2 w eek s
2 w eeks _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
3 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------------------

A fte r 3 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
U n der 1 w eek
—
1 w e e k ---------------------------------------------------------------------O v er 1 and u n d er 2 w eek s
2 w e e k s -------------------------------------------------------------------3 w eeks

S e e fo o t n o t e s at e n d o f ta b le ,




( 2)

Public utilities

12

Table B-5. Paid V acations-Continued ( P e r c e n t d i s t r ib u t io n o f o f f i c e a n d p la n t w o r k e r s in a ll in d u s t r ie s a n d in in d u s t r y d i v is i o n s b y v a c a t i o n p a y
p r o v i s i o n s , L a w r e n c e — a v e r h i ll , M a s s . —N . H . , J une I96 0 )
H
OFFICE WORKERS

PLANT WORKERS

V a c a t io n p o l i c y
All industries

A m ou n t o f v o c a t io n

Manufacturing

Public utilities

All industries

Manufacturing

Public utilities

p a y 1 — C o n tin u e d

A fte r 5 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
U n d e r 1 w e e k _________ ___ _______________________
___ ___
__________________________
1 w e e k ____
O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ________________________
2 w e e k s ________________________ ____________________
O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ____ _________ ______
3 w e e k s _________ _________ _____ ________________

_

_

4
93
3

5
95
_

4
84
12

2
7
2
85
1
3

2
5
2
87
1
3

5
91
4

10
78
1
9
1

9
81
2
7
1

4
23
72

5
15
80
-

10
35
1
52
1

9
35
2
53
1

4
23
66
6

5
15
78
1

10
35

9
35
2
51
1
2

_

_

4
23
_
61
12

5
15
_
73
7

( 2)

A f t e r 10 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e
U n d e r 2 w e e k s ________ _________________________ _
2 w e e k s ___________
______________ _____ ______
O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s __________ _________ _
3 w eeks _
_____________________________ _____ __
O v e r 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s ------ -------------- ---------

-

A f t e r 15 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e
U n d e r 2 w e e k s ____________ ___
__
__________
2 w e e k s _________________
_________________________
O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ________ __ __ __ —
3 w e e k s ______________________________________________
O v e r 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s __
_______________

A f t e r 20 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e
U n d e r 2 w e e k s _____________________________ —
__
2 w e e k s ____ — _____ __ __ _____
____________
O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ________________________
3 w e e k s ____ ___ _______ __
__ __ __________
O v e r 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s ____
_______________
4 w e e k s ________
_
___
___ _____ __

49
1
3

A f t e r 25 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e
U n d e r 1 w e e k _____
__ __
_______________
1 w e e k ______ _____ ____ _
_______ „ ______
O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ________________________
2 w eeks
__ __ __
______________________________
O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s __ _______ __________
3 w e e k s ________
__
_ __ ______________________
4 w eeks
____ ___ __
______________
_____

1 P e r io d s o f s e r v ic e w e r e a r b it r a r ily c h o s e n and do n ot n e c e s s a r ily
s e r v i c e in c lu d e c h a n g e s in p r o v i s i o n s o c c u r r i n g b e t w e e n 5 a n d 10 y e a r s .
2 L e s s th a n 0. 5 p e r c e n t .

r e f l e c t th e in d iv id u a l

2
7
2

2
5
2
34
2
50
5

34
1
47
7

p r o v is io n s f o r p r o g r e s s io n s .

F o r e x a m p le ,

th e c h a n g e s

in p r o p o r t io n s in d ic a t e d a t

10 y e a r s '

NOTE: See note on p. 9,
relative to the inclusion of railroads.
In the tabulations of vacation allowances by years of service, payments other than "length of time, " such as percentage
of annual earnings or flat-sum payments, were converted to an equivalent time basis; for example, a payment of 2 percent of annual earnings was considered as 1 week’ s pay.




13

Table B-6. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
( P e r c e n t o f o f f i c e a n d p la n t w o r k e r s in a l l in d u s t r ie s and in in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s e m p l o y e d in e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r o v id i n g
h e a lth , in s u r a n c e , o r p e n s io n b e n e fit s , L a w r e n c e — a v e r h ill, M a s s . —N . H. , J u n e I9 6 0 )
H
PLANT WORKERS

OFFICE WORKERS

Type* o f b e n e fit
All industries

Manufacturing

Public utilities

All industries

Manufacturing

___

100

100

100

100

L i f e in s u r a n c e ----------------------------------------------A c c i d e n t a l d e a t h and d i s m e m b e r m e n t
in s u r a n c e - — - ___________________________
S ic k n e s s an d a c c i d e n t in s u r a n c e o r
s i c k le a v e o r b o t h 1 ------------------------------------

92

97

88

91

73

86

64

67

84

95

85

Public utilities

87

68

A ll w o rk e r s

_________________________________

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l is h m e n t s p r o v id i n g :

S ic k n e s s and a c c i d e n t in s u r a n c e --------S ic k l e a v e (f u l l p a y and n o
w a it in g p e r io d ) --------------------------------------S ic k le a v e ( p a r t ia l p a y o r
w a it in g p e r io d ) ---------------------- :----------------

48

53

65

43

44

2

-

29

37

19

20

H o s p i t a l iz a t io n in s u r a n c e ---------------------------S u r g i c a l in s u r a n c e ------------------------------- -----M e d ic a l in s u r a n c e -------- — ---------------- —
C a t a s t r o p h e in s u r a n c e --------------------------------R e t i r e m e n t p e n s io n ------------ ------------------- _
N o h e a lth , in s u r a n c e , o r p e n s io n p l a n -----

68
67
64
19
80
2

60
58
55
10
81
2

72
69
56
2
54
8

72
68
55
2
55
6

1 U n d u p lic a te d t o t a l o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g s i c k le a v e o r s i c k n e s s an d a c c i d e n t in s u r a n c e sh o w n s e p a r a t e l y b e lo w .
S i c k - l e a v e p la n s a r e l i m it e d t o t h o s e w h ic h d e f in i t e ly e s t a b l is h at le a s t
th e m in im u m n u m b e r o f d a y s ' p a y th a t c a n b e e x p e c t e d b y e a c h e m p l o y e e .
I n f o r m a l s i c k - l e a v e a ll o w a n c e s d e t e r m in e d o n a n in d iv id u a l b a s is a r e e x c l u d e d .
NOTE:




S ee n ote on p .

9,

r e l a t i v e t o th e i n c lu s io n o f r a i l r o a d s .




15

Appendix: Occupational Descriptions
The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’s wage surveys is to a s s is t its
field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangem ents from establishm ent to establishm ent and from area to area. T his is
essen tial in order to perm it the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
B ecause of this em phasis on interestablishm ent and interarea com parability of occupational content, the
Bureau’s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishm ents or those
prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureauvs field econom ists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handicapped workers,
part-tim e, temporary, and probationary workers.
O F F IC E

BILLER, MACHINE

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Prepares statem ents, b ills, and invoices on a machine other
than an ordinary or electrom atic typew riter. May also keep records as
to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental
to billing operations. For wage study purposes, b illers, m achine, are
classified by type of machine, as follow s:
Biller, machine (hilling machine)— U ses a sp ecial billing ma­
chine (Moon Hopkins, E llio tt F ish er, Burroughs, etc ., which are
combination typing and adding m achines) to prepare bills and in­
voices from custom ers’ purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. U sually involves application of prede­
termined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing ma­
chine, and totals which are autom atically accum ulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold m achine.
Biller, machine (bookkeeping machine)— U ses a bookkeeping
machine (Sundstrand, E llio tt F ish er, Remington Rand, e tc ., which
may or may not have typew riter keyboard) to prepare custom ers’
bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. G enerally in ­
volves the sim ultaneous entry of figures on custom ers’ ledger rec­
ord. The machine autom atically accum ulates figures on a number
of vertical columns and com putes and usually prints autom atically
the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of book­
keeping. Works from uniform and standard types of sales and
credit slip s.

O perates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, E llio tt
F ish er, Sundstrand, Burroughs, N ational C ash R egister, with or w ithout
a typew riter keyboard) to keep a record of b usiness tran sactio n s.




Class A— Keeps a s e t of records requiring a knowledge of
and experience in b asic bookkeeping principles and fam iliarity with
the structure of the particular accounting system used. D eterm ines
proper records and distribution of debit and credit item s to be used
in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated rep o rts, balance
sh eets, and other records by hand.
Class B— K eeps a record of one or more phases or sectio n s of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of b asic bookkeeping* P h ases or sections include accounts payable, payroll,
custom ers’ accounts (not including a sim ple type of billing described
under biller, m achine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or a s s is t in preparation of tria l
balances and prepare control sh eets for the ‘a ccounting departm ent.
CLERK, ACCOUNTING

Class A— Under general direction of a bookkeeper or account­
ant, has responsibility for keeping one or more sectio n s of a com­
plete se t of books or records relating to one phase of an e sta b lish ­
ment’s b usiness tran sactio n s. Work involves posting and balancing
subsidiary ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts

16

CLERK, ACCOUNTING—-Continued
payable; exam ining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper a c ­
counting distribution; requires judgment and experience in making
proper assig n ation s and allocatio n s. May a s s is t in preparing, ad­
justing and closing journal entries; may direct c la ss B accounting
clerks.

Class B— Under supervision, performs one or more routine a c ­
counting operations such as posting sim ple journal vouchers or a c ­
counts payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher reg isters;
reconciling bank accounts; posting subsidiary ledgers controlled
by general ledgers, or posting sim ple co st accounting d ata. T his
job does not require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping
principles but is found in offices in which the more routine account­
ing work is subdivided on a functional b asis among sev eral w orkers.

CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes w ages of company em ployees and enters the n eces­
sary data on the payroll sh eets. D uties involve: C alculating w orkers'
earnings based on time or production records; posting calcu lated data
on payroll sheet, showing information such as w orker's name, working
days, tim e, rate, deductions for insurance, and total w ages due. May
make out paychecks and a s s is t paym aster in making up and distribut­
ing pay envelopes. May use a calculating m achine.

COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathema­
tic al com putations. T his job is not to be confused with that of s ta tis ­
tic al or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tom eter but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to perform ance
of other duties.

CLERK, FILE

Class A— In an estab lish ed filing system containing a num­
ber of varied subject m atter file s, c la ssifie s and indexes co rres­
pondence or other m aterial; may also file this m aterial. May keep
records of various types in conjunction with files or may super­
vise others in filing and locating m aterial in the file s. May per­
form incidental clerical du ties.
Class B— Performs routine filing, usually of m aterial th at has
already been classified or which is easily identifiable, or lo cates
or a s s is ts in locating m aterial in file s. May perform incidental
clerical d u ties.
CLERK, ORDER
R eceives cu sto m ers'o rd ers for m aterial or m erchandise by m ail,
phone, or personally. D uties involve any combination of the following:
Quoting prices to custom ers; making out an order sh eet listin g the item s
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of item s on order
sheet; distributing order sh eets to respective departm ents to be filled.
May check with credit departm ent to determ ine credit rating of custom er,
acknowledge receipt of orders from custom ers, follow up orders to see
that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check ship­
ping invoices with original orders.




DUPLICATING-MACHINE OPERATOR (MIMEOGRAPH OR DITTO)
Under general supervision and with no supervisory resp o n si­
b ilitie s, reproduces m ultiple copies of typew ritten or handw ritten matter,
using a Mimeograph or D itto m achine. Makes n ecessary adjustm ent such
as for ink and paper feed counter and cylinder speed. Is not required to
prepare ste n c il or D itto m aster. May keep file of used ste n c ils or D itto
m asters. May sort, co llate, and staple com pleted m aterial.

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Under general supervision and with no supervisory resp o n si­
b ilities, records accounting and s ta tis tic a l data on tabulating cards by
punching a series of holes in the cards in a specified sequence, using
an alphabetical or a num erical keypunch m achine, following w ritten in­
formation on records. May duplicate cards by using the duplicating de­
vice attached to m achine. May keep files of punch card s. May verify
own work or work of others.

OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Perform s various routine duties such as running errands, op­
erating minor office m achines such as sealers or m ailers, opening and
distributing m ail, and other minor clerical work.

17

SECRETARY
Performs secretarial and clerical duties for a superior in an ad­
m inistrative or executive position. D uties include making appointm ents
for superior; receiving people coming into office; answ ering and making
phone calls; handling personal and important or confidential m ail, and
writing routine correspondence on own initiative; taking dictation (where
transcribing machine is not used) either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
sim ilar machine, and transcribing dictation or the recorded information
reproduced on a transcribing m achine. May prepare sp ecial reports or
memorandums for information of superior.

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons,
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine, involving a nor­
mal routine vocabulary, and to transcribe this dictation on a typew riter.
May also type from written copy. May also se t up and keep files in or­
der, keep sim ple records, etc. Does not include transcribing~machine
work (see transcribing-m achine operator).

STENOGRAPHER, TECHNICAL
Primary duty is to take dictation from one or more persons
either in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar m achine, involving a varied
technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on
scientific research and to transcribe this dictation on a typew riter. May
also type from w ritten copy. May also se t up and keep files in order,
keep sim ple records, etc. Does not include transcribing-machine work.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
O perates a single- or m ultiple-position telephone sw itchboard.
D uties involve handling incoming, outgoing, and intraplant or office c a lls.
May record toll calls and take m essages. May give information to per­
sons who call in, or occasionally take telephone orders. For workers
who also act as receptionists see sw itchboard operator-receptionist.

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator, on a single p o si­
tion or monitor-type sw itchboard, acts as receptionist and may also type
or perform routine clerical work as part of regular duties. T his typing
or clerical work may take the major part of this w orker's time while at
sw itchboard.




TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR

Class A— O perates a variety of tabulating or electrical ac­
counting m achines, typically including such m achines as the tabu­
lator, calculator, interpreter, collator and others. Performs com­
plete reporting assignm ents without close supervision, and performs
difficult wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating
assignm ents typically involve a variety of long and complex re­
ports which often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring
some planning and sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more
experienced operator, is typically involved in training new opera­
tors in machine operations, or partially trained operators in wiring
from diagrams and operating sequences of long and complex reports.
Does not include working supervisors performing tabulating-m achine
operations and day-to-day supervision of the work and production of
a group of tabulating-m achine operators.
Class B— O perates more difficult tabulating or electrical ac­
counting m achines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition
to the sorter, reproducer, and collator. T his work is performed under
specific instructions and may include the performance of some wir­
ing from diagram s. The work typically involves, for exam ple, tabu­
lations involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a com plete but
sm all tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report.
Such reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where
the procedures are w ell estab lish ed . May also include the training
of new em ployees in the basic operation of the machine.
Class C— O perates sim ple tabulating or electrical account­
ing m achines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc.,
with specific instructions. May include sim ple wiring from diagrams
and some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a
work unit, for exam ple, individual sorting or collating runs, or re­
petitive operations.
TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-m achine records. May also type from written
copy and do sim ple clerical work. Workers transcribing dictation in­
volving a varied technical or sp ecialized vocabulary such as legal briefs
or reports on scien tific research are not included. A worker who takes
dictation in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar machine is classified
as a stenographer, general.

18

TYPIST

TYPIST—-Continued

U ses a typew riter to make copies of various m aterial or to make
out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May in­
clude typing of ste n c ils, m ats, or sim ilar m aterials for use in duplicat­
ing p ro cesses. May do clerical work involving little sp ecial training,
such as keeping sim ple records, filing records and reports, or sorting
and distributing incoming m ail.

Class A— Performs one or more of the following: Typing ma­
terial in final form when it involves combining m aterial from sev eral
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, sy llab icatio n , punc-

tuation, e tc ., of tech n ical or unusual words or foreign language ma­
terial; planning layout and typing of com plicated s ta tis tic a l tab les
to m aintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine
form letters varying d etails to su it circum stances.

Class B—^Performs one or more of the following: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance p o licies,
etc.; setting up sim ple standard tabulations, or copying more com­
plex tables already se t up and spaced properly.

PR O FE SSIO N A L AND T E C H N IC A L

DRAFTSMAN, JUNIOR

(A ssistan t draftsm an)
Draws to scale units or parts of drawings prepared by d rafts­
man or others for engineering, construction, or m anufacturing purposes.
U ses various types of drafting tools as required. May prepare draw ings
from sim ple plans or sk etch es, or perform other duties under direction
of a draftsm an.

DRAFTSMAN, LEADER
Plans and d irects activ ities of one or more draftsm en in prep­
aration of working plans and d etail drawings from rough or prelim inary
sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing purposes. D uties
involve a combination of the following: Interpreting blueprints, sk etches,
and w ritten or verbal orders; determ ining work procedures; assigning
duties to subordinates and inspecting their work; performing more dif­
ficult problem s. May a s s is t subordinates during em ergencies or as a
regular assignm ent, or perform related duties of a supervisory or ad­
m inistrative nature.

DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR
Prepares working plans and d etail drawings from no tes, rough
or detailed sketches for engineering, construction, or manufacturing pur­
p o ses. D uties involve a combination of the following: Preparing work­
ing plans, detail draw ings, m aps, cro ss-sectio n s, e tc ., to scale by use
of drafting instrum ents; making engineering com putations such as those




DRAFTSMAN, SENIOR— Continued
involved in strength of m aterials, beam s and tru sse s; verifying com­
pleted work, checking dim ensions, m aterials to be used, and quantities;
writing specifications; making adjustm ents or changes in drawings or
specifications. May ink in lines and letters on pencil draw ings, prepare
d etail units of com plete draw ings, or trace draw ings. Work is frequently
in a specialized field such as architectural, electrical, m echanical, or
structural drafting.

NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
A registered nurse who gives nursing service to ill or injured
em ployees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the
prem ises of a factory or other establishm ent. D uties involve a combination of the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to
subsequent dressing of em ployees’ injuries; keeping records of p atients
treated; preparing accident reports for com pensation or other purposes;
conducting physical exam inations and health evaluations of applicants
and em ployees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health
education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environm ent, or other
activ ities affecting the health, w elfare, and safety of a ll personnel.

TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others, by placing trac­
ing cloth or paper over drawing and tracing with pen or pencil. U ses
T -square, com pass, and other drafting too ls. May prepare sim ple draw­
ings and do sim ple lettering.

19

M AINTENANCE

D PO W E R PL A N T

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and main­
tain in good repair building woodwork and equipm ent such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, sta irs, casin gs, and trim
made of wood in an establishm ent. Work involves most of the following:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, draw ings, m odels, or
verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’s handtools, portable
power tools, and standard measuring instrum ents; making standard shop
com putations relating to dim ensions of work; selectin g m aterials nec­
essary for the work. In general, the work of the m aintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a for­
mal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

F ires stationary boilers to furnish the establishm ent in which
employed with heat, power, or steam . Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a m echanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; checks water and safety
valves. May clean, oil, or a s s is t in repairing boilerroom equipment.

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE
Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the
in stallatio n , m aintenance, or repair of equipm ent for the generating, d is­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishm ent. Work
involves most of the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety
of electrical equipm ent such as generators, transform ers, sw itchboards,
controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit system s,
or other transm ission equipment; w orkingfrom blueprints, draw ings, lay­
out, or other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the e lec­
trical system or equipment; working standard com putations relating to
load requirem ents of wiring or electrical equipm ent; using a variety of
electrician ’s handtools and measuring and testin g instrum ents. In gen­
eral, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
O perates and m aintains and may also supervise the operation
of stationary engines and equipment (m echanical or electrical) to sup­
ply the establishm ent in which employed with power, heat, refrigera­
tion, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and m aintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, motors
turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipm ent, steam boilers and
boiler-fed w ater pumps; making equipm ent repairs; keeping a record of
operation of m achinery, tem perature, and fuel consum ption. May also
supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establishments

employing more than one engineer are excluded.




HELPER, TRADES, MAINTENANCE
A s s is f c one or more workers in the skilled m aintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties of le sse r sk ill, such as keeping
a worker supplied with m aterials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipm ent; assistin g worker by holding m aterials or tools;
performing other unskilled task s as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is perm itted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding ma­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade
that are also performed by workers on a full-tim e b asis.

MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
S pecializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or milling m achines in the construction of m achine-shop tools, gauges,
jig s, fixtures, or d ies. Work involves most of the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing item s requiring
com plicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instrum ents; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling and op­
eration sequence; making necessary adjustm ents during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dim ensions. May be required to recog­
nize when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper
coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils. For cross-industry wage study
purposes, m achine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops
are excluded from this classificatio n .

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacem ent parts and new parts in making repairs of
m etal parts of m echanical equipment operated in an establishm ent. Work
involves most of the following: Interpreting w ritten instructions and
sp ecificatio n s; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of ma­
ch in ist’s handtools and precision m easuring instrum ents; setting up and

20

MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE— Continued
operating standard machine tools; shaping of m etal parts to close tolerances; making standard shop com putations relating to dim ensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working prop­
erties of the common m etals; selecting standard m aterials, p arts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assem bling parts into me­
chanical equipm ent. In general, the m achinist’s work normally requires
a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)
R epairs autom obiles, b uses, motortrucks, and tractors of an e s ­
tablishm ent. Work involves most of the following: Examining autom otive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassem bling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as w renches,
gauges, d rills, or sp ecialized equipment in disassem bling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassem bling and installing the various assem blies in the vehicle
and making n ecessary adjustm ents; alining w heels, adjusting brakes and
lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the autom otive
m echanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
R epairs machinery or m echanical equipment of an establishm ent.
Work involves most of the following: Examining m achines and m echan­
ical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dism antling or partly d is­
m antling m achines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of
handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the production of a rep lace­
ment part by a machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop
for major repairs; preparing w ritten specifications for major repairs or
for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassem bling ma­
chines; and making all n ecessary adjustm ents for operation. In general,
the work of a m aintenance m echanic requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classificatio n are workers
whose primary duties involve settin g up or adjusting m achines.

MILLWRIGHT
In stalls new m achines or heavy equipm ent and dism antles and
in sta lls m achines or heavy equipm ent when changes in the plant layout




MILLWRIGHT— Continued

are required. Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop com putations re­
lating to stre sse s, strength of m aterials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selectin g standard tools, equipm ent, and parts
to be used; installing and m aintaining in good order power transm ission
equipm ent such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the m ill­
w right’s work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the
trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

OILER
L ubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of m echanical equipment of an establishm ent.

PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
P aints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishm ent. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface pecu­
liarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in
nail holes and in terstices; applying paint with spray gun or brush. May
mix colors, o ils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper
color or consistency. In general, the work of the m aintenance painter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a fdrmal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
In stalls or repairs water, steam , g as, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishm ent. Work involves most of the following:
Laying out of work and m easuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other w ritten specifications; cutting various siz es of pipe to correct
lengths with ch isel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting ma­
chine; threading pipe with stocks and d ies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven m achines; assem bling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop com putations relating to p ressures,
flow , and size of pipe required; making standard te sts to determ ine
whether finished pipes meet specifications* In general, the work of the
m aintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building

sanitation or heating systems are excluded.

21

TOOL AND DIE MAKER

PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishm ent in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of
vents and traps in plumbing system ; installing or repairing pipes and
fixtures; opening clogged drains with a plunger or plumber9s snake. In
general, the work of the m aintenance plumber requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiv­
alen t training and experience.

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE
F abricates, in stalls, and m aintains in good repair the sheetm etal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans,
sh elv es, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, m etal roofing) of an
establishm ent. Work involves most o f the following: Planning and lay­
ing out a ll types of sheet-m etal m aintenance work from blueprints, models,
or other specifications; setting up and operating all available types of
sheet-m etal-w orking m achines; using a variety of handtools in cutting,
bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assem bling; installing sheetm etal articles as required. In general, the work of the m aintenance
sheet-m etal worker requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gauge maker)
C onstructs and repairs m achine-shop tools, gauges, jigs, fix­
tures or dies for forgings, punching and other metal-forming work. Work
involves most o f the following: Planning and laying out of work from
m odels, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifications;
using a variety of tool and die maker’s handtools and precision m eas­
uring instrum ents, understanding of the working properties of common
m etals and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related
equipm ent; making necessary shop com putations relating to dim ensions
of work, sp eed s, feeds, and tooling of m achines; heattreating of metal
parts during fabrication as w ell as of finished tools and dies to achieve
required q u alities; working to close tolerances; fitting and assem bling
of parts to prescribed tolerances and allow ances; selecting appropriate
m aterials, tools, and p ro cesses. In general, the tool and die maker’s
work requires a rounded training in m achine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers
in tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classificatio n .

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT

ELEVATOR OPERATOR, PASSENGER
T ransports passengers between* floors of an office building,
apartment house, departm ent store, hotel or sim ilar establishm ent •
Workers who operate elevators in conjunction with other duties such as
those of starters and janitors are excluded.

GUARD

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued
or other establishm ent. D uties involve a combination of the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,

trash, and other refuse; dusting equipm ent, furniture, or fixtures; polish­
ing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor m ainte­
nance serv ices; cleaning lavatories, show ers, and restroom s. Workers
who sp ecialize in window washing are excluded.

Performs routine police du ties, either at fixed post or on tour,
m aintaining order, using arms or force where n ecessary . Includes gate-

men who are stationed at gate and check on identity of employees and LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING
other persons entering.

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER

(Sweeper; charwoman; jan itress)
C leans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or prem ises of an office, apartm ent house, or commercial




(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse*helper)

A worker employed in a w arehouse, m anufacturing plant, store,
or other establishm ent whose duties involve one or more o f the follow­
ing: Loading and unloading various m aterials and m erchandise on or

22

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING— Continued

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK— Continued

fr o m f r e i g h t c a r s , t r u c k s , o r o t h e r t r a n s p o r t i n g d e v i c e s ; u n p a c k i n g , s h e l v ­
in g , o r p la c in g m a t e r ia ls o r m e r c h a n d is e in p r o p e r s t o r a g e lo c a t io n ; t r a n s ­
p o r tin g m a t e r ia ls o r m e r c h a n d is e b y h a n d tr u c k , c a r , o r w h e e lb a r r o w .
L on g sh orem en

,

w ho load and unload s h ip s are e x c lu d e d

.

ORDER FILLER
F i l l s s h i p p i n g o r t r a n s f e r o r d e r s f o r f i n i s h e d g o o d s fr o m s t o r e d
m e r c h a n d is e in a c c o r d a n c e w ith s p e c i f i c a t i o n s o n s a l e s s l i p s , c u s t o m e r s *
o r d e r s , or o th e r in s t r u c t io n s . M a y , in a d d it io n to f i ll i n g o r d e r s a n d in d i­
c a t in g it e m s f i ll e d o r o m itte d , k e e p r e c o r d s o f o u t g o in g o r d e r s , r e q u is i­
tio n a d d it io n a l s t o c k , o r r e p o r t s h o r t s u p p lie s t o s u p e r v is o r , a n d p er fo rm
o th e r r e la te d d u tie s .

PACKER, SHIPPING
P r e p a r e s f in is h e d p r o d u c ts fo r s h ip m e n t o r s t o r a g e b y p la c in g
th e m in s h ip p in g c o n t a in e r s , th e s p e c i f i c o p e r a t io n s p e r fo r m e d b e in g
d e p e n d e n t u p o n th e ty p e , s i z e , a n d n u m b er o f u n its to b e p a c k e d , th e
t y p e o f c o n t a i n e r e m p l o y e d , a n d m e t h o d o f s h i p m e n t . W o rk r e q u i r e s t h e
p l a c i n g o f i t e m s i n s h i p p i n g c o n t a i n e r s a n d m ay in v o lv e on e or more o f
the fo llo w in g : K n o w l e d g e o f v a r i o u s i t e m s o f s t o c k i n o r d e r t o v e r i f y
c o n t e n t ; s e l e c t i o n o f a p p r o p r ia te t y p e a n d s i z e o f c o n t a in e r ; in s e r t in g
e n c l o s u r e s in c o n t a i n e r ; u s i n g e x c e l s i o r o r o t h e r m a t e r i a l t o p r e v e n t
b r e a k a g e or d a m a g e ; c l o s i n g a n d s e a l i n g c o n ta in e r ; a p p ly in g l a b e l s or
e n t e r i n g i d e n t i f y i n g d a t a o n c o n t a i n e r . P a c k e r s who a ls o make w ood en

.

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
P r e p a r e s m e r c h a n d is e fo r s h ip m e n t , o r r e c e i v e s a n d i s r e s p o n ­
s i b l e f o r i n c o m i n g s h i p m e n t s o f m e r c h a n d i s e o r o t h e r m a t e r i a l s . Shipping
work in v o lv e s : A k n o w l e d g e o f s h i p p i n g p r o c e d u r e s , p r a c t i c e s , r o u t e s ,
a v a ila b le m e a n s o f tr a n s p o r ta tio n a n d r a t e s ; a n d p r e p a r in g r e c o r d s o f th e
g o o d s s h ip p e d , m a k in g u p b i l l s o f la d in g , p o s t i n g w e ig h t a n d s h ip p in g
c h a r g e s , a n d k e e p in g a f i le o f s h ip p in g r e c o r d s . M a y d ir e c t o r a s s i s t in
p r e p a r i n g t h e m e r c h a n d i s e f o r s h i p m e n t . R e c e iv in g w ork i n v o l v e s : V e r i ­
f y in g or d ir e c t in g o th e r s in v e r if y in g t h e c o r r e c t n e s s o f s h ip m e n t s a g a i n s t
b i ll s o f la d in g , i n v o i c e s , or o th e r r e c o r d s ; c h e c k in g fo r s h o r t a g e s a n d
r e j e c t in g d a m a g e d g o o d s ; r o u tin g m e r c h a n d is e o r m a t e r ia ls to p r o p e r d e ­
p a r tm e n ts; m a in ta in in g n e c e s s a r y r e c o r d s a n d f i l e s .




R e c e iv i n g clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and r e c e iv in g clerk

TRUCKDRIVER

(O r d er p ic k e r ; s t o c k s e le c t o r ; w a r e h o u s e s t o c k m a n )

b o x e s or cra tes are e x c lu d e d

F o r w a g e stu d y p u r p o se s , w o rk ers a re c la s s if ie d a s fo llo w s :

D r iv e s a tr u c k w it h in a c i t y o r in d u s t r ia l a r e a t o tr a n s p o r t m a ­
t e r i a ls , m e r c h a n d is e , e q u ip m e n t, o r m e n b e t w e e n v a r io u s t y p e s o f e s t a b ­
l i s h m e n t s s u c h a s : M a n u f a c t u r in g p l a n t s , f r e i g h t d e p o t s , w a r e h o u s e s ,
w h o le s a le a n d r e t a il e s t a b lis h m e n t s , or b e tw e e n r e t a il e s ta b lis h m e n ts
a n d c u s t o m e r s * h o u s e s o r p l a c e s o f b u s i n e s s . M a y a l s o l o a d o r u n lo a d
t r u c k w i t h o r w i t h o u t h e l p e r s , m a k e m in o r m e c h a n i c a l r e p a i r s , a n d k e e p
t r u c k i n g o o d w o r k i n g o r d e r . D r iv e r -s a le s m e n and o v er -th e -r o a d drivers
are e x c lu d e d

.

F o r w a g e s t u d y p u r p o s e s , tr u c k d r iv e r s a r e c l a s s i f i e d b y s i z e
a n d ty p e o f e q u ip m e n t, a s f o llo w s : (T r a c to r -tr a ile r s h o u ld b e r a te d on
th e b a s is o f tr a ile r c a p a c it y .)
T ru ckdriver (com bin ation o f s i z e s l i s t e d s e p a r a te ly )
Truckdriver, ligh t (under 1% t o n s )
Truckdriver, medium (lV% to and in clu din g 4 to n s)
Truckdriver h e a v y (o v e r 4 to n s trailer t y p e )
Truckdriver h e a v y ( o v e r 4 to n s oth er than trailer t y p e )

,
,

,
,

TRUCKER, POWER
O p e r a te s a m a n u a lly c o n t r o lle d g a s o l i n e - o r e le c t r ic -p o w e r e d
tr u c k or tr a c to r to tr a n s p o r t g o o d s a n d m a t e r ia ls o f a l l k in d s a b o u t a
w a r e h o u s e , m a n u fa c tu r in g p la n t , or o th e r e s t a b lis h m e n t .
F o r w a g e stu d y p u r p o se s, w ork ers are c la s s ifie d
tru c k s a s fo llo w s :

by ty p e o f

,
,

Trucker p o w e r (fo rk lift)
Trucker p o w e r (o th er than fo rk lift)

WATCHMAN
M a k e s r o u n d s o f p r e m is e s p e r io d ic a lly in p r o t e c t in g p r o p e r ty
a g a in s t fir e , th e ft, a n d ille g a l e n tr y .
* U .S. GOVER N M ENT P R IN T IN G O FFIC E : 19 60 0 — 5 6 1 0 6 3







Occupational Wage Surveys

O c c u p a t i o n a l w a g e s u r v e y s a r e b e i n g c o n d u c t e d i n 6 0 m a j o r la b o r m a r k e t s d u r in g l a t e 1 9 5 9 a n d e a r l y I 9 6 0 . T h e s e b u l l e t i n s , w h e n a v a i l a b l e ,
m a y b e p u r c h a s e d fr o m t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f D o c u m e n t s , U . S . G o v e r n m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , W a s h in g t o n 2 5 , D . C . , o r fr o m a n y o f t h e B L S r e g i o n a l
s a l e s o f f i c e s s h o w n o n th e i n s id e fro n t c o v e r .
A s u m m a r y b u l l e t i n c o n t a i n i n g d a t a f o r a l l la b o r m a r k e t s , c o m b in e d w it h a d d i t i o n a l a n a l y s i s , w i l l b e i s s u e d e a r l y in 1 9 6 1 .
B u lle t in s fo r th e a r e a s l i s t e d b e lo w a r e n o w a v a ila b le .

A l l e n t o w n — B e t h l e h e m —E a s t o n , P a . —N . J . , M a r c h I 9 6 0 —
B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 -3 3 , p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s
B a l t i m o r e , M d ., S e p t e m b e r 1 9 5 9 - — B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 7 , p r i c e 1 5 c e n t s
B ir m in g h a m , A l a . , M a r c h I 9 6 0 — B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 3 7 , p r i c e 2 5 c e n t s
B o s t o n , M a s s ., O c to b e r 1 9 5 9 — B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 - 8 , p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s
B u f f a lo , N .Y ., O c to b e r 1 9 5 9 — B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 - 4 , p r ic e 2 0 c e n t s

M i n n e a p o l i s —S t . P a u l , M in n ., J a n u a r y I 9 6 0 — B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 2 1 ,
p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s
N e w a r k a n d J e r s e y C it y , N .J ., F e b r u a r y I 9 6 0 — B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 -2 8 ,
p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s
N e w O r le a n s , L a ., F eb r u a r y I 9 6 0 — B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 -3 2 , p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s
N e w Y o r k , N . Y . , A p r il I 9 6 0 — B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 4 4 , p r i c e 2 5 c e n t s

C a n to n , O h io , D e c e m b e r 1 9 5 9 — B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 - 1 0 , p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s
C i n c i n n a t i , O h i o —K y . , F e b r u a r y I 9 6 0 — B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 3 1 ,
p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s
C le v e la n d , O h io , S e p te m b e r 1 9 5 9 — B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 -1 , p r ic e 2 0 c e n t s
D a lla s , T e x ., O c to b e r 1 9 5 9 — B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 -3 , p r ic e 2 0 c e n t s
D a y to n , O h io , D e c e m b e r 1 9 5 9 — B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 -9 , p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s

P h ila d e lp h ia , P a ., N o v e m b e r 1 9 5 9 — B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 -1 6 , p r ic e 25 c e n t s
P h o e n i x , A r i z . , A p r i l i 960 — B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 4 2 , p r i c e 2 5 c e n t s
P itts b u r g h , P a ., D e c e m b e r 1 9 5 9 — B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 -2 0 , p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s
P o r t l a n d , M a in e , N o v e m b e r 1 9 5 9 — B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 1 2 , p r i c e 2 0 c e n t s
P r o v i d e n c e , R . I . —M a s s . , M a r c h i 960 — B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 3 4 , p r i c e 2 5 c e n t s
R ic h m o n d , V a . , F e b r u a r y I 9 6 0 — B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 2 4 , p r i c e 2 5 c e n t s

D e n v e r , C o lo ., D e c e m b e r 1 9 5 9 — B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 - 1 1 , p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s
D e s M o in e s , I o w a , F e b r u a r y I 9 6 0 — B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 - 3 0 , p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s
D e t r o i t , M i c h ., J a n u a r y I 9 6 0 — B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 2 5 , p r i c e 2 0 c e n t s
F o r t W o r th , T e x . , N o v e m b e r 1 9 5 9 — B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 1 3 , p r i c e 2 5 c e n t s
I n d ia n a p o lis , I n d ., J a n u a r y I 9 6 0 — B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 - 2 2 , p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s
J a c k s o n , M is s ., F e b r u a r y I 9 6 0 — B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 - 2 6 , p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s
J a c k s o n v ille , F la ., D e c e m b e r 1 9 5 9 — B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 -1 4 , p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s

S t . L o u i s , M o ., O c t o b e r 1 9 5 9 — B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 5 , p r i c e 2 5 c e n t s
S a n B e r n a r d i n o — R i v e r s i d e —O n t a r i o , C a l i f . , N o v e m b e r 1 9 5 9 —
B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 -1 5 , p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s
S a n F r a n c i s c o —O a k l a n d , C a l i f . , J a n u a r y I 9 6 0 — B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 1 7 ,
p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s
S e a t t l e , W a s h ., A u g u s t 1 9 5 9 — B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 2 ,
p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s

K a n s a s C ity , M o .- K a n s ., J a n u a r y I 9 6 0 — B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 -2 3 ,
p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s
L o s A n g e l e s —L o n g B e a c h , C a l i f . , A p r i l i 960 — B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 3 5 ,
p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s
M e m p h is , T e n n ., J a n u a r y I 9 6 0 — B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 - 1 9 , p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s
M ia m i, F l a . , D e c e m b e r 1 9 5 9 — B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 6 , p r i c e 2 0 c e n t s
M i l w a u k e e , W i s ., A p r i l I 9 6 0 — B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 4 3 , p r i c e 2 5 c e n t s

S io u x F a l l s , S . D a k ., F e b r u a r y I 9 6 0 — B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 - 2 9 ,
p r ic e 2 0 c e n t s
S o u t h B e n d , I n d . , A p r i l i 960 — B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 3 8 , p r i c e 2 5 c e n t s
W a s h in g t o n , D . C . —M d .—V a . , D e c e m b e r 1 9 5 9 — B L S B u l l . 1 2 6 5 - 1 8 ,
p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s
W a te r b u r y , C o n n ., M a rch I 9 6 0 — B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 - 3 6 , p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s
Y o r k , P a ., F e b r u a r y I 9 6 0 — B L S B u ll. 1 2 6 5 -2 7 , p r ic e 2 5 c e n t s








Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102